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Sample records for ii antagonist losartan

  1. Efficacy and safety of long-term losartan therapy demonstrated by a prospective observational study in Japanese patients with hypertension: The Japan Hypertension Evaluation with Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan Therapy (J-HEALTH) study.

    PubMed

    Naritomi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Toshiro; Ito, Sadayoshi; Ogihara, Toshio; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Heizo; Yoshiike, Nobuo

    2008-02-01

    The Japan Hypertension Evaluation with Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan Therapy (J-HEALTH) study is a nationwide, prospective, multicentered, observational study that was designed to enroll 30,000 hypertensive Japanese patients from more than 3,000 private practitioners. It is the first large-scale observational study to assess the efficacy and safety of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, in Japan. Patients were enrolled between June 2000 and May 2002, and followed up to June 2005. The data from 29,850 patients were used for the analysis of safety and efficacy. These patients were treated with losartan mostly at a daily dose of 25-50 mg. The mean follow-up period was 2.9 years. The patients were aged 62.4+/-12.1 years (mean+/-SD) and their mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 165.3+/-17.2/94.3+/-11.7 mmHg (mean+/-SD). Mean blood pressure in patients who were evaluated for efficacy decreased from 165.8/94.8 mmHg (n=26,512) at baseline to 145.5/84.4 mmHg after 3 months (n=21,269) and 138.6/80.0 mmHg after 36 months of treatment (n=13,879). Blood pressure was well controlled during the study period by losartan alone or losartan-based combination therapy. In nearly half of the patients, blood pressure was reduced to less than 140/90 mmHg during the study period. In addition to its antihypertensive effect, losartan reduced the uric acid level in patients whose baseline uric acid level was > or =7 mg/dL. Losartan also prevented acceleration of proteinuria. Adverse drug reactions occurred in 1,081 of the 29,850 patients. Long-term losartan therapy was effective and well tolerated in Japanese clinical practice.

  2. Therapeutic Effect of Losartan, an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Antagonist, on CCl₄-Induced Skeletal Muscle Injury.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ok-Kyung; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Eun-Joo; Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2016-02-08

    TGF-β1 is known to inhibit muscle regeneration after muscle injury. However, it is unknown if high systemic levels of TGF-β can affect the muscle regeneration process. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of a CCl₄ intra-peritoneal injection and losartan (an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist) on skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius muscle) injury and regeneration. Male C57BL/6 mice were grouped randomly as follows: control (n = 7), CCl₄-treatment group (n = 7), and CCl₄ + losartan treatment group (n = 7). After CCl₄ treatment for a 16-week period, the animals were sacrificed and analyzed. The expression of dystrophin significantly decreased in the muscle tissues of the control group, as compared with that of the CCl₄ + losartan group (p < 0.01). p(phospho)-Smad2/3 expression significantly increased in the muscles of the control group compared to that in the CCl₄ + losartan group (p < 0.01). The expressions of Pax7, MyoD, and myogenin increased in skeletal muscles of the CCl₄ + losartan group compared to the corresponding levels in the control group (p < 0.01). We hypothesize that systemically elevated TGF-β1 as a result of CCl₄-induced liver injury causes skeletal muscle injury, while losartan promotes muscle repair from injury via blockade of TGF-β1 signaling.

  3. The effect of the angiotensin II receptor, type 1 receptor antagonists, losartan and telmisartan, on thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Czechowska, G; Celinski, K; Korolczuk, A; Wojcicka, G; Dudka, J; Bojarska, A; Madro, A; Brzozowski, T

    2016-08-01

    It has been reported previously that the density of angiotensin II receptors is increased in the rat liver in experimentally-induced fibrosis. We hypothesized that pharmacological blockade of angiotensin receptors may produce beneficial effects in models of liver fibrosis. In this study, we used the widely used thioacetamide (TAA)-induced model of liver fibrosis (300 mg/L TAA ad libitum for 12 weeks). Rats received daily injections (i.p), lasting 4 weeks of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists, losartan 30 mg/kg (TAA + L) or telmisartan 10 mg/kg (TAA + T) and were compared to rat that received TAA alone. Chronic treatment with losartan and telmisartan was associated with a significant reduction in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, and decreased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor beta-1 compared to controls. We also found a significant reduction interleukin-6 in rats receiving telmisartan (P < 0.05) but not losartan. Both treatments increased the concentration of liver glutathione along with a concomitant decrease of GSSG compared to controls. In addition, increased paraoxonase 1 activity was observed in the serum of rats receiving telmisartan group compared to the TAA alone controls. Finally, histological evaluation of liver sections revealed losartan and telmisartan treatment was associated with reduced inflammation and liver fibrosis. Taken together, these results indicate that both telmisartan and losartan have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties in the TAA model of liver fibrosis. These finding add support to a growing body of literature indicating a potentially important role for the angiotensin system in liver fibrosis and indicate angiotensin antagonists may be useful agents for fibrosis treatment.

  4. A long-lasting oral preformulation of the angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist losartan.

    PubMed

    De Paula, Washington X; Denadai, Ângelo M L; Braga, Aline N G; Shastri, V Prasad; Pinheiro, Sérgio V B; Frezard, Frederic; Santos, Robson A S; Sinisterra, Ruben D

    2018-05-10

    Losartan (Los), a non-peptidic orally active agent, reduces arterial pressure through specific and selective blockade of angiotensin II receptor AT1. However, this widely used AT1 antagonist presents low bioavailability and needs once or twice a day dosage. In order to improve its bioavailability, we used the host: guest strategy based on β-cyclodextrin (βCD). The results suggest that Los included in βCD showed a typical pulsatile release pattern after oral administration to rats, with increasing the levels of plasma of Los. In addition, the inclusion compound presented oral efficacy for 72 h, in contrast to Los alone, which shows antagonist effect for only 6 h. In transgenic (mREN2)L27 rats, the Los/βCD complex reduced blood pressure for about 6 d, whereas Los alone reduced blood pressure for only 2 d. More importantly, using this host: guest strategy, sustained release of Los for over a week via the oral route can be achieved without the need for encapsulation in a polymeric carrier. The proposed preformulation increased the efficacy reducing the dose or spacing between each dose intake.

  5. An efficient synthesis of a rationally designed 1,5 disubstituted imidazole AT(1) angiotensin II receptor antagonist: reorientation of imidazole pharmacophore groups in losartan reserves high receptor affinity and confirms docking studies.

    PubMed

    Agelis, George; Roumelioti, Panagiota; Resvani, Amalia; Durdagi, Serdar; Androutsou, Maria-Eleni; Kelaidonis, Konstantinos; Vlahakos, Demetrios; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Matsoukas, John

    2010-09-01

    A new 1,5 disubstituted imidazole AT(1) Angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonist related to losartan with reversion of butyl and hydroxymethyl groups at the 2-, 5-positions of the imidazole ring was synthesized and evaluated for its antagonist activity (V8). In vitro results indicated that the reorientation of butyl and hydroxymethyl groups on the imidazole template of losartan retained high binding affinity to the AT(1) receptor concluding that the spacing of the substituents at the 2,5- positions is of primary importance. The docking studies are confirmed by binding assay results which clearly show a comparable binding score of the designed compound V8 with that of the prototype losartan. An efficient, regioselective and cost effective synthesis renders the new compound as an attractive candidate for advanced toxicological evaluation and a drug against hypertension.

  6. An efficient synthesis of a rationally designed 1,5 disubstituted imidazole AT1 Angiotensin II receptor antagonist: reorientation of imidazole pharmacophore groups in losartan reserves high receptor affinity and confirms docking studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agelis, George; Roumelioti, Panagiota; Resvani, Amalia; Durdagi, Serdar; Androutsou, Maria-Eleni; Kelaidonis, Konstantinos; Vlahakos, Demetrios; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Matsoukas, John

    2010-09-01

    A new 1,5 disubstituted imidazole AT1 Angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonist related to losartan with reversion of butyl and hydroxymethyl groups at the 2-, 5-positions of the imidazole ring was synthesized and evaluated for its antagonist activity ( V8). In vitro results indicated that the reorientation of butyl and hydroxymethyl groups on the imidazole template of losartan retained high binding affinity to the AT1 receptor concluding that the spacing of the substituents at the 2,5- positions is of primary importance. The docking studies are confirmed by binding assay results which clearly show a comparable binding score of the designed compound V8 with that of the prototype losartan. An efficient, regioselective and cost effective synthesis renders the new compound as an attractive candidate for advanced toxicological evaluation and a drug against hypertension.

  7. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of losartan.

    PubMed

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Grégoire

    2011-05-01

    Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is one of the major therapeutic strategies in the management of patients with essential hypertension, congestive heart failure and diabetic as well as non-diabetic renal diseases. As the first angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) on the market, losartan belongs to the most frequently prescribed ARB. The present review examines the pharmacokinetics of losartan with a special discussion on the dose of losartan that should be used in clinical practice to obtain the maximal benefits of the drug. Readers are provided with arguments suggesting that the dose of 50 mg losartan is probably too low and that losartan should preferably be prescribed at the dose of 100 mg/day or higher. Losartan is an effective antagonist of angiotensin II AT(1) receptors which has been shown to provide important clinical benefits in patients with hypertension, congestive heart failure and renal diseases. Losartan should be prescribed at the dose of 100 mg/day and the use of higher doses should be reconsidered in future studies to improve its clinical efficacy.

  8. Design of the heart failure endpoint evaluation of AII-antagonist losartan (HEAAL) study in patients intolerant to ACE-inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Konstam, Marvin A; Poole-Wilson, Philip A; Dickstein, Kenneth; Drexler, Helmut; Justice, Steven J; Komajda, Michel; Malbecq, William; Martinez, Felipe A; Neaton, James D; Riegger, Gunter A J; Guptha, Soneil

    2008-09-01

    In patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, angiotensin receptor blockers have been found to reduce mortality and morbidity and to prevent or reverse left ventricular remodelling, compared to optimized background treatment. In light of these data, The Heart failure Endpoint evaluation of Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (HEAAL) study was developed to determine whether losartan 150 mg is superior to losartan 50 mg (antihypertensive dose) in reducing morbidity and mortality among patients with symptomatic heart failure who are intolerant of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors. To compare the effect of high and moderate doses of losartan on the primary endpoint of all-cause mortality and hospitalisation due to heart failure in patients (n = 3834) with symptomatic heart failure and an ejection fraction < or = 40% who are intolerant of ACE-inhibitor treatment. This paper presents the rationale, trial design, and baseline characteristics of the study population. The study, which completed recruitment on 31 March 2005, is event-driven and is estimated to accrue the target of 1710 adjudicated primary events during the latter half of 2008. The results of HEAAL should facilitate selection of an optimal dosing regimen for losartan in patients with symptomatic heart failure who are intolerant of ACE-inhibitors.

  9. Evidence for a functional cardiac interaction between losartan and angiotensin-(1–7) receptors revealed by orthostatic tilting test in rats

    PubMed Central

    Matos de Moura, Marina; Augusto Sousa dos Santos, Robson; Antônio Peliky Fontes, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Studies have shown that the angiotensin II (Ang II) AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, accentuates the orthostatic hypotensive response in anesthetized rats, and there is evidence indicating that this effect is not exclusively mediated by AT1 receptors. We investigated whether the pronounced orthostatic cardiovascular response observed in losartan-treated rats involves an interference with angiotensin-(1–7) (Ang-(1–7)) receptors. Urethane-anesthetized rats were submitted to orthostatic stress (90° head-up tilt for 2 min). Intravenous injection of losartan (1 mg kg−1, n=9) significantly accentuated the decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by head-up tilt (−33±6% after losartan vs −15±8% control tilt). This effect was accompanied by a significant bradycardia (−8±3% after losartan vs −3±3% control tilt). Another AT1 antagonist, candesartan, did not potentiate the decrease of MAP and did not change the cardiac response induced by head-up tilt. Strikingly, administration of the Ang-(1–7) antagonist, A-779 (10 nmol kg−1, n=5), totally reversed the bradicardiac effect caused by losartan and this effect was accompanied by a tendency towards attenuation of the hypotensive response caused by losartan. These findings indicate that the marked orthostatic cardiovascular response is specific for losartan, and that it may be due, in part, to an interaction of this antagonist with Ang-(1–7) receptors, probably at the cardiac level. PMID:15685215

  10. Losartan reduced connexin43 expression in left ventricular myocardium of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li-li; Chen, Hong-juan; Chen, Jun-zhu; Yu, Min; Ni, Yun-lan; Zhang, Wei-fang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan on myocardium connexin43 (Cx43) gap junction (GJ) expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and investigate possible mechanisms. Methods: Sixteen 9-week-old male SHRs and 8 age-matched male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were included in this study. SHRs were randomly divided into two groups to receive losartan at 30 mg/(kg·d) by oral gavage once daily for 8 weeks (SHR-L) or vehicle (0.9% saline) to act as controls (SHR-V); WKY rats receiving vehicle for 8 weeks served as normotensive controls. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and the hearts were removed. Expressions of Cx43 and nuclear factor-kappaB p65 (NF-κB p65) proteins in all three groups were observed and further investigations on the effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan (30 mg/(kg·d), 8 weeks) on Cx43 expression were conducted with Western blot and immunohistochemistry. NF-κB p65 protein in nuclear extracts was determined by Western blot. Results: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was prominent in SHRs, Cx43 and NF-κB p65 protein expressions were obviously upregulated and Cx43 distribution was dispersed over the cell surface. Treatment with losarton reduced the over-expressions of Cx43 and NF-κB p65 in LV myocardium. The distribution of Cx43 gap junction also became much regular and confined to intercalated disk after losartan treatment. Conclusion: Cx43 level was upregulated in LV myocardium of SHR during early stage of hypertrophy. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan prevented Cx43 gap junction remodeling in hypertrophied left ventricles, possibly through the NF-κB pathway. PMID:18543397

  11. Losartan reverses COX-2-dependent vascular dysfunction in offspring of hyperglycaemic rats.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Diego Barbosa; Ramos-Alves, Fernanda Elizabethe; Santos-Rocha, Juliana; Duarte, Gloria Pinto; Xavier, Fabiano Elias

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether chronic treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT 1 R) antagonist, might reverse COX-2-mediated vascular dysfunction in mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) from offspring of hyperglycaemic rats. Male 12-month-old offspring of hyperglycaemic (O-DR) and normoglycaemic (O-CR) rats were treated with losartan (15mg·kg·day -1 ) during 2months. Third order MRA of untreated and losartan-treated O-DR and O-CR were mounted in wire myograph for isometric tension measurements. COX-2 expression was analyzed by Western blot; TxA 2 , PGE 2 and PGF 2α release was measured using commercial kits. O-DR showed increased blood pressure, impaired acetylcholine-induced vasodilation and increased noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction than O-CR. All these parameters were normalized by losartan in O-DR. Pre-incubation of MRA with indomethacin (COX-1/2 inhibitor), NS-398 (COX-2 inhibitor) or tempol (superoxide dismutase mimetic) increased relaxation to acetylcholine and reduced contraction to noradrenaline only in O-DR. COX-2 expression, TxA 2 , PGE 2 and PGF 2α release were increased in O-DR. In losartan-treated O-DR, NS-398, indomethacin or tempol failed to produce any effect on acetylcholine or noradrenaline responses. Losartan treatment reduced COX-2 expression, TxA 2 , PGE 2 and PGF 2α release in O-DR. The present results reveal that chronic losartan administration in O-DR normalizes endothelial function in MRA by correcting the existing COX-2 overexpression and the imbalance between endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors. These findings not only support the beneficial effects of AT 1 receptor antagonist in O-DR, but also suggest the implication of angiotensin II as a putative mediator of hyperglycemia-programmed vascular dysfunction in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Losartan attenuates paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, F; Sun, Y B; Su, L; Li, S; Liu, Z F; Li, J; Hu, X T; Li, J

    2015-05-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world and can cause pulmonary fibrosis in the cases with intoxication. Losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, has beneficial effects on the treatment of fibrosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of losartan on pulmonary fibrosis in PQ-intoxicated rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 32, 180-220 g) were randomly assigned to four groups: (i) control group; (ii) PQ group; (iii) PQ + losartan 7d group; and (iv) PQ + losartan 14d group. Losartan treatment (intragastrically (i.g.), 10 mg/kg) was performed for 7 and 14 days after a single i.g. dose of 40 mg/kg PQ. All rats were killed on the 16th day, and hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining were used to examine lung injury and fibrosis. The levels of hydroxyproline and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (Mmp9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and relative expression levels of collagen type I and III were also detected. PQ caused a significant increase in hydroxyproline content, mRNA expression of TGF-β1, Mmp9, and TIMP-1, and relative expression levels of collagen type I and III ( p < 0.05), while losartan significantly decreased the amount of hydroxyproline and downregulated TGF-β1, Mmp9, and TIMP-1 mRNA and collagen type I and III expressions ( p < 0.05). Histological examination of PQ-treated rats showed lung injury and widespread inflammatory cell infiltration in the alveolar space and pulmonary fibrosis, while losartan could markedly reduce such damage and prevent pulmonary fibrosis. The results of this study indicated that losartan could reduce lung damage and prevent pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Losartan treating podocyte injury induced by Ang II via downregulation of TRPC6 in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Chi-Xianggeng; Hu-Bo; Yu, S Y; Yin-Lianghong; Meng-Yu; Wang-Boxun; Yang-Jinsheng; Lin-Jiahui; Huang-Dexu; Chen-Lanlan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecule mechanisms of podocyte injury and proteinuria and the protective effects of losartan. This study set up three groups: a control group; an Ang II group (Ang II 10(-6) mol/l, Sigma); and a losartan group (losartan 10(-6) mol/l, Sigma). We used RT-PCR assay to detect TRPC6 mRNA expression, and Western blot to detect TRPC6 protein expression. TRPC6 overexpression was the basic change of podocyte injury and proteinuria occurrence. Losartan can treat podocyte injury and proteinuria induced by Ang II via downregulation of TRPC6 in podocytes. These findings maybe provide an ideal drug target for the diagnosis and treatment of acquired glomerular diseases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Angiotensin II Causes Neuronal Damage in Stretch-Injured Neurons: Protective Effects of Losartan, an Angiotensin T1 Receptor Blocker.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Muneer, P M; Bhowmick, Saurav; Briski, Nicholas

    2017-11-08

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a mediator of oxidative stress via activation/induction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species-generating enzymes, NADPH oxidase (NOX) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We investigated the hypothesis that overproduction of Ang II during traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces the activation of the oxidative stress, which triggers neuroinflammation and cell apoptosis in a cell culture model of neuronal stretch injury. We first established that stretch injury causes a rapid increase in the level of Ang II, which causes the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, via the induction of oxidative stress. Since angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mediates the production of Ang II via the conversion of Ang I into Ang II, we analyzed the expression of ACE by western blotting. Further, we analyzed caspase-3-mediated apoptosis by TUNEL staining and annexin V western blotting. Angiotensin type I (AT 1 ) receptor antagonist losartan attenuated Ang II-induced oxidative stress and associated neuroinflammation and cell death in cultured neurons. Remarkably, we noticed that the expression of Ang II type 1 receptor (AngT 1 R) upregulated in neuronal stretch injury; losartan mitigates this upregulation. Findings from this study significantly extend our understanding of the pathophysiology of TBI and may have significant implications for developing therapeutic strategies for TBI-associated brain dysfunctions.

  15. Vasomodulatory effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan on experimentally induced cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wanderer, Stefan; Mrosek, Jan; Gessler, Florian; Seifert, Volker; Konczalla, Juergen

    2018-02-01

    Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) remains one of the major factors contributing to poor overall patient outcome. Prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGF2a) induces vasoconstriction. After SAH, PGF2a leads to cerebral inflammation and enhanced vasoconstriction, resulting in cerebral vasospasm. Losartan is already known to have beneficial effects in stroke models and also on several cerebral inflammatory processes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to analyse the effect of losartan on PGF2a-enhanced vasoconstriction after SAH. To investigate the effect of losartan on PGF2a-enhanced vasoconstriction after SAH, cerebral vasospasm was induced by a double-haemorrhage model. Rats were killed on day 3 and 5 after SAH followed by measurement of the isometric force of basilar artery ring segments in an organ bath. PGF2a induced a dose-dependent contraction. After pre-incubation with losartan, the maximum contraction (E max ) for sham-operated animals was significantly lowered [E max 6% in losartan 3 × 10 -4  molar (M) vs. 56% without losartan]. Also, after induced SAH, PGF2a induced no vasoconstriction in pre-incubated vessels with losartan 3 × 10 -4  M on day 3 (d3) as well as on day 5 (d5). For the vasorelaxative investigations, vessel segments were pre-incubated with PFG2a. Cumulative application of losartan completely resolved the pre-contraction in sham-operated animals (non SAH: 95% relaxation). After SAH, losartan not only resolved the pre-contraction (d5: 103%), but also exceeded the pre-contraction (d3: 119%). Therefore, a statistically significantly increased and earlier relaxation was calculated for all losartan concentrations [E max (d3/d5) and pD 2 (d3/d5)] compared with the solvent control group. In a physiological and pathophysiological setup, losartan reduces a PGF2-induced vasoconstriction and reverses a PGF2a-precontraction completely. This fact can be integrated in pushing forward further concepts trying to antagonise

  16. [Economic impact of Losartan use in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy].

    PubMed

    González F, Fernando; Fuentes C, Verónica; Castro H, Catalina; Santelices L, Juan Pablo; Lorca H, Eduardo

    2009-05-01

    The study RENAAL (Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan) demonstrated that Losartan was more effective lo reduce the progression of kidney disease in diabetic patients with proteinuria and a reduction in glomerular filtration rate. To perform a cost benefit analysis of Losartan use from provider and payer points of view. Published data of the RENAAL study was analyzed. The costs of the use or not use of Losartan in patients with diabetic nephropathy were compared in terms of total costs of the disease including medications, hospital admissions for myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents and congestive cardiac failure and the costs of chronic hemodialysis. The reduction in antihypertensive medication use, hospital admissions, and the delay in dialysis requirement from a mean of 65 to 79 months induced by Losartan use, results in net savings of $7,576,135 per patient, at 3.5 years of intervention. The figure does not change using different sensitivity scenarios. The eventual use of Losartan in type 2 diabetic patients results in important savings.

  17. Losartan reduces trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colorectal fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Wengrower, Dov; Zanninelli, Giuliana; Latella, Giovanni; Necozione, Stefano; Metanes, Issa; Israeli, Eran; Lysy, Joseph; Pines, Mark; Papo, Orit; Goldin, Eran

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is a challenging clinical condition in several fibrostenosing enteropathies, particularly Crohn's disease. Currently, no effective preventive measures or medical therapies are available for intestinal fibrosis. Fibrosis, due to an abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, is a chronic and progressive process mediated by cell⁄matrix⁄cytokine and growth factor interactions, but may be a reversible phenomenon. Of the several molecules regulating fibrogenesis, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-b1) appears to play a pivotal role; it is strongly induced by the local activation of angiotensin II. The levels of both TGF-b1 and angiotensin II are elevated in fibrostenosing Crohn's disease. To evaluate the in vivo effect of losartan - an angiotensin II receptor antagonist - on the course of chronic colitis-associated fibrosis and on TGF-b1 expression. Colitis was induced by intrarectal instillation of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) (15 mg⁄mL) while losartan was administered orally daily by gavage (7 mg⁄kg⁄day) for 21 days. Three groups of rats were evaluated: control (n=10); TNBS treated (n=10); and TNBS + losartan treated (n=10). Inflammation and fibrosis of the colon were evaluated by macro- and microscopic score analysis. Colonic TGF-b1 levels was measured using ELISA. Twenty-one days after induction, losartan significantly improved the macro- and microscopic scores of fibrosis in the colonic wall and reduced TGF-b1 concentration. Prophylactic oral administration of losartan reduces the colorectal fibrosis complicating the TNBS-induced chronic colitis, an effect that appears to be mediated by a downregulation of TGF-b1 expression.

  18. Comparison of the influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril and angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kosmadakis, George; Filiopoulos, Vasileios; Georgoulias, Christodoulos; Tentolouris, Nicolaos; Michail, Spiridon

    2010-09-01

    In this prospective study, the effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor [lisinopril (LIS)] and an angiotensin II receptor antagonist [losartan (LOS)] were compared in nephrotic patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Twenty-seven patients (13 males, mean age +/- SD 51.3 +/- 15.4 years) were treated with LIS (13 patients, six males, mean age 52.1 +/- 15.3 years) or LOS (14 patients, seven males, mean age 50.5 +/- 15.5 years) for 12 months. At baseline and after the treatment period, serum albumin, total cholesterol, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 24 h proteinuria and mean arterial pressure were determined. Proteinuria (g/24 h) was significantly reduced in both groups (LIS from 4.82 +/- 1.26 to 1.75 +/- 0.64, p < 0.0001; LOS from 4.55 +/- 1.09 to 2.54 +/- 1.94, p = 0.002) (all results +/- SD). Serum albumin levels (g/dl) increased significantly in both groups (LIS 2.27 +/- 0.41 to 3.17 +/- 0.63, p < 0.0001; LOS 2.93 +/- 0.40 to 3.55 +/- 0.44, p < 0.0001). GFR (ml/min x 1.73 m(2)) did not change significantly in either group (LIS 55 +/- 17 to 56 +/- 17, p = 0.65; LOS 64 +/- 18 to 59 +/- 16, p = 0.13). Total cholesterol (mg/dl) was significantly reduced only in the lisinopril group (LIS 347 +/- 81 to 266 +/- 64, p < 0.0001; LOS 306 +/- 58 to 263 +/- 77, p = 0.138). Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) was reduced in both groups (LIS 107 +/- 12 to 95 +/- 6, p < 0.0001; LOS 104 +/- 10 to 96 +/- 5, p = 0.003). In the comparison between the two groups, serum albumin levels were higher in the losartan group at baseline (p < 0.0001) and after 12 months (p = 0.029). There were no significant differences between the baseline and end-of-study values for the rest of the studied parameters. Treatment with lisinopril and losartan in nephrotic patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy results in similar (and significant) effects on renal function, hypoalbuminaemia, proteinuria and blood pressure.

  19. Hypertension study in anaesthetized rabbits: protocol proposal for AT1 antagonists screening.

    PubMed

    Politi, Aggeliki P; Zervou, Maria V; Triantafyllidi, Helen; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis G; Mavromoustakos, Thomas M; Zoga, Anastasia A; Moutevelis-Minakakis, Panagiota; Kokotos, George; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K; Kremastinos, Dimitris Th

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish an optimized fast and safe protocol for the pharmacological screening of AT(1) antagonists. The pharmaceutical prototype AT(1) antagonist losartan, its active metabolite EXP3174 and the synthetic compound MMK1 were analysed in order to validate the protocol. Ang II was continuously infused while the animals received the drugs in two procedures. In the post-treatment procedure drugs were administered either in a single bolus dose or in a sequential manner. When losartan was administered in a single bolus dose, efficacy was evident until the 7th min (p=0.012) whilst EXP3174 infusion extended the efficiency up to the end of the study (p=0.006). In addition, the sequential injections of losartan prolonged the inhibitory time interval until the end of the study (p=0.045). In the pre-treatment procedure, results suggested a dose-dependent inhibitory effect for both antagonists. The pressor response to Ang II was unchanged after MMK1 administration either in the post- or in the pre-treatment mode. The proposed protocol appears to be safe, simple and fast for the pharmacological screening of AT(1) antagonists and enables the evaluation of new antagonists using lower doses than any other reported in the literature.

  20. Characterization of 18F-FPyKYNE-Losartan for Imaging AT1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hachem, Maryam; Tiberi, Mario; Ismail, Basma; Hunter, Chad R; Arksey, Natasha; Hadizad, Tayebeh; Beanlands, Rob S; deKemp, Robert A; DaSilva, Jean N

    2016-10-01

    Most physiologic effects of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) are mediated via the angiotensin (Ang) type 1 receptor (AT 1 R). The 18 F-FPyKYNE derivative of the clinically used AT 1 R blocker losartan exhibits high binding selectivity for kidney AT 1 R and rapid metabolism in rats. The aim of this study was to further assess the binding profile of this novel PET agent for imaging AT 1 R in rats and pigs. In vitro binding assays were performed with 18 F-FPyKYNE-losartan in rat kidneys. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to assess dosimetry, antagonistic efficacy via blood pressure measurements, and presence of labeled metabolites in kidneys. Test-retest PET imaging, blocking with AT 1 R antagonist candesartan (10 mg/kg), and plasma metabolism analysis were performed in female Yorkshire pigs. 18 F-FPyKYNE-losartan bound with high affinity (dissociation constant of 49.4 ± 18.0 nM and maximal binding of 348 ± 112 fmol/mm 2 ) to rat kidney AT 1 R. It bound strongly to plasma proteins in rats (97%), and its labeled metabolites displayed minimal interference on renal AT 1 R binding. FPyKYNE-losartan fully antagonized the Ang II pressor effect, albeit with 4-fold potency reduction (the effective dose inhibiting 50% of the Ang II-induced maximal pressor response of 25.5 mg/kg) relative to losartan. PET imaging exhibited high kidney-to-blood contrast and slow renal clearance, with an SUV of 14.1 ± 6.2. Excellent reproducibility was observed in the calculated test-retest variability (7.2% ± 0.75%). Only hydrophilic-labeled metabolites were present in plasma samples, and renal retention was reduced (-60%) at 10-15 min after blockade with candesartan. 18 F-FPyKYNE-losartan has a favorable binding profile and displays high potential for translational work in humans as an AT 1 R PET imaging agent. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  1. Protective effects of the angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist losartan in infection-induced and arthritis-associated alveolar bone loss.

    PubMed

    Queiroz-Junior, C M; Silveira, K D; de Oliveira, C R; Moura, A P; Madeira, M F M; Soriani, F M; Ferreira, A J; Fukada, S Y; Teixeira, M M; Souza, D G; da Silva, T A

    2015-12-01

    The angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bone disorders. This study aimed to investigate the effect of an AT1 receptor antagonist in infection-induced and arthritis-associated alveolar bone loss in mice. Mice were subjected to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans oral infection or antigen-induced arthritis and treated daily with 10 mg/kg of the prototype AT1 antagonist, losartan. Treatment was conducted for 30 d in the infectious condition and for 17 d and 11 d in the preventive or therapeutic regimens in the arthritic model, respectively. The mice were then killed, and the maxillae, serum and knee joints were collected for histomorphometric and immunoenzymatic assays. In vitro osteoclast assays were performed using RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysacharide (LPS). Arthritis and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection triggered significant alveolar bone loss in mice and increased the levels of myeloperoxidase and of TRAP(+) osteoclasts in periodontal tissues. Losartan abolished such a phenotype, as well as the arthritis joint inflammation. Both arthritis and A. actinomycetemcomitans conditions were associated with the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma, interleukin-17 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 and an increased RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio in periodontal tissues, but such expression decreased after losartan treatment, except for TNF-α. The therapeutic approach was as beneficial as the preventive one. In vitro, losartan prevented LPS-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity. The blockade of AT1 receptor exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastic effects, thus protecting periodontal tissues in distinct pathophysiological conditions of alveolar bone loss. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Losartan reduces trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colorectal fibrosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wengrower, Dov; Zanninelli, Giuliana; Latella, Giovanni; Necozione, Stefano; Metanes, Issa; Israeli, Eran; Lysy, Joseph; Pines, Mark; Papo, Orit; Goldin, Eran

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibrosis is a challenging clinical condition in several fibrostenosing enteropathies, particularly Crohn’s disease. Currently, no effective preventive measures or medical therapies are available for intestinal fibrosis. Fibrosis, due to an abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, is a chronic and progressive process mediated by cell/matrix/cytokine and growth factor interactions, but may be a reversible phenomenon. Of the several molecules regulating fibrogenesis, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) appears to play a pivotal role; it is strongly induced by the local activation of angiotensin II. The levels of both TGF-β1 and angiotensin II are elevated in fibrostenosing Crohn’s disease. AIMS: To evaluate the in vivo effect of losartan – an angiotensin II receptor antagonist – on the course of chronic colitis-associated fibrosis and on TGF-β1 expression. METHODS: Colitis was induced by intrarectal instillation of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) (15 mg/mL) while losartan was administered orally daily by gavage (7 mg/kg/day) for 21 days. Three groups of rats were evaluated: control (n=10); TNBS treated (n=10); and TNBS + losartan treated (n=10). Inflammation and fibrosis of the colon were evaluated by macro- and microscopic score analysis. Colonic TGF-β1 levels was measured using ELISA. RESULTS: Twenty-one days after induction, losartan significantly improved the macro- and microscopic scores of fibrosis in the colonic wall and reduced TGF-β1 concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic oral administration of losartan reduces the colorectal fibrosis complicating the TNBS-induced chronic colitis, an effect that appears to be mediated by a downregulation of TGF-β1 expression. PMID:22288068

  3. Losartan attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by suppression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wang; Deng, Yue; Deng, Jia; Wang, Dao-Xin; Zhang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Recent study has shown that renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI) with high level of angiotensin II (AngII) generated form AngI catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme. AngII plays a major effect mainly through AT1 receptor. Therefore, we speculate inhibition of AT1 receptor may possibly attenuate the lung injury. Losartan, an antagonist of AT1 receptor for angiotensin II, attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation response in ALI, but the mechanism of losartan in ALI still remains unclear. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Control group, ALI group (LPS), and Losartan group (LPS + Losartan). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were obtained for analysis. The expressions of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and caspase-3 were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. In ALI group, TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity in lung tissue, pulmonary edema and lung injury were significantly increased. Losartan significantly reduced LPS-induced increase in TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity, pulmonary edema and lung injury in LPS-induced lung injury. The mRNA and protein expression levels of LOX-1 were significantly decreased with the administration of losartan in LPS-induced lung injury. Also, losartan blocked the protein levels of caspase-3 and ICAM-1 mediated by LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury. Losartan attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation and cell apoptosis by inhibition of LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury.

  4. Losartan attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by suppression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wang; Deng, Yue; Deng, Jia; Wang, Dao-Xin; Zhang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recent study has shown that renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI) with high level of angiotensin II (AngII) generated form AngI catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme. AngII plays a major effect mainly through AT1 receptor. Therefore, we speculate inhibition of AT1 receptor may possibly attenuate the lung injury. Losartan, an antagonist of AT1 receptor for angiotensin II, attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation response in ALI, but the mechanism of losartan in ALI still remains unclear. Methods: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Control group, ALI group (LPS), and Losartan group (LPS + Losartan). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were obtained for analysis. The expressions of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and caspase-3 were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. Results: In ALI group, TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity in lung tissue, pulmonary edema and lung injury were significantly increased. Losartan significantly reduced LPS-induced increase in TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity, pulmonary edema and lung injury in LPS-induced lung injury. The mRNA and protein expression levels of LOX-1 were significantly decreased with the administration of losartan in LPS-induced lung injury. Also, losartan blocked the protein levels of caspase-3 and ICAM-1 mediated by LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury. Conclusions: Losartan attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation and cell apoptosis by inhibition of LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury. PMID:26884836

  5. Losartan inhibits collagen I synthesis and improves the distribution and efficacy of nanotherapeutics in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Diop-Frimpong, Benjamin; Chauhan, Vikash P.; Krane, Stephen; Boucher, Yves; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2011-01-01

    The dense collagen network in tumors significantly reduces the penetration and efficacy of nanotherapeutics. We tested whether losartan—a clinically approved angiotensin II receptor antagonist with noted antifibrotic activity—can enhance the penetration and efficacy of nanomedicine. We found that losartan inhibited collagen I production by carcinoma-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer biopsies. Additionally, it led to a dose-dependent reduction in stromal collagen in desmoplastic models of human breast, pancreatic, and skin tumors in mice. Furthermore, losartan improved the distribution and therapeutic efficacy of intratumorally injected oncolytic herpes simplex viruses. Finally, it also enhanced the efficacy of i.v. injected pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil). Thus, losartan has the potential to enhance the efficacy of nanotherapeutics in patients with desmoplastic tumors. PMID:21282607

  6. Losartan and enalapril decrease viral absorption and interleukin 1 beta production by macrophages in an experimental dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Fonseca, Juan Pablo; Durán, Anyelo; Valero, Nereida; Mosquera, Jesús

    2015-11-01

    The role of angiotensin II (Ang II) in dengue virus infection remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of losartan, an antagonist of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 receptor), and enalapril, an inhibitor of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), on viral antigen expression and IL-1β production in peritoneal macrophages infected with dengue virus type 2. Mice treated with losartan or enalapril and untreated controls were infected intraperitoneally with the virus, and macrophages were analyzed. Infection resulted in increased IL-1β production and a high percentage of cells expressing viral antigen, and this was decreased by treatment with anti-Ang II drugs, suggesting a role for Ang II in dengue virus infection.

  7. Effects of telmisartan and losartan on irradiated testes.

    PubMed

    da Silva Mansano, Naira; Jorge, Isabela Fernandes; Chies, Agnaldo Bruno; Viani, Gustavo Arruda; Spadella, Maria Angélica

    2018-02-01

    To analyze the effects of radiation on the reproductive tissue of male Wistar rats and to evaluate whether treatment with the Ang II AT1 receptor antagonists telmisartan and losartan mitigate the dysfunctions resulting from this exposure. Rats were randomly divided into groups: Control, Irradiated, Telmisartan, Losartan, Irradiated+Telmisartan, and Irradiated+Losartan. Single dose of 5Gy was administered directly into the scrotum, followed by treatment with telmisartan (12mg/kg/day) or losartan (34mg/kg/two times/day) for 60days. Testicular function parameters were evaluated from spermatozoa of the vas deferens. Testes were processed for histopathological and morphometric-stereological analysis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry was evaluated. Radiation significantly reduced sperm motility, concentration, vitality, and increased the number of abnormal spermatozoa. Telmisartan and losartan did not significantly prevent these radiation-induced disorders. Seminiferous tubules were atrophied in both untreated and treated irradiated testes, and exhibited vacuoles, increased interstitial tissue and high number of blood vessels. However, several seminiferous tubules in recuperation were founded among damaged tubules in the testes of treated animals. The PCNA immunohistochemistry confirmed these outcomes. PCNA-positive cells were detected in dividing spermatogonia and spermatocytes from irradiated telmisartan and losartan treated rats whereas in the only-irradiated group, PCNA staining was observed in the nuclei of only the surviving spermatogonia. Under these experimental conditions, the testicular function parameters showed that radiation produced marked damage that was not reversed by treatments. However, gonadal restructuring and recovery of spermatogenesis in treated animals may to reflect attenuation of radiation-induced damages and potential start of recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Losartan Restores Skeletal Muscle Remodeling and Protects Against Disuse Atrophy in Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Tyesha N.; Andres-Mateos, Eva; Marx, Ruth; Mejias, Rebeca; Van Erp, Christel; Simmers, Jessica L.; Walston, Jeremy D.; Ward, Christopher W.; Cohn, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcopenia, a critical loss of muscle mass and function because of the physiological process of aging, contributes to disability and mortality in older adults. It increases the incidence of pathologic fractures, causing prolonged periods of hospitalization and rehabilitation. The molecular mechanisms underlying sarcopenia are poorly understood, but recent evidence suggests that increased transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) signaling contributes to impaired satellite cell function and muscle repair in aged skeletal muscle. We therefore evaluated whether antagonism of TGF-β signaling via losartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist commonly used to treat high blood pressure, had a beneficial impact on the muscle remodeling process of sarcopenic mice. We demonstrated that mice treated with losartan developed significantly less fibrosis and exhibited improved in vivo muscle function after cardiotoxin-induced injury. We found that losartan not only blunted the canonical TGF-β signaling cascade but also modulated the noncanonical TGF-β mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. We next assessed whether losartan was able to combat disuse atrophy in aged mice that were subjected to hindlimb immobilization. We showed that immobilized mice treated with losartan were protected against loss of muscle mass. Unexpectedly, this protective mechanism was not mediated by TGF-β signaling but was due to an increased activation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Thus, blockade of the AT1 (angiotensin II type I) receptor improved muscle remodeling and protected against disuse atrophy by differentially regulating the TGF-β and IGF-1/Akt/mTOR signaling cascades, two pathways critical for skeletal muscle homeostasis. Thus, losartan, a Food and Drug Administration–approved drug, may prove to have clinical benefits to combat injury-related muscle remodeling and provide protection against disuse atrophy in humans with

  9. AT1 receptor blocker losartan protects against mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Smuder, Ashley J.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Hall, Stephanie E.; Sollanek, Kurt J.; Morton, Aaron B.; Talbert, Erin E.; Toklu, Hale Z.; Tumer, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention for patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged ventilator support results in diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction leading to diaphragm weakness, which is predicted to contribute to problems in weaning patients from the ventilator. While it is established that ventilator-induced oxidative stress is required for the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness, the signaling pathway(s) that trigger oxidant production remain unknown. However, recent evidence reveals that increased plasma levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) result in oxidative stress and atrophy in limb skeletal muscles. Using a well-established animal model of mechanical ventilation, we tested the hypothesis that increased circulating levels of ANG II are required for both ventilator-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress and diaphragm weakness. Cause and effect was determined by administering an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) to prevent ventilator-induced increases in plasma ANG II levels, and the ANG II type 1 receptor antagonist (losartan) was provided to prevent the activation of ANG II type 1 receptors. Enalapril prevented the increase in plasma ANG II levels but did not protect against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress or diaphragm weakness. In contrast, losartan attenuated both ventilator-induced oxidative stress and diaphragm weakness. These findings indicate that circulating ANG II is not essential for the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness but that activation of ANG II type 1 receptors appears to be a requirement for ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness. Importantly, these experiments provide the first evidence that the Food and Drug Administration-approved drug losartan may have clinical benefits to protect against ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness in humans. PMID:26359481

  10. Losartan, a selective antagonist of AT1 receptor, attenuates seawater inhalation induced lung injury via modulating JAK2/STATs and apoptosis in rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Congcong; Bo, Liyan; Li, Pengcheng; Lu, Xi; Li, Wangping; Pan, Lei; Sun, Yani; Mu, Deguang; Liu, Wei; Jin, Faguang

    2017-08-01

    Losartan is a selective antagonist of AngⅠ type (AT1) receptor of Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ), which is widely used as a clinical medicine for the hypertension. Recent studies have shown that losartan was shown to protect from acute lung injury (ALI). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this research was to clarify whether Ang Ⅱ participated in the inflammatory response of ALI induced by seawater inhalation, and whether losartan had the protective effects on ALI by blocking the combination of Ang Ⅱ and AT1 receptor. In the current study, the severity of lung injury and the inflammatory reactions during seawater drowning induced ALI were assessed. Besides, we also detected the activation of relative pathways such as NF-κB, JAK2/STATs and apoptosis. The results showed that seawater inhalation could up-regulate the expression of Ang Ⅱ and AT1. While pretreatment of losartan (especially 15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) alleviated lung injury by inhibiting Ang-Ⅱ and AT1 receptor combination and in turn decreased the expression of p-NF-κB and activation of JAK2/STATs pathway. We also confirmed that losartan could reduce the apoptotic ratio of cells in the lung by modulating the phosphorylation of JNK and leak of cytochrome C to cytosol. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that losartan might have a therapeutic potential as an anti-inflammatory agent for treating SWI-ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Binding of Losartan to Angiotensin AT1 Receptors Increases Dopamine D1 Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Scott, Lena; Crambert, Susanne; Zelenin, Sergey; Eklöf, Ann-Christine; Di Ciano, Luis; Ibarra, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Signaling through both angiotensin AT1 receptors (AT1R) and dopamine D1 receptors (D1R) modulates renal sodium excretion and arterial BP. AT1R and D1R form heterodimers, but whether treatment with AT1R antagonists functionally modifies D1R via allosterism is unknown. In this study, the AT1R antagonist losartan strengthened the interaction between AT1R and D1R and increased expression of D1R on the plasma membrane in vitro. In rat proximal tubule cells that express endogenous AT1R and D1R, losartan increased cAMP generation. Losartan increased cAMP in HEK 293a cells transfected with both AT1R and D1R, but it did not increase cAMP in cells transfected with either receptor alone, suggesting that losartan induces D1R activation. Furthermore, losartan did not increase cAMP in HEK 293a cells expressing AT1R and mutant S397/S398A D1R, which disrupts the physical interaction between AT1R and D1R. In vivo, administration of a D1R antagonist significantly attenuated the antihypertensive effect of losartan in rats with renal hypertension. Taken together, these data imply that losartan might exert its antihypertensive effect both by inhibiting AT1R signaling and by enhancing D1R signaling. PMID:22193384

  12. Losartan Decreases Cardiac Muscle Fibrosis and Improves Cardiac Function in Dystrophin-Deficient Mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Spurney, Christopher F.; Sali, Arpana; Guerron, Alfredo D.; Iantorno, Micaela; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Rayavarapu, Sree; van der Meulen, Jack; Hoffman, Eric P.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed that chronic administration of losartan, an angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist, improved skeletal muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. In this study, C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx/J female mice were either untreated or treated with losartan (n = 15) in the drinking water at a dose of 600 mg/L over a 6-month period. Cardiac function was assessed via in vivo high frequency echocardiography and skeletal muscle function was assessed using grip strength testing, Digiscan monitoring, Rotarod timing, and in vitro force testing. Fibrosis was assessed using picrosirius red staining and Image J analysis. Gene expression was evaluated using real-time polymerized chain reaction (RT-PCR). Percentage shortening fraction was significantly decreased in untreated (26.9% ± 3.5%) mice compared to losartan-treated (32.2% ± 4.2%; P < .01) mice. Systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced in losartan-treated mice (56 ± 6 vs 69 ± 7 mm Hg; P < .0005). Percentage cardiac fibrosis was significantly reduced in losartan-treated hearts (P < .05) along with diaphragm (P < .01), extensor digitorum longus (P < .05), and gastrocnemius (P < .05) muscles compared to untreated mdx mice. There were no significant differences in skeletal muscle function between treated and untreated groups. Chronic treatment with losartan decreases cardiac and skeletal muscle fibrosis and improves cardiac systolic function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. PMID:21304057

  13. Neointimal-specific induction of apoptosis by losartan results in regression of vascular lesion in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Jacinthe; Hale, Taben M; deBlois, Denis

    2009-09-15

    We previously reported that initiating treatment with the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan, prior to and immediately after balloon injury, attenuates neointimal hyperplasia via induction of smooth muscle cell (SMC) apoptosis in the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The present study examines whether losartan can induce regression of an established neointima. Balloon angioplasty was performed in the aorta of 1 1 week-old SHR. Five weeks were allowed for neointima formation before rats received placebo or losartan (30 mg/kg/day) for 1 to 4 weeks. Blood pressure was measured by tail cuff plethysmography. Losartan significantly reduced blood pressure (16%) versus placebo within 2 weeks of treatment. In situ labeling with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase among neointimal SMC was transiently increased with losartan (10-fold at 2 weeks; P=0.004) in correlation with internucleosomal fragmentation of vascular DNA. Accordingly, losartan reversed neointimal hyperplasia by 43% (P=0.002) and 61% (P=0.007) at weeks 2 and 4, respectively, and neointimal mass by 63% (P<0.001) and 75% (P<0.001) at weeks 2 and 4, respectively, as compared to pre-treatment values. No change in aortic medial hyperplasia or mass was observed during losartan treatment. Taken together, endothelial denudation rendered the underlying media resistant to drug-induced remodeling, while losartan treatment induced vascular lesion regression by inducing apoptosis selectively in neointimal SMC, an effect that may contribute to the reduction of cardiovascular complications in hypertension.

  14. The effect of losartan and carvedilol on vasopressor responses to adrenergic agonists and angiotensin II in the systemic circulation of Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, M H; Sattar, M A; Abdullah, N A; Khan, M A H; Anand Swarup, K R L; Johns, E J

    2011-01-01

    1 Interaction between renin-angiotensin (RAS) and sympathetic nervous systems (SNS) was investigated by examining the effect of cumulative blockade of angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenergic receptors in normal Sprague Dawley rats. 2 Rats were treated with losartan (10 mg/kg), carvedilol (5 mg/kg), or losartan plus carvedilol (10+5 mg/kg) orally for 7 days. On day 8, the animals were anaesthetized with pentobarbitone and prepared for systemic haemodynamic study. Dose-response relationships for the elevation of mean arterial pressure or change in heart rate (HR) in response to intravenous injections of noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), methoxamine (ME) and Ang II were determined. 3 Losartan or the combination of losartan with carvedilol blunted vasopressor responses to ME and Ang II. Dose-response relationships for agonist action on HR were significantly inhibited by all treatments except for the combination of losartan and carvedilol on the decrease in HR induced by PE. Carvedilol decreased vasopressor responses to NA, PE and Ang II, and HR responses to NA, ME and Ang II. Combination treatment produced similar effects to losartan on the vasopressor and HR responses but had a greater effect on vasopressor responses to ME and Ang II, and on HR responses to NA and Ang II than carvedilol alone. 4 It is concluded that peripheral vasoconstriction induced by Ang II is partly mediated by adrenergic action and that the vasopressor responses to adrenergic agonists depend on an intact RAS. These observations suggest an interactive relationship between RAS and SNS in determining systemic haemodynamic responses in 'normal' rats. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Losartan attenuates chronic cigarette smoke exposure-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats: possible involvement of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2.

    PubMed

    Han, Su-Xia; He, Guang-Ming; Wang, Tao; Chen, Lei; Ning, Yun-Ye; Luo, Feng; An, Jin; Yang, Ting; Dong, Jia-Jia; Liao, Zeng-Lin; Xu, Dan; Wen, Fu-Qiang

    2010-05-15

    Chronic cigarette smoking induces pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by largely unknown mechanisms. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to function in the development of PAH. Losartan, a specific angiotensin II receptor antagonist, is a well-known antihypertensive drug with a potential role in regulating angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), a recently found regulator of RAS. To determine the effect of losartan on smoke-induced PAH and its possible mechanism, rats were daily exposed to cigarette smoke for 6months in the absence and in the presence of losartan. Elevated right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), thickened wall of pulmonary arteries with apparent medial hypertrophy along with increased angiotensin II (Ang II) and decreased ACE2 levels were observed in smoke-exposed-only rats. Losartan administration ameliorated pulmonary vascular remodeling, inhibited the smoke-induced RVSP and Ang II elevation and partially reversed the ACE2 decrease in rat lungs. In cultured primary pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from 3- and 6-month smoke-exposed rats, ACE2 levels were significantly lower than in those from the control rats. Moreover, PASMCs from 6-month exposed rats proliferated more rapidly than those from 3-month exposed or control rats, and cells grew even more rapidly in the presence of DX600, an ACE2 inhibitor. Consistent with the in vivo study, in vitro losartan pretreatment also inhibited cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cell proliferation and ACE2 reduction in rat PASMCs. The results suggest that losartan may be therapeutically useful in the chronic smoking-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling and PAH and ACE2 may be involved as part of its mechanism. Our study might provide insight into the development of new therapeutic interventions for PAH smokers.

  16. Losartan attenuates chronic cigarette smoke exposure-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats: Possible involvement of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2

    SciTech Connect

    Han Suxia; He Guangming; Wang Tao

    Chronic cigarette smoking induces pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by largely unknown mechanisms. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to function in the development of PAH. Losartan, a specific angiotensin II receptor antagonist, is a well-known antihypertensive drug with a potential role in regulating angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), a recently found regulator of RAS. To determine the effect of losartan on smoke-induced PAH and its possible mechanism, rats were daily exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months in the absence and in the presence of losartan. Elevated right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), thickened wall of pulmonary arteries with apparent medial hypertrophy along withmore » increased angiotensin II (Ang II) and decreased ACE2 levels were observed in smoke-exposed-only rats. Losartan administration ameliorated pulmonary vascular remodeling, inhibited the smoke-induced RVSP and Ang II elevation and partially reversed the ACE2 decrease in rat lungs. In cultured primary pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from 3- and 6-month smoke-exposed rats, ACE2 levels were significantly lower than in those from the control rats. Moreover, PASMCs from 6-month exposed rats proliferated more rapidly than those from 3-month exposed or control rats, and cells grew even more rapidly in the presence of DX600, an ACE2 inhibitor. Consistent with the in vivo study, in vitro losartan pretreatment also inhibited cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cell proliferation and ACE2 reduction in rat PASMCs. The results suggest that losartan may be therapeutically useful in the chronic smoking-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling and PAH and ACE2 may be involved as part of its mechanism. Our study might provide insight into the development of new therapeutic interventions for PAH smokers.« less

  17. Losartan/Hydrochlorothiazide: a review of its use in the treatment of hypertension and for stroke risk reduction in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2009-06-18

    Losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) [Hyzaar(R)] is a fixed-dose combination of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist (angiotensin receptor blocker [ARB]) losartan and the thiazide diuretic HCTZ. It is indicated for the treatment of hypertension (including as initial therapy in severe hypertension) and for stroke risk reduction in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Losartan/HCTZ is an effective combination therapy, lowering blood pressure (BP) to a greater extent than losartan or HCTZ alone in patients with hypertension. Other ARB/HCTZ fixed-dose combinations generally lowered BP to a greater extent than losartan/HCTZ in patients with hypertension, although whether this translates into improvements in cardiovascular outcomes is not known. In the LIFE study, losartan-based therapy was associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than atenolol-based therapy, mainly as a result of a reduced risk of stroke; the incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus was also lower with losartan-based therapy. Losartan/HCTZ is a well tolerated combination therapy. Thus, losartan/HCTZ remains an important option in the treatment of hypertension, as well as being indicated to reduce stroke risk in patients with hypertension and LVH.

  18. Modulating effect of losartan potassium on the mutagenicity and recombinogenicity of doxorubicin in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Silva-Oliveira, R G; Orsolin, P C; Nepomuceno, J C

    2016-09-01

    Losartan potassium is an antihypertensive drug in the angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARA) class. Some studies claim that, in addition to regulating blood pressure, this class of drug has anticancer properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of losartan potassium using the SMART (Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test) assay on the somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster, as well as the possible modulating effects of this drug, when associated with doxorubicin (DXR). Third instar larvae, descendents of standard and high bioactivation (ST and HB) crosses, were chronically treated with different concentrations of losartan potassium (0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; and 4 mM) alone or in association (co-treatment) with doxorubicin (DXR 0.125 mg/mL). The results showed an absence of a mutagenic effect of losartan potassium. In the co-treatment of losartan with DXR, the results showed that losartan is capable of reducing the number of mutant spots induced by DXR without altering the recombinogenic effect of the chemotherapeutic agent. Antiproliferative action appears to be the main mechanism involved in reducing the frequency of mutant spots and consequent modulation of alterations induced by DXR, although this parameter has not been directly assessed in this study. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Inhibition of Glycoprotein VI Clustering by Collagen as a Mechanism of Inhibiting Collagen-Induced Platelet Responses: The Example of Losartan

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Loyau, Stéphane; Tchitchinadze, Maria; Ropers, Jacques; Jondeau, Guillaume; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of platelets to collagen triggers the formation of a platelet clot. Pharmacological agents capable of inhibiting platelet activation by collagen are thus of potential therapeutic interest. Thrombus formation is initiated by the interaction of the GPIb-V-IX complex with collagen-bound vWF, while GPVI interaction with collagen triggers platelet activation that is reinforced by ADP and thromboxane A2. Losartan is an angiotensin II (Ang II) type I receptor (AT1R) antagonist proposed to have an antiplatelet activity via the inhibition of both the thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor (TP) and the glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Here, we characterized in vitro the effects of losartan at different doses on platelet responses: losartan inhibited platelet aggregation and secretion induced by 1 μg.mL-1 and 10 μg.mL-1 of collagen with an IC50 of ~ 6 μM. Losartan inhibited platelet responses induced by the GPVI specific collagen related peptide but not by the α2β1 specific peptide. However, losartan did not inhibit the binding of recombinant GPVI to collagen, which is not in favor of a simple competition. Indeed, the clustering of GPVI observed in flow cytometry and using the Duolink methodology, was inhibited by losartan. The impact of a therapeutic dose of losartan (100 mg/day) on platelet responses was analyzed ex vivo in a double blind study. No statistically significant differences were observed between losartan-treated (n=25) and non-treated (n=30) patients in terms of collagen and U46619-induced platelet activation. These data indicate that in treated patients, losartan does not achieve a measurable antiplatelet effect but provide the proof of concept that inhibiting collagen-induced GPVI clustering is of pharmacological interest to obtain an antithrombotic efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00763893 PMID:26052700

  20. Different protective actions of losartan and tempol on the renal inflammatory response to acute sodium overload.

    PubMed

    Rosón, María I; Della Penna, Silvana L; Cao, Gabriel; Gorzalczany, Susana; Pandolfo, Marcela; Toblli, Jorge E; Fernández, Belisario E

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the role of local intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II) and the oxidative stress in the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression observed in rats submitted to an acute sodium overload. Sprague-Dawley rats were infused for 2 h with isotonic saline solution (Control group) and with hypertonic saline solution alone (Na group), plus the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (10 mg kg(-1) in bolus) (Na-Los group), or plus the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol (0.5 mg min(-1) kg(-1)) (Na-Temp group). Mean arterial pressure, glomerular filtration rate, and fractional sodium excretion (FE(Na)) were measured. Ang II, NF-kappaB, hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and RANTES renal expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Ang II, NF-kappaB, and TGF-beta1 and RANTES early inflammatory markers were overexpressed in Na group, accompanied by enhanced HIF-1 alpha immunostaining, lower eNOS expression, and unmodified alpha-SMA. Losartan and tempol increased FE(Na) in sodium overload group. Although losartan reduced Ang II and NF-kappaB staining and increased eNOS expression, it did not restore HIF-1 alpha expression and did not prevent inflammation. Conversely, tempol increased eNOS and natriuresis, restored HIF-1 alpha expression, and prevented inflammation. Early inflammatory markers observed in rats with acute sodium overload is associated with the imbalance between HIF-1 alpha and eNOS expression. While both losartan and tempol increased natriuresis and eNOS expression, only tempol was effective in restoring HIF-1 alpha expression and down-regulating TGF-beta1 and RANTES expression. The protective role of tempol, but not of losartan, in the inflammatory response may be associated with its greater antioxidant effects. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Losartan Attenuates Scar Formation in Filtering Bleb After Trabeculectomy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huimin; Wang, Huiying; Fu, Shuhao; Xu, Kang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Yiqin; Ye, Wen

    2017-03-01

    To examine the effects of losartan on scar formation after trabeculectomy and on fibrotic changes of human Tenon's fibroblasts (HTFs). Trabeculectomy was performed on New Zealand rabbits. They were randomized to receive one of the following treatments: 0.9% normal saline, mitomycin-C, or one of the three doses of losartan. Bleb morphology, IOP, and histopathology examination were performed. Primary cultured HTFs were treated with losartan or vehicle, with or without angiotensin II (Ang II). Cell proliferation was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and cell migration was detected by scratch wound and transwell assay. Transdifferentiation was evaluated through the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) by immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, and Western blot. The expression of fibronectin (FN) was evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blot. An amount of 5 mg/mL of losartan subconjunctival injection significantly decreased IOP postoperatively and attenuated wound healing of the filtering bleb in the rabbit model. Immunostaining results showed less myofibroblast and collagen deposition around the bleb area in the losartan-treated eyes. Losartan (10-5 M) in vitro significantly attenuated Ang II's stimulatory effects on proliferation and migration of HTFs. Expressions of α-SMA and FN in these cells were also decreased by losartan pretreatment. Losartan attenuates scar formation of filtering bleb after trabeculectomy likely via decreasing proliferation, migration, transdifferentiation, and extracellular matrix deposition of Tenon's fibroblasts. These results indicate that losartan may be an effective therapeutic agent in preventing bleb scar formation and in improving surgical outcome after trabeculectomy.

  2. Comparison of vasculoprotective effects of benidipine and losartan in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Gen; Ishizaka, Nobukazu; Furuta, Kyoko; Hongo, Makiko; Saito, Kan; Sakurai, Ryota; Koike, Kazuhiko; Nagai, Ryozo

    2008-06-10

    Although antihypertensive drugs confer improvement in endothelial dysfunction and protection from atherogenesis in hypertension, different classes of antihypertensive drugs may elicit different degrees of vasculoprotective effects. We have investigated the effects of a long-acting calcium antagonist, benidipine, and an angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist, losartan, on the vascular damage observed in OLETF rats, an animal model of metabolic syndrome. At 34 weeks of age, OLETF rats were treated with either benidipine (3 mg/kg/day, per os) or losartan (25 mg/kg/day, per os) for 8 weeks. The extent of blood pressure reduction, restoration endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, and elevation of serum nitrite/nitrate concentration did not differ significantly between benidipine- and losartan-treated OLETF rats. Benidipine and losartan also reduced the aortic expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA and thickening of the vascular wall to a similar extent. Increased cardiac fibrosis was also inhibited by both benidipine and losartan. These data suggest that, when used in an antihypertensive dose, benidipine is as effective as losartan in restoring vascular endothelial function and in suppressing of cardiovascular remodeling in an animal model of metabolic syndrome.

  3. Losartan sensitizes selectively prostate cancer cell to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Yazdannejat, H; Hosseinimehr, S J; Ghasemi, A; Pourfallah, T A; Rafiei, A

    2016-01-11

    Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor (AT-II-R) blocker that is widely used by human for blood pressure regulation. Also, it has antitumor property. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of losartan on cellular toxicity induced by ionizing radiation on prostate cancer and non-malignant fibroblast cells. Human prostate cancer (DU-145) and human non-malignant fibroblast cells (HFFF2) were treated with losartan at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 10, 50 and 100 µM) and then these cells were exposed to ionizing radiation. The cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay. Our results showed that losartan exhibited antitumor effect on prostate cancer cells; it was reduced cell survival to 66% at concentration 1 µM. Losartan showed an additive killing effect in combination with ionizing radiation on prostate cancer cell. The cell proliferation was reduced to 54% in the prostate cancer cells treated with losartan at concentration 1 µM in combination with ionizing radiation. Losartan did not exhibit any toxicity on HFFF2 cell. This result shows a promising effect of losartan on enhancement of therapeutic effect of ionizing radiation in patients during therapy.

  4. Losartan alleviates hyperuricemia-induced atherosclerosis in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongchao; Li, Ning; Ding, Yueyou; Miao, Peizhi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of losartan on hyperuricemia-induced aortic atherosclerosis, in an experimental rabbit model. Male rabbits (n = 48) were divided into control, hyperuricemia (HU), hypercholesterolemia + hyperuricemia (HC + HU) and high-purine with 30-mg/kg/d losartan (HU + losartan) groups. Serum uric acid (UA) and plasma renin and angiotensin II activities were determined. Aortic tissue specimens were analyzed for histological changes and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Liver tissues were sampled for quantitative analyses of liver low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mRNA and protein via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. After 12 weeks, serum UA and plasma renin and plasma angiotensin II activities were enhanced in the HU and HU + HC groups (P < 0.001) compared to the control, whereas in the HU + losartan group plasma renin activity was not different and serum UA concentrations as well as plasma angiotensin II activity were moderately enhanced (P < 0.05). Smooth muscle cell (SMC) PCNA expression increased strongly in the HU and HU + HC groups (P < 0.001), but was less pronounced in the HU + losartan group. In contrast, transcription and expression of LDLR mRNA and protein were significantly higher in the control and HU + losartan groups compared to the HU and HU + HC groups. Both the HU and HU + HC groups had elevated intima thickness and intima areas compared to the control and HU + losartan groups. Losartan can alleviate experimental atherosclerosis induced by hyperuricemia.

  5. Comparison of the effects of levocetirizine and losartan on diabetic nephropathy and vascular dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Anbar, Hanan S; Shehatou, George S G; Suddek, Ghada M; Gameil, Nariman M

    2016-06-05

    This work was designed to investigate the effects of levocetirizine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, on diabetes-induced nephropathy and vascular disorder, in comparison to an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50mg/kg). Diabetic rats were divided into three groups; diabetic, diabetic-levocetirizine (0.5mg/kg/day) and diabetic-losartan (25mg/kg/day). Treatments were started two weeks following diabetes induction and continued for additional eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, urine was collected and serum was separated for biochemical measurements. Tissue homogenates of kidney and aorta were prepared for measuring oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Moreover, histological analyses were conducted and aortic vascular reactivity was investigated. Levocetirizine improved renal function in diabetic rats (evidenced by mitigation of diabetes-induced changes in kidney to body weight ratio, serum albumin, urinary proteins and creatinine clearance). Moreover, levocetirizine attenuated the elevated renal levels of TNF-α and TGF-β1, ameliorated renal oxidative stress and restored NO bioavailability in diabetic kidney. These effects were comparable to or surpassed those produced by losartan. Moreover, levocetirizine, similar to losartan, reduced the enhanced responsiveness of diabetic aorta to phenylephrine. Histological evaluation of renal and aortic tissues further confirmed the beneficial effects of levocetirizine on diabetic nephropathy and revealed a greater attenuation of diabetes-induced vascular hypertrophy by levocetirizine than by losartan. In conclusion, levocetirizine may offer comparable renoprotective effect to, and possibly superior vasculoprotective effects than, losartan in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reversal of subcellular remodelling by losartan in heart failure due to myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Babick, Andrea; Chapman, Donald; Zieroth, Shelley; Elimban, Vijayan; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the reversal of subcellular remodelling in heart failure due to myocardial infarction (MI) upon treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Twelve weeks after inducing MI, rats were treated with or without losartan (20 mg/kg; daily) for 8 weeks and assessed for cardiac function, cardiac remodelling, subcellular alterations and plasma catecholamines. Cardiac hypertrophy and lung congestion in 20 weeks MI-induced heart failure were associated with increases in plasma catecholamine levels. Haemodynamic examination revealed depressed cardiac function, whereas echocardiographic analysis showed impaired cardiac performance and marked increases in left ventricle wall thickness and chamber dilatation at 20 weeks of inducing MI. These changes in cardiac function, cardiac remodelling and plasma dopamine levels in heart failure were partially or fully reversed by losartan. Sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) Ca2+-pump activity and protein expression, protein and gene expression for phospholamban, as well as myofibrillar (MF) Ca2+-stimulated ATPase activity and α-myosin heavy chain mRNA levels were depressed, whereas β-myosin heavy chain expression was increased in failing hearts; these alterations were partially reversed by losartan. Although SR Ca2+-release activity and mRNA levels for SR Ca2+-pump were decreased in failing heart, these changes were not reversed upon losartan treatment; no changes in mRNA levels for SR Ca2+-release channels were observed in untreated or treated heart failure. These results suggest that the partial improvement of cardiac performance in heart failure due to MI by losartan treatment is associated with partial reversal of cardiac remodelling as well as partial recovery of SR and MF functions. PMID:22947202

  7. Effect of celecoxib on the antihypertensive effect of losartan in a rat model of renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Boshra, Vivian; El Wakeel, Gehan Abdel Hamid; Nader, Manar A

    2011-02-01

    Certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been reported to elevate blood pressure in some hypertensive patients, who are either untreated or treated with antihypertensive agents. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, celecoxib, on the antihypertensive effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonist, losartan potassium. We studied the effect of oral treatment with losartan (30 mg/kg), celecoxib (3 mg/kg), and their combination on the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), plasma renin activity (PRA), and plasma prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in male Sprague-Dawley rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH) induced by partial subdiaphragmatic aortic constriction. Treatment was continued for 7 days after aortic coarctation. Aortic coarctation led to significant increases in the MAP, PRA, and plasma PGE2. In RVH rats, losartan treatment caused a significant decrease of MAP with a significant increase in both plasma PGE2 and PRA. Celecoxib caused a nonsignificant change in MAP with a significant decrease in the raised levels of plasma PGE2 and PRA. Concomitant administration of celecoxib and losartan did not significantly affect the lowering effect of losartan on MAP with a subsequent significant decrease in the plasma PGE2 and PRA in RVH rats. Therefore, celecoxib could be used in renin-dependent hypertensive patients who receive losartan, without fear of a rise in their blood pressure.

  8. Losartan alleviates hyperuricemia-induced atherosclerosis in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hongchao; Li, Ning; Ding, Yueyou; Miao, Peizhi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of losartan on hyperuricemia-induced aortic atherosclerosis, in an experimental rabbit model. Methods: Male rabbits (n = 48) were divided into control, hyperuricemia (HU), hypercholesterolemia + hyperuricemia (HC + HU) and high-purine with 30-mg/kg/d losartan (HU + losartan) groups. Serum uric acid (UA) and plasma renin and angiotensin II activities were determined. Aortic tissue specimens were analyzed for histological changes and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Liver tissues were sampled for quantitative analyses of liver low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mRNA and protein via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Results: After 12 weeks, serum UA and plasma renin and plasma angiotensin II activities were enhanced in the HU and HU + HC groups (P < 0.001) compared to the control, whereas in the HU + losartan group plasma renin activity was not different and serum UA concentrations as well as plasma angiotensin II activity were moderately enhanced (P < 0.05). Smooth muscle cell (SMC) PCNA expression increased strongly in the HU and HU + HC groups (P < 0.001), but was less pronounced in the HU + losartan group. In contrast, transcription and expression of LDLR mRNA and protein were significantly higher in the control and HU + losartan groups compared to the HU and HU + HC groups. Both the HU and HU + HC groups had elevated intima thickness and intima areas compared to the control and HU + losartan groups. Conclusions: Losartan can alleviate experimental atherosclerosis induced by hyperuricemia. PMID:26617751

  9. Inhibitory effects of losartan and azelnidipine on augmentation of blood pressure variability induced by angiotensin II in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Danfeng; Kawagoe, Yukiko; Kuwasako, Kenji; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kato, Johji

    2017-07-05

    Increased blood pressure variability has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recently we reported that continuous infusion of angiotensin II not only elevated blood pressure level, but also increased blood pressure variability in a manner assumed to be independent of blood pressure elevation in rats. In the present study, the effects of the angiotensin type I receptor blocker losartan and the calcium channel blocker azelnidipine on angiotensin II-induced blood pressure variability were examined and compared with that of the vasodilator hydralazine in rats. Nine-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously infused with 240 pmol/kg/min angiotensin II for two weeks without or with oral administration of losartan, azelnidipine, or hydralazine. Blood pressure variability was evaluated using a coefficient of variation of blood pressure recorded every 15min under an unrestrained condition via an abdominal aortic catheter by a radiotelemetry system. Treatment with losartan suppressed both blood pressure elevation and augmentation of systolic blood pressure variability in rats infused with angiotensin II at 7 and 14 days. Azelnidipine also inhibited angiotensin II-induced blood pressure elevation and augmentation of blood pressure variability; meanwhile, hydralazine attenuated the pressor effect of angiotensin II, but had no effect on blood pressure variability. In conclusion, angiotensin II augmented blood pressure variability in an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent manner, and azelnidipine suppressed angiotensin II-induced augmentation of blood pressure variability, an effect mediated by the mechanism independent of the blood pressure-lowering action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of long-term losartan and L-arginine treatment on haemodynamics, glomerular filtration, and SOD activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Miloradović, Zoran; Jovović, Durdica; Mihailović-Stanojević, Nevena; Milanović, Jelica Grujić; Milanović, Sladan

    2008-04-01

    Recently, it has been reported that losartan, an angiotensin II receptor (ATR) antagonist, depresses the angiotensin II-induced production of superoxide radicals. Also, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) endothelial dysfunction is associated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. In this study, we examined the effects of long-term ATR blockade and L-arginine supplementation on the haemodynamic parameters, glomerular filtration, and oxidative status in SHR. Adult male SHR were treated with losartan (10 mg/kg) and with the NO donor L-arginine (2 g/kg) for 4 weeks. The animals were divided into the following experimental groups: control (n = 7), L-arginine (n = 7), losartan (n = 7), and L-arginine + losartan (n = 7). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), regional blood flow, urea clearance, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured at the end of treatment. MAP was significantly reduced in the losartan group compared with the control group (133.3 +/- 7.3 vs. 161.5 +/- 14.5 mm Hg). Aortic blood flow was significantly higher and aortic vascular resistance was significantly lower in all treated groups than in the control. Urea clearance rose significantly in the L-arginine + losartan group compared with control (393.27 +/- 37.58 vs. 218.68 +/- 42.03 microL x min(-1) x 100 g(-1)) as did the activity of SOD (1668.97 +/- 244.57 vs. 1083.18 +/- 169.96 U/g Hb). Our results suggest that the antihypertensive effect of losartan and L-arginine in SHR is not primarily mediated by increased SOD activity. Also, combined treatment with ATR blockade and L-arginine supplementation has a beneficial effect on renal function that is, at least in part, mediated by increased SOD activity in SHR.

  11. Changes in the composition of the thoracic aortic wall in spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with losartan or spironolactone.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei-Qing; Wu, Ling-Yun; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Jia; Che, Zai-Qian; Wu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Ding-Liang; Gao, Ping-Jin

    2009-05-01

    1. In the present study, we compared the elastin and collagen content of thoracic aortic medial and adventitial layers from Wistar-kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In addition, the effects of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, and spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, on collagen and elastin content were determined. 2. Prehypertensive (4-week-old) and hypertensive (16-week-old) SHR were randomly divided into three groups treated with either 0.9% NaCl, losartan (20 mg/kg per day) or spironolactone (200 mg/kg per day). Prehypertensive and hypertensive SHR were treated for 12 and 16 weeks, respectively. Age-matched WKY rats were not treated with NaCl, losartan or spironolactone and served as the control group. 3. The medial and adventitial layers of the thoracic aorta were composed mainly of elastin and collagen, respectively, in both SHR and WKY rats. Compared with WKY rats, SHR exhibited greater collagen and elastin content in the media, but decreased collagen and elastin content in the adventitial layer. Both medial and adventitial collagen and elastin content increased significantly with age in both strains and was greater in 32-week-old rats compared with 16-week-old rats. Spironolactone treatment decreased collagen content in the media of thoracic aortas from prehypertensive SHR, whereas losartan decreased collagen content in the media of aortas from hypertensive SHR. In contrast, neither spironolactone nor losartan had any effect on adventitial collagen content in prehypertensive and hypertensive SHR. Medial collagen and elastin were positively related to pulse pressure (PP), but there was no correlation between adventitial mass or collagen content and PP or mean arterial pressure in untreated and treated SHR and WKY rats. 4. In conclusion, the composition of the medial and adventitial layers of the thoracic aorta differs and treatment of SHR with losartan and spironolactone decreases collagen content when

  12. Different effect of losartan and amlodipine on penile structures in male spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Toblli, Jorge Eduardo; Stella, Inés; Mazza, Osvaldo Néstor; Ferder, León; Inserra, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is highly prevalent in hypertensive patients. Since both angiotensin II receptor type-1 blockers (ARBs) and calcium antagonists are current and effective antihypertensive drugs, the aim of this study was to determine possible differences between ARBs and calcium antagonists concerning the protection of penile structures from the deleterious effects of arterial hypertension. During 6 months, 3 groups of male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and 1 of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, as a control group, were studied: SHR without treatment; SHR with losartan (L) 30 mg/kg/day; SHR with amlodipine (A) 3 mg/kg/day, and WKY without treatment. Cavernous smooth muscle (CSM) and vascular smooth muscle (VSM) from cavernous arteries, cavernous tissue fibrosis and collagen type III (COL III) were evaluated. After 6 months, SHR+L and SHR+A showed a similar reduction in blood pressure compared with untreated SHR. However, only SHR+L and control WKY presented significantly lower values of: CSM (p < 0.01), VSM (p < 0.01), and COL III (p < 0.01) when compared with either untreated SHR or SHR+A. There was also a positive correlation between left ventricular mass and proteinuria with VSM from cavernous arteries, CSM and COL III in untreated SHR and SHR+A. These relations were not present in SHR+L and WKY. Although losartan and amlodipine achieved similar blood pressure control, losartan but not amlodipine showed a significant protective role against structural changes in the vessels and cavernous spaces of the erectile tissue caused by arterial hypertension. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Regression of experimental endometriotic implants in a rat model with the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Bulent; Cavusoglu, Turker; Ates, Utku; Meral, Ayfer; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Erbaş, Oytun

    2015-04-01

    Endometriosis is a common disease in women of reproductive age, and many different treatments have been developed, although none has provided a cure. In this study, the efficacy of losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker and an antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory agent, on regression of experimental endometriotic implants in a rat model was investigated. Peritoneal endometriosis was surgically induced in 16 mature female Sprague-Dawley rats. The peritoneal endometriotic implant was confirmed after 28 days, and the animals were divided randomly into two groups. The control group (n = 8) was given 4 mL/day tap water by oral gavage, and the losartan group (n = 8) was given 20 mg/kg per day losartan p.o. We compared endometriotic implant size, extent and severity of adhesion, as well as plasma and peritoneal lavage fluid cytokine levels including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, plasma inflammatory factor pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the treatment groups. Mean surface endometriotic area, histological score of implants, adhesion formation, plasma VEGF, TNF, PTX-3 and CRP levels were significantly lower in the losartan group compared with control (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the peritoneal VEGF level was lower in the losartan group than in the control group (P < 0.001), but peritoneal TNF-α was similar in both groups (P > 0.05). Losartan suppressed the implant surface area of experimental endometriosis in rats and reduced the levels of plasma VEGF, TNF-α, PTX-3 and CRP. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Losartan prevents acquired epilepsy via TGF-β signaling suppression.

    PubMed

    Bar-Klein, Guy; Cacheaux, Luisa P; Kamintsky, Lyn; Prager, Ofer; Weissberg, Itai; Schoknecht, Karl; Cheng, Paul; Kim, Soo Young; Wood, Lydia; Heinemann, Uwe; Kaufer, Daniela; Friedman, Alon

    2014-06-01

    Acquired epilepsy is frequently associated with structural lesions after trauma, stroke, and infections. Although seizures are often difficult to treat, there is no clinically applicable strategy to prevent the development of epilepsy in patients at risk. We have recently shown that vascular injury is associated with activation of albumin-mediated transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling, and followed by local inflammatory response and epileptiform activity ex vivo. Here we investigated albumin-mediated TGF-β signaling and tested the efficacy of blocking the TGF-β pathway in preventing epilepsy. We addressed the role of TGF-β signaling in epileptogenesis in 2 different rat models of vascular injury, combining in vitro and in vivo biochemical assays, gene expression, and magnetic resonance and direct optical imaging for blood-brain barrier permeability and vascular reactivity. Long-term electrocorticographic recordings were acquired in freely behaving animals. We demonstrate that serum-derived albumin preferentially induces activation of the activin receptor-like kinase 5 pathway of TGF-β receptor I in astrocytes. We further show that the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, losartan, previously identified as a blocker of peripheral TGF-β signaling, effectively blocks albumin-induced TGF-β activation in the brain. Most importantly, losartan prevents the development of delayed recurrent spontaneous seizures, an effect that persists weeks after drug withdrawal. TGF-β signaling, activated in astrocytes by serum-derived albumin, is involved in epileptogenesis. We propose losartan, a drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, as an efficient antiepileptogenic therapy for epilepsy associated with vascular injury. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  15. Losartan prevents acquired epilepsy via TGF-β signaling suppression

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Klein, Guy; Cacheaux, Luisa P.; Kamintsky, Lyn; Prager, Ofer; Weissberg, Itai; Schoknecht, Karl; Cheng, Paul; Kim, Soo Young; Wood, Lydia; Heinemann, Uwe; Kaufer, Daniela; Friedman, Alon

    2014-01-01

    Objective Acquired epilepsy is frequently associated with structural lesions following trauma, stroke and infections. While seizures are often difficult to treat, there is no clinically applicable strategy to prevent the development of epilepsy in patients at risk. We have recently shown that vascular injury is associated with activation of albumin-mediated transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling, and followed by local inflammatory response and epileptiform activity ex vivo. Here we investigated albumin-mediated TGF-β signaling and tested the efficacy of blocking the TGF-β pathway in preventing epilepsy. Methods We addressed the role of TGF-β signaling in epiletogenesis in two different rat models of vascular injury, combining in vitro and in vivo biochemical assays, gene expression, magnetic resonance and direct optical imaging for blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and vascular reactivity. Long-term electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings were acquired in freely behaving animals. Results We demonstrate that serum-derived albumin preferentially induces activation of the activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) pathway of TGF-β receptor I in astrocytes. We further show that the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1), losartan, previously identified as a blocker of peripheral TGF-β signaling, effectively blocks albumin-induced TGF-β activation in the brain. Most importantly, losartan prevents the development of delayed recurrent spontaneous seizures, an effect that persists weeks after drug withdrawal. Interpretation TGF-β signaling, activated in astrocytes by serum-derived albumin, is involved in epileptogenesis. We propose losartan, an FDA-approved drug, as an efficient anti-epileptogenic therapy for epilepsy associated with vascular injury. PMID:24659129

  16. Despite similar reduction of blood pressure and renal ANG II and ET-1 levels aliskiren but not losartan normalizes albuminuria in hypertensive Ren-2 rats.

    PubMed

    Vanourková, Z; Kramer, H J; Husková, Z; Cervenka, L; Vanecková, I

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between angiotensin II (ANG II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) is known to be complex; both peptides can initiate and potentiate the gene expression of each other. This pilot study investigated the effects of the AT(1) receptor blocker losartan or the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and albuminuria and the renal ANG II and ET-1 levels. 3-month-old male Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR) were treated either with losartan (5 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or aliskiren (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) for 10 weeks. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and cortical and papillary parts of kidneys were separated. Plasma and tissue ANG II levels were measured by RIA and tissue ET-1 concentrations by ELISA. In all four groups of animals ET-1 levels were lowest in renal cortex and more than 100-fold higher in the papilla. Cortical and papillary ET-1 concentrations in untreated TGR significantly exceeded those of control HanSD rats and were significantly depressed by both drugs. In both strains, papillary ANG II concentrations were moderately but significantly higher than cortical ANG II, TGR exhibited higher ANG II levels both in cortex and papilla as compared to control HanSD rats. Aliskiren and losartan at the doses used depressed similarly the levels of ANG II in cortex and papilla and reduced ET-1 significantly in the renal cortex and papilla below control levels in HanSD rats. Albuminuria, which was more than twice as high in TGR as in HanSD rats, was normalized with aliskiren and reduced by 28% with losartan, although MAP was reduced to a similar degree by both drugs. Despite similar reductions of MAP and renal ET-1 and ANG II levels aliskiren appears to be more effective than losartan, at the doses used, in reducing albuminuria in heterozygous hypertensive Ren-2 rats.

  17. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor correlates with therapeutic effects of losartan in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Di; Hu, Shanshan; Zhu, Jie; Yuan, Jun; Wu, Jingjing; Zhou, Aiwu; Wu, Yujing; Zhao, Wendi; Huang, Qiong; Chang, Yan; Wang, Qingtong; Sun, Wuyi; Wei, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker losartan ameliorates rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in an experimental model. In RA, AT2R mainly opposes AT1R, but the mechanism by which this occurs still remains obscure. In the present study, we investigated the role of AT2R in the treatment of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) by losartan. Adjuvant-induced arthritis rats were treated with losartan (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) and methotrexate (MTX; 0.5 mg/kg) in vivo from day 14 to day 28. Arthritis was evaluated by the arthritis index and histological examination. Angiotensin II, tumour necrosis factor-α, and VEGF levels were examined by ELISA. The expression of AT1R and AT2R was detected by western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. After stimulation with interleukin-1β in vitro, the effects of the AT2R agonist CGP42112 (10−8–10−5 M) on the chemotaxis of monocytes induced by 10% foetal calf serum (FCS) were analysed by using Transwell assay. Subsequently, the therapeutic effects of CGP42112 (5, 10 and 20 μg/kg) were evaluated in vivo by intra-articular injection in AIA rats. After treatment with losartan, the down-regulation of AT1R expression and up-regulation of AT2R expression in the spleen and synovium of AIA rats correlated positively with reduction in the polyarthritis index. Treatment with CGP42112 inhibited the chemotaxis of AIA monocytes in vitro, possibly because of the up-regulation of AT2R expression. Intra-articular injection with CGP42112 (10 and 20 μg/kg) ameliorated the arthritis index and histological signs of arthritis. In summary, the present study strongly suggests that the up-regulation of AT2R might be an additional mechanism by which losartan exerts its therapeutic effects in AIA rats. PMID:24112447

  18. ACE2 activity was increased in atherosclerotic plaque by losartan: Possible relation to anti-atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue Hui; Hao, Qing Qing; Wang, Xiao Yu; Chen, Xu; Wang, Nan; Zhu, Li; Li, Shu Ying; Yu, Qing Tao; Dong, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a new member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and it has been proposed that ACE2 is a potential therapeutic target for the control of cardiovascular disease. The effect of losartan on the ACE2 activity in atherosclerosis was studied. Atherosclerosis was induced in New Zealand white rabbits by high-cholesterol diet for 3 months. An Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blocker (losartan, 25 mg/kg/d) was given for 3 months. ACE2 activity was measured by fluorescence assay and the extent of atherosclerosis was evaluated by H&E and Oil Red O staining. In addition, the effect of losartan on ACE2 activity in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vitro was also evaluated. Losartan increased ACE2 activity in atherosclerosis in vivo and SMCs in vitro. Losartan inhibited atherosclerotic evolution. Addition of losartan blocked Ang II-induced down-regulation of ACE2 activity, and blockade of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) with PD98059 prevented Ang II-induced down-regulation of ACE2 activity. The results showed that ACE2 activity was regulated in atherosclerotic plaque by losartan, which may play an important role in treatment of atherosclerosis. The mechanism involves Ang II-AT1R-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs (MAPKs) signaling pathway. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Efficacy and safety of the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the INHERIT randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Anna; Iversen, Kasper; Vejlstrup, Niels; Ho, Carolyn; Norsk, Jakob; Langhoff, Lasse; Ahtarovski, Kiril; Corell, Pernille; Havndrup, Ole; Jensen, Morten; Bundgaard, Henning

    2015-02-01

    No medical treatment has been reliably shown to halt or reverse disease progression in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but the results of several pilot studies have suggested beneficial effects of angiotensin II receptor blockers on left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, which are predictive of an adverse outcome. We aimed to assess the effect of the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan on left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In this single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients (aged 18 years and older) with obstructive or non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were randomly assigned via computer-based system to losartan (100 mg per day) or placebo for 12 months. Patients and investigators were masked to assigned treatment. The primary endpoint was change in left ventricular mass as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) or CT. Efficacy analyses were done in the modified intention-to-treat population (all patients with data available at the 12-month follow-up). The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01447654. Between Dec 1, 2011, and May 1, 2013, 318 patients were screened. 133 patients (mean age 52 years [SD 13], 35% women) consented and were randomly assigned to placebo (n=69) or losartan (n=64). 124 (93%) patients completed the study and were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis for the primary endpoint. After 12 months we noted no significant difference in the change in left ventricular mass between the placebo group and the losartan group (mean difference 1 g/m(2), 95% CI -3 to 6; p=0·60). A decrease in systolic blood pressure in the losartan group (from mean 127 mm Hg [SD 12] to 121 mm Hg [14]; p=0·0001) confirmed drug compliance; blood pressure did not decrease in the placebo group. Two (2%) patients, both in the placebo group, died from sudden cardiac death during follow-up. In the losartan group, one (1

  20. Role of the median preoptic nucleus in the chronic hypotensive effect of losartan in sodium-replete normal rats.

    PubMed

    Ployngam, Trasida; Katz, Stephen S; Collister, John P

    2010-01-01

    1. We have shown previously that the chronic hypotensive effect of the angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist losartan is mediated, in part, by the subfornical organ (SFO). However, the neural pathway(s) mediating this central effect of losartan downstream from the SFO has not been completely elucidated. 2. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) is a crucial part of the neural pathway necessary for the chronic hypotensive effect of losartan. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either Sham or electrolytic lesion of the MnPO (MnPOx). Rats were instrumented with radiotelemetric transducers and aortic flow probes for the continuous measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate and cardiac output (CO), respectively. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) was calculated as MAP/CO. After 3 days of baseline measurements, rats were infused intraperitoneally with losartan (10 mg/kg per day) via an osmotic minipump at a rate of 5 microL/min. 3. The data revealed that, by Day 9 of losartan treatment, MAP had decreased 34 +/- 2 mmHg in MnPOx rats (n = 9), whereas the MAP of Sham-lesioned rats (n = 8) had only decreased 24 +/- 3 mmHg. These findings were accompanied by a greater decrease in TPR in MnPOx compared with Sham rats (-0.464 vs-0.237 mmHg/mL per min, respectively), whereas CO remained unchanged throughout the study protocol. 4. These results do not support the hypothesis that an intact MnPO is necessary to mediate the full chronic hypotensive effect of losartan in normal rats. Instead, they appear to suggest that the MnPO may play an important role in buffering the profound hypotension induced by losartan.

  1. Comparative randomized study on efficacy of losartan versus propranolol in lowering portal pressure in decompensated chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Agasti, Ananta Kumar; Mahajan, Ajay U; Phadke, Aniruddha Y; Nathani, Pratap J; Sawant, Prabha

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, with propranolol on portal hypertension in patients with decompensated chronic liver disease. In all, 30 patients with Child-Pugh B cirrhosis and large varices without any prior therapy for portal hypertension were randomized to either losartan (n = 15) or propranolol (n = 15). Clinical, biochemical and hemodynamic parameters including hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), wedged hepatic venous pressure (WHVP), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and free hepatic venous pressure (FHVP) were measured at baseline and after 4-week therapy. Patients with HVPG < 12 mmHg were regarded as responders. An equal number of responders were seen in both groups (6/15, 40.0%). The reduction of WHVP and HVPG was greater in the losartan group than in the propranolol group, although no significant differences between them were found. Heart rate decreased more in the propranolol arm than in the losartan arm (P < 0.01); however, no correlation between the decrease of heart rate and the reduction of HVPG was observed. One patient in the losartan group, although a responder, had gastrointestinal bleeding 2 months after the drug administration, but the varices were small under endoscopy and did not require definitive therapy. The fall of MABP was greater with losartan, with no statistical difference between the two groups. The effect of losartan was comparable to propranolol in reducing portal pressure in decompensated Child-Pugh B chronic liver disease. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2012 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Clinical experience in treating hypertension with fixed-dose combination therapy: angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan plus hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masanori; Okada, Kazuyoshi; Matsumoto, Koichi

    2009-10-01

    The goal of antihypertensive treatment is to reduce cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events associated with high blood pressure. A combination therapy with different antihypertensive agents is more successful than monotherapy in most hypertensive patients, with the added advantage of a better safety profile. Therefore, treatment of hypertensive patients with fixed-dose combination therapy consisting of the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan along with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) has several potential benefits over monotherapy with each individual component. It provides more effective blood pressure control, a reduction in the likelihood of adverse effects and facilitation of patient compliance due to a simple once-daily regimen. One of the advantages of the combination of losartan with HCTZ is the potential reduction in HCTZ-induced metabolic disorders; in particular, this combination can have attractive benefits for patients of hyperuricemia. Losartan plus HCTZ fixed-dose combination therapy is frequently recommended for the treatment of hypertension and lowers blood pressure in mild-to-moderate and even severe hypertensive patients to a level comparable with other classes of antihypertensive agents in combination with HCTZ. Fixed-dose combination therapy with losartan plus HCTZ is a logical choice as antihypertensive therapy for patients in whom combination therapy is necessary to achieve additional blood pressure reduction.

  3. Losartan activates sirtuin 1 in rat reduced-size orthotopic liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pantazi, Eirini; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Zaouali, Mohamed Amine; Folch-Puy, Emma; Pinto Rolo, Anabela; Panisello, Arnau; Palmeira, Carlos Marques; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate a possible association between losartan and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in reduced-size orthotopic liver transplantation (ROLT) in rats. METHODS: Livers of male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were preserved in University of Wisconsin preservation solution for 1 h at 4 °C prior to ROLT. In an additional group, an antagonist of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), losartan, was orally administered (5 mg/kg) 24 h and 1 h before the surgical procedure to both the donors and the recipients. Transaminase (as an indicator of liver injury), SIRT1 activity, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+, a co-factor necessary for SIRT1 activity) levels were determined by biochemical methods. Protein expression of SIRT1, acetylated FoxO1 (ac-FoxO1), NAMPT (the precursor of NAD+), heat shock proteins (HSP70, HO-1) expression, endoplasmic reticulum stress (GRP78, IRE1α, p-eIF2) and apoptosis (caspase 12 and caspase 3) parameters were determined by Western blot. Possible alterations in protein expression of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), such as p-p38 and p-ERK, were also evaluated. Furthermore, the SIRT3 protein expression and mRNA levels were examined. RESULTS: The present study demonstrated that losartan administration led to diminished liver injury when compared to ROLT group, as evidenced by the significant decreases in alanine aminotransferase (358.3 ± 133.44 vs 206 ± 33.61, P < 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase levels (893.57 ± 397.69 vs 500.85 ± 118.07, P < 0.05). The lessened hepatic injury in case of losartan was associated with enhanced SIRT1 protein expression and activity (5.27 ± 0.32 vs 6.08 ± 0.30, P < 0.05). This was concomitant with increased levels of NAD+ (0.87 ± 0.22 vs 1.195 ± 0.144, P < 0.05) the co-factor necessary for SIRT1 activity, as well as with decreases in ac-FoxO1 expression. Losartan treatment also provoked significant attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress parameters (GRP78, IRE1α, p-eIF2) which was

  4. Losartan activates sirtuin 1 in rat reduced-size orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pantazi, Eirini; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Zaouali, Mohamed Amine; Folch-Puy, Emma; Pinto Rolo, Anabela; Panisello, Arnau; Palmeira, Carlos Marques; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2015-07-14

    To investigate a possible association between losartan and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in reduced-size orthotopic liver transplantation (ROLT) in rats. Livers of male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were preserved in University of Wisconsin preservation solution for 1 h at 4 °C prior to ROLT. In an additional group, an antagonist of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), losartan, was orally administered (5 mg/kg) 24 h and 1 h before the surgical procedure to both the donors and the recipients. Transaminase (as an indicator of liver injury), SIRT1 activity, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+), a co-factor necessary for SIRT1 activity) levels were determined by biochemical methods. Protein expression of SIRT1, acetylated FoxO1 (ac-FoxO1), NAMPT (the precursor of NAD+), heat shock proteins (HSP70, HO-1) expression, endoplasmic reticulum stress (GRP78, IRE1α, p-eIF2) and apoptosis (caspase 12 and caspase 3) parameters were determined by Western blot. Possible alterations in protein expression of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), such as p-p38 and p-ERK, were also evaluated. Furthermore, the SIRT3 protein expression and mRNA levels were examined. The present study demonstrated that losartan administration led to diminished liver injury when compared to ROLT group, as evidenced by the significant decreases in alanine aminotransferase (358.3 ± 133.44 vs 206 ± 33.61, P < 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase levels (893.57 ± 397.69 vs 500.85 ± 118.07, P < 0.05). The lessened hepatic injury in case of losartan was associated with enhanced SIRT1 protein expression and activity (5.27 ± 0.32 vs 6.08 ± 0.30, P < 0.05). This was concomitant with increased levels of NAD(+) (0.87 ± 0.22 vs 1.195 ± 0.144, P < 0.05) the co-factor necessary for SIRT1 activity, as well as with decreases in ac-FoxO1 expression. Losartan treatment also provoked significant attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress parameters (GRP78, IRE1α, p-eIF2) which was consistent with reduced

  5. Evaluation of [(11)C]methyl-losartan and [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 for PET imaging of renal AT1receptor in rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Basma; Hadizad, Tayebeh; Antoun, Rawad; Lortie, Mireille; deKemp, Robert A; Beanlands, Rob S B; DaSilva, Jean N

    2015-11-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is responsible for the main effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and its expression pattern is altered in several diseases. The [(11)C]methylated derivatives of the clinically used AT1R blocker (ARB) losartan and its active metabolite EXP3174, that binds with higher affinity to AT1R, were evaluated as potential PET imaging tracers in rat kidneys. [(11)C]Methyl-losartan and [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 were synthesized by [(11)C]methylation of the tetrazole-protected analogs using [11C]methyl iodide. Tissue uptake and binding selectivity of [(11)C]methyl-losartan were assessed by ex-vivo biodistribution and in-vitro autoradiography. Radiolabeled metabolites in rat plasma and kidneys were analysed by column-switch HPLC. Both tracers were evaluated with small animal PET imaging. Due to better pharmacokinetics, [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 was further investigated via PET by co-injection with AT1R antagonist candesartan or the AT2R antagonist PD123,319. Binding selectivity to renal AT1 over AT2 and Mas receptors was demonstrated for [(11)C]methyl-losartan. Plasma metabolite analysis at 10 min revealed stability of [(11)C]methyl-losartan and [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 with the presence of unchanged tracer at 70.8 ± 9.9% and 81.4 ± 6.0%, of total radioactivity, respectively. Contrary to [(11)C]methyl-losartan, co-injection of candesartan with [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 reduced the proportion of unchanged tracer (but not metabolites), indicating that these metabolites do not bind to AT1R in rat kidneys. MicroPET images for both radiotracers displayed high kidney-to-background contrast. Candesartan significantly reduced [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 uptake in the kidney, whereas no difference was observed following PD123,319 indicating binding selectivity for AT1R. [(11)C]Methyl-EXP3174 displayed a favorable binding profile compared to [(11)C]methyl-losartan for imaging renal AT1Rs supporting further studies to assess its full potential as a

  6. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-09-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents.

  7. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-01-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents. PMID:26424254

  8. Losartan treatment attenuates tumor-induced myocardial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Sarah CW; Velten, Markus; Youtz, Dane J.; Clark, Yvonne; Jing, Runfeng; Reiser, Peter J.; Bicer, Sabahattin; Devine, Raymond; McCarthy, Donna O.; Wold, Loren E.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue and muscle wasting are common symptoms experienced by cancer patients. Data from animal models demonstrate that angiotensin is involved in tumor-induced muscle wasting, and that tumor growth can independently affect myocardial function, which could contribute to fatigue in cancer patients. In clinical studies, inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) can prevent the development of chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, suggesting a mechanistic role for the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). In the present study, we investigated whether an angiotensin (AT)1-receptor antagonist could prevent the development of tumor-associated myocardial dysfunction. Methods and Results: Colon26 adenocarcinoma (c26) cells were implanted into female CD2F1 mice at 8 weeks of age. Simultaneously, mice were administered Losartan (10 mg/kg) daily via their drinking water. In vivo echocardiography, blood pressure, in vitro cardiomyocyte function, cell proliferation assays, and measures of systemic inflammation and myocardial protein degradation were performed 19 days following tumor cell injection. Losartan treatment prevented tumor-induced loss of muscle mass and in vitro c26 cell proliferation, decreased tumor weight, and attenuated myocardial expression of interleukin-6. Furthermore, Losartan treatment mitigated tumor-associated alterations in calcium signaling in cardiomyocytes, which was associated with improved myocyte contraction velocity, systolic function, and blood pressures in the hearts of tumor-bearing mice. Conclusions: These data suggest that Losartan may mitigate tumor-induced myocardial dysfunction and inflammation. PMID:25988231

  9. Losartan treatment attenuates tumor-induced myocardial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sarah C W; Velten, Markus; Youtz, Dane J; Clark, Yvonne; Jing, Runfeng; Reiser, Peter J; Bicer, Sabahattin; Devine, Raymond D; McCarthy, Donna O; Wold, Loren E

    2015-08-01

    Fatigue and muscle wasting are common symptoms experienced by cancer patients. Data from animal models demonstrate that angiotensin is involved in tumor-induced muscle wasting, and that tumor growth can independently affect myocardial function, which could contribute to fatigue in cancer patients. In clinical studies, inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) can prevent the development of chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, suggesting a mechanistic role for the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). In the present study, we investigated whether an angiotensin (AT) 1-receptor antagonist could prevent the development of tumor-associated myocardial dysfunction. Colon26 adenocarcinoma (c26) cells were implanted into female CD2F1 mice at 8weeks of age. Simultaneously, mice were administered Losartan (10mg/kg) daily via their drinking water. In vivo echocardiography, blood pressure, in vitro cardiomyocyte function, cell proliferation assays, and measures of systemic inflammation and myocardial protein degradation were performed 19days following tumor cell injection. Losartan treatment prevented tumor-induced loss of muscle mass and in vitro c26 cell proliferation, decreased tumor weight, and attenuated myocardial expression of interleukin-6. Furthermore, Losartan treatment mitigated tumor-associated alterations in calcium signaling in cardiomyocytes, which was associated with improved myocyte contraction velocity, systolic function, and blood pressures in the hearts of tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that Losartan may mitigate tumor-induced myocardial dysfunction and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Life or death by NFκB, Losartan promotes survival in dy2J/dy2J mouse of MDC1A

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz, M; Yanay, N; Laban, S; Rabie, M; Mitrani-Rosenbaum, S; Nevo, Y

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and fibrosis are well-defined mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the incurable Laminin α2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A), while apoptosis mechanism is barely discussed. Our previous study showed treatment with Losartan, an angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist, improved muscle strength and reduced fibrosis through transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling inhibition in the dy2J/dy2J mouse model of MDC1A. Here we show for the first time that Losartan treatment up-regulates and shifts the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling pathway to favor survival versus apoptosis/damage in this animal model. Losartan treatment was associated with significantly increased serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level, p65 nuclei accumulation, and decreased muscle IκB-β protein level, indicating NFκB activation. Moreover, NFκB anti-apoptotic target genes TNF receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP2), and Ferritin heavy chain (FTH1) were increased following Losartan treatment. Losartan induced protein expression toward a pro-survival profile as BCL-2 expression levels were increased and Caspase-3 expression levels were decreased. Muscle apoptosis reduction was further confirmed using terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Thus, along with TGF-β and MAPK signaling, NFκB serves as an important regulatory pathway which following Losartan treatment promotes survival in the dy2J/dy2J mouse model of MDC1A. PMID:25766329

  11. Losartan improves cerebrovascular function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease with combined overproduction of amyloid-β and transforming growth factor-β1.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Panayiota; Tong, Xin-Kang; Imboden, Hans; Hamel, Edith

    2017-06-01

    Alterations of the renin-angiotensin system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. We tested the efficacy of losartan (10 mg/kg/day for three months), a selective angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, in alleviating cerebrovascular and cognitive deficits in double-transgenic mice (six months at endpoint) that overexpress a mutated form of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP Swe,Ind ) and a constitutively active form of the transforming growth factor-β1, thereafter named A/T mice. Losartan rescued cerebrovascular reactivity, particularly the dilatory responses, but failed to attenuate astroglial activation and to normalize the neurovascular uncoupling response to sensory stimulation. The cognitive deficits of A/T mice were not restored by losartan nor were the increased brain levels of soluble and insoluble Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 peptides normalized. Our results are the first to demonstrate the capacity of losartan to improve cerebrovascular reactivity in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model of combined Aβ-induced vascular oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-β1-mediated vascular fibrosis. These data suggest that losartan may be promising for restoring cerebrovascular function in patients with vascular diseases at risk for vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease. However, a combined therapy may be warranted for rescuing both vascular and cognitive deficits in a multifaceted pathology like Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Losartan counteracts the effects of cardiomyocyte swelling on glucose uptake and insulin receptor substrate-1 levels.

    PubMed

    Gerena, Yamil; Lozada, Janice Griselle; Collazo, Bryan Jael; Méndez-Álvarez, Jarold; Méndez-Estrada, Jennifer; De Mello, Walmor C

    2017-10-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates an association between Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blockers (ARBs) and enhanced glucose metabolism during ischemic heart disease. Despite these encouraging results, the mechanisms responsible for these effects during ischemia remain poorly understood. In this study we investigated the influence of losartan, an AT1 receptor blocker, and secreted Ang II (sAng II) on glucose uptake and insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) levels during cardiomyocyte swelling. H9c2 cells were differentiated to cardiac muscle and the levels of myogenin, Myosin Light Chain (MLC), and membrane AT1 receptors were measured using flow cytometry. Intracellular Ang II (iAng II) was overexpressed in differentiated cardiomyocytes and swelling was induced after incubation with hypotonic solution for 40min. Glucose uptake and IRS-1 levels were monitored by flow cytometry using 2-NBDG fluorescent glucose (10μM) or an anti-IRS-1 monoclonal antibody in the presence or absence of losartan (10 -7 M). Secreted Angiotensin II was quantified from the medium using a specific Ang II-EIA kit. To evaluate the relationship between sAng II and losartan effects on glucose uptake, transfected cells were pretreated with the drug for 24h and then exposed to hypotonic solution in the presence or absence of the secreted peptide. The results indicate that: (1) swelling of transfected cardiomyocytes decreased glucose uptake and induced the secretion of Ang II to the extracellular medium; (2) losartan antagonized the effects of swelling on glucose uptake and IRS-1 levels in transfected cardiomyocytes; (3) the effects of losartan on glucose uptake were observed during swelling only in the presence of sAng II in the culture medium. Our study demonstrates that both losartan and sAng II have essential roles in glucose metabolism during cardiomyocyte swelling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of dietary fibers on losartan uptake and transport in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Iwazaki, Ayano; Takahashi, Naho; Miyake, Reiko; Hiroshima, Yuka; Abe, Mariko; Yasui, Airi; Imai, Kimie

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dietary fibers on the transport of losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, in small intestinal cells. Using Caco-2 cells in vitro, losartan uptake and transport were evaluated in the presence of various fibers (cellulose, chitosan, sodium alginate and glucomannan). Dietary fibers caused a decrease in the uptake of losartan, with chitosan causing a significant reduction. Chitosan and glucomannan significantly reduced the transport of losartan, while cellulose or sodium alginate did not. Dietary fibers also reduced the level of free losartan; however, this did not correlate with the observed reduction in losartan uptake and transport. In summary, chitosan had the greatest inhibitory effect on losartan uptake and transport, and this potential interaction should be considered in patients taking losartan. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Nitric oxide pathway presumably does not contribute to antianxiety and memory retrieval effects of losartan.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Iraj; Arjmand, Shokouh; Yousefzadeh Chabok, Shahrokh; Tondar, Mahdi; Shabani, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and angiotensin (AT) receptors have demonstrated well-established interactions in various physiological phenomena. AT1 receptors can play a part in stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; also, angiotensinergic neurotransmission plays a pivotal role in stress-evoked physiological responses. On the basis of the stress-modulating characteristics of NO, AT1, and AT2 receptors, the present study evaluated the roles of NO and AT1 receptors in the attenuation of stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors after administration of losartan, an AT1 antagonist. Male Wistar rats were exposed to the communication stress box, using a novel method to induce physical or emotional stress, and losartan (10 mg/kg), losartan+L-NG-nitroargininemethyl ester (L-NAME), L-NAME (1, 10, and 100 mg/kg), and normal saline-treated groups were compared. Losartan had reduced behavioral changes induced by both types of stressor and enhanced memory retrieval. Anxiety-like behaviors were significantly attenuated by administration of losartan, to a greater extent in the emotional rather than physical stress group. None of the injected dosages of L-NAME reversed the antianxiety and memory retrieval effects of losartan. Our results indicate that losartan probably improves memory retrieval and lessens anxiety-like behaviors through mechanisms other than the NO pathway.

  15. Antidepressant-like effect of losartan involves TRKB transactivation from angiotensin receptor type 2 (AGTR2) and recruitment of FYN.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Cassiano R A F; Casarotto, Plinio C; Fred, Senem M; Biojone, Caroline; Castrén, Eero; Joca, Sâmia R L

    2018-06-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with peripheral fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular function, but recent evidence also suggests a functional role in the brain. RAS regulates physiological and behavioral parameters related to the stress response, including depressive symptoms. Apparently, RAS can modulate levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TRKB, which are important in the neurobiology of depression and antidepressant action. However, the interaction between the BDNF/TRKB system and RAS in depression has not been investigated before. Accordingly, in the forced swimming test, we observed an antidepressant-like effect of systemic losartan but not with captopril or enalapril treatment. Moreover, infusion of losartan into the ventral hippocampus (vHC) and prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL) mimicked the consequences of systemically injected losartan, whereas K252a (a blocker of TRK) infused into these brain areas impaired such effect. PD123319, an antagonist of AT2 receptor (AGTR2), also prevented the systemic losartan effect when infused into PL but not into vHC. Cultured cortical cells of rat embryos revealed that angiotensin II (ANG2), possibly through AGTR2, increased the surface levels of TRKB and its coupling to FYN, a SRC family kinase. Higher Agtr2 levels in cortical cells were reduced after stimulation with glutamate, and only under this condition an interaction between losartan and ANG2 was achieved. TRKB/AGTR2 heterodimers were also observed, in MG87 cells GFP-tagged AGTR2 co-immunoprecipitated with TRKB. Therefore, the antidepressant-like effect of losartan is proposed to occur through a shift of ANG2 towards AGTR2, followed by coupling of TRK/FYN and putative TRKB transactivation. Thus, the blockade of AGTR1 has therapeutic potential as a novel antidepressant therapy. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Losartan suppresses the kainate-induced changes of angiotensin AT1 receptor expression in a model of comorbid hypertension and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Dimitrinka; Tchekalarova, Jana; Ivanova, Natasha; Nenchovska, Zlatina; Pavlova, Ekaterina; Atanassova, Nina; Lazarov, Nikolai

    2018-01-15

    Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that components of renin-angiotensin system are elevated in the hippocampus in epileptogenic conditions. In the present work, we explored the changes in the expression of angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AT 1 receptor) in limbic structures, as well as the effect of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan in a model of comorbid hypertension and epilepsy. The expression of AT 1 receptors was compared between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar rats by using immunohistochemistry in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The effect of losartan was studied on AT 1 receptor expression in epileptic rats that were treated for a period of 4weeks after status epilepticus. The naive and epileptic SHRs were characterized by stronger protein expression of AT 1 receptor than normotensive Wistar rats in the CA1, CA3a, CA3b, CA3c field and the hilus of the dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus but fewer cells were immunostained in the piriform cortex. Increased AT 1 immunostaining was observed in the basolateral amygdala of epileptic SHRs but not of epileptic Wistar rats. Losartan exerted stronger and structure-dependent suppression of AT 1 receptor expression in SHRs compared to Wistar rats. Our results confirm the important role of AT 1 receptor in epilepsy and suggest that the AT 1 receptor antagonists could be used as a therapeutic strategy for treatment of comorbid hypertension and epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined treatment with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (sitagliptin) and angiotensin-II type 1 receptor blocker (losartan) suppresses progression in a non-diabetic rat model of steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Okura, Yasushi; Namisaki, Tadashi; Moriya, Kei; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Takeda, Kosuke; Kaji, Kosuke; Noguchi, Ryuichi; Nishimura, Norihisa; Seki, Kenichiro; Kawaratani, Hideto; Takaya, Hiroaki; Sato, Shinya; Sawada, Yasuhiko; Shimozato, Naotaka; Furukawa, Masanori; Nakanishi, Keisuke; Saikawa, Soichiro; Kubo, Takuya; Asada, Kiyoshi; Yoshiji, Hitoshi

    2017-11-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors (DPP4-I) are oral glucose-lowering drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Previously, we reported that DPP4-I (sitagliptin) exerted suppressive effects on experimental liver fibrosis in rats. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system by angiotensin-II type 1 receptor blocker (losartan), commonly used in the management of hypertension, has been shown to significantly alleviate hepatic fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis. We aimed to elucidate the effects and possible mechanisms of a sitagliptin + losartan combination on the progression of non-diabetic non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a rat model. To induce NASH, Fischer 344 rats were fed a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet for 12 weeks. We elucidated the chemopreventive effects of sitagliptin + losartan, especially in conjunction with hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress, all known to play important roles in the progression of NASH. Sitagliptin + losartan suppressed choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet-induced hepatic fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis. The combination treatment exerted a greater inhibitory effect than monotherapy. These inhibitory effects occurred almost concurrently with the suppression of HSC activation, neovascularization, and oxidative stress. In vitro studies showed that sitagliptin + losartan inhibited angiotensin II-induced proliferation and expression of transforming growth factor-β1 and α1 (I)-procollagen mRNA of activated HSC and in vitro angiogenesis, in parallel with the suppression observed in in vivo studies. The widely and safely used sitagliptin + losartan combination treatment in clinical practice could be an effective strategy against NASH. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  18. Early treatment with losartan effectively ameliorates hypertension and improves vascular remodeling and function in a prehypertensive rat model.

    PubMed

    He, De-Hua; Lin, Jin-Xiu; Zhang, Liang-Min; Xu, Chang-Sheng; Xie, Qiang

    2017-03-15

    Pharmacological treatment of prehypertension may ameliorate hypertension and improve vascular structure and function. This study investigated 1) whether early treatment with either losartan or amlodipine at the onset of prehypertension can prevent hypertension and 2) whether losartan and amlodipine equally improve vascular remodeling and function in a rat model of hypertension. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats were administered losartan, amlodipine or saline for 6 or 16weeks at the onset of prehypertension. Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as a control. All groups were observed for 40weeks. Systolic blood pressure was measured using the tail-cuff method. Vascular structure and function were determined by microscopy and vascular ring contractility assays, respectively. Angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone (Aldo) were measured by radioimmunoassays. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) expression was measured by western blot. Losartan effectively reduced progression from prehypertension to hypertension as well as vascular remodeling and improved vascular contractility in SHRSP rats. Long-term losartan (16weeks) had greater benefits than short-term (6weeks) treatment. Losartan increased Ang II and decreased Aldo levels in the serum and vessel walls of resistance vessels in a time-dependent manner. Losartan significantly decreased AT1R and increased AT2R vascular expression. Amlodipine had no effect on vascular AT1R and AT2R expression. Losartan administered at the onset of prehypertension is more effective than amlodipine in ameliorating hypertension and improving vascular remodeling and function, which is likely mediated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Losartan attenuates vascular remodeling of the aorta in spontaneously hypertensive rats and the underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangxiong; Shi, Ruizheng; Liao, Meichun; Li, Jianzhe; Li, Shixun; Pan, Wei; Yang, Tianlun; Zhang, Guogang

    2010-08-01

    To determine the effect of losartan on vascular remodeling and the underlying mechanism in spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR). SHR of 12 weeks old were given losartan orally [0, 15, 30 mg/(kg.d), n=12]. The tail arterial pressure was measured every week. Eight weeks later, the pathological changes and p22(phox) expression in the thoracic aorta, the activity of catalase (CAT), the contents of H(2)O(2) and Ang II in the plasma were evaluated. Blood pressure was increased in the SHR accompanied by the thickened wall and increased p22(phox) expression in the thoracic aorta. The plasma levels of H(2)O(2) and Ang II were elevated while the CAT level was decreased in the SHR. Administration of losartan reversed the thickened wall and increased the CAT activity concomitantly with the decreased plasma levels of H(2)O(2) and p22(phox) expression in the SHR. The plasma level of Ang II increased after the losartan treatment. Oxidative stress induces the vascular remodeling of the aorta in the SHR. Losartan can reverse the vascular remodeling through down-regulating p22(phox) expression and inhibiting the oxidative stress.

  20. Mechanisms underlying the losartan treatment-induced improvement in the endothelial dysfunction seen in mesenteric arteries from type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takayuki; Ishida, Keiko; Nakayama, Naoaki; Taguchi, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Tsuneo; Kamata, Katsuo

    2010-09-01

    It is well known that type 2 diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with vascular dysfunction and an elevated systemic blood pressure, yet the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. We previously reported that in mesenteric arteries from established type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats, which exhibit endothelial dysfunction, there is an imbalance between endothelium-derived vasodilators [namely, nitric oxide (NO) and hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)] and vasoconstrictors [contracting factors (EDCFs) such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostanoids]. Here, we investigated whether the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan might improve endothelial dysfunction in OLETF rats at the established stage of diabetes. In mesenteric arteries isolated from OLETF rats [vs. those from age-matched control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats]: (1) the acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation was impaired, (2) the NO- and EDHF-mediated relaxations were reduced, (3) the ACh-induced EDCF-mediated contraction and the production of prostanoids were increased, and (4) superoxide generation was increased. After such OLETF rats had received losartan (25 mg/kg/day p.o. for 4 weeks), their isolated mesenteric arteries exhibited: (1) improvements in ACh-induced NO- and EDHF-mediated relaxations, (2) reduced EDCF- and arachidonic acid-induced contractions, (3) suppressed production of prostanoids, (4) reduced PGE(2)-mediated contraction, and (5) reduced superoxide generation. Within the timescale studied here, losartan did not change the protein expressions of endothelial NO synthase, COX1, or COX2 in mesenteric arteries from either OLETF or LETO rats. Losartan thus normalizes vascular dysfunction in this type 2 diabetic model, and the above effects may contribute to the reduction of adverse cardiovascular events seen in diabetic patients treated with angiotensin II receptor blockers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Losartan reduces liver expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in a high fat-induced rat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, Maria Soledad; Burgueño, Adriana L; Carabelli, Julieta; Schuman, Mariano; Pirola, Carlos J; Sookoian, Silvia

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of losartan-an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist- and telmisartan-an AT1R blocker with insulin-sensitizing properties-, on the hepatic expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in a rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Rats were given a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and after this period were randomly divided into 3 groups. For 12 weeks along with the same access to HFD, one group (9 rats) received losartan and another group received telmisartan (10 rats), both at 10mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip) every 24h. The third group (8 rats) received saline ip along with the HFD. Finally, a control group (6 rats) was fed with standard chow diet for 20 weeks. Fatty liver was reverted by both losartan and telmisartan. Both drugs had beneficial effects on insulin resistance, reaching statistical significance in telmisartan group. Expression of hepatic mRNA of PAI-1 showed a 42% decrease in losartan-treated rats in comparison with both HFD group and telmisartan-treated rats. To further evaluate this differential effect on PAI-1 expression, we explored the effect of the drugs on liver expression of TNFalpha, PEPCK-C and PPARalpha, and no significant differences were observed. These results indicate that AT1R blockers could be eligible drugs for reducing hepatic lipid accumulation in patients with NAFLD. However, only 12 weeks of losartan treatment strongly reduced hepatic PAI-1 gene expression. These differences could provide even more effective options for preventing fatty liver disease and its cardiovascular complications.

  2. Differential effects of Losartan and Atorvastatin in partial and full thickness burn wounds

    PubMed Central

    Akershoek, Johanneke J.; Brouwer, Katrien M.; Vlig, Marcel; Boekema, Bouke K. H. L.; Beelen, Rob H. J.; Middelkoop, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Healing of burn wounds is often associated with scar formation due to excessive inflammation and delayed wound closure. To date, no effective treatment is available to prevent the fibrotic process. The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) was shown to be involved in fibrosis in various organs. Statins (e.g. Atorvastatin), Angiotensin receptor antagonists (e.g. Losartan) and the combination of these drugs are able to reduce the local RAS activation, and reduced fibrosis in other organs. We investigated whether inhibition of the RAS could improve healing of burn wounds by treatment with Atorvastatin, Losartan or the combination of both drugs. Therefore, full and partial thickness burn wounds were inflicted on both flanks of Yorkshire pigs. Oral administration of Atorvastatin, Losartan or the combination was started at post-burn day 1 and continued for 28 days. Full thickness wounds were excised and transplanted with an autologous meshed split-thickness skin graft at post-burn day 14. Partial thickness wounds received conservative treatment. Atorvastatin treatment resulted in enhanced graft take and wound closure of the full thickness wounds, faster resolution of neutrophils compared to all treatments and reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin positive cells compared to control treatment. Treatment with Losartan and to a lesser extent the combination therapy resulted in diminished graft take, increased wound contraction and poorer scar outcome. In contrast, Losartan treatment in partial thickness wounds decreased the alpha-smooth muscle actin+ fibroblasts and contraction. In conclusion, we showed differential effects of Losartan and Atorvastatin in full and partial thickness wounds. The extensive graft loss seen in Losartan treated wounds is most likely responsible for the poor clinical outcome of these full thickness burn wounds. Therefore, Losartan treatment should not be started before transplantation in order to prevent graft loss. Atorvastatin seems to accelerate the

  3. Differential effects of Losartan and Atorvastatin in partial and full thickness burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Akershoek, Johanneke J; Brouwer, Katrien M; Vlig, Marcel; Boekema, Bouke K H L; Beelen, Rob H J; Middelkoop, Esther; Ulrich, Magda M W

    2017-01-01

    Healing of burn wounds is often associated with scar formation due to excessive inflammation and delayed wound closure. To date, no effective treatment is available to prevent the fibrotic process. The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) was shown to be involved in fibrosis in various organs. Statins (e.g. Atorvastatin), Angiotensin receptor antagonists (e.g. Losartan) and the combination of these drugs are able to reduce the local RAS activation, and reduced fibrosis in other organs. We investigated whether inhibition of the RAS could improve healing of burn wounds by treatment with Atorvastatin, Losartan or the combination of both drugs. Therefore, full and partial thickness burn wounds were inflicted on both flanks of Yorkshire pigs. Oral administration of Atorvastatin, Losartan or the combination was started at post-burn day 1 and continued for 28 days. Full thickness wounds were excised and transplanted with an autologous meshed split-thickness skin graft at post-burn day 14. Partial thickness wounds received conservative treatment. Atorvastatin treatment resulted in enhanced graft take and wound closure of the full thickness wounds, faster resolution of neutrophils compared to all treatments and reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin positive cells compared to control treatment. Treatment with Losartan and to a lesser extent the combination therapy resulted in diminished graft take, increased wound contraction and poorer scar outcome. In contrast, Losartan treatment in partial thickness wounds decreased the alpha-smooth muscle actin+ fibroblasts and contraction. In conclusion, we showed differential effects of Losartan and Atorvastatin in full and partial thickness wounds. The extensive graft loss seen in Losartan treated wounds is most likely responsible for the poor clinical outcome of these full thickness burn wounds. Therefore, Losartan treatment should not be started before transplantation in order to prevent graft loss. Atorvastatin seems to accelerate the

  4. Losartan Improves Impaired Nitric Oxide Synthase-Dependent Dilatation of Cerebral Arterioles in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arrick, Denise M.; Sharpe, Glenda M.; Sun, Hong; Mayhan, William G.

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether activation of angiotensin-1 receptors (AT1R) could account for impaired responses of cerebral arterioles during Type 1 diabetes (T1D). First, we measured responses of cerebral arterioles in nondiabetic rats to eNOS-dependent (acetylcholine and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)) and -independent (nitroglycerin) agonists before and during application of angiotensin II. Next, we examined whether losartan could improve impaired responses of cerebral arterioles during T1D. In addition, we harvested cerebral microvessels for Western blot analysis of AT1R protein and measured production of superoxide anion by brain tissue under basal conditions and in response to angiotensin II in the absence or presence of losartan. We found that angiotensin II specifically impaired eNOS-dependent reactivity of cerebral arterioles. In addition, while losartan did not alter responses in nondiabetics, losartan restored impaired eNOS-dependent vasodilatation in diabetics. Further, AT1R protein was higher in diabetics compared to nondiabetics. Finally, superoxide production was higher in brain tissue from diabetics compared to nondiabetics under basal conditions, angiotensin II increased superoxide production in nondiabetics and diabetics, and losartan decreased basal (diabetics) and angiotensin II-induced production of superoxide (nondiabetics and diabetics). We suggest that activation of AT1R during T1D plays a critical role in impaired eNOS-dependent dilatation of cerebral arterioles. PMID:18400212

  5. Anti-Fibrotic Effect of Losartan, an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker, Is Mediated through Inhibition of ER Stress via Up-Regulation of SIRT1, Followed by Induction of HO-1 and Thioredoxin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyosang; Baek, Chung Hee; Lee, Raymond Bok; Chang, Jai Won; Yang, Won Seok; Lee, Sang Koo

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increasingly identified as modulator of fibrosis. Losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, has been widely used as the first choice of treatment in chronic renal diseases. We postulated that anti-fibrotic effect of losartan is mediated through inhibition of ER stress via SIRT1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1) hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1)/thioredoxin pathway. Renal tubular cells, tunicamycin (TM)-induced ER stress, and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model were used. Expression of ER stress was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical stain. ER stress was induced by chemical ER stress inducer, tunicamycin, and non-chemical inducers such as TGF-β, angiotensin II, high glucose, and albumin. Losartan suppressed the TM-induced ER stress, as shown by inhibition of TM-induced expression of GRP78 (glucose related protein 78) and p-eIF2α (phosphospecific-eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α), through up-regulation of SIRT1 via HO-1 and thioredoxin. Losartan also suppressed the ER stress by non-chemical inducers. In both animal models, losartan reduced the tubular expression of GRP78, which were abolished by pretreatment with sirtinol (SIRT1 inhibitor). Sirtinol also blocked the inhibitory effect of losartan on the UUO-induced renal fibrosis. These findings provide new insights into renoprotective effects of losartan and suggest that SIRT1, HO-1, and thioredoxin may be potential pharmacological targets in kidney diseases under excessive ER stress condition. PMID:28146117

  6. Anti-Fibrotic Effect of Losartan, an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker, Is Mediated through Inhibition of ER Stress via Up-Regulation of SIRT1, Followed by Induction of HO-1 and Thioredoxin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyosang; Baek, Chung Hee; Lee, Raymond Bok; Chang, Jai Won; Yang, Won Seok; Lee, Sang Koo

    2017-01-31

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increasingly identified as modulator of fibrosis. Losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, has been widely used as the first choice of treatment in chronic renal diseases. We postulated that anti-fibrotic effect of losartan is mediated through inhibition of ER stress via SIRT1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1) hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1)/thioredoxin pathway. Renal tubular cells, tunicamycin (TM)-induced ER stress, and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model were used. Expression of ER stress was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical stain. ER stress was induced by chemical ER stress inducer, tunicamycin, and non-chemical inducers such as TGF-β, angiotensin II, high glucose, and albumin. Losartan suppressed the TM-induced ER stress, as shown by inhibition of TM-induced expression of GRP78 (glucose related protein 78) and p-eIF2α (phosphospecific-eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α), through up-regulation of SIRT1 via HO-1 and thioredoxin. Losartan also suppressed the ER stress by non-chemical inducers. In both animal models, losartan reduced the tubular expression of GRP78, which were abolished by pretreatment with sirtinol (SIRT1 inhibitor). Sirtinol also blocked the inhibitory effect of losartan on the UUO-induced renal fibrosis. These findings provide new insights into renoprotective effects of losartan and suggest that SIRT1, HO-1, and thioredoxin may be potential pharmacological targets in kidney diseases under excessive ER stress condition.

  7. One-year renal and cardiac effects of bisoprolol versus losartan in recently diagnosed hypertensive patients: a randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Parrinello, Gaspare; Paterna, Salvatore; Torres, Daniele; Di Pasquale, Pietro; Mezzero, Manuela; La Rocca, Gabriella; Cardillo, Mauro; Trapanese, Caterina; Caradonna, Mario; Licata, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a significant cause of chronic renal injury and its effective treatment is capable of reducing the rate of renal failure. beta-Adrenoceptor antagonists (beta-blockers) have been reported to induce a deterioration in renal function, while several data have indicated a renoprotective effect of treatment with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan. Previous studies of the interaction between the selective beta(1)-blocker bisoprolol and kidney function were performed only for short- and medium-term periods. The aim of this study was to compare the antihypertensive efficacy and renal and cardiac haemodynamic effects of bisoprolol with those of losartan over a 1-year time period in patients with essential hypertension. Seventy-two patients (40 males) with recently diagnosed uncomplicated (European Society of Hypertension [ESH] criteria stage 1-2) hypertension (mean +/- SD age 52 +/- 12 years) were enrolled in the study. After a run-in period of 14 days on placebo, the patients were randomized in a double-blind, prospective study to receive either bisoprolol 5 mg or losartan 50 mg, administered once daily for 1 year. At recruitment and 12 months after treatment, cardiac output and renal haemodynamics and function were evaluated by echocardiography and radionuclide studies, respectively. There were no significant differences in baseline clinical data, including glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure, between the two treatment groups. At 1 year, blood pressure had decreased significantly (p < 0.001) with both treatments, and heart rate was reduced only in the group taking bisoprolol. The long-term effects on renal haemodynamics and cardiac function were similar with both drugs, the only change being a significant reduction in the filtration fraction for each group. These data suggest that both bisoprolol and losartan are effective agents for the treatment of patients with recently diagnosed ESH stage 1-2 hypertension. Over a 1-year

  8. Comparative effects of contraction and angiotensin II on growth of adult feline cardiocytes in primary culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, H.; Zile, M. R.; Ivester, C. T.; Cooper, G. 4th; McDermott, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether angiotensin II causes growth of adult feline cardiocytes in long-term culture, 2) to compare the growth effects of angiotensin II with those resulting from electrically stimulated contraction, and 3) to determine whether the anabolic effects of contraction are exerted via the angiotensin type 1 receptor. Adult feline cardiocytes were cultured on laminin-coated trays in a serum-free medium. Cardiocytes were either electrically stimulated to contract (1 Hz, 5-ms pulse duration, alternating polarity) or were nonstimulated and quiescent. Quiescent cells were studied as controls and after treatment with angiotensin II (10(-8) M), losartan (10(-6) M; an angiotensin type 1-receptor antagonist), or angiotensin II plus losartan. Contracting cells were studied in the presence and absence of angiotensin II or losartan. In quiescent cardiocytes, angiotensin II treatment on day 7 significantly increased protein synthesis rates by 22% and protein content per cell by 17%. The effects of angiotensin II were completely blocked by losartan. Electrically stimulated contraction on days 4 and 7 in culture significantly increased protein synthesis rate by 18 and 38% and protein content per cell by 19 and 46%, respectively. Angiotensin II treatment did not further increase protein synthesis rate or protein content in contracting cardiocytes. Furthermore, losartan did not block the anabolic effects of contraction on protein synthesis rates or protein content. In conclusion, angiotensin II can exert a modest anabolic effect on adult feline cardiocytes in culture. In contracting feline cardiocytes, angiotensin II has no effect on growth. Growth caused by electrically stimulated contraction occurs more rapidly and is greater in magnitude than that caused by angiotensin II. Growth of contracting adult feline cardiocytes is not dependent on activation of the angiotensin receptor.

  9. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) localization and antagonist-mediated inhibition of capsaicin responses and neurite outgrowth in human and rat sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Anand, U; Facer, P; Yiangou, Y; Sinisi, M; Fox, M; McCarthy, T; Bountra, C; Korchev, YE; Anand, P

    2013-01-01

    Background The angiotensin II (AngII) receptor subtype 2 (AT2R) is expressed in sensory neurons and may play a role in nociception and neuronal regeneration. Methods We used immunostaining with characterized antibodies to study the localization of AT2R in cultured human and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and a range of human tissues. The effects of AngII and AT2R antagonist EMA401 on capsaicin responses in cultured human and rat (DRG) neurons were measured with calcium imaging, on neurite length and density with Gap43 immunostaining, and on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) expression using immunofluorescence. Results AT2R expression was localized in small-/medium-sized cultured neurons of human and rat DRG. Treatment with the AT2R antagonist EMA401 resulted in dose-related functional inhibition of capsaicin responses (IC50 = 10 nmol/L), which was reversed by 8-bromo-cAMP, and reduced neurite length and density; AngII treatment significantly enhanced capsaicin responses, cAMP levels and neurite outgrowth. The AT1R antagonist losartan had no effect on capsaicin responses. AT2R was localized in sensory neurons of human DRG, and nerve fibres in peripheral nerves, skin, urinary bladder and bowel. A majority sub-population (60%) of small-/medium-diameter neuronal cells were immunopositive in both control post-mortem and avulsion-injured human DRG; some very small neurons appeared to be intensely immunoreactive, with TRPV1 co-localization. While AT2R levels were reduced in human limb peripheral nerve segments proximal to injury, they were preserved in painful neuromas. Conclusions AT2R antagonists could be particularly useful in the treatment of chronic pain and hypersensitivity associated with abnormal nerve sprouting. PMID:23255326

  10. Evaluation of the effect of losartan and methotrexate combined therapy in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Rowaida; Salama, Mona; Abdel Meguid, Elham; El Sarha, Ashgan; Gowayed, Mennatallah

    2013-01-05

    There is increasing body of evidence documenting the involvement of angiotensin II in inflammatory diseases. Moreover the up-regulation of angiotensin II AT(1) receptors in the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis patients has been previously described. This study aimed at investigating the anti-inflammatory effect of losartan, the selective angiotensin II AT(1) receptor blocker, and comparing the efficacy of methotrexate alone and in combination with losartan in adjuvant arthritis in rats. Twelve days post adjuvant injection, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with methotrexate (1mg/kg/week), losartan (20mg/kg/day) and their combination for 15 days. Severity of arthritis was assessed by hind paw swelling, arthrogram scores. Serum was analyzed for measurement of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), nitrite/nitrate concentrations, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Histopathological examination was done for hind paws and livers. Methotrexate and losartan monotherapies significantly reduced all parameters of inflammation and arthritis with better results in the methotrexate group except for the transaminases where losartan caused more significant reduction in their serum levels. The combined therapy showed better results than methotrexate and losartan alone. Hind paws showed better improvement of inflammatory cell infiltration and bone resorption in the combined therapy group. Disturbances in liver architecture and fibrosis caused by adjuvant arthritis were reverted to normal status in the combined therapy group in contrast to losartan and methotrexate monotherapies. In conclusion, methotrexate and losartan combined therapy provided more effective anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects than either drug alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Strain-dependent effects of sub-chronically infused losartan against kainic acid-induced seizures, oxidative stress, and heat shock protein 72 expression.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jane; Ivanova, Natasha; Pechlivanova, Daniela; Ilieva, Kalina; Atanasova, Milena

    2014-01-01

    We studied the involvement of angiotensin (Ang) II AT1 receptors in the pathophysiology of kainate (KA)-induced neurotoxicity, focusing on the regulation of the oxidative stress state and expression of HSP 72 in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in two strains, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar rats. The KA injection was executed after the rats were infused subcutaneously via osmotic mini-pumps with losartan (10 mg/kg day) for 14 days. Losartan delayed the onset of KA-induced seizures in SHRs but not in Wistar rats without affecting the seizure intensity score. This selective AT1 receptor antagonist decreased the lipid peroxidation only in naive SHRs. However, it attenuated the KA-induced increase in lipid peroxidation in both SHRs and Wistar rats. The adaptive enhancement of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in KA-treated SHRs was recovered to control level after sub-chronic losartan infusion while no change in mitochondrial SOD activity was detected in the two strains. Both losartan and KA produced a higher expression of HSP 72 in the hippocampus of the two strains compared to naive rats infused with vehicle. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the efficacy of a sub-chronic systemic losartan infusion in preventing the KA-induced seizure activity and neurotoxicity is more pronounced in SHRs, considered as a model of essential hypertension, than in normotenisve Wistar rats. The results suggest that the blockade of AT1 receptors, commonly used as a strategy for prevention of high blood pressure, may be useful as an adjunctive treatment in status epilepticus to reduce oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.

  12. The effect of losartan on differential reflex control of sympathetic nerve activity in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yimin; Hildreth, Cara M; Farnham, Melissa M; Saha, Manash; Sun, Qi-Jian; Pilowsky, Paul M; Phillips, Jacqueline K

    2015-06-01

    The effect of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) inhibition on the pattern of reflex sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to multiple target organs in the Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK) rat model of chronic kidney disease was determined. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), splanchnic SNA (sSNA), renal SNA (rSNA) and lumbar SNA (lSNA) were recorded in urethane-anaesthetized LPK and Lewis controls (total n = 39). Baroreflex, peripheral and central chemoreflex, and somatosensory reflex control of SNA (evoked by phenylephrine/sodium nitroprusside infusion, 10% O2 in N2 or 100% N2 ventilation, 5% CO2 ventilation and sciatic nerve stimulation, respectively) were determined before and after administration of losartan (AT1R antagonist 3 mg/kg, intravenous). Baseline MAP was higher in LPK rats and baroreflex control of sSNA and rSNA, but not lSNA, was reduced. Losartan reduced MAP in both strains and selectively improved baroreflex gain for sSNA (-1.2 ± 0.1 vs. -0.7 ± 0.07 %/mmHg; P < 0.05) in LPK. The peripheral and central chemoreflex increased MAP and all SNA in Lewis controls, but reduced or had no effect on these parameters, respectively, in LPK. The SNA response to somatosensory stimulation was biphasic, with latency to second peak less in LPK. Losartan ameliorated the depressor and sympathoinhibitory responses to peripheral chemoreflex stimulation in the LPK, but did not alter the central chemoreflex or somatosympathetic responses. Inhibition of the AT1R selectively improved baroreflex control of sSNA and peripheral chemoreflex control of all three sympathetic nerve outflows in the LPK rat, suggesting these anomalies in reflex function are driven in part by angiotensin II.

  13. Antihypertensive efficacy of the losartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination and its effect on plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in hypertensive patients uncontrolled by angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist-based therapy: a multicentre prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Meno, Hiroshi; Inou, Tetsuji; Tanaka, Michiko; Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro; Shiga, Yuhei; Kobayashi, Kenji; Nakamura, Yuichiro; Ota, Takeaki; Kubara, Ichiro

    2012-03-01

    Although strict blood pressure (BP) control is effective in the prevention of cardiovascular events, it is often insufficient in many hypertensive patients. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular events. We investigated the effects of the losartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination on BP and plasma BNP in hypertensive patients uncontrolled by an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist (angiotensin receptor blocker [ARB])-based therapy. In a multicentre prospective observational study, we enrolled 185 patients aged 36-79 years (mean age 63.8 years) with essential hypertension but without symptoms of heart failure who received an ARB-based therapy for ≥3 months but failed to achieve a target BP recommended by the Japanese Society of Hypertension (JSH). ARBs were switched to losartan (LOS) 50 mg/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg. The antihypertensive efficacy, safety, and effects of this combination on blood biochemical parameters and plasma BNP were evaluated for 12 months. Mean ± SD systolic and diastolic BP decreased from 152 ± 13/87 ± 10 mmHg to 128 ± 14/74 ± 10 mmHg, respectively, after 12 months (p < 0.001). Mean ± SD plasma BNP levels decreased significantly from 46.0 ± 83.0 pg/mL to 40.8 ± 68.0 pg/mL (p < 0.05). The percentage of patients who achieved the JSH 2004 target BP was 51% after 12 months; the percentage was 63% in elderly patients aged ≥65 years without complications, and 43% in patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease. No association was found between a decrease in plasma BNP levels and BP, age, body mass index or estimated glomerular filtration rate. There was a significant increase in serum uric acid and a decrease in serum potassium, but both were within the range of normal values. Adverse events were observed in 8.6% of the patients. Antihypertensive treatment using two types of drugs (LOS/HCTZ) with

  14. Efficacy of losartan for improving insulin resistance and vascular remodeling in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fang; Song, Yan; Liu, Jing; Ma, Li-Jie; Shen, Yang; Huang, Jing; Zhou, Yi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance and vascular remodeling are prevalent and predict cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients. Angiotensin II (Ang II) may be involved in both pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the Ang II receptor blocker losartan on insulin resistance, arterial stiffness, and carotid artery structure in hemodialysis patients. Seventy-two hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to receive either losartan 50 mg qd (n = 36) or β-blocker bisoprolol 5 mg qd (n = 36). At the start and at month 12, ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring, aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurements, and carotid artery ultrasound were performed, and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined. During the study period, bioimpedance method was used to evaluate volume status every 3 months. Home-monitored BPs were measured at least monthly. Ambulatory BP decreased significantly and similarly by either losartan or bisoprolol. Decreases in PWVs in losartan group at the end of month 12 were significantly greater than changes in PWV in bisoprolol group (0.9 ± 0.3 vs. 0.4 ± 0.5 m/s, P = 0.021). Common carotid artery intima-media cross-sectional area decreased significantly only in patients treated with losartan (20.3 ± 4.9 vs. 19.1 ± 5.1 mm(2) , P = 0.001), and HOMA-IR was also reduced in losartan group only (1.9 ± 1.0 vs. 1.7 ± 0.8, P = 0.003). Multiple regression analysis showed significant correlations between changes in PWV and changes in HOMA-IR. With comparable BP-lowering efficacy, losartan achieved better improvement in insulin sensitivity, arterial stiffness, and carotid artery hypertrophy in hemodialysis patients. The regression of arterial stiffness may be in part through attenuation in insulin resistance. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  15. Blood Pressure Response to Losartan and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Thunström, Erik; Manhem, Karin; Rosengren, Annika; Peker, Yüksel

    2016-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in people with hypertension, particularly resistant hypertension. Treatment with an antihypertensive agent alone is often insufficient to control hypertension in patients with OSA. To determine whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) added to treatment with an antihypertensive agent has an impact on blood pressure (BP) levels. During the initial 6-week, two-center, open, prospective, case-control, parallel-design study (2:1; OSA/no-OSA), all patients began treatment with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan, 50 mg daily. In the second 6-week, sex-stratified, open, randomized, parallel-design study of the OSA group, all subjects continued to receive losartan and were randomly assigned to either nightly CPAP as add-on therapy or no CPAP. Twenty-four-hour BP monitoring included assessment every 15 minutes during daytime hours and every 20 minutes during the night. Ninety-one patients with untreated hypertension underwent a home sleep study (55 were found to have OSA; 36 were not). Losartan significantly reduced systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP in both groups (without OSA: 12.6, 7.2, and 9.0 mm Hg; with OSA: 9.8, 5.7, and 6.1 mm Hg). Add-on CPAP treatment had no significant changes in 24-hour BP values but did reduce nighttime systolic BP by 4.7 mm Hg. All 24-hour BP values were reduced significantly in the 13 patients with OSA who used CPAP at least 4 hours per night. Losartan reduced BP in OSA, but the reductions were less than in no-OSA. Add-on CPAP therapy resulted in no significant changes in 24-hour BP measures except in patients using CPAP efficiently. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00701428).​

  16. Pioglitazone enhances the blood pressure-lowering effect of losartan via synergistic attenuation of angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang; Ma, Ming-Zhe; Qin, Li; Zhang, Yan; Li, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Guo-Dong; Su, Qing; Zhang, Dao-You

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of synergistic antihypertensive effect produced by combination therapy of losartan and pioglitazone in metabolic syndrome (MS) rats. An MS model was induced by feeding rats a high-fat, high-sodium diet and 20% sucrose solution. Losartan (20 mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day), and their combination were orally administered for eight consecutive weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured using the tail-cuff method and carotid arterial catheterization, respectively. The aortas were isolated and in vitro vascular reactivity studies were performed. The protein expression of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phosphorylated eNOS and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit p47(phox), level of nitrotyrosine as well as activity of eNOS and NADPH oxidase in aortas of MS rats were detected. After eight weeks of treatment, the SBP and MAP in the losartan (115 ± 5 and 106 ± 6 mmHg), pioglitazone (130 ± 6 and 118 ± 6 mmHg), and combination therapy (105 ± 6 and 98 ± 5 mmHg) groups were lower than those in the model group (150 ± 8 and 136 ± 9 mmHg). Combination therapy of losartan and pioglitazone reduced BP more than either monotherapy, and showed additive effects on improving endothelial dysfunction and abolishing the increased vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II. These synergistic effects were associated with further reductions in protein expression of p47(phox) and AT1, NADPH oxidase activity, and nitrotyrosine level. Our data indicate that combined treatment exerts more beneficial effects on lowering BP and improving vascular lesions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Effect of losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist on cardiac autonomic functions of rats during acute and chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chaswal, M; Das, S; Prasad, J; Katyal, A; Mishra, A K; Fahim, M

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of losartan on baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability (HRV) of adult Wistar rats during acute and chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Chronic L-NAME administration (50 mg/kg per day for 7 days, orally through gavage) increased mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate but significantly decreased BRS. In addition, a significant fall of standard deviation of normal RR intervals, total spectral power, high frequency spectral power and a rise of low frequency to high frequency (LF: HF) ratio was seen. Acute L-NAME administration (30 mg/kg, i.v. bolus dose) also raised MAP and impaired HRV but it was associated with augmented BRS for bradycardia reflex. Losartan treatment (10 mg/kg, i.v.) in both acute and chronic L-NAME treated rats, decreased MAP but the difference was not significant. On the other hand, losartan administration normalized depressed BRS for bradycardia reflex and significantly reduced LF to HF ratio in chronic L-NAME treated rats. But this improvement was not observed in acute L-NAME group. These results indicate importance of mechanisms other than renin-angiotensin system in the pressor response of both acute as well as chronic L-NAME. However, autonomic dysregulation especially following chronic L-NAME appears to be partly angiotensin dependent.

  18. Chronic effects of losartan on the muscles and the serologic profiles of mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Dae-Yong; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Joo; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Lee, Myeong-Mi; Sung, Soo-Eun; Park, Jin-Kyu; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2015-12-15

    Losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, attenuates transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling, which inhibits myogenic regeneration. Although many researchers have demonstrated that losartan has anti-fibrotic and protective effects on cardiac and skeletal muscles, for long-term administration to treat dystrophic disorders, it is essential to demonstrate not only the therapeutic effects of losartan on muscles but also its effects on other organs and on blood biochemistry. Mdx mice, an animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), were fed losartan dissolved in tap water. After 44weeks, the skeletal (gastrocnemius), cardiac, and diaphragm muscles of mdx mice were removed. Tissue and blood samples were collected from all experimental animals. Effects of losartan on muscle regeneration, fibrosis, and blood enzymatic profiles were evaluated. In histopathological findings and serum biochemistry analyses, chronic losartan administration showed muscular protective effects and inhibited fibrosis in skeletal (gastrocnemius), cardiac, and diaphragmatic muscles. In addition, losartan had no effects on other solid organs. Interestingly, losartan had beneficial effects on serum HDL ratio. This study demonstrates the therapeutic effects of losartan on muscles and its effects on other organs and on blood biochemistry. In conclusion, our results provide useful information for consideration of chronic losartan administration be as a treatment of DMD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental Study of the Effects of EIPA, Losartan, and BQ-123 on Electrophysiological Changes Induced by Myocardial Stretch.

    PubMed

    Chorro, Francisco J; Canto, Irene Del; Brines, Laia; Such-Miquel, Luis; Calvo, Conrado; Soler, Carlos; Zarzoso, Manuel; Trapero, Isabel; Tormos, Álvaro; Such, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical response to myocardial stretch has been explained by various mechanisms, which include Na(+)/H(+) exchanger activation by autocrine-paracrine system activity. Drug-induced changes were analyzed to investigate the role of these mechanisms in the electrophysiological responses to acute myocardial stretch. Multiple epicardial electrodes and mapping techniques were used to analyze changes in ventricular fibrillation induced by acute myocardial stretch in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. Four series were studied: control (n = 9); during perfusion with the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan (1 μM, n = 8); during perfusion with the endothelin A receptor blocker BQ-123 (0.1 μM, n = 9), and during perfusion with the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibitor EIPA (5-[N-ethyl-N-isopropyl]-amiloride) (1 μM, n = 9). EIPA attenuated the increase in the dominant frequency of stretch-induced fibrillation (control=40.4%; losartan=36% [not significant]; BQ-123=46% [not significant]; and EIPA=22% [P<.001]). During stretch, the activation maps were less complex (P<.0001) and the spectral concentration of the arrhythmia was greater (greater regularity) in the EIPA series: control=18 (3%); EIPA = 26 (9%) (P < .02); losartan=18 (5%) (not significant); and BQ-123=18 (4%) (not significant). The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibitor EIPA attenuated the electrophysiological effects responsible for the acceleration and increased complexity of ventricular fibrillation induced by acute myocardial stretch. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan and the endothelin A receptor blocker BQ-123 did not modify these effects. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Combined Treatment with AT1 Receptor Antagonists and Tiagabine on Seizures, Memory and Motor Coordination in Mice.

    PubMed

    Łukawski, Krzysztof; Janowska, Agnieszka; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2015-01-01

    Losartan and telmisartan, angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonists, are widely used antihypertensive drugs in patients. It is also known that arterial hypertension is often present in people with epilepsy, therefore, drug interactions between AT1 receptor antagonists and antiepileptic drugs can occur in clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of losartan and telmisartan on the anticonvulsant activity of tiagabine, a second-generation antiepileptic drug, in mice. Additionally, the effect of the combined treatment with AT1 receptor antagonists and TGB on long-term memory and motor coordination has been assessed in animals. The study was performed on male Swiss mice. Convulsions were examined in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test. Long-term memory was measured in the passive-avoidance task and motor coordination was evaluated in the chimney test. AT1 receptor antagonists and TGB were administered intraperitoneally. Losartan (50 mg/kg) or telmisartan (30 mg/kg) did not influence the anticonvulsant activity of TGB applied at doses of 2, 4 and 6 mg/kg. However, both AT1 receptor antagonists in combinations with TGB (6 mg/kg) impaired motor coordination in the chimney test. The concomitant treatment of the drugs did not decrease retention in the passive avoidance task. It is suggested that losartan and telmisartan should not affect the anticonvulsant action of TGB in people with epilepsy. Because the combined treatment with AT1 receptor antagonists and TGB led to neurotoxic effects in animals, caution is advised during concomitant use of these drugs in patients.

  1. Neuroendocrine and Inflammatory Responses to Losartan and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Patients with Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep Apnea. A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Thunström, Erik; Manhem, Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Rosengren, Annika; Lindberg, Caroline; Peker, Yüksel

    2016-11-01

    Blood pressure reduction in response to antihypertensive agents is less for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Increased sympathetic and inflammatory activity, as well as alterations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, may play a role in this context. To address the cardiovascular mechanisms involved in response to an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as add-on treatment for hypertension and OSA. Newly diagnosed hypertensive patients with or without OSA (allocated in a 2:1 ratio for OSA vs. no OSA) were treated with losartan 50 mg daily during a 6-week two-center, open-label, prospective, case-control, parallel-design study. In the second 6-week, sex-stratified, open-label, randomized, parallel-design study, all subjects with OSA continued to receive losartan and were randomly assigned to either CPAP as add-on therapy or to no CPAP (1:1 ratio for CPAP vs. no CPAP). Study subjects without OSA were followed in parallel while they continued to take losartan. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 6 weeks, and after 12 weeks for analysis of renin, aldosterone, noradrenaline, adrenaline, and inflammatory markers. Fifty-four patients with OSA and 35 without OSA were included in the first 6-week study. Losartan significantly increased renin levels and reduced aldosterone levels in the group without OSA. There was no significant decrease in aldosterone levels among patients with OSA. Add-on CPAP treatment tended to lower aldosterone levels, but reductions were more pronounced in measures of sympathetic activity. No significant changes in inflammatory markers were observed following treatment with losartan and CPAP. Hypertensive patients with OSA responded to losartan treatment with smaller reductions in aldosterone compared with hypertensive patients without OSA. Sympathetic system activity seemed to respond primarily to add-on CPAP treatment in patients with newly discovered

  2. Losartan Slows Pancreatic Tumor Progression and Extends Survival of SPARC-Null Mice by Abrogating Aberrant TGFβ Activation

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Shanna A.; Rivera, Lee B.; Carbon, Juliet G.; Toombs, Jason E.; Chang, Chi-Lun; Bradshaw, Amy D.; Brekken, Rolf A.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a desmoplastic disease, is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world due, in large part, to locally invasive primary tumor growth and ensuing metastasis. SPARC is a matricellular protein that governs extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and maturation during tissue remodeling, particularly, during wound healing and tumorigenesis. In the present study, we sought to determine the mechanism by which lack of host SPARC alters the tumor microenvironment and enhances invasion and metastasis of an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer. We identified that levels of active TGFβ1 were increased significantly in tumors grown in SPARC-null mice. TGFβ1 contributes to many aspects of tumor development including metastasis, endothelial cell permeability, inflammation and fibrosis, all of which are altered in the absence of stromal-derived SPARC. Given these results, we performed a survival study to assess the contribution of increased TGFβ1 activity to tumor progression in SPARC-null mice using losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist that diminishes TGFβ1 expression and activation in vivo. Tumors grown in SPARC-null mice progressed more quickly than those grown in wild-type littermates leading to a significant reduction in median survival. However, median survival of SPARC-null animals treated with losartan was extended to that of losartan-treated wild-type controls. In addition, losartan abrogated TGFβ induced gene expression, reduced local invasion and metastasis, decreased vascular permeability and altered the immune profile of tumors grown in SPARC-null mice. These data support the concept that aberrant TGFβ1-activation in the absence of host SPARC contributes significantly to tumor progression and suggests that SPARC, by controlling ECM deposition and maturation, can regulate TGFβ availability and activation. PMID:22348081

  3. Effects of telmisartan and losartan on cardiovascular protection in Japanese hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Takano, Hiroyuki; Narumi, Hiroya; Ohtsuka, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Tadahiko; Namiki, Takao; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Komuro, Issei

    2011-11-01

    The Telmisartan and Losartan Cardiac Evaluation Trial, a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-labeled, blinded-endpoint trial, was designed to compare the effects of two angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), telmisartan and losartan, on cardiovascular protection in Japanese patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. We compared the effects of telmisartan and losartan on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, cardiac function, atherosclerosis of carotid arteries and surrogate markers related to the actions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. A total of 58 patients were enrolled in the present trial and the follow-up period was 1 year. There were no significant differences in blood pressure (BP) levels between the telmisartan group and the losartan group throughout the trial. The percentage of the patients treated with ARB monotherapy was significantly higher in the telmisartan group compared with the losartan group. In addition, the progression of intima-media thickness of common carotid artery was significantly inhibited in the telmisartan group compared with the losartan group. Neither group experienced significant changes in cardiac function and LV mass index. There were no differences between the groups with respect to changes in surrogate markers such as serum adiponectin, creatinine, homeostasis model assessment index, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Although BP levels were equal and well controlled in both groups, telmisartan showed more protective vascular effects than losartan.

  4. Losartan Inhibits Vascular Calcification by Suppressing the BMP2 and Runx2 Expression in Rats In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Mincai; Wu, Panfeng; Shao, Juan; Ke, Zhiqiang; Li, Dan; Wu, Jiliang

    2016-04-01

    The blockade of renin-angiotensin II system has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Since vascular calcification (VC) is commonly found in these diseases, the aim of this study was to examine whether or not losartan, a widely used angiotensin II receptor blockers, inhibits VC in rats in vivo. A rat model of VC was generated by treating rats with a combination of warfarin and vitamin K1. Two weeks after the treatments, the rats were treated with vehicle or without losartan (100 ng/kg/day) for 2 weeks. At the end of the experiments, aortic arteries were isolated for the examination of calcification morphology, mRNA and protein expression of BMP2 and Runx2, and osteoblast differentiation. Warfarin and vitamin K instigated vascular remodeling with calcified plaques in the aortic arteries in rats. Losartan significantly attenuated warfarin- and vitamin K-induced vascular injury and calcification. Consistently, losartan suppressed the levels of mRNA and protein expression of BMP2 and Runx2, two key factors for VC. Further, vascular calcified lesion areas expressed angiotensin II 1 receptor (AT1R). Finally, losartan treatment significantly inhibited apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) in rat arteries. We conclude that losartan suppresses VC by lowering the expression of AT1R, Runx2 and BMP2, and by inhibiting the apoptosis of VSMC in rat aortic arteries.

  5. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan attenuates bioprosthetic valve leaflet calcification in a rabbit intravascular implant model.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hong Ju; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Park, Han Ki; Park, Young Hwan

    2016-12-01

    There is evidence that angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (ARB) could reduce structural valve deterioration. However, the anticalcification effect on the bioprosthetic heart valve (BHV) has not been investigated. Thus, we investigated the effects of losartan (an ARB) on calcification of implanted bovine pericardial tissue in a rabbit intravascular implant model. A total of 16 male New Zealand White rabbits (20 weeks old, 2.98-3.34 kg) were used in this study. Commercially available BHV leaflet of bovine pericardium was trimmed to the shape of a 3-mm triangle and implanted to both external jugular veins of the rabbit. The ARB group (n = 8) was given 25 mg/kg of powdered losartan daily until 6 weeks after surgery by direct administration in the buccal pouch of the animals. The control group (n = 8) was given 5 ml of normal saline by the same method. After 6 weeks, quantitative calcium determination, histological evaluation and western blot analysis of interleukin-6 (IL-6), osteopontin and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were performed to investigate the mechanisms of the anticalcification effect of losartan. No deaths or complications such as infection or haematoma were recorded during the experiment. All animals were euthanized on the planned date. The calcium measurement level in the ARB group (2.28 ± 0.65 mg/g) was significantly lower than that in the control group (3.68 ± 1.00 mg/g) (P = 0.0092). Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that BMP-2-positive reactions were significantly attenuated in the ARB group. Western blot analysis showed that losartan suppressed the expression of IL-6, osteopontin and BMP-2. Our results indicate that losartan significantly attenuates postimplant degenerative calcification of a bovine pericardial bioprosthesis in a rabbit intravascular implant model. Further studies are required to assess the effects of ARBs on BHV tissue in orthotopic implantations using a large animal model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  6. Effects of losartan on whole-body, skeletal muscle, and vascular insulin responses in obesity/insulin resistance without hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lteif, AA; Chisholm, RL; Gilbert, K; Considine, RV; Mather, KJ

    2011-01-01

    Aims Renin-angiotensin system antagonists have been found to improve glucose metabolism in obese hypertensive and type 2 diabetic subjects. The mechanism of these effects is not well understood. We hypothesized that the angiotensin receptor antagonist losartan would improve insulin-mediated vasodilation, and thereby improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of insulin resistant subjects. Materials and Methods We studied subjects with obesity and insulin resistance but without hypertension, hypercholesterolemia or dysglycemia (age 39.0±9.6 yrs [mean±SD], BMI 33.2±5.9 kg/m2, BP 115.8±12.2/70.9±7.2 mmHg, LDL 2.1±0.5 mmol/L). Subjects were randomized to 12 weeks’ double-blind treatment with losartan 100 mg once daily (n=9) or matching placebo (n=8). Before and after treatment, under hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp conditions we measured whole-body insulin stimulated glucose disposal, insulin-mediated vasodilation, and insulin-stimulated leg glucose uptake by the limb balance technique. Results Whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was not significantly increased by losartan. Insulin-mediated vasodilation was augmented following both treatments (increase in leg vascular conductance: pre-treatment 0.7±0.3 L*min−1*mmHg−1[losartan, mean ±SEM] and 0.9±0.3 [placebo], post-treatment 1.0±0.4 [losartan] and 1.3±0.6 [placebo]) but not different between treatment groups (p=0.53). Insulin’s action to augment NO production and to augment endothelium-dependent vasodilation were also not improved. Leg glucose uptake was not significantly changed by treatments, and not different between groups (p=0.11). Conclusions These findings argue against the hypothesis that losartan might improve skeletal muscle glucose metabolism by improving insulin-mediated vasodilation in normotensive insulin resistant obese subjects. The metabolic benefits of angiotensin receptor blockers may require the presence of hypertension in addition to obesity

  7. An association of losartan-hydrochlorothiazide, but not losartan-furosemide, completely arrests progressive injury in the remnant kidney.

    PubMed

    Arias, Simone Costa Alarcon; Souza, Renata Alves; Malheiros, Denise Maria Avancini Costa; Fanelli, Camilla; Fujihara, Clarice Kazue; Zatz, Roberto

    2016-01-15

    We have previously shown that an association of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide, initiated 1 mo after 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx), reversed hypertension and albuminuria and promoted lasting renoprotection. In this new study, we investigated whether equal or even better protection could be obtained by combining losartan and furosemide. Nx was performed in 58 Munich-Wistar rats. One month later, tail-cuff pressure and albuminuria were markedly elevated. At this time, Nx rats were distributed among the following four groups: untreated Nx rats, Nx rats that received losartan, Nx rats that received losartan + hydrochlorothiazide, and Nx rats that received losartan + furosemide. Seven months later, Nx rats exhibited high mortality, severe hypertension, albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, and interstitial fibrosis. Losartan treatment limited mortality and attenuated the renal and hemodynamic abnormalities associated with Nx. As previously shown, the losartan + hydrochlorothiazide association normalized tail-cuff pressure and albumin, prevented renal injury, and reduced mortality to zero. The losartan + furosemide treatment failed to reduce tail-cuff pressure or albumin to normal and prevented renal injury less efficiently than the losartan and hydrochlorothiazide regimen. The reasons for the differing efficacies of the losartan + furosemide and losartan + hydrochlorothiazide schemes are unclear and may include beneficial nondiuretic actions of thiazides, such as vasorelaxation and antiproliferative activity. These results refute the established concept that thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics are ineffective at advanced chronic kidney disease stages. Rather, they suggest that, in view of their renoprotective action, these compounds may even be preferable to loop diuretics in the management of hypertension in advanced chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. AT1R blocker losartan attenuates intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis in a mouse model of Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    LIU, TIAN-JING; SHI, YONG-YAN; WANG, EN-BO; ZHU, TONG; ZHAO, QUN

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin II, which is the main effector of the renin-angiotensin system, has an important role in intestinal inflammation via the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of the AT1R blocker losartan on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Losartan was administered to male adult C57BL/6 J mice 2 weeks prior to the induction of colitis, and images of the whole colon were captured to record changes, scored according to a microscopic scoring system, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed in order to investigate colonic inflammation. In addition, intestinal epithelial barrier permeability was evaluated, and intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis was measured using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and apoptosis-related protein expression levels were detected by western blotting. Losartan was able to attenuate TNBS-induced body weight loss and colonic damage. Furthermore, T helper 1-mediated proin-flammatory cytokines were suppressed by losartan, and gut permeability was largely preserved. TUNEL staining revealed reduced IEC apoptosis in the losartan-treated mice. Losartan also increased the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) ratio and suppressed caspase-3 induction. These results suggested that the AT1R blocker losartan may attenuate TNBS-induced colitis by inhibiting the apoptosis of IECs. The effects of losartan were partially mediated through increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and subsequently suppressing the induction of the proapoptotic mediator caspase-3. PMID:26676112

  9. AT1R blocker losartan attenuates intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis in a mouse model of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian-Jing; Shi, Yong-Yan; Wang, En-Bo; Zhu, Tong; Zhao, Qun

    2016-02-01

    Angiotensin II, which is the main effector of the renin‑angiotensin system, has an important role in intestinal inflammation via the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of the AT1R blocker losartan on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Losartan was administered to male adult C57BL/6 J mice 2 weeks prior to the induction of colitis, and images of the whole colon were captured to record changes, scored according to a microscopic scoring system, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed in order to investigate colonic inflammation. In addition, intestinal epithelial barrier permeability was evaluated, and intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis was measured using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and apoptosis-related protein expression levels were detected by western blotting. Losartan was able to attenuate TNBS-induced body weight loss and colonic damage. Furthermore, T helper 1-mediated proinflammatory cytokines were suppressed by losartan, and gut permeability was largely preserved. TUNEL staining revealed reduced IEC apoptosis in the losartan-treated mice. Losartan also increased the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)/Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) ratio and suppressed caspase-3 induction. These results suggested that the AT1R blocker losartan may attenuate TNBS-induced colitis by inhibiting the apoptosis of IECs. The effects of losartan were partially mediated through increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and subsequently suppressing the induction of the proapoptotic mediator caspase-3.

  10. Losartan increases bone mass and accelerates chondrocyte hypertrophy in developing skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Rianon, Nahid; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Munivez, Elda; Bertin, Terry; Dawson, Brian; Chen, Yuqing; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Lee, Brendan; Yang, Tao; Bae, Yangjin

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are a group of anti-hypertensive drugs that are widely used to treat pediatric hypertension. Recent application of ARBs to treat diseases such as Marfan syndrome or Alport syndrome has shown positive outcomes in animal and human studies, suggesting a broader therapeutic potential for this class of drugs. Multiple studies have reported a benefit of ARBs on adult bone homeostasis; however, its effect on the growing skeleton in children is unknown. We investigated the effect of Losartan, an ARB, in regulating bone mass and cartilage during development in mice. Wild type mice were treated with Losartan from birth until 6 weeks of age, after which bones were collected for microCT and histomorphometric analyses. Losartan increased trabecular bone volume vs. tissue volume (a 98% increase) and cortical thickness (a 9% increase) in 6-weeks old wild type mice. The bone changes were attributed to decreased osteoclastogenesis as demonstrated by reduced osteoclast number per bone surface in vivo and suppressed osteoclast differentiation in vitro. At the molecular level, Angiotensin II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in RAW cells was attenuated by Losartan. Similarly, RANKL-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was suppressed by Losartan, suggesting a convergence of RANKL and angiotensin signaling at the level of ERK1/2 regulation. To assess the effect of Losartan on cartilage development, we examined the cartilage phenotype of wild type mice treated with Losartan in utero from conception to 1 day of age. Growth plates of these mice showed an elongated hypertrophic chondrocyte zone and increased Col10a1 expression level, with minimal changes in chondrocyte proliferation. Altogether, inhibition of the angiotensin pathway by Losartan increases bone mass and accelerates chondrocyte hypertrophy in growth plate during skeletal development. PMID:25779879

  11. Losartan increases bone mass and accelerates chondrocyte hypertrophy in developing skeleton.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan; Grover, Monica; Sibai, Tarek; Black, Jennifer; Rianon, Nahid; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Munivez, Elda; Bertin, Terry; Dawson, Brian; Chen, Yuqing; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Lee, Brendan; Yang, Tao; Bae, Yangjin

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are a group of anti-hypertensive drugs that are widely used to treat pediatric hypertension. Recent application of ARBs to treat diseases such as Marfan syndrome or Alport syndrome has shown positive outcomes in animal and human studies, suggesting a broader therapeutic potential for this class of drugs. Multiple studies have reported a benefit of ARBs on adult bone homeostasis; however, its effect on the growing skeleton in children is unknown. We investigated the effect of Losartan, an ARB, in regulating bone mass and cartilage during development in mice. Wild type mice were treated with Losartan from birth until 6 weeks of age, after which bones were collected for microCT and histomorphometric analyses. Losartan increased trabecular bone volume vs. tissue volume (a 98% increase) and cortical thickness (a 9% increase) in 6-weeks old wild type mice. The bone changes were attributed to decreased osteoclastogenesis as demonstrated by reduced osteoclast number per bone surface in vivo and suppressed osteoclast differentiation in vitro. At the molecular level, Angiotensin II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in RAW cells was attenuated by Losartan. Similarly, RANKL-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was suppressed by Losartan, suggesting a convergence of RANKL and angiotensin signaling at the level of ERK1/2 regulation. To assess the effect of Losartan on cartilage development, we examined the cartilage phenotype of wild type mice treated with Losartan in utero from conception to 1 day of age. Growth plates of these mice showed an elongated hypertrophic chondrocyte zone and increased Col10a1 expression level, with minimal changes in chondrocyte proliferation. Altogether, inhibition of the angiotensin pathway by Losartan increases bone mass and accelerates chondrocyte hypertrophy in growth plate during skeletal development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. New losartan-hydrocaffeic acid hybrids as antihypertensive-antioxidant dual drugs: Ester, amide and amine linkers.

    PubMed

    García, Gonzalo; Serrano, Isabel; Sánchez-Alonso, Patricia; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel; Alajarín, Ramón; Griera, Mercedes; Vaquero, Juan J; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego; Alvarez-Builla, Julio; Díez-Marqués, María L

    2012-04-01

    We report new examples of a series of losartan-hydrocaffeic hybrids that bear novel ester, amide and amine linkers. These compounds were made by linking hydrocaffeic acid to the side chain of losartan at the C-5 position of the imidazole ring through different strategies. Experiments performed in cultured cells demonstrate that these new hybrids retain the ability to block the angiotensin II effect and have increased antioxidant ability. Most of them reduced arterial pressure in rats better or as much as losartan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Losartan protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis through β-arrestin1-mediated phosphorylation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Ren, Zhiping; Wei, Xinbing; Wang, Shuaishuai; Wang, Yimeng; Cheng, Yanyan; Gao, Hua; Liu, Huiqing

    2017-11-15

    Losartan, an angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), has been revealed to protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanism by which losartan protect brain ischemia injury is still obscure. In this study, we investigated whether losartan protected against cerebral I/R injury by reducing apoptosis and the possible signaling pathways. Wistar rats were pretreated for 14 days with 5mg/kg losartan, and then subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2h followed by reperfusion. Meanwhile, PC12 cells pretreated with losartan were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation-reoxygenation (OGD/R), an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia. Our results showed that administration of losartan significantly inhibited the apoptosis by decreasing the number of apoptotic cells, decreasing the protein level of cleaved caspase-3, cytochrom C and Bax, and increasing the level of Bcl-2 both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, losartan treatment markedly enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt and blockade of PI3K activity by wortmannin dramatically inhibited Akt phosphorylation and attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of losartan. Furthermore, pretreatment with losartan significantly increased the protein level of β-arrestin1 and silence of β-arrestin1 by siRNA partly attenuated losartan-induced anti-apoptotic effect and the phosphorylation of Akt. These results suggested that β-arrestin1 modulated the activation of Akt in losartan-induced anti-apoptotic effect in cerebral I/R. Our data would provide a new molecular basis for further understanding of protective effect of losartan in cerebral I/R injury and may provide benefits of using losartan in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of losartan treatment on the physicochemical properties of diabetic rat bone.

    PubMed

    Donmez, Baris Ozgur; Unal, Mustafa; Ozdemir, Semir; Ozturk, Nihal; Oguz, Nurettin; Akkus, Ozan

    2017-03-01

    Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system used to treat several diseases have also been shown to be effective on bone tissue, suggesting that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers may reduce fracture risk. The present study investigated the effects of losartan on the physicochemical and biomechanical properties of diabetic rat bone. Losartan (5 mg/kg/day) was administered via oral gavage for 12 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Whole femurs were tested under tension to evaluate the biomechanical properties of bone. The physicochemical properties of bone were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Although losartan did not recover decreases in the BMD of diabetic bone, it recovered the physicochemical (mineral and collagen matrix) properties of diabetic rat bone. Furthermore, losartan also recovered ultimate tensile strength of diabetic rat femurs. Losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, has a therapeutic effect on the physicochemical properties of diabetic bone resulting in improvement of bone strength at the material level. Therefore, specific inhibition of this pathway at the receptor level shows potential as a therapeutic target for diabetic patients suffering from bone diseases such as osteopenia.

  15. Ecotoxicological evaluation of propranolol hydrochloride and losartan potassium to Lemna minor L. (1753) individually and in binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Aline A; Kummrow, Fábio; Pamplin, Paulo Augusto Z

    2015-07-01

    Antihypertensive pharmaceuticals, including the beta-blockers, are one of the most detected therapeutic classes in the environment. The ecotoxicity of propranolol hydrochloride and losartan potassium was evaluated, both individually and combined in a binary mixture, by using the Lemna minor growth inhibition test. The endpoints evaluated in the single-pharmaceutical tests were frond number, total frond area and fresh weight. For the evaluation of the mixture toxicity, the selected endpoint was frond number. Water quality criteria values (WQC) were derived for the protection of freshwater and saltwater pelagic communities regarding the effects induced by propranolol and losartan using ecotoxicological data from the literature, including our data. The risks associated with both pharmaceutical effects on non-target organisms were quantified through the measured environmental concentration (MEC)/predicted-no-effect concentration (PNEC) ratios. For propranolol, the total frond area was the most sensitive endpoint (EC50 = 77.3 mg L(-1)), while for losartan there was no statistically significant difference between the endpoints. Losartan is only slightly more toxic than propranolol. Both concentration addition and independent action models overestimated the mixture toxicity of the pharmaceuticals at all the effect concentration levels evaluated. The joint action of both pharmaceuticals showed an antagonistic interaction to L. minor. Derived WQC assumed lower values for propranolol than for losartan. The MEC/PNEC ratios showed that propranolol may pose a risk for the most sensitive aquatic species, while acceptable risks posed by losartan were estimated for most of aquatic matrices. To the authors knowledge these are the first data about losartan toxicity for L. minor.

  16. Effect of endogenous angiotensin II on the frequency response of the renal vasculature.

    PubMed

    Dibona, Gerald F; Sawin, Linda L

    2004-12-01

    The renal vasculature functions as an efficient low-pass filter of the multiple frequencies contained within renal sympathetic nerve activity. This study examined the effect of angiotensin II on the frequency response of the renal vasculature. Physiological changes in the activity of the endogenous renin-angiotensin system were produced by alterations in dietary sodium intake. The frequency response of the renal vasculature was evaluated using pseudorandom binary sequence renal nerve stimulation, and the role of angiotensin II was evaluated by the administration of the angiotensin II AT(1)-receptor antagonist losartan. In low-sodium-diet rats with increased renin-angiotensin system activity, losartan steepened the renal vascular frequency response (i.e., greater attenuation); this was not seen in normal- or high-sodium-diet rats with normal or decreased renin-angiotensin system activity. Analysis of the transfer function from arterial pressure to renal blood flow, i.e., dynamic autoregulation, showed that the tubuloglomerular feedback but not the myogenic component was enhanced in low- and normal- but not in high-sodium-diet rats and that this was reversed by losartan administration. Thus physiological increases in endogenous renin-angiotensin activity inhibit the renal vascular frequency response to renal nerve stimulation while selectively enhancing the tubuloglomerular feedback component of dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow.

  17. Impaired Vascular Contractility and Aortic Wall Degeneration in Fibulin-4 Deficient Mice: Effect of Angiotensin II Type 1 (AT1) Receptor Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Moltzer, Els; te Riet, Luuk; Swagemakers, Sigrid M. A.; van Heijningen, Paula M.; Vermeij, Marcel; van Veghel, Richard; Bouhuizen, Angelique M.; van Esch, Joep H. M.; Lankhorst, Stephanie; Ramnath, Natasja W. M.; de Waard, Monique C.; Duncker, Dirk J.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Rouwet, Ellen V.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Essers, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    Medial degeneration is a key feature of aneurysm disease and aortic dissection. In a murine aneurysm model we investigated the structural and functional characteristics of aortic wall degeneration in adult fibulin-4 deficient mice and the potential therapeutic role of the angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan in preventing aortic media degeneration. Adult mice with 2-fold (heterozygous Fibulin-4+/R) and 4-fold (homozygous Fibulin-4R/R) reduced expression of fibulin-4 displayed the histological features of cystic media degeneration as found in patients with aneurysm or dissection, including elastin fiber fragmentation, loss of smooth muscle cells, and deposition of ground substance in the extracellular matrix of the aortic media. The aortic contractile capacity, determined by isometric force measurements, was diminished, and was associated with dysregulation of contractile genes as shown by aortic transcriptome analysis. These structural and functional alterations were accompanied by upregulation of TGF-β signaling in aortas from fibulin-4 deficient mice, as identified by genome-scaled network analysis as well as by immunohistochemical staining for phosphorylated Smad2, an intracellular mediator of TGF-β. Tissue levels of Ang II, a regulator of TGF-β signaling, were increased. Prenatal treatment with the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan, which blunts TGF-β signaling, prevented elastic fiber fragmentation in the aortic media of newborn Fibulin-4R/R mice. Postnatal losartan treatment reduced haemodynamic stress and improved lifespan of homozygous knockdown fibulin-4 animals, but did not affect aortic vessel wall structure. In conclusion, the AT1 receptor blocker losartan can prevent aortic media degeneration in a non-Marfan syndrome aneurysm mouse model. In established aortic aneurysms, losartan does not affect aortic architecture, but does improve survival. These findings may extend the potential therapeutic application of inhibitors of

  18. Evaluation of the dose-response relationship of amlodipine and losartan combination in patients with essential hypertension: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, factorial, phase II, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Gyu; Youn, Ho-Joong; Chae, Shung-Chull; Yang, Joo-Young; Kim, Moo-Hyun; Hong, Taek-Jong; Kim, Cheol Ho; Kim, Jae Joong; Hong, Bum-Kee; Jeong, Jin-Won; Park, Si-Hoon; Kwan, Jun; Choi, Young-Jin; Cho, Seung-Yun

    2012-02-01

    Despite recommendations for more intensive treatment and the availability of several effective treatments, hypertension remains uncontrolled in many patients. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response relationship and assess the efficacy and safety of amlodipine or losartan monotherapy and amlodipine camsylate/losartan combination therapy in patients with essential hypertension. This was an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, factorial design, phase II, multicenter study conducted in outpatient hospital clinics among adult patients aged 18-75 years with essential hypertension. At screening, patients received placebo for 2-4 weeks. Eligible patients (n=320) were randomized to one of eight treatment groups: amlodipine 5 mg or 10 mg, losartan 50 mg or 100 mg, amlodipine camsylate/losartan 5 mg/50 mg, 5 mg/100 mg, 10 mg/50 mg, or 10 mg/100 mg. The assumption of strict superiority was estimated using the mean change in sitting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 8 weeks. Safety was monitored through physical examinations, vital signs, laboratory test results, ECG, and adverse events. The reduction in DBP at 8 weeks was significantly greater in patients treated with the combination therapies compared with the respective monotherapies for all specified comparisons except amlodipine camsylate/losartan 10 mg/100 mg versus amlodipine 10 mg. The incidence of adverse events in the group of patients treated with the amlodipine camsylate/losartan 10 mg/50 mg combination tended to be higher than for any other group (27.9%, 12/43); however, the effect was not statistically significant. Combination amlodipine camsylate/losartan (5 mg/50 mg, 5 mg/100 mg and 10 mg/50 mg) resulted in significantly greater BP lowering compared with amlodipine or losartan monotherapy, and was determined to be generally safe and tolerable in patients with essential hypertension. Registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00942344.

  19. Changes of Gene Expressions in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Model After Losartan Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Ji Hei; Lee, Hye Ryon; Kim, Kwan Chang; Cho, Min-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives The renin angiotensin system seems to play an important role in the development of cardiac and vascular hypertrophy in hypertension. The changes in pathology, and gene expressions of the angiotensin II receptor type 1A (ATIA) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) were investigated in order to explore the effects of losartan in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) models. Materials and Methods Twelve week-old male Wistar rats were grouped as follows: control (C) group, hypertension (H) group, and losartan (L) group in which SHR was treated with losartan (10 mg/kg/day). Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis regarding seven genes such as endothelin-1, ACE, ATIA, neutrophil cytosolic factor, brain natriuretic peptide, troponin I, endothelial nitric oxide synthase were performed. Results Systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in the L group compared with the H group in weeks 3 and 5. ACE and ATIA proteins in the L group were lower than H group in week 5. Conclusion Losartan reduced blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy and protein expressions of ACE and ATIA. Changes of protein expressions were more sensitive than changes in pathology. Further study is needed for the differing doses of losartan in SHR models. PMID:23236328

  20. Losartan protects liver against ischaemia/reperfusion injury through PPAR-γ activation and receptor for advanced glycation end-products down-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Eun-Ji; Yoon, Seong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose PPAR-γ has been reported to be a protective regulator in ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) plays a major role in the innate immune response, and its expression is associated with PPAR-γ activation. Several angiotensin receptor blockers possess partial agonist activities towards PPAR-γ. Therefore, this study investigated the action of losartan, particularly with regard to PPAR-γ activation and RAGE signalling pathways during hepatic I/R. Experimental Approach Mice were subjected to 60 min of ischaemia followed by 6 h of reperfusion. Losartan (0.1, 1, 3 and 10 mg·kg−1) was administered 1 h prior to ischaemia and immediately before reperfusion. GW9662, a PPAR-γ antagonist, was administered 30 min prior to first pretreatment with losartan. Key Results Losartan enhanced the DNA-binding activity of PPAR-γ in I/R. Losartan attenuated the increased serum alanine aminotransferase activity, TNF-α and IL-6 levels, and nuclear concentrations of NF-κB in I/R. GW9662 reversed these beneficial effects. Losartan caused a decrease in apoptosis as assessed by TUNEL assay, in release of cytochrome c and in cleavage of caspase-3, and these effects were abolished by GW9662 administration. Losartan attenuated not only I/R-induced RAGE overexpression, but also its downstream early growth response protein-1-dependent macrophage inflammatory protein 2 level; phosphorylation of p38, ERK and JNK; and subsequent c-Jun phosphorylation. GW9662 reversed these effects of losartan administration. Conclusions and Implications Our findings suggest that losartan ameliorates I/R-induced liver damage through PPAR-γ activation and down-regulation of the RAGE signalling pathway. PMID:23647130

  1. Losartan improves resistance artery lesions and prevents CTGF and TGF-beta production in mild hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Garre, D; Martín-Ventura, J L; Granados, R; Sancho, T; Torres, R; Ruano, M; García-Puig, J; Egido, J

    2006-04-01

    Although structural and functional changes of resistance arteries have been proposed to participate in arterial hypertension (HTA) outcome, not all therapies may correct these alterations, even if they normalize the blood pressure (BP). The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the protection afforded by the angiotensin receptor antagonist losartan in resistance arteries from patients with essential HTA. In all, 22 untreated hypertensive patients were randomized to receive losartan or amlodipine for 1 year and the morphological characteristics of resistance vessels from subcutaneous biopsies were evaluated. Protein expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), and collagens III and IV was detected by immunohistochemistry. In comparison with normotensive subjects, resistance arteries from hypertensive patients showed a significant media:lumen (M/L) ratio increment and a higher protein expression of CTGF, TGF-beta, and collagens. After 1 year of treatment, both losartan and amlodipine similarly controlled BP. However, M/L only decreased in patients under losartan treatment, whereas in the amlodipine-treated group this ratio continued to increase significantly. The administration of losartan prevented significant increments in CTGF, TGF-beta, and collagens in resistance arteries. By contrast, amlodipine-treated patients showed a higher vascular CTGF, TGF-beta, and collagen IV staining than before treatment. Our results show that the administration of losartan, but not amlodipine, to hypertensive patients improves structural abnormalities and prevents the production of CTGF and TGF-beta in small arteries, despite similar BP lowering. These data may explain the molecular mechanisms of the better vascular protection afforded by drugs interfering with the renin-angiotensin system.

  2. Effect of fixed-dose losartan/hydrochlorothiazide on brain natriuretic peptide in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Yuhei; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Mitsutake, Ryoko; Uehara, Yoshinari; Inoue, Asao; Saku, Keijiro

    2012-03-01

    Losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) (Preminent®) is a fixed-dose combination of angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and the thiazide diuretic HCTZ that has consistently been shown to be more effective than either losartan or HCTZ. Little is known about the relationship between losartan/HCTZ and blood levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). In this study, 44 patients with hypertension who were being treated with ARB were enrolled. The ARB was changed to losartan/HCTZ because of uncontrolled hypertension. Blood pressure (BP), pulse rate (PR), plasma levels of BNP and other biochemical parameters were analyzed at baseline and 6 and 12 months after the change from ARB. Of the total 44 patients, 33 (75%) achieved the target BP at 12 months. While there was no significant change in PR, systolic and diastolic BP were significantly reduced (-23 ± 3 mmHg and -10 ± 2 mmHg, respectively) during this period. Although there were no significant changes in biochemical parameters, plasma levels of BNP were significantly decreased, especially in patients who had higher levels of BNP at baseline, during this period. Losartan/HCTZ therapy significantly reduced not only BP but also plasma levels of BNP in patients with hypertension. These findings suggest that losartan/HCTZ might have cardioprotective effects in patients with higher levels of BNP.

  3. Losartan, an Angiotensin type I receptor, restores erectile function by downregulation of cavernous renin-angiotensin system in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong; Yang, Bin; Wen, Yanting; Fang, Feng; Cui, Souxi; Lin, Guiting; Sun, Zeyu; Wang, Run; Dai, Yutian

    2009-03-01

    The high incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in diabetes highlights the need for good treatment strategies. Recent evidence indicates that blockade of the angiotensin type I receptor (AT1) may reverse ED from various diseases. To explore the role of cavernous renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathogenesis of diabetic ED and the role of losartan in the treatment of diabetic ED. The AT1 blocker (ARB) losartan (30 mg/kg/d) was administered to rats with streptozocin (65 mg/kg)-induced diabetes. Erectile function, cavernous structure, and tissue gene and protein expression of RAS in the corpora cavernosa were studied. We sought to determine the changes of cavernous RAS in the condition of diabetes and after treatment with losartan. RAS components (angiotensinogen, [pro]renin receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE], and AT1) were expressed in cavernosal tissue. In diabetic rats, RAS components were upregulated, resulting in the increased concentration of angiotensin II (Ang II) in the corpora. A positive feedback loop for Ang II formation in cavernosum was also identified, which could contribute to overactivity of cavernous RAS in diabetic rats. Administration of losartan blocked the effect of Ang II, downregulated the expression of AT1 and Ang II generated locally, and partially restored erectile function (losartan-treated group revealed an improved intracavernous pressure/mean systemic arterial pressure ratio as compared with the diabetic group (0.480 +/- 0.031 vs. 0.329 +/- 0.020, P < 0.01). However, losartan could not elevate the reduced smooth muscle/collagen ratio in diabetic rats. The cavernous RAS plays a role in modulating erectile function in corpora cavernosa and is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic ED. ARB can restore diabetic ED through downregulating cavernous RAS.

  4. Prehypertensive treatment with losartan, however not amlodipine, leads to long-term effects on blood pressure and reduces the risk of stroke in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangmin; He, Dehua; Lin, Jinxiu

    2016-02-01

    The current study investigated the efficacy of losartan and amlodipine in protecting spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHRSP) rats against the risk of stroke. SHRSP rats were administered losartan, amlodipine or the vehicle for 6 weeks. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP) in rats treated with losartan or amlodipine, however, following drug withdrawal, rats treated with losartan maintained reduced SBP for a longer time compared with rats treated with amlodipine. In addition, rats treated with losartan exhibited thinner vascular walls and improved systolic and diastolic function. Clinical stroke scores in the losartan group were significantly reduced compared with those in the amlodipine and vehicle groups. However, rats treated with losartan exhibited higher levels of angiotensin II and lower levels of aldosterone in the serum and brain cortex compared with the vehicle and amlodipine-treated rats. Furthermore, losartan significantly reduced the abnormal expression of angiotensin II receptors type 1 and 2 in SHRSP rats, whilst amlodipine did not. These results suggest that losartan may be more efficacious than amlodipine in ameliorating blood pressure deterioration and reducing stroke risk in SHRSP rats via regulation of the renin angiotensin system.

  5. Candesartan, rather than losartan, improves motor dysfunction in thioacetamide-induced chronic liver failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Murad, H.A.; Gazzaz, Z.J.; Ali, S.S.; Ibraheem, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is more common than the acute syndrome. Losartan, the first angiotensin-II receptor blocker (ARB), and candesartan, another widely-used ARB, have protected against developing fibrogenesis, but there is no clear data about their curative antifibrotic effects. The current study was designed to examine their effects in an already-established model of hepatic fibrosis and also their effects on the associated motor dysfunction. Low-grade chronic liver failure (CLF) was induced in 3-month old Sprague-Dawley male rats using thioacetamide (TAA, 50 mg·kg−1·day−1) intraperitoneally for 2 weeks. The TAA-CLF rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=8) treated orally for 14 days (mg·kg−1·day−1) as follows: TAA (distilled water), losartan (5 and 10 mg/kg), and candesartan (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg). Rats were tested for rotarod and open-field tests. Serum and hepatic biochemical markers, and hepatic histopathological changes were evaluated by H&E and Masson's staining. The TAA-CLF rats showed significant increases of hepatic malondialdehyde, hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and serum ammonia, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, TNF-α, and malondialdehyde levels as well as significant decreases of hepatic and serum glutathione levels. All treatments significantly reversed these changes. The histopathological changes were moderate in losartan-5 and candesartan-0.1 groups and mild in losartan-10 and candesartan-0.3 groups. Only candesartan significantly improved TAA-induced motor dysfunction. In conclusion, therapeutic antifibrotic effects of losartan and candesartan in thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats are possibly through angiotensin-II receptor blocking, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Improved motor dysfunction by candesartan could be attributed to better brain penetration and slower “off-rate” from angiotensin-II receptors. Clinical trials are recommended. PMID

  6. Candesartan, rather than losartan, improves motor dysfunction in thioacetamide-induced chronic liver failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Murad, H A; Gazzaz, Z J; Ali, S S; Ibraheem, M S

    2017-09-21

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is more common than the acute syndrome. Losartan, the first angiotensin-II receptor blocker (ARB), and candesartan, another widely-used ARB, have protected against developing fibrogenesis, but there is no clear data about their curative antifibrotic effects. The current study was designed to examine their effects in an already-established model of hepatic fibrosis and also their effects on the associated motor dysfunction. Low-grade chronic liver failure (CLF) was induced in 3-month old Sprague-Dawley male rats using thioacetamide (TAA, 50 mg·kg-1·day-1) intraperitoneally for 2 weeks. The TAA-CLF rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=8) treated orally for 14 days (mg·kg-1·day-1) as follows: TAA (distilled water), losartan (5 and 10 mg/kg), and candesartan (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg). Rats were tested for rotarod and open-field tests. Serum and hepatic biochemical markers, and hepatic histopathological changes were evaluated by H&E and Masson's staining. The TAA-CLF rats showed significant increases of hepatic malondialdehyde, hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and serum ammonia, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, TNF-α, and malondialdehyde levels as well as significant decreases of hepatic and serum glutathione levels. All treatments significantly reversed these changes. The histopathological changes were moderate in losartan-5 and candesartan-0.1 groups and mild in losartan-10 and candesartan-0.3 groups. Only candesartan significantly improved TAA-induced motor dysfunction. In conclusion, therapeutic antifibrotic effects of losartan and candesartan in thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats are possibly through angiotensin-II receptor blocking, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Improved motor dysfunction by candesartan could be attributed to better brain penetration and slower "off-rate" from angiotensin-II receptors. Clinical trials are recommended.

  7. Cerebrovascular recovery after stroke with individual and combined losartan and captopril treatment of SHRsp.

    PubMed

    Smeda, John S; Daneshtalab, Noriko

    2017-09-01

    We assessed whether the superior restoration of cerebrovascular function after hemorrhagic stroke by losartan versus captopril treatment was due to better BP, uremia, uricaemia, or aldosterone control in Kyoto Wistar stroke-prone-hypertensive rats and evaluated whether elevated angiotensin II (A2) levels enhanced the effectiveness of losartan treatment. Constriction was studied in the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) using a pressure myograph. Post-stroke survival increased from 21 to 310 and 189days respectively with losartan and captopril treatment. Neither treatment reduced BP, both reversed uremia and hyperaldosteronism equally after 7days. Plasma uric acid remained low. At stroke, MCA constriction to pressure (PDC), protein kinase C (PKC) activation, depolarization, and sarcoplasmic Ca 2+ were attenuated. Endothelial-dependent-vasodilation by bradykinin and endogenous NO release were lost. Both treatments recovered these functions within 7days. These functions deteriorated after 116days of captopril but not losartan treatment. Inhibiting A2 formation during losartan treatment didn't alter BP or vascular recovery. The superior recovery of PDC by losartan over captopril was not produced by better BP, uremia or aldosterone control or elevated A2. PDC recovery was associated with improved PKC function and enhanced basal NO release. The re-establishment of PDC could reduce cerebrovascular over-perfusion and hematoma expansion after stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Losartan

    MedlinePlus

    ... or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. Losartan is also used to decrease the risk of stroke in people who have high blood pressure and a heart condition called left ventricular hypertrophy ( ...

  9. Losartan Improves Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes Through Upregulation of Src Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tian, X; Ye, M; Cao, Y; Wang, C

    2017-02-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan has shown strongly anti-insulin resistance properties in vivo and in vitro ; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that losartan administration increased phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), enhanced plasma membrane translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), and increased glucose uptake, along with increased Src phosphorylation as well as reduced expression of docking protein 1(DOK1) in palmitate-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The beneficial impacts of losartan on insulin signaling were diminished in Src-deficient 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, suppressed expression of DOK1 by losartan was abolished by Src knockdown. Our results suggest that anti-insulin resistance ability of losartan is mediated by Src/DOK1/Akt pathway. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. [The effect of losartan on the intima-media thickness of carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Hulki Meltem; Turan, Filiz Canli; Köseoğlu, Kutsi

    2008-06-01

    There are findings about negative effects of angiotensin 1 (AT1) receptor stimulation at every stage of atherosclerosis formation. Recently, AT1 receptors, especially the effects of AT1 receptor antagonists on the regression of atherosclerosis, are being researched intensively. Measurement of carotid artery thickness has been accepted as a marker of atherosclerosis. In our study, we investigated the effect of AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, on the carotid artery intima-media thickness of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. We reached to 450 individuals by the stratified and random sampling method and measured their blood pressure to find out undiagnosed hypertensive patients. Fifty-one patients (mean age 54+/-9 years) were accepted to participate in our study. Forty-nine of them (33 women and 16 men) completed the study. After the measurements of the carotid artery intima-media thicknesses by B-mode Doppler ultrasonography, their blood tests were performed and arterial blood pressures were measured. Soon after, treatment with losartan as an antihypertensive agent was begun. All measurements were repeated on the eighth month of this therapy. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the cases were 167+/-14 mmHg and 102+/-8 mmHg, respectively. At the end of the eighth month these measurements regressed to 139+/-11 mmHg and 84+/-8 mmHg, respectively (p<0.05). Meaningful regression of carotid artery intima-media thickness was established. The mean regression was 0.10+/-0.19 mm (p=0.004) for women, 0.18+/-0.29 mm (p=0.007) for men and 0.13+/-0.23 mm (p<0.001) for the study population. No relation was seen between the carotid artery intima-media thickness and first systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements of the patients (r=0.122, p=0.403 and r=0.032, p=0.828, respectively). We think that losartan should be recommended to use for protection against atherosclerosis at the young aged individuals that have multiple risks for atherosclerosis, other

  11. The effect of losartan and carvedilol on renal haemodynamics and altered metabolism in fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Mohammed H; Sattar, Munavvar A; Abdullah, Nor A; Johns, Edward J

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effects of losartan and carvedilol on metabolic parameters and renal haemodynamic responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenergic agonists in the model of fructose-fed rat. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 8 weeks either 20% fructose solution (F) or tap water (C) ad libitum. F or C group received either losartan or carvedilol (10 mg/kg p.o.) daily for the last 3 weeks of the study (FL and L) and (FCV and CV), respectively, then in acute studies the renal vasoconstrictor actions of Ang II, noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE) and methoxamine (ME) were determined. Data, mean±SEM were analysed using ANOVA with significance at P <0.05. Losartan and carvedilol decreased the area under the glucose tolerance curve of the fructose-fed group. The responses (%) to NA, PE, ME and Ang II in F were lower (P <0.05) than C (F vs. C, 17±2 vs. 38±3; 24±2 vs. 48±2; 12±2 vs. 34±2; 17±2 vs. 26±2), respectively. L had higher (P <0.05) responses to NA and PE while CV had blunted (P <0.05) responses to NA, PE and Ang II compared to C (L, CV vs. C, 47±3, 9±2 vs. 38±3; 61±3, 29±3 vs. 48±2; 16±3, 4±3 vs. 26±2), respectively. FL but not FCV group had enhanced (P <0.05) responses to NA, PE and ME compared to F (FL vs. F, 33±3 vs. 17±2; 45±3 vs. 24±2; 26±3 vs. 12±2), respectively. Losartan and carvedilol had an important ameliorating effect on fructose-induced insulin resistance. Losartan treatment could be an effective tool to restore normal vascular reactivity in the renal circulation of the fructose-fed rat.

  12. Crosstalk between the angiotensin and endothelin system in the cerebrovasculature after experimental induced subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wanderer, Stefan; Mrosek, Jan; Vatter, Hartmut; Seifert, Volker; Konczalla, Juergen

    2018-04-01

    Under physiologic conditions, losartan showed a dose-dependent antagonistic effect to the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstriction. This reduced vasoconstriction was abolished after preincubation with an endothelin B 1 receptor (ET(B 1 )-receptor) antagonist. Also, an increased ET(B 1 )-receptor-dependent relaxation to sarafotoxin S6c (S6c; an ET(B 1 )-receptor agonist) was detected by preincubation with losartan. Investigations after experimental induced subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are still missing. Therefore, we analyzed losartan in a further pathological setup. Cerebral vasospasm was induced by a modified double hemorrhage model. Rats were sacrificed on day 3 and isometric force of basilar artery ring segments was measured. Parallel to physiological conditions, after SAH, the ET-1-induced vasoconstriction was decreased by preincubation with losartan. This reduced contraction has been abolished after preincubation with BQ-788, an ET(B 1 )-receptor antagonist. In precontracted vessels, ET-1 induced a higher vasorelaxation under losartan and the endothelin A receptor (ET(A)-receptor) antagonist BQ-123. After SAH, losartan caused a modulatory effect on the ET(B 1 )-receptor-dependent vasorelaxation. It further induced an upregulation of the NO pathway. Under losartan, the formerly known loss of the ET(B 1 )-receptor vasomotor function was abolished and a significantly increased relaxation, accompanied with an enhanced sensitivity of the ET(B 1 )-receptor, has been detected. Also, the dose-dependent antagonistic effect to the ET-1-induced contraction can be effected by angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT 1 -receptor) antagonism due to losartan directly via the ET(B 1 )-receptor.

  13. Effects of Antihypertensive Agents on Intestinal Contractility in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: Angiotensin Receptor System Downregulation by Losartan

    PubMed Central

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Yapa

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is an inflammatory condition controlled by the renin angiotensin system and is linked to kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, and recently to dysfunction of the gut. The aim of this study was to determine what effect antihypertensive drug treatments may have on intestinal function of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). In the first experiment, SHRs were treated with enalapril, hydralazine, or with no treatment as a control. In the second experiment, SHRs were treated with losartan or with no treatment as a control. All drug treatments led to significant lowering of blood pressure after 16 weeks. At termination, intact tissue sections of the ileum and colon were induced to contract ex vivo by KCl; electrical stimulation; and agonists carbachol, angiotensin II, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). There were no differences in ileal or colonic contractility due to hydralazine or enalapril compared with no-treatment SHR control. However, for the ileum, the losartan group responded significantly more to KCl and carbachol while responding less to angiotensin II, with no difference for PGE2 compared with the no-treatment SHR control. In contrast, the colon responded similarly to KCl, electrical stimulation, and PGE2 but responded significantly less to angiotensin II. These results demonstrate that the ileum responds differently (with KCl and carbachol as agonists) to the colon after losartan treatment, whereas there is a reduced contractile response in both the ileum and colon following losartan treatment. Although there are few well documented major contraindications for angiotensin receptor blockers, the modulation of gut contractility by losartan may have wider implications for bowel health. PMID:27903643

  14. Effects of Antihypertensive Agents on Intestinal Contractility in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: Angiotensin Receptor System Downregulation by Losartan.

    PubMed

    Patten, Glen Stephen; Abeywardena, Mahinda Yapa

    2017-02-01

    Hypertension is an inflammatory condition controlled by the renin angiotensin system and is linked to kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, and recently to dysfunction of the gut. The aim of this study was to determine what effect antihypertensive drug treatments may have on intestinal function of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). In the first experiment, SHRs were treated with enalapril, hydralazine, or with no treatment as a control. In the second experiment, SHRs were treated with losartan or with no treatment as a control. All drug treatments led to significant lowering of blood pressure after 16 weeks. At termination, intact tissue sections of the ileum and colon were induced to contract ex vivo by KCl; electrical stimulation; and agonists carbachol, angiotensin II, and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ). There were no differences in ileal or colonic contractility due to hydralazine or enalapril compared with no-treatment SHR control. However, for the ileum, the losartan group responded significantly more to KCl and carbachol while responding less to angiotensin II, with no difference for PGE 2 compared with the no-treatment SHR control. In contrast, the colon responded similarly to KCl, electrical stimulation, and PGE 2 but responded significantly less to angiotensin II. These results demonstrate that the ileum responds differently (with KCl and carbachol as agonists) to the colon after losartan treatment, whereas there is a reduced contractile response in both the ileum and colon following losartan treatment. Although there are few well documented major contraindications for angiotensin receptor blockers, the modulation of gut contractility by losartan may have wider implications for bowel health. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  15. Physiological regulation of MMPs and tPA/PAI in the arterial wall of rats by noradrenergic tone and angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Dab, Houcine; Hachani, Rafik; Dhaouadi, Nedra; Hodroj, Wassim; Sakly, Mohsen; Randon, Jacques; Bricca, Giampiero; Kacem, Kamel

    2012-03-01

    The interactions between the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and angiotensin II (ANG II), and their direct effects in vitro on the enzymes involved in vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, were examined. Rats were treated with guanethidine, losartan or the combined treatments. mRNA, protein and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and mRNA of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) were quantified in abdominal aorta (AA) and femoral artery (FA). Norepinephrine (NE) or ANG II with adrenergic (β, α1 and α2) or losartan antagonists was tested for MMP mRNA response in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Combined treatment enhances the inhibition of MMP-2 mRNA and protein level induced by simple treatment in AA. However MMP-9 in AA and MMP mRNA in FA were reduced in the same order by treatments. MMP activities were not affected by treatments. The t-PA/PAI-1 ratio, which reflects the fibrinolytic balance, remained higher after treatments. In cultured VSMCs, NE induced stimulation of MMP mRNA via α2 and β adrenergic receptors and MMP-2 activity via β adrenergic receptors, while ANG II-induced stimulation was abrogated by losartan. Overall, there is a synergic inhibition of both systems on the level of MMP-2 in AA.

  16. Aliskiren and losartan trial in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Woo, Keng-Thye; Choong, Hui-Lin; Wong, Kok-Seng; Tan, Han-Kim; Foo, Marjorie; Fook-Chong, Stephanie; Lee, Evan J C; Anantharaman, Vathsala; Lee, Grace S L; Chan, Choong-Meng

    2014-12-01

    This is a report of a clinical trial on the therapeutic efficacy and safety of combined aliskiren and losartan (an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB)) versus aliskiren alone and ARB alone in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) over a 3-year period. This was a randomised trial in 155 patients with non-diabetic CKD comparing aliskiren (150 mg/day) (n=52) versus losartan (100 mg/day) (n=52) and the third group aliskiren (150 mg/day) combined with losartan (100 mg/day) (n=51). The trial utilised primary renal end points of eGFR <15 ml/min or end-stage renal failure. All three groups had significant reduction of proteinuria (p<0.001 for all). The changes in eGFR, total urinary protein from baseline to each year were not significantly different between the three therapeutic groups. This study in non-diabetic CKD patients showed that combination therapy with aliskiren and ARB was as efficacious as aliskiren alone and ARB alone. There was one patient who developed a non-fatal stroke in the combined aliskiren and ARB group while the other two groups had none. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. [Aortic root dilatation rate in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome treated with losartan].

    PubMed

    Mariucci, Elisabetta; Guidarini, Marta; Donti, Andrea; Lovato, Luigi; Wischmeijer, Anita; Angeli, Emanuela; Gargiulo, Gaetano D; Picchio, Fernando M; Bonvicini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Medical therapy with angiotensin II receptor blockers/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or beta-blockers was reported to reduce aortic root dilatation rates in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome. No data are available in the literature on losartan effects after 3 years of therapy. The aim of our study was to establish whether losartan reduces aortic root dilatation rates in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome in the mid and long term. This is a retrospective analysis of 38 pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome followed at the Marfan Clinic of S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital of the University of Bologna (Italy). Aortic diameters were measured at sinuses of Valsalva and proximal ascending aorta with transthoracic echocardiography. After a mean follow-up of 4.5 ± 2.5 years (range 2-9 years), aortic root z score at sinuses of Valsalva and proximal ascending aorta remained stable. The average annual rate of change in aortic root z score was -0.1 ± 0.4 and 0 ± 0.3 at sinuses of Valsalva and proximal ascending aorta, respectively. The mean dose of losartan was 0.7 ± 0.3 mg/kg/day. Three patients were non-responders, probably because of late beginning or low dose of therapy. Eight patients underwent cardiac surgery (aortic root surgery in 5 and mitral valve repair in 3), all of them started losartan later in life. Despite the retrospective design of the study and the small sample size, a beneficial effect of losartan therapy was observed in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome in the mid and long term. Late beginning or low doses of losartan can turn off the effects of therapy.

  18. Losartan exerts no protective effects against acute pulmonary embolism-induced hemodynamic changes.

    PubMed

    Dias, Carlos A; Neto-Neves, Evandro M; Montenegro, Marcelo F; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2012-02-01

    The acute obstruction of pulmonary vessels by venous thrombi is a critical condition named acute pulmonary embolism (APE). During massive APE, severe pulmonary hypertension may lead to death secondary to right heart failure and circulatory shock. APE-induced pulmonary hypertension is aggravated by active pulmonary vasoconstriction. While blocking the effects of some vasoconstrictors exerts beneficial effects, no previous study has examined whether angiotensin II receptor blockers protect against the hemodynamic changes associated with APE. We examined the effects exerted by losartan on APE-induced hemodynamic changes. Hemodynamic evaluations were performed in non-embolized lambs treated with saline (n = 4) and in lambs that were embolized with silicon microspheres and treated with losartan (30 mg/kg followed by 1 mg/kg/h, n = 5) or saline (n = 7) infusions. The plasma and lung angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity were assessed using a fluorometric method. APE increased mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) by 21 ± 2 mmHg and 375 ± 20 dyn s cm⁻⁵ m⁻², respectively (P < 0.05). Losartan decreased MPAP significantly (by approximately 15%), without significant changes in PVRI and tended to decrease cardiac index (P > 0.05). Lung and plasma ACE activity were similar in both embolized and non-embolized animals. Our findings show evidence of lack of activation of the renin-angiotensin system during APE. The lack of significant effects of losartan on the pulmonary vascular resistance suggests that losartan does not protect against the hemodynamic changes found during APE.

  19. Losartan improves erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Cui, S; Lin, H; Xu, Z; Zhu, W; Shi, L; Yang, R; Wang, R; Dai, Y

    2012-01-01

    The activation of cavernous local renin-angiotensin system has an important role in pathogenesis of diabetic erectile dysfunction (ED). In our primary study, we found that angiotensin Type 1 receptor blocker improved the erectile function of diabetic rats. Therefore we explored the losartan in clinical treatment for diabetic patients suffering with ED. A total of 124 diabetic patients with ED were included in this study and treated with losartan or tadalafil or losartan plus tadalafil or watch for waiting as control for 12 weeks. Erectile function was assessed by International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire, the percentage of positive responses to sexual encounter profile questions 2 (SEP2), 3 (SEP3) and the global assessment question (GAQ). Losartan or tadalafil or losartan plus tadalafil significantly improved the mean IIEF-5 scores, the percentage of successful penetrations (SEP2), the successful intercourse completions (SEP3) and GAQ (P<0.05). The combination of losartan and tadalafil is more effective than the single-use of losartan or tadalafil (P<0.05). The patients with moderate and mild ED had better response rates to losartan than patients with severe ED. This is the first clinical trial in losartan therapy on diabetic patients suffering from ED. Losartan seems to be effective and well-tolerated in diabetic ED patients, especially for mild to moderate ones. The combination therapy of losartan and tadalafil appeared to be more effective than monotherapy.

  20. The effects of angiotensin II on blood perfusion in the rat renal papilla

    PubMed Central

    Walker, L L; Rajaratne, A A J; Blair-West, J R; Harris, P J

    1999-01-01

    Systemic infusion of angiotensin II (AII) increased papillary blood perfusion (PBP) measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry in rats, aged about 5 weeks. The mechanisms involved in this response were determined by infusion of AII in the presence of systemic doses of losartan (a type 1 AII receptor antagonist), HOE-140 (a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist), and an inhibitor of NO production - Nω -nitro-L-arginine (NOLA). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and PBP increased in a dose-dependent manner in response to intravenous infusions of AII. Infusion of losartan abolished these responses to AII but HOE-140 was without effect. Infusion of NOLA abolished the increase in PBP but did not affect the pressor response to AII. Systemic infusion of sodium nitroprusside restored the response to AII in experiments with NOLA infusion. The results indicate that the increase in PBP caused by AII is mediated via angiotensin AT1 receptors and does not involve bradykinin B2 receptors. The AII-induced increase in PBP is dependent upon the presence of NO, thus providing a mechanism for maintenance of papillary perfusion in the face of generalized renal vasoconstriction due to AII. PMID:10432357

  1. Comparison of angiotensin-(1-7), losartan and their combination on atherosclerotic plaque formation in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianmin; Sun, Yu; Dong, Mei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Meng, Xiao; Niu, Rongrong; Guan, Juan; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Inhibition of the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been proved to reduce atherosclerosis. Recently, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], a new component of RAS, has been shown to attenuate atherosclerosis formation. However, direct comparison of Ang-(1-7) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) on atherogenesis is sparse. Here, we investigated whether large dose of Ang-(1-7) and losartan are equivalent or the combination of both is superior in reducing atherosclerotic plaque formation. In vivo, we established an atherosclerosis model in ApoE-/- mice. All mice were fed a high fat diet during experiments. Mice were divided into control, Ang-(1-7), losartan, Ang-(1-7)+losartan groups for 4 weeks treatment. Ang-(1-7) did not change the blood pressure (BP) levels, while losartan produced a significant decrease in systolic BP. The attenuation of Ang-(1-7) and losartan in atherosclerosis plaque formation was similar. However, the decrease of atherosclerosis in mice with combination of Ang-(1-7) and losartan was more remarkable relative to that of Ang-(1-7) or losartan alone. The decreases of macrophages infiltration, superoxide production and improvement of endothelium function in aortic lesions were more significant in combination group. In vitro study, we found that combination of Ang-(1-7) and losartan notably inhibited VSMCs proliferation and migration. The anti-atherosclerosis effects of Ang-(1-7) and losartan in early lesion formation were equivalent. Combination use of both agents further enhanced the beneficial effects. Ang-(1-7) might add additional beneficial effect for patients with adequate ARB treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Losartan increases muscle insulin delivery and rescues insulin's metabolic action during lipid infusion via microvascular recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nasui; Chai, Weidong; Zhao, Lina; Tao, Lijian; Cao, Wenhong

    2013-01-01

    Insulin delivery and transendothelial insulin transport are two discrete steps that limit muscle insulin action. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockade recruits microvasculature and increases glucose use in muscle. Increased muscle microvascular perfusion is associated with increased muscle delivery and action of insulin. To examine the effect of acute AT1R blockade on muscle insulin uptake and action, rats were studied after an overnight fast to examine the effects of losartan on muscle insulin uptake (protocol 1), microvascular perfusion (protocol 2), and insulin's microvascular and metabolic actions in the state of insulin resistance (protocol 3). Endothelial cell insulin uptake was assessed, using 125I-insulin as tracer. Systemic lipid infusion was used to induce insulin resistance. Losartan significantly increased muscle insulin uptake (∼60%, P < 0.03), which was associated with a two- to threefold increase in muscle microvascular blood volume (MBV; P = 0.002) and flow (MBF; P = 0.002). Losartan ± angiotensin II had no effect on insulin internalization in cultured endothelial cells. Lipid infusion abolished insulin-mediated increases in muscle MBV and MBF and lowered insulin-stimulated whole body glucose disposal (P = 0.0001), which were reversed by losartan administration. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase abolished losartan-induced muscle insulin uptake and reversal of lipid-induced metabolic insulin resistance. We conclude that AT1R blockade increases muscle insulin uptake mainly via microvascular recruitment and rescues insulin's metabolic action in the insulin-resistant state. This may contribute to the clinical findings of decreased cardiovascular events and new onset of diabetes in patients receiving AT1R blockers. PMID:23299501

  3. Vascular structure and oxidative stress in salt-loaded spontaneously hypertensive rats: effects of losartan and atenolol.

    PubMed

    de Cavanagh, Elena M V; Ferder, León F; Ferder, Marcelo D; Stella, Inés Y; Toblli, Jorge E; Inserra, Felipe

    2010-12-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) modulation by high dietary sodium may contribute to salt-induced hypertension, oxidative stress, and target organ damage. We investigated whether angiotensin II (Ang-II) type 1 (AT1)-receptor blockade (losartan) could protect the aorta and renal arteries from combined hypertension- and high dietary salt-related oxidative stress. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (3-month-old, n = 10/group) received tap water (SHR), water containing 1.5% NaCl (SHR+S), 1.5% NaCl and 30 mg losartan/kg/day (SHR+S+L), or 50 mg atenolol/kg/day (SHR+S+A). Atenolol was used for comparison. Ten Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were controls. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was determined by tail plethysmography. After 5 months of treatment, vascular remodeling and oxidative stress (superoxide production and NAD(P)H-oxidase activity (chemiluminescence), malondialdehyde (MDA) content (high-performance liquid chromatography), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity [(14)C-arginine to (14)C citrulline], CuZn-SOD activity (spectrophotometry)) were studied. In SHR, salt-loading significantly aggravated hypertension, urinary protein excretion, intraparenchymal renal artery (IPRArt) perivascular fibrosis, aortic and renal artery oxidative stress, and induced endothelial cell loss in IPRArts. In salt-loaded SHR, 5-month losartan and atenolol treatments similarly reduced SBP, but only losartan significantly prevented (i) urinary protein excretion increase, (ii) or attenuated hypertension-related vascular remodeling, (iii) aortic MDA accumulation, (iv) renal artery eNOS activity lowering, and (v) aortic and renal artery superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity reduction. In SHR+S, the contributions to aortic superoxide production were as follows: uncoupled eNOS > xanthine oxidase (XO) > NAD(P)H oxidase. In this salt-sensitive genetic hypertension model, losartan protects from hypertension- and high dietary salt-related vascular oxidative stress, exceeding the benefits of BP

  4. [Mechanism of losartan suppressing vascular calcification in rat aortic artery].

    PubMed

    Shao, Juan; Wu, Panfeng; Wu, Jiliang; Li, Mincai

    2016-08-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1R) blocker losartan on vascular calcification in rat aortic artery and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods SD rats were divided randomly into control group, vascular calcification model group and treatment group. Vascular calcification models were made by subcutaneous injection of warfarin plus vitamin K1 for two weeks. Rats in the treatment group were subcutaneously injected with losartan (10 mg/kg) at the end of the first week and consecutively for one week. We observed the morphological changes by HE staining and the calcium deposition by Alizarin red staining in the artery vascular wall. The mRNA expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR. The BMP2 and RUNX2 protein expressions were determined by Western blotting. The apoptosis of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were detected by TUNEL. The AT1R expression was tested by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Results The aortic vascular calcification was induced by warfarin and vitamin K1. Compared with the vascular calcification model group, the mRNA and protein expressions of BMP2 and RUNX2 were significantly downregulated in the aorta in the losartan treatment group. Furthermore, the apoptosis of SMCs and the AT1R expression obviously decreased. Conclusion AT1R blocker losartan inhibits the apoptosis of SMCs and reduces AT1R expression; it downregulates the BMP2 and RUNX2 expressions in the vascular calcification process.

  5. Effects of losartan on hepatic expression of nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase and fibrogenic genes in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Colmenero, Jordi; Bataller, Ramón; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Domínguez, Marlene; Moreno, Montserrat; Forns, Xavier; Bruguera, Miquel; Arroyo, Vicente; Brenner, David A; Ginès, Pere

    2009-10-01

    Angiotensin II promotes liver fibrogenesis by stimulating nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase (NOX)-induced oxidative stress. Angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers attenuate experimental liver fibrosis, yet their effects in human liver fibrosis are unknown. We investigated the effects of losartan on hepatic expression of fibrogenic, inflammatory, and NOX genes in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Fourteen patients with CHC and liver fibrosis received oral losartan (50 mg/day) for 18 mo. Liver biopsies were performed at baseline and after treatment. The degree of inflammation and fibrosis was evaluated by histological analysis (METAVIR). Collagen content was measured by morphometric quantification of Sirius red staining. Overall collagen content and fibrosis stage remained stable in the whole series, yet the fibrosis stage decreased in seven patients. Inflammatory activity improved in seven patients. The effect of losartan on hepatic expression of 31 profibrogenic and inflammatory genes and components of the NOX complex was assessed by quantitative PCR. Losartan treatment was associated with a significant decrease in the expression of several profibrogenic and NOX genes including procollagen alpha1(I) and alpha1(IV), urokinase-type plasminogen activator, metalloproteinase type 2, NOX activator 1 (NOXA-1) and organizer 1 (NOXO-1), and Rac-1. Losartan was well tolerated in all patients and was effective in attenuating the activity of the systemic renin-angiotensin system. No effects on serum liver tests or viral load were observed. We conclude that prolonged administration of losartan, an oral AT1 receptor blocker, is associated with downregulation of NOX components and fibrogenic genes in patients with CHC. Controlled studies are warranted to assess the effect of AT1 receptor blockers in chronic liver injury.

  6. Losartan for the nephropathy of sickle cell anemia: A phase-2, multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Charles T; Saraf, Santosh L; Gordeuk, Victor R; Fitzhugh, Courtney D; Creary, Susan E; Bodas, Prasad; George, Alex; Raj, Ashok B; Nero, Alecia C; Terrell, Catherine E; McCord, Lisa; Lane, Adam; Ackerman, Hans C; Yang, Yu; Niss, Omar; Taylor, Michael D; Devarajan, Prasad; Malik, Punam

    2017-09-01

    Nephropathy is a common and progressive complication of sickle cell anemia (SCA). In SCA mice, we found that hyperangiotensinemia in the absence of hypertension underlies nephropathy, and its downregulation by losartan, an angiotensin-II-receptor-1 blocker, reduced albuminuria and progression of nephropathy. Therefore, we performed a phase-2 trial of oral losartan, given for 6 months, to explore whether it reduced albuminuria in children and adults with SCA. Participants were allocated to groups defined by class of baseline urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR): no albuminuria (NoA), microalbuminuria (MicroA), and macroalbuminuria (MacroA). The primary endpoint was a ≥25% reduction UACR from baseline. There were 32 evaluable participants (mean age 24 years; NoA = 14, MicroA = 12, MacroA = 6). The primary endpoint was met in 83% of the MacroA group (P < 0.0001) and 58% of the MicroA group (P < 0.0001). Median fold-change in UACR was -0.74 for MacroA and -0.46 for MicroA. In MacroA and MicroA, UACR classification improved in 50% but worsened in 11%. Urine osmolality and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) did not change significantly. Losartan was discontinued in three participants [leg cramps, N = 1; decline in eGFR >25% (142➝104 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 ), N = 1; rise in serum creatinine >50% (0.2➝0.3 mg/dL), N = 1]. Albuminuria was associated with diastolic dysfunction and impaired functional capacity, although cardiopulmonary status was unchanged after 6 months of losartan therapy. In summary, losartan decreased urinary albumin excretion in most participants with albuminuria. Those with macroalbuminuria had the greatest benefit. This study forms the basis for a phase-3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of losartan for the nephropathy of SCA. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Enhanced spectrophotometric determination of Losartan potassium based on its physicochemical interaction with cationic surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, Laila; Abdel-Aziz, Lobna; Gaied, Mariam

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of Losartan potassium (LST K), an angiotensin-II receptor (type AT1) antagonist, in presence of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The physicochemical interaction of LST K with CTAB was investigated. The effect of cationic micelles on the spectroscopic and acid-base properties of LST K was studied at pH 7.4. The binding constant (Kb) and the partition coefficient (Kx) of LST K-CTAB were 1.62 × 105 M-1 and 1.38 × 105; respectively. The binding of LST K to CTAB micelles implied a shift in drug acidity constant (ΔpKa = 0.422). The developed method is linear over the range 0.5-28 μg mL-1. The accuracy was evaluated and was found to be 99.79 ± 0.509% and the relative standard deviation for intraday and interday precision was 0.821 and 0.963; respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine LST K in pharmaceutical formulations.

  8. Enhanced spectrophotometric determination of Losartan potassium based on its physicochemical interaction with cationic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fattah, Laila; Abdel-Aziz, Lobna; Gaied, Mariam

    2015-02-05

    In this study, a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of Losartan potassium (LST K), an angiotensin-II receptor (type AT1) antagonist, in presence of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The physicochemical interaction of LST K with CTAB was investigated. The effect of cationic micelles on the spectroscopic and acid-base properties of LST K was studied at pH 7.4. The binding constant (Kb) and the partition coefficient (Kx) of LST K-CTAB were 1.62×10(5) M(-1) and 1.38×10(5); respectively. The binding of LST K to CTAB micelles implied a shift in drug acidity constant (ΔpKa=0.422). The developed method is linear over the range 0.5-28 μg mL(-1). The accuracy was evaluated and was found to be 99.79±0.509% and the relative standard deviation for intraday and interday precision was 0.821 and 0.963; respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine LST K in pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative effects of avocado oil and losartan on blood pressure, renal vascular function, and mitochondrial oxidative stress in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Ramírez, Cristian Adrián; Hernández de la Paz, José Lucio; Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Raya-Farias, Andrés; González-Hernández, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain Raimundo; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Godínez-Hernández, Daniel; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2018-03-20

    Angiotensin II (Ang-II) antagonism alleviates hypertensive kidney damage by improving mitochondrial function and decreasing oxidative stress. This condition also is associated with altered renal vascular tone due to enhanced constriction by Ang-II. Thus, approaches ameliorating these events are desirable to alleviate kidney damage. Avocado oil, a source of antioxidants and oleic acid, is known to improve mitochondrial function, while oleic acid has antihypertensive effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether avocado oil counteracts, to a similar degree as the Ang-II blocker losartan, the deleterious effects of hypertension on blood pressure, renal vascular performance, kidney mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress. Hypertensive rats induced with Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) were supplemented during 45 d with avocado oil or losartan. Vascular responses were analyzed in perfused kidney. Membrane potential, reactive oxygen species levels, and glutathione were analyzed in isolated kidney mitochondria. In hypertensive rats, avocado oil decreased 21.2% and 15.5% diastolic and systolic blood pressures, respectively, and alleviated impaired renal vasodilation. Hypertension decreased membrane potential by 83.7% and augmented reactive oxygen species levels by 51% in mitochondria fueled with a complex I substrate, whereas it augmented the levels of oxidized glutathione in 48%. These alterations were normalized by avocado oil at a comparable degree to losartan. Because avocado oil mimicked the effects of losartan, we propose that the effects of avocado oil might be mediated by decreasing the actions of Ang-II on mitochondria. These results suggest that avocado oil intake might be a nutritional approach to attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on kidney. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interactions between angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonists and second-generation antiepileptic drugs in the test of maximal electroshock.

    PubMed

    Łukawski, Krzysztof; Janowska, Agnieszka; Jakubus, Tomasz; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2014-06-01

    The anticonvulsant activity of angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonists, losartan (2-n-butyl-4-chloro-5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(2'(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-biphenil-4-yl)methyl]imidazole) and telmisartan (49-[(1,49-dimethyl-29-propyl[2,69-bi-1H-benzimidazo]-19-yl)methyl]-[1,19-biphenyl]-2-carboxylic acid), has been reported recently. It is suggested that AT1 receptor antagonists may affect the protective action of antiepileptic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of losartan and telmisartan on the anticonvulsant activity of some second-generation antiepileptics (lamotrigine - LTG, oxcarbazepine - OXC, and topiramate - TPM). For this purpose, the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test in mice was used. Additionally, the drug combinations were checked for adverse effects in the passive avoidance and chimney tests. In the MES test, losartan at the doses of 30 and 50 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), potentiated the protective action of LTG (P < 0.01). This interaction was not accompanied by a significant change of LTG level either in plasma or in the brain. Telmisartan at the dose of 30 mg/kg i.p. enhanced the anticonvulsant action of TPM (P < 0.01). However, this interaction was pharmacokinetic in nature, as telmisartan significantly increased plasma and total brain concentrations of TPM (P < 0.001). The combinations of AT1 receptor antagonists with antiepileptic drugs did not affect retention in the passive avoidance test or motor coordination in the chimney test. The potentiation of the anticonvulsant action of LTG by losartan probably on account of pharmacodynamic interactions, make this combination important for further experimental and clinical studies. The combination of telmisartan and TPM is less beneficial due to pharmacokinetic interactions. © 2013 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  11. Angiotensin II and angiotensin II receptor blocker modulate the arrhythmogenic activity of pulmonary veins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Jen; Chen, Yao-Chang; Tai, Ching-Tai; Yeh, Hung-I; Lin, Cheng-I; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2006-01-01

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (AIIRBs) have been shown to prevent atrial fibrillation. The pulmonary veins (PVs) are the most important focus for the generation of atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether angiotensin II or AIIRB may change the arrhythmogenic activity of the PVs. Conventional microelectrodes and whole-cell patch clamps were used to investigate the action potentials (APs) and ionic currents in isolated rabbit PV tissue and single cardiomyocytes before and after administering angiotensin II or losartan (AIIRB). In the tissue preparations, angiotensin II induced delayed after-depolarizations (1, 10, and 100 nM) and accelerated the automatic rhythm (10 and 100 nM). Angiotensin II (100 nM) prolonged the AP duration and increased the contractile force (10 and 100 nM). Losartan (1 and 10 microM) inhibited the automatic rhythm. Losartan (10 microM) prolonged the AP duration and reduced the contractile force (1 and 10 microM). Angiotensin II reduced the transient outward potassium current (I(to)) but increased the L-type calcium, delayed rectifier potassium (I(K)), transient inward (I(ti)), pacemaker, and Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) currents in the PV cardiomyocytes. Losartan decreased the I(to), I(K), I(ti), and NCX currents. In conclusion, angiotensin II and AIIRB modulate the PV electrical activity, which may play a role in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation.

  12. Non-NMDA receptor antagonist-induced drinking in rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Z.; Johnson, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamate has been implicated in the central control of mechanisms that maintain body fluid homeostasis. The present studies demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3 dione (CNQX) induce drinking in rats. The dipsogenic effect of i.c.v. DNQX was antagonized by the non-NMDA receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). The water intake induced by DNQX was also blocked by pretreatment with a NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, but not by angiotensin type 1 (AT1) or acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonists (losartan and atropine). The results indicate that non-NMDA receptors may exert a tonic inhibitory effect within brain circuits that control dipsogenic activity and that functional integrity of NMDA receptors may be required for the non-NMDA receptor antagonists to induce water intake. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Comparison of angiotensin II (Ang II) effects in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) and lower esophageal sphincter smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Satish; Fan, Ya-Ping; Puri, Rajinder N

    2002-03-22

    Studies were performed to compare the actions of Ang II in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) vs. lower esophageal sphincter (LES) smooth muscles in vitro, in opossum and rabbit. Studies also were carried out in isolated smooth muscle cells. In opossum, Ang II produced no discernible effects in the IAS, but did produce a concentration-dependent contraction in the LES. Conversely, in the rabbit, while Ang II caused a modest response in the LES, it caused a significant contraction in the IAS. The contractile responses of Ang II in the opossum LES were mostly resistant to different neurohumoral antagonists but were antagonized by AT1 antagonist losartan. AT2 antagonist PD 123,319, rather than inhibiting, prolonged the contractile action of Ang II. The contractile actions of Ang II in the opossum LES were not modified by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and tyrphostin 1 x 10(-6) M) but were partially attenuated by the PKC inhibitor H-7 (1 x 10(-6) M), Ca2+ channel blocker nicardipine (1 x 10(-5) M), Rho kinase inhibitor HA-1077 (1 x 10(-7) M) or p(44/42) MAP kinase inhibitor PD 98059 (5 x 10(-5) M). The combination of HA-1077 and H-7 did not cause an additive attenuation of Ang II responses. Western blot analyses revealed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors. We conclude that Ang lI-induced contraction of sphincteric smooth muscle occurs primarily by the activation of AT1 receptors at the smooth muscle cells and involves multiple pathways, influx of Ca2+, and PKC, Rho kinase and p(44/42) MAP kinase.

  14. Angiotensin II promotes iron accumulation and depresses PGI₂ and NO synthesis in endothelial cells: effects of losartan and propranolol analogs.

    PubMed

    Mak, I Tong; Landgraf, Kenneth M; Chmielinska, Joanna J; Weglicki, William B

    2012-10-01

    Angiotensin may promote endothelial dysfunction through iron accumulation. To research this, bovine endothelial cells (ECs) were incubated with iron (30 µmol·L⁻¹) with or without angiotensin II (100 nmol·L⁻¹). After incubation for 6 h, it was observed that the addition of angiotensin enhanced EC iron accumulation by 5.1-fold compared with a 1.8-fold increase for cells incubated with iron only. This enhanced iron uptake was attenuated by losartan (100 nmol·L⁻¹), d-propranolol (10 µmol·L⁻¹), 4-HO-propranolol (5 µmol·L⁻¹), and methylamine, but not by vitamin E or atenolol. After 6 h of incubation, angiotensin plus iron provoked intracellular oxidant formation (2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) fluorescence) and elevated oxidized glutathione; significant loss of cell viability occurred at 48 h. Stimulated prostacyclin release decreased by 38% (6 h) and NO synthesis was reduced by 41% (24 h). Both oxidative events and functional impairment were substantially attenuated by losartan or d-propranolol. It is concluded that angiotensin promoted non-transferrin-bound iron uptake via AT-1 receptor activation, leading to EC oxidative functional impairment. The protective effects of d-propranolol and 4-HO-propranolol may be related to their lysosomotropic properties.

  15. Xenon/remifentanil anesthesia protects against adverse effects of losartan on hemodynamic challenges induced by anesthesia and acute blood loss.

    PubMed

    Francis, Roland C E; Philippi-Höhne, Claudia; Klein, Adrian; Pickerodt, Philipp A; Reyle-Hahn, Matthias S; Boemke, Willehad

    2010-12-01

    The authors aimed to test the hypothesis that xenon anesthesia limits adverse hypotensive effects of losartan during acute hemorrhage. In six conscious unsedated Beagle dogs, the systemic and pulmonary circulation were monitored invasively, and two subsequent 60-min hypotensive challenges were performed by (a) induction (propofol) and maintenance of anesthesia with isoflurane/remifentanil or xenon/remifentanil and by (b) subsequent hemorrhage (20 mL kg⁻¹ within 5 min) from a central vein. The same amount of blood was retransfused 1 h after hemorrhage. Experiments were performed with or without acute angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 blockade by i.v. losartan (100 μg·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) starting 45 min before induction of anesthesia. Four experiments were performed in each individual dog. Xenon/remifentanil anesthesia provided higher baseline mean arterial blood pressure (85 ± 6 mmHg) than isoflurane/remifentanil anesthesia (67 ± 3 mmHg). In losartan-treated animals, isoflurane/remifentanil caused significant hypotension (42 ± 4 mmHg for isoflurane/remifentanil vs. 71 ± 6 mmHg for xenon/remifentanil). Independent of losartan, hemorrhage did not induce any further reduction of mean arterial blood pressure or cardiac output in either group. Spontaneous hemodynamic recovery was observed in all groups before retransfusion was started. Losartan did not alter the adrenaline, noradrenaline, and vasopressin response to acute hemorrhage. Losartan potentiates hypotension induced by isoflurane/remifentanil anesthesia but does not affect the hemodynamic stability during xenon/remifentanil anesthesia. Losartan does not deteriorate the hemodynamic adaptation to hemorrhage of 20 mL kg⁻¹ during xenon/remifentanil and isoflurane/remifentanil anesthesia. Therefore, xenon/remifentanil anesthesia protects against circulatory side effects of losartan pretreatment and thus may afford safer therapeutic use of losartan during acute hemorrhage.

  16. Effects of bisoprolol and losartan treatment in the hypertrophic and failing right heart.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine; Schultz, Jacob Gammelgaard; Andersen, Asger; Ringgaard, Steffen; Nielsen, Jan M; Holmboe, Sarah; Vildbrad, Mads D; de Man, Frances S; Bogaard, Harm J; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik

    2014-11-01

    Sympathetic adrenergic stimulation and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are highly elevated in right heart failure. We evaluated if treatment with the adrenergic receptor blocker bisoprolol or the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan could prevent the progression of right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy and failure in rats after pulmonary trunk banding (PTB). Male Wistar rats were randomized to severe PTB with a 0.5-mm banding clip (PTB0.5, n = 29), moderate PTB with a 0.6-mm banding clip (PTB0.6, n = 28), or sham operation (SHAM, n = 13). The PTB0.5 and PTB0.6 rats were randomized to 6 weeks of 10 mg/kg/d bisoprolol treatment, 20 mg/kg/d losartan treatment, or vehicle treatment. The PTB caused hypertrophy, dilation, and reduced function of the RV in all rats subjected to the procedure. Rats subjected to the more severe banding developed decompensated RV failure with extracardiac manifestations. Treatment with bisoprolol slowed the heart rate, and treatment with losartan lowered mean arterial pressure, confirming adequate dosing, but none of the treatments improved RV function or arrested the progression of RV hypertrophy and failure compared with vehicle. In our PTB model of pressure overload-induced RV hypertrophy and failure, treatment with bisoprolol and losartan did not demonstrate any beneficial effects in compensated or decompensated RV failure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Noninvasive Assessment of Losartan-Induced Increase in Functional Microvasculature and Drug Delivery in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vidhya; Boucher, Yves; Liu, Hao; Ferreira, Diego; Hooker, Jacob; Catana, Ciprian; Hoover, Andrew J; Ritter, Tobias; Jain, Rakesh K; Guimaraes, Alexander R

    2016-10-01

    Losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, can reduce desmoplasia and enhance drug delivery and efficacy through improving interstitial transport and vascular perfusion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) models in mice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) and micro-positron emission tomography (PET) measurements could respectively detect improvements in tumor vascular parameters and drug uptake in orthotopic PDAC in mice treated with losartan. All experiments were approved by the local Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. FVB mice with orthotopic PDAC were treated daily with an i.p. injection of losartan (70 mg/kg) or saline (control vehicle) for 5 days. In order to calculate the fractional blood volume, vessel size index, and vessel density index, MRI was performed at 4.7 T following the injection of 3 mg/kg iron ferumoxytol (i.v.). Dynamic PET images were also acquired for 60 minutes using an 18 F-5FU tracer dose of 200 μCi and analyzed for time activity curves normalized to muscle. Statistical analyses compared both cohorts using an unpaired two-tailed t test. In comparison to the control treatment, the losartan administration significantly increased the fractional blood volume (mean±SEM) [12.1±1.7 (n=19) vs 6.7±1.1 (n=20); P<.02] and vessel size index (128.2±35.6 vs 57.5±18; P<.05). Losartan also induced a significant increase in the intratumoral uptake of 18 F-5FU by 53% (P<.0001). MRI using FDA-approved MNPs provides a noninvasive, translatable means of assaying microvascular parameters induced by losartan in pancreatic cancer. PET measurements demonstrated that losartan significantly increased the uptake of 18 F-5FU. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of losartan on memory performance and leptin resistance induced by obesity and high-fat diet in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Sharieh Hosseini, Seyydeh Gohar; Khatamsaz, Saeed; Shariati, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue and is involved not only in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, but also its role in memory enhancement has been demonstrated as well. The partial transfer of leptin across the blood-brain barrier in obese individuals causes leptin resistance and prevents leptin reaching brain. On the other hand, studies have shown that angiotensin antagonists such as losartan can improve memory and learning abilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of losartan on improving memory and leptin resistance induced by high fat diet in obese rats. 40 Wistar male rats were divided in 4 groups: control (C), losartan (LOS), high-fat diet (HFD) and high-fat diet and losartan (HFD and LOS). The spatial memory performances of the rats were assessed in the Morris water maze after 2 months of treatment. Then they were weighed and serum levels of leptin and triglyceride were measured. In spite of receiving high-fat diet, no significant differences in body weight were observed in the (HFD & LOS) group. In the Morris water maze trial, the (LOS) and (HFD & LOS) groups also showed a significant reduction (P <0.05) in latency and path length. In addition, a significant decrease (P <0.05) in serum levels of leptin and no significant difference in serum levels of triglyceride was observed in the (HFD & LOS) group. Losartan can improve leptin resistance induced by obesity and high fat diet. At the same time, it modulates body weight and enhances learning and memory.

  19. Losartan corrects abnormal frequency response of renal vasculature in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    DiBona, Gerald F; Sawin, Linda L

    2003-11-01

    In congestive heart failure, renal blood flow is decreased and renal vascular resistance is increased in a setting of increased activity of both the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin systems. The renal vasoconstrictor response to renal nerve stimulation is enhanced. This is associated with an abnormality in the low-pass filter function of the renal vasculature wherein higher frequencies (> or =0.01 Hz) within renal sympathetic nerve activity are not normally attenuated and are passed into the renal blood flow signal. This study tested the hypothesis that excess angiotensin II action mediates the abnormal frequency response characteristics of the renal vasculature in congestive heart failure. In anesthetized rats, the renal vasoconstrictor response to graded frequency renal nerve stimulation was significantly greater in congestive heart failure than in control rats. Losartan attenuated the renal vasoconstrictor response to a significantly greater degree in congestive heart failure than in control rats. In control rats, the frequency response of the renal vasculature was that of a first order (-20 dB/frequency decade) low-pass filter with a corner frequency (-3 dB, 30% attenuation) of 0.002 Hz and 97% attenuation (-30 dB) at > or =0.1 Hz. In congestive heart failure rats, attenuation did not exceed 45% (-5 dB) over the frequency range of 0.001-0.6 Hz. The frequency response of the renal vasculature was not affected by losartan treatment in control rats but was completely restored to normal by losartan treatment in congestive heart failure rats. The enhanced renal vasoconstrictor response to renal nerve stimulation and the associated abnormality in the frequency response characteristics of the renal vasculature seen in congestive heart failure are mediated by the action of angiotensin II on renal angiotensin II AT1 receptors.

  20. A randomised controlled trial of losartan as an anti-fibrotic agent in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Stuart; Wilkinson, Nina; Tiniakos, Dina; Wilkinson, Jennifer; Burt, Alastair D; McColl, Elaine; Stocken, Deborah D; Steen, Nick; Barnes, Jane; Goudie, Nicola; Stewart, Stephen; Bury, Yvonne; Mann, Derek; Anstee, Quentin M; Day, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease worldwide. Experimental and small clinical trials have demonstrated that angiotensin II blockers (ARB) may be anti-fibrotic in the liver. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to assess whether treatment with Losartan for 96 weeks slowed, halted or reversed the progression of fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Double-blind randomised-controlled trial of Losartan 50 mg once a day versus placebo for 96 weeks in patients with histological evidence of NASH. The primary outcome for the study was change in histological fibrosis stage from pre-treatment to end-of-treatment. The study planned to recruit 214 patients. However, recruitment was slower than expected, and after 45 patients were randomised (median age 55; 56% male; 60% diabetic; median fibrosis stage 2), enrolment was suspended. Thirty-two patients (15 losartan and 17 placebo) completed follow up period: one patient (6.7%) treated with losartan and 4 patients (23.5%) in the placebo group were "responders" (lower fibrosis stage at follow up compared with baseline). The major reason for slow recruitment was that 39% of potentially eligible patients were already taking an ARB or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), and 15% were taking other prohibited medications. Due to the widespread use of ACEI and ARB in patients with NASH this trial failed to recruit sufficient patients to determine whether losartan has anti-fibrotic effects in the liver. ISRCTN 57849521.

  1. Prediction of Losartan-Active Carboxylic Acid Metabolite Exposure Following Losartan Administration Using Static and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa Q; Lin, Jian; Kimoto, Emi; Callegari, Ernesto; Tse, Susanna; Obach, R Scott

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a strategy based on static and dynamic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling for the prediction of metabolite and parent drug area under the time-concentration curve ratio (AUC m /AUC p ) and their PK profiles in humans using in vitro data when active transport processes are involved in disposition. The strategy was applied to losartan and its pharmacologically active metabolite carboxylosartan as test compounds. Hepatobiliary transport including transport-mediated uptake, canilicular and basolateral efflux, and metabolic clearance estimates were obtained from in vitro studies using human liver microsomes and sandwich-cultured hepatocytes. Human renal clearance of carboxylosartan was estimated from dog renal clearance using allometric scaling approach. All clearance mechanisms were mechanistically incorporated in a static model to predict the relative exposure of carboxylosartan versus losartan (AUC m /AUC p ). The predicted AUC m /AUC p were consistent with the observed data following intravenous and oral administration of losartan. Moreover, the in vitro parameters were used as initial parameters in PBPK permeability-limited disposition models to predict the concentration-time profiles for both parent and its active metabolite after oral administration of losartan. The PBPK model was able to recover the plasma profiles of both losartan and carboxylosartan, further substantiating the validity of this approach. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Documentation of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, M.; Sharma, R.; Greene, A. S.; McCarthy, E. T.; Savin, V. J.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin II decreases glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and glomerular capillary hydraulic conductivity. Although angiotensin II receptors have been demonstrated in mesangial cells and proximal tubule cells, the presence of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells has not previously been shown. Previously, we have reported that angiotensin II caused an accumulation of cAMP and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured glomerular epithelial cells. Current studies were conducted to verify the presence of angiotensin II receptors by immunological and non-peptide receptor ligand binding techniques and to ascertain the activation of intracellular signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells in response to angiotensin II. Confluent monolayer cultures of glomerular epithelial cells were incubated with angiotensin II, with or without losartan and/or PD-123,319 in the medium. Membrane vesicle preparations were obtained by homogenization of washed cells followed by centrifugation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins followed by multiscreen immunoblotting was used to determine the presence of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) or type 2 (AT2). Angiotensin II-mediated signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells was studied by measuring the levels of cAMP, using radioimmunoassay. Results obtained in these experiments showed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptor types in glomerular epithelial cells. Angiotensin II was found to cause an accumulation of cAMP in glomerular epithelial cells, which could be prevented only by simultaneous use of losartan and PD-123,319, antagonists for AT1 and AT2, respectively. The presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors and an increase in cAMP indicate that glomerular epithelial cells respond to angiotensin II in a manner distinct from that of mesangial cells or proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results suggest that glomerular epithelial

  3. Rationale and design of the Helping Ease Renal failure with Bupi Yishen compared with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (HERBAAL) trial: a randomized controlled trial in non-diabetes stage 4 chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Zou, Chuan; Li, Chuang; Wu, Yifan; Su, Guobin; Guo, Xinfeng; Wu, Yuchi; Lu, Fuhua; Lin, Qizhan; Wang, Lixin; Bao, Kun; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Daixin; Peng, Yu; Liang, Hui; Lu, Zhaoyu; Gao, Yanxiang; Jie, Xina; Zhang, La; Wen, Zehuai; Liu, Xusheng

    2015-09-08

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem. Currently, as for advanced CKD populations, medication options limited in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), which were partially effective. A Chinese herbal compound, Bupi Yishen formula, has showed renal protective potential in experiments and retrospective studies. This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of Bupi Yishen formula (BYF) in patients with CKD stage 4. In this double blind, double dummy, randomized controlled trial (RCT), there will be 554 non-diabetes stage 4 CKD patients from 16 hospitals included and randomized into two groups: Chinese medicine (CM) group or losartan group. All patients will receive basic conventional therapy. Patients in CM group will be treated with BYF daily while patients in control group will receive losartan 100 mg daily for one year. The primary outcome is the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over 12 months. Secondary outcomes include the incidence of endpoint events, liver and kidney function, urinary protein creatinine ratio, cardiovascular function and quality of life. This study will be the first multi-center, double blind RCT to assess whether BYF, compared with losartan, will have beneficial effects on eGFR for non-diabetes stage 4 CKD patients. The results will help to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinicians. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Number: ChiCTR-TRC-10001518 .

  4. Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 μM) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers. PMID:25080489

  5. Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Luca, Annamaria

    2014-10-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 μM) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Losartan reverses permissive epigenetic changes in renal glomeruli of diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Marpadga A; Sumanth, Putta; Lanting, Linda; Yuan, Hang; Wang, Mei; Mar, Daniel; Alpers, Charles E; Bomsztyk, Karol; Natarajan, Rama

    2014-02-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as chromatin histone H3 lysine methylation and acetylation have been implicated in diabetic vascular complications. However, histone modification profiles at pathologic genes associated with diabetic nephropathy in vivo and their regulation by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) are not clear. Here we tested whether treatment of type 2 diabetic db/db mice with the AT1R blocker losartan not only ameliorates diabetic nephropathy, but also reverses epigenetic changes. As expected, the db/db mice had increased blood pressure, mesangial hypertrophy, proteinuria, and glomerular expression of RAGE and PAI-1 vs. control db/+ mice. This was associated with increased RNA polymerase II recruitment and permissive histone marks as well as decreased repressive histone marks at these genes, and altered expression of relevant histone modification enzymes. Increased MCP-1 mRNA levels were not associated with such epigenetic changes, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation. Losartan attenuated key parameters of diabetic nephropathy and gene expression, and reversed some but not all the epigenetic changes in db/db mice. Losartan also attenuated increased H3K9/14Ac at RAGE, PAI-1, and MCP-1 promoters in mesangial cells cultured under diabetic conditions. Our results provide novel information about the chromatin state at key pathologic genes in vivo in diabetic nephropathy mediated in part by AT1R. Thus, combination therapies targeting epigenetic regulators and AT1R could be evaluated for more effective treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  7. Losartan reverses permissive epigenetic changes in renal glomeruli of diabetic db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Marpadga A.; Sumanth, Putta; Lanting, Linda; Yuan, Hang; Wang, Mei; Mar, Daniel; Alpers, Charles E.; Bomsztyk, Karol; Natarajan, Rama

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as chromatin histone H3 lysine methylation and acetylation have been implicated in diabetic vascular complications. However, histone modification profiles at pathologic genes associated with diabetic nephropathy in vivo and their regulation by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) are not clear. Here we tested whether treatment of type 2 diabetic db/db mice with the AT1R blocker Losartan not only ameliorates diabetic nephropathy, but also reverses epigenetic changes. As expected, the db/db mice had increased blood pressure, mesangial hypertrophy, proteinuria and glomerular expression of RAGE and PAI-1 versus control db/+ mice. This was associated with increased RNA Polymerase II recruitment and permissive histone marks as well as decreased repressive histone marks at these genes, and altered expression of relevant histone modification enzymes. Increased MCP-1 mRNA levels were not associated with such epigenetic changes, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation. Losartan attenuated key parameters of diabetic nephropathy and gene expression, and reversed some but not all the epigenetic changes in db/db mice. Losartan also attenuated increased H3K9/14Ac at RAGE, PAI-1 and MCP-1 promoters in mesangial cells cultured under diabetic conditions. Our results provide novel information about the chromatin state at key pathologic genes in vivo in diabetic nephropathy mediated in part by AT1R. Thus combination therapies targeting epigenetic regulators and AT1R could be evaluated for more effective treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24088954

  8. Murine lymphoma L5178Y cells resistant to purine antagonists: differences in cross-resistance to thioguanine-platinum(II) and selenoguanine-platinum(II).

    PubMed

    Kanzawa, F; Maeda, M; Sasaki, T; Hoshi, A; Kuretani, K

    1982-02-01

    To determine whether the antitumor activities of thioguanine-platinum(II) [TG-Pt(II)] and selenoguanine-platinum(II) [SeG-Pt(II)] are due to direct actions of these compounds or to the actions of their hydrolysis products, studies were made on a purine antagonist-resistant, murine lymphoma L5178Y/MP subline that lacked the anabolic enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase necessary for tumor inhibition. The L5178Y/MP subline proved to be highly resistant to both TG-Pt(II) and thioguanine; the resistance ratios to the two compounds were almost identical. The subline showed high resistance to selenoguanine, but the cross-resistance to SeG-Pt(II) was negligible. Whether the compounds exhibit the delayed cytotoxicity characteristic of purine antagonists was also investigated. Delayed cytotoxicity was demonstrated for TG-Pt(II) as well as for thioguanine and other purine antagonists but not for SeG-Pt(II) or cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II). Experiments on cross-resistance and delayed cytotoxicity showed differences in the cytotoxicities of TG-Pt(II) and SeG-Pt(II): TG-Pt(II) exerted its activity through its hydrolysis product thioguanine, whereas SeG-Pt(II) compound was cytotoxic itself.

  9. Losartan Potassium: Evaluating the Treated Aviator for Medical Waiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11055 TITLE: Losartan Potassium: Evaluating the Treated Aviator for...thru ADP011058 UNCLASSIFIED 145 Losartan Potassium: Evaluating the Treated Aviator for Medical Waiver Jeb S. Pickard, M.D. USAFSAM/FECI 2507 Kennedy... losartan has Furthermore, there is some data suggesting a shown it to be a potential candidate for use in diastolic antihypertensive effect lingering

  10. Functional effects of losartan in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Anna; Iversen, Kasper; Vejlstrup, Niels; Ho, Carolyn Y; Havndrup, Ole; Kofoed, Klaus F; Norsk, Jakob; Jensen, Morten; Bundgaard, Henning

    2016-02-15

    There is a lack of disease-modifying treatments in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The aim of this randomised, placebo-controlled study was to assess if losartan could improve or ameliorate deterioration of cardiac function and exercise capacity. Echocardiography, exercise test and MRI or CT were performed at baseline and after 12 months in 133 patients (52±13 years, 35% female) randomly allocated to losartan (100 mg/day) or placebo. Losartan had no effect on systolic function compared with placebo (mean difference for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 0% (95% CI -3% to 4%), p=0.84 or global longitudinal strain 0.7% (95% CI -0.2% to 1.6%), p=0.13). Neither Doppler measures of diastolic function, left atrial volume (mean difference 2 mL/m(2) (95% CI -4 to 8 mL/m(2)) p=0.53) nor exercise capacity (mean difference -0.3 metabolic equivalents (METS) (95% CI -1.0 to 0.3 METS), p=0.28) differed between the treatment groups. At follow-up, there was further progression of disease, with the most prominent impairment being an increase in left atrial volume of 6 mL/m(2) (95% CI 3 to 9 mL/m(2), p<0.0001) in both groups combined. LVEF decreased (mean change -2%, (95% CI -3% to -1%), p=0.037) and 4% of patients had end-stage HCM with a LVEF of less than 50% at the end of the study. Treatment with losartan had no effect on cardiac function or exercise capacity compared with placebo. Losartan fail to improve myocardial performance and failed to alter the progression of the disease. These findings do not support the use of angiotensin II receptor blockers as disease modifiers in adult patients with overt HCM. NCT01447654-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene polymorphism could influence renoprotective response to losartan treatment in type 1 diabetic patients with high urinary albumin excretion rate.

    PubMed

    Dragović, Tamara; Ajdinović, Boris; Hrvacević, Rajko; Ilić, Vesna; Magić, Zvonko; Andelković, Zoran; Kocev, Nikola

    2010-04-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a clinical syndrome characterized by persistent albuminuria, increasing arterial blood pressure and progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). When persistent albuminuria is established, antihypertensive treatment becomes most important factor in slowing the progression of diabetic glomerulopathy. The aim of this study was to examine if renoprotective response to a short-term losartan therapy depends on 1166 A/C gene polymorphism for its target receptor. The study included 35 patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and persistently high urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE: > 30 mg/24 h), genotyped for the 1166 A/C gene polymorphism for the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). The participants were segregated into 3 genotype groups according to combinations of A or C allele: AA (16%), AC (15%) and CC (11%). The patients received losartan 50 mg daily for 4 weeks, following 100 mg daily for another 8 weeks. At baseline and after 12 weeks of the treatment period UAE, blood pressure, GFR and filtration fraction (FF) were determined. After 12 weeks of the treatment with losartan, albuminuria was reduced from baseline by 9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1-17, p = 0.039] in the AA genotype, and by 11% (95% CI: 6-17, p = 0.0001) in the AC genotype. Losartan treatment reduced albuminuria in the CC group by 5% (95% CI: -13-22, p = 0.47). Glomerular filtration rate remained unchanged in all genotype groups. Filtration fraction was significantly reduced from baseline by 0.018 +/- 0.024 (p = 0.012) only in the AC genotype. In the AA genotype, FF was reduced from baseline by 0.017 +/- 0.03 (p = 0.052), and in the CC genotype by 0.01 +/- 0.008 (p = 0.092). In the AA group, systolic blood pressure declined from 136 +/- 24 mmHg at baseline, to an average of 121 +/- 18 mmHg at the end of the study (p = 0.001). The AC group achived reduction from 131 +/- 10 mmHg at baseline to 115 +/- 7 mmHg (p = 0.001) during the investigation period. In

  12. Effectiveness of barnidipine 10 or 20 mg plus losartan 50-mg combination versus losartan 100-mg monotherapy in patients with essential hypertension not controlled by losartan 50-mg monotherapy: A 12-week, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Parati, Gianfranco; Giglio, Alessia; Lonati, Laura; Destro, Maurizio; Ricci, Alessandra Rossi; Cagnoni, Francesca; Pini, Claudio; Venco, Achille; Maresca, Andrea Maria; Monza, Michela; Grandi, Anna Maria; Omboni, Stefano

    2010-07-01

    Increasing the dose or adding a second antihypertensive agent are 2 possible therapeutic choices when blood pressure (BP) is poorly controlled with monotherapy. This study investigated the effectiveness and tolerability of barnidipine 10 or 20 mg added to losartan 50 mg versus losartan 100 mg alone in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension whose BP was uncontrolled by losartan 50-mg monotherapy. This was a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study. Eligible patients (aged 30-74 years) had uncontrolled hypertension, defined as office sitting diastolic BP (DBP) > or =90 mm Hg and/or systolic BP (SBP) > or =140 mm Hg, and mean daytime DBP > or =85 mm Hg and/or SBP > or =135 mm Hg. All were being treated with losartan 50 mg at enrollment. After a 1-week run-in period while taking losartan 50 mg, patients were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of treatment with open-label barnidipine 10 mg plus losartan 50 mg or losartan 100-mg monotherapy. At the end of this period, patients with uncontrolled BP had barnidipine doubled to 20 mg and continued for an additional 6 weeks, whereas patients not achieving control on treatment with losartan 100 mg were discontinued. Office BP was measured at each visit, whereas 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) was performed at randomization and at the final visit (ie, after 12 weeks of treatment, or at 6 weeks for patients not controlled on losartan 100 mg). The intent-to-treat population included all randomized patients who received at least one dose of study treatment and had valid ABPM recordings at baseline and the final visit. The primary end point was the change in daytime DBP between baseline and 12 weeks of treatment, compared between the combination treatment and monotherapy. Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated during each study visit. A total of 93 patients were enrolled (age range, 30-75 years; 60% [56/93] men). After the 1-week run-in period, 68 patients were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of

  13. Losartan increases NO release in afferent arterioles during regression of L-NAME-induced renal damage.

    PubMed

    Helle, Frank; Iversen, Bjarne M; Chatziantoniou, Christos

    2010-05-01

    Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (NOS) induces hypertension and heavy proteinuria. Renal structure and function have shown striking improvement after interventions targeting ANG II or endothelin (ET) receptors in rats recovering after long-term NOS inhibition. To search for mechanisms underlying losartan-assisted regression of renal disease in rodents, we measured NO release and contractility to ET in afferent arterioles (AAs) from Sprague-Dawley rats recovering for 2 wk after 4 wk of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester treatment. Losartan administration during the recovery period decreased blood pressure (113 ± 4 vs. 146 ± 5 mmHg, P < 0.01), reduced protein/creatinine ratio more (proteinuria decrease: Δ1,836 ± 214 vs. Δ1,024 ± 180 mg/mmol, P < 0.01), and normalized microvascular hypertrophy (AA media/lumen ratio: 1.74 ± 0.05 vs. 2.09 ± 0.08, P < 0.05) compared with no treatment. In diaminofluorescein-FM-loaded AAs from losartan-treated animals, NO release (% of baseline) was increased compared with untreated animals after stimulation with 10(-7) M ACh (118 ± 4 vs. 90 ± 7%, t = 560 s, P < 0.001) and 10(-9) M ET (123 ± 4 vs. 101 ± 5%, t = 560 s, P < 0.001). There was also a blunted contractile response to 10(-7) M ET in AAs from losartan-treated animals compared with untreated animals (Δ4.01 ± 2.9 vs. Δ14.6 ± 1.7 μm, P < 0.01), which disappeared after acute NOS inhibition (Δ10.7 ± 3.7 vs. Δ12.5 ± 2.9 μm, not significant). Contractile dose responses to ET (10(-9), 10(-8), 10(-7) M) were enhanced by NOS inhibition and blunted by exogenous NO (10(-2) mM S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine) in losartan-treated but not in untreated vessels. Reducing blood pressure similar to losartan with hydralazine did not improve AA hypertrophy, ET-induced contractility, ET-induced NO release, and NO sensitivity. In conclusion, blockade of the local action of ANG II improved endothelial function in AAs, a mechanism that is likely to contribute to the beneficial

  14. Losartan and Dexamethasone may inhibit chemotaxis to reduce the infiltration of Th22 cells in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chenggen; Zhou, Qiaoling; Li, Xiaozhao; Li, Hui; Zhong, Yong; Meng, Ting; Zhu, Mengyuan; Sun, Hong; Liu, Shuang; Tang, Rong; Pu, Jiaxi; Xu, Yan; Xiao, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin II is considered a major profibrotic factor that is involved in tissue remodeling processes, as the inhibition of Angiotensin II can halt renal inflammatory processes. Dexamethasone, an important anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent, has been widely used to treat renal disease for decades. In this study, we explored the frequency of Th22 cells in a mouse model of IgA nephropathy and compared the possible effects of Losartan and Dexamethasone on Th22 cells. The experiments were performed using 6-week-old BALB/c female mice in an established IgA nephropathy model. The mice were randomly separated into 4 groups, which were administered Losartan (30mg/kg/d) or Dexamethasone (10mg/kg/d) and subjected to IgA nephropathy or the normal control treatment for 1month. The frequency of Th22 cells was measured via flow cytometry, and the relative pathological changes in renal morphology were measured with different pathological staining methods. Immunohistochemistry was performed to verify the expression of CCR10 and CCL27, which is specialized receptor on Th22 cells and its corresponding chemokine, respectively. The concentrations of CCL27 and IL-22 in renal tissue homogenates and sera were detected using ELISAs. Losartan and Dexamethasone differentially decreased the frequency of Th22 cells after 1month, and mesangial cell proliferation was also improved. Moreover, the expression of CCR10, CCL27 and IL-22 was reduced by treatment with either drug. However, significant differences between Losartan and Dexamethasone were not observed. Based on these findings, Losartan and Dexamethasone may suppress inflammatory responses by inhibiting the chemotaxis of Th22 cells in IgA nephropathy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The effects of losartan on memory performance and leptin resistance induced by obesity and high-fat diet in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharieh Hosseini, Seyydeh Gohar; Khatamsaz, Saeed; Shariati, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue and is involved not only in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, but also its role in memory enhancement has been demonstrated as well. The partial transfer of leptin across the blood-brain barrier in obese individuals causes leptin resistance and prevents leptin reaching brain. On the other hand, studies have shown that angiotensin antagonists such as losartan can improve memory and learning abilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of losartan on improving memory and leptin resistance induced by high fat diet in obese rats. Materials and Methods: 40 Wistar male rats were divided in 4 groups: control (C), losartan (LOS), high-fat diet (HFD) and high-fat diet and losartan (HFD and LOS). The spatial memory performances of the rats were assessed in the Morris water maze after 2 months of treatment. Then they were weighed and serum levels of leptin and triglyceride were measured. Results: In spite of receiving high-fat diet, no significant differences in body weight were observed in the (HFD & LOS) group. In the Morris water maze trial, the (LOS) and (HFD & LOS) groups also showed a significant reduction (P <0.05) in latency and path length. In addition, a significant decrease (P <0.05) in serum levels of leptin and no significant difference in serum levels of triglyceride was observed in the (HFD & LOS) group. Conclusion: Losartan can improve leptin resistance induced by obesity and high fat diet. At the same time, it modulates body weight and enhances learning and memory. PMID:24592306

  16. [An experience of the use of angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan in patients with metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Beloborodova, A V; Morozova, T E; Shilov, E M

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study--to assess efficacy and safety of one of angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and I-V stage chronic kidney disease. We studied cardiodynamic and renal effects of losartan in average daily dose 50 +/- 13.06 mg in 20 patients (9 men and 11 women aged 32-79 years) with MS and I-V stage chronic kidney disease. Cardiodynamic effects of losartan were assessed by office blood pressure (BP) measurements, 24-hour BP monitoring (24-HBPM), echocardiography. Laboratory investigations included biochemical analysis of the blood with measurement of creatinine levels, lipid blood composition, fasting glucose, and glucose under conditions of oral glucose tolerance test. Renal function was assessed by glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria (MAU). Parameters of quality of life were analyzed with the use of questionnaires "Quality of life of patients with hypertensive disease" and EuroQol EQ-5D VAS thermometer. Duration of follow up was 12 weeks. 24-HBPM revealed significant lowering of systolic and diastolic BP in all temporal intervals, significant decrease of elevated diurnal systolic and diastolic BP burden, tendency to lowering of variability and normalization of 24-hour BP profile. We also noted tendency to lowering of MAU from 5.60 mg/dl (median) (3.50; 9.20 [25th and 75th percentile]) to 3.25 mg/dl (0.40; 7.83); significant lowering of levels of triglycerides and glucose under conditions of glucose tolerance test; improvement of parameters characterizing quality of life namely reduction of integral assessment by the "Quality of life of patients with hypertensive disease" questionnaire and improvement of EQ-5D VAS (thermometer) score related to arterial hypertension. We conclude that losartan in patients with MS and early signs of impairment of kidney function in addition to antihypertensive action exerts favorable effect on parameters of 24-hour BP profile, has good safety profile, causes favorable metabolic

  17. Significance of metabolites in bioequivalence: losartan potassium as a case study.

    PubMed

    Charoo, Naseem Ahmad; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Khatri, Aamer Roshanali; Ali, Areeg Anwer

    2014-06-01

    Estimation of metabolite data as a supportive evidence of comparable therapeutic outcome is recommended by various guidance documents. However, a consensus on using it solely to establish bioequivalence (BE) is lacking as parent drug is believed to detect pharmacokinetic differences between test and reference formulations better. Four BE studies of losartan potassium reported in the literature are reviewed. In all the four studies, 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of geometric mean ratios of the test and reference formulations for maximum blood drug concentration (Cmax ) of losartan potassium were outside the acceptable range of 80%-125%, whereas, 90% CIs for its active metabolite, losartan carboxylic acid (LCA), were within the acceptance criteria. Although BE with respect to area under the plasma concentration versus time profile curve was demonstrated in all the cases, BE with respect to Cmax could not be established. However, marketing authorization in all the four cases was granted based on scientific evidence that LCA is 10-40 times more potent than losartan, LCA exhibited higher plasma concentration levels than losartan, pharmacodynamic effects correlate with LCA, and losartan shows wide therapeutic index. Further, widened CI limits for losartan were accepted. Losartan presents an opportunity in the diligence of the principles of quality risk management for selecting moiety on which BE decision must be based. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Enalapril and losartan restored blood pressure and vascular reactivity in intrauterine undernourished rats.

    PubMed

    Ceravolo, Graziela S; Franco, Maria C P; Carneiro-Ramos, Marcela S; Barreto-Chaves, Maria L M; Tostes, Rita C A; Nigro, Dorothy; Fortes, Zuleica B; Carvalho, Maria Helena C

    2007-01-30

    Epidemiological studies suggest that intrauterine undernutrition plays an important role in the development of arterial hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in adulthood. We have evaluated the effect of the Renin Angiotensin System inhibition on the blood pressure and the mesenteric arteriolar reactivity of the intrauterine undernourished rats. Wistar rats were fed either normal or 50% of the normal intake diets, during the whole gestational period. In this study only the male offspring was used. At 16 weeks of age, the rats were used for the study of blood pressure, microvascular reactivity studied in vivo-in situ to Angiotensin II (Ang II), Bradykinin (Bk) and Acetylcholine (Ach) before and after either losartan (10 mg/kg/15 days) or enalapril (15 mg/kg/21 days) treatment. We also evaluated the mesenteric and plasmatic Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE), renal function, lipid plasmatic content, and insulin and glucose metabolism. Intrauterine undernutrition induced hypertension and increased response of mesenteric arterioles to Ang II and decreased vasodilation to Bk and Ach. The treatments with losartan or enalapril normalized the blood pressure levels and significantly improved the arteriolar responses to Bk, Ach and reduced the response to Ang II. No differences have been detected to ACE activity, renal function, lipid content and insulin and glucose metabolism. This study shows for the first time that Renin Angiotensin System inhibitors can normalize the cardiovascular alterations induced by intrauterine undernutrition.

  19. Renal mitochondrial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats is attenuated by losartan but not by amlodipine.

    PubMed

    de Cavanagh, Elena M V; Toblli, Jorge E; Ferder, León; Piotrkowski, Bárbara; Stella, Inés; Inserra, Felipe

    2006-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular damage; however, data on a possible association with kidney damage are scarce. Here, we aimed at investigating whether 1) kidney impairment is related to mitochondrial dysfunction; and 2) ANG II blockade, compared with Ca2+ channel blockade, can reverse potential mitochondrial changes in hypertension. Eight-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) received water containing losartan (40 mg.kg-1.day-1, SHR+Los), amlodipine (3 mg.kg-1.day-1, SHR+Amlo), or no additions (SHR) for 6 mo. Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were normotensive controls. Glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage, systolic blood pressure, and proteinuria were higher, and creatinine clearance was lower in SHR vs. SHR+Los and WKY. In SHR+Amlo, blood pressure was similar to WKY, kidney function was similar to SHR, and renal lesions were lower than in SHR, but higher than in SHR+Los. In kidney mitochondria from SHR and SHR+Amlo, membrane potential, nitric oxide synthase, manganese-superoxide dismutase and cytochrome oxidase activities, and uncoupling protein-2 content were lower than in SHR+Los and WKY. In SHR and SHR+Amlo, mitochondrial H2O2 production was higher than in SHR+Los and WKY. Renal glutathione content was lower in SHR+Amlo relative to SHR, SHR+Los, and WKY. In SHR and SHR+Amlo, glutathione was relatively more oxidized than in SHR+Los and WKY. Tubulointerstitial alpha-smooth muscle actin labeling was inversely related to manganese-superoxide dismutase activity and uncoupling protein-2 content. These findings suggest that oxidant stress is associated with renal mitochondrial dysfunction in SHR. The mitochondrial-antioxidant actions of losartan may be an additional or alternative way to explain some of the beneficial effects of AT1-receptor antagonists.

  20. Losartan Improves Measures of Activity, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in Older Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chung-Hao; Yang, Huanle; Xue, Qian-Li; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Roy, Cindy N.; Abadir, Peter; Walston, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia is an age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function that is multifactorial in etiology. Age-related changes in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), increased oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation likely all contribute to its development. Losartan, an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (ARB) decreases RAS activity and likely influences oxidative stress and inflammation. Given this, we hypothesized that losartan would improve activity levels and parameters related to inflammation and oxidative stress in older mice. We sought to test this hypothesis by comparing functional and molecular parameters between 18-month-old C57BL/6 mice treated with 50-70 mg/kg/day of losartan over a 4 month-period and age- and gender-matched mice receiving placebo. Losartan treatment significantly improved several activity measurements during treatment period compared to placebo controlled group, including increased time on treadmill, traveling activity, standing activity, and decreased grid contacts (p-values < 0.05, 0.001, 0.01; and 0.04 respectively). Grip strength did not improve in treatment group relative to control group over time. Serum IL-6 level in the treated group was significantly lower than that in the control group at the end of treatment, (30.3±12.9 vs. 173.0±59.5 pg/ml, p< 0.04), and mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes catalase (3.9±0.9 vs. 1.0±0.4) and glutathione peroxidase (4.7±1.1 vs. 1.0±0.4) was significantly higher, P-value: 0.02, and 0.03 respectively) in quadriceps muscle after 4 months of treatment in treated and control groups. These results support the hypothesis that chronic losartan treatment improves skeletal muscle related activity measures in older mice, and that it is associated with more favorable relevant biological profiles in the treatment group. Additional studies are needed to 1) further quantify this functional improvement, 2) further identify mechanisms that influence this improvement, and 3) provide

  1. Thromboxane receptor density is increased in human cardiovascular disease with evidence for inhibition at therapeutic concentrations by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan

    PubMed Central

    Katugampola, Sidath D; Davenport, Anthony P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish how thromboxane receptors (TP) respond to the increase in levels of plasma thromboxane observed in both cardiac (cardiomyopathy, ischaemic heart disease and pulmonary hypertension) and vascular disease (atherosclerosis of coronary artery disease and accelerated atherosclerosis of saphenous vein grafts).The agonist radioligand [125I]-BOP, bound rapidly to TP receptors in normal human cardiovascular tissue, displaying high affinity in left ventricle (KD 0.23±0.06 nM, Bmax 28.4±5.7 fmol mg−1 protein) and reversibility with a t1/2 of 10 min (n=five individuals±s.e.mean).In the heart, TP receptor density in the right ventricle of primary pulmonary hypertensive patients were significantly increased (66.6±6 fmol mg−1 protein) compared to non-diseased right ventricle (37.9±4.1 fmol mg−1 protein, n=six individuals±s.e.mean, P<0.05).In diseased vessels, TP receptor densities were significantly increased (3 fold in the intimal layer) in atherosclerotic coronary arteries, saphenous vein grafts with severe intimal thickening (n=8 – 12 individuals, P<0.05) and aortic tissue (n=5 – 6 individuals, P<0.05), compared with normal vessels.Losartan, tested at therapeutic doses, competed for [125I]-BOP binding to human vascular tissue, suggesting that some of the anti-hypertensive effects of this AT1 receptor antagonist could also be mediated by blocking human TP receptors.The differential distribution of TP receptors in the human cardiovascular system and the alteration of receptor density, accompanying the increase in endogenous thromboxane levels in cardiovascular disease, suggest that TP receptors represent a significant target for therapeutic interventions and highlights the importance for the development of novel selective antagonist for use in humans. PMID:11724743

  2. Animal model for angiotensin II effects in the internal anal sphincter smooth muscle: mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ya-Ping; Puri, Rajinder N; Rattan, Satish

    2002-03-01

    Effect of ANG II was investigated in in vitro smooth muscle strips and in isolated smooth muscle cells (SMC). Among different species, rat internal and sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle showed significant and reproducible contraction that remained unmodified by different neurohumoral inhibitors. The AT(1) antagonist losartan but not AT(2) antagonist PD-123319 antagonized ANG II-induced contraction of the IAS smooth muscle and SMC. ANG II-induced contraction of rat IAS smooth muscle and SMC was attenuated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and tyrphostin, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor H-7, Ca(2+) channel blocker nicardipine, Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 or p(44/42) mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK(44/42)) inhibitor PD-98059. Combinations of nicardipine and H-7, Y-27632, and PD-98059 caused further attenuation of the ANG II effects. Western blot analyses revealed the presence of both AT(1) and AT(2) receptors. We conclude that ANG II causes contraction of rat IAS smooth muscle by the activation of AT(1) receptors at the SMC and involves multiple intracellular pathways, influx of Ca(2+), and activation of PKC, Rho kinase, and MAPK(44/42).

  3. Anti-albuminuric effect of losartan versus amlodipine in hypertensive Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A prospective, open-label, randomized, comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yasuhiro; Nishimura, Akiyoshi; Iwai, Hiroshi; Hirota, Noriyuki; Yamauchi, Takaaki; Fujimoto, Mika; Miyatake, Toshiyuki; Arai, Hiroshi; Aoki, Norihiko

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The antiproteinuric effect of the angiotensin II receptor-antagonist losartan has been observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Proteinuria is considered to be a predictor of the progression of kidney disease. Objective The aims of the present study were to compare and examine the ability of losartan and amlodipine to ameliorate albuminuria in hypertensive Japanese patients (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg) with T2DM and whether the change in albuminuria was associated with a change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods This prospective, open-label, randomized, comparative study was conducted over 3 months at the Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama, Japan. Hypertensive patients with T2DM were enrolled and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 study groups receiving either losartan (25–100 mg/d) or the calcium channel-blocker amlodipine (2.5–5 mg/d). Urinary albumin excretion (UAE), creatinine clearance, and GFR were recorded at study initiation (baseline) and study end (month 3). The GFR was measured from the fractional renal accumulation of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored by a clinical research nurse during the examination. Results Fifty patients were asked to enroll and 38 returned the informed written consent. Thirty-five Japanese patients were included in the final study analysis. Seventeen patients were assigned to the losartan group (male sex, 10 [58.8%]; mean [SD] age, 58.1 [8.2] years) and 18 were assigned to the amlodipine group (male sex, 10 [55.6%]; mean [SD] age, 57.4 [8.9] years); no significant between-group difference in demographics was observed. A significant decrease from baseline to month 3 of mean (SD) UAE was observed in the losartan group (352.5 [556.6] mg/d vs 275.7 [466.1] mg/d; P = 0.048). No significant difference in mean (SD) UAE was observed in the amlodipine group for the same time period (298

  4. Long-Term Treatment with Losartan Attenuates Seizure Activity and Neuronal Damage Without Affecting Behavioral Changes in a Model of Co-morbid Hypertension and Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana D; Ivanova, Natasha; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Pechlivanova, Daniela M; Lazarov, Nikolai; Kortenska, Lidia; Mitreva, Rumiana; Lozanov, Valentin; Stoynev, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Over the last 10 years, accumulated experimental and clinical evidence has supported the idea that AT1 receptor subtype is involved in epilepsy. Recently, we have shown that the selective AT1 receptor antagonist losartan attenuates epileptogenesis and exerts neuroprotection in the CA1 area of the hippocampus in epileptic Wistar rats. This study aimed to verify the efficacy of long-term treatment with losartan (10 mg/kg) after kainate-induced status epilepticus (SE) on seizure activity, behavioral and biochemical changes, and neuronal damage in a model of co-morbid hypertension and epilepsy. Spontaneous seizures were video- and EEG-monitored in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) for a 16-week period after SE. The behavior was analyzed by open field, elevated plus maze, sugar preference test, and forced swim test. The levels of serotonin in the hippocampus and neuronal loss were estimated by HPLC and hematoxylin and eosin staining, respectively. The AT1 receptor antagonism delayed the onset of seizures and alleviated their frequency and duration during and after discontinuation of treatment. Losartan showed neuroprotection mostly in the CA3 area of the hippocampus and the septo-temporal hilus of the dentate gyrus in SHRs. However, the AT1 receptor antagonist did not exert a substantial influence on concomitant with epilepsy behavioral changes and decreased 5-HT levels in the hippocampus. Our results suggest that the antihypertensive therapy with an AT1 receptor blocker might be effective against seizure activity and neuronal damage in a co-morbid hypertension and epilepsy.

  5. Losartan enhances the success of myoblast transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fakhfakh, Raouia; Lamarre, Yann; Skuk, Daniel; Tremblay, Jacques P

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a recessive X-linked genetic disease caused by dystrophin gene mutations. Cell therapy can be a potential approach aiming to introduce a functional dystrophin in the dystrophic patient myofibers. However, this strategy produced so far limited results. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and is responsible for limiting myogenic regeneration. The combination of TGF-β signaling inhibition with myoblast transplantation can be an effective therapeutic approach in dystrophin-deficient patients. Our aim was to verify whether the success of human myoblast transplantation in immunodeficient dystrophic mice is enhanced with losartan, a molecule that downregulates TGF-β expression. In vitro, blocking TGF-β activity with losartan increased proliferation and fusion and decreased apoptosis in human myoblasts. In vivo, human myoblasts were transplanted in mice treated with oral losartan. Immunodetection of human dystrophin in tibialis anterior cross sections 1 month posttransplantation revealed more human dystrophin-positive myofibers in these mice than in nontreated dystrophic mice. Thus, blocking the TGF-β signal with losartan treatment improved the success of myoblast transplantation probably by increasing myoblast proliferation and fusion, decreasing macrophage activation, and changing the expression of myogenic regulator factors.

  6. Blood pressure, magnesium and other mineral balance in two rat models of salt-sensitive, induced hypertension: effects of a non-peptide angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Rondón, Lusliany Josefina; Marcano, Eunice; Rodríguez, Fátima; del Castillo, Jesús Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is critically involved in regulating arterial blood pressure (BP). Inappropriate angiotensin type-1 receptor activation by angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is related to increased arterial BP. Mg has a role in BP; it can affect cardiac electrical activity, myocardial contractility, and vascular tone. To evaluate the relationship between high BP induced by a high sodium (Na) diet and Mg, and other mineral balances, two experimental rat models of salt-sensitive, induced-hypertension were used: Ang-II infused and Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. We found that: 1) Ang-II infusion progressively increased BP, which was accompanied by hypomagnesuria and signs of secondary hyperaldosteronism; 2) an additive effect between Ang-II and a high Na load may have an effect on strontium (Sr), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) balances; 3) Dahl SS rats fed a high Na diet had a slow pressor response, accompanied by altered Mg, Na, potassium (K), and phosphate (P) balances; and 4) losartan prevented BP increases induced by Ang II-NaCl, but did not modify mineral balances. In Dahl SS rats, losartan attenuated high BP and ameliorated magnesemia, Na and K balances. Mg metabolism maybe considered a possible defect in this strain of rat that may contribute to hypertension.

  7. Physiological regulation of extracellular matrix collagen and elastin in the arterial wall of rats by noradrenergic tone and angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Dab, Houcine; Kacem, Kamel; Hachani, Rafik; Dhaouadi, Nadra; Hodroj, Wassim; Sakly, Mohsen; Randon, Jacques; Bricca, Giampiero

    2012-03-01

    The interactions between the effects of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and angiotensin II (ANG II) on vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis were determined in rats. The mRNA and protein content of collagen I, collagen III and elastin in the abdominal aorta (AA) and femoral artery (FA) was investigated in Wistar-Kyoto rats treated for 5 weeks with guanethidine, a sympathoplegic, losartan, an ANG II AT1 receptor (AT1R) blocker, or both. The effects of noradrenaline (NE) and ANG II on collagen III and elastin mRNA, and the receptor involved, were tested in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Guanethidine increased collagen types I and III and decreased elastin, while losartan had an opposite effect, although without effect on collagen III. The combination of treatments abrogated changes induced by simple treatment with collagen I and elastin, but increased collagen III mRNA in AA and not in FA. NE stimulated collagen III mRNA via β receptors and elastin via α1 and α2 receptors. ANG II stimulated collagen III but inhibited elastin mRNA via AT1R. Overall, SNS and ANG II exert opposite and antagonistic effects on major components of ECM in the vascular wall. This may be of relevance for the choice of a therapeutic strategy in vascular diseases.

  8. Neuroprotective mechanism of losartan and its interaction with nimesulide against chronic fatigue stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Singh, Barinder; Mishra, Jitendriya; Sah, Sangeeta Pilkhwal; Pottabathini, Raghavender

    2015-12-01

    Potential role of angiotensin-II and cyclooxygenase have been suggested in the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue stress. The present study has been designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of losartan and its interaction with nimesulide against chronic fatigue stress and related complications in mice. In the present study, male Laca mice (20-30 g) were subjected to running wheel activity test session (RWATS) for 6 min daily for 21 days. Losartan, nimesulide and their combinations were administered daily for 21 days, 45 min before being subjected to RWATS. Various behavioral and biochemical and neuroinflammatory mediators were assessed subsequently. 21 days RWATS treatment significantly decreased number of wheel rotations/6 min indicating fatigue stress like behaviors as compared to naive group. 21 days treatment with losartan (10 and 20 mg/kg, ip), nimesulide (5 and 10 mg/kg, po) and their combinations significantly improved behavior [increased number of wheel rotations, reversal of post-exercise fatigue, locomotor activity, antianxiety-like behavior (number of entries, latency to enter and time spent in mirror chamber), and memory performance (transfer latency in plus-maze performance task)], biochemical parameters (reduced serum corticosterone, brain lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, acetylcholinesterase activity, restored reduced glutathione levels and catalase activity) as compared to RWATS control. Besides, TNF-α, CRP levels were significantly attenuated by these drugs and their combinations as compared to control. The present study highlights the role of cyclooxygenase modulation in the neuroprotective effect of losartan against chronic fatigue stress-induced behavioral, biochemical and cellular alterations in mice.

  9. Involvement of p38 MAPK activation mediated through AT1 receptors on spinal astrocytes and neurons in angiotensin II- and III-induced nociceptive behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Wataru; Ogata, Yoshiki; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Yaoita, Fukie; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated the possibility that angiotensin (Ang) II and its N-terminal metabolite Ang (1-7) act as neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators in the spinal transmission of nociceptive information. Ang III, which is a C-terminal metabolite of Ang II, can also act on AT1 receptors, but its role in spinal nociceptive transmission remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the role of Ang III on the spinal nociceptive system in comparison with that of Ang II. Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of Ang III into mice produced a nociceptive behavior, which was dose-dependently inhibited by the co-administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan and the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, but not by the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319, MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and JNK inhibitor SP600125. In addition, Ang III increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in the dorsal lumbar spinal cord, which was inhibited by losartan. These effects were similar to those of observed with Ang II. The nociceptive behavior produced by Ang II or III was also attenuated by the administration of the astrocytic inhibitor L-α-aminoadipic acid, but not by the microglial inhibitor minocycline. Double immunohistochemical staining showed that spinal AT1 receptors were expressed on neurons and astrocytes, and that i.t. administration of either Ang II or III phosphorylated p38 MAPK in both spinal astrocytes and neurons. These results indicate that Ang III produces nociceptive behavior similar to Ang II, and suggest that the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK mediated through AT1 receptors on spinal astrocytes and neurons contributes to Ang II- and III-induced nociceptive behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Knockdown Impairs Interleukin-1β-Induced Cytokines in Human Periodontal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Lilian Gobbo; Morandini, Ana Carolina; Dionísio, Thiago José; Santos, Carlos Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin (Ang) system (RAS) has been reported as an important modulator of inflammatory and immune responses. Evidence suggests an alternative Ang 1-7/Mas receptor axis as counter-regulatory to the classic RAS Ang II/Ang II Type 1 (AT1) receptor axis. It is known that periodontal pathogens elicit host-derived immune response due to release of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, and fibroblasts are among the most numerous sentinel cells that contribute to this production. The aim of this study is to determine whether AT1 receptor (AT1R) contributes to production of inflammatory cytokines that are important for periodontal pathogenesis using primary human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLFs) stimulated with IL-1β. Through RNA interference or pharmacologic inhibition using AT1R antagonist losartan, HGF and HPLF were stimulated by IL-1β for 3 (messenger RNA [mRNA]) or 24 (protein) hours. IL-1β upregulated mRNA expression of AT1R, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in HGF and HPLF. AT1R knockdown impaired IL-1β-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in cultured HGF and HPLF. AT1R silencing also increased OPG gene expression in HGF only. Pharmacologic inhibition of AT1R through losartan modulated mRNA transcription of IL-6 and IL-8 in HPLF but not in HGF. In contrast, IL-1β-induced secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 was not influenced by losartan in HGF or HPLF. These results suggest that AT1R knockdown and AT1R pharmacologic blockade by losartan may differently control balance of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8, in primary human periodontal fibroblasts.

  11. Role of Angiotensin II type 1 receptor on renal NAD(P)H oxidase, oxidative stress and inflammation in nitric oxide inhibition induced-hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rincón, J; Correia, D; Arcaya, J L; Finol, E; Fernández, A; Pérez, M; Yaguas, K; Talavera, E; Chávez, M; Summer, R; Romero, F

    2015-03-01

    Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), renal oxidative stress and inflammation are constantly present in experimental hypertension. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibition with N(w)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) has previously been reported to produce hypertension, increased expression of Angiotensin II (Ang II) and renal dysfunction. The use of Losartan, an Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist has proven to be effective reducing hypertension and renal damage; however, the mechanism by which AT1R blockade reduced kidney injury and normalizes blood pressure in this experimental model is still complete unknown. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that AT1R activation promotes renal NAD(P)H oxidase up-regulation, oxidative stress and cytokine production during L-NAME induced-hypertension. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed in three groups: L-NAME, receiving 70 mg/100ml of L-NAME, L-NAME+Los, receiving 70 mg/100ml of L-NAME and 40 mg/kg/day of Losartan; and Controls, receiving water instead of L-NAME or L-NAME and Losartan. After two weeks, L-NAME induced high blood pressure, renal overexpression of AT1R, NAD(P)H oxidase sub-units gp91, p22 and p47, increased levels of oxidative stress, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17 (IL-17). Also, we found increased renal accumulation of lymphocytes and macrophages. Losartan treatment abolished the renal expression of gp91, p22, p47, oxidative stress and reduced NF-κB activation and IL-6 expression. These findings indicate that NO induced-hypertension is associated with up-regulation of NADPH oxidase, oxidative stress production and overexpression of key inflammatory mediators. These events are associated with up-regulation of AT1R, as evidenced by their reversal with AT1R blocker treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Beneficial effects of the combination of amlodipine and losartan for lowering blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Min; Seo, Mi Jeong; Kang, Kyung Koo; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Ahn, Byoung Ok; Yoo, Moohi

    2009-03-01

    A combination of antihypertensive agents can better control blood pressure and reduce the number and severity of side effects than a monotherapy. Since both CCBs (calcium channel blockers) and ARBs (angiotensin II receptor type-1 blockers) are current and effective antihypertensive drugs, this study assessed the synergistic antihypertensive effects as well as the optimal combination ratio of these two drugs. Amlodipine (3 mg/kg) or losartan (30 mg/kg) alone or a combination of each drug at a ratio 1:10 and 1:20 was administered orally to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A four-week treatment of either 3 mg/kg amlodipine or 30 mg/kg losartan alone decreased the systolic blood pressure (SBP). However, their combination significantly lowered the SBP from the 3(rd) week, and there was a positive correlation between this reduction in blood pressure and the improvement in arterial endothelium-dependent relaxation. In addition, the combination therapy (1:20) decreased both the cardiac mass and left ventricular weight to a greater extent than with either amlodipine or losartan alone. The collagen content in the cardiac tissue was also significantly lower after the 4-week combination therapy (1:10). These results suggest that the combined use of amlodipine and losartan might be more effective in treating hypertension than a monotherapy.

  13. Chronic Losartan Treatment Up-Regulates AT1R and Increases the Heart Vulnerability to Acute Onset of Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Minwoo A; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is an important therapy in the management of hypertension, particularly in the immediate post-myocardial infarction period. Yet, the role of AT1R in the acute onset of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury still remains controversial. Thus, the present study determined the effects of chronic losartan treatment on heart ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats. Losartan (10 mg/kg/day) was administered to six-month-old male rats via an osmotic pump for 14 days and hearts were then isolated and were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion injury in a Langendorff preparation. Losartan significantly decreased mean arterial blood pressure. However, heart weight, left ventricle to body weight ratio and baseline cardiac function were not significantly altered by the losartan treatment. Of interest, chronic in vivo losartan treatment significantly increased ischemia-induced myocardial injury and decreased post-ischemic recovery of left ventricular function. This was associated with significant increases in AT1R and PKCδ expression in the left ventricle. In contrast, AT2R and PKCε were not altered. Furthermore, losartan treatment significantly increased microRNA (miR)-1, -15b, -92a, -133a, -133b, -210, and -499 expression but decreased miR-21 in the left ventricle. Of importance, addition of losartan to isolated heart preparations blocked the effect of increased ischemic-injury induced by in vivo chronic losartan treatment. The results demonstrate that chronic losartan treatment up-regulates AT1R/PKCδ and alters miR expression patterns in the heart, leading to increased cardiac vulnerability to ischemia and reperfusion injury.

  14. Chronic Losartan Treatment Up-Regulates AT1R and Increases the Heart Vulnerability to Acute Onset of Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minwoo A.; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is an important therapy in the management of hypertension, particularly in the immediate post-myocardial infarction period. Yet, the role of AT1R in the acute onset of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury still remains controversial. Thus, the present study determined the effects of chronic losartan treatment on heart ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats. Losartan (10 mg/kg/day) was administered to six-month-old male rats via an osmotic pump for 14 days and hearts were then isolated and were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion injury in a Langendorff preparation. Losartan significantly decreased mean arterial blood pressure. However, heart weight, left ventricle to body weight ratio and baseline cardiac function were not significantly altered by the losartan treatment. Of interest, chronic in vivo losartan treatment significantly increased ischemia-induced myocardial injury and decreased post-ischemic recovery of left ventricular function. This was associated with significant increases in AT1R and PKCδ expression in the left ventricle. In contrast, AT2R and PKCε were not altered. Furthermore, losartan treatment significantly increased microRNA (miR)-1, -15b, -92a, -133a, -133b, -210, and -499 expression but decreased miR-21 in the left ventricle. Of importance, addition of losartan to isolated heart preparations blocked the effect of increased ischemic-injury induced by in vivo chronic losartan treatment. The results demonstrate that chronic losartan treatment up-regulates AT1R/PKCδ and alters miR expression patterns in the heart, leading to increased cardiac vulnerability to ischemia and reperfusion injury. PMID:26168042

  15. Transient prehypertensive treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats: a comparison of losartan and amlodipine regarding long-term blood pressure, cardiac and renal protection.

    PubMed

    Peng, Feng; Lin, Jinxiu; Lin, Liming; Tang, Hong

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of transient prehypertensive treatment with losartan compared with amlodipine in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) on long-term blood pressure (BP), cardiac and renal protection. SHRs were prehypertensively treated with losartan, amlodipine or saline. Rats were followed up until 46 weeks of age. The left ventricular (LV) geometry and function were assessed by echocardiography. Angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone (Aldo) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Ang II type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) receptor protein expression was determined by western blotting. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) in losartan-treated SHRs (SHR-Los) was persistently reduced until 46 weeks of age, but returned to untreated SHR levels in amlodipine-treated SHRs (SHR-Aml) from 30 weeks onwards. Compared to untreated SHRs, the albuminuria excretion in SHR-Los at week 46 was markedly decreased, the plasma, myocardium and renal tissue Ang II and Aldo levels in SHR-Los at week 46 were markedly decreased; AT1R and TGF-β1 protein expression was downregulated and AT2R protein was upregulated. Compared to untreated SHRs, the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and collagen volume fraction (CVF) in SHR-Los were markedly decreased until week 46, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and cardiac brain natriuretic peptide mRNA expression were improved, whereas similar LVMI and elevated CVF were observed in SHR-Aml, and the LVEF decreased significantly below that of untreated SHRs at week 46, with cardiac BNP mRNA expression increasing slightly. Prehypertensive treatment with losartan was more effective than amlodipine on delaying long-term BP increase and ameliorating cardiac, renal structure and function, which may be related to the permanent attenuation of the circulating and local renin-angiotensin systems.

  16. Effect of losartan on ambulatory short-term blood pressure variability and cardiovascular remodeling in hypertensive patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Hiroshi; Tamura, Kouichi; Yamauchi, Junji; Ozawa, Motoko; Yanagi, Mai; Dejima, Toru; Wakui, Hiromichi; Masuda, Shin-ichiro; Azuma, Koichi; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Ohsawa, Masato; Maeda, Akinobu; Tsurumi-Ikeya, Yuko; Okano, Yasuko; Ishigami, Tomoaki; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Tokita, Yasuo; Ohnishi, Toshimasa; Umemura, Satoshi

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies have shown increases in ambulatory short-term blood pressure (BP) variability to be related to cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examined whether an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan would improve ambulatory short-term BP variability in hypertensive patients on hemodialysis. Forty hypertensive patients on hemodialysis therapy were randomly assigned to the losartan treatment group (n=20) or the control treatment group (n=20). At baseline and 6 and 12 months after the treatment, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring was performed. Echocardiography and measurements of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and biochemical parameters were also performed before and after therapy. After 6- and 12-months of treatment, nighttime short-term BP variability, assessed on the basis of the coefficient of variation of ambulatory BP, was significantly decreased in the losartan group, but remained unchanged in the control group. Compared with the control group, losartan significantly decreased left ventricular mass index (LVMI), baPWV, and the plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide and advanced glycation end products (AGE). Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed significant correlations between changes in LVMI and changes in nighttime short-term BP variability, as well as between changes in LVMI and changes in the plasma levels of AGE. These results suggest that losartan is beneficial for the suppression of pathological cardiovascular remodeling though its inhibitory effect on ambulatory short-term BP variability during nighttime.

  17. A novel design of combining the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril with the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) losartan using homo coupling via PEG diacid linker.

    PubMed

    Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Park, Shery; Ju, Hee; Movahed, Mohammad R

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in American adults. Furthermore, the incidence of congestive heart failure is on the rise as a major cause of hospitalization and mortality in this population. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors prevent the production of angiotensin II, which has been shown to reduce mortality in patients with congestive heart failure. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) were developed as a direct inhibitor of angiotensin II. ARBs have been shown to be effective in the treatment of patients with systolic heart failure but do not cause chronic coughing which is a common side effect of ACE inhibitors. In theory, a compound that has the combined effect of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB should be more effective in treating heart failure patients than either agents alone. Therefore, the purpose of this manuscript is to design and discuss the benefits of a new molecule, which combines captopril, an ACE inhibitor, with losartan, an ARB. In this experiment Captopril and Losartan were modified and synthesized separately and combined by homo or mono coupling. This was achieved by taking advantage of PEG (Polyethylene glycol) as a linker. It is expected that this molecule will have the combined modes of action of both ACEs and ARBs. Benefits from combination therapy include; increased efficacy, reduced adverse effects, convenience, compliance, and prolonged duration. Consequently, this combined molecule is expected to block the production of angiotensin II more efficiently and effectively. Although captopril and losartan work in the same system by blocking the effect of angiotensin II they have different action sites and mechanisms some patents are also discussed. Losartan blocks the AT1 receptor which is expressed on the cell surface, while captopril inhibits ACE, preventing production of angiotensin II, which is present in both the plasma and on the cell surface, especially on endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

  18. Enhanced effect of losartan and rosuvastatin on neointima hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yi, Inseon; Lee, Jung-Jin; Park, Jeong-Sook; Zhang, Wei Yun; Kim, In-Su; Kim, Yohan; Shin, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyung Sik; Myung, Chang-Seon

    2010-04-01

    The beneficial effects of losartan and rosuvastatin on neointimal formation have been well characterized, but little is known about the combined treatment benefit of these two drugs. This study was designed to investigate the synergistic effect of losartan combined with rosuvastatin on the magnitude of protective action in vascular injury mediated by cuff-induced neointimal formation model in vivo. Losartan at 20 mg/kg or rosuvastatin at 40 mg/kg significantly decreased both the neointimal formation and BrdU-positive cells in neointima, indicating the inhibition of cell proliferation including a progress of DNA synthesis. The combination treatment used lower doses of losartan with rosuvastatin (10 + 20 & 5 + 10 mg/kg, respectively) that proved to be significant in decreasing the neointimal formation and BrdU incorporation. These results were comparable to the diminution attained with monotherapy of either drug in higher doses. Interaction index measured by isobolar method indicated drug synergism in these two combinations of both drugs at lower doses. Therefore, the administration of losartan and rosuvastatin in combination with low doses synergistically decreased in cuff-induced neointimal formation by reducing cell proliferation, suggesting that this drug synergism may be fully effective with, lower adverse effects, for the treatment of vascular remodeling such as restenosis.

  19. The angiotensin receptor blocker losartan reduces coronary arteriole remodeling in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Husarek, Kathryn E; Katz, Paige S; Trask, Aaron J; Galantowicz, Maarten L; Cismowski, Mary J; Lucchesi, Pamela A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and are associated with alterations of blood vessel structure and function. Although endothelial dysfunction and aortic stiffness have been documented, little is known about the effects of T2DM on coronary microvascular structural remodeling. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays an important role in large artery stiffness and mesenteric vessel remodeling in hypertension and T2DM. The goal of this study was to determine whether the blockade of AT1R signaling dictates vascular smooth muscle growth that partially underlies coronary arteriole remodeling in T2DM. Control and db/db mice were given AT1R blocker losartan via drinking water for 4 weeks. Using pressure myography, we found that coronary arterioles from 16-week db/db mice undergo inward hypertrophic remodeling due to increased wall thickness and wall-to-lumen ratio with a decreased lumen diameter. This remodeling was accompanied by decreased elastic modulus (decreased stiffness). Losartan treatment decreased wall thickness, wall-to-lumen ratio, and coronary arteriole cell number in db/db mice. Losartan treatment did not affect incremental elastic modulus. However, losartan improved coronary flow reserve. Our data suggest that Ang II-AT1R signaling mediates, at least in part, coronary arteriole inward hypertrophic remodeling in T2DM without affecting vascular mechanics, further suggesting that targeting the coronary microvasculature in T2DM may help reduce cardiac ischemic events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A combination of vitamin C and losartan for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Farzaneh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Safari, Tahereh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nasri, Hamid; Khazaei, Mehdi; Baradaran-Mahdavi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Jafapisheh, Amir; Olia, Behrooz; Pirhaji, Omid; Hashemi-Nia, Sayyed-Javad; Eshraghi, Fatemeh; Pezeshki, Zahra; Mortazavi, Mojgan

    2012-09-01

    The nephroprotective effect of co-administration of vitamin C and losartan as prophylaxis against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) was evaluated. Co-administration of vitamin C and losartan was compared with losartan (10 mg/kg), vitamin C (250 mg/kg), and placebo in 4 groups of rats with CIN. The prophylactic agents were injected daily for a period of 4 days, and on day 3, a single dose (6 mg/kg) of cisplatin was administrated. The animals were sacrificed 7 days later for pathological examination of the kidneys. Cisplatin prevented the animals' weight gain. The serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen increased within the groups with CIN, but no significant difference was observed between the groups. The prophylaxis has no effect on serum osmolality, total protein, or nitrite concentrations. The kidney tissue damage was scored, and losartan provided a lower damage score than vitamin C and a combination of vitamin C and losartan. We concluded that co-administration of vitamin C and losartan was not more effective than the administration of vitamin C or losartan alone.

  1. Angiotensin II up-regulates PAX2 oncogene expression and activity in prostate cancer via the angiotensin II type I receptor.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sudeep K; Gibson, Willietta; Giri, Shailendra; Nath, Narender; Donald, Carlton D

    2009-09-01

    Paired homeobox 2 gene (PAX2) is a transcriptional regulator, aberrantly expressed in prostate cancer cells and its down-regulation promotes cell death in these cells. The molecular mechanisms of tumor progression by PAX2 over-expression are still unclear. However, it has been reported that angiotensin-II (A-II) induces cell growth in prostate cancer via A-II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and is mediated by the phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Here we have demonstrated that A-II up-regulates PAX2 expression in prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer cell lines resulting in increased cell growth. Furthermore, AT1R receptor antagonist losartan was shown to inhibit A-II induced PAX2 expression in prostate cancer. Moreover, analysis using pharmacological inhibitors against MEK1/2, ERK1/2, JAK-II, and phospho-STAT3 demonstrated that AT1R-mediated stimulatory effect of A-II on PAX2 expression was regulated in part by the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JAK II, and STAT3 pathways. In addition, we have showed that down-regulation of PAX2 by an AT1R antagonist as well as JAK-II and STAT3 inhibitors suppress prostate cancer cell growth. Collectively, these findings show for the first time that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may promote prostate tumorigenesis via up-regulation of PAX2 expression. Therefore, PAX2 may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of carcinomas such as prostate cancer via the down-regulation of its expression by targeting the AT1R signaling pathways.

  2. Tonic suppression of spontaneous baroreceptor reflex by endogenous angiotensins via AT(2) subtype receptors at nucleus reticularis ventrolateralis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lin, K; Chan, S H; Chan, J Y

    2001-04-01

    We evaluated the role of endogenous angiotensins at the rostral nucleus reticularis ventrolateralis (NRVL) in the modulation of spontaneous baroreceptor reflex (BRR) response and the subtype of angiotensin receptors involved using rats anesthetized and maintained with pentobarbital sodium. Bilateral microinjection of angiotensin II (ANG II) or its active metabolite angiotensin III (ANG III) (5, 10, or 20 pmol) into the NRVL significantly suppressed the spontaneous BRR response, as represented by the magnitude of transfer function between systemic arterial pressure and heart rate signals. The inhibitory effect of ANG III (20 pmol) was discernibly reversed by coadministration with its peptide antagonist, [Ile(7)]ANG III (1.6 nmol), or the nonpeptide AT(2) receptor antagonist, PD-123319 (1.6 nmol), but not by the nonpeptide AT(1) receptor antagonist, losartan (1.6 nmol). On the other hand, the peptide antagonist, [Sar(1), Ile(8)]ANG II (1.6 nmol) or both non-peptide antagonists appreciably reversed the suppressive action of ANG II (20 pmol). Whereas losartan produced minimal effect, blocking the endogenous activity of the angiotensins by microinjection into the bilateral NRVL of PD-123319, [Sar(1), Ile(8)]ANG II or [Ile(7)]ANG III elicited significant enhancement of the spontaneous BRR response. We conclude that under physiologic conditions both endogenous ANG II and ANG III may exert a tonic inhibitory modulation on the spontaneous BRR response by acting selectively on the AT(2) subtype receptors at the NRVL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of valsartan versus losartan and the effect of switching.

    PubMed

    Baker, Timothy M; Goh, Jowern; Johnston, Atholl; Falvey, Heather; Brede, Yvonne; Brown, Ruth E

    2012-01-01

    Losartan will shortly become generic, and this may encourage switching to the generic drug. However, valsartan was shown in a meta-analysis to be statistically superior in lowering blood pressure (BP) to losartan. This paper examines the costs of treatment with these two drugs and the potential consequences of switching established valsartan patients to generic losartan. A US payer cost-effectiveness model was developed incorporating the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events related to systolic blood pressure (SBP) control comparing valsartan to continual losartan and switching from valsartan to generic losartan. The model, based upon a meta-analysis by Nixon et al. and Framingham equations, included first CVD event costs calculated from US administrative data sets and utility values from published sources. The modeled outcomes were number of CVD events, costs and incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) and life-year (LY). Fewer patients had fatal and non-fatal CVD events with valsartan therapy compared with continual losartan and with patients switched from valsartan to generic losartan. The base-case model results indicated that continued treatment with valsartan had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $27,268 and $25,460 per life year gained, and $32,313 and $30,170 per QALY gained, relative to continual losartan and switching treatments, respectively. Sensitivity analyses found that patient discontinuation post-switching was a sensitive parameter. Including efficacy offsets with lowered adherence or discontinuation resulted in more favorable ratios for valsartan compared to switching therapy. The model does not evaluate post-primary CVD events and considers change in SBP from baseline level as the sole predictor of CVD risk. Valsartan appears to be cost-effective compared to switching to generic losartan and switching to the generic drug does not support a cost offset argument over the longer term. Physicians should continue to

  4. Beneficial Outcome of Losartan Therapy Depends on Type of FBN1 Mutation in Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Franken, Romy; den Hartog, Alexander W; Radonic, Teodora; Micha, Dimitra; Maugeri, Alessandra; van Dijk, Fleur S; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E; Timmermans, Janneke; Scholte, Arthur J; van den Berg, Maarten P; Groenink, Maarten; Mulder, Barbara J M; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; de Waard, Vivian; Pals, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that losartan reduces aortic dilatation in patients with Marfan syndrome. However, treatment response is highly variable. This study investigates losartan effectiveness in genetically classified subgroups. In this predefined substudy of COMPARE, Marfan patients were randomized to daily receive losartan 100 mg or no losartan. Aortic root dimensions were measured by MRI at baseline and after 3 years. FBN1 mutations were classified based on fibrillin-1 protein effect into (1) haploinsufficiency, decreased amount of normal fibrillin-1, or (2) dominant negative, normal fibrillin-1 abundance with mutant fibrillin-1 incorporated in the matrix. A pathogenic FBN1 mutation was found in 117 patients, of whom 79 patients were positive for a dominant negative mutation (67.5%) and 38 for a mutation causing haploinsufficiency (32.5%). Baseline characteristics between treatment groups were similar. Overall, losartan significantly reduced aortic root dilatation rate (no losartan, 1.3±1.5 mm/3 years, n=59 versus losartan, 0.8±1.4 mm/3 years, n=58; P=0.009). However, losartan reduced only aortic root dilatation rate in haploinsufficient patients (no losartan, 1.8±1.5 mm/3 years, n=21 versus losartan 0.5±0.8 mm/3 years, n=17; P=0.001) and not in dominant negative patients (no losartan, 1.2±1.7 mm/3 years, n=38 versus losartan 0.8±1.3 mm/3 years, n=41; P=0.197). Marfan patients with haploinsufficient FBN1 mutations seem to be more responsive to losartan therapy for inhibition of aortic root dilatation rate compared with dominant negative patients. Additional treatment strategies are needed in Marfan patients with dominant negative FBN1 mutations. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp; Unique Identifier: NTR1423. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Involvement of Type 1 Angiontensin II Receptor (AT1) in Cardiovascular Changes Induced by Chronic Emotional Stress: Comparison between Homotypic and Heterotypic Stressors.

    PubMed

    Costa-Ferreira, Willian; Vieira, Jonas O; Almeida, Jeferson; Gomes-de-Souza, Lucas; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence has shown an important role of emotional stress in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, studies in animal models have demonstrated that daily exposure to different stressor (heterotypic stressor) evokes more severe changes than those resulting from repeated exposure to the same aversive stimulus (homotypic stressor), possibly due to the habituation process upon repeated exposure to the same stressor. Despite these pieces of evidence, the mechanisms involved in the stress-evoked cardiovascular dysfunction are poorly understood. Therefore, the present study investigated the involvement of angiotensin II (Ang II) acting on the type 1 Ang II receptor (AT1) in the cardiovascular dysfunctions evoked by both homotypic and heterotypic chronic emotional stresses in rats. For this purpose, we compared the effect of the chronic treatment with the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) on the cardiovascular and autonomic changes evoked by the heterotypic stressor chronic variable stress (CVS) and the homotypic stressor repeated restraint stress (RRS). RRS increased the sympathetic tone to the heart and decreased the cardiac parasympathetic activity, whereas CVS decreased the cardiac parasympathetic activity. Additionally, both stressors impaired the baroreflex function. Alterations in the autonomic activity and the baroreflex impairment were inhibited by losartan treatment. Additionally, CVS reduced the body weight and increased the circulating corticosterone; however, these effects were not affected by losartan. In conclusion, these findings indicate the involvement of angiotensin II/AT1 receptors in the autonomic changes evoked by both homotypic and heterotypic chronic stressors. Moreover, the present results provide evidence that the increase in the circulating corticosterone and body weight reduction evoked by heterotypic stressors are independent of AT1 receptors.

  6. Losartan Treatment Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells and Alters Scleral Remodeling in Experimental Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Pitha, Ian F.; Nguyen, Cathy; Steinhart, Matthew R.; Nguyen, Thao D.; Pease, Mary Ellen; Oglesby, Ericka N.; Berlinicke, Cynthia A.; Mitchell, Katherine L.; Kim, Jessica; Jefferys, Joan J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if oral losartan treatment decreases the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death caused by experimental intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in mice. Methods We produced IOP increase in CD1 mice and performed unilateral optic nerve crush. Mice received oral losartan, spironolactone, enalapril, or no drug to test effects of inhibiting angiotensin receptors. IOP was monitored by Tonolab, and blood pressure was monitored by tail cuff device. RGC loss was measured in masked axon counts and RGC bodies by β-tubulin labeling. Scleral changes that could modulate RGC injury were measured including axial length, scleral thickness, and retinal layer thicknesses, pressure-strain behavior in inflation testing, and study of angiotensin receptors and pathways by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Results Losartan treatment prevented significant RGC loss (median loss = 2.5%, p = 0.13), while median loss with water, spironolactone, and enalapril treatments were 26%, 28% and 43%; p < 0.0001). The lower RGC loss with losartan was significantly less than the loss with spironolactone or enalapril (regression model p = 0.001; drug treatment group term p = 0.01). Both losartan and enalapril significantly lowered blood pressure (p< 0.001), but losartan was protective, while enalapril led to worse than water-treated RGC loss. RGC loss after crush injury was unaffected by losartan treatment (difference from control p = 0.9). Survival of RGC in cell culture was not prolonged by sartan treatment. Axonal transport blockade after 3 day IOP elevations was less in losartan-treated than in control glaucoma eyes (p = 0.007). Losartan inhibited effects of glaucoma, including reduction in extracellular signal-related kinase activity and modification of glaucoma-related changes in scleral thickness and creep under controlled IOP. Conclusions The neuroprotective effect of losartan in mouse glaucoma is associated with adaptive changes

  7. Angiotensin II attenuates NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal cell death and prevents the associated reduction in Bcl-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Schelman, William R; Andres, Robert; Ferguson, Paul; Orr, Brent; Kang, Evan; Weyhenmeyer, James A

    2004-09-10

    While angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure, fluid homeostasis and neuroendocrine function, recent studies have also implicated the peptide hormone in cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. In support of this, we have previously demonstrated that Ang II attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling [Molec. Brain Res. 48 (1997) 197]. To further examine the modulatory role of Ang II on NMDA receptor function, we investigated the effect of angiotensin receptor (AT) activation on NMDA-mediated cell death and the accompanying decrease in Bcl-2 expression. The viability of differentiated N1E-115 and NG108-15 neuronal cell lines was reduced following exposure to NMDA in a dose-dependent manner. MTT analysis (mitochondrial integrity) revealed a decrease in cell survival of 49.4+/-12.3% in NG108 cells and 79.9+/-6.8% in N1E cells following treatment with 10 mM NMDA for 20 h. Cytotoxicity in N1E cells was inhibited by the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. Further, NMDA receptor-mediated cell death in NG108 cells was attenuated by treatment with Ang II. The Ang II effect was inhibited by both AT1 and AT2 receptor antagonists, losartan and PD123319, respectively, suggesting that both receptor subtypes may play a role in the survival effect of Ang II. Since it has been shown that activation of NMDA receptors alters the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, Western blot analysis was performed in N1E cells to determine whether Ang II alters the NMDA-induced changes in Bcl-2 expression. A concentration-dependent decrease of intracellular Bcl-2 protein levels was observed following treatment with NMDA, and this reduction was inhibited by MK801. Addition of Ang II suppressed the NMDA receptor-mediated reduction in Bcl-2. The Ang II effect on NMDA-mediated changes in Bcl-2 levels was blocked by PD123319, but was not significantly changed by losartan, suggesting AT2 receptor specificity. Taken together, these

  8. Regulation of aortic extracellular matrix synthesis via noradrenergic system and angiotensin II in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Dab, Houcine; Hachani, Rafik; Dhaouadi, Nedra; Sakly, Mohsen; Hodroj, Wassim; Randon, Jacques; Bricca, Giampiero; Kacem, Kamel

    2012-10-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis regulation by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or angiotensin II (ANG II) was widely reported, but interaction between the two systems on ECM synthesis needs further investigation. We tested implication of SNS and ANG II on ECM synthesis in juvenile rat aorta. Sympathectomy with guanethidine (50 mg/kg, subcutaneous) and blockade of the ANG II AT1 receptors (AT1R) blocker with losartan (20 mg/kg/day in drinking water) were performed alone or in combination in rats. mRNA and protein synthesis of collagen and elastin were examined by Q-RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Collagen type I and III mRNA were increased respectively by 62 and 43% after sympathectomy and decreased respectively by 31 and 60% after AT1R blockade. Combined treatment increased collagen type III by 36% but not collagen type I. The same tendency of collagen expression was observed at mRNA and protein levels after the three treatments. mRNA and protein level of elastin was decreased respectively by 63 and 39% and increased by 158 and 15% after losartan treatment. Combined treatment abrogates changes induced by single treatments. The two systems act as antagonists on ECM expression in the aorta and combined inhibition of the two systems prevents imbalance of mRNA and protein level of collagen I and elastin induced by single treatment. Combined inhibition of the two systems prevents deposit or excessive reduction of ECM and can more prevent cardiovascular disorders.

  9. Losartan does not decrease renal oxygenation and norepinephrine effects in rats after resuscitated haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Sofia; Melville, Jacqueline M; Becirovic-Agic, Mediha; Hultström, Michael

    2018-04-18

    Renin-angiotensin-system blockers are thought to increase the risk of acute kidney injury after surgery and haemorrhage. We found that Losartan does not cause renal cortical hypoxia after haemorrhage in rats because of decreased renal vascular resistance, but did not evaluate resuscitation. Study Losartan´s effect on renal cortical and medullary oxygenation, and norepinephrine´s vasopressor effect in a model of resuscitated haemorrhage. After seven days Losartan (60 mg/kg/day) or control treatment, male Wistar rats were haemorrhaged 20 % of the blood volume and resuscitated with Ringer's Acetate. Mean arterial pressure, renal blood flow, and kidney tissue oxygenation was measured at baseline and after resuscitation. Finally, the effect of norepinephrine on mean arterial pressure and renal blood flow was investigated. As expected, Losartan lowered mean arterial pressure but not renal blood flow. Losartan did not affect renal oxygen consumption and oxygen tension. Mean arterial pressure and renal blood flow were lower after resuscitated haemorrhage. Smaller increase of renal vascular resistance in Losartan group translated to smaller decrease in cortical oxygen tension, but no significant difference seen in medullary oxygen tension either between groups or after haemorrhage. The effect of norepinephrine on mean arterial pressure and renal blood flow was similar in controls and Losartan treated rats. Losartan does not decrease renal oxygenation after resuscitated haemorrhage because of a smaller increase in renal vascular resistance. Further, Losartan does not decrease the efficiency of norepinephrine as a vasopressor indicating that blood pressure may be managed effectively during Losartan treatment.

  10. Effects of endothelin receptor antagonists on renal hemodynamics in angiotensin II-infused rats on high NaCl intake.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aso; Dibona, Gerald F; Guron, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate effects of selective endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists on renal hemodynamics and dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation (RBFA) in angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused rats on a high NaCl intake. Sprague-Dawley rats received Ang II (250 ng/kg/min, s.c.) and an 8% NaCl diet for 14 days after which renal clearance experiments were performed. After baseline measurements animals were administered either: (a) saline vehicle; (b) ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 (30 nmol/kg/min); (c) ETB receptor antagonist BQ-788 (30 nmol/kg/min); or (d) BQ-123 + BQ-788, for six consecutive 20-minute clearance periods. BQ-123 reduced arterial pressure (AP) and selectively increased outer medullary perfusion versus vehicle (p<0.05). These effects were attenuated or abolished by combined BQ-123 and BQ-788. BQ-788 reduced renal blood flow and increased renovascular resistance (p<0.05). Ang II-infused rats on high NaCl intake showed abnormalities in dynamic RBFA characterized by an impaired myogenic response that were not significantly affected by ET receptor antagonists. In hypertensive Ang II-infused rats on a high-NaCl intake selective ETA antagonism with BQ-123 reduced AP and specifically increased OM perfusion and these effects were dependent on intact ETB receptor stimulation. Furthermore, ET receptor antagonists did not attenuate abnormalities in dynamic RBFA. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effect of simvastatin on the antihypertensive activity of losartan in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals and patients: role of nitric oxide, oxidative stress, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Zaher, Ahmed O; Elkoussi, Alaa Eldin A; Abudahab, Lotfy H; Elbakry, Mohammed H; Elsayed, Elsayed Abu-Elwafa

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated whether simvastatin has antihypertensive activity and can enhance the antihypertensive effect of losartan in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals and patients. Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were induced in rats by L-NAME and cholesterol-enriched diet, respectively. In these animals, repeated administration of simvastatin decreased the systolic blood pressure, enhanced its progressive reductions induced by repeated administration of losartan, and corrected the compromised lipid profile. Concomitantly, repeated administration of simvastatin, losartan, or simvastatin in combination with losartan to these animals increased nitric oxide (NO) production and decreased the elevated serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. Effects of combined treatment were greater than those of simvastatin or losartan alone. In hypertensive hypercholesterolemic patients, repeated administration of losartan decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, increased NO production, and decreased the elevated serum MDA and hs-CRP levels. Addition of simvastatin to losartan therapy enhanced these effects and corrected the compromised lipid profile. Simvastatin inhibited the contractile responses of isolated aortic rings induced by angiotensin II and enhanced the inhibitory effect of losartan on this preparation. l-arginine and acetylcholine enhanced, while L-NAME inhibited the effects of simvastatin, losartan, and their combination on these contractile responses. Thus, simvastatin exerts antihypertensive effect in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals and enhances the antihypertensive effect of losartan in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals and patients. Besides, its cholesterol-lowering effect, the ability of simvastatin to ameliorate endothelial dysfunction through increasing NO bioavailability and through suppression of oxidative stress and vascular inflammation may play an important role in these

  12. Effect of Losartan on Mitral Valve Changes After Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Bartko, Philipp E; Dal-Bianco, Jacob P; Guerrero, J Luis; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Szymanski, Catherine; Kim, Dae-Hee; Seybolt, Margo M; Handschumacher, Mark D; Sullivan, Suzanne; Garcia, Michael L; Titus, James S; Wylie-Sears, Jill; Irvin, Whitney S; Messas, Emmanuel; Hagège, Albert A; Carpentier, Alain; Aikawa, Elena; Bischoff, Joyce; Levine, Robert A

    2017-09-05

    After myocardial infarction (MI), mitral valve (MV) tethering stimulates adaptive leaflet growth, but counterproductive leaflet thickening and fibrosis augment mitral regurgitation (MR), doubling heart failure and mortality. MV fibrosis post-MI is associated with excessive endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), driven by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β overexpression. In vitro, losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition reduces EMT of MV endothelial cells. This study tested the hypothesis that profibrotic MV changes post-MI are therapeutically accessible, specifically by losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition. The study assessed 17 sheep, including 6 sham-operated control animals and 11 with apical MI and papillary muscle retraction short of producing MR; 6 of the 11 were treated with daily losartan, and 5 were untreated, with flexible epicardial mesh comparably limiting left ventricular (LV) remodeling. LV volumes, tethering, and MV area were quantified by using three-dimensional echocardiography at baseline and at 60 ± 6 days, and excised leaflets were analyzed by histopathology and flow cytometry. Post-MI LV dilation and tethering were comparable in the losartan-treated and untreated LV constraint sheep. Telemetered sensors (n = 6) showed no significant losartan-induced changes in arterial pressure. Losartan strongly reduced leaflet thickness (0.9 ± 0.2 mm vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 mm; p < 0.05; 0.4 ± 0.1 mm sham animals), TGF-β, and downstream phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and EMT (27.2 ± 12.0% vs. 51.6 ± 11.7% α-smooth muscle actin-positive endothelial cells, p < 0.05; 7.2 ± 3.5% sham animals), cellular proliferation, collagen deposition, endothelial cell activation (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression), neovascularization, and cells positive for cluster of differentiation (CD) 45, a hematopoietic marker associated with post-MI valve fibrosis. Leaflet area increased comparably (17%) in constrained and losartan

  13. Different initiatives across Europe to enhance losartan utilization post generics: impact and implications.

    PubMed

    Moon, James C; Godman, Brian; Petzold, Max; Alvarez-Madrazo, Samantha; Bennett, Kathleen; Bishop, Iain; Bucsics, Anna; Hesse, Ulrik; Martin, Andrew; Simoens, Steven; Zara, Corinne; Malmström, Rickard E

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need for health authorities across Europe to fully realize potential savings from increased use of generics to sustain their healthcare systems. A variety of strategies were used across Europe following the availability of generic losartan, the first angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) to be approved and marketed, to enhance its prescribing vs. single-sourced drugs in the class. Demand-side strategies ranged from 100% co-payment for single-sourced ARBs in Denmark to no specific measures. We hypothesized this heterogeneity of approaches would provide opportunities to explore prescribing in a class following patent expiry. Contrast the impact of the different approaches among European countries and regions to the availability of generic losartan to provide future guidance. Retrospective segmented regression analyses applying linear random coefficient models with country specific intercepts and slopes were used to assess the impact of the various initiatives across Europe following the availability of generic losartan. Utilization measured in defined daily doses (DDDs). Price reductions for generic losartan were also measured. Utilization of losartan was over 90% of all ARBs in Denmark by the study end. Multiple measures in Sweden and one English primary care group also appreciably enhanced losartan utilization. Losartan utilization actually fell in some countries with no specific demand-side measures. Considerable differences were seen in the prices of generic losartan. Delisting single-sourced ARBs produced the greatest increase in losartan utilization. Overall, multiple demand-side measures are needed to change physician prescribing habits to fully realize savings from generics. There is no apparent "spill over" effect from one class to another to influence future prescribing patterns even if these are closely related.

  14. Pharmacogenetic approach to losartan in Marfan patients: a starting point to improve dosing regimen?

    PubMed

    Falvella, Felicia Stefania; Marelli, Susan; Cheli, Stefania; Montanelli, Stefano; Viecca, Federico; Salvi, Lucia; Ferrara, Alfio; Clementi, Emilio; Trifirò, Giuliana; Pini, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Losartan is under evaluation for managing Marfan patients with aortic root dilatation. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes convert losartan to E3174 active metabolite. The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3 defective alleles, according to losartan tolerance in paediatric Marfan patients. We genotyped 53 paediatric Marfan patients treated with losartan. The rate of aortic root dilatation was evaluated using the delta z-score variation. Differences in tolerated losartan daily doses with respect to CYP metabolic classes were assessed through the Kruskal-Wallis test. The losartan daily dose spans from 0.16 to 2.50 mg/kg (median 1.10 mg/kg). As we expect from the pharmacokinetics pathway, we observe highest tolerated dose in CYP2C9 poor metabolisers (median 1.50 mg/kg, interquartile range 1.08-1.67 mg/kg); however, this difference is not statistically significant. The optimal dose of angiotensin receptor blocker is not known, and no data are available about losartan pharmacogenetic profile in Marfan syndrome; we have proposed a strategy to tackle this issue based on evaluating the major genetic polymorphisms involved in the losartan conversion into active carboxylic acid metabolite. Further studies are needed to support the use of genetic polymorphisms as predictors of the right dose of losartan.

  15. The effect of losartan and amlodipine on left ventricular diastolic function and atherosclerosis in Japanese patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension (J-ELAN) study.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ozaki, Hitoshi; Takayasu, Ken; Akehi, Noriyuki; Fukui, Sugao; Sakai, Akihiko; Kodama, Mineo; Shimonagata, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Keiji; Ota, Mitsushige; Horiguchi, Yasunori; Ebisuno, Shoji; Katsube, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Hori, Masatsugu

    2011-03-01

    This study was a prospective, randomized, open, blinded endpoint study to assess the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, compared with calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and atherosclerosis of the carotid artery in Japanese patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension, LV hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction and preserved systolic function. Fifty-seven patients were randomly assigned to losartan- or amlodipine-based treatment groups and were followed up for 18 months. Blood pressure was similarly reduced by both regimens. Losartan shortened the transmitral E-wave deceleration time, and amlodipine reduced LV mass index; however, there was no significant difference in the percent changes of these indices between the two groups. Mean carotid intima-media thickness (mean IMT) as well as plaque score significantly increased in the amlodipine-based regimen (pre: 1.05±0.26 mm, follow-up: 1.23±0.33 mm, P=0.0015), but not in the losartan-based regimen (pre: 1.08±0.35 mm, follow-up: 1.16±0.52 mm, P=non-significant). The percent increase in mean IMT in the amlodipine-based regimen tended to be large compared with the losartan-based regimen (amlodipine: 19.8±23.7%, losartan: 6.9±23.3%, P=0.06). Under similar reduction of blood pressure, losartan is likely effective in protecting the progression of atherosclerosis of the carotid artery compared with amlodipine. Losartan may improve LV diastolic function, and amlodipine may attenuate LV hypertrophy; however, this study cannot make consecutive remarks about the superiority of either treatment regimen in the effects on cardiac function and geometry. This study has been registered at http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/listj/ (identifier C000000319). © 2011 The Japanese Society of Hypertension All rights reserved

  16. The Combined Use of Losartan and Muscle-Derived Stem Cells Significantly Improves the Functional Recovery of Muscle in a Young Mouse Model of Contusion Injuries.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Ota, Shusuke; Terada, Satoshi; Kawakami, Yohei; Otsuka, Takanobu; Fu, Freddie H; Huard, Johnny

    2016-12-01

    Although muscle injuries tend to heal uneventfully in most cases, incomplete functional recovery commonly occurs as a result of scar tissue formation at the site of injury, even after treatment with muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs). The transplantation of MDSCs in the presence of a transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) antagonist (losartan) would result in decreased scar tissue formation and enhance muscle regeneration after contusion injuries in a mouse model. Controlled laboratory study. An animal model of muscle contusion was developed using the tibialis anterior muscle in 48 healthy mice at 8 to 10 weeks of age. After sustaining muscle contusion injuries, the mice were divided into 4 groups: (1) saline injection group (control group; n = 15), (2) MDSC transplantation group (MDSC group; n = 15), (3) MDSC transplantation plus oral losartan group (MDSC/losartan group; n = 15), and (4) healthy uninjured group (healthy group; n = 3). Losartan was administrated systemically beginning 3 days after injury and continued until the designated endpoint (1, 2, or 4 weeks after injury). MDSCs were transplanted 4 days after injury. Muscle regeneration and fibrotic scar formation were evaluated by histology, and the expression of follistatin, MyoD, Smad7, and Smad2/3 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Functional recovery was measured via electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve. When compared with MDSC transplantation alone, MDSC/losartan treatment resulted in significantly decreased scar formation, an increase in the number of regenerating myofibers, and improved functional recovery after muscle contusions. In support of these findings, the expression levels of Smad7 and MyoD were significantly increased in the group treated with both MDSCs and losartan. When compared with MDSCs alone, the simultaneous treatment of muscle contusions with MDSCs and losartan significantly reduced scar formation, increased

  17. Different initiatives across Europe to enhance losartan utilization post generics: impact and implications

    PubMed Central

    Moon, James C.; Godman, Brian; Petzold, Max; Alvarez-Madrazo, Samantha; Bennett, Kathleen; Bishop, Iain; Bucsics, Anna; Hesse, Ulrik; Martin, Andrew; Simoens, Steven; Zara, Corinne; Malmström, Rickard E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There is an urgent need for health authorities across Europe to fully realize potential savings from increased use of generics to sustain their healthcare systems. A variety of strategies were used across Europe following the availability of generic losartan, the first angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) to be approved and marketed, to enhance its prescribing vs. single-sourced drugs in the class. Demand-side strategies ranged from 100% co-payment for single-sourced ARBs in Denmark to no specific measures. We hypothesized this heterogeneity of approaches would provide opportunities to explore prescribing in a class following patent expiry. Objective: Contrast the impact of the different approaches among European countries and regions to the availability of generic losartan to provide future guidance. Methodology: Retrospective segmented regression analyses applying linear random coefficient models with country specific intercepts and slopes were used to assess the impact of the various initiatives across Europe following the availability of generic losartan. Utilization measured in defined daily doses (DDDs). Price reductions for generic losartan were also measured. Results: Utilization of losartan was over 90% of all ARBs in Denmark by the study end. Multiple measures in Sweden and one English primary care group also appreciably enhanced losartan utilization. Losartan utilization actually fell in some countries with no specific demand-side measures. Considerable differences were seen in the prices of generic losartan. Conclusion: Delisting single-sourced ARBs produced the greatest increase in losartan utilization. Overall, multiple demand-side measures are needed to change physician prescribing habits to fully realize savings from generics. There is no apparent “spill over” effect from one class to another to influence future prescribing patterns even if these are closely related. PMID:25339902

  18. Aldosterone does not require angiotensin II to activate NCC through a WNK4-SPAK-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    van der Lubbe, Nils; Lim, Christina H; Meima, Marcel E; van Veghel, Richard; Rosenbaek, Lena Lindtoft; Mutig, Kerim; Danser, Alexander H J; Fenton, Robert A; Zietse, Robert; Hoorn, Ewout J

    2012-06-01

    We and others have recently shown that angiotensin II can activate the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) through a WNK4-SPAK-dependent pathway. Because WNK4 was previously shown to be a negative regulator of NCC, it has been postulated that angiotensin II converts WNK4 to a positive regulator. Here, we ask whether aldosterone requires angiotensin II to activate NCC and if their effects are additive. To do so, we infused vehicle or aldosterone in adrenalectomized rats that also received the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan. In the presence of losartan, aldosterone was still capable of increasing total and phosphorylated NCC twofold to threefold. The kinases WNK4 and SPAK also increased with aldosterone and losartan. A dose-dependent relationship between aldosterone and NCC, SPAK, and WNK4 was identified, suggesting that these are aldosterone-sensitive proteins. As more functional evidence of increased NCC activity, we showed that rats receiving aldosterone and losartan had a significantly greater natriuretic response to hydrochlorothiazide than rats receiving losartan only. To study whether angiotensin II could have an additive effect, rats receiving aldosterone with losartan were compared with rats receiving aldosterone only. Rats receiving aldosterone only retained more sodium and had twofold to fourfold increase in phosphorylated NCC. Together, our results demonstrate that aldosterone does not require angiotensin II to activate NCC and that WNK4 appears to act as a positive regulator in this pathway. The additive effect of angiotensin II may favor electroneutral sodium reabsorption during hypovolemia and may contribute to hypertension in diseases with an activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

  19. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibits angiotensin II receptor type 1 expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons via β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Wu, H; Yan, J-Q; Song, Z-B; Guo, Q-L

    2013-09-17

    Both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the angiotensin (Ang) II/angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) axis play important roles in neuropathic pain and nociception. In the present study, we explored the interaction between the two systems by examining the mutual effects between TNF-α and the Ang II/AT1 receptor axis in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Rat DRG neurons were treated with TNF-α in different concentrations for different lengths of time in the presence or absence of transcription inhibitor actinomycin D, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) inhibitor SPD304, β-catenin signaling inhibitor CCT031374, or different kinase inhibitors. TNF-α decreased the AT1 receptor mRNA level as well as the AT1a receptor promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner within 30 h, which led to dose-dependent inhibition of Ang II-binding AT1 receptor level on the cell membrane. Actinomycin D (1 mg/ml), SPD304 (50 μM), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor PD169316 (25 μM), and CCT031374 (50 μM) completely abolished the inhibitory effect of TNF-α on AT1 receptor expression. TNF-α dose-dependently increased soluble β-catenin and phosphorylated GSK-3β levels, which was blocked by SPD304 and PD169316. In DRG neurons treated with AT2 receptor agonist CGP421140, or Ang II with or without AT1 receptor antagonist losartan or AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319 for 30 h, we found that Ang II and Ang II+PD123319 significantly decreased TNF-α expression, whereas CPG421140 and Ang II+losartan increased TNF-α expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate that TNF-α inhibits AT1 receptor expression at the transcription level via TNFR1 in rat DRG neurons by increasing the soluble β-catenin level through the p38 MAPK/GSK-3β pathway. In addition, Ang II appears to inhibit and induce TNF-α expression via the AT1 receptor and the AT2 receptor in DRG neurons, respectively. This is the first evidence of crosstalk between TNF-α and the Ang II/AT receptor axis in DRG neurons

  20. The effect of captopril and losartan on the electrophysiology of myocardial cells of myocardial ischemia rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiangmin; Shan, Zhaoling; Yuan, Hongtao; Guo, Hongyang; Wang, Yutang

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of captopril and losartan on the electrophysiology of myocardial cells parameters in ventricular vulnerable period and effective refractory period of myocardial ischemia rats. 96 wistar rats were enrolled in the study and divided into six groups: Captopril myocardial ischemia group, losartan myocardial ischemia group, myocardial ischemia control group, captopril normal group, losartan normal group and normal control group (n=16). We observed morphological changes of myocardial tissue in each group. The cardiac electrophysiological parameters in effective refractory period of each group were measured. Creatine kinase (CK), alanine aminotransferase (GOT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the expression of Cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1) and malonaldehyde (MDA) were detected. Compared the losartan and captopril group with the control group, (P<0.05). Losartan and captopril can shorten the ventricular vulnerable period of the normal group and ischemic group. There was no interaction effect between losartan and captopril group and the acute myocardial ischemia group. The effect of losartan and captopril on time window in ventricular vulnerable period showed that compared with the control group (P<0.05). Losartan and captopril had a significant effect on prolonged effective refractory period of normal and ischemic rats. There was no interaction effect between losartan and captopril group and the acute myocardial ischemia group. Compared with the myocardial ischemia control group, CK, GOT, LDH and MDA decreased in captopril and losartan myocardial ischemia groups (P<0.05). Losartan and captopril had a significant effect on prolonged effective refractory period and shorten ventricular vulnerable period, they can also effectively prevent arrhythmias.

  1. Losartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination vs. high-dose losartan in patients with morning hypertension--a prospective, randomized, open-labeled, parallel-group, multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Tamenobu; Kai, Hisashi; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2012-07-01

    The treatment of morning hypertension has not been established. We compared the efficacy and safety of a losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination and high-dose losartan in patients with morning hypertension. A prospective, randomized, open-labeled, parallel-group, multicenter trial enrolled 216 treated outpatients with morning hypertension evaluated by home blood pressure (BP) self-measurement. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a combination therapy of 50 mg losartan and 12.5 mg HCTZ (n=109) or a high-dose therapy with 100 mg losartan (n=107), each of which were administered once every morning. Primary efficacy end points were morning systolic BP (SBP) level and target BP achievement rate after 3 months of treatment. At baseline, BP levels were similar between the two therapy groups. Morning SBP was reduced from 150.3±10.1 to 131.5±11.5 mm Hg by combination therapy (P<0.001) and from 151.0±9.3 to 142.5±13.6 mm Hg by high-dose therapy (P<0.001). The morning SBP reduction was greater in the combination therapy group than in the high-dose therapy group (P<0.001). Combination therapy decreased evening SBP from 141.6±13.3 to 125.3±13.1 mm Hg (P<0.001), and high-dose therapy decreased evening SBP from 138.9±9.9 to 131.4±13.2 mm Hg (P<0.01). Although both therapies improved target BP achievement rates in the morning and evening (P<0.001 for both), combination therapy increased the achievement rates more than high-dose therapy (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). In clinic measurements, combination therapy was superior to high-dose therapy in reducing SBP and improving the achievement rate (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively). Combination therapy decreased urine albumin excretion (P<0.05) whereas high-dose therapy reduced serum uric acid. Both therapies indicated strong adherence and few adverse effects (P<0.001). In conclusion, losartan/HCTZ combination therapy was more effective for controlling morning hypertension and reducing

  2. The effect of tripterygium glucoside tablet on pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite EXP3174 in rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongsheng; Zhou, Xuexue; Shi, Hui; Shi, Wenyu; Ye, Shengjie; Zhang, Hai

    2017-10-01

    Losartan and tripterygium glucoside tablet (TGT) are often simultaneously used for reducing urine protein excretion in clinic. However, it is unknown whether there is potential herb-drug interaction between losartan and TGT. The aim of this study was to investigate their potential herb-drug interaction, and clarify the mechanism of the effect of TGT on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite EXP3174 in rats. The plasma concentrations of losartan and EXP3174 were determined by LC-MS, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The C max , t 1/2 and AUC (0-t) of losartan became larger after co-administration, while the C max and AUC (0-t) of EXP3174 became smaller, suggesting that TGT could influence the pharmacokinetics of losartan and EXP3174. The effects of TGT and its main components on the metabolic rate of losartan were further investigated in rat liver microsomes. Results indicated that TGT and its two main ingredients could decrease the metabolic rate of losartan. Therefore, it was speculated that TGT might increase the plasma concentration of losartan and decrease the concentration of EXP3174 by inhibiting the metabolism of losartan. The results could provide references for clinical medication guidance of losartan and TGT to avoid the occurrence of adverse reactions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Nonpeptidic urotensin-II receptor antagonists I: in vitro pharmacological characterization of SB-706375

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Stephen A; Behm, David J; Aiyar, Nambi V; Naselsky, Diane; Disa, Jyoti; Brooks, David P; Ohlstein, Eliot H; Gleason, John G; Sarau, Henry M; Foley, James J; Buckley, Peter T; Schmidt, Dulcie B; Wixted, William E; Widdowson, Katherine; Riley, Graham; Jin, Jian; Gallagher, Timothy F; Schmidt, Stanley J; Ridgers, Lance; Christmann, Lisa T; Keenan, Richard M; Knight, Steven D; Dhanak, Dashyant

    2005-01-01

    SB-706375 potently inhibited [125I]hU-II binding to both mammalian recombinant and ‘native' UT receptors (Ki 4.7±1.5 to 20.7±3.6 nM at rodent, feline and primate recombinant UT receptors and Ki 5.4±0.4 nM at the endogenous UT receptor in SJRH30 cells). Prior exposure to SB-706375 (1 μM, 30 min) did not alter [125I]hU-II binding affinity or density in recombinant cells (KD 3.1±0.4 vs 5.8±0.9 nM and Bmax 3.1±1.0 vs 2.8±0.8 pmol mg−1) consistent with a reversible mode of action. The novel, nonpeptidic radioligand [3H]SB-657510, a close analogue of SB-706375, bound to the monkey UT receptor (KD 2.6±0.4 nM, Bmax 0.86±0.12 pmol mg−1) in a manner that was inhibited by both U-II isopeptides and SB-706375 (Ki 4.6±1.4 to 17.6±5.4 nM) consistent with the sulphonamides and native U-II ligands sharing a common UT receptor binding domain. SB-706375 was a potent, competitive hU-II antagonist across species with pKb 7.29–8.00 in HEK293-UT receptor cells (inhibition of [Ca2+]i-mobilization) and pKb 7.47 in rat isolated aorta (inhibition of contraction). SB-706375 also reversed tone established in the rat aorta by prior exposure to hU-II (Kapp∼20 nM). SB-706375 was a selective U-II antagonist with ⩾100-fold selectivity for the human UT receptor compared to 86 distinct receptors, ion channels, enzymes, transporters and nuclear hormones (Ki/IC50>1 μM). Accordingly, the contractile responses induced in isolated aortae by KCl, phenylephrine, angiotensin II and endothelin-1 were unaltered by SB-706375 (1 μM). In summary, SB-706375 is a high-affinity, surmountable, reversible and selective nonpeptide UT receptor antagonist with cross-species activity that will assist in delineating the pathophysiological actions of U-II in mammals. PMID:15852036

  4. Effect of angiotension II on voltage-gated sodium currents in aortic baroreceptor neurons and arterial baroreflex sensitivity in heart failure rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongze; Liu, Jinxu; Zheng, Hong; Tu, Huiyin; Muelleman, Robert L.; Li, Yu-Long

    2016-01-01

    Impairment of arterial baroreflex sensitivity is associated with mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Elevation of plasma angiotension II (Ang II) contributes to arterial baroreflex dysfunction in CHF. A reduced number of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels in aortic baroreceptor neurons are involved in CHF-blunted arterial baroreflex. In this study, we investigated acute effect of Ang II on Nav currents in the aortic baroreceptor neuron and on arterial baroreflex in sham and coronary artery ligation-induced CHF rats. Using Ang II 125I radioimmunoassay, real-time RT-PCR and western blot, we found that Ang II levels, and mRNA and protein expression of angiotension II type 1 receptor (AT1R) in nodose ganglia (NG) from CHF rats were higher than that from sham rats. Local microinjection of Ang II (0.2 nmol) into the NG decreased the arterial baroreflex sensitivity in sham rats, whereas losartan (1 nmol, an AT1R antagonist) improved the arterial baroreflex sensitivity in CHF rats. Data from patch-clamp recording showed that Ang II (100 nM) acutely inhibited Nav currents in the aortic baroreceptor neurons from sham and CHF rats. In particular, inhibitory effect of Ang II on Nav currents in the aortic baroreceptor neurons was larger in CHF rats than that in sham rats. Losartan (1 μM) totally abolished the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Nav currents in sham and CHF aortic baroreceptor neurons. These results suggest that elevation of endogenous Ang II in the NG contributes to impairment of the arterial baroreflex function in CHF rats through inhibiting Nav channels. PMID:25827427

  5. Angiotensin receptor antagonist vs. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria - a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Lim, S-C; Koh, A F Y; Goh, S K; Chua, C-L; Heng, B-L; Subramaniam, T; Sum, C-F

    2007-07-01

    Subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and albuminuria are at risk for progressive diabetic nephropathy. The relative blood pressure lowering and antialbuminuric efficacy of angiotensin receptor antagonist (ARB) vs. angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor has not been well studied. Forty-one ARB- and ACE inhibitor-naive T2DM subjects with albuminuria (>30 mg/g creatinine) were given either 50 mg of losartan (ARB) or 20 mg of quinapril (ACE inhibitor) (50% maximum dose) for 4 weeks, with a 4-week wash-out period in-between interventions in a crossover fashion. The order of intervention was randomized. The primary endpoint was the reduction of blood pressure and albuminuria. Secondary endpoint was changes in plasma transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Among the 41 subjects, 66% were male. The mean age (s.d.) was 52 (10) years, and duration of diabetes was 8 (14) years. Blood pressure reduction (though not statistically significant) was similar on both interventions [systolic: losartan 3 (15) vs. quinapril 2 (13) mmHg, p = 0.52; diastolic: losartan 1 (9) vs. quinapril 2 (8) mmHg, p = 0.55]. However, amelioration of albuminuria [mean (s.e.)] was significantly greater with losartan [losartan vs. quinapril: -93 (82) vs. -49 (65) mg/g, p = 0.02]. There was no change in plasma TGF-beta levels [mean (s.d.)] on either treatment, losartan [before 12.1 (8.9) vs. after 11.9 (9.6) ng/ml, p = 0.68] and quinapril [11.1 (7.9) vs. 11.1 (7.8) ng/ml, p = 0.87). In Asian subjects with T2DM and albuminuria, 4 weeks of losartan therapy at 50 mg daily appeared to have greater antialbuminuric effect than 20 mg of quinapril.

  6. Neuroprotective effects of AT1 receptor antagonists after experimental ischemic stroke: what is important?

    PubMed

    Culman, Juraj; Jacob, Toni; Schuster, Sven O; Brolund-Spaether, Kjell; Brolund, Leonie; Cascorbi, Ingolf; Zhao, Yi; Gohlke, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The present study conducted in rats defines the requirements for neuroprotective effects of systemically administered AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in acute ischaemic stroke. The inhibition of central effects to angiotensin II (ANG II) after intravenous (i.v.) treatment with candesartan (0.3 and 3 mg/kg) or irbesartan and losartan (3 and 30 mg/kg) was employed to study the penetration of these ARBs across the blood-brain barrier. Verapamil and probenecid were used to assess the role of the transporters, P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance-related protein 2, in the entry of losartan and irbesartan into the brain. Neuroprotective effects of i.v. treatment with the ARBs were investigated after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min. The treatment with the ARBs was initiated 3 h after the onset of MCAO and continued for two consecutive days. Blood pressure was continuously recorded before and during MCAO until 5.5 h after the onset of reperfusion. The higher dose of candesartan completely abolished, and the lower dose of candesartan and higher doses of irbesartan and losartan partially inhibited the drinking response to intracerebroventricular ANG II. Only 0.3 mg/kg candesartan improved the recovery from ischaemic stroke, and 3 mg/kg candesartan did not exert neuroprotective effects due to marked blood pressure reduction during reperfusion. Both doses of irbesartan and losartan had not any effect on the stroke outcome. An effective, long-lasting blockade of brain AT1 receptors after systemic treatment with ARBs without extensive blood pressure reductions is the prerequisite for neuroprotective effects in ischaemic stroke.

  7. Gestational exposure to elevated testosterone levels induces hypertension via heightened vascular angiotensin II type 1 receptor signaling in rats.

    PubMed

    Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; More, Amar S; Hankins, Gary D; Yallampalli, Chandra; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2014-07-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a life-threatening pregnancy disorder whose pathogenesis remains unclear. Plasma testosterone levels are elevated in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and polycystic ovary syndrome, who often develop gestational hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that increased gestational testosterone levels induce hypertension via heightened angiotensin II signaling. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle or testosterone propionate from Gestational Day 15 to 19 to induce a 2-fold increase in plasma testosterone levels, similar to levels observed in clinical conditions like pre-eclampsia. A subset of rats in these two groups was given losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist by gavage during the course of testosterone exposure. Blood pressure levels were assessed through a carotid arterial catheter and endothelium-independent vascular reactivity through wire myography. Angiotensin II levels in plasma and angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in mesenteric arteries were also examined. Blood pressure levels were significantly higher on Gestational Day 20 in testosterone-treated dams than in controls. Treatment with losartan during the course of testosterone exposure significantly attenuated testosterone-induced hypertension. Plasma angiotensin II levels were not significantly different between control and testosterone-treated rats; however, elevated testosterone levels significantly increased angiotensin II type 1 receptor protein levels in the mesenteric arteries. In testosterone-treated rats, mesenteric artery contractile responses to angiotensin II were significantly greater, whereas contractile responses to K(+) depolarization and phenylephrine were unaffected. The results demonstrate that elevated testosterone during gestation induces hypertension in pregnant rats via heightened angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated signaling, providing a molecular mechanism linking elevated maternal testosterone levels with gestational

  8. Beneficial Effects of Pentoxifylline Plus Losartan Dual Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes with Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Rabizadeh, Soghra; Dehghani Firouzabadi, Fatemeh; Noshad, Sina; Esteghamati, Sadaf; Afarideh, Mohsen; Ghajar, Alireza; Ganji, Morsaleh; Saadat, Mohammad; Heidari, Behnam; Najafi, Mohammad Taghi; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Esteghamati, Alireza

    2018-05-01

    This study was designed to comparatively assess the effects of add-on pentoxifylline to losartan versus increasing the dose of losartan on serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), serum highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and the urinary albumin excretion (UAE) rate in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. In an open-label, single-center, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial (NCT03006952), 30 patients received b.i.d. dose of pentoxifylline 400mg plus daily dose of losartan 50mg (pentoxifylline arm) and 29 patients received b.i.d. dose of losartan 50mg (losartan arm) during a 12-week follow-up period. Serum NT-proBNP, serum hsCRP and UAE levels all significantly decreased from baseline in both trial arms. The pentoxifylline and losartan trial arms were equally effective in reducing serum NT-proBNP levels during the course of trial (multivariable adjusted model P value = 0.864, effect size = 0.2%). There was a greater decrease in UAE and serum hsCRP levels in the pentoxifylline arm (P = 0.034, effect size = 7.8%; P = 0.009, effect size = 11.7%, respectively). Conversely, patients in the losartan arm achieved better systolic and diastolic blood pressure control (P < 0.001, effect size = 25.4%; P = 0.010, effect size = 11.3%, respectively). Circulating NT-proBNP levels equally and significantly reduced from baseline in the pentoxifylline and losartan treatment arms, in parallel with comparatively superior decreases of UAE and serum hsCRP in the pentoxifylline arm, and larger decreases of systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the losartan arm. Copyright © 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway mediates angiotensin II-dependent apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts expressing AT1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Vivar, Raul; Soto, Cristian; Copaja, Miguel; Mateluna, Francisca; Aranguiz, Pablo; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Chiong, Mario; Garcia, Lorena; Letelier, Alan; Thomas, Walter G; Lavandero, Sergio; Díaz-Araya, Guillermo

    2008-08-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts are the major non-myocyte cell constituent in the myocardium, and they are involved in heart remodeling. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) mediates the established actions of angiotensin II (Ang II), and changes in its expression have been reported in cardiac fibroblasts after myocardial infarction. However, the AT1R-dependent signaling pathways involved in cardiac fibroblast death remain unknown. Using adenovirus, we ectopically expressed AT1R in cultured neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts and investigated the role of the phospholipase (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway on Ang II-dependent death. Ang II induced cardiac fibroblast death characterized by an early loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation. All these effects were prevented by the AT1R antagonist losartan, PLC inhibitor U73122, and PKC inhibitor Gö6976. We conclude that Ang II stimulates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in cultured cardiac fibroblasts by the AT1R/PLC/PKC signaling pathway.

  10. The ERK pathway regulates Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransport activity in adult rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Baetz, Delphine; Haworth, Robert S; Avkiran, Metin; Feuvray, Danielle

    2002-11-01

    The sarcolemmal Na(+)-HCO cotransporter (NBC) is stimulated by intracellular acidification and acts as an acid extruder. We examined the role of the ERK pathway of the MAPK cascade as a potential mediator of NBC activation by intracellular acidification in the presence and absence of angiotensin II (ANG II) in adult rat ventricular myocytes. Intracellular pH (pH(i)) was recorded with the use of seminaphthorhodafluor-1. The NH method was used to induce an intracellular acid load. NBC activation was significantly decreased with the ERK inhibitors PD-98059 and U-0126. NBC activity after acidification was increased in the presence of ANG II (pH(i) range of 6.75-7.00). ANG II plus PD-123319 (AT(2) antagonist) still increased NBC activity, whereas ANG II plus losartan (AT(1) antagonist) did not affect it. ERK phosphorylation (measured by immunoblot analysis) during intracellular acidification was increased by ANG II, an effect that was abolished by losartan and U-0126. In conclusion, the MAPK(ERK)-dependent pathway facilitates the rate of pH(i) recovery from acid load through NBC activity and is involved in the AT(1) receptor-mediated stimulation of such activity by ANG II.

  11. Gestational Exposure to Elevated Testosterone Levels Induces Hypertension via Heightened Vascular Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Signaling in Rats1

    PubMed Central

    Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; More, Amar S.; Hankins, Gary D.; Yallampalli, Chandra; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pre-eclampsia is a life-threatening pregnancy disorder whose pathogenesis remains unclear. Plasma testosterone levels are elevated in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and polycystic ovary syndrome, who often develop gestational hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that increased gestational testosterone levels induce hypertension via heightened angiotensin II signaling. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle or testosterone propionate from Gestational Day 15 to 19 to induce a 2-fold increase in plasma testosterone levels, similar to levels observed in clinical conditions like pre-eclampsia. A subset of rats in these two groups was given losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist by gavage during the course of testosterone exposure. Blood pressure levels were assessed through a carotid arterial catheter and endothelium-independent vascular reactivity through wire myography. Angiotensin II levels in plasma and angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in mesenteric arteries were also examined. Blood pressure levels were significantly higher on Gestational Day 20 in testosterone-treated dams than in controls. Treatment with losartan during the course of testosterone exposure significantly attenuated testosterone-induced hypertension. Plasma angiotensin II levels were not significantly different between control and testosterone-treated rats; however, elevated testosterone levels significantly increased angiotensin II type 1 receptor protein levels in the mesenteric arteries. In testosterone-treated rats, mesenteric artery contractile responses to angiotensin II were significantly greater, whereas contractile responses to K+ depolarization and phenylephrine were unaffected. The results demonstrate that elevated testosterone during gestation induces hypertension in pregnant rats via heightened angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated signaling, providing a molecular mechanism linking elevated maternal testosterone levels with

  12. The effects of different angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers on the regulation of the ACE-AngII-AT1 and ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axes in pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling in male mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingxu; Ye, Yong; Gong, Hui; Wu, Jian; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Shijun; Yin, Peipei; Ding, Zhiwen; Kang, Le; Jiang, Qiu; Zhang, Weijing; Li, Yang; Ge, Junbo; Zou, Yunzeng

    2016-08-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) have been effectively used in hypertension and cardiac remodeling. However, the differences among them are still unclear. We designed this study to examine and compare the effects of several ARBs widely used in clinics, including Olmesartan, Candesartan, Telmisartan, Losartan, Valsartan and Irbesartan, on the ACE-AngII-AT1 axis and the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis during the development of cardiac remodeling after pressure overload. Although all of the six ARBs, attenuated the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 2 or 4weeks in the wild-type mice evaluated by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements, the degree of attenuation by Olmesartan, Candesartan and Losartan tended to be larger than that of the other three drugs tested. Additionally, the degree of downregulation of the ACE-AngII-AT1 axis and upregulation of the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis was higher in response to Olmesartan, Candesartan and Losartan administration in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, in angiotensinogen-knockdown mice, TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure were inhibited by Olmesartan, Candesartan and Losartan but not by Telmisartan, Valsartan and Irbesartan administration. Furthermore, only Olmesartan and Candesartan could downregulate the ACE-AngII-AT1 axis and upregulate the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis in vitro. Our data suggest that Olmesartan, Candesartan and Losartan could effectively inhibit pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling even when with knockdown of Ang II, possibly through upregulation of the expression of the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis and downregulation of the expression of the ACE-AngII-AT1 axis. In contrast, Telmisartan, Valsartan and Irbesartan only played a role in the presence of AngII, and Losartan had no effect in the presence of AngII in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distinct effects of losartan and atenolol on vascular stiffness in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Ami B; Buck, J Stewart; Zuflacht, Jonah P; Milian, Jessica; Kadivar, Samoneh; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Singh, Michael N; Creager, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of losartan (100 mg QD) versus atenolol (50 mg QD) for 6 months in adults with Marfan syndrome. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), central augmentation index (AIx), aortic diameter and left ventricular (LV) function were assessed with arterial tonometry and echocardiography. Thirty-four subjects (18 female; median age 35 years, IQR 27, 45) were randomized. Central systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased comparably with atenolol and losartan (p = 0.64 and 0.31, respectively); heart rate decreased with atenolol (p = 0.02), but not with losartan. PWV decreased in patients treated with atenolol (-1.15 ± 1.68 m/s; p = 0.01), but not in those treated with losartan (-0.22 ± 0.59 m/s; p = 0.15; between-group difference p = 0.04). In contrast, AIx decreased in the losartan group (-9.6 ± 8.6%; p < 0.001) but not in the atenolol group (0.9 ± 6.2%, p = 0.57; between-group difference p < 0.001). There was no significant change in aortic diameters or LV ejection fraction in either treatment group. In adults with Marfan syndrome, 6 months of treatment with atenolol improves PWV, whereas losartan reduces the AIx. By improving vascular stiffness via distinct mechanisms of action, there is physiologic value to considering the use of both medications in individuals with Marfan syndrome. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. [Losartan regulates oxidative stress via caveolin-1 and NOX4 in mice with ventilator- induced lung injury].

    PubMed

    Ling, Xuguang; Lou, Anni; Li, Yang; Yang, Renqiang; Ning, Zuowei; Li, Xu

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of losartan in regulating oxidative stress and the underlying mechanism in mice with ventilator-induced lung injury. Thirty-six male C57 mice were randomly divided into control group, losartan treatment group, mechanical ventilation model group, and ventilation plus losartan treatment group. After the corresponding treatments, the lung injuries in each group were examined and the expressions of caveolin-1 and NOX4 in the lung tissues were detected. The mean Smith score of lung injury was significantly higher in mechanical ventilation model group (3.3) than in the control group (0.4), and losartan treatment group (0.3); the mean score was significantly lowered in ventilation plus losartan treatment group (2.3) compared with that in the model group (P<0.05). The expressions of caveolin-1 and NOX4 were significantly higher in the model group than in the control and losartan treatment groups (P<0.05) but was obviously lowered after losartan treatment (P<0.05). Co-expression of caveolin-1 and NOX4 in the lungs was observed in the model group, and was significantly decreased after losartan treatment. Losartan can alleviate ventilator-induced lung injury in mice and inhibit the expression of caveolin-1 and NOX4 and their interaction in the lungs.

  15. Single-dose effects of isosorbide mononitrate alone or in combination with losartan on central blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Rhonda; Nunes, Irene; Bolognese, James A; Miller, Deborah L; Salotti, Dennis; McCarthy, Jennifer M; Smith, William B; Herman, Gary A; Feig, Peter U

    2010-01-01

    Antihypertensive drugs can have different effects on central and brachial blood pressures, which may affect outcomes. Nitric oxide donors have acute effects on central blood pressure but have not been assessed with renin-angiotensin system blockade. Thirteen patients with prehypertensive/Stage 1 hypertension were randomized to five single-dose treatments separated by ≤4 days using a double-blind, crossover study design: angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) losartan 100 mg, isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) 60 mg, losartan 100 mg + ISMN 15 mg, losartan 100 mg + ISMN 60 mg, and placebo. Central and brachial blood pressures were measured throughout 10 hours. Mean placebo-subtracted decrease from baseline in augmentation index (AIx) approximately 1% for losartan 100 mg, 26% for ISMN 60 mg, 19% for losartan 100 mg + ISMN 15 mg, and 24% for losartan 100 mg + ISMN 60 mg. Administered with losartan 100 mg or alone, ISMN lowered AIx, demonstrating that acute effects of a nitrate donor are much larger than those of an ARB even when administered with an ARB. Differences from placebo were statistically significant except for losartan 100 mg. AIx is a good biomarker of acute hemodynamic effects of nitric oxide in prehypertensive/Stage 1 hypertension. 2010 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacokinetic comparison and bioequivalence evaluation of losartan/ hydrochlorothiazide tablet between Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudershan; Monif, Tausif; Khuroo, Arshad; Reyar, Simrit; Jain, Rakesh; Singla, Ajay K; Kurachi, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the bioequivalence between the test and reference formulations of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50 + 12.5 mg tablet and evaluate the effect of ethnicity on pharmacokinetics properties of losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide on healthy Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. Randomized, open-label, crossover, bioavailability studies were conducted separately in healthy Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. One tablet either of test or of reference product was administered after 10 hours of overnight fasting. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for a period of 48 hours for both the studies. Plasma samples were analyzed for losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide by a validated liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, Cmax, tmax, and other pharmacokinetics parameters were determined from plasma concentration-time profiles for both test and reference formulations of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50 + 12.5 mg tablets. Statistical evaluations were done to evaluate bioequivalence between generic test formulation (EPR0001) and Japanese reference product (Preminent®). Losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide were well tolerated by subjects in all periods of each study under fasted conditions. No serious adverse events were observed. The ratios of least square means for AUC0-t and Cmax and the affiliated 90% confidence intervals were within acceptance range recommended by PMDA. Marginal differences were observed in pharmacokinetic values of Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. The results of these bioavailability studies indicate that the test formulation of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50 + 12.5 mg (EPR0001) tablets is bioequivalent to marketed Preminent® reference formulation in Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers, when administered under fasting conditions. Both test and reference formulations were well tolerated

  17. Losartan attenuates the coronary perivasculitis through its local and systemic anti-inflammatory properties in a murine model of Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Suganuma, Eisuke; Niimura, Fumio; Matsuda, Shinichi; Ukawa, Toshiko; Nakamura, Hideaki; Sekine, Kaori; Kato, Masahiko; Aiba, Yuji; Koga, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Kuniyoshi; Takahashi, Osamu; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-01

    Kawasaki disease is a common systemic vasculitis that leads to coronary artery lesions. Besides its antihypertensive effects, losartan can modulate inflammation in cardiovascular disease. We examined whether losartan can attenuate coronary inflammation in a murine model of Kawasaki disease. Five-wk-old C57/BL6J male mice were intraperitoneally injected with Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract to induce coronary inflammation and divided into four groups: placebo, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), losartan, and IVIG+losartan. After 2 wk, mice were harvested. The coronary perivasculitis was significantly attenuated by losartan but not by IVIG alone, and further dramatic attenuation by IVIG+losartan was observed. The frequency of Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract-induced myocarditis (80%) was markedly lowered by losartan (22%) and IVIG+losartan (0%). Furthermore, interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA was markedly attenuated by IVIG+losartan. Serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-10 after Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract injection were slightly decreased by IVIG or losartan. Moreover, IL-1β, IL-10, and MCP-1 levels were significantly decreased by IVIG+losartan. The addition of losartan to IVIG strongly attenuated the severity of coronary perivasculitis and the incidence of myocarditis, along with suppressing systemic/local cytokines as well as the activated macrophage infiltration. Therefore, losartan may be a potentially useful additive drug for the acute phase of Kawasaki disease to minimize coronary artery lesions.

  18. Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with losartan: a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Couluris, Marisa; Kinder, Brent W; Xu, Ping; Gross-King, Margaret; Krischer, Jeffrey; Panos, Ralph J

    2012-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive interstitial lung disease with no current effective therapies. Treatment has focused on antifibrotic agents to stop proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen deposition in the lung. We present the first clinical trial data on the use of losartan, an antifibrotic agent, to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of losartan on progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis measured by the change in percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC) after 12 months. Secondary outcomes included the change in forced expiratory volume at 1 second, diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, 6-minute walk test distance, and baseline/transition dyspnea index. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and a baseline %FVC of ≥50 % were treated with losartan 50 mg by mouth daily for 12 months. Pulmonary function testing, 6-minute walk, and breathlessness indices were measured every 3 months. Twenty participants with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were enrolled and 17 patients were evaluable for response. Twelve patients had a stable or improved %FVC at study month 12. Similar findings were observed in secondary end-point measures, including 58, 71, and 65 % of patients with stable or improved forced expiratory volume at 1 second, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and 6-minute walk test distance, respectively. No treatment-related adverse events that resulted in early study discontinuation were reported. Losartan stabilized lung function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis over 12 months. Losartan is a promising agent for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and has a low toxicity profile.

  19. Contrasting hemodynamic mechanisms of losartan- vs. atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment: a LIFE study.

    PubMed

    Greve, Anders M; Olsen, Michael H; Bella, Jonathan N; Lønnebakken, Mai T; Gerdts, Eva; Okin, Peter M; Palmieri, Vittorio; Boman, Kurt; Nieminen, Markku S; Omvik, Per; Dahlöf, Björn; Devereux, Richard B; Wachtell, Kristian

    2012-09-01

    Pharmaceutical differences in central hemodynamics might influence cardiac response to antihypertensive treatment despite similar lowering of brachial blood pressure (BP). Data from all patients with at least two echocardiographic examinations in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) echocardiographic substudy (n = 801); high-risk patients on losartan- vs. atenolol-based antihypertensive therapy. Echocardiography was performed annually for 4 years to measure stroke index (SI), heart rate, cardiac index (CI), conduit artery stiffness assessed as pulse pressure/stroke index (PP/SI) and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI). Atenolol- and losartan-based therapy reduced BP similarly (cumulative difference in mean brachial blood pressure 0.3 mm Hg, P = 0.65). After 4 years the cumulative means of SI and heart rate were 1.8 ml/m(2) higher and 5.7 beats/min lower on atenolol-based treatment, respectively (both P < 0.001). This kept CI below baseline in atenolol-treated patients, whereas in the losartan group CI was unchanged from baseline throughout the study. TPRI was decreased more and remained lower in the losartan group (cumulative difference in mean TPRI 287 dynes/sec(-5)/cm/m(2), P < 0.001). These findings partly explained univariate differences in systolic- and diastolic function indices between the two treatments; fully adjusted losartan was only associated with a smaller left atrial diameter (cumulative mean difference 0.07 cm; 95% confidence intervals, -0.13 to -0.01, P = 0.03). Contrasting hemodynamics impacted cardiac response to similar reductions in brachial BP on losartan- vs. atenolol-based therapy. The similar reduction of PP/SI suggests that the antihypertensive regimens used in the LIFE study had comparable effects on arterial stiffness (LIFE study; NCT00338260)

  20. The Effects of Angiotensin II and Angiotensin-(1–7) in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla of Rats on Stress-Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Du, Dongshu; Chen, Jun; Liu, Min; Zhu, Minxia; Jing, Haojia; Fang, Jie; Shen, Linlin; Zhu, Danian; Yu, Jerry; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    We have shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin-(1–7) [Ang-(1–7)] increased arterial blood pressure (BP) via glutamate release when microinjected into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in normotensive rats (control). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Ang II and Ang-(1–7) in the RVLM are differentially activated in stress-induced hypertension (SIH) by comparing the effects of microinjection of Ang II, Ang-(1–7), and their receptor antagonists on BP and amino acid release in SIH and control rats. We found that Ang II had greater pressor effect, and more excitatory (glutamate) and less inhibitory (taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid) amino acid release in SIH than in control animals. Losartan, a selective AT1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist, decreased mean BP in SIH but not in control rats. PD123319, a selective AT2 receptor (AT2R) antagonist, increased mean BP in control but not in SIH rats. However, Ang-(1–7) and its selective Mas receptor antagonist Ang779 evoked similar effects on BP and amino acid release in both SIH and control rats. Furthermore, we found that in the RVLM, AT1R, ACE protein expression (western blot) and ACE mRNA (real-time PCR) were significantly higher, whereas AT2R protein, ACE2 mRNA and protein expression were significantly lower in SIH than in control rats. Mas receptor expression was similar in the two groups. The results support our hypothesis and demonstrate that upregulation of Ang II by AT1R, not Ang-(1–7), system in the RVLM causes hypertension in SIH rats by increasing excitatory and suppressing inhibitory amino acid release. PMID:23967142

  1. Effects of captopril, losartan, and nifedipine on cell hypertrophy of cultured vascular smooth muscle from hypertensive Ren-2 transgenic rats

    PubMed Central

    Peiró, Concepción; Llergo, José L; Angulo, Javier; López-Novoa, José M; Rodríguez-López, Ana; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F

    1997-01-01

    We hypothesized that tissular renin-angotensin system (RAS) induces vascular hypertrophy in hypertensive Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR; strain name TGR(mRen2)L27). This assumption was tested in cell cultures of vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) from both hypertensive TGR and control normotensive Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Planar cell surface area, protein synthesis, and protein content per cell were studied, the role for locally produced angiotensin II (AII) was evaluated and the possible pharmacological interference by different drugs was analysed. By use of radioimmunoassay techniques, AII could be determined in TGR cultures (10.25±0.12 pg per 107 cells) while it could not be detected in SD ones. Under serum-free conditions, VSMC from hypertensive TGR were hypertrophic when compared to SD VSMC, as they presented a higher protein content per cell (335±18 and 288±7 pg per cell respectively; P<0.05) and increased mean planar cell surface area, as determined by image analysis (4,074±238 and 4,764±204 μm2, respectively; P<0.05). When exogenously added to cultured SD and TGR VSMC, AII (100 pM to 1 μM) promoted protein synthesis and protein content in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting DNA synthesis. Maximal effects were observed at 100 nM. At this concentration, AII effectively increased planar cell surface area in both SD and TGR cultures by ∼20%. Treatment of TGR cultures, in the absence of exogenous AII, with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril or the angiotensin AT1 receptors antagonist losartan (100 nM to 10 μM) reduced planar cell surface area in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, both captopril and losartan (10 μM), decreased protein synthesis by ∼15%. Treatment of SD VSMC, in the absence of exogenous AII, with both captopril and losartan had no effect either on planar cell surface area or protein synthesis. Treatment with the Ca2+ antagonist nifedipine (100 nM to 10 μM) reduced cell size

  2. Effects of ticlopidine on pharmacokinetics of losartan and its main metabolite EXP-3174 in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Si-hyung; Cho, Young-ah; Choi, Jun-shik

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Losartan and antiplatelet agent ticlopidine can be prescribed concomitantly for prevention or therapy of cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the effects of ticlopidine on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its active metabolite EXP-3174 were evaluated in rats. Methods: Ticlopidine (4 or 10 mg/kg po) was administered 30 min before administration of losartan (9 mg/kg po or 3 mg/kg iv). The activity of human CYP2C9 and 3A4 were measured using the CYP inhibition assay kit. The activity of P-gp was evaluated using rhodamine-123 retention assay in MCF-7/ADR cells. Results: Ticlopidine (10 mg/kg) significantly increased the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUCs) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of oral losartan (9 mg/kg), as well as the AUCs of the active metabolite EXP-3174. Ticlopidine (10 mg/kg) did not significantly change the pharmacokinetics of intravenous losartan (3 mg/kg). Ticlopidine inhibited CYP2C9 and 3A4 with IC50 values of 26.0 and 32.3 μmol/L, respectively. The relative cellular uptake of rhodamine-123 was unchanged. Conclusion: The significant increase in the AUC of losartan (9 mg/kg) by ticlopidine (10 mg/kg) could be attributed to the inhibition of CYP2C9- and 3A4-mediated losartan metabolism in small intestine and/or in liver. The inhibition of P-gp in small intestine and reduction of renal elimination of losartan by ticlopidine are unlikely to be causal factors. PMID:21666702

  3. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MICROSPHERES CONTAINING LOSARTAN POTASSIUM BY SPRAY-DRYING TECHNIQUE.

    PubMed

    Balwierz, Radoslaw; Jankowski, Andrzej; Jasinska, Agata; Marciniak, Dominik; Pluta, Janusz

    2016-09-01

    Despite numerous applications of microspheres, few works devoted to the preparation of microspheres containing cardiac medications have been published. This study presents the potential of receiving microspheres containing losartan potassium, based on a matrix containing Eudragit L30D55. The study focuses on the possibilities of controlled release of losartan potassium from microspheres in order to reduce the dosage frequency, and also provides information on the effect of the addition of excipients to the quality of the microspheres. Microspheres are monolithic, porous or smooth microparticles ranging from 1 to 500 microns in size. For the preparation of microspheres containing losartan potassium, the spray-drying method was used. The performed study confirmed that the spray-drying technology used to obtain microspheres meets the criteria of size and morphology of the microparticles. The assessment of the kinetics of losartan potassium release from the examined microspheres demonstrated that the release profile followed the first- and/or zero-order kinetics. The use of spray-drying techniques as well as Eudragit L30D55 polymer matrix to obtain the microspheres containing losartan potassium makes it possible to obtain a product with the required particle morphology and particle size ensuring the release of the active substance up to 12 h.

  4. Angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptor antagonists modulate nicotine-evoked [³H]dopamine and [³H]norepinephrine release.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswami, Vidya; Somkuwar, Sucharita S; Horton, David B; Cassis, Lisa A; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. A major negative health consequence of chronic smoking is hypertension. Untoward addictive and cardiovascular sequelae associated with chronic smoking are mediated by nicotine-induced activation of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) within striatal dopaminergic and hypothalamic noradrenergic systems. Hypertension involves both brain and peripheral angiotensin systems. Activation of angiotensin type-1 receptors (AT1) release dopamine and norepinephrine. The current study determined the role of AT1 and angiotensin type-2 (AT2) receptors in mediating nicotine-evoked dopamine and norepinephrine release from striatal and hypothalamic slices, respectively. The potential involvement of nAChRs in mediating effects of AT1 antagonist losartan and AT2 antagonist, 1-[[4-(dimethylamino)-3-methylphenyl]methyl]-5-(diphenylacetyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-6-carboxylic acid (PD123319) was evaluated by determining their affinities for α4β2* and α7* nAChRs using [³H]nicotine and [³H]methyllycaconitine binding assays, respectively. Results show that losartan concentration-dependently inhibited nicotine-evoked [³H]dopamine and [³H]norepinephrine release (IC₅₀: 3.9 ± 1.2 and 2.2 ± 0.7 μM; Imax: 82 ± 3 and 89 ± 6%, respectively). In contrast, PD123319 did not alter nicotine-evoked norepinephrine release, and potentiated nicotine-evoked dopamine release. These results indicate that AT1 receptors modulate nicotine-evoked striatal dopamine and hypothalamic norepinephrine release. Furthermore, AT1 receptor activation appears to be counteracted by AT2 receptor activation in striatum. Losartan and PD123319 did not inhibit [³H]nicotine or [³H]methyllycaconitine binding, indicating that these AT1 and AT2 antagonists do not interact with the agonist recognition sites on α4β2* and α7* nAChRs to mediate these effects of nicotine. Thus, angiotensin receptors contribute to the effects of

  5. A novel urotensin II receptor antagonist, KR-36996, improved cardiac function and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in experimental heart failure.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Seok; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yi, Kyu Yang; Lim, Chae Jo; Park, Byung Kil; Seo, Ho Won; Lee, Byung Ho

    2017-03-15

    Urotensin II and its receptor are thought to be involved in various cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Since the regulation of the urotensin II/urotensin II receptor offers a great potential for therapeutic strategies related to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the study of selective and potent antagonists for urotensin II receptor is more fascinating. This study was designed to determine the potential therapeutic effects of a newly developed novel urotensin II receptor antagonist, N-(1-(3-bromo-4-(piperidin-4-yloxy)benzyl)piperidin-4-yl)benzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide (KR-36996), in experimental models of heart failure. KR-36996 displayed a high binding affinity (Ki=4.44±0.67nM) and selectivity for urotensin II receptor. In cell-based study, KR-36996 significantly inhibited urotensin II-induced stress fiber formation and cellular hypertrophy in H9c2 UT cells. In transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy model in mice, the daily oral administration of KR-36996 (30mg/kg) for 14 days significantly decreased left ventricular weight by 40% (P<0.05). In myocardial infarction-induced chronic heart failure model in rats, repeated echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements demonstrated remarkable improvement of the cardiac performance by KR-36996 treatment (25 and 50mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 12 weeks. Moreover, KR-36996 decreased interstitial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in the infarct border zone. These results suggest that potent and selective urotensin II receptor antagonist could efficiently attenuate both cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in experimental heart failure. KR-36996 may be useful as an effective urotensin II receptor antagonist for pharmaceutical or clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The angiotensin II-AT1 receptor stimulates reactive oxygen species within the cell nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergrass, Karl D.; Gwathmey, TanYa M.; Michalek, Ryan D.

    2009-06-26

    We and others have reported significant expression of the Ang II Type 1 receptor (AT1R) on renal nuclei; thus, the present study assessed the functional pathways and distribution of the intracellular AT1R on isolated nuclei. Ang II (1 nM) stimulated DCF fluorescence, an intranuclear indicator of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while the AT1R antagonist losartan or the NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor DPI abolished the increase in ROS. Dual labeling of nuclei with antibodies against nucleoporin 62 (Nup62) and AT1R or the NADPH oxidase isoform NOX4 revealed complete overlap of the Nup62 and AT1R (99%) by flow cytometry, while NOX4 wasmore » present on 65% of nuclei. Treatment of nuclei with a PKC agonist increased ROS while the PKC inhibitor GF109203X or PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 abolished Ang II stimulation of ROS. We conclude that the Ang II-AT1R-PKC axis may directly influence nuclear function within the kidney through a redox sensitive pathway.« less

  7. Efficacy and Tolerability of Nilvadipine in Combination with an Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist in Patients with Essential Hypertension: A Multicenter, Open-Label, Uncontrolled Study

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Keita; Ideishi, Munehito; Tashiro, Eiichiro; Nakashima, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Mitsuhide; Seki, Masahiko; Fujino, Masanori; Sou, Toshimitsu; Kohara, Masaki; Kanaya, Hisashi; Saku, Nishiki; Kamei, Ritsu; Yamasaki, Misao; Sakai, Hiroshi; Gondo, Naoki; Saku, Keijiro

    2003-01-01

    Background: Combination therapy with different classes of antihypertensive drugs often is needed to achieve controlled blood pressure (BP). The combination of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (AIIA) and a calcium antagonist is a preferred option for reducing uncontrolled BP. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and tolerability of nilvadipine, a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, in combination with an AIIA. Methods: Patients with essential hypertension whose BP was not controlled by an AIIA alone were eligible for this multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled study. One of 3 AIIAs (candesartan cilexetil, losartan potassium, or valsartan) was given for at least 10 weeks before the addition of nilvadipine (daily dose, 4 or 8 mg orally). This combination therapy was given for 8 weeks. BP and heart rate were measured between 2 and 4 weeks before and 0, 4, and 8 weeks after the start of combination therapy. Adverse events were monitored at each visit. Results: Thirty-one patients (18 women [58.1%], 13 men [41.9%]; mean [SD] age, 58.5 [10.5] years) were enrolled. At weeks 4 and 8 of combination therapy, mean systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were significantly decreased (P<0.01) (at week 8, by 22.0 mm Hg and 12.5 mm Hg, respectively). The mean BP-lowering effect did not differ significantly between the 3 AIIAs tested. Pulse pressure also decreased significantly at week 8, by 9.6 mm Hg (P<0.01). The responder rate (ie, the percentage of patients with DBP <90 mm Hg or a decrease in DBP ≥10 mm Hg) was 72.0% at week 8. Three patients experienced a total of 4 adverse events: mild or severe flushing, mild headache, and mild palpitation. All of these symptoms resolved after nilvadipine treatment was discontinued. Conclusions: Nilvadipine in combination with an AIIA showed good antihypertensive efficacy and was well tolerated in the hypertensive patients in this study. This combination also significantly decreased pulse pressure

  8. Angiotensin II stimulates calcineurin activity in proximal tubule epithelia through AT-1 receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-gamma1 isoform.

    PubMed

    Lea, Janice P; Jin, Shao G; Roberts, Brian R; Shuler, Michael S; Marrero, Mario B; Tumlin, James A

    2002-07-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) contributes to the maintenance of extracellular fluid volume by regulating sodium transport in the nephron. In nonepithelial cells, activation of phospholipase C (PLC) by AT-1 receptors stimulates the generation of 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and the release of intracellular calcium. Calcineurin, a serine-threonine phosphatase, is activated by calcium and calmodulin, and both PLC and calcineurin have been linked to sodium transport in the proximal tubule. An examination of whether AngII activates calcineurin in a model of proximal tubule epithelia (LLC-PK1 cells) was performed; AngII increased calcineurin activity within 30 s. An examination of whether AngII activates PLC in proximal tubule epithelia was also performed after first showing that all three families of PLC isoforms are present in LLC-PK1 cells. Application of AngII increased IP(3) generation by 60% within 15 s, which coincided with AngII-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-gamma1 isoform also observed at 15 s. AngII-induced tyrosine phosphorylation was blocked by the AT-1 receptor antagonist, Losartan. Subsequently, an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphorylation blocked the AngII-induced activation of calcineurin, as did coincubation with an inhibitor of PLC activity and with an antagonist of the AT-1 receptor. It is therefore concluded that AngII stimulates calcineurin phosphatase activity in proximal tubule epithelial cells through a mechanism involving AT-1 receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC isoform.

  9. Pleiotropic Effects of Losartan in Hypertensive Patients with Dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramaniam, Sivakumar; Kumarasamy, Banupriya

    2017-09-01

    In essential hypertension, the comorbidity of dyslipidemia is very common. In addition to hypertension, dyslipidemia is linked to cardiovascular disease, stroke and decline in renal function. Unlike other angiotensin receptor blockers, Losartan has been claimed to have unique pleiotropic property and thereby decreasing the risk of future cardiovascular complications. The present study was done to assess on the pleiotropic effect of losartan in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients with dyslipidemia. Fifty four hypertensive patients with dyslipidemia who fulfilled the eligible criteria and were willing to give informed consent were included in the study after getting Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC) approval. All the study participants were given tab. Losartan 50mg once daily for four weeks. At the end of 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week, blood pressure control and compliance were monitored. At the end of 4th week all the baseline laboratory parameters like renal function test, liver function test, lipid prolife and random blood sugar were performed. The EQ-5D questionnaires were completed at two points during the study: at the patient's initial visit before enrollment in the study and after 4 weeks of Losartan therapy. Appropriate statistical methods were used to analyse the results.The primary endpoint was reduction in blood pressure and improvement in lipid profile and improvement in quality of life score from baseline after 4 weeks of losartan therapy. Four patients were withdrawn due to non-compliance and totally 50 patients completed the study. The mean systolic blood pressure was reduced from 154.54 mm Hg to 138.16 mm Hg with p<0.0001 and the mean diastolic blood pressure was reduced from 91.56 mm Hg to 82.44 mm Hg with p<0.0001. There was a significant reduction in the mean total cholesterol from 189.52 to 180.46 mg/dl, mean LDL from 110.50 to 101.32 mg/dl and mean triglygeride from 135.68 to 127.70 mg/dl with p<0.0001. Improvements in anxiety and depression

  10. Ang II-AT2R increases mesenchymal stem cell migration by signaling through the FAK and RhoA/Cdc42 pathways in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiu-Ping; He, Hong-Li; Hu, Shu-Ling; Han, Ji-Bin; Huang, Li-Li; Xu, Jing-Yuan; Xie, Jian-Feng; Liu, Ai-Ran; Yang, Yi; Qiu, Hai-Bo

    2017-07-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migrate via the bloodstream to sites of injury and are possibly attracted by inflammatory factors. As a proinflammatory mediator, angiotensin II (Ang II) reportedly enhances the migration of various cell types by signaling via the Ang II receptor in vitro. However, few studies have focused on the effects of Ang II on MSC migration and the underlying mechanisms. Human bone marrow MSCs migration was measured using wound healing and Boyden chamber migration assays after treatments with different concentrations of Ang II, an AT1R antagonist (Losartan), and/or an AT2R antagonist (PD-123319). To exclude the effect of proliferation on MSC migration, we measured MSC proliferation after stimulation with the same concentration of Ang II. Additionally, we employed the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF-573228, RhoA inhibitor C3 transferase, Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766, or Cdc42 inhibitor ML141 to investigate the role of cell adhesion proteins and the Rho-GTPase protein family (RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42) in Ang II-mediated MSC migration. Cell adhesion proteins (FAK, Talin, and Vinculin) were detected by western blot analysis. The Rho-GTPase family protein activities were assessed by G-LISA and F-actin levels, which reflect actin cytoskeletal organization, were detected by using immunofluorescence. Human bone marrow MSCs constitutively expressed AT1R and AT2R. Additionally, Ang II increased MSC migration in an AT2R-dependent manner. Notably, Ang II-enhanced migration was not mediated by Ang II-mediated cell proliferation. Interestingly, Ang II-enhanced migration was mediated by FAK activation, which was critical for the formation of focal contacts, as evidenced by increased Talin and Vinculin expression. Moreover, RhoA and Cdc42 were activated by FAK to increase cytoskeletal organization, thus promoting cell contraction. Furthermore, FAK, Talin, and Vinculin activation and F-actin reorganization in response to Ang II were prevented by PD-123319 but

  11. Safety and benefits of a tablet combining losartan and hydrochlorothiazide in Japanese diabetic patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kinouchi, Kenichiro; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Sakoda, Mariyo; Kurauchi-Mito, Asako; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2009-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of a tablet combining losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (L/HCTZ) in comparison with losartan alone in Japanese diabetic patients with hypertension. Thirty consecutive Japanese diabetic patients with hypertension were randomly assigned to group A, receiving losartan alone for the first 3 months, then L/HCTZ for the next 3 months, or group B, receiving L/HCTZ for the first 3 months, then losartan alone for the next 3 months. Clinical and biological parameters were obtained before, and 3 and 6 months after the start of this study. The decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) during treatment with L/HCTZ were significantly greater than in treatment with losartan alone. Both treatments significantly and similarly decreased urinary albumin excretion, the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and augmentation index (AI). There was no significant difference in metabolic change during both the mono- and combination pharmacotherapies. The tablet combining L/HCTZ significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BP compared with the losartan monotherapy, and offered benefits similar to losartan monotherapy for albuminuria, arterial stiffness assessed by the CAVI and AI, and metabolic effects. Thus, the L/HCTZ tablet could be a useful drug for Japanese diabetic patients with hypertension.

  12. A randomized, comparative study evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of losartan-low dose chlorthalidone (6.25 mg) combination with losartan-hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg) combination in Indian patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Anil; Basavanagowdappa, Hathur; Zawar, Shyamsundar; Kumar, Anil; Chandurkar, Nitin

    2009-07-01

    The relationship of blood pressure (BP) to cardiovascular risk is linear, positive, and continuous. Lowering elevated BP reduces the risk of cardiovascular events. The primary objective of this randomized, multicenter, comparative, 3-month, open-label study was to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy of losartan/chlorthalidone versus losartan/hydrochlorothiazide in mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. A total of 137 eligible patients underwent a 2-week placebo washout period, following which 131 patients were randomized to losartan (L) 25mg/chlorthalidone (C) 6.25 mg (66/131) or to losartan 25 mg/hydrochlorothiazide (H) 12.5 mg (65/131) at three centers. Patients not responding after 4 weeks of therapy were escalated to losartan 25 mg/chlorthalidone 12.5 mg and losartan 50 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg, respectively. Both treatment groups were similar with respect to demography and baseline characteristics. Altogether, 120 patients completed the study. After 4 weeks of therapy, both treatments showed a significant fall from baseline in systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) (L/C: -20.17/-10.30; L/H: -17.63/-10.20). Both treatments were similar with respect to mean fall in SBP (p = 0.258), DBP (p = 0.934) and response rate (p = 0.769). Both step-up therapies were similar with respect to mean fall in SBP (p = 0.418), DBP (p = 0.389) from baseline and response rate (p = 0.769). All reported adverse events were of mild-to-moderate intensity, except for two serious AEs that occurred in patients who received L/H. The losartan/low-dose chlorthalidone (6.25 mg) combination is as effective as the widely used losartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination in lowering BP and is well tolerated, thus providing a useful therapeutic option for treating mild-to-moderate hypertension.

  13. Managing blood pressure control in Asian patients: safety and efficacy of losartan.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Tommy Tsang; Cheung, Bernard Man Yung

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is common in Asian populations and is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of hypertension is increasing in many Asian countries. The overall prevalence of hypertension in India and the People's Republic of China has been estimated to be 20.6% in men and 22.6% in women. However, the rates of detection, treatment, and control of hypertension remain low in Asia. This reflects a low level of literacy and education, as well as a low level of access to medical care. To overcome these obstacles, strategies targeted at education, promotion, and optimization of medical care, are crucial to achieve target blood pressure control. Angiotensin receptor blockers are one of the first-line treatments for essential hypertension because they confer better cardiovascular outcomes. Losartan has been widely evaluated for the management of hypertension. Although some studies suggested that the blood pressure-lowering effect of losartan is perhaps lower than for other angiotensin receptor blockers, losartan has been demonstrated to be beneficial in terms of renal protection in patients with diabetes, heart failure resulting from either systolic or diastolic dysfunction, and diuretic-induced hyperuricemia. However, most of these data were obtained from Caucasian populations. The efficacy and safety of losartan in Asian populations may be different because of genetic and ethnic variations. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of losartan in Asian patients with hypertension warrant further study.

  14. Fixed-dose combinations in the management of hypertension: defining the place of angiotensin receptor antagonists and hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Os, Ingrid; Høieggen, Aud; Beckey, Kim; Gleim, Gilbert W; Oparil, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    We discuss combination therapy with angiotensin receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers; ARBs) and thiazide diuretics in light of the independent actions of both types of agents, and the adverse effects of both agents independently and in the context of the physiologic synergy achieved in using these agents together. ARBs counteract many of the adverse events associated with the use of thiazide diuretics and have been shown to reduce the occurrence of new-onset diabetes mellitus. We also review outcome trials in patients with hypertension (such as LIFE [Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension], VALUE [Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation], and SCOPE [Study on COgnition and Prognosis in the Elderly]), in which losartan, valsartan, and candesartan cilexetil were used in combination with hydrochlorothiazide. Fixed combination ARB/hydrochlorothiazide agents make sense as initial therapy for patients in whom BP is >20/10 mm Hg above goal.

  15. Effects of quercetin on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite EXP3174 in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingling; Wei, Jinlan; Zhang, Hongying

    2018-06-04

    1. This study investigates the influence of quercetin on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite EXP3174 in rats. 2. The pharmacokinetic profiles of losartan and EXP3174 of orally administered losartan (10 mg/kg) with or without pretreatment with quercetin (20 mg/kg/day for 7 days) were investigated. Additionally, Caco-2 cell transwell model and rat liver microsome incubation experiments were also conducted to investigate its potential mechanism. 3. The results showed that when the rats were pretreated with quercetin, the C max (2.16 ± 0.40 vs. 1.33 ± 0.21 mg/L) and the AUC (0-t) (13.89 ± 1.22 vs. 7.34 ± 0.75 mg·h/L) of losartan increased significantly (p < .05), and while the C max (0.76 ± 0.09 vs. 1.14 ± 0.18 mg/L) of EXP3174 decreased significantly compared to the control (p < .05). The t 1/2 of losartan was prolonged from 3.27 ± 0.45 h to 4.74 ± 0.51 h (p < .05). The results also indicated that quercetin could increase losartan absorption rate by inhibiting the activity of P-gp and decrease its metabolic stability by inhibiting the activity of CYP450 enzyme. 4. These results indicated that the herb-drug interaction between quercetin and losartan might occur when they are co-administered in rats, quercetin could increase the systemic exposure of losartan and decrease the plasma concentration of EXP3174, possibly by inhibiting the activity of P-gp or CYP450 enzyme.

  16. Nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT₁ receptor antagonists derived from 6-substituted aminocarbonyl and acylamino benzimidazoles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jin-Liang; Yu, Wei-Fa; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Tao, Wen-Chang; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Xue, Wei-Zhe; Xu, Di; Hao, Li-Ping; Han, Xiao-Feng; Fei, Fan; Liu, Ting; Liang, Ai-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Both 6-substituted aminocarbonyl and acylamino benzimidazole derivatives were designed and synthesized as nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT₁ receptor antagonists. Compounds 6f, 6g, 11e, 11f, 11g, and 12 showed nanomolar AT₁ receptor binding affinity and high AT₁ receptor selectivity over AT₂ receptor in a preliminary pharmacological evaluation. Among them, the two most active compounds 6f (AT₁ IC₅₀ = 3 nM, AT₂ IC₅₀ > 10,000 nM, PA₂ = 8.51) and 11g (AT₁ IC₅₀ = 0.1 nM, AT₂ IC₅₀ = 149 nM, PA₂ = 8.43) exhibited good antagonistic activity in isolated rabbit aortic strip functional assay. In addition, they were orally active AT₁ receptor antagonists in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparisons of the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of fixed-dose combinations of amlodipine besylate/losartan and amlodipine camsylate/losartan in healthy subjects: a randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study.

    PubMed

    Choi, YoonJung; Lee, SeungHwan; Cho, Sang-Min; Kang, Won-Ho; Nam, Kyu-Yeol; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2016-01-01

    A fixed-dose combination (FDC) of amlodipine and losartan has been used to reduce blood pressure in patients whose hypertension is not sufficiently controlled with either drug alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics and tolerability of an FDC of 6.94 mg amlodipine besylate (5 mg as amlodipine)/50 mg losartan potassium compared to an FDC of 5 mg amlodipine camsylate/50 mg losartan potassium in healthy subjects. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study was conducted on 46 healthy male subjects. Blood concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Blood samples were collected up to 144 hours post dose for each period. PK parameters were calculated in each treatment group using a noncompartmental method. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios of the two treatments for the maximum plasma concentration ( C max ) and the area under the concentration curve from time zero to the last quantifiable time point (AUC 0-t ) were estimated. Tolerability assessments were performed for all subjects who received the drug at least once. The PK profiles of the two treatments were similar. For amlodipine, the geometric mean ratios (90% CIs) of amlodipine besylate to amlodipine camsylate for the C max and AUC 0-t were 0.98 (0.94-1.01) and 0.97 (0.93-1.01), respectively. The corresponding values for losartan were 0.91 (0.81-1.02) and 1.05 (0.98-1.12), respectively. The incidence of adverse events was not significantly different between the two treatments, and both were well tolerated. An FDC of 6.94 mg amlodipine besylate (5 mg as amlodipine)/50 mg losartan potassium produced similar results to an FDC of 5 mg amlodipine camsylate/50 mg losartan potassium treatment with respect to the PK parameters of amlodipine and losartan based on C max and AUC 0-t values. The amlodipine besylate/losartan potassium combination was well tolerated by healthy male

  18. Influence of compound danshen tablet on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite EXP3174 by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongfang; Zhang, Hai; Ma, Weina; Sun, Sen; Wang, Benwei; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Guoqing; Chai, Yifeng

    2013-09-01

    Losartan is an effective anti-hypotension drug frequently used in clinic. Compound danshen tablet (CDST) is an important traditional Chinese multiherbal formula composed of Danshen, Sanqi and Bingpian, which is widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China. More often, losartan and CDST are simultaneously used for the treatment of anti-hypertension in the clinic. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of losartan and EXP3174 after oral administration of single losartan and both losartan and CDST, and to investigate the influence of CDST on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite EXP3174. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: a losartan-only group and a losartan and CDST group. Plasma concentrations of losartan and EXP3174 were determined by LC-MS at designated points after drug administration, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. It was found that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) between the pharmacokinetic parameters of losartan and EXP3174, which showed that CDST influenced the metabolism and excretion of losartan in vivo. The result could be used for clinical medication guidance of losartan and CDST to avoid the occurrence of adverse reactions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. [Effectiveness and safety of losartan and its combination with hydrochlorothiazide in patients with hypertension: in result study].

    PubMed

    Glezer, M G; Saĭgitov, R T

    2012-01-01

    There are limited data on the results of Russia's use of losartan in clinical practice for the treatment of patients with arterial hypertension (AH). The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of losartan and its fixed combination with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in patients with hypertension. Primary care physicians (n=644) for 8 weeks evaluated outcomes of treatment of hypertensive patients who were assigned to losartan monotherapy (12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg) or a fixed combination with hydrochlorothiazide (losartan 50 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg , losartan 100 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg). The effectiveness of treatment was assessed by size reduction of systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), and the frequency of achieving target blood pressure (<140/90 or <130/80 mm Hg in patients with diabetes). Losartan at a dose 12.5 mg was assigned to 382 (3.8%), at a dose of 25 mg - to 1061 (10.7%), at a dose of 50 mg - to 3545 (35.6%), at a dose of 100 mg - to 3247 (32.6%), at a dose of 50 mg / hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg - to 893 (9.0%), at a dose of 100 mg / hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg - to 820 (8.2%) of 9948 patients included in the study. According to multivariate analysis, dose selection of losartan was determined by an attending physician, mainly (85% according to the estimate of the explained variance), based on the baseline SBP. As a result of treatment (41 to 53% of patients received losartan only or in combination with HCTZ) SBP decrease in the groups ranged from 20 to 38 mm Hg, DBP - from 10 to 17 mm Hg, the target blood pressure is achieved in 29-66% of patients. At least one adverse event occurred in 141 (1.4%) patients, with lower frequency in patients receiving losartan 50 mg (adjusted odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 0.63; the reference group - patients receiving losartan 100 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg). Thus losartan as monotherapy or in fixed combination with HCTZ for hypertensive patients is characterized

  20. Bioequivalence study of two losartan tablet formulations with special emphasis on cardiac safety.

    PubMed

    Khandave, Suhas S; Sawant, Satish V; Sahane, Rakhi V; Murthi, Vivekanand; Dhanure, Shivanand S; Surve, Pradeep G

    2012-05-01

    To study the bioequivalence of Losartan Potassium Tablets 50 mg manufactured by Micro Labs Ltd. India to Cozaar® Tablets 50 mg, manufactured by Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd., UK in normal healthy adult subjects under fasting condition along with the comparative safety evaluation of both treatments. The in vitro dissolution studies were carried out on 12 units each of test and reference products using the paddle method and dissolution media like water, 0.1 N hydrochloric acid with pH 1.2, pH 4.5 acetate buffer and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. An open label, randomized, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, crossover bioequivalence study with a washout period of 7 days was conducted in 60 healthy Indian male subjects. Serial blood samples were collected after drug administration in each study period. Plasma concentrations of losartan and losartan acid were determined using a validated LC-MS-MS method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of losartan and losartan acid were determined using a non compartmental model. Occurrence of adverse events, change in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and QT interval from the baseline to 3.50 h post dose were studied and compared between the two treatments as safety parameters. The in vitro study proved the essential similarity of both the formulations as evident from the similarity factor of > 50% in all the dissolution media. The ratios for geometric least square means and 90% confidence intervals were within the acceptance criteria of 80% to 125% for log transformed C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞) for losartan. No statistically significant difference between the two treatments was observed for either of the safety parameters. The test product Losartan Potassium tablets 50 mg manufactured by Micro Labs Limited, India was bioequivalent to Cozaar® tablets 50 mg, manufactured by Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd., UK in terms of rate and extent of absorption. Both treatments were well tolerated and had similar non

  1. Managing blood pressure control in Asian patients: safety and efficacy of losartan

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Tommy Tsang; Cheung, Bernard Man Yung

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is common in Asian populations and is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of hypertension is increasing in many Asian countries. The overall prevalence of hypertension in India and the People’s Republic of China has been estimated to be 20.6% in men and 22.6% in women. However, the rates of detection, treatment, and control of hypertension remain low in Asia. This reflects a low level of literacy and education, as well as a low level of access to medical care. To overcome these obstacles, strategies targeted at education, promotion, and optimization of medical care, are crucial to achieve target blood pressure control. Angiotensin receptor blockers are one of the first-line treatments for essential hypertension because they confer better cardiovascular outcomes. Losartan has been widely evaluated for the management of hypertension. Although some studies suggested that the blood pressure-lowering effect of losartan is perhaps lower than for other angiotensin receptor blockers, losartan has been demonstrated to be beneficial in terms of renal protection in patients with diabetes, heart failure resulting from either systolic or diastolic dysfunction, and diuretic-induced hyperuricemia. However, most of these data were obtained from Caucasian populations. The efficacy and safety of losartan in Asian populations may be different because of genetic and ethnic variations. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of losartan in Asian patients with hypertension warrant further study. PMID:24672231

  2. Functional Vascular Study in Hypertensive Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Using Losartan or Amlodipine

    PubMed Central

    Pozzobon, Cesar Romaro; Gismondi, Ronaldo A. O. C.; Bedirian, Ricardo; Ladeira, Marcia Cristina; Neves, Mario Fritsch; Oigman, Wille

    2014-01-01

    Background Antihypertensive drugs are used to control blood pressure (BP) and reduce macro- and microvascular complications in hypertensive patients with diabetes. Objectives The present study aimed to compare the functional vascular changes in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after 6 weeks of treatment with amlodipine or losartan. Methods Patients with a previous diagnosis of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly divided into 2 groups and evaluated after 6 weeks of treatment with amlodipine (5 mg/day) or losartan (100 mg/day). Patient evaluation included BP measurement, ambulatory BP monitoring, and assessment of vascular parameters using applanation tonometry, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Results A total of 42 patients were evaluated (21 in each group), with a predominance of women (71%) in both groups. The mean age of the patients in both groups was similar (amlodipine group: 54.9 ± 4.5 years; losartan group: 54.0 ± 6.9 years), with no significant difference in the mean BP [amlodipine group: 145 ± 14 mmHg (systolic) and 84 ± 8 mmHg (diastolic); losartan group: 153 ± 19 mmHg (systolic) and 90 ± 9 mmHg (diastolic)]. The augmentation index (30% ± 9% and 36% ± 8%, p = 0.025) and augmentation pressure (16 ± 6 mmHg and 20 ± 8 mmHg, p = 0.045) were lower in the amlodipine group when compared with the losartan group. PWV and FMD were similar in both groups. Conclusions Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with amlodipine exhibited an improved pattern of pulse wave reflection in comparison with those treated with losartan. However, the use of losartan may be associated with independent vascular reactivity to the pressor effect. PMID:25014057

  3. Functional vascular study in hypertensive subjects with type 2 diabetes using losartan or amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Pozzobon, Cesar Romaro; Gismondi, Ronaldo A O C; Bedirian, Ricardo; Ladeira, Marcia Cristina; Neves, Mario Fritsch; Oigman, Wille

    2014-07-01

    Antihypertensive drugs are used to control blood pressure (BP) and reduce macro- and microvascular complications in hypertensive patients with diabetes. The present study aimed to compare the functional vascular changes in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after 6 weeks of treatment with amlodipine or losartan. Patients with a previous diagnosis of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly divided into 2 groups and evaluated after 6 weeks of treatment with amlodipine (5 mg/day) or losartan (100 mg/day). Patient evaluation included BP measurement, ambulatory BP monitoring, and assessment of vascular parameters using applanation tonometry, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. A total of 42 patients were evaluated (21 in each group), with a predominance of women (71%) in both groups. The mean age of the patients in both groups was similar (amlodipine group: 54.9 ± 4.5 years; losartan group: 54.0 ± 6.9 years), with no significant difference in the mean BP [amlodipine group: 145 ± 14 mmHg (systolic) and 84 ± 8 mmHg (diastolic); losartan group: 153 ± 19 mmHg (systolic) and 90 ± 9 mmHg (diastolic)]. The augmentation index (30% ± 9% and 36% ± 8%, p = 0.025) and augmentation pressure (16 ± 6 mmHg and 20 ± 8 mmHg, p = 0.045) were lower in the amlodipine group when compared with the losartan group. PWV and FMD were similar in both groups. Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with amlodipine exhibited an improved pattern of pulse wave reflection in comparison with those treated with losartan. However, the use of losartan may be associated with independent vascular reactivity to the pressor effect.

  4. Pharmacological characterization of BR-A-657, a highly potent nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yong Ha; Lee, Joo Han; Kim, Je Hak; Tan, Hyun Kwang; Kim, Sang Lin; Lee, Jae Yeol; Rim, Hong-Kun; Paik, Soo Heui; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacological profile of BR-A-657, 2-n-butyl-5-dimethylamino-thiocarbonyl-methyl-6-methyl-3-{[2-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl}-pyrimidin-4(3H)-one, a new nonpeptide AT1-selective angiotensin receptor antagonist, has been investigated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experimental models. In the present study, BR-A-657 displaced [(125)I][Sar(1)-Ile(8)]angiotensin II (Ang II) from its specific binding sites to AT1 subtype receptors in membrane fractions of HEK-293 cells with an IC50 of 0.16 nM. In a functional assay using isolated rabbit thoracic aorta, BR-A-657 inhibited the contractile response to Ang II (pD'2: 9.15) with a significant reduction in the maximum. In conscious rats, BR-A-657 (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg; intravenously (i.v.)) dose-dependently antagonized Ang II-induced pressor responses. In addition, BR-A-657 dose-dependently decreased mean arterial pressure in furosemide-treated rats and renal hypertensive rats. Moreover, BR-A-657 given orally at 1 and 3 mg/kg reduced blood pressure in conscious renal hypertensive rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that BR-A-657 is a potent and specific antagonist of Ang II at the AT1 receptor subtype, and reveal the molecular basis responsible for the marked lowering of blood pressure in conscious rats.

  5. Comparative study of enalapril vs. losartan on residual renal function preservation in automated peritoneal dialysis. A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Marín, Fernando Arturo; Calzada, Claudia; Ballesteros, Araceli; Amato, Dante

    2012-01-01

    Residual renal function (RRF) is an important determinant of mortality and morbidity in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD). Recent studies have shown a positive effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) on RRF in PD patients. To compare enalapril and losartan for RRF preservation in automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients. An open label randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 12 month follow-up period was conducted to compare the effect of enalapril vs. losartan on RRF preservation in 60 APD patients. Measurements were done at the start of the study (baseline), 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. A historical control group (HCG) without treatment was included to assess the natural history of RRF loss. RRF in the enalapril group dropped from 3.65 +/- 1.6 (baseline) to 2.36 +/- 0.38 mL/min/1.73 m2 (12 months). In the losartan group RRF was reduced from 4.1+/- 2.01 (baseline) to 2.54 +/- 0.47 mL/min/ 1.73 m2 (12 months). There were not significant differences between the two groups regarding RRF at 12 months. In the HCG, RRF declined from 3.68 +/- 0.48 to 1.4 +/- 0.29 mL/min/ 1.73 m2 (12 months). RRF in the HCG was significantly lower than RRF in the two treated groups at 12 months (P < 0.05). There was not significant difference on RRF preservation between enalapril and losartan groups. Comparing these results to those of the HCG suggests that the treatment with any of the drugs is useful in preserving RRF.

  6. The velocity of antihypertensive effect of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide and angiotensin II receptor blocker.

    PubMed

    Metoki, Hirohito; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Kikuya, Masahiro; Asayama, Kei; Inoue, Ryusuke; Obara, Taku; Hirose, Takuo; Sato, Michihiro; Hashimoto, Takanao; Imai, Yutaka

    2012-07-01

    The hypotensive effect and the time to attain the maximum antihypertensive effect (stabilization time) of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination therapy and therapy with a maximal dose of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients who failed to achieve adequate blood pressure (BP) control on a medium-dose of ARBs were compared by analyzing exponential decay functions using daily serial morning home BP measurements. Essential hypertensive patients treated with a medium dose of ARB, in whom a target home SBP (135 mmHg) was not achieved, were randomized into two groups: a combination group (n = 110) and a maximal-dose ARB group (n = 111). The combination therapy provided additional reduction of 5.2 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8 to 8.5 mmHg, P = 0.003] in home SBP over the maximal-dose ARB therapy in 8 weeks after randomization. A greater reduction in the home SBP values was seen in the combination group than in the maximal-dose ARB group from the second day after randomization on the basis of a linear mixed model. The maximum antihypertensive effect and stabilization time for home SBP were 10.9 ± 5.0 mmHg and 7.3 ± 29.7 days, respectively, in the combination group, whereas the corresponding values in the maximal-dose ARB group were 7.9 ± 2.6  mmHg and 122.3 ± 42.7 days, respectively, on the basis of a nonlinear mixed model. Changing from a medium dose of ARB monotherapy to combination therapy was more effective in the reduction of home SBP and achieved goal BP more rapidly than increasing the ARB dose. Home BP measurement is a useful tool for characterizing the antihypertensive effects of drugs.

  7. Fenoterol stimulates human erythropoietin production via activation of the renin angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Freudenthaler, S M; Schenck, T; Lucht, I; Gleiter, C H

    1999-10-01

    The present study assessed the hypothesis that the beta2 sympathomimetic fenoterol influences the production of erythropoietin (EPO) by activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS), i.e. angiotensin II. In an open, parallel, randomized study healthy volunteers received i.v. either placebo (electrolyte solution), fenoterol or fenoterol in combination with an oral dose of the AT1-receptor antagonist losartan. Compared with placebo treatment AUCEPO(0,24 h) was significantly increased after fenoterol application by 48% whereas no increase in the group receiving fenoterol and losartan could be detected. The rise of PRA was statistically significant under fenoterol and fenoterol plus lorsartan. Stimulation of EPO production during fenoterol infusion appears to be angiotensin II-mediated. Thus, angiotensin II may be considered as one important physiological modulator of EPO production in humans.

  8. Blockade of AT1 type receptors for angiotensin II prevents cardiac microvascular fibrosis induced by chronic stress in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Firoozmand, Lília Taddeo; Sanches, Andrea; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Perez, Juliana Dinéia; Aragão, Danielle Sanches; Rosa, Rodolfo Mattar; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Cunha, Tatiana Sousa

    2018-04-20

    To test the effects of chronic-stress on the cardiovascular system, the model of chronic mild unpredictable stress (CMS) has been widely used. The CMS protocol consists of the random, intermittent, and unpredictable exposure of laboratory animals to a variety of stressors, during 3 consecutive weeks. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to the CMS protocol leads to left ventricle microcirculatory remodeling that can be attenuated by angiotensin II receptor blockade. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups: Control, Stress, Control + losartan, and Stress + losartan (N = 6, each group, losartan: 20 mg/kg/day). The rats were euthanized 15 days after CMS exposure, and blood samples and left ventricle were collected. Rats submitted to CMS presented increased glycemia, corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline concentration, and losartan reduced the concentration of the circulating amines. Cardiac angiotensin II, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was significantly increased in the CMS group, and losartan treatment reduced it, while angiotensin 1-7 was significantly higher in the CMS losartan-treated group as compared with CMS. Histological analysis, verified by transmission electron microscopy, showed that rats exposed to CMS presented increased perivascular collagen and losartan effectively prevented the development of this process. Hence, CMS induced a state of microvascular disease, with increased perivascular collagen deposition, that may be the trigger for further development of cardiovascular disease. In this case, CMS fibrosis is associated with increased production of catecholamines and with a disruption of renin-angiotensin system balance, which can be prevented by angiotensin II receptor blockade.

  9. Comparisons of the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of fixed-dose combinations of amlodipine besylate/losartan and amlodipine camsylate/losartan in healthy subjects: a randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, YoonJung; Lee, SeungHwan; Cho, Sang-Min; Kang, Won-Ho; Nam, Kyu-Yeol; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Background A fixed-dose combination (FDC) of amlodipine and losartan has been used to reduce blood pressure in patients whose hypertension is not sufficiently controlled with either drug alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics and tolerability of an FDC of 6.94 mg amlodipine besylate (5 mg as amlodipine)/50 mg losartan potassium compared to an FDC of 5 mg amlodipine camsylate/50 mg losartan potassium in healthy subjects. Subjects and methods A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study was conducted on 46 healthy male subjects. Blood concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Blood samples were collected up to 144 hours post dose for each period. PK parameters were calculated in each treatment group using a noncompartmental method. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios of the two treatments for the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and the area under the concentration curve from time zero to the last quantifiable time point (AUC0–t) were estimated. Tolerability assessments were performed for all subjects who received the drug at least once. Results The PK profiles of the two treatments were similar. For amlodipine, the geometric mean ratios (90% CIs) of amlodipine besylate to amlodipine camsylate for the Cmax and AUC0–t were 0.98 (0.94−1.01) and 0.97 (0.93−1.01), respectively. The corresponding values for losartan were 0.91 (0.81−1.02) and 1.05 (0.98−1.12), respectively. The incidence of adverse events was not significantly different between the two treatments, and both were well tolerated. Conclusion An FDC of 6.94 mg amlodipine besylate (5 mg as amlodipine)/50 mg losartan potassium produced similar results to an FDC of 5 mg amlodipine camsylate/50 mg losartan potassium treatment with respect to the PK parameters of amlodipine and losartan based on Cmax and AUC0–t values. The amlodipine besylate/losartan

  10. Treatment with low-dose atorvastatin, losartan, and their combination increases expression of vasoactive-related genes in rat aortas.

    PubMed

    Lunder, Mojca; Drevenšek, Gorazd; Černe, Darko; Marc, Janja; Janić, Miodrag; Šabovič, Mišo

    2013-03-01

    Recently it has been shown that statins and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) at low doses express beneficial pleiotropic vascular effects. We aimed to explore whether these drugs at low doses induce the expression of vasoactive-related genes. Sixty adult Wistar rats were treated with low-dose atorvastatin (2 mg/kg), low-dose losartan (5 mg/kg), their combination or saline daily for 4, 6, or 8 weeks. Expression of the vasoactive-related genes endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTRL1a) was measured in isolated thoracic aortas. Expression of EDNRA gradually decreased, the lowest values being obtained after 8 weeks (low-dose atorvastatin, losartan [1.6- and 1-7-fold vs controls, respectively; both P < .05], and the combination [2.3-fold vs control, P < .001]). The highest values of NOS3 were obtained after 6 weeks (low-dose atorvastatin, losartan, and their combination, 3.1-fold, P < .01; 3.4-fold, P < .001; and 3.6-fold, P < .001 vs controls, respectively) and then declined after 8 weeks. The combination was more effective in inducing total NOS3 expression when compared to the separate drugs (1.4-fold; P < .05). Importantly, expression of NOS3 was associated with increased plasma NO levels and positively correlated with thoracic aorta relaxation. No changes in expression of NOS2 and AGTRL1a were observed. We showed that low-dose atorvastatin or losartan and especially their combination increases the expression of NOS3 and decreases the expression of EDNRA. These findings are valuable in explaining the effectiveness of the "low-dose pharmacological approach" for improvement in arterial function.

  11. Losartan reduces oxidative stress within the rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats with renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Erika E; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; Oliveira-Sales, Elizabeth B; Simon, Karin A; Campos, Ruy R

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies showed that the microinjection of antioxidants or the overexpression of superoxide dismutase within the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) reduces hypertension and sympathoexcitation in the 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K-1C) model. In this study, we hypothesized that angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1 receptor (AT1R) is involved in the oxidative stress within the RVLM and contributes to cardiovascular dysfunction in renovascular hypertension. Losartan (30mg/kg/day, oral gavage) was administered for 7 consecutive days by week 5 after implantation of the clip (gap width = 0.2mm). Mean arterial pressure, baroreflex, and renal sympathetic nerve activity (rSNA) were evaluated. Superoxide production was evaluated by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining within the RVLM and within a control area. Systemic oxidative stress was characterized by measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total glutathione (tGSH) in the blood. AT1R blockade significantly (P < 0.05) reduced hypertension by approximately 20% (n = 11) and sympathoexcitation to the kidneys by approximately 41% (n = 6) in the 2K-1C rats. Losartan treatment increased the baroreflex sensitivity of rSNA to pressor (67%) and depressor (140%) stimuli in the 2K-1C rats. AT1R blockade caused a significant (66%) reduction in DHE staining within the RVLM but not within the control area, reduced plasma TBARS (from 1.6±0.1 to 1.0±0.1 nmol/ml), and increased tGSH (from 3.4±0.4 to 5.2±0.3 μmol/g Hb) in the 2K-1C group only. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of ANG II blockade in renovascular hypertension are partly due to preferential reduction of oxidative stress in the RVLM.

  12. Effects of losartan on experimental varicocele-induced testicular germ cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bolat, D; Oltulu, F; Uysal, A; Kose, T; Gunlusoy, B; Yigitturk, G; Turk, N S; Turan, T

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the potential protective effects of losartan on varicocele-induced germ cell apoptosis, 24 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: a sham operation was performed in SHAM group, and experimental left varicocele was created in VAR and VAR + LOS groups. Additionally, in VAR + LOS group, losartan was administered for 30 days starting on the day of surgery. At the end of 30 days, all animals were sacrificed and left orchiectomy was performed. Testicular injury and spermatogenesis were evaluated according to Johnsen scoring system. To assess the nitrosative stress, immunohistochemical staining for endothelial nitric oxide synthase was used and evaluated by H-score and apoptotic index (AI) of germ cells was analysed by TUNEL method. A significant decrease in the mean Johnsen score (JS) was observed in VAR group compared with SHAM (p < .001). The mean H-score and AI were significantly higher in VAR group compared with SHAM (p < .001). After losartan administration, mean JS was significantly increased (p < .001) and mean H-score and AI were significantly decreased compared with VAR group (p < .001 and .01, respectively). Findings of this suggest that losartan acts as a potent protective agent against varicocele-induced germ cell apoptosis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. The effect of losartan on progressive aortic dilatation in patients with Marfan's syndrome: a meta-analysis of prospective randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gao, Linggen; Chen, Lei; Fan, Li; Gao, Dewei; Liang, Zhiru; Wang, Rong; Lu, Wenning

    2016-08-15

    To assess the effect of losartan therapy on progressive aortic dilatation and on clinical outcome in patients with Marfan's syndrome (MFS). The meta-analysis was instituted, which included studies identified by a systematic review of MEDLINE of peer-reviewed publications. Echocardiogram or MRI measurements of the aortic root dimension and outcome measures of death, cardiovascular surgery and aortic dissection or rupture were compared between patients who were treated and untreated with losartan therapy. Six randomized trials with 1398 subjects met all the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with non-losartan treatment, losartan therapy significantly decreased the rate of aortic dilatation (SMD=-0.13 with 95% CI -0.25 to 0.00, p=0.04). The clinical outcome beneficial was not observed in the losartan treatment group when compared with no losartan treatment group (odds ratio=1.04 with 95% CI of 0.57-1.87). Given the current results of the meta-analysis and together with the lack of associated side effects, it would be reasonable to use losartan in MFS patients with aortic root dilatation. However, no clinical outcome benefits were observed in the losartan treatment group when compared with no losartan treatment group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combination of fluvastatin and losartan relieves atherosclerosis and macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-pei; Dong, Qiu-li; Zhang, Xu-hong; Zhang, Yue-hui; Zhu, Li; Li, Shu-ying; Liu, Zhong-zhi; Xu, Hui; Wang, Nan; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Chun-xi; Liu, Xian-xi; Dong, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the combination of fluvastatin and losartan synergistically relieve atherosclerosis and plaque inflammation induced by a high-cholesterol diet in rabbits. Methods: Atherosclerosis was induced with a high-cholesterol diet for 3 months in 36 New Zealand white rabbits. The animals were randomly divided into model group, fluvastatin (10 mg·kg-1·d-1) group, losartan (25 mg·kg-1·d-1) group, and fluvastatin plus losartan group. After the 16-week treatments, the blood samples the animals were collected, and the thoracic aortas were examined immunohistochemically. The mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured using RT-PCR and Western blot. Results: Compared to the treatment with losartan or fluvastatin alone, the combined treatment did not produce higher efficacy in reduction of blood cholesterol level. However, the combination did synergistically decrease the intimal and media thickness of thoracic aortas with significantly reduced macrophage infiltration and MCP-1 expression in the plaques. Conclusion: The combined treatment with losartan and fluvastatin significantly inhibited atherosclerotic progress and reduced inflammation associated with atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:21909126

  15. Long-term prehypertension treatment with losartan effectively prevents brain damage and stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    He, De-Hua; Zhang, Liang-Min; Lin, Li-Ming; Ning, Ruo-Bing; Wang, Hua-Jun; Xu, Chang-Sheng; Lin, Jin-Xiu

    2014-02-01

    Prehypertension has been associated with adverse cerebrovascular events and brain damage. The aims of this study were to investigate ⅰ) whether short‑ and long-term treatments with losartan or amlodipine for prehypertension were able to prevent blood pressure (BP)-linked brain damage, and ⅱ) whether there is a difference in the effectiveness of treatment with losartan and amlodipine in protecting BP-linked brain damage. In the present study, prehypertensive treatment with losartan and amlodipine (6 and 16 weeks treatment with each drug) was performed on 4-week‑old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). The results showed that long-term (16 weeks) treatment with losartan is the most effective in lowering systolic blood pressure in the long term (up to 40 weeks follow-up). Additionally, compared with the amlodipine treatment groups, the short‑ and long-term losartan treatments protected SHRSP from stroke and improved their brains structurally and functionally more effectively, with the long-term treatment having more benefits. Mechanistically, the short‑ and long-term treatments with losartan reduced the activity of the local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in a time-dependent manner and more effectively than their respective counterpart amlodipine treatment group mainly by decreasing AT1R levels and increasing AT2R levels in the cerebral cortex. By contrast, the amlodipine treatment groups inhibited brain cell apoptosis more effectively as compared with the losartan treatment groups mainly through the suppression of local oxidative stress. Taken together, the results suggest that long-term losartan treatment for prehypertension effectively protects SHRSP from stroke-induced brain damage, and this protection is associated with reduced local RAAS activity than with brain cell apoptosis. Thus, the AT1R receptor blocker losartan is a good candidate drug that may be used in the clinic for long-term treatment on prehypertensive

  16. Comparative clinical- and cost-effectiveness of candesartan and losartan in the management of hypertension and heart failure: a systematic review, meta- and cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed

    Grosso, A M; Bodalia, P N; Macallister, R J; Hingorani, A D; Moon, J C; Scott, M A

    2011-03-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) currently spends in excess of £250 million per annum on angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure; with candesartan currently dominating the market. With the recent introduction of generic losartan, we set out to directly compare the branded market leader to its now cheaper alternative. The primary objectives were to compare the blood pressure (BP) lowering efficacy and cardiovascular outcomes of candesartan and losartan in the treatment of essential hypertension and chronic heart failure, respectively. The secondary objective was to model their comparative incremental cost-effectiveness in a UK NHS setting. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library 2009, issue 2), which contains the Hypertension and Heart Group's specialist register, Medline (1950-February 2010), and Embase (1980-February 2010) were included in the search strategy. Selection criteria were randomised studies of candesartan versus losartan in adults (> 18 years). The main outcome measures were as follows: Hypertension: mean change from baseline in trough (24 h postdose) systolic and diastolic BP. Heart failure: composite of cardiovascular death and hospital admission for management of heart failure. Two reviewers applied inclusion criteria, assessed trial quality, and extracted data. Eight (three of which met inclusion criteria) and zero trials compared candesartan directly with losartan in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure, respectively. A between-treatment difference of -1.96 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI) -2.40 to -1.51] for trough diastolic BP and -3.00 mmHg (95% CI -3.79 to -2.22) for trough systolic BP in favour of candesartan was observed. Based on this differential, a 10-year Markov model estimates the cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained to exceed £40,000 for using candesartan in place of generic losartan. Candesartan reduces BP to a slightly greater

  17. Chronic losartan administration reduces mortality and preserves cardiac but not skeletal muscle function in dystrophic mice.

    PubMed

    Bish, Lawrence T; Yarchoan, Mark; Sleeper, Meg M; Gazzara, Jeffrey A; Morine, Kevin J; Acosta, Pedro; Barton, Elisabeth R; Sweeney, H Lee

    2011-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative disorder affecting skeletal and cardiac muscle for which there is no effective therapy. Angiotension receptor blockade (ARB) has excellent therapeutic potential in DMD based on recent data demonstrating attenuation of skeletal muscle disease progression during 6-9 months of therapy in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Since cardiac-related death is major cause of mortality in DMD, it is important to evaluate the effect of any novel treatment on the heart. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term impact of ARB on both the skeletal muscle and cardiac phenotype of the mdx mouse. Mdx mice received either losartan (0.6 g/L) (n = 8) or standard drinking water (n = 9) for two years, after which echocardiography was performed to assess cardiac function. Skeletal muscle weight, morphology, and function were assessed. Fibrosis was evaluated in the diaphragm and heart by Trichrome stain and by determination of tissue hydroxyproline content. By the study endpoint, 88% of treated mice were alive compared to only 44% of untreated (p = 0.05). No difference in skeletal muscle morphology, function, or fibrosis was noted in losartan-treated animals. Cardiac function was significantly preserved with losartan treatment, with a trend towards reduction in cardiac fibrosis. We saw no impact on the skeletal muscle disease progression, suggesting that other pathways that trigger fibrosis dominate over angiotensin II in skeletal muscle long term, unlike the situation in the heart. Our study suggests that ARB may be an important prophylactic treatment for DMD-associated cardiomyopathy, but will not impact skeletal muscle disease.

  18. Losartan Attenuates Degradation of Aorta and Lung Tissue Micromechanics in a Mouse Model of Severe Marfan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jia-Jye; Galatioto, Josephine; Rao, Satish; Ramirez, Francesco; Costa, Kevin D.

    2018-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant disease of the connective tissue due to mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). This study aimed at characterizing microelastic properties of the ascending aorta wall and lung parenchyma tissues from wild type (WT) and age-matched Fbn1 hypomorphic mice (Fbn1mgR/mgR mice) to identify tissue-specific biomechanical effects of aging and disease in MFS. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to indent lung parenchyma and aortic wall tissues, using Hybrid Eshelby Decomposition analysis to extract layer-specific properties of the intima and media. The intima stiffened with age and was not different between WT and Fbn1mgR/mgR tissues, whereas the media layer of mutant aortas showed progressive structural and mechanical degradation with a modulus that was 50% softer than WT by 3.5 months of age. Similarly, mutant mice displayed progressive structural and mechanical deterioration of lung tissue, which was over 85% softer than WT by 3.5 months of age. Chronic treatment with the angiotensin type I receptor antagonist, losartan, attenuated the aorta and lung tissue degradation, resulting in structural and mechanical properties not significantly different from age-matched WT controls. By revealing micromechanical softening of elastin-rich aorta and lung tissues with disease progression in fibrillin-1 deficient mice, our findings support the use of losartan as a prophylactic treatment that may abrogate the life-threatening symptoms of MFS. PMID:27090893

  19. Losartan Attenuates Degradation of Aorta and Lung Tissue Micromechanics in a Mouse Model of Severe Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jia-Jye; Galatioto, Josephine; Rao, Satish; Ramirez, Francesco; Costa, Kevin D

    2016-10-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant disease of the connective tissue due to mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). This study aimed at characterizing microelastic properties of the ascending aortic wall and lung parenchyma tissues from wild type (WT) and age-matched Fbn1 hypomorphic mice (Fbn1(mgR/mgR) mice) to identify tissue-specific biomechanical effects of aging and disease in MFS. Atomic force microscopy was used to indent lung parenchyma and aortic wall tissues, using Hybrid Eshelby Decomposition analysis to extract layer-specific properties of the intima and media. The intima stiffened with age and was not different between WT and Fbn1(mgR/mgR) tissues, whereas the media layer of MFS aortas showed progressive structural and mechanical degradation with a modulus that was 50% softer than WT by 3.5 months of age. Similarly, MFS mice displayed progressive structural and mechanical deterioration of lung tissue, which was over 85% softer than WT by 3.5 months of age. Chronic treatment with the angiotensin type I receptor antagonist, losartan, attenuated the aorta and lung tissue degradation, resulting in structural and mechanical properties not significantly different from age-matched WT controls. By revealing micromechanical softening of elastin-rich aorta and lung tissues with disease progression in fibrillin-1 deficient mice, our findings support the use of losartan as a prophylactic treatment that may abrogate the life-threatening symptoms of MFS.

  20. Combined losartan and nitro-oleic acid remarkably improves diabetic nephropathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Jia, Zhanjun; Liu, Shanshan; Downton, Maicy; Liu, Gang; Du, Yaomin

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The inhibitors of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) can alleviate some of the symptoms of DN but fail to stop the progression to ESRD. Our previous studies demonstrate renoprotective action of nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) in several rodent models of renal disease. Here we examined the therapeutic potential and the underlying mechanism of combination of losartan and OA-NO2 in db/db mice. OA-NO2 was infused at 5 mg·kg−1·day−1 via osmotic minipump, and losartan was incorporated into diet at 10 mg·kg−1·day−1, each administered alone or in combination for 2 wk. Diabetic db/db mice developed progressive albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis, accompanied by podocytes loss, increased indexes of renal fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Treatment of the diabetic mice with OA-NO2 or losartan alone moderately ameliorated kidney injury; however, the combined treatment remarkably reduced albuminuria, restored glomerular filtration barrier structure, and attenuated glomerulosclerosis, accompanied with significant suppression of renal oxidative stress and inflammation. These data demonstrate that combination of losartan and OA-NO2 effectively reverses renal injury in DN. PMID:23946292

  1. [Effects of Losartan on expression of heme oxygenases in volume-overloaded rats with left-to-right shunt].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li-Xing; Liu, Han-Min; Li, Mi; Gao, Ju; Zhou, Tong-Fu

    2005-09-01

    To study the expression of heme oxygenase-1 mRNA and pulmonary remodeling before and after surgical establishment of left-to-right shunt in volume-overloaded SD rats and rats with Losartan intervention. Left-to-right shunt volume-overloaded SD rat models were established by aortocaval shunt operation. Seven rats with shunt were placed on Losartan (Losartan group), 7 rats with but not given Losartan were included in the operation group, and 4 rats after sham operation served as controls. Pulmonary pressure and right ventricular pressure were measured during catheterization. The relative weights ventricles were determined after execution of the rats. Pulmonary vascular remodeling parameters, including percentage arterial wall thickness and percentage muscularized small arteries, were assessed by morphometry. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA expression and heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) mRNA expression were detected RT-PCR method. Pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular relative weight decreased significantly in the rats of Losartan group; in addition, the percentage arterial wall thickness and percentage of muscularized small arteries in the Losartan group were reduced as compared with those in the operation group. The level 1 mRAN expression in rats with shunt was significantly higher than that in rats without shunt. The level mRNA expression in the Losartan group decreased remarkably as compared against that in the operation The level of HO-1 mRNA expression in lungs was significantly higher than that in ventricles. There statistically significant differences in HO-2 mRNA expression levels between the three rat groups. Losartan intervention can markedly reduce pulmonary pressure, inhibit vascular remodeling in volume-overloaded left-to-right shunt rats, and result in down-regulation of HO-1 mRNA expression.

  2. Design, synthesis and biological activity of 6-substituted carbamoyl benzimidazoles as new nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT₁ receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jin-Liang; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Li, Zhi-Huai; Xue, Wei-Zhe; Xu, Di; Hao, Li-Ping; Han, Xiao-Feng; Fei, Fan; Liu, Ting; Liang, Ai-Hua

    2012-07-15

    A series of 6-substituted carbamoyl benzimidazoles were designed and synthesised as new nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT(1) receptor antagonists. The preliminary pharmacological evaluation revealed a nanomolar AT(1) receptor binding affinity for all compounds in the series, and a potent antagonistic activity in an isolated rabbit aortic strip functional assay for compounds 6f, 6g, 6h and 6k was also demonstrated. Furthermore, evaluation in spontaneous hypertensive rats and a preliminary toxicity evaluation showed that compound 6g is an orally active AT(1) receptor antagonist with low toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Angiotensin IV Receptors Mediate the Cognitive and Cerebrovascular Benefits of Losartan in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Royea, Jessika; Zhang, Luqing; Tong, Xin-Kang; Hamel, Edith

    2017-05-31

    The use of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) correlates with reduced onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mechanism depicting how ARBs such as losartan restore cerebrovascular and cognitive deficits in AD is unknown. Here, we propose a mechanism underlying losartan's benefits by selectively blocking the effects of angiotensin IV (AngIV) at its receptor (AT4R) with divalinal in mice overexpressing the AD-related Swedish and Indiana mutations of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP mice) and WT mice. Young (3-month-old) mice were treated with losartan (∼10 mg/kg/d, 4 months), followed by intracerebroventricular administration of vehicle or divalinal in the final month of treatment. Spatial learning and memory were assessed using Morris water mazes at 3 and 4 months of losartan treatment. Cerebrovascular reactivity and whisker-evoked neurovascular coupling responses were measured at end point (∼7 months of age), together with biomarkers related to neuronal and vascular oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase-2), neuroinflammation (astroglial and microglial activation), neurogenesis (BrdU-labeled newborn cells), and amyloidosis [soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) species and Aβ plaque load]. Divalinal countered losartan's capacity to rescue spatial learning and memory and blocked losartan's benefits on dilatory function and baseline nitric oxide bioavailability. Divalinal reverted losartan's anti-inflammatory effects, but failed to modify losartan-mediated reductions in oxidative stress. Neither losartan nor divalinal affected arterial blood pressure or significantly altered the amyloid pathology in APP mice. Our findings identify activation of the AngIV/AT4R cascade as the underlying mechanism in losartan's benefits and a target that could restore Aβ-related cognitive and cerebrovascular deficits in AD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Antihypertensive medications that target the renin angiotensin system, such as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), have

  4. Effect of early versus late AT(1) receptor blockade with losartan on postmyocardial infarction ventricular remodeling in rabbits.

    PubMed

    González, Germán E; Seropian, Ignacio M; Krieger, Maria Laura; Palleiro, Jimena; Lopez Verrilli, Maria A; Gironacci, Mariela M; Cavallero, Susana; Wilensky, Luciana; Tomasi, Victor H; Gelpi, Ricardo J; Morales, Celina

    2009-07-01

    To characterize the temporal activation of the renin-angiotensin system after myocardial infarction (MI) in rabbits, we examined cardiac ANG II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) expression and ANG II levels from 3 h to 35 days. The effects of losartan (12.5 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) on functional and histomorphometric parameters when treatment was initiated early (3 h) and late (day 15) post-MI and maintained for different periods of time [short term (4 days), midterm (20 days), and long term (35 days)] were also studied. AT(1)R expression increased in the MI zone at 15 and 35 days (P < 0.05). ANG II levels increased (P < 0.05) in the non-MI zone at 24 h and in the MI zone as well as in plasma at 4 days and then progressively decreased until 35 days. The survival rate was significantly lower in untreated MI and early long-term-treated animals. Diastolic pressure-volume curves in MI at 35 and 56 days shifted to the right (P < 0.05). This shift was even more pronounced in long-term-treated groups (P < 0.05). Contractility decreased (P < 0.05 vs. sham) in the untreated and long-term-treated groups and was attenuated in the midterm-treated group. The early administration of losartan reduced RAM 11-positive macrophages from 4.15 +/- 0.05 to 3.05 +/- 0.02 cells/high-power field (HPF; P < 0.05) and CD45 RO-positive lymphocytes from 2.23 +/- 0.05 to 1.48 +/- 0.01 cells/HPF (P < 0.05) in the MI zone at 4 days. Long-term treatment reduced the scar collagen (MI: 70.50 +/- 2.35% and MI + losartan: 57.50 +/- 2.48, P < 0.05), determined the persistency of RAM 11-positive macrophages (3.02 +/- 0.13 cells/HPF) and CD45 RO-positive lymphocytes (2.77 +/- 0.58 cells/HPF, P < 0.05 vs. MI), and reduced the scar thinning ratio at 35 days (P < 0.05). Consequently, the temporal expressions of cardiac AT(1)R and ANG II post-MI in rabbits are different from those described in other species. Long-term treatment unfavorably modified post-MI remodeling, whereas midterm treatment attenuated this harmful effect

  5. Efficacy and safety of losartan in treatment of hyperuricemia and posttransplantation erythrocytosis: results of a prospective, open, randomized, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Chen, J; Han, F; Cheng, M; Xu, L; Zhang, L; Ding, X; Le, Y

    2009-11-01

    Hyperuricemia and posttransplantation erythrocytosis (PTE) are frequent complications after kidney transplantation and are important risk factors for cardiovascular events. Losartan decreases serum uric acid and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and may be a useful agent for treatment of hyperuricemia and PTE. To evaluate the influence of losartan on serum creatinine (SCr), serum uric acid, and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in patients after kidney transplantation and to evaluate the safety profile of losartan in these patients. Sixty-six Han Chinese patients (43 men and 23 women; mean [SD] age, 40.45 [11.50] years) were enrolled in the study. All patients had undergone a first cadaveric donor kidney transplantation at least 3 months previously and had stable graft function with SCr concentration less than 176.8 micromol/L and Hb concentration greater than 110 g/L. The patients were divided into 2 groups (losartan group, n = 34; and control group, n = 32) according to the odevity of patient identification number. Patients in the losartan group received losartan, 50 mg/d; patients in the control group did not receive losartan. Each patient was followed up for 6 months. Nine patients in the losartan group and 5 patients in the control group dropped out because of acute renal insufficiency, anemia, acute rejection, or poor compliance. The serum uric acid concentration in the losartan group continuously decreased at months 1, 2, 3, and 6 (P = .12, P = .01, P = .04, and P = .005 compared with baseline, and P = .02, P = .003, P = .02, and P = .006 compared with control), especially in the patients with hyperuricemia (P = .02, P < .001, P = .003, and P < .001 compared with baseline, and P = .02, P = .002, P = .02, and P = .002 compared with control). The Hb level in the losartan group decreased significantly at months 1, 2, 3, and 6 (P = .003, P < .001, P = .004, and P = 0.02 compared with baseline, and P = .001, P < .001, P = .001, and P = .005 compared with control

  6. Losartan Attenuates Myocardial Endothelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats via Inhibiting TGF-β/Smad Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Miao; Peng, Zhenyu; Zu, Changhao; Ma, Jing; Lu, Shijuan; Zhong, Jianghua; Zhang, Saidan

    2016-01-01

    Losartan plays an important role in the inhibition of myocardial fibrosis. But the underlying mechanism is not entirely clear. Emerging evidences have indicated that endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays a crucial role in cardiac fibrosis. Here the present study aims to first investigated the effect of Losartan on EndMT in cardiac fibrosis of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 12 weeks, namely the SHR group (Group S), the Losartan-treated group (Group L) and the Prazosin-treated group (Group P). Wistar-Kyoto rats served as controls (Group W). The histological changes were evaluated by Masson's trichrome. Co-expression of CD31 and fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) were used as the markers of EndMT through immunofluorescence. The expressions of FSP1, CD31, TGF-β, Smad were detected by Western blot analysis. It was identified that elevated blood pressure induced a significant increase in myocardial fibrosis and EndMT in SHRs, which was reversed by Losartan and Prazosin treatment. Furthermore, the activity of TGF-β/Smad signaling was detected in the four groups. TGF-β/Smad signaling was activated in SHRs and suppressed by Losartan or Prazosin treatment. Losartan exhibited more efficiently than Prazosin in inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling activation, EndMT and myocardial fibrosis. These results showed that EndMT played an important role in promoting hypertensive cardiac fibrosis, and that losartan could suppress cardiac fibrosis through the inhibition of EndMT via classical TGF-β/Smad pathway.

  7. Cardiovascular events in subgroups of patients during primary treatment of hypertension with candesartan or losartan.

    PubMed

    Russell, David; Stålhammar, Jan; Bodegard, Johan; Hasvold, Pål; Thuresson, Marcus; Kjeldsen, Sverre E

    2011-03-01

    Merging data from existing electronic patient records, and electronic hospital discharge and cause of death registers, is a fast and relatively inexpensive method for comparing different treatments with regard to clinical outcome. This study compared the effects of antihypertensive treatment with candesartan or losartan on cardiovascular disease (CVD) using Swedish registers. Patients without previous CVD who were prescribed candesartan (n=7329) or losartan (n=6771) for hypertension during 1999-2007 at 72 Swedish primary care centers were followed for up to 9 years. Both medications were given according to current recommendations, and there was no difference observed in achieved blood pressures. The authors have previously shown that candesartan lowered the risk of all CVD (primary composite end point) more so than losartan (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.96). Candesartan also had a significantly better effect with regards to reducing the development of heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and peripheral arterial disease. In the present analysis, the authors found that candesartan, compared with losartan, reduced the risk of all CVD, irrespective of sex, age, previous antihypertensive treatment, baseline blood pressure, and presence of diabetes. These clinical findings may reflect differences between candesartan and losartan in their binding characteristics to the angiotensin type 1 receptor. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Fenoterol stimulates human erythropoietin production via activation of the renin angiotensin system

    PubMed Central

    Freudenthaler, S M; Schenck, T; Lucht, I; Gleiter, C H

    1999-01-01

    Aims The present study assessed the hypothesis that the β2 sympathomimetic fenoterol influences the production of erythropoietin (EPO) by activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS), i.e. angiotensin II. Methods In an open, parallel, randomized study healthy volunteers received i.v. either placebo (electrolyte solution), fenoterol or fenoterol in combination with an oral dose of the AT1-receptor antagonist losartan. Results Compared with placebo treatment AUCEPO(0,24 h) was significantly increased after fenoterol application by 48% whereas no increase in the group receiving fenoterol and losartan could be detected. The rise of PRA was statistically significant under fenoterol and fenoterol plus lorsartan. Conclusions Stimulation of EPO production during fenoterol infusion appears to be angiotensin II-mediated. Thus, angiotensin II may be considered as one important physiological modulator of EPO production in humans. PMID:10583037

  9. Atherosclerosis following renal injury is ameliorated by pioglitazone and losartan via macrophage phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Suguru; Zhong, Jiayong; Yancey, Patricia G.; Zuo, Yiqin; Linton, MacRae F.; Fazio, Sergio; Yang, Haichun; Narita, Ichiei; Kon, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic kidney disease (CKD) amplifies atherosclerosis, which involves renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulation of macrophages. RAS influences peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a modulator of atherogenic functions of macrophages, however, little is known about its effects in CKD. We examined the impact of combined therapy with a PPARγ agonist and angiotensin receptor blocker on atherogenesis in a murine uninephrectomy model. Methods Apolipoprotein E knockout mice underwent uninephrectomy (UNx) and treatment with pioglitazone (UNx + Pio), losartan (UNx + Los), or both (UNx + Pio/Los) for 10 weeks. Extent and characteristics of atherosclerotic lesions and macrophage phenotypes were assessed; RAW264.7 and primary peritoneal mouse cells were used to examine pioglitazone and losartan effects on macrophage phenotype and inflammatory response. Results UNx significantly increased atherosclerosis. Pioglitazone and losartan each significantly reduced the atherosclerotic burden by 29.6% and 33.5%, respectively; although the benefit was dramatically augmented by combination treatment which lessened atherosclerosis by 55.7%. Assessment of plaques revealed significantly greater macrophage area in UNx + Pio/Los (80.7 ± 11.4% vs. 50.3 ± 4.2% in UNx + Pio and 57.2 ± 6.5% in UNx + Los) with more apoptotic cells. The expanded macrophage-rich lesions of UNx + Pio/Los had more alternatively activated, Ym-1 and arginine 1-positive M2 phenotypes (Ym-1: 33.6 ± 8.2%, p < 0.05 vs. 12.0 ± 1.1% in UNx; arginase 1: 27.8 ± 0.9%, p < 0.05 vs. 11.8 ± 1.3% in UNx). In vitro, pioglitazone alone and together with losartan was more effective than losartan alone in dampening lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production, suppressing M1 phenotypic change while enhancing M2 phenotypic change. Conclusion Combination of pioglitazone and losartan is more effective in reducing renal injury-induced atherosclerosis than either treatment alone. This benefit reflects

  10. Atherosclerosis following renal injury is ameliorated by pioglitazone and losartan via macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Suguru; Zhong, Jiayong; Yancey, Patricia G; Zuo, Yiqin; Linton, MacRae F; Fazio, Sergio; Yang, Haichun; Narita, Ichiei; Kon, Valentina

    2015-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) amplifies atherosclerosis, which involves renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulation of macrophages. RAS influences peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a modulator of atherogenic functions of macrophages, however, little is known about its effects in CKD. We examined the impact of combined therapy with a PPARγ agonist and angiotensin receptor blocker on atherogenesis in a murine uninephrectomy model. Apolipoprotein E knockout mice underwent uninephrectomy (UNx) and treatment with pioglitazone (UNx + Pio), losartan (UNx + Los), or both (UNx + Pio/Los) for 10 weeks. Extent and characteristics of atherosclerotic lesions and macrophage phenotypes were assessed; RAW264.7 and primary peritoneal mouse cells were used to examine pioglitazone and losartan effects on macrophage phenotype and inflammatory response. UNx significantly increased atherosclerosis. Pioglitazone and losartan each significantly reduced the atherosclerotic burden by 29.6% and 33.5%, respectively; although the benefit was dramatically augmented by combination treatment which lessened atherosclerosis by 55.7%. Assessment of plaques revealed significantly greater macrophage area in UNx + Pio/Los (80.7 ± 11.4% vs. 50.3 ± 4.2% in UNx + Pio and 57.2 ± 6.5% in UNx + Los) with more apoptotic cells. The expanded macrophage-rich lesions of UNx + Pio/Los had more alternatively activated, Ym-1 and arginine 1-positive M2 phenotypes (Ym-1: 33.6 ± 8.2%, p < 0.05 vs. 12.0 ± 1.1% in UNx; arginase 1: 27.8 ± 0.9%, p < 0.05 vs. 11.8 ± 1.3% in UNx). In vitro, pioglitazone alone and together with losartan was more effective than losartan alone in dampening lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production, suppressing M1 phenotypic change while enhancing M2 phenotypic change. Combination of pioglitazone and losartan is more effective in reducing renal injury-induced atherosclerosis than either treatment alone. This benefit reflects mitigation in macrophage cytokine

  11. Losartan ameliorates dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and uncovers new disease mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Alexander; Thriene, Kerstin; Mittapalli, Venugopal; Kern, Johannes S; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Dengjel, Jörn; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Genetic loss of collagen VII causes recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB)—a severe skin fragility disorder associated with lifelong blistering and disabling progressive soft tissue fibrosis. Causative therapies for this complex disorder face major hurdles, and clinical implementation remains elusive. Here, we report an alternative evidence-based approach to ameliorate fibrosis and relieve symptoms in RDEB. Based on the findings that TGF-β activity is elevated in injured RDEB skin, we targeted TGF-β activity with losartan in a preclinical setting. Long-term treatment of RDEB mice efficiently reduced TGF-β signaling in chronically injured forepaws and halted fibrosis and subsequent fusion of the digits. In addition, proteomics analysis of losartan- vs. vehicle-treated RDEB skin uncovered changes in multiple proteins related to tissue inflammation. In line with this, losartan reduced inflammation and diminished TNF-α and IL-6 expression in injured forepaws. Collectively, the data argue that RDEB fibrosis is a consequence of a cascade encompassing tissue damage, TGF-β-mediated inflammation, and matrix remodeling. Inhibition of TGF-β activity limits these unwanted outcomes and thereby substantially ameliorates long-term symptoms. PMID:26194911

  12. Effects of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide treatment, after change from ARB at usual dosage, on blood pressure and various metabolic parameters including high-molecular weight adiponectin in Japanese male hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Hiroshi; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Saito, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    Losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), has been reported to increase serum level of high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, which has beneficial effects on insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. On the other hand, treatment with diuretics was reported to decrease the adiponectin level. In the present study, we investigated the effects of changing the treatment to losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) on blood pressure (BP) and various metabolic parameters in Japanese male hypertensive subjects. This study included 15 subjects whose therapy was changed from a usual dosage of ARB to losartan 50mg/HCTZ 12.5mg daily, and also 14 subjects who continued losartan treatment (50mg/day). Serum HMW-adiponectin concentration was assayed using a commercially available HMW-specific ELISA kit. In the losartan/HCTZ patient group, systolic/diastolic BP decreased from 146/95 to 130/84 mmHg (P = 0.0012 for both). The HbA1c level tended to increase from 5.44 ± 0.39 to 5.55 ± 0.44% (P = 0.0554) and serum creatinine level slightly increased from 0.82 ± 0.12 to 0.87 ± 0.12 mg/dl (P = 0.0015). In contrast, serum TG (125 ± 77 to 149 ± 112 mg/dl), uric acid, and HMW-adiponectin levels (3.24 ± 2.97 to 3.36 ± 2.43 μg/ml) were unchanged. In the 14 patients who continued losartan treatment, systolic/diastolic BP was unchanged from 134/86 to 129/80 mmHg. The HbA1c level tended to increase from 5.26 ± 0.63 to 5.39 ± 0.71% (P = 0.0880), serum creatinine and uric acid levels were unchanged, serum lipids tended to improve, and serum HMW-adiponectin levels increased from 3.03 ± 1.06 to 3.46 ± 1.28 μg/ml (P = 0.0105). In summary, changing treatment to losartan/HCTZ, when changed from a usual dosage of ARB, exerted good BP control, while the HMW-adiponectin level was unchanged in male hypertensive subjects.

  13. Atenolol versus losartan in children and young adults with Marfan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lacro, Ronald V; Dietz, Harry C; Sleeper, Lynn A; Yetman, Anji T; Bradley, Timothy J; Colan, Steven D; Pearson, Gail D; Selamet Tierney, E Seda; Levine, Jami C; Atz, Andrew M; Benson, D Woodrow; Braverman, Alan C; Chen, Shan; De Backer, Julie; Gelb, Bruce D; Grossfeld, Paul D; Klein, Gloria L; Lai, Wyman W; Liou, Aimee; Loeys, Bart L; Markham, Larry W; Olson, Aaron K; Paridon, Stephen M; Pemberton, Victoria L; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Pyeritz, Reed E; Radojewski, Elizabeth; Roman, Mary J; Sharkey, Angela M; Stylianou, Mario P; Wechsler, Stephanie Burns; Young, Luciana T; Mahony, Lynn

    2014-11-27

    Aortic-root dissection is the leading cause of death in Marfan's syndrome. Studies suggest that with regard to slowing aortic-root enlargement, losartan may be more effective than beta-blockers, the current standard therapy in most centers. We conducted a randomized trial comparing losartan with atenolol in children and young adults with Marfan's syndrome. The primary outcome was the rate of aortic-root enlargement, expressed as the change in the maximum aortic-root-diameter z score indexed to body-surface area (hereafter, aortic-root z score) over a 3-year period. Secondary outcomes included the rate of change in the absolute diameter of the aortic root; the rate of change in aortic regurgitation; the time to aortic dissection, aortic-root surgery, or death; somatic growth; and the incidence of adverse events. From January 2007 through February 2011, a total of 21 clinical centers enrolled 608 participants, 6 months to 25 years of age (mean [±SD] age, 11.5±6.5 years in the atenolol group and 11.0±6.2 years in the losartan group), who had an aortic-root z score greater than 3.0. The baseline-adjusted rate of change in the mean (±SE) aortic-root z score did not differ significantly between the atenolol group and the losartan group (-0.139±0.013 and -0.107±0.013 standard-deviation units per year, respectively; P=0.08). Both slopes were significantly less than zero, indicating a decrease in the aortic-root diameter relative to body-surface area with either treatment. The 3-year rates of aortic-root surgery, aortic dissection, death, and a composite of these events did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. Among children and young adults with Marfan's syndrome who were randomly assigned to losartan or atenolol, we found no significant difference in the rate of aortic-root dilatation between the two treatment groups over a 3-year period. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00429364.).

  14. Effects of high-dose versus low-dose losartan on clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HEAAL study): a randomised, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Konstam, Marvin A; Neaton, James D; Dickstein, Kenneth; Drexler, Helmut; Komajda, Michel; Martinez, Felipe A; Riegger, Gunter A J; Malbecq, William; Smith, Ronald D; Guptha, Soneil; Poole-Wilson, Philip A

    2009-11-28

    Angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) are effective treatments for patients with heart failure, but the relation between dose and clinical outcomes has not been explored. We compared the effects of high-dose versus low-dose losartan on clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure. This double-blind trial was undertaken in 255 sites in 30 countries. 3846 patients with heart failure of New York Heart Association class II-IV, left-ventricular ejection fraction 40% or less, and intolerance to angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors were randomly assigned to losartan 150 mg (n=1927) or 50 mg daily (n=1919). Allocation was by block randomisation stratified by centre and presence or absence of beta-blocker therapy, and all patients and investigators were masked to assignment. The primary endpoint was death or admission for heart failure. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00090259. Six patients in each group were excluded because of poor data quality. With 4.7-year median follow-up in each group (IQR 3.7-5.5 for losartan 150 mg; 3.4-5.5 for losartan 50 mg), 828 (43%) patients in the 150 mg group versus 889 (46%) in the 50 mg group died or were admitted for heart failure (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99; p=0.027). For the two primary endpoint components, 635 patients in the 150 mg group versus 665 in the 50 mg group died (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.84-1.04; p=0.24), and 450 versus 503 patients were admitted for heart failure (0.87, 0.76-0.98; p=0.025). Renal impairment (n=454 vs 317), hypotension (203 vs 145), and hyperkalaemia (195 vs 131) were more common in the 150 mg group than in the 50 mg group, but these adverse events did not lead to significantly more treatment discontinuations in the 150 mg group. Losartan 150 mg daily reduced the rate of death or admission for heart failure in patients with heart failure, reduced left-ventricular ejection fraction, and intolerance to ACE inhibitors compared

  15. Effect of losartan on proteinuria and urinary angiotensinogen excretion in non-diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Ji; Cho, Seong; Kim, Sung Rok; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Lee, Jung Eun; Huh, Wooseong; Kim, Dae Joong; Oh, Ha Young; Kim, Yoon-Goo

    2011-10-01

    Activation of the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) is thought to contribute to hypertension and proteinuria, and eventually to the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent evidence suggests that urinary angiotensinogen (UAGT) excretion reflects activation of the intrarenal RAS. This study was performed to determine the effect of losartan on proteinuria and UAGT excretion in non-diabetic patients with CKD with non-nephrotic-range proteinuria. Thirty-two patients with non-nephrotic-range proteinuria (0.045-0.23 g/mmol creatinine) and normal renal function between April 2005 and April 2006 were randomised to a losartan (n=17) or a control (n=15) group. Patients in the losartan group received losartan 50 mg/day, and the doses were titrated up to 100 mg/day after 6 weeks. Serum and urinary angiotensinogen concentrations were measured by sandwich ELISA. The primary end point was the percentage change in proteinuria. The secondary end points were changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate and UAGT excretion. The follow-up period was 24 months. Baseline characteristics in the two groups were similar. After 24 months, losartan had reduced urinary protein excretion by 43% (from mean±SD 0.13±0.04 to 0.073±0.03 g/mmol, p<0.0001), but proteinuria had not changed in the control group. The percentage change in mean arterial pressure did not differ between the groups. Losartan decreased logarithmically converted UAGT excretion (from 1.58±0.47 to 1.00±0.52, p=0.001). Estimated glomerular filtration rate decreased significantly only in the control group. Losartan significantly decreased proteinuria and UAGT excretion, and preserved renal function in non-diabetic patients with CKD.

  16. Role of angiotensin in renal sympathetic activation in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Voigt, M D; Jones, S Y; DiBona, G F

    1999-08-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) renin-angiotensin activity influences the basal level of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and its reflex regulation. The effect of type 1 angiotensin II (ANG II)-receptor antagonist treatment (losartan) on cardiac baroreflex regulation of RSNA and renal sodium handling was examined in rats with cirrhosis due to common bile duct ligation (CBDL). Basal levels of heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), RSNA, and urinary sodium excretion were not affected by intracerebroventricular administration of either losartan or vehicle to CBDL rats. After acute intravenous isotonic saline loading (10% body wt) in vehicle-treated CBDL rats, MAP was unchanged and the decrease in RSNA seen in normal rats did not occur. However, in losartan-treated CBDL rats, there were significant concurrent but transient decreases in MAP (-20 +/- 2 mmHg) and RSNA (-25 +/- 3%). The natriuretic response to acute volume loading in losartan-treated CBDL rats was significantly less than that in vehicle-treated CBDL rats only at those time points where there were significant decreases in MAP. Antagonism of CNS ANG II type 1 receptors augments the renal sympathoinhibitory response to acute volume loading in CBDL. However, the natriuretic response to the acute volume loading is not improved, likely due to the strong antinatriuretic influence of the concomitant marked decrease in MAP (renal perfusion pressure) mediated by widespread sympathetic withdrawal from the systemic vasculature.

  17. Enalapril versus losartan for adults with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Yuan-Mei; Feng, Li; Huo, Dong-Mei; Yang, Zhen-Hua; Liao, Yun-Hua

    2013-09-01

    Both enalapril and losartan are effective and widely used in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review aimed to evaluate the benefits of enalapril and losartan in adults with CKD. PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched, without language limitations, for randomized controlled trials (RCT), in which enalapril and losartan were compared in adults with CKD. Standard methods, consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, were used. Reviewer Manager software, ver. 5.2, was used for meta-analysis. Of 318 citations retrieved, 17 RCT (14 parallel-group and three cross-over) met our inclusion criteria. The pooled analysis for parallel RCT showed that the effects of enalapril and losartan on blood pressure, renal function and serum uric acid (UA) were similar. Meta-analysis indicated that patients taking enalapril had a higher risk of dry cough (risk ratio, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.11-7.48; P=0.03). Sensitivity analysis showed good robustness of these findings. Enalapril has similar effects to losartan on systemic blood pressure, renal function and serum UA in patients with CKD, but carries a higher risk of dry cough. Larger trials are required to evaluate the effects of these medications on clinical outcomes. © 2013 The Authors. Nephrology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  18. Angiotensin AT1 receptors modulate the anxiogenic effects of angiotensin (5-8) injected into the rat ventrolateral periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Genaro, Karina; Fabris, Débora; Fachim, Helene A; Prado, Wiliam A

    2017-10-01

    Losartan and PD 123,319 are non-peptide angiotensin (Ang) receptor antagonists for the AT1 and AT2 subtypes of Ang II receptors, respectively. The tetrapeptide Ang (5-8) is the smallest Ang-peptide that elicits anxiogenic effects on unconditioned and conditioned experimental models upon injection into the ventrolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), and Ang (5-8) can be synthesized (from Ang II or Ang III) and inactivated in this mesencephalic structure. The vlPAG is also known to play a central role in mechanisms of fear and anxiety. We therefore utilized male Wistar rats to examine the effects of losartan and PD 123,319 injections, selective antagonists of the AT1 and AT2 receptors, respectively, into the vlPAG in the elevated plus-maze, a classic rat model of anxiety, and against the anxiogenic effect of Ang (5-8) (0.4 nmol/0.25μL) upon injection into the same region. The anxiolytic profile was dependent on the dose of intra-vlPAG losartan, whereas no effects on experimental anxiety were observed in the plus-maze following PD 123,319 injection. The anxiogenic effect of Ang (5-8) injection into the vlPAG remained unchanged in the PD 123,319-pretreated rats, but the effect did not occur in losartan-pretreated rats. The results led us to suggest that the anxiogenic effect of Ang (5-8) injection into the vlPAG may depend on the local activation of AT1, but not AT2 receptors. Activation of AT1 receptors in structures nearby vlPAG may be tonically involved in fear and experimental anxiety. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Powerful inhibition of in-vivo growth of experimental hepatic cancers by bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide antagonist RC-3940-II.

    PubMed

    Szepeshazi, Karoly; Schally, Andrew V; Rick, Ferenc G; Block, Norman L; Vidaurre, Irving; Halmos, Gabor; Szalontay, Luca

    2012-10-01

    Hepatic carcinoma is a major health problem worldwide. Its incidence is increasing in Western countries and there is currently no effective systemic therapy against it. Targeted treatment modalities developed in the past few years have provided very limited success. Development of new treatment strategies is therefore essential. We investigated the effects of bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide (BN/GRP) antagonist RC-3940-II on experimental human liver cancers in nude mice. SK-Hep-1 and Hep-G2 cancers transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice were treated daily with 10 or 20 µg of RC-3940-II. Tumor growth was monitored for 50-184 days in five experiments. Tumor gene expression was analyzed with PCR array and protein expression by immunoblotting. Characteristics of BN/GRP receptors in the tumors were analyzed by binding assays. Effects of RC-3940-II on cell proliferation were investigated in vitro. RC-3940-II inhibited the growth of SK-Hep-1 cancers in nude mice by 65-98%, with total regression in 9 of 36 tumors in three experiments. The BN/GRP antagonist inhibited the growth of Hep-G2 cancers as well by 73-82% in two experiments, being effective even on originally large tumors. Gene expression analysis showed an increase in several angiogenesis inhibitors and decrease in proangiogenic genes after RC-3940-II treatment. Receptor assays demonstrated high-affinity binding sites for BN/GRP in both tumor lines. BN/GRP antagonist RC-3940-II powerfully inhibits growth of SK-Hep-1 and Hep-G2 cancers in nude mice. Its effect may be linked to changes in expression of those cancer genes important in angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. RC-3940-II may be considered for further investigations in treatment of liver cancers.

  20. Losartan Administration Reduces Fibrosis but Hinders Functional Recovery after Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-25

    therapy. Pre - viously, losartan has been successfully used to reduce fibrosis and improve both muscle regeneration and function in several models of...efficacy of losartan has not yet been tested in a VML injury model. VML injury involves a substantial loss of muscle tissue that does not regenerate by...fibrosis development after VML injury in the rat tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. METHODS Experimental Design Male Lewis rats with VML were provided access

  1. Angiotensin type 1 receptor mediates chronic ethanol consumption-induced hypertension and vascular oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Passaglia, Patrícia; Ceron, Carla S; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Coelho, Eduardo B; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-11-01

    We hypothesized that chronic ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces hypertension through renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol (20% v/v). The increase in blood pressure induced by ethanol was prevented by losartan (10mg/kg/day; p.o. gavage), a selective AT1 receptor antagonist. Chronic ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels and serum aldosterone levels. No differences on plasma osmolality and sodium or potassium levels were detected after treatment with ethanol. Ethanol consumption did not alter ACE activity, as well as the levels of ANG I and ANG II in the rat aorta or mesenteric arterial bed (MAB). Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress (aorta and MAB) and these effects were prevented by losartan. The decrease on plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels induced by ethanol was prevented by losartan. Ethanol intake did not alter protein expression of ACE, AT1 or AT2 receptors in both aorta and MAB. Aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased protein expression of SAPK/JNK. These responses were prevented by losartan. MAB from ethanol-treated rats displayed reduced phosphorylation of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 and losartan did not prevent these responses. Our study provides novel evidence that chronic ethanol intake increases blood pressure, induces vascular oxidative stress and decreases nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability through AT1-dependent mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonism Reduces Transforming Growth Factor Beta and Smad Signaling in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Nataatmadja, Maria; West, Jennifer; Prabowo, Sulistiana; West, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and Smad3 regulates extracellular matrix homeostasis and inflammation in aortic aneurysms. The expression of Smad3 depends on signaling by angiotensin II (AngII) receptor pathways through TGF-β receptor–dependent and –independent pathways. Methods To determine the expression of AngII type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 receptors (AT2R), TGF-β, and Smad3 in thoracic aortic aneurysms, we performed immunohistochemistry testing on tissue and cultured cells derived from subjects with Marfan syndrome (MFS) and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) malformation and from normal aortas of subjects who were organ donors. Results MFS and BAV aneurysm tissue showed enhanced accumulation of TGF-β and Smad3 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and in inflammatory cells in the subintimal layer and tunica media. The normal aortic wall exhibited minimal TGF-β and Smad3 staining. Cultured VSMCs from MFS and BAV samples showed nuclear Smad3 and strong cytoplasmic TGF-β expression in the cytoplasmic vesicles. In control cells, Smad3 was located mainly in the cytoplasm, and weak cytoplasmic TGF-β was distributed with a pattern similar to that of the aneurysm-derived cells. Compared to normal aorta cells, AT1R and AT2R expression was increased in both aneurysm types. Treatment of cultured VSMCs with the AT1R antagonist losartan caused both reduced TGF-β vesicle localization and nuclear expression of Smad3. Conclusions Increased TGF-β and Smad3 expression in aneurysm tissue and cultured VSMCs is consistent with aberrant TGF-β expression and the activation of Smad3 signaling. Losartan-mediated reduction in TGF-β expression and the cytoplasmic localization of Smad3 support a role for AT1R antagonism in the inhibition of aneurysm progression. PMID:23532685

  3. Effectiveness of Losartan-Loaded Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Micelles for the Reduction of Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in C3H/HeN Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Reju George; Moon, Myeong Ju; Kim, Jo Heon; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Advanced hepatic fibrosis therapy using drug-delivering nanoparticles is a relatively unexplored area. Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers such as losartan can be delivered to hepatic stellate cells (HSC), blocking their activation and thereby reducing fibrosis progression in the liver. In our study, we analyzed the possibility of utilizing drug-loaded vehicles such as hyaluronic acid (HA) micelles carrying losartan to attenuate HSC activation. Losartan, which exhibits inherent lipophilicity, was loaded into the hydrophobic core of HA micelles with a 19.5% drug loading efficiency. An advanced liver fibrosis model was developed using C3H/HeN mice subjected to 20 weeks of prolonged TAA/ethanol weight-adapted treatment. The cytocompatibility and cell uptake profile of losartan-HA micelles were studied in murine fibroblast cells (NIH3T3), human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC) and FL83B cells (hepatocyte cell line). The ability of these nanoparticles to attenuate HSC activation was studied in activated HSC cells based on alpha smooth muscle actin (α-sma) expression. Mice treated with oral losartan or losartan-HA micelles were analyzed for serum enzyme levels (ALT/AST, CK and LDH) and collagen deposition (hydroxyproline levels) in the liver. The accumulation of HA micelles was observed in fibrotic livers, which suggests increased delivery of losartan compared to normal livers and specific uptake by HSC. Active reduction of α-sma was observed in hHSC and the liver sections of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice. The serum enzyme levels and collagen deposition of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice was reduced significantly compared to the oral losartan group. Losartan-HA micelles demonstrated significant attenuation of hepatic fibrosis via an HSC-targeting mechanism in our in vitro and in vivo studies. These nanoparticles can be considered as an alternative therapy for liver fibrosis. PMID:26714035

  4. Effectiveness of Losartan-Loaded Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Micelles for the Reduction of Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in C3H/HeN Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Reju George; Moon, Myeong Ju; Kim, Jo Heon; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Advanced hepatic fibrosis therapy using drug-delivering nanoparticles is a relatively unexplored area. Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers such as losartan can be delivered to hepatic stellate cells (HSC), blocking their activation and thereby reducing fibrosis progression in the liver. In our study, we analyzed the possibility of utilizing drug-loaded vehicles such as hyaluronic acid (HA) micelles carrying losartan to attenuate HSC activation. Losartan, which exhibits inherent lipophilicity, was loaded into the hydrophobic core of HA micelles with a 19.5% drug loading efficiency. An advanced liver fibrosis model was developed using C3H/HeN mice subjected to 20 weeks of prolonged TAA/ethanol weight-adapted treatment. The cytocompatibility and cell uptake profile of losartan-HA micelles were studied in murine fibroblast cells (NIH3T3), human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC) and FL83B cells (hepatocyte cell line). The ability of these nanoparticles to attenuate HSC activation was studied in activated HSC cells based on alpha smooth muscle actin (α-sma) expression. Mice treated with oral losartan or losartan-HA micelles were analyzed for serum enzyme levels (ALT/AST, CK and LDH) and collagen deposition (hydroxyproline levels) in the liver. The accumulation of HA micelles was observed in fibrotic livers, which suggests increased delivery of losartan compared to normal livers and specific uptake by HSC. Active reduction of α-sma was observed in hHSC and the liver sections of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice. The serum enzyme levels and collagen deposition of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice was reduced significantly compared to the oral losartan group. Losartan-HA micelles demonstrated significant attenuation of hepatic fibrosis via an HSC-targeting mechanism in our in vitro and in vivo studies. These nanoparticles can be considered as an alternative therapy for liver fibrosis.

  5. Captopril and losartan for mitigation of renal injury caused by single-dose total-body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Moulder, John E; Cohen, Eric P; Fish, Brian L

    2011-01-01

    It is known that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockers (ARBs) can be used to mitigate radiation-induced renal injury. However, for a variety of reasons, these previous results are not directly applicable to the development of agents for the mitigation of injuries caused by terrorism-related radiation exposure. As part of an effort to develop an animal model that would fit the requirements of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) "Animal Efficacy Rule", we designed new studies which used an FDA-approved ACEI (captopril) or an FDA-approved ARB (losartan, Cozaar®) started 10 days after a single total-body irradiation (TBI) at drug doses that are equivalent (on a g/m(2)/day basis) to the doses prescribed to humans. Captopril and losartan were equally effective as mitigators, with DMFs of 1.23 and 1.21, respectively, for delaying renal failure. These studies show that radiation nephropathy in a realistic rodent model can be mitigated with relevant doses of FDA-approved agents. This lays the necessary groundwork for pivotal rodent studies under the FDA Animal Efficacy Rule and provides an outline of how the FDA-required large-animal studies could be designed.

  6. Captopril and Losartan for Mitigation of Renal Injury Caused by Single-Dose Total-Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, John E.; Cohen, Eric P.; Fish, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    It is known that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockers (ARBs) can be used to mitigate radiation-induced renal injury. However, for a variety of reasons, these previous results are not directly applicable to the development of agents for the mitigation of injuries caused by terrorism-related radiation exposure. As part of an effort to develop an animal model that would fit the requirements of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) “Animal Efficacy Rule”, we designed new studies which used an FDA-approved ACEI (captopril) or an FDA-approved ARB (losartan, Cozaar®) started 10 days after a single total-body irradiation (TBI) at drug doses that are equivalent (on a g/m2/day basis) to the doses prescribed to humans. Captopril and losartan were equally effective as mitigators, with DMFs of 1.23 and 1.21, respectively, for delaying renal failure. These studies show that radiation nephropathy in a realistic rodent model can be mitigated with relevant doses of FDA-approved agents. This lays the necessary groundwork for pivotal rodent studies under the FDA Animal Efficacy Rule and provides an outline of how the FDA-required large-animal studies could be designed. PMID:21175344

  7. Comparative effect of ace inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonism on bioavailability of nitric oxide in patients with coronary artery disease: role of superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Hornig, B; Landmesser, U; Kohler, C; Ahlersmann, D; Spiekermann, S; Christoph, A; Tatge, H; Drexler, H

    2001-02-13

    Flow-dependent, endothelium-mediated vasodilation (FDD) and activity of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), the major antioxidative enzyme of the arterial wall, are severely impaired in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that both ACE inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist (AT(1)-A) increase bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) by reducing oxidative stress in the vessel wall, possibly by increasing EC-SOD activity. Thirty-five patients with CAD were randomized to 4 weeks of ACEI (ramipril 10 mg/d) or AT(1)-A (losartan 100 mg/d). FDD of the radial artery was determined by high-resolution ultrasound before and after intra-arterial N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) to inhibit NO synthase and before and after intra-arterial vitamin C to determine the portion of FDD inhibited by oxygen free radicals. EC-SOD activity was determined after release from endothelium by heparin bolus injection. FDD was improved after ramipril and losartan (each group P<0.01), and in particular, the portion of FDD mediated by NO, ie, inhibited by L-NMMA, was increased by >75% (each group P<0.01). Vitamin C improved FDD initially, an effect that was lost after ramipril or losartan. After therapy, EC-SOD activity was increased by >200% in both groups (ACEI, 14.4+/-1.1 versus 3.8+/-0.9 and AT(1)-A, 13.5+/-1.0 versus 3.9+/-0.9 U. mL(-1). min(-1); each P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS-Four weeks of therapy with ramipril or losartan improves endothelial function to similar extents in patients with CAD by increasing the bioavailability of NO. Our results suggest that beneficial long-term effects of interference with the renin-angiotensin system may be related to reduction of oxidative stress within the arterial wall, mediated in part by increased EC-SOD activity.

  8. The Beneficial Effects of Allicin in Chronic Kidney Disease Are Comparable to Losartan

    PubMed Central

    García Trejo, Ehécatl Miguel Ángel; Arellano Buendía, Abraham Said; Sánchez Reyes, Omegar; García Arroyo, Fernando Enrique; Arguello García, Raúl; Loredo Mendoza, María Lilia; Tapia, Edilia; Sánchez Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Osorio Alonso, Horacio

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that allicin may play a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD), reducing hypertension and oxidative stress and improving renal dysfunction. In the present study, CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy and the animals were divided into four treatment groups as follows: control (C), CKD, CKD+allicin (40 mg/kg pathway oral) (CKDA), and CKD+Losartan (20 mg/kg) (CKDL). After CKD induction, the rats developed hypertension from week 3 to the end of the study. This was associated with increased creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in serum, increased albuminuria, increased urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), increased nephrin expression, and incrased histological alterations in the cortex. The levels of angiotensin receptors and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were decreased in the renal cortex from the CKD group. Otherwise, lipid and protein oxidation were higher in the CKD group than in the control group. A disturbance was observed in the expression levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/Kelch ECH associating protein 1 system (Nrf2/keap1) and the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and heme oxygenase-1. Allicin or losartan treatments relieved renal dysfunction, hypertension, and oxidative stress. In addition, both treatments showed the same efficacy on the expression of angiotensin receptors, the nephrin, Nrf2/keap1 pathway, and eNOS. Further in silico analyses suggest that allicin and losartan could have a common mechanism involving interaction with AT1 receptors. Allicin showed antihypertensive, antioxidant, and nephroprotective effects. The beneficial effects showed by allicin are similar, or even better, than those of losartan. In fact, the effect of allicin on blood pressure and renal function is comparable to reductions seen with losartan, a prescription drug commonly used as a first-line therapy. PMID:28926934

  9. Atenolol versus Losartan in Children and Young Adults with Marfan's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lacro, R.V.; Dietz, H.C.; Sleeper, L.A.; Yetman, A.T.; Bradley, T.J.; Colan, S.D.; Pearson, G.D.; Tierney, E.S. Selamet; Levine, J.C.; Atz, A.M.; Benson, D.W.; Braverman, A.C.; Chen, S.; De Backer, J.; Gelb, B.D.; Grossfeld, P.D.; Klein, G.L.; Lai, W.W.; Liou, A.; Loeys, B.L.; Markham, L.W.; Olson, A.K.; Paridon, S.M.; Pemberton, V.L.; Pierpont, M.E.; Pyeritz, R.E.; Radojewski, E.; Roman, M.J.; Sharkey, A.M.; Stylianou, M.P.; Wechsler, S. Burns; Young, L.T.; Mahony, L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Aortic-root dissection is the leading cause of death in Marfan's syndrome. Studies suggest that with regard to slowing aortic-root enlargement, losartan may be more effective than beta-blockers, the current standard therapy in most centers. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial comparing losartan with atenolol in children and young adults with Marfan's syndrome. The primary outcome was the rate of aortic-root enlargement, expressed as the change in the maximum aortic-root-diameter z score indexed to body-surface area (hereafter, aortic-root z score) over a 3-year period. Secondary outcomes included the rate of change in the absolute diameter of the aortic root; the rate of change in aortic regurgitation; the time to aortic dissection, aortic-root surgery, or death; somatic growth; and the incidence of adverse events. RESULTS From January 2007 through February 2011, a total of 21 clinical centers enrolled 608 participants, 6 months to 25 years of age (mean [±SD] age, 11.5±6.5 years in the atenolol group and 11.0±6.2 years in the losartan group), who had an aortic-root z score greater than 3.0. The baseline-adjusted rate of change (±SE) in the aortic-root z score did not differ significantly between the atenolol group and the losartan group (−0.139±0.013 and −0.107±0.013 standard-deviation units per year, respectively; P = 0.08). Both slopes were significantly less than zero, indicating a decrease in the degree of aortic-root dilatation relative to body-surface area with either treatment. The 3-year rates of aortic-root surgery, aortic dissection, death, and a composite of these events did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS Among children and young adults with Marfan's syndrome who were randomly assigned to losartan or atenolol, we found no significant difference in the rate of aortic-root dilatation between the two treatment groups over a 3-year period. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood

  10. A double-blind, randomized study evaluating losartan potassium monotherapy or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide versus placebo in obese patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Oparil, S; Abate, N; Chen, E; Creager, M A; Galet, V; Jia, G; Julius, S; Lerman, A; Lyle, P A; Pool, J; Tershakovec, A M

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of losartan +/- hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) versus placebo in obese patients with systolic and diastolic hypertension. Randomized patients (n = 261) were non-diabetic with systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 and < or = 180 mmHg and diastolic BP (DBP) > or = 95 and < or = 115 mmHg, body mass index > 30 kg/m(2), and waist circumference > 40 (males)/> 35 (females) inches. Patients were randomized to placebo or a forced titration of losartan 50 mg titrated at 4-week intervals to losartan 100 mg, losartan 100 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg, and losartan 100 mg/HCTZ 25 mg. Primary efficacy measurements were change from baseline in SBP and DBP at 12 weeks. Secondary measurements were change from baseline in BPs at 8 and 16 weeks, percent responders at 12 and 16 weeks, and safety/tolerability. Post-hoc analyses were BP at 4 weeks and achievement of controlled BP (SBP < 140 and/or DBP < 90 mmHg) at 12 and 16 weeks. Losartan 50 mg reduced BP from 151.6/99.2 mmHg at baseline to 140.1/89.8 mmHg at week 4 (post hoc), 139.5/89.6 mmHg with losartan 100 mg at week 8 (secondary), 134.3/85.9 mmHg with losartan 100 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg at week 12 (primary), and 132.1/84.9 mmHg with losartan 100 mg/HCTZ 50 mg at week 16 (secondary) (all p < 0.05). Rates of clinical adverse experiences were similar between treatment groups. A limitation of these analyses is the relatively rapid rate of study drug titration, which may not have allowed for the evaluation of the full treatment effect at each titration step. We conclude that losartan alone or in combination with HCTZ was generally well tolerated and effective in the treatment of elevated systolic and diastolic BP in obese patients with hypertension.

  11. Angiotensin II receptors in cortical and medullary adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Opocher, G; Rocco, S; Cimolato, M; Vianello, B; Arnaldi, G; Mantero, F

    1997-03-01

    Several pieces of evidences suggest that angiotensin II (Ang II) has mitogenic effects, and a link between Ang II receptors and adrenal tumors can be suggested. In various adrenal tumors, aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), Cushing's adrenal adenomas (Cush), pheochromocytomas (Pheo), and adrenal carcinomas, we studied the density, affinity, and subtype of Ang II receptors. Ang II binding was tested in cell membrane homogenates. [125I]Ang II was used as ligand, and Losartan and CGP 42112 were used as selective Ang II type 1 and type 2 antagonists, respectively. In APA, Ang II receptor density was 178.5 +/- 82.7 fmol/mg: however, due to the high degree of variability, the receptor density was not significantly higher than that in nontumorous adrenal cortex (59.3 +/- 8.4 fmol/mg). In Cush, the receptor density (27.6 +/- 8.2 fmol/mg; P < 0.05) was significantly lower than that in controls, whereas in Pheo and cortical carcinoma, Ang II binding was very low and in several cases almost undetectable. There was no remarkable difference in the Ang II receptor affinity among all tissues tested. The ratio between type 1 and type 2 Ang II receptors showed a large prevalence of type 1 in controls, APA, and three cases of Cush; in two cases of Cush, this ratio was reversed. In conclusion, our data indicate that Ang II receptors are normally expressed in APA and can also be detected in Cush, whereas they have a very low density in Pheo and adrenal carcinoma. Therefore, Ang II receptors are not involved in the lack of response to Ang II that is characteristic of APA; additionally, a reduction of Ang II receptors can be associated with dedifferentiation or malignancy of adrenal tumors. Further investigation of the expression and functional characterization of Ang II receptors is required to better clarify their possible role in adrenal tumorigenesis.

  12. Glucagon receptor antagonists for the treatment of type II diabetes: current prospects.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Stevan W; Grihalde, Nelson; Lin, Chun Wel

    2002-11-01

    As the incidence of Type II diabetes (T2DM) will increase to 200 million cases worldwide by 2010, the search for new, effective agentsfor its treatment has been pushed into overdrive. According to Unger's bihormonal hypothesis, elevated levels of circulating glucagon in T2DM patients results in increased rates of hepatic glucose synthesis and glycogen metabolism, translating to excessive plasma glucose levels. In this context, considerable efforts have been made to identify glucagon antagonists for the treatment of T2DM. This review reflects research in this area from 1999 to 2002.

  13. Effect of losartan versus candesartan on uric acid, renal function, and fibrinogen in patients with hypertension and hyperuricemia associated with diuretics.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Brian L; Trinder, Yvonne A; Baines, Donette; Isaacs, Sedick; Opie, Lionel H

    2006-02-01

    Hyperuricemia may counter benefits of blood pressure (BP) reduction, although this is controversial. We examined the effects of candesartan and losartan on uric acid, creatinine, and fibrinogen. Patients with hypertension and serum uric acid > or = 0.42 mmol/L (7 mg/dL) associated with diuretics were randomized to receive losartan 50 to 100 mg or candesartan 8 to 16 mg for 24 weeks. At randomization and after 24 weeks, systolic and diastolic BP, serum uric acid, creatinine, and fibrinogen were measured. A total of 59 patients were entered into the study (30 in the losartan and 29 in the candesartan group). Mean systolic and diastolic BP were reduced in the candesartan group, from 156 mm Hg at baseline to 132 mm Hg at 24 weeks, and from 90.9 to 80.8 mm Hg respectively, P < .0001), and in the losartan group from 150.3 to 132 mm Hg and from 89.6 to 77.6 respectively, P < 0001). Overall mean values of fibrinogen levels were again reduced from 4.39 g/L at baseline to 4.01 g/L at 24 weeks (P < .02). Mean values of serum uric acid in the losartan and candesartan groups were similar at baseline (0.44 and 0.46 mmol/L, respectively), but they were lower in the losartan group after 24 weeks (0.39 and 0.48 mmol/L, P = .01). Twelve patients (44%) in the candesartan group had a 10% increase in serum creatinine compared with four patients (14.2%) in the losartan group (P < .02). Candesartan and losartan lowered BP, but only losartan reduced uric acid. The lowering of fibrinogen in both groups may explain the reduction in stroke with angiotensin receptor blockers. The effect of persistent hyperuricemia on renal function requires further study.

  14. CCR5 receptor antagonists in preclinical to phase II clinical development for treatment of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Michelle B.; Giesler, Kyle E.; Tahirovic, Yesim A.; Truax, Valarie M.; Liotta, Dennis C.; Wilson, Lawrence J.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The chemokine receptor CCR5 has garnered significant attention in recent years as a target to treat HIV infection largely due to the approval and success of the drug Maraviroc. The side effects and inefficiencies with other first generation agents led to failed clinical trials, prompting the development of newer CCR5 antagonists. Areas covered This review aims to survey the current status of ‘next generation’ CCR5 antagonists in the preclinical pipeline with an emphasis on emerging agents for the treatment of HIV infection. These efforts have culminated in the identification of advanced second-generation agents to reach the clinic and the dual CCR5/CCR2 antagonist Cenicriviroc as the most advanced currently in phase II clinical studies. Expert opinion The clinical success of CCR5 inhibitors for treatment of HIV infection has rested largely on studies of Maraviroc and a second-generation dual CCR5/CCR2 antagonist Cenicriviroc. Although research efforts identified several promising preclinical candidates, these were dropped during early clinical studies. Despite patient access to Maraviroc, there is insufficient enthusiasm surrounding its use as front-line therapy for treatment of HIV. The non-HIV infection related development activities for Maraviroc and Cenicriviroc may help drive future interests. PMID:27791451

  15. Spectrophotometric and HPLC Methods for Simultaneous Estimation of Amlodipine Besilate, Losartan Potassium and Hydrochlorothiazide in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Wankhede, S. B.; Raka, K. C.; Wadkar, S. B.; Chitlange, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Two UV-spectrophotometric and one reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography methods have been developed for the simultaneous estimation of amlodipine besilate, losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide in tablet dosage form. The first UV spectrophotometric method was a determination using the simultaneous equation method at 236.5, 254 and 271 nm over the concentration range 5-25, 10-50 and 5-25 μg/ml for amlodipine besilate, losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively. The second UV method was a determination using the area under curve method at 231.5-241.5, 249-259 and 266-276 nm over the concentration range of 5-25, 5-25 and 10-50 μg/ml for amlodipine besilate, hydrochlorothiazide and losartan potassium, respectively. In reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography analysis is carried out using 0.025 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.7):acetonitrile (57:43 v/v) as the mobile phase and Kromasil C18 (4.6 mm i.d×250 mm) column as stationery phase with detection wavelength of 232 nm linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2-14, 20-140 and 5-40 μg/ml for amlodipine besilate, losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively. Both UV-spectrophotometric and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography methods were statistically validated and can be used for analysis of combined dose tablet formulation containing amlodipine besilate, losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide. PMID:20582208

  16. Inhibiting MicroRNA-503 and MicroRNA-181d with Losartan Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in KKAy Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, XinWang; Zhang, CongXiao; Fan, QiuLing; Liu, XiaoDan; Yang, Gang; Jiang, Yi; Wang, LiNing

    2016-10-22

    BACKGROUND Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most lethal diabetic microvascular complication; it is a major cause of renal failure, and an increasingly globally prominent healthcare problem. MATERIAL AND METHODS To identify susceptible microRNAs for the pathogenesis of DN and the targets of losartan treatment, microRNA arrays were employed to survey the glomerular microRNA expression profiles of KKAy mice treated with or without losartan. KKAy mice were assigned to either a losartan-treated group or a non-treatment group, with C57BL/6 mice used as a normal control. Twelve weeks after treatment, glomeruli from the mice were isolated. MicroRNA expression profiles were analyzed using microRNA arrays. Real-time PCR was used to confirm the results. RESULTS Losartan treatment improved albuminuria and the pathological lesions of KKAy mice. The expression of 10 microRNAs was higher, and the expression of 12 microRNAs was lower in the glomeruli of the KKAy untreated mice than that of the CL57BL/6 mice. The expression of 4 microRNAs was down-regulated in the glomeruli of the KKAy losartan-treated mice compared to that of the untreated mice. The expression of miRNA-503 and miRNA-181d was apparently higher in the glomeruli of the KKAy untreated mice, and was inhibited by losartan treatment. CONCLUSIONS The over-expression of miR-503 and miR-181d in glomeruli of KKAy mice may be responsible for the pathogenesis of DN and are potential therapeutic targets for DN.

  17. Up-regulation of renal renin-angiotensin system and inflammatory mechanisms in the prenatal programming by low-protein diet: beneficial effect of the post-weaning losartan treatment.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I K M; Jara, Z P; Volpini, R A; Franco, M D C; Jung, F F; Casarini, D E

    2018-05-06

    Previous studies have shown that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is affected by adverse maternal nutrition during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a maternal low-protein diet on proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species and RAS components in kidney samples isolated from adult male offspring. We hypothesized that post-weaning losartan treatment would have beneficial effects on RAS activity and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in these animals. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a control (20% casein) or low-protein diet (LP) (6% casein) throughout gestation. After weaning, the LP pups were randomly assigned to LP and LP-losartan groups (AT1 receptor blockade: 10 mg/kg/day until 20 weeks of age). At 20 weeks of age, blood pressure levels were higher and renal RAS was activated in the LP group. We also observed several adverse effects in the kidneys of the LP group, including a higher number of CD3, CD68 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells and higher levels of collagen and reactive oxygen species in the kidney. Further, our results revealed that post-weaning losartan treatment completely abolished immune cell infiltration and intrarenal RAS activation in the kidneys of LP rats. The prevention of augmentation of angiotensin (Ang II) concentration abolished inflammatory and fibrotic events, indicating that Ang II via the AT1 receptor is essential for pathological initiation. Our results suggest that the prenatal programming of hypertension is dependent on the up-regulation of local RAS and presence of immune cells in the kidney.

  18. Meconium increases type 1 angiotensin II receptor expression and alveolar cell death.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Charles R; Zagariya, Alexander M; Liu, Xiao-Tie; Willis, Brigham C; Fluharty, Steven; Vidyasagar, Dharmapuri

    2008-03-01

    The pulmonary renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to inflammation and epithelial apoptosis in meconium aspiration. It is unclear if both angiotensin II receptors (ATR) contribute, where they are expressed and if meconium modifies subtype expression. We examined ATR subtypes in 2 wk rabbit pup lungs before and after meconium exposure and with and without captopril pretreatment or type 1 receptor (AT1R) inhibition with losartan, determining expression and cellular localization with immunoblots, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Responses of cultured rat alveolar type II pneumocytes were also examined. Type 2 ATR were undetected in newborn lung before and after meconium instillation. AT1R were expressed in pulmonary vascular and bronchial smooth muscle and alveolar and bronchial epithelium. Meconium increased total lung AT1R protein approximately 3-fold (p = 0.006), mRNA 29% (p = 0.006) and immunostaining in bronchial and alveolar epithelium and smooth muscle, which were unaffected by captopril and losartan. Meconium also increased AT1R expression >3-fold in cultured type II pneumocytes and caused concentration-dependent cell death inhibited by losartan. Meconium increases AT1R expression in newborn rabbit lung and cultured type II pneumocytes and induces AT1R-mediated cell death. The pulmonary RAS contributes to the pathogenesis of meconium aspiration through increased receptor expression.

  19. Screening of environmental contaminants for ecdysteroid agonist and antagonist activity using the Drosophila melanogaster B(II) cell in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    Dinan, L; Bourne, P; Whiting, P; Dhadialla, T S; Hutchinson, T H

    2001-09-01

    The B(II) bioassay was developed as a rapid and reliable tool for detecting potential insect growth regulators acting as ecdysteroid receptor (ant)agonists. Based on an ecdysteroid-responsive cell line from Drosophila melanogaster, this microplate assay is ideally suited to the evaluation of environmental contaminants as potential endocrine disrupters. Data are presented for about 80 potential environmental contaminants, including industrial chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, phytoestrogens, and vertebrate steroids, and are compared with data for known (ant)agonists. Apart from androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (a weak antagonist), vertebrate steroids were inactive at concentrations up to 10(-3) M. The vast majority of xenobiotics also showed no (ant)agonist activity. Among the industrial chemicals, antagonistic activity was observed for bisphenol A median effective concentration (EC50) of 1.0 x 10(-4) M and diethylphthalate (EC50 of 2.0 x 10(-3) M). Some organochlorine compounds also showed weak antagonistic activity, including o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, and lindane (EC50 of 3.0 x 10(-5) M). For lindane, bisphenol A, and diethylphthalate, activity is not associated with impurities in the samples and, for lindane and bisphenol A at least, the compounds are able to compete with ecdysteroids for the ligand binding site on the receptor complex, albeit at concentrations very much higher than those found in the environment. The only pharmaceutical showing any detectable antagonist activity was 17alpha-ethynylestradiol. In the context of recent publications on potential endocrine disruption in marine and freshwater arthropods, these findings suggest that, for some compounds (e.g., diethylstilbestrol), ecdysteroid receptor-mediated responses are unlikely to be involved in producing chronic effects. The B(II) assay has a potentially valuable role to play in distinguishing between endocrine-mediated, which normally occur at submicromolar

  20. Efficacy of losartan vs. atenolol for the prevention of aortic dilation in Marfan syndrome: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Forteza, Alberto; Evangelista, Arturo; Sánchez, Violeta; Teixidó-Turà, Gisela; Sanz, Paz; Gutiérrez, Laura; Gracia, Teresa; Centeno, Jorge; Rodríguez-Palomares, José; Rufilanchas, Juan Jose; Cortina, José; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; García-Dorado, David

    2016-03-21

    To determine the efficacy of losartan vs. atenolol in aortic dilation progression in Marfan syndrome (MFS) patients. A phase IIIb, randomized, parallel, double-blind study was conducted in 140 MFS patients, age range: 5-60 years, with maximum aortic diameter <45 mm who received losartan (n = 70) or atenolol (n = 70). Doses were raised to a maximum of 1.4 mg/kg/day or 100 mg/day. The primary end-point was the change in aortic root and ascending aorta maximum diameter indexed by body surface area on magnetic resonance imaging after 36 months of treatment. No serious drug-related adverse effects were observed. Five patients presented aortic events during a follow-up (one in the losartan and four in the atenolol groups, P = 0.366). After 3 years of follow-up, aortic root diameter increased significantly in both groups: 1.1 mm (95% CI 0.6-1.6) in the losartan and 1.4 mm (95% CI 0.9-1.9) in the atenolol group, with aortic dilatation progression being similar in both groups: absolute difference between losartan and atenolol -0.3 mm (95% CI -1.1 to 0.4, P = 0.382) and indexed by BSA -0.5 mm/m2 (95% CI -1.2 to 0.1, P = 0.092). Similarly, no significant differences were found in indexed ascending aorta diameter changes between the losartan and atenolol groups: -0.3 mm/m2 (95% CI -0.8 to 0.3, P = 0.326). Among patients with MFS, the use of losartan compared with atenolol did not result in significant differences in the progression of aortic root and ascending aorta diameters over 3 years of follow-up. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Candesartan cilexetil: an angiotensin II receptor blocker.

    PubMed

    Stoukides, C A; McVoy, H J; Kaul, A F

    1999-12-01

    To summarize and critique the medical literature on candesartan cilexetil, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). MEDLINE searches (January 1966-January 1999) and manufacturer prescribing literature were used to identify articles on candesartan cilexetil. Bibliographies were also reviewed for germane articles. Study and review articles describing the chemistry, human pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, placebo-controlled trials, comparative trials, and clinical application of candesartan cilexetil based on the published literature and premarketing clinical trials were reviewed. All literature on the use of candesartan cilexetil for treating hypertension and congestive heart failure were included. ARBs are a new class of drugs with increasing use in treating hypertension. Studies are ongoing to determine the role of these agents in preventing remodeling after myocardial infarction and in patients with congestive heart failure. Candesartan cilexetil is among the newest drugs in the class that includes losartan, irbesartan, and valsartan. Candesartan cilexetil has more than 1000 times more affinity for the angiotensin II, type AT1 receptor ARBs, and the binding affinity and competitive angiotensin II receptor antagonism is stronger than that of losartan. Clinical studies in patients with hypertension have demonstrated that candesartan cilexetil, in doses of 4-16 mg, is more effective in reducing sitting diastolic blood pressure than are placebo and losartan 50 mg. Candesartan cilexetil has demonstrated reductions in blood pressure comparable to those of enalapril, with the rate of adverse events greater in the enalapril group. Dosage adjustments are not necessary in elderly patients or in patients with mild hepatic or renal dysfunction. In diabetic patients, blood glucose, hemoglobinA1c, and serum lipids are not affected. The clinical studies demonstrated that the adverse effect profile of candesartan cilexetil was similar to that of placebo and there

  2. The effects of missed doses of amlodipine and losartan on blood pressure in older hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Peter W; Fagard, Robert; Kroon, Abraham A

    2017-06-01

    This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter study compared the efficacy of amlodipine and losartan in an older hypertensive population, focusing on therapeutic coverage in the case of missed doses. Following a 4-week, single-blind, placebo washout period, 211 patients were randomly assigned to receive either 5 mg of amlodipine once daily or 50 mg of losartan once daily. Doses were doubled after 6 weeks of treatment if the diastolic blood pressure exceeded 90 mm Hg. After the 12-week treatment period, patients received the placebo for 2 days (drug holiday) to simulate two missed doses of antihypertensive medication. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted at the end of the placebo washout period (baseline), upon completion of the 12-week treatment period (steady state), and after the 2-day drug holiday. Amlodipine was more effective than losartan in reducing patients' 24-h ambulatory blood pressure at the steady-state sampling time. The increases in 24-h blood pressure during the drug holiday averaged 6±2/2±1 mm Hg (P<0.0001) in the amlodipine group and 3±2/2±1 mm Hg (P<0.0001) in the losartan group. The rise in systolic pressure was greater in patients on amlodipine than in those on losartan (P<0.0001). For diastolic pressure, the changes did not differ. Owing to the lower pressure during treatment, patients in the amlodipine group remained at a significantly lower blood pressure level after the 2-day drug holiday. Amlodipine was more effective than losartan in lowering blood pressure and in maintaining blood pressure control after two missed doses, and the difference was most significant for systolic blood pressure.

  3. Effect of endogenous angiotensin II on renal nerve activity and its cardiac baroreflex regulation.

    PubMed

    Dibona, G F; Jones, S Y; Sawin, L L

    1998-11-01

    The effects of physiologic alterations in endogenous angiotensin II activity on basal renal sympathetic nerve activity and its cardiac baroreflex regulation were studied. The effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade with intracerebroventricular losartan was examined in conscious rats consuming a low, normal, or high sodium diet that were instrumented for the simultaneous measurement of right atrial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity. The gain of cardiac baroreflex regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity (% delta renal sympathetic nerve activity/mmHg mean right atrial pressure) was measured during isotonic saline volume loading. Intracerebroventricular losartan did not decrease arterial pressure but significantly decreased renal sympathetic nerve activity in low (-36+/-6%) and normal (-24+/-5%), but not in high (-2+/-3%) sodium diet rats. Compared with vehicle treatment, losartan treatment significantly increased cardiac baroreflex gain in low (-3.45+/-0.20 versus -2.89+/-0.17) and normal (-2.89+/-0.18 versus -2.54+/-0.14), but not in high (-2.27+/-0.15 versus -2.22+/-0.14) sodium diet rats. These results indicate that physiologic alterations in endogenous angiotensin II activity tonically influence basal levels of renal sympathetic nerve activity and its cardiac baroreflex regulation.

  4. Losartan Affects Glomerular AKT and mTOR Phosphorylation in an Experimental Model of Type 1 Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Petrakis, Ioannis; Stylianou, Kostas; Katsarou, Theodora; Giannakakis, Konstantinos; Perakis, Kostas; Vardaki, Eleftheria; Stratigis, Spyridon; Ganotakis, Emmanuel; Papavasiliou, Stathis; Daphnis, Eugenios

    2013-01-01

    The AKT-mTOR pathway is activated in diabetic nephropathy. Renin-angiotensin system modulators exert beneficial effects on the diabetic kidney. We explored the action of losartan on AKT-mTOR phosphorylation in glomeruli and podocytes. Diabetes mellitus was induced to Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin. Five months later, the rats were commenced on losartan and euthanized 2 months later. Kidneys were processed for immunofluorescence studies. Glomeruli were isolated for Western blot analysis. Diabetes increased activated forms of AKT and mTOR both in glomeruli and podocytes. In diabetic rats, losartan decreased phosphorylated/activated forms of AKT (Thr308) and mTOR (Ser2448) in glomeruli but decreased only activated mTOR in podocytes. However, in both glomeruli and podocytes of healthy animals, an inverse pattern was evident. In conclusion, a new body of evidence indicates the differential activation of AKT-mTOR in glomeruli and podocytes of healthy and diabetic animals in response to losartan. PMID:23456824

  5. Intracellular angiotensin II directly induces in vitro transcription of TGF-β1, MCP-1 and NHE-3 mRNAs in isolated rat renal cortical nuclei via activation of nuclear AT1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao C.; Zhuo, Jia L.

    2008-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that intracellular angiotensin II (Ang II) directly induces transcriptional effects by stimulating AT1 receptors in the nucleus of rat renal cortical cells. Intact nuclei were freshly isolated from the rat renal cortex and transcriptional responses to Ang II were studied using in vitro RNA transcription assays and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. High power phase contrast micrographs showed that isolated nuclei were encircled by an intact nuclear envelop, stained strongly by the DNA marker DAPI, but not by the membrane or endosomal markers. FITC-labeled Ang II and [125I]-Val5-Ang II binding confirmed the presence of Ang II receptors in the nuclei with a predominance of AT1 receptors. RT-PCR showed that AT1a mRNA expression was 3-fold greater than AT1b receptor mRNAs in these nuclei. In freshly isolated nuclei, Ang II increased in vitro [α-32P]CTP incorporation in a concentration manner, and the effect was confirmed by autoradiography and RNA electrophoresis. Ang II markedly increased in vitro transcription of mRNAs for transforming growth factor-β1 by 143% (p < 0.01), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 by 89% (p < 0.01), and the sodium and hydrogen exchanger-3 by 110% (p < 0.01). These transcriptional effects of Ang II on the nuclei were completely blocked by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (p < 0.01). By contrast, Ang II had no effects on transcription of angiotensinogne and GAPDH mRNAs. Since these transcriptional effects of Ang II in isolated nuclei were induced by Ang II in the absence of cell surface receptor-mediated signaling and completely blocked by losartan, we concluded that Ang II may directly stimulate nuclear AT1a receptors to induce transcriptional responses that are associated with tubular epithelial sodium transport, cellular growth and hypertrophy, and proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:18256274

  6. Losartan administration reduces fibrosis but hinders functional recovery after volumetric muscle loss injury.

    PubMed

    Garg, Koyal; Corona, Benjamin T; Walters, Thomas J

    2014-11-15

    Losartan is a Food and Drug Administration approved antihypertensive medication that is recently emerging as an antifibrotic therapy. Previously, losartan has been successfully used to reduce fibrosis and improve both muscle regeneration and function in several models of recoverable skeletal muscle injuries, such as contusion and laceration. In this study, the efficacy of losartan treatment in reducing fibrosis and improving regeneration was determined in a Lewis rat model of volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury. VML has been defined as the traumatic or surgical loss of skeletal muscle with resultant functional impairment. It is among the top 10 causes for wounded service members to be medically retired from the military. This study shows that, after several weeks of recovery, VML injury results in little to no muscle regeneration, but is marked by persistent inflammation, chronic upregulation of profibrotic markers and extracellular matrix (i.e., collagen type I), and fat deposition at the defect site, which manifest irrecoverable deficits in force production. Losartan administration at 10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) was able to modulate the gene expression of fibrotic markers and was also effective at reducing fibrosis (i.e., the deposition of collagen type I) in the injured muscle. However, there were no improvements in muscle regeneration, and deleterious effects on muscle function were observed instead. We propose that, in the absence of regeneration, reduction in fibrosis worsens the ability of the VML injured muscle to transmit forces, which ultimately results in decreased muscle function.

  7. AT1 and aldosterone receptors blockade prevents the chronic effect of nandrolone on the exercise-induced cardioprotection in perfused rat heart subjected to ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Marques-Neto, Silvio Rodrigues; Ferraz, Emanuelle Baptista; Rodrigues, Deivid Carvalho; Njaine, Brian; Rondinelli, Edson; Campos de Carvalho, Antônio Carlos; Nascimento, Jose Hamilton Matheus

    2014-04-01

    Myocardial tolerance to ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is improved by exercise training, but this cardioprotection is impaired by the chronic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). The present study evaluated whether blockade of angiotensin II receptor (AT1-R) with losartan and aldosterone receptor (mineralocorticoid receptor, MR) with spironolactone could prevent the deleterious effect of AAS on the exercise-induced cardioprotection. Male Wistar rats were exercised and treated with either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/week i.m.) or the same dose of nandrolone plus losartan or spironolactone (20 mg/kg/day orally) for 8 weeks. Langendorff-perfused hearts were subjected to I/R and evaluated for the postischaemic recovery of left ventricle (LV) function and infarct size. mRNA and protein expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and KATP channels were determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Postischaemic recovery of LV function was better and infarct size was smaller in the exercised rat hearts than in the sedentary rat hearts. Nandrolone impaired the exercise-induced cardioprotection, but this effect was prevented by losartan (AT1-R antagonist) and spironolactone (MR antagonist) treatments. Myocardial AT1-R and MR expression levels were increased, and the expression of the KATP channel subunits SUR2a and Kir6.1 was decreased and Kir6.2 increased in the nandrolone-treated rat hearts. The nandrolone-induced changes of AT1-R, MR, and KATP subunits expression was normalized by the losartan and spironolactone treatments. The chronic nandrolone treatment impairs the exercise-induced cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion injury by activating the cardiac renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and downregulating KATP channel expression.

  8. Role of vascular smooth muscle PPARγ in regulating AT1 receptor signaling and angiotensin II-dependent hypertension.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Sepulveda, Maria Alicia; Keen, Henry L; Davis, Deborah R; Grobe, Justin L; Sigmund, Curt D

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been reported to play a protective role in the vasculature; however, the underlying mechanisms involved are not entirely known. We previously showed that vascular smooth muscle-specific overexpression of a dominant negative human PPARγ mutation in mice (S-P467L) leads to enhanced myogenic tone and increased angiotensin-II-dependent vasoconstriction. S-P467L mice also exhibit increased arterial blood pressure. Here we tested the hypotheses that a) mesenteric smooth muscle cells isolated from S-P467L mice exhibit enhanced angiotensin-II AT1 receptor signaling, and b) the increased arterial pressure of S-P467L mice is angiotensin-II AT1 receptor dependent. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) was robustly increased in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cell cultures from S-P467L in response to angiotensin-II. The increase in ERK1/2 activation by angiotensin-II was blocked by losartan, a blocker of AT1 receptors. Angiotensin-II-induced ERK1/2 activation was also blocked by Tempol, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, and correlated with increased Nox4 protein expression. To investigate whether endogenous renin-angiotensin system activity contributes to the elevated arterial pressure in S-P467L, non-transgenic and S-P467L mice were treated with the AT1 receptor blocker, losartan (30 mg/kg per day), for 14-days and arterial pressure was assessed by radiotelemetry. At baseline S-P467L mice showed a significant increase of systolic arterial pressure (142.0 ± 10.2 vs 129.1 ± 3.0 mmHg, p<0.05). Treatment with losartan lowered systolic arterial pressure in S-P467L (132.2 ± 6.9 mmHg) to a level similar to untreated non-transgenic mice. Losartan also lowered arterial pressure in non-transgenic (113.0 ± 3.9 mmHg) mice, such that there was no difference in the losartan-induced depressor response between groups (-13.53 ± 1.39 in S-P467L vs -16.16 ± 3.14 mmHg in

  9. Angiotensin II Evokes Angiogenic Signals within Skeletal Muscle through Co-ordinated Effects on Skeletal Myocytes and Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Jennifer L.; Liu, Sammy T. K.; Slopack, Dara; Shariati, Khashayar; Hasanee, Adam; Olenich, Sara; Olfert, I. Mark; Haas, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle overload induces the expression of angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, leading to new capillary growth. We found that the overload-induced increase in angiogenesis, as well as increases in VEGF, MMP-2 and MT1-MMP transcripts were abrogated in muscle VEGF KO mice, highlighting the critical role of myocyte-derived VEGF in controlling this process. The upstream mediators that contribute to overload-induced expression of VEGF have yet to be ascertained. We found that muscle overload increased angiotensinogen expression, a precursor of angiotensin (Ang) II, and that Ang II signaling played an important role in basal VEGF production in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, matrix-bound VEGF released from myoblasts induced the activation of endothelial cells, as evidenced by elevated endothelial cell phospho-p38 levels. We also found that exogenous Ang II elevates VEGF expression, as well as MMP-2 transcript levels in C2C12 myotubes. Interestingly, these responses also were observed in skeletal muscle endothelial cells in response to Ang II treatment, indicating that these cells also can respond directly to the stimulus. The involvement of Ang II in muscle overload-induced angiogenesis was assessed. We found that blockade of AT1R-dependent Ang II signaling using losartan did not attenuate capillary growth. Surprisingly, increased levels of VEGF protein were detected in overloaded muscle from losartan-treated rats. Similarly, we observed elevated VEGF production in cultured endothelial cells treated with losartan alone or in combination with Ang II. These studies conclusively establish the requirement for muscle derived VEGF in overload-induced angiogenesis and highlight a role for Ang II in basal VEGF production in skeletal muscle. However, while Ang II signaling is activated following overload and plays a role in muscle VEGF production, inhibition of this pathway is not sufficient to halt overload

  10. The effects of poststroke captopril and losartan treatment on cerebral blood flow autoregulation in SHRsp with hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Smeda, John S; Daneshtalab, Noriko

    2011-02-01

    The ability of captopril and losartan treatment to restore cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation after intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke (HS) was assessed in Kyoto-Wistar stroke-prone hypertensive rats (SHRsp). Laser Doppler techniques assessed CBF autoregulation in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) perfusion domain and a pressure myograph was used to measure pressure-dependent constriction (PDC) in isolated MCAs before and after stroke and after 13, 33, and 63 days of poststroke captopril or losartan treatment. The treatments did not lower blood pressure (BP) and equally suppressed plasma aldosterone after HS. The HS development was associated with the loss of CBF autoregulation, high CBF, increased CBF conductance to elevations in BP, and the loss of PDC in the MCAs. Both treatments restored these functions to prestroke levels within 13 days. The PDC and CBF autoregulation subsequently deteriorated after 63 days of captopril treatment while being maintained at prestroke levels over all durations of losartan treatment. The SHRsp subjected to 35 days of poststroke losartan treatment exhibited less blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and brain herniation than captopril-treated SHRsp. The superior ability of losartan to restore CBF autoregulation and myogenic function may have contributed to the more effective attenuation of cerebral damage after HS.

  11. The effects of poststroke captopril and losartan treatment on cerebral blood flow autoregulation in SHRsp with hemorrhagic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Smeda, John S; Daneshtalab, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    The ability of captopril and losartan treatment to restore cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation after intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke (HS) was assessed in Kyoto–Wistar stroke-prone hypertensive rats (SHRsp). Laser Doppler techniques assessed CBF autoregulation in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) perfusion domain and a pressure myograph was used to measure pressure-dependent constriction (PDC) in isolated MCAs before and after stroke and after 13, 33, and 63 days of poststroke captopril or losartan treatment. The treatments did not lower blood pressure (BP) and equally suppressed plasma aldosterone after HS. The HS development was associated with the loss of CBF autoregulation, high CBF, increased CBF conductance to elevations in BP, and the loss of PDC in the MCAs. Both treatments restored these functions to prestroke levels within 13 days. The PDC and CBF autoregulation subsequently deteriorated after 63 days of captopril treatment while being maintained at prestroke levels over all durations of losartan treatment. The SHRsp subjected to 35 days of poststroke losartan treatment exhibited less blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption and brain herniation than captopril-treated SHRsp. The superior ability of losartan to restore CBF autoregulation and myogenic function may have contributed to the more effective attenuation of cerebral damage after HS. PMID:20648036

  12. Perinatally administered losartan augments renal ACE2 expression but not cardiac or renal Mas receptor in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Klimas, Jan; Olvedy, Michael; Ochodnicka-Mackovicova, Katarina; Kruzliak, Peter; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Krenek, Peter; Ochodnicky, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Since the identification of the alternative angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a new complex target for a pharmacological intervention. We investigated the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney during the development of hypertension and its perinatal treatment with losartan in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Expressions of RAS genes were studied by the RT-PCR in the left ventricle and kidney of rats: normotensive Wistar, untreated SHR, SHR treated with losartan since perinatal period until week 9 of age (20 mg/kg/day) and SHR treated with losartan only until week 4 of age and discontinued until week 9. In the hypertrophied left ventricle of SHR, cardiac expressions of Ace and Mas were decreased while those of AT1 receptor (Agtr1a) and Ace2 were unchanged. Continuous losartan administration reduced LV weight (0.43 ± 0.02; P < 0.05 versus SHR) but did not influence altered cardiac RAS expression. Increased blood pressure in SHR (149 ± 2 in SHR versus 109 ± 2 mmHg in Wistar; P < 0.05) was associated with a lower renal expressions of renin, Agtr1a and Mas and with an increase in ACE2. Continuous losartan administration lowered blood pressure to control levels (105 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05 versus SHR), however, only renal renin and ACE2 were significantly up-regulated (for both P < 0.05 versus SHR). Conclusively, prevention of hypertension and LV hypertrophy development by losartan was unrelated to cardiac or renal expression of Mas. Increased renal Ace2, and its further increase by losartan suggests the influence of locally generated Ang-(1-7) in organ response to the developing hypertension in SHRs. PMID:25766467

  13. Inhibitory Effect of Apigenin on Losartan Metabolism and CYP2C9 Activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Gong, Yun; Zeng, Da-Li; Chen, Lian-Guo; Lin, Gao-Tong; Huang, Cheng-Ke; Sun, Wei; Chen, Meng-Chun; Hu, Guo-Xin; Chen, Rui-Jie

    2016-01-01

    CYP2C9 is one of the most important phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of apigenin on the metabolism of losartan and human CYP2C9 and rat CYP2C11 activity in vitro. Different concentrations of apigenin were added to a 100 mmol/l Tris-HCl reaction mixture containing 2 pmol/ml recombinant human CYP2C9.1, 0.25 mg/ml human liver microsomes or 0.5 mg/ml rat liver microsomes to determine the half maximal inhibition or a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) on the metabolism of losartan. In addition, diclofenac used as CYP2C9 substrate was performed to determine the effects of apigenin on CYP2C9. The results showed that apigenin has the inhibitory effect on the metabolism of losartan in vitro, the IC50 was 7.61, 4.10 and 11.07 μmol/l on recombinant CYP2C9 microsomes, human liver microsomes and rat liver microsomes, respectively. Meanwhile, apigenin's mode of action on human CYP2C9 activity was competitive for the substrate diclofenac. In contrast to its potent inhibition of CYP2C9 in humans (9.51 μmol/l), apigenin had lesser effects on CYP2C11 in rat (IC50 = 15.51 μmol/l). The observations imply that apigenin has the inhibitory effect on the metabolism of losartan and CYP2C9 activity in vitro. More attention should be paid as to when losartan should be administrated combined with apigenin. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The Effects of Losartan in Preserving the Structural Integrity of Decellularized Small Diameter Vascular Allograft Conduit Implants In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Byoung Wook; Kim, Seong Who; Choo, Suk Jung

    2017-01-01

    Decellularization is a proposed method of preparing nonautologous biological arterial vascular scaffolding; however, the fate of the supporting medial elastic fiber, which is important in preserving the vascular structural integrity, is uncertain. The influence of losartan on preserving the medial elastic fiber integrity in decellularized small diameter vascular conduits (SDVC) was investigated. Decellularized infrarenal abdominal aortic allografts were implanted in Sprague-Dawley rats treated either with (study rats, n = 6) or without oral losartan (control rats, n = 6) and graded 8 weeks later according to a remodeling scoring system (1-mild, 2-moderate, 3-severe) which we devised based on the intimal hyperplasia degree, morphologic changes, and elastic fiber fragmentation of the conduits. DAPI immunohistochemistry analysis was performed in 47 (25 decellularization only and 22 losartan treatment) cross-sectional slide specimens. The losartan versus decellularization only SDVC showed a significantly lower medial elastic fragmentation score (1.32 vs. 2.24, P < 0.001), superior medial layer preservation, and relatively more normal appearing intimal cellular morphology. The results suggested rats receiving decellularized SDVCs treated with losartan may yield superior medial layer elastic fiber preservation. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Angiotensin II induces calcium/calcineurin signaling and podocyte injury by downregulating microRNA-30 family members.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Wu, Junnan; Zhang, Mingchao; Zhou, Minlin; Xu, Feng; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Xianguang; Lang, Yue; Yang, Fan; Yun, Shifeng; Shi, Shaolin; Liu, Zhihong

    2017-08-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is capable of inducing calcium/calcineurin signaling and podocyte injury; however, the precise underlying mechanism is not well understood. Because we have previously demonstrated that microRNA-30s (miR-30s) inhibit calcium/calcineurin signaling in podocytes, we hypothesize that AngII may induce podocyte injury by downregulating miR-30s and thereby activating calcium/calcineurin signaling. To test this hypothesis, we used an AngII-induced podocyte injury mouse model. The mice were treated with AngII via infusion for 28 days, which resulted in hypertension, albuminuria, and glomerular damage. AngII treatment also resulted in a significant reduction of miR-30s and upregulation of calcium/calcineurin signaling components, including TRPC6, PPP3CA, PPP3CB, PPP3R1, and NFATC3, which are the known targets of miR-30s in podocytes. The delivery of miR-30a-expressing lentivirus to the podocytes on day 14 of the infusion ameliorated the AngII-induced podocyte and glomerular injury and attenuated the upregulation of the calcium/calcineurin signaling components. Similarly, treatment with losartan, which is an AngII receptor blocker, also prevented AngII-induced podocyte injury and calcium/calcineurin signaling activation. Notably, losartan was found to sustain miR-30 levels during AngII treatment both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, the effect of AngII on podocytes is in part mediated by miR-30s through calcium/calcineurin signaling, a novel mechanism underlying AngII-induced podocyte injury. • AngII infusion resulted in downregulation of miR-30s in podocytes. • Exogenous miR-30a delivery mitigated the glomerular and podocyte injuries induced by AngII. • Both miR-30a and losartan prevented AngII-induced activation of calcium-calcineurin signaling.

  16. Antihyperalgesic effects of ProTx-II, a Nav1.7 antagonist, and A803467, a Nav1.8 antagonist, in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Sekino, Shota; Ikegami, Megumi; Ikeda, Hiroko; Kamei, Junzo

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of intrathecal administration of ProTx-II (tarantula venom peptide) and A803467 (5-[4-chloro-phenyl]-furan-2-carboxylic acid [3,5-dimethoxy-phenyl]-amide), selective Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 antagonists, respectively, on thermal hyperalgesia in a painful diabetic neuropathy model of mice. Intrathecal administration of ProTx-II at doses from 0.04 to 4 ng to diabetic mice dose-dependently and significantly increased the tail-flick latency. Intrathecal administration of A803467 at doses from 10 to 100 ng to diabetic mice also dose-dependently and significantly increased the tail-flick latency. However, intrathecal administration of either ProTx-II (4 ng) or A803467 (100 ng) had no effect on the tail-flick latency in nondiabetic mice. The expression of either the Nav1.7 or Nav1.8 sodium channel protein in the dorsal root ganglion in diabetic mice was not different from that in nondiabetic mice. The present results suggest that ProTx-II and A803467, highly selective blockers of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 sodium channels, respectively, in the spinal cord, can have antihyperalgesic effects in diabetic mice.

  17. Effects of high-fat diet and losartan on renal cortical blood flow using contrast ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Declèves, Anne-Emilie; Rychak, Joshua J; Smith, Dan J; Sharma, Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Obesity-related kidney disease occurs as a result of complex interactions between metabolic and hemodynamic effects. Changes in microvascular perfusion may play a major role in kidney disease; however, these changes are difficult to assess in vivo. Here, we used perfusion ultrasound imaging to evaluate cortical blood flow in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced kidney disease. C57BL/6J mice were randomized to a standard diet (STD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 30 wk and then treated either with losartan or a placebo for an additional 6 wk. Noninvasive ultrasound perfusion imaging of the kidney was performed during infusion of a microbubble contrast agent. Blood flow within the microvasculature of the renal cortex and medulla was derived from imaging data. An increase in the time required to achieve full cortical perfusion was observed for HFD mice relative to STD. This was reversed following treatment with losartan. These data were concurrent with an increased glomerular filtration rate in HFD mice compared with STD- or HFD-losartan-treated mice. Losartan treatment also abrogated fibro-inflammatory disease, assessed by markers at the protein and messenger level. Finally, a reduction in capillary density was found in HFD mice, and this was reversed upon losartan treatment. This suggests that alterations in vascular density may be responsible for the elevated perfusion time observed by imaging. These data demonstrate that ultrasound contrast imaging is a robust and sensitive method for evaluating changes in renal microvascular perfusion and that cortical perfusion time may be a useful parameter for evaluating obesity-related renal disease.

  18. Losartan vs. amlodipine treatment in elderly oncologic hypertensive patients: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Motta, Massimo; Russo, Cristina; Vacante, Marco; Liardo, Rocco Luca Emanuele; Reitano, Francesca; Cammalleri, Lisa; Costanzo, Mario; Benfatto, Giuseppe; Frazzetto, Paola; Mondati, Enrico; Malaguarnera, Michele; Pennisi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Elderly neoplastic patients frequently may show hypertension and hyperuricemia, before and after chemotherapeutic treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of losartan which is an antihypertensive drug with uricosuric properties vs. amlodipine in hypertensive neoplastic elderly patients. This was an open-labeled, randomized, comparative trial. The study was performed as a 30-day study. Seventy patients with cancer were randomly assigned to receive losartan or amlodipine. Blood pressure (BP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, creatinine, serum and urinary uric acid, creatinine and uric acid clearance were determined before and after chemotherapy. One day after chemotherapy in losartan group vs. amlodipine group we observed a significant difference in urinary uric acid (p<0.001) of 18 mg/24 h vs. 40 mg/24 h. Thirty days after chemotherapy we observed a significant difference in azotemia of 0.0 mg/dl vs. 3.8 mg/dl (p<0.001), serum uric acid of 0.05 mg/dl vs. 0.49 mg/dl (p<0.001), urinary uric acid (p<0.001) of 23 mg/24 h vs. 0.0 mg/24 h, GFR of 2 ml/min/1.73 m(2) vs. -8 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (p<0.05) and systolic BP (SBP) of 3.6 mmHg vs. 0.8 mmHg (p<0.05). The findings of the present study support the effective role of losartan compared to amlodipine in treating hypertension and hyperuricemia in elderly patients under chemotherapeutic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Circulating angiotensin II gains access to the hypothalamus and brain stem during hypertension via breakdown of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Biancardi, Vinicia Campana; Son, Sook Jin; Ahmadi, Sahra; Filosa, Jessica A; Stern, Javier E

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin II-mediated vascular brain inflammation emerged as a novel pathophysiological mechanism in neurogenic hypertension. However, the precise underlying mechanisms and functional consequences in relation to blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and central angiotensin II actions mediating neurohumoral activation in hypertension are poorly understood. Here, we aimed to determine whether BBB permeability within critical hypothalamic and brain stem regions involved in neurohumoral regulation was altered during hypertension. Using digital imaging quantification after intravascularly injected fluorescent dyes and immunohistochemistry, we found increased BBB permeability, along with altered key BBB protein constituents, in spontaneously hypertensive rats within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, and the rostral ventrolateral medulla, all critical brain regions known to contribute to neurohumoral activation during hypertension. BBB disruption, including increased permeability and downregulation of constituent proteins, was prevented in spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan, but not with hydralazine, a direct vasodilator. Importantly, we found circulating angiotensin II to extravasate into these brain regions, colocalizing with neurons and microglial cells. Taken together, our studies reveal a novel angiotensin II-mediated feed-forward mechanism during hypertension, by which circulating angiotensin II evokes increased BBB permeability, facilitating in turn its access to critical brain regions known to participate in blood pressure regulation.

  20. Losartan added to β-blockade therapy for aortic root dilation in Marfan syndrome: a randomized, open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsin-Hui; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Wang, Jou-Kou; Lu, Chun-Wei; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Chen, Chun-An; Lin, Ming-Tai; Hu, Fu-Chang

    2013-03-01

    To assess the tolerability and efficacy of the investigational use of the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan added to β-blockade (BB) to prevent progressive aortic root dilation in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Between May 1, 2007, and September 31, 2011, 28 patients with MFS (11 males [39%]; mean ± SD age, 13.1±6.3 years) with recognized aortic root dilation (z score >2.0) and receiving BB (atenolol or propranolol) treatment were enrolled. They were randomized to receive BB (BB: 13 patients) or β-blockade and losartan (BB-L: 15 patients) for 35 months. In the BB-L group, aortic root dilation was reduced with treatment, and the annual dilation rate of the aortic root was significantly lower than that of the BB group (0.10 mm/yr vs 0.89 mm/yr; P=.02). The absolute aortic diameters at the sinus of Valsalva, annulus, and sinotubular junction showed similar trends, with a reduced rate of dilation in the BB-L group (P=.02, P=.03, and P=.03, respectively). Five patients (33%) treated with BB-L were noted to have a reduced aortic root diameter. However, the differences between the groups regarding changes in aortic stiffness and cross-sectional compliance were not statistically significant. This randomized, open-label, active controlled trial mostly based on a pediatric population demonstrated for the first time that losartan add-on BB therapy is safe and provides more effective protection to slow the progression of aortic root dilation than does BB treatment alone in patients with MFS. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00651235. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Angiotensin II activates collagen type I gene in the renal vasculature of transgenic mice during inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis: evidence for an endothelin-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Boffa, J J; Tharaux, P L; Placier, S; Ardaillou, R; Dussaule, J C; Chatziantoniou, C

    1999-11-02

    Hypertension is frequently associated with renal vascular fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether angiotensin II (Ang II) is involved in this fibrogenic process. Experiments were performed on transgenic mice harboring the luciferase gene under the control of the collagen I-alpha(2) chain promoter [procolalpha(2)(I)]. Hypertension was induced by chronic inhibition of NO synthesis (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME). Procolalpha(2)(I) activity started to increase in the renal vasculature after 4 weeks of L-NAME treatment (P<0.01) and at 14 weeks reached 3- and 8-fold increases over control in afferent arterioles and glomeruli, respectively (P<0.001). Losartan, an AT(1) receptor antagonist, given simultaneously with L-NAME prevented the increase of procolalpha(2)(I) levels and attenuated the development of renal vascular fibrosis without normalizing systolic pressure increase. Because we found previously that endothelin mediated renal vascular fibrosis in the L-NAME model, the interaction between Ang II, endothelin, and procolalpha(2)(I) was investigated in ex vivo and short-term in vivo experiments. In both conditions, the Ang II-induced activation of procolalpha(2)(I) in renal cortex was blocked by an endothelin receptor antagonist. During chronic inhibition of NO, the collagen I gene becomes activated, leading to the development of renal vascular fibrosis. Ang II is a major player in this fibrogenic process, and its effect on collagen I gene is independent of systemic hemodynamics and is at least partly mediated by the profibrogenic action of endothelin.

  2. [Effectiveness and safety of losartan and its combination with amlodipine in therapy of arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Boitsov, S A; Bazaeva, E V; Luk'ianov, M M; Drapkina, O M; Panov, A V; Terent'ev, B P; Tiurin, V P; Shchukina, G N

    2013-01-01

    To estimate effectiveness and safety of losartan and its combination with amlodipine in therapy of arterial hypertension. The study based at 6 clinical centres was conducted in two stages. All 160 patients with grade I-II AH (103 women and 57 men aged 54 ± 12 yr) participated in stage 1 of the study and patients of centre No 1 (n = 100) in stage 2. Losartan was used at a dose of 50-100 mg/24 h for 8 weeks (stage 1) and thereafter from week 9 to 26 (stage 2) in combination with amlodipine (5-10 mg/24 hr) if the desired AP level (< 140/90 mmHg) was not achieved. The following parameters were measured: systolic and diastolic AP (SAP and DAP) (office measurement and 24-hr monitoring), pulse wave propagation rate (PWPR), left ventricle mass index (LVMI), thickness of intima-media complex (IMT), blood biochemistry, tolerability of therapy and its side effects. Losartan alone decreased SAP and DAP from 150 ± 11/91 ± 7 to 132 ± 12/81 ± 8 mm Hg (office measurement) and from 144 ± 10/86 ± 9 to 128 ± 12/76 ± 10 mm Hg (24-hr monitoring); heart rate decreased fom 74 ± 8 to 70 ± 8/min (p < 0.05). SAP and DAP in 66 patients who completed stage 2 was 122 ± 6/73 ± 6 mm Hg or significantly lower than before therapy (147 ± 9/87 ± 9) (p < 0.001). Mean daily decrease of SAP and DAP according to 24-hr monitoring decreased from 144 ± 10 to 128 ± 12 and from 86 ± 9 to 76 ± 10 mm Hg respectively (p < 0.001). The target AP value was reached in 73% of the cases (99 out of 136 patients) after stage 1 and in 95% cases (63 out of 66) after stage 2. The values of LVMI (105 ± 23 and 98 ± 26 g/m2), PWPR from 16 ± 2.1 to 13 ± 3.5 m/s (p < 0.05), IMT (0.76 ± 0.16 and 0.80 ± 42 mm), and microalbuminuria (11.0 ± 1.7 and 8.6 ± 0.7 mg/24 hr) before and after completion of stage 2 were not significantly different in 66 patients (p > 0.05). Biochemical parameters of blood did not appreciably change. The safety profiles of both drugs were on the whole positive. Deaths and adverse

  3. Role of Mas receptor antagonist (A779) in renal hemodynamics in condition of blocked angiotensin II receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, A; Oryan, S; Nematbakhsh, M

    2016-03-01

    The vasodilatory effect of angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) is exerted in the vascular bed via Mas receptor (MasR) gender dependently. However, the crosstalk between MasR and angiotensin II (Ang II) types 1 and 2 receptors (AT1R and AT2R) may change some actions of Ang 1-7 in renal circulation. In this study by blocking AT1R and AT2R, the role of MasR in kidney hemodynamics was described. In anaesthetized male and female Wistar rats, the effects of saline as vehicle and MasR blockade (A779) were tested on mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal perfusion pressure (RPP), renal blood flow (RBF), and renal vascular resistance (RVR) when both AT1R and AT2R were blocked by losartan and PD123319, respectively. In male rats, when AT1R and AT2R were blocked, there was a tendency for the increase in RBF/wet kidney tissue weight (RBF/KW) to be elevated by A779 as compared with the vehicle (P=0.08), and this was not the case in female rats. The impact of MasR on renal hemodynamics appears not to be sexual dimorphism either when Ang II receptors were blocked. It seems that co-blockade of all AT1R, AT2R, and MasR may alter RBF/ KW in male more than in female rats. These findings support a crosstalk between MasR and Ang II receptors in renal circulation.

  4. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Signaling Inhibitors-Losartan, Enalapril, and Cardosten-Prevent Infarction-induced Heart Failure Development in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Krisztina; Fekete, Veronika; Pálóczi, János; Sárközy, Márta; Murlasits, Zsolt; Pipis, Judit; Kheyfets, Irina A; Dugina, Julia L; Sergeeva, Svetlana A; Epstein, Oleg I; Csonka, Csaba; Csont, Tamás; Ferdinandy, Péter; Bencsik, Péter

    2016-01-01

    The activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure, which is the reason that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin 2 receptor blockers (ARBs) have become established therapies for heart failure. However, it is still not known whether preventive treatment with losartan or enalapril can reduce symptoms of infarction-induced heart failure. Ultra-low dose (ULD) drug therapy is thought to exert specific activity, with a lower chance of side effects. OBJECTIVES • The research team had hypothesized that preventive treatment with inhibitors of RAAS signaling-losartan, enalapril, and a preparation of a ULD antibody (ie, cardosten), which target the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor-might alleviate pathological hypertrophy and/or functional decline in infarction-induced heart failure. The research team treated male Wistar rats orally for 30 d with 20 mg/kg of losartan, 10 mg/kg enalapril, 5 or 7.5 mL/kg of cardosten, or a control solution, started 1 d prior to permanent coronary occlusion. A sham-operated group functioned as a second control group. The study was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Szeged in Szeged, Hungary, in cooperation with the Pharmahungary Group, also in Szeged, Hungary, and with OOO "NPF" Materia Medica Holding Ltd in Moscow, Russia. To determine cardiac functional parameters in vivo, the research team inserted a catheter into the left ventricle of the rats and measured the parameters of ventricular pressure, and cardiac output was determined by thermodilution. Morphological parameters were measured after heart isolation in transverse sections by a digital caliper. A total of 30 d after permanent coronary ligation, both losartan and enalapril, significantly decreased mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), attenuated the development of the left-ventricular anterior-wall and septum

  5. Comparison of the transplacental transfer of enalapril, captopril and losartan in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, K M; Gibson, K J; Lumbers, E R

    1995-01-01

    1. The transplacental transfers of three drugs (enalapril, captopril and losartan) which block the renin angiotensin system and have different lipophilicities were studied in chronically catheterized foetal sheep (125-139 days gestation). 2. The ability of the foeto-placental unit to convert enalapril to enalaprilat was studied in two chronically catheterized foetuses. Enalapril (3 mg kg-1, 7.9 mumol kg-1) given i.v. to the foetuses abolished the foetal pressor response to 5 micrograms angiotensin I (AI) in one foetus and attenuated the pressor response in the other. 3. Enalapril (100 mg, 5.7 mumol kg-1) given i.v. to the ewe (n = 5) abolished the maternal pressor response to 2.5 micrograms AI (n = 1) and attenuated the maternal pressor response to 5 micrograms AI (n = 5, P < 0.001). The foetal pressor response to 5 micrograms AI (n = 2) and 10 micrograms AI (n = 3) did not change. The maternal and foetal pressor responses to angiotensin II (AII; n = 5) did not change. 4. Foetal pressor responses to 5 micrograms AI (n = 1) and 10 micrograms AI (n = 2) were attenuated within 11 min of their mothers (n = 3) being given i.v. captopril (15 mg, 1.5 mumol kg-1). Foetal pressor responses to 5 micrograms AII (n = 1) and to 10 micrograms AII (n = 2) did not change. 5. Losartan (100 mg, kg-1, 21.7 mumol kg-1) given i.v. to the foetus (n = 9) attenuated the foetal pressor response to 5 micrograms AII (P < 0.001) but the maternal pressor response to 5 micrograms AII did not change.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7606354

  6. Suppression for lung metastasis by depletion of collagen I and lysyl oxidase via losartan assisted with paclitaxel-loaded pH-sensitive liposomes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Yang; Xia, Tai; Yu, Qianwen; Zhang, Qianyu; Yang, Yuting; Cun, Xingli; Lu, Libao; Gao, Huile; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

    2016-10-01

    Tumor metastasis would seriously impair the efficacy of chemotherapy. Our previous studies showed losartan combined with paclitaxel-loaded pH-sensitive cleavable liposomes (PTX-Cl-Lip) facilitated paclitaxel accumulation and led to enhanced antitumor efficacy in 4T1 bearing mice. Since losartan could inhibit the level of collagen I which was related to tumor metastasis, this strategy was further applied to suppress tumor metastasis this time. Our in vivo anti-metastatic study manifested losartan could lower the colonies occupied in lungs by 76.4% compared with that of saline group. When losartan and PTX-Cl-Lip were combined, anti-metastatic efficiency reached to 88.2%, which was the best among all the groups. In vitro 3D tumor spheroids studies proved losartan could significantly suppress the invasion of tumor cells. Losartan plus PTX-Cl-Lip could further weaken the metastasis of tumor cells. Mechanism study showed the declination of collagen I level via losartan was caused by inhibition of active transforming growth factor-β1. Western-blot study showed losartan could decrease the level of lysyl oxidase, then inhibit the cross-linking of collagen I, finally weakened the cell signaling transmit via integrin and the metastasis of tumor cells was restrained. All above studies illustrated this combined tactic could achieve favorable effect on suppression of lung tumor metastasis.

  7. The angiotensin receptor blocker losartan reduces coronary arteriole remodeling in type 2 diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Husarek, Kathryn E.; Katz, Paige S.; Trask, Aaron J.; Galantowicz, Maarten L.; Cismowski, Mary J.; Lucchesi, Pamela A.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and are associated with alterations of blood vessel structure and function. Although endothelial dysfunction and aortic stiffness have been documented, little is known about the effects of T2DM on coronary microvascular structural remodeling. The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system plays an important role in large artery stiffness and mesenteric vessel remodeling in hypertension and T2DM. The goal of this study was to determine whether the blockade of AT1R signaling dictates vascular smooth muscle growth that partially underlies coronary arteriole remodeling in T2DM. Control and db/db mice were given AT1R blocker losartan via drinking water for 4 weeks. Using pressure myography, we found that coronary arterioles from 16-week db/db mice undergo inward hypertrophic remodeling due to increased wall thickness and wall-to-lumen ratio with a decreased lumen diameter. This remodeling was accompanied by decreased elastic modulus (decreased stiffness). Losartan treatment decreased wall thickness, wall-to-lumen ratio, and coronary arteriole cell number in db/db mice. Losartan treatment did not affect incremental elastic modulus. However, losartan improved coronary flow reserve. Our data suggest that Ang II–AT1R signaling mediates, at least in part, coronary arteriole inward hypertrophic remodeling in T2DM without affecting vascular mechanics, further suggesting that targeting the coronary microvasculature in T2DM may help reduce cardiac ischemic events. PMID:26133668

  8. Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Losartan Inhibits Spontaneous Motility of Isolated Human Ureter.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Slobodan M; Stojadinovic, Dobrivoje; Stojadinovic, Miroslav; Jankovic, Snezana V; Djuric, Janko M; Stojic, Isidora; Kostic, Marina

    2016-12-01

    Ureteral motility is essential for elimination of intraluminal stones, and it may be adversely affected by cardiovascular drugs that a patient is taking chronically. The aim of our study was to test whether ACE inhibitors and an angiotensin receptor blocker may influence spontaneous contractions of isolated human ureter. Both phasic and tonic contractions of the isolated ureteral segments taken from 10 patients were measured as changes of the longitudinal tension or pressure recordings. Captopril, enalapril and losartan were separately added to the organ baths cumulatively. While enalapril (2.7 × 10 -7 -3.9 × 10 -4  M) and captopril (6.1 × 10 -7 -2.7 × 10 -3  M) did not affect either spontaneous activity or tone of isolated ureteral segments, losartan (2.9 × 10 -7 -4.2 × 10 -4  M) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous contractions of the segments (50 % effective concentration (EC 50 ) = 13.46 ± 1.80 × 10 -6  M; F = 10.72, r = 0.79, p < 0.001). Due to differences in molecular mechanism of action, angiotensin receptor blocker losartan does and ACE inhibitors captopril and enalapril do not inhibit spontaneous contractions of isolated human ureter.

  9. Cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic processes coupled by myosin II in dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Chabaud, Mélanie; Heuzé, Mélina L.; Bretou, Marine; Vargas, Pablo; Maiuri, Paolo; Solanes, Paola; Maurin, Mathieu; Terriac, Emmanuel; Le Berre, Maël; Lankar, Danielle; Piolot, Tristan; Adelstein, Robert S.; Zhang, Yingfan; Sixt, Michael; Jacobelli, Jordan; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël; Piel, Matthieu; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    The immune response relies on the migration of leukocytes and on their ability to stop in precise anatomical locations to fulfil their task. How leukocyte migration and function are coordinated is unknown. Here we show that in immature dendritic cells, which patrol their environment by engulfing extracellular material, cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic. This antagonism results from transient enrichment of myosin IIA at the cell front, which disrupts the back-to-front gradient of the motor protein, slowing down locomotion but promoting antigen capture. We further highlight that myosin IIA enrichment at the cell front requires the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii). Thus, by controlling myosin IIA localization, Ii imposes on dendritic cells an intermittent antigen capture behaviour that might facilitate environment patrolling. We propose that the requirement for myosin II in both cell migration and specific cell functions may provide a general mechanism for their coordination in time and space. PMID:26109323

  10. The Role of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 Genotypes in Losartan-Dependent Inhibition of Paclitaxel Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Yuji; Senda, Asuna; Toda, Takaki; Eliasson, Erik; Rane, Anders; Inotsume, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to further investigate a previously identified metabolic interaction between losartan and paclitaxel, which is one of the marker substrates of CYP2C8, by using human liver microsomes (HLMs) from donors with different CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genotypes. Although CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 exhibit genetic linkage, previous studies have yet to determine whether losartan or its active metabolite, EXP-3174 which is specifically generated by CYP2C9, is responsible for CYP2C8 inhibition. Concentrations of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel and EXP-3174 were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after incubations with paclitaxel, losartan or EXP-3174 in HLMs from seven donors with different CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genotypes. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values were not fully dependent on CYP2C8 genotypes. Although the degree of inhibition was small, losartan significantly inhibited the production of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel at a concentration of 1 μmol/L in only HL20 with the CYP2C8*3/*3 genotype. HLMs with either CYP2C9*2/*2 or CYP2C9*1/*3 exhibited a lower losartan intrinsic clearance (Vmax /Km ) than other HLMs including those with CYP2C9*1/*1 and CYP2C9*1/*2. Significant inhibition of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel formation by EXP-3174 could only be found at levels that were 50 times higher (100 μmol/L) than the maximum concentration generated in the inhibition study using losartan. These results suggest that the metabolic interaction between losartan and paclitaxel is dependent on losartan itself rather than its metabolite and that the CYP2C8 inhibition by losartan is not affected by the CYP2C9 genotype. Further study is needed to define the effect of CYP2C8 genotypes on losartan-paclitaxel interaction. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  11. A 52-week prospective, cohort study of the effects of losartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Racine, N; Hamet, P; Sampalis, J S; Longo, N; Bastien, N

    2010-11-01

    The impact of an ARB, with or without hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), on glycaemic factors and the risk for developing diabetes in hypertensive patients with the metabolic syndrome have not been fully assessed. This was a 52-week multicentre, prospective, phase-IV, open-label, cohort study of losartan or losartan/HCTZ in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome. All subjects were treated initially with losartan 50 mg day(-1). Those not achieving target blood pressure (BP <140/90 mm Hg) were titrated sequentially to losartan 100 mg, losartan 100 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg, losartan 100 mg/HCTZ 25 mg and finally to losartan 100 mg/HCTZ 25 mg and calcium-channel blocker (CCB), as required. The primary glycaemic outcome measure was change in fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at 52 weeks of treatment. Among the 1897 potentially eligible patients enrolled in the study, 1714 fulfilled the screening criteria. During the 52-week treatment period of the study, FBG and HbA1c did not change significantly. Clinically important and statistically significant changes were observed for both the systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) during the study treatment period, with an overall mean decrease of 16.95 mm Hg in SBP (P=0.001) and 9.84 mm Hg in DBP (P=0.001). The majority of the patients (77.3%) achieved a target BP of <140/90 mm Hg. In conclusion, losartan, either alone or in combination with HCTZ, is effective in managing hypertension without inducing any change in glycaemic parameters or increasing the risk for developing diabetes in hypertensive patients with the metabolic syndrome.

  12. Efficacy of losartan and carvedilol on central hemodynamics in hypertensives: a prospective, randomized, open, blinded end point, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eung Ju; Song, Woo-Hyuk; Lee, Jae Ung; Shin, Mi-Seung; Lee, Sahng; Kim, Byeong-Ok; Hong, Kyeong-Sun; Han, Seong Woo; Park, Chang Gyu; Seo, Hong Seog

    2014-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers have shown clinical outcomes superior to those of the beta (β)-blocker atenolol, despite similar reductions in the peripheral blood pressure (BP), perhaps because of different impacts on central hemodynamics. However, few comparative studies of RAS blockers and newer vasodilating β-blockers have been performed. We compared the central hemodynamic effects of losartan and carvedilol in a prospective, randomized, open, blinded end point study. Of the 201 hypertensive patients enrolled, 182 (49.6±9.9 years, losartan group=88 and carvedilol group=94) were analyzed. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), aortic augmentation index (AIx), AIx corrected for a heart rate (HR) of 75 beats per minute (AIx@HR75) and central BP were measured noninvasively at baseline and after a 24-week treatment regimen with losartan or carvedilol. After 24 weeks, there were no between-group differences in the brachial BP, cfPWV, AIx@HR75 or central BP changes, except for a more favorable AIx effect with losartan. The changes in all measured metabolic and inflammatory parameters were also not significantly different between the two groups, except for uric acid. Losartan and carvedilol showed generally comparable effects on central hemodynamic indices, metabolic profile, inflammatory parameters and peripheral arterial pressure with a 24-week treatment.

  13. Modifying prescribing behaviour of angiotensin receptor blockers by selectively rescinding managerial prior authorization requirements for losartan.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Natan R; Chinitz, David P; Blackman, Shimon; Waitman, Dan-Andrei; Vardy, Daniel A

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate whether rescinding the prior authorization (PA) requirement (managerial pre-approval) for losartan in an health maintenance organization (HMO) could reduce prescribing of the more expensive angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). HMO physicians were notified that losartan would no longer require PA, and appropriate changes were made to the electronic prescribing computer program. The monthly distribution by drug of the number of prescriptions for ARBs dispensed for new patients was calculated before and after the policy change from data captured from electronic records. The proportion of patients (percentage and 95% confidence interval) treated with losartan who met the criteria for treatment with ARBs (hypertension or cardiac insufficiency in patients who have developed adverse effects in response to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or macroproteinuria) during the first month after the PA requirement was rescinded was calculated. The total number of PA requests for ARBs declined by 48.6% from 961 in December 2008, the month before the policy change, to 494 the following January, rising again to 651 during January 2010. Prescription incidence changed from 121 to 255 patients treated per month (114% increase) for losartan, from 15 to 16 (6.7% increase) for candesartan, and from 89 to 71 (20.2% decrease) for valsartan. The duration of effect for decrease in ARB requests for the more expensive drugs was approximately 1 year. Only 23.3% (95% confidence interval 18.1-28.4) of patients receiving losartan met the criteria for receiving ARBs. Rescinding the PA requirement for this drug alone was an effective limited-duration strategy for reduction of prescription of relatively expensive drugs. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. The anteroventral third ventricle region is critical for the behavioral desensitization caused by repeated injections of angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Vento, Peter J.; Daniels, Derek

    2013-01-01

    A single central injection of angiotensin II (AngII) potently increases water intake; however, a growing body of research suggests that repeated, acute intracerebroventricular injections of AngII cause a reduction in the dipsogenic response to subsequent AngII. This AngII-induced behavioral desensitization is specific to the effects of angiotensin and mediated by the angiotensin type-1 (AT1) receptor. The neuroanatomical substrate for this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. The anteroventral third ventricle region (AV3V) is an important site for the behavioral and physiological actions of AngII. Therefore, we hypothesized that this region also mediates the effects of repeated central AngII administration. In support of this hypothesis, we found that repeated injections of AngII into the AV3V reduced water intake stimulated by a test injection of AngII given into this region. Moreover, repeated AngII injections in the AV3V reduced water intake after AngII was injected into the lateral ventricle. These studies also demonstrate that activation of the AT1 receptor within the AV3V is required for AngII-induced behavioral desensitization because direct injection of the AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, into the AV3V blocked the desensitizing effect of repeated AngII injections into the lateral ventricle. These findings provide additional support for a role of the AV3V in the dipsogenic actions of AngII, and suggest that this region is critical for the desensitization that occurs after acute repeated central injections of AngII. PMID:24144549

  15. Perinatally administered losartan augments renal ACE2 expression but not cardiac or renal Mas receptor in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Klimas, Jan; Olvedy, Michael; Ochodnicka-Mackovicova, Katarina; Kruzliak, Peter; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Krenek, Peter; Ochodnicky, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Since the identification of the alternative angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a new complex target for a pharmacological intervention. We investigated the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney during the development of hypertension and its perinatal treatment with losartan in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Expressions of RAS genes were studied by the RT-PCR in the left ventricle and kidney of rats: normotensive Wistar, untreated SHR, SHR treated with losartan since perinatal period until week 9 of age (20 mg/kg/day) and SHR treated with losartan only until week 4 of age and discontinued until week 9. In the hypertrophied left ventricle of SHR, cardiac expressions of Ace and Mas were decreased while those of AT1 receptor (Agtr1a) and Ace2 were unchanged. Continuous losartan administration reduced LV weight (0.43 ± 0.02; P < 0.05 versus SHR) but did not influence altered cardiac RAS expression. Increased blood pressure in SHR (149 ± 2 in SHR versus 109 ± 2 mmHg in Wistar; P < 0.05) was associated with a lower renal expressions of renin, Agtr1a and Mas and with an increase in ACE2. Continuous losartan administration lowered blood pressure to control levels (105 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05 versus SHR), however, only renal renin and ACE2 were significantly up-regulated (for both P < 0.05 versus SHR). Conclusively, prevention of hypertension and LV hypertrophy development by losartan was unrelated to cardiac or renal expression of Mas. Increased renal Ace2, and its further increase by losartan suggests the influence of locally generated Ang-(1-7) in organ response to the developing hypertension in SHRs. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  16. Mitigating effects of captopril and losartan on lung histopathology in a rat model of fat embolism.

    PubMed

    McIff, Terence E; Poisner, Alan M; Herndon, Betty; Lankachandra, Kamani; Molteni, Agostino; Adler, Federico

    2011-05-01

    Fat embolization (FE) is an often overlooked and poorly understood complication of skeletal trauma and some orthopedic procedures. Fat embolism can lead to major pulmonary damage associated with fat embolism syndrome (FES). A model of FE in unanesthetized rats, using intravenous injection of the neutral fat triolein, was used to study the potential therapeutic effect on lung histopathology of altering the production of, or response to, endogenous angiotensin (Ang) II. Either captopril, an Ang I converting enzyme inhibitor, or losartan, an Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, was injected 1 hour after FE by triolein injection. After euthanasia at 48 hours, histopathologic evaluation was used to compare the drug-treated animals with control animals that received only triolein. Histology of the lungs of rats treated only with triolein revealed severe, diffuse pathology. Alveolar septa showed severe, diffuse inflammation. Bronchial lumina showed severe mucosal epithelial loss. The media of the pulmonary small arteries and arterioles was thicker, and the lumen patency was reduced 60% to 70%. Trichrome staining confirmed the abundant presence of collagen in the media and adventitia, as well as collagen infiltrating the bronchial musculature. Both captopril and losartan treatments reduced the inflammatory, vasoconstrictor, and profibrotic effects present at 48 hours (p<0.001). With treatment, the vascular lumen remained patent, and the fat droplets were reduced in size and number. There was a reduction in the number of infiltrating leukocytes, macrophages, myofibroblasts, and eosinophils, along with a significant decrease in hemorrhage and collagen deposition (p<0.001). Pathologic changes in bronchial epithelium were also diminished. The results suggest that the use of drugs that act on the renin-Ang system might provide an effective and targeted therapy for fat embolism syndrome.

  17. Antidepressant-like effects of scopolamine in mice are enhanced by the group II mGlu receptor antagonist LY341495.

    PubMed

    Podkowa, Karolina; Podkowa, Adrian; Sałat, Kinga; Lenda, Tomasz; Pilc, Andrzej; Pałucha-Poniewiera, Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Clinical studies have shown that the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine induces a potent and rapid antidepressant effect relative to conventional antidepressants. However, potential undesirable effects, including memory impairment, partially limit the use of scopolamine in psychiatry. In the present study, we propose to overcome these limitations and enhance the therapeutic effects of scopolamine via administration in combination with the group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor antagonist, LY341495. Joint administration of sub-effective doses of scopolamine (0.03 or 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) with a sub-effective dose of LY341495 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) induced a profound antidepressant effect in the tail suspension test (TST) and in the forced swim test (FST) in mice. This drug combination did not impair memory, as measured using the Morris water maze (MWM), and did not influence the locomotor activity of mice. Furthermore, we found that an AMPA receptor antagonist, NBQX (10 mg/kg), completely reversed the antidepressant-like activity of a mixture of scopolamine and LY341495 in the TST. However, this effect was not influenced by para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) pre-treatment, indicating a lack of involvement of serotonergic system activation in the antidepressant-like effects of jointly given scopolamine and LY341495. Therefore, the combined administration of low doses of the antimuscarinic drug scopolamine and the group II mGlu receptor antagonist LY341495 might be a new, effective and safe strategy in the therapy of depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Arabidopsis Class I and Class II TCP Transcription Factors Regulate Jasmonic Acid Metabolism and Leaf Development Antagonistically1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Danisman, Selahattin; van der Wal, Froukje; Dhondt, Stijn; Waites, Richard; de Folter, Stefan; Bimbo, Andrea; van Dijk, Aalt DJ; Muino, Jose M.; Cutri, Lucas; Dornelas, Marcelo C.; Angenent, Gerco C.; Immink, Richard G.H.

    2012-01-01

    TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors control developmental processes in plants. The 24 TCP transcription factors encoded in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome are divided into two classes, class I and class II TCPs, which are proposed to act antagonistically. We performed a detailed phenotypic analysis of the class I tcp20 mutant, showing an increase in leaf pavement cell sizes in 10-d-old seedlings. Subsequently, a glucocorticoid receptor induction assay was performed, aiming to identify potential target genes of the TCP20 protein during leaf development. The LIPOXYGENASE2 (LOX2) and class I TCP9 genes were identified as TCP20 targets, and binding of TCP20 to their regulatory sequences could be confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. LOX2 encodes for a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, which is also targeted by class II TCP proteins that are under the control of the microRNA JAGGED AND WAVY (JAW), although in an antagonistic manner. Mutation of TCP9, the second identified TCP20 target, resulted in increased pavement cell sizes during early leaf developmental stages. Analysis of senescence in the single tcp9 and tcp20 mutants and the tcp9tcp20 double mutants showed an earlier onset of this process in comparison with wild-type control plants in the double mutant only. Both the cell size and senescence phenotypes are opposite to the known class II TCP mutant phenotype in JAW plants. Altogether, these results point to an antagonistic function of class I and class II TCP proteins in the control of leaf development via the jasmonate signaling pathway. PMID:22718775

  19. Valsartan addition to amlodipine is more effective than losartan addition in hypertensive patients inadequately controlled by amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Fogari, Roberto; Mugellini, Amedeo; Preti, Paola; Zoppi, Annalisa; Derosa, Giuseppe

    2010-03-03

    This study evaluated the effects on blood pressure (BP) of valsartan 160 mg or losartan 100 mg addition to amlodipine 5 mg in hypertensive patients. 221 patients with inadequately controlled BP (DBP >or= 90 mmHg) after 4 weeks of treatment with amlodipine 5 mg were randomized to receive losartan/amlodipine combination therapy or valsartan/amlodipine combination therapy for 4 weeks in a cross-over study design. At the end of the wash-out period and of each treatment period, clinic and ambulatory BP measurements were recorded. 166 patients completed the study. Both combination treatments induced a greater ambulatory BP reduction than did monotherapy. However, the further mean reductions in BP versus monotherapy were significantly greater with the valsartan/amlodipine combination (SBP/DBP: -7.9 +/- 3.4/-6.5 +/- 2.6 mmHg for 24-hour, -8.0 +/- 3.4/-6.6 +/- 2.7 mmHg for daytime; -7.7 +/- 3.3/-6.4 +/- 2.7 mmHg for nighttime) than with the losartan/amlodipine combination (SBP/DBP: -5.5 +/- 2.8/-4.2 +/- 2.1 mmHg for 24-hour, -5.7 +/- 2.9/-4.4 +/- 2.2 mmHg for daytime; -4.8 +/- 2.8/-3.7 +/- 2.2 mmHg for nighttime; P < 0.01 vs valsartan/amlodipine). The incidence of adverse events with valsartan/amlodipine (8%) and losartan/amlodipine (9%) was lower than that observed with amlodipine monotherapy (17%; P < 0.05 vs combinations). Valsartan 160 mg plus amlodipine 5 mg produced greater BP reductions than losartan 100 mg plus amlodipine 5 mg.

  20. Angiotensin-II receptor 1 antagonist fetopathy--risk assessment, critical time period and vena cava thrombosis as a possible new feature.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Marc; Padberg, Stephanie; Kayser, Angela; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Schaefer, Christof

    2013-03-01

    Angiotensin-II receptor 1 antagonists (AT₁-antagonists) may cause severe and even lethal fetopathy in late pregnancy. However, exposure still occurs in spite of warnings in package leaflets. This study aimed to assess the risk of fetopathy, the sensitive time window, and possible new symptoms in prospective as well as retrospective cases with AT₁-antagonist treatment during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. Patients were enrolled by the Berlin Institute for Clinical Teratology and Drug Risk Assessment in Pregnancy between 1999 and 2011 through risk consultation. Symptoms defined as indicative of AT₁-antagonist fetopathy were: oligo-/anhydramnios, renal insufficiency, lung hypoplasia, joint contractures, skull hypoplasia and fetal/neonatal death. In 5/29 (17%) prospectively enrolled cases with AT₁-antagonist exposure beyond the first trimester oligo-/anhydramnios was diagnosed. Two infants showed additional symptoms of fetopathy. The risk is more than 30% if treatment continues beyond the 20th week of pregnancy. Oligo-/anhydramnios was reversible after AT₁-antagonist withdrawal. Among 16 retrospective case reports, three infants presented with a thrombosis of the inferior vena cava in the vicinity of the renal veins. Four out of 13 live births did not survive. Our survey suggests that the risk increases with duration of AT₁-antagonist treatment into late pregnancy and oligo-/anhydramnios may be reversible after AT₁-antagonist discontinuation. Thrombosis of inferior vena cava may be a new feature of AT₁-antagonist fetopathy. AT₁-antagonist medication during pregnancy constitutes a considerable risk and must be discontinued immediately. In case of indicative diagnostic findings in either the fetus or newborn, previous maternal AT₁-antagonist exposure should be considered. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. The value of losartan suppression test in the confirmatory diagnosis of primary aldosteronism in patients over 50 years old.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chin-Chi; Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Hsein, Yenh-Chen; Wu, Vin-Cent; Chueh, Shih-Chieh Jeff; Chen, Yung-Ming; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Wang, Ming-Jiuh

    2015-09-01

    The diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) among the older-aged population has posed a crucial challenge. Among patients over 50 years old, this trial assessed comparability of the performance of two PA diagnostic tests: losartan and captopril suppression tests. A post-hoc subgroup analysis from a prospective cohort was conducted by the TAIPAI (Taiwan Primary Aldosteronism Investigation) group between July 2003 and July 2006. Of the 160 patients in the cohort, 60 patients over 50 years old received captopril and losartan tests to confirm PA. Among the 60 patients over 50 years old, 31 patients had PA confirmed by standardized protocol. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve for post-captopril aldosterone was significantly less than that for post-losartan plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) (0.87 vs 0.94, p=0.02). Using the aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR)>35 with PAC>10 ng/dl, the specificity was 82.76% vs 93.1% and the sensitivity was 77.42% vs 87.10% for the captopril and losartan tests, respectively. The equivalence between the two tests were confirmed by the exact McNemar's test (p=1.0). The losartan test showed comparable accuracy to confirm PA. Verification of this "elderly-friendly" confirmatory test will be the first step to prepare a specific diagnostic model of PA for the older-aged population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The Value of Losartan Suppression Test in the Confirmatory Diagnosis of Primary Aldosteronism in Patients Over 50 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chin-Chi; Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Hsein, Yenh-Chen; Wu, Vin-Cent; Chueh, Shih-Chieh Jeff; Chen, Yung-Ming; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Wang, Ming-Jiuh

    2013-01-01

    Objective The diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) among the older-aged population has posed a crucial challenge. Among patients over 50 years old, this trial assessed comparability of the performance of two PA diagnostic tests: losartan and captoril suppression tests. Methods A post-hoc subgroup analysis from a prospective cohort was conducted by TAIPAI (Taiwan Primary Aldosteornism Investigation) group between July 2003 and July 2006. Of the 160 patients in the cohort, 60 patients over 50 years received captopril and losartan tests to confirm PA. Results Among the 60 patients over 50 years old, 31 patients had PA confirmed by standardized protocol. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the post-captopril aldosterone was significantly less than that of the post-losartan plasma aldosterone concentration (0.87 vs. 0.94, p = 0.02). Using ARR>35 with PAC>10 ng/dL, the specificity was 82.76% vs. 93.1% and the sensitivity was 77.42% vs. 87.10% for the captopril and losartan tests, respectively. The equivalence between the two tests were confirmed by exact McNemar test (p= 1.0). Conclusion The losartan test showed comparable accuracy to confirm PA. Verification of this “elderly-friendly” confirmatory test will be the first step to prepare the specific diagnostic model of PA for older-aged population. PMID:25031295

  3. [Postmarketing study of efficacy and safety of losartan during the treatment of patients with mild and moderate hypertension: LOTAR (corrected) study].

    PubMed

    Vasilijević, Zorana; Dimković, Nada; Lazarević, Katarina; Burmazović, Snežana; Krstić, Nebojša; Milanović, Sladjan; Zorić, Svetlana; Micić, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Losartan, the angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) exercises its main antihypertensive effect by vasodilatation of peripheral arteries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihypertensive effect and safety of losartan in patients with mild and moderate arterial hypertension (AH). This was an open post-marketing study with losartan as monotherapy in previously treated or untreated patients with AH. Primary efficacy parameter was the percentage of patients that achieved target blood pressure after 8-week treatment with a single daily dose of losartan of 50-100 mg. Safety parameters were assessed according to the percentage of adverse events and metabolic effects of therapy. The study included 550 patients with AH (59% female and 41% male), mean age 56.8 +/-11.4 years, BMI = 27 +/- 4 kg/m2. Losartan was applied in 31% of untreated and 69% of previously treatment-resistant patients After 8 weeks target blood pressure was achieved in 67.8% (SBP) and in 81.1% (DBP) of patients, respectively. The mean decrease was 21.8% for SBP and 21.1% for DBP (p < 0.001). Out of all, 65% of patients achieved both target SBP and DBP values. Hydrochlorothiazide was added to the therapy in 11.6% of patients. There were no significant differences in drug efficacy between the entire group and subgroups of patients with diabetes mellitus and impaired renal function (p = ns). Adverse events were rare and metabolic effect was favorable. Monotherapy with losartan in a dosage of 50-100 mg applied during 8 weeks resulted in achieving target values of blood pressure in 65% of patient with mild and moderate hypertension, also including the patients with diabetes mellitus and impaired renal function. Losartan is a safe and metabolically neutral medication.

  4. Angiotensin II stimulates basolateral 50-pS K channels in the thick ascending limb.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxiao; Luan, Haiyan; Wu, Peng; Fan, Lili; Wang, Lijun; Duan, Xinpeng; Zhang, Dandan; Wang, Wen-Hui; Gu, Ruimin

    2014-03-01

    We used the patch-clamp technique to examine the effect of angiotensin II (ANG II) on the basolateral K channels in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the rat kidney. Application of ANG II increased the channel activity and the current amplitude of the basolateral 50-pS K channel. The stimulatory effect of ANG II on the K channels was completely abolished by losartan, an inhibitor of type 1 angiotensin receptor (AT1R), but not by PD123319, an AT2R antagonist. Moreover, inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) also abrogated the stimulatory effect of ANG II on the basolateral K channels in the TAL. This suggests that the stimulatory effect of ANG II on the K channels was induced by activating PLC and PKC pathways. Western blotting demonstrated that ANG II increased the phosphorylation of c-Src at tyrosine residue 416, an indication of c-Src activation. This effect was mimicked by PKC stimulator but abolished by calphostin C. Moreover, inhibition of NADPH oxidase (NOX) also blocked the effect of ANG II on c-Src tyrosine phosphorylation. The role of Src-family protein tyrosine kinase (SFK) in mediating the effect of ANG II on the basolateral K channel was further suggested by the experiments in which inhibition of SFK abrogated the stimulatory effect of ANG II on the basolateral 50-pS K channel. We conclude that ANG II increases basolateral 50-pS K channel activity via AT1R and that activation of AT1R stimulates SFK by a PLC-PKC-NOX-dependent mechanism.

  5. Losartan prevents the imbalance between renal dopaminergic and renin angiotensin systems induced by fructose overload. L-dopa/dopamine index as new potential biomarker of renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mikusic, Natalia Lucía Rukavina; Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás Martín; Uceda, Ana; Del Mauro, Julieta Sofía; Pandolfo, Marcela; Gironacci, Mariela Mercedes; Puyó, Ana María; Toblli, Jorge Eduardo; Fernández, Belisario Enrique; Choi, Marcelo Roberto

    2018-05-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) and the renal dopaminergic system (RDS) act as autocrine and paracrine systems to regulate renal sodium management and inflammation and their alterations have been associated to hypertension and renal damage. Nearly 30-50% of hypertensive patients have insulin resistance (IR), with a strong correlation between hyperinsulinemia and microalbuminuria. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the existence of an imbalance between RAS and RDS associated to IR, hypertension and kidney damage induced by fructose overload (FO), as well as to establish their prevention, by pharmacological inhibition of RAS with losartan. Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups and studied at 4, 8 and 12 weeks: control group (C4, C8 and C12; tap water to drink); fructose-overloaded group (F4, F8 and F12; 10% w/v fructose solution to drink); losartan-treated control (L) group (L4, L8 and L12; losartan 30 mg/kg/day, in drinking water); and fructose-overloaded plus losartan group (F + L4, F + L8 and F + L12, in fructose solution). FO induced metabolic and hemodynamic alterations as well as an imbalance between RAS and RDS, characterized by increased renal angiotensin II levels and AT 1 R overexpression, reduced urinary excretion of dopamine, increased excretion of L-dopa (increased L-dopa/dopamine index) and down-regulation of D 1 R and tubular dopamine transporters OCT-2, OCT-N1 and total OCTNs. This imbalance was accompanied by an overexpression of renal tubular Na + , K + -ATPase, pro-inflammatory (NF-kB, TNF-α, IL-6) and pro-fibrotic (TGF-β1 and collagen) markers and by renal damage (microalbuminuria and reduced nephrin expression). Losartan prevented the metabolic and hemodynamic alterations induced by FO from week 4. Increased urinary L-dopa/dopamine index and decreased D 1 R renal expression associated to FO were also prevented by losartan since week 4. The same pattern was observed for renal

  6. Photosensitized degradation of losartan potassium in an extemporaneous suspension formulation.

    PubMed

    Seburg, Randal A; Ballard, John M; Hwang, Tsang-Lin; Sullivan, Caitlin M

    2006-10-11

    During development of an extemporaneous suspension formulation for losartan potassium, previously unknown degradation products were observed in experimental suspensions prepared in a commercial cherry syrup vehicle. These degradates increased rapidly when analytical solutions prepared from that suspension were exposed to ambient light. The structures of the degradates were determined using a combination of preparative HPLC, LC/MS, (13)C and (1)H NMR (1D and 2D), and mechanistic chemistry. Each degradate results from destruction of the imidazole ring of losartan. Formation of the two major degradates required exposure to light (UV or visible) and the presence of oxygen. Experiments using Rose Bengal (a singlet oxygen photosensitizer) and 1,4-diazabicyclooctane (DABCO; a singlet oxygen quencher) established that the major photodegradates are formed via the intermediacy of singlet oxygen. The identity of the photosensitizer in the formulation was not unequivocally determined; however, the experiments implicated the artificial flavoring in fulfilling this role.

  7. Barnidipine compared to lercanidipine in addition to losartan on endothelial damage and oxidative stress parameters in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Mugellini, Amedeo; Pesce, Rosa Maria; D'Angelo, Angela; Maffioli, Pamela

    2016-04-12

    Essential hypertension has been extensively reported to cause endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of barnidipine or lercanidipine, in addition to losartan, on some parameters indicative of endothelial damage and oxidative stress in hypertensive, type 2 diabetic patients. One hundred and fifty one patients were randomised to barnidipine, 20 mg/day, or lercanidipine, 20 mg/day, both in addition to losartan, 100 mg/day, for 6 months. We assessed BP every month, in addition, patients underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We also assessed: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), some markers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9), soluble vascular adhesion protein-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion protein-1 (sICAM-1), isoprostanes and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1). Both barnidipine and lercanidipine resulted in a significant reduction in blood pressure, even if the reduction obtained with barnidipine + losartan was greater than that obtained with lercanidipine + losartan. Data recorded with ABPM also showed a similar trend. Barnidipine + losartan reduced the levels of Hs-CRP, TNF-α, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, and isoprostanes both compared to baseline and to lercanidipine + losartan. Barnidipine + losartan gave an improvement of some parameters indicative of endothelial damage and oxidative stress in diabetic and hypertensive patients. NCT02064218 , ClinicalTrials.gov.

  8. Electrochemical degradation of the antihypertensive losartan in aqueous medium by electro-oxidation with boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Claudio; Contreras, Nicole; Mansilla, Héctor D; Yáñez, Jorge; Salazar, Ricardo

    2016-12-05

    In this work the electrochemical oxidation of losartan, an emerging pharmaceutical pollutant, was studied. Electrochemical oxidation was carried out in batch mode, in an open and undivided cell of 100cm(3) using a boron-doped diamond (BDD)/stainless steel system. With Cl(-) medium 56% of mineralization was registered, while with the trials containing SO4(2-) as supporting electrolyte a higher mineralization yield of 67% was reached, even obtaining a total removal of losartan potassium at 80mAcm(-2) and 180min of reaction time at pH 7.0. Higher losartan potassium concentrations enhanced the mineralization degree and the efficiency of the electrochemical oxidation process. During the mineralization up to 4 aromatic intermediates were identified by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Moreover, short-linear carboxylic acids, like oxalic, succinic and oxamic were detected and quantified by ion-exclusion HPLC. Finally, the ability of the electrochemical oxidation process to mineralize dissolved commercial tablets containing losartan was achieved, obtaining TOC removal up to 71% under optimized conditions (10mAcm(-2), 0.05M Na2SO4, pH 7.0 and 25°C and 360min of electrolysis). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of losartan potassium, quinapril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical preparations using derivative spectrophotometry and chromatographic-densitometric method.

    PubMed

    Stolarczyk, Mariusz; Maślanka, Anna; Apola, Anna; Krzek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Two methods, spectrophotometric and chromatographic-densitometric ones, were developed for determination of losartan potassium, quinapril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical preparations. Spectrophotometric method involved derivative spectrophotometry and zero order spectrophotometry. The measurements were carried out at lambda = 224.0 nm for quinapril, lambda = 261.0 nm for hydrochlorothiazide and lambda = 270.0 nm for losartan when the derivative spectrophotometry was applied and lambda = 317.0 nm when zero order spectrophotometry was applied for the determination of hydrochlorothiazide. In chromatographic-densitometric studies high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) plates were used as stationary phase and a mixture of solvents n-butanol : acetic acid : water (15 : 5 : 1, v/v/v) as mobile phase. Under the established conditions good resolution of examined constituents was obtained. Retardation factor for quinapril hydrochloride was R(f) - 0.70, for losartan potassium R(f) - 0.85 and for hydrochlorothiazide R(f) - 0.78. The developed methods are characterized by high sensitivity and accuracy. For quantitative analysis, densitometric measurements were carried out at lambda = 218.0 nm for quinapril, lambda = 275.0 nm for hydrochlorothiazide and = 232.0 nm for losartan.

  10. A retrospective Aliskiren and Losartan study in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Woo, Keng-Thye; Choong, Hui-Lin; Wong, Kok-Seng; Tan, Han-Kim; Foo, Marjorie; Stephanie, Fook-Chong; Lee, Evan Jc; Anantharaman, Vathsala; Lee, Grace Sl; Chan, Choong-Meng

    2013-11-06

    To assess the efficacy of combined Aliskiren and Losartan vs high dose Losartan and Aliskiren alone in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This is a retrospective study of 143 patients with non-diabetic CKD comparing combined Aliskiren (150 mg/d) with Losartan (100 mg/d) therapy vs High dose Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) (Losartan 200 mg/d) and the third group Aliskiren (150 mg/d) alone. This study involved only patient medical records. Entry criteria included those patients who had been treated with the above drugs for at least 36 mo within the 5 years period; other criteria included proteinuria of 1 g or more and or CKD Stage 3 at the start of the 36 mo period. The study utilised primary renal end points of estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) < 15 mL/min or end stage renal failure. Patients treated with high dose ARB compared to the other two treatment groups had significantly less proteinuria at the end of 36 mo (P < 0.007). All 3 groups had significant reduction of proteinuria (P < 0.043, P < 0.001). Total urinary protein was significantly different between the 3 groups over the 3-year study period (P = 0.008), but not eGFR. The changes in eGFR from baseline to each year were not significantly different between the 3 therapeutic groups (P < 0.119). There were no significant differences in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the 3 drug groups throughout the 3 years. The incidence of hyperkalemia (> 5.5 mmol/L) was 14.2% (7/49) in the Combined Aliskiren and ARB group, 8.7% (4/46) in the Aliskiren alone group and 6.3% (3/48) in the High dose ARB group (P < 0.001). This study in non-diabetic CKD patients showed that Combination therapy with Aliskiren and ARB was effective but was not safe as it was associated with a high prevalence of hyperkalaemia.

  11. Blocking angiotensin II Type 1 receptor triggers apoptotic cell death in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Qiaoke; Davis, Molly; Chipitsyna, Galina; Yeo, Charles J; Arafat, Hwyda A

    2010-07-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is an aggressive malignancy with an annual mortality rate close to its annual incidence. We recently demonstrated that angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) might be involved in PDA angiogenesis. This study evaluated the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of an AT1R blocker, losartan, in PDA cells with different p53 mutation status. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometric analysis of DNA content; apoptosis by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (V-FITC) and terminal deoxytransferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining; messenger RNA and protein by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting; caspase-3 activity by colorimetric assay; and promoter activity by luciferase assay. Losartan dose-dependently decreased cell survival and increased their preG1 accumulation. It also increased p53, p21, p27, and Bax and reduced Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression. In wtp53 cells, losartan increased p53 transcription and activated caspase-3 in both cell lines. However, its proapoptotic effects in mtp53 cells were mainly caspase-3-dependent. Our data describe the involvement of AT1R in PDA cell apoptotic machinery and provide the first evidences that losartan stimulates the proapoptotic signaling pathways regardless of the p53 mutation status. As loss of p53 function is frequently observed in PDA patients, our data suggest AT1R blockade as a novel therapeutic strategy to control PDA growth.

  12. Angiotensin‐II receptor 1 antagonist fetopathy – risk assessment, critical time period and vena cava thrombosis as a possible new feature

    PubMed Central

    Oppermann, Marc; Padberg, Stephanie; Kayser, Angela; Weber‐Schoendorfer, Corinna; Schaefer, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Aims Angiotensin‐II receptor 1 antagonists (AT1‐antagonists) may cause severe and even lethal fetopathy in late pregnancy. However, exposure still occurs in spite of warnings in package leaflets. This study aimed to assess the risk of fetopathy, the sensitive time window, and possible new symptoms in prospective as well as retrospective cases with AT1‐antagonist treatment during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. Methods Patients were enrolled by the Berlin Institute for Clinical Teratology and Drug Risk Assessment in Pregnancy between 1999 and 2011 through risk consultation. Symptoms defined as indicative of AT1‐antagonist fetopathy were: oligo‐/anhydramnios, renal insufficiency, lung hypoplasia, joint contractures, skull hypoplasia and fetal/neonatal death. Results In 5/29 (17%) prospectively enrolled cases with AT1‐antagonist exposure beyond the first trimester oligo‐/anhydramnios was diagnosed. Two infants showed additional symptoms of fetopathy. The risk is more than 30% if treatment continues beyond the 20th week of pregnancy. Oligo‐/anhydramnios was reversible after AT1‐antagonist withdrawal. Among 16 retrospective case reports, three infants presented with a thrombosis of the inferior vena cava in the vicinity of the renal veins. Four out of 13 live births did not survive. Conclusions Our survey suggests that the risk increases with duration of AT1‐antagonist treatment into late pregnancy and oligo‐/anhydramnios may be reversible after AT1‐antagonist discontinuation. Thrombosis of inferior vena cava may be a new feature of AT1‐antagonist fetopathy. AT1‐antagonist medication during pregnancy constitutes a considerable risk and must be discontinued immediately. In case of indicative diagnostic findings in either the fetus or newborn, previous maternal AT1‐antagonist exposure should be considered. PMID:22816796

  13. Telmisartan is more effective than losartan in reducing proteinuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Bakris, George; Burgess, Ellen; Weir, Matthew; Davidai, Giora; Koval, Stephen

    2008-08-01

    In patients with diabetic nephropathy, lowering blood pressure and reducing proteinuria by over 30% correlates with a slower progression to kidney failure. We compared two different angiotensin receptor-blockers in a double blind, prospective trial of 860 patients with type 2 diabetes whose blood pressure levels was over 130/80 mmHg or who were receiving antihypertensive medication(s) and who had a morning spot urinary protein to creatinine ratio of 700 or more. Patients were randomized to telmisartan (a highly lipophilic agent with a long half-life) or losartan (with low lipophilicity and short half-life). The primary endpoint was the difference in the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio between the groups at 52 weeks. The geometric coefficient of variation and the mean of the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio fell in both groups at 52 weeks but both were significantly greater for the telmisartan compared to the losartan cohort. Mean systolic blood pressure reductions were not significantly different between groups at trial end. We conclude that telmisartan is superior to losartan in reducing proteinuria in hypertensive patients with diabetic nephropathy, despite a similar reduction in blood pressure.

  14. Central losartan attenuates increases in arterial pressure and expression of FosB/ΔFosB along the autonomic axis associated with chronic intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Knight, W. David; Saxena, Ashwini; Shell, Brent; Nedungadi, T. Prashant; Mifflin, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and FosB/ΔFosB staining in central autonomic nuclei. To test the role of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in CIH hypertension, rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulae delivering losartan (1 μg/h) or vehicle (VEH) via miniosmotic pumps and telemetry devices for arterial pressure recording. A third group was given the same dose of losartan subcutaneously (sc). Two groups of losartan-treated rats served as normoxic controls. Rats were exposed to CIH or normoxia for 7 days and then euthanized for immunohistochemistry. Intracerebroventricular losartan attenuated CIH-induced increases in arterial pressure during CIH exposure (0800-1600 during the light phase) on days 1, 6, and 7 and each day during the normoxic dark phase. FosB/ΔFosB staining in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) was decreased in icv losartan-treated rats. Subcutaneous losartan also reduced CIH hypertension during the last 2 days of CIH and produced bradycardia prior to the effect on blood pressure. Following sc losartan, FosB/ΔFosB staining was reduced only in the OVLT, MnPO, PVN, and NTS. These data indicate that the central and peripheral RAS contribute to CIH-induced hypertension and transcriptional activation of autonomic nuclei and that the contribution of the central RAS is greater during the normoxic dark phase of CIH hypertension. PMID:24026072

  15. Central losartan attenuates increases in arterial pressure and expression of FosB/ΔFosB along the autonomic axis associated with chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Knight, W David; Saxena, Ashwini; Shell, Brent; Nedungadi, T Prashant; Mifflin, Steven W; Cunningham, J Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and FosB/ΔFosB staining in central autonomic nuclei. To test the role of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in CIH hypertension, rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulae delivering losartan (1 μg/h) or vehicle (VEH) via miniosmotic pumps and telemetry devices for arterial pressure recording. A third group was given the same dose of losartan subcutaneously (sc). Two groups of losartan-treated rats served as normoxic controls. Rats were exposed to CIH or normoxia for 7 days and then euthanized for immunohistochemistry. Intracerebroventricular losartan attenuated CIH-induced increases in arterial pressure during CIH exposure (0800-1600 during the light phase) on days 1, 6, and 7 and each day during the normoxic dark phase. FosB/ΔFosB staining in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) was decreased in icv losartan-treated rats. Subcutaneous losartan also reduced CIH hypertension during the last 2 days of CIH and produced bradycardia prior to the effect on blood pressure. Following sc losartan, FosB/ΔFosB staining was reduced only in the OVLT, MnPO, PVN, and NTS. These data indicate that the central and peripheral RAS contribute to CIH-induced hypertension and transcriptional activation of autonomic nuclei and that the contribution of the central RAS is greater during the normoxic dark phase of CIH hypertension.

  16. Effect of the direct Renin inhibitor aliskiren, the Angiotensin receptor blocker losartan, or both on left ventricular mass in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Scott D; Appelbaum, Evan; Manning, Warren J; Verma, Anil; Berglund, Tommy; Lukashevich, Valentina; Cherif Papst, Cheraz; Smith, Beverly A; Dahlöf, Björn

    2009-02-03

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, a marker of cardiac end-organ damage, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may reduce LV mass to a greater extent than other antihypertensive agents. We compared the effect of aliskiren, the first orally active direct renin inhibitor, the angiotensin-receptor blocker losartan, and their combination on the reduction of LV mass in hypertensive patients. We randomized 465 patients with hypertension, increased ventricular wall thickness, and body mass index >25 kg/m(2) to receive aliskiren 300 mg, losartan 100 mg, or their combination daily for 9 months. Patients were treated to standard blood pressure targets with add-on therapy, excluding other inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and beta-blockers. Patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of LV mass at baseline and at study completion. The primary objective was to compare change in LV mass index from baseline to follow-up in the combination and losartan arms; the secondary objective was to determine whether aliskiren was noninferior to losartan in reducing LV mass index from baseline to follow-up. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced similarly in all treatment groups (6.5+/-14.9/3.8+/-10.1 mm Hg in the aliskiren group; 5.5+/-15.6/3.7+/-10.7 mm Hg in the losartan group; 6.6+/-16.6/4.6+/-10.5 mm Hg in the combination arm; P<0.0001 within groups, P=0.81 between groups). LV mass index was reduced significantly from baseline in all treatment groups (4.9-, 4.8-, and 5.8 g/m(2) reductions in the aliskiren, losartan, and combination arms, respectively; P<0.0001 for all treatment groups). The reduction in LV mass index in the combination group was not significantly different from that with losartan alone (P=0.52). Aliskiren was as effective as losartan in reducing LV mass index (P<0.0001 for noninferiority). Safety and

  17. The anteroventral third ventricle region is critical for the behavioral desensitization caused by repeated injections of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Daniels, Derek

    2014-01-01

    A single central injection of angiotensin II (AngII) potently increases water intake; however, a growing body of research suggests that repeated, acute intracerebroventricular injections of AngII cause a reduction in the dipsogenic response to subsequent AngII. This AngII-induced behavioral desensitization is specific to the effects of angiotensin and mediated by the angiotensin type-1 (AT1) receptor. The neuroanatomical substrate for this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. The anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region is an important site for the behavioral and physiological actions of AngII. Therefore, we hypothesized that this region also mediates the effects of repeated central AngII administration. In support of this hypothesis, we found that repeated injections of AngII into the AV3V reduced water intake stimulated by a test injection of AngII given into this region. Moreover, repeated AngII injections in the AV3V reduced water intake after AngII was injected into the lateral ventricle. These studies also demonstrate that activation of the AT1 receptor within the AV3V is required for AngII-induced behavioral desensitization because direct injection of the AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, into the AV3V blocked the desensitizing effect of repeated AngII injections into the lateral ventricle. These findings provide additional support for a role of the AV3V in the dipsogenic actions of AngII, and suggest that this region is critical for the desensitization that occurs after acute repeated central injections of AngII. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A low-dose atorvastatin and losartan combination directly improves aortic ring relaxation and diminishes ischaemic-reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Lunder, Mojca; Janić, Miodrag; Žiberna, Lovro; Drevenšek, Gorazd; Šabovič, Mišo

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The cardiovascular pleiotropic effects of statins and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) could be of interest for innovative preventive approaches. We aimed to investigate whether low-dose atorvastatin and losartan, separately not possessing protective cardiovascular pleiotropic effects, express them when combined. Material/Methods Forty-five adult male Wistar rats were anaesthetized and their thoracic aortas and hearts were isolated. Relaxation of aortic rings, coronary flow rate and the extent of myocardial ischaemic-reperfusion injury were measured. Different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 μM) of atorvastatin and losartan added to a perfusion medium were first tested. The separate drugs, which were ineffective, were then combined at the same concentrations and the concentration was tested in the same model. Results Low concentrations of atorvastatin or losartan (0.1 and 1 μM, respectively) produced no effects in isolated aorta. However, surprisingly, when these drug concentrations were combined, a significantly improved endothelium-dependent relaxation of the thoracic aorta was observed. Similarly, when combining individually ineffective concentrations of atorvastatin or losartan (0.01 and 0.1 μM, respectively), significantly increased coronary flow and a decreased extent of myocardial injury were observed. By using a nitric oxide-synthase inhibitor, we demonstrated that the vasodilatory effects obtained were nitric oxide-dependent. The degree of effectiveness by the combination was comparable to that obtained by 10-fold (atorvastatin) or 100-fold (losartan) higher concentrations of the separate drugs. Conclusions Our results revealed that remarkable additive/synergistic effects exist between low-doses of a statin (atorvastatin) and an ARB (losartan), resulting in important cardiovascular protection. This new concept could be valuable in cardiovascular prevention. PMID:22936187

  19. Phase 1 and Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interaction Study of Metformin, Losartan, and Linagliptin Coadministered With DW1029M in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seol Ju; Kim, Sun-Young; Lim, Cheol-Hee; Jang, Hwan Bong; Kim, Min-Gul; Jeon, Ji-Young

    2017-07-01

    We investigated botanical drug-pharmaceutical drug interactions between DW1029M (a botanical extract of Morus alba linne root bark and Puerariae radix) and metformin, losartan, and linagliptin in the steady state. Three studies were conducted as randomized, open-label, 2-period, 2-treatment, multiple-dose, 2-way crossover designs. Eligible subjects received metformin (500 mg twice daily), losartan (50 mg once daily), or linagliptin (5 mg once daily) with DW1029M (300 mg × 2T twice daily) every 12 hours on days 1 through 6 and a single dose on the morning of day 7. Coadministration of DW1029M with metformin, losartan, or linagliptin had no clinically relevant effects based on the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC τ ) geometric least-squares mean ratio (GMR) - AUC τ GMR, 89.7; 90% confidence interval (CI), 81.0-99.4 for metformin; AUC τ GMR, 96.2; 90%CI, 86.3-107.1 for losartan; and AUC τ GMR, 89.7; 90%CI, 83.2-96.6 for linagliptin. In addition, coadministration of DW1029M did not have any clinically meaningful effect on the maximum plasma concentration (C max,ss ) - C max,ss GMR, 87.3; 90%CI, 76.2-100.0 for metformin; C max,ss GMR, 90.5; 90%CI, 78.3-104.6 for losartan; and C max,ss GMR, 81.4; 90%CI, 69.5-95.3 for linagliptin. Coadministration of DW1029M with metformin, losartan, or linagliptin was well tolerated. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Efficacy and safety of losartan 100 mg or losartan 100 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg in the treatment of patients with essential arterial hypertension and CV risk factors: observational, prospective study in primary care.

    PubMed

    Bönner, G; Smolka, W; Jung, C; Bestehorn, K

    2009-04-01

    Patients with high cardiovascular risk are prevalent in ambulatory care. To achieve adequate blood pressure control, such patients require higher drug doses and/or combination therapy. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of losartan 100 mg as monotherapy or in fixed-dose combination with hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg. Multicentre, prospective, open observational study over 13 weeks in patients with essential hypertension, whose blood pressure was not adequately controlled despite pretreatment. Main outcome parameters were the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure reduction, the rate of normalized patients at study end compared to baseline, and the number and type of adverse events (AEs). Of the 7702 documented patients, 53.1% (N = 4088) were men, with a mean age of 63.5 +/- 10.7 years. Comorbidities were frequent (diabetes mellitus in 57.4% [N = 4418], coronary heart disease in 30.3% [N = 2330], left ventricular hypertrophy in 28.2% [N = 2172], heart failure in 14.0% [N = 1079], and peripheral arterial disease in 9.0% [N = 690]). Patients received losartan 100 mg in 45.7% (N = 3521), losartan/HCTZ in 53.8% (N = 4143); additional antihypertensive drugs were given in 45.5% (N = 3505). Physicians reported somewhat lower target values than those stipulated by the guidelines (irrespective of age, gender, and concomitant diseases except for diabetes). Mean SBP/DBP decreased from a baseline value of 158/93 mmHg by 24/12 mmHg at study end. The BP lowering effect was similar in subgroups by treatment or comorbidity, respectively, however target attainment rates were substantially higher in non-diabetic patients. Metabolic and renal parameters (fasting glucose, HbA(1c), serum creatinine and albumin in urine) showed trends for improvement. Tolerability was very good, as only 0.43% (N = 33) experienced an AE (in 0.31% [N = 24] serious AEs), and 0.08% (N = 6) discontinued therapy due to reasons related to study drug. In high-risk patients, treatment with losartan

  1. The cardiovascular response of normal rats to dual lesion of the subfornical organ and area postrema at rest and to chronic losartan.

    PubMed

    Collister, John P; Nahey, David B

    2009-12-11

    The subfornical organ (SFO) and the area postrema (AP), two of the sensory circumventricular organs (CVO), are known to play a role in the chronic central control of blood pressure. In previous studies in which these regions were independently lesioned, the chronic hypotensive effects of the AT(1) receptor blocker losartan (10 mg/kg/day) were attenuated by ~15 mm Hg. In the present study, we sought to investigate the effect of concurrent lesion of both the SFO and the AP on the cardiovascular effects of chronic losartan infusion in order to test the hypothesis that a greater attenuation of the hypotensive effects of losartan would be observed in rats with dual lesions. To do so, arterial pressure and heart rate responses to 10-day infusion of losartan were compared in sham rats and those with dual lesions of the AP and SFO. Two important findings resulted from this study. First, dual lesion rats exhibited a sustained and significant decrease in resting blood pressure (83+/-1 mm Hg vs. 104+/-1 mm Hg, respectively) and heart rate (356+/-3 bpm vs. 398+/-6 bpm, respectively) compared to sham animals. Secondly, rats with concurrent lesion of both the AP and the SFO demonstrated a significantly attenuated response to losartan compared to sham animals but showed no greater attenuation of losartan's chronic hypotensive effects than animals with lesion of either the SFO or the AP (approximately 15 mm Hg). Although these results do not support the stated hypothesis, they do suggest redundancy and compensatory roles of the AP and SFO in basal cardiovascular control.

  2. Losartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination is safe and effective for morning hypertension in Very-Elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Uchiwa, Hiroki; Kai, Hisashi; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Anegawa, Takahiro; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Fukuda, Kenji; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    Morning hypertension is an independent risk for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. Although the prevalence of morning hypertension increases with age, treatment of morning hypertension has not been established, particularly in Very-Elderly patients. We compared the safety and efficacy of a losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination in controlling morning hypertension between Very-Elderly (≥75 years) and Young/Elderly patients (<75 years). This study was a subanalysis of the Morning Hypertension and Angiotensin Receptor Blocker/Hydrochlorothiazide Combination Therapy study, in which patients with morning hypertension (≥135/85 mmHg) received a 50-mg losartan/12.5-mg HCTZ combination tablet (combination therapy) or 100-mg losartan (high-dose therapy) for 3 months. High adherence rates and few adverse effects were observed in Very-Elderly patients receiving combination (n = 32) and high-dose (n = 34) therapies and in Young/Elderly patients receiving combination (n = 69) and high-dose (n = 66) therapies. Baseline morning systolic BP (SBP) was similar in both age groups receiving either therapy. Morning SBP was reduced by 20.2 and 18.1 mmHg with combination therapy and by 7.1 and 9.1 mmHg with high-dose therapy in the Very-Elderly and Young/Elderly patients, respectively. Morning BP target (<135/85 mmHg) was achieved in 40.6% and 55.1% by combination therapy and in 14.7% and 24.2% by high-dose therapy in the Very-Elderly and Young/Elderly patients, respectively. Neither therapy changed renal function and serum potassium in Very-Elderly patients. In conclusion, the losartan/HCTZ combination was safe and effective in controlling morning hypertension in Very-Elderly as well as Young/Elderly patients. In addition, combination therapy was also superior to high-dose therapy for lowering morning SBP in Very-Elderly patients.

  3. Relative effects of telmisartan, candesartan and losartan on alleviating arterial stiffness in patients with hypertension complicated by diabetes mellitus: an evaluation using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI).

    PubMed

    Uehara, G; Takeda, H

    2008-01-01

    Using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) as an indicator, we assessed improvement of arterial stiffness in 95 outpatients with hypertension complicated by type 2 diabetes mellitus who were treated orally for >or= 12 months with telmisartan 40 mg/day, losartan 50 mg/day or candesartan 8 mg/day. At 1 year, in the telmisartan and losartan groups CAVI did not change whereas in the candesartan group CAVI showed a statistically significant decrease of 2.70%. Although telmisartan is believed to enhance the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-gamma) in vitro, it did not ameliorate arterial stiffness in our patients. Candesartan, however, improved arterial stiffness independently of blood pressure lowering and without PPAR-gamma agonist action, possibly by direct action resulting from its potent affinity and binding capacity for the angiotensin II type 1 receptor. We conclude that candesartan is a potentially useful therapy against arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Long-term Effect of Losartan on Kidney Disease in American Indians With Type 2 Diabetes: A Follow-up Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Tanamas, Stephanie K; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Fufaa, Gudeta D; Wheelock, Kevin M; Weil, E Jennifer; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Bennett, Peter H; Nelson, Robert G

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether early administration of losartan slows progression of diabetic kidney disease over an extended period. We conducted a 6-year clinical trial in 169 American Indians with type 2 diabetes and urine albumin/creatinine ratio <300 mg/g; 84 participants were randomly assigned to receive losartan and 85 to placebo. Primary outcome was a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR; iothalamate) to ≤60 mL/min or to half the baseline value in persons who entered with GFR <120 mL/min. At enrollment, GFR averaged 165 mL/min (interquartile range 49-313 mL/min). During the trial, nine persons reached the primary outcome with a hazard ratio (HR; losartan vs. placebo) of 0.50 (95% CI 0.12-1.99). Participants were then followed posttrial for up to 12 years, with treatment managed outside the study. The effect of losartan on the primary GFR outcome was then reanalyzed for the entire study period, including the clinical trial and posttrial follow-up. After completion of the clinical trial, treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors was equivalent in both groups. During a median of 13.5 years following randomization, 29 participants originally assigned to losartan and 35 to placebo reached the primary GFR outcome with an HR of 0.72 (95% CI 0.44-1.18). Long-term risk of GFR decline was not significantly different between persons randomized to early treatment with losartan and those randomized to placebo. Accordingly, we found no evidence of an extended benefit of early losartan treatment on slowing GFR decline in persons with type 2 diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  5. Losartan reduces the immediate and sustained increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity after hyperacute intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Jouett, Noah P; Moralez, Gilbert; Raven, Peter B; Smith, Michael L

    2017-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxemia, which produces elevations in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and associated hypertension in experimental models that persist beyond the initial exposure. We tested the hypotheses that angiotensin receptor blockade in humans using losartan attenuates the immediate and immediately persistent increases in 1 ) SNA discharge and 2 ) mean arterial pressure (MAP) after hyperacute intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) using a randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures experimental design. We measured ECG and photoplethysmographic arterial pressure in nine healthy human subjects, while muscle SNA (MSNA) was recorded in seven subjects using microneurography. Subjects were exposed to a series of hypoxic apneas in which they inhaled two to three breaths of nitrogen, followed by a 20-s apnea and 40 s of room air breathing every minute for 20 min. Hyperacute IHT produced substantial and persistent elevations in MSNA burst frequency (baseline: 15.3 ± 1.8, IHT: 24 ± 1.5, post-IHT 20.0 ± 1.3 bursts/min, all P < 0.01) and MAP (baseline: 89.2 ± 3.3, IHT: 92.62 ± 3.1, post-IHT: 93.83 ± 3.1 mmHg, all P < 0.02). Losartan attenuated the immediate and sustained increases in MSNA (baseline: 17.3 ± 2.5, IHT: 18.6 ± 2.2, post-IHT 20.0 ± 1.3 bursts/min, all P < 0.001) and MAP (baseline: 81.9 ± 2.6, IHT: 81.1 ± 2.8, post-IHT: 81.3 ± 3.0 mmHg, all P > 0.70). This investigation confirms the role of angiotensin II type 1a receptors in the immediate and persistent sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses to IHT. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study demonstrates for the first time in humans that losartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), abrogates the acute and immediately persistent increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in response to acute intermittent hypoxia. This investigation, along with others, provides important beginning translational evidence for using ARBs in treatment

  6. Divergent Effects of Losartan and Metoprolol on Cardiac Remodeling, C‐kit+ Cells, Proliferation and Apoptosis in the Left Ventricle after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Serpi, Raisa; Tolonen, Anna‐Maria; Tenhunen, Olli; Pieviläinen, Oskari; Kubin, Anna‐Maria; Vaskivuo, Tommi; Soini, Ylermi; Kerkelä, Risto; Leskinen, Hanna; Ruskoaho, Heikki

    2009-01-01

    Abstract There is strong evidence for the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and beta‐blockers to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), whereas the effect of angiotensin receptor blockers is less clear. We evaluated the effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker losartan and a beta‐blocker metoprolol on left ventricular (LV) remodeling, c‐kit+ cells, proliferation, fibrosis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis using a model of coronary ligation in rats. Metoprolol treatment for 2 weeks improved LV systolic function. In contrast, losartan triggered deleterious structural remodeling and functional deterioration of LV systolic function, ejection fraction being 41% and fractional shortening 47% lower in losartan group than in controls 2 weeks after MI. The number of c‐kit+ cells as well as expression of Ki‐67 was increased by metoprolol. Losartan‐induced thinning of the anterior wall and ventricular dilation were associated with increased apoptosis and fibrosis, while losartan had no effect on the expression of c‐kit or Ki‐67. Metoprolol or losartan had no effect on microvessel density. These results demonstrate that beta‐blocker treatment attenuated adverse remodeling via c‐kit+ cells and proliferation, whereas angiotensin receptor blocker‐induced worsening of LV systolic function was associated with increased apoptosis and fibrosis in the peri‐infarct region. PMID:20443934

  7. Effects of acute and subchronic AT1 receptor blockade on cardiovascular, hydromineral and neuroendocrine responses in female rats.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Iracema Gomes; Elias, Lucila Leico Kagohara; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Reis, Luís Carlos; Mecawi, Andre Souza

    2013-10-02

    Female Wistar rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and separated into two groups that received either estradiol cyp