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Sample records for ii calderon process

  1. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2001-07-23

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron (hot metal) consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy. The work which is labeled as Phase II will take place at two levels; namely, the bench scale level and the process development unit level. During the past quarter approval for the re-direction took place and work was initiated at both levels.

  2. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2002-01-22

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron (hot metal) consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy. The work which is labeled as Phase II will take place at two levels; namely, the bench scale level and the process development unit (PDU) level.

  3. Calderon Cokemaking Process/Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-08

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon with the following objectives in order to enable its commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in high driving (highly productive) blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; and (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process. The activities of the past quarter were entirely focused on operating the Calderon Process Development Unit (PDU-I) in Alliance, Ohio conducting a series of tests under steady state using coal from Bethlehem Steel and U.S. Steel in order to demonstrate the above. The objectives mentioned above were successfully demonstrated.

  4. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2005-10-14

    The commercialization path of the Calderon technology for making a feedstock for steelmaking with assistance from DOE initially focused on making coke and work was done which proved that the Calderon technology is capable of making good coke for hard driving blast furnaces. U.S. Steel which participated in such demonstration felt that the Calderon technology would be more meaningful in lowering the costs of making steel by adapting it to the making of iron--thus obviating the need for coke. U.S. Steel and Calderon teamed up to jointly work together to demonstrate that the Calderon technology will produce in a closed system iron units from iron concentrate (ore) and coal competitively by eliminating pelletizing, sintering, coking and blast furnace operation. If such process steps could be eliminated, a huge reduction in polluting emissions and greenhouse gases (including CO{sub 2}) relating to steelmaking would ensue. Such reduction will restructure the steel industry away from the very energy-intensive steelmaking steps currently practiced and drastically reduce costs of making steel. The development of a technology to lower U.S. steelmaking costs and become globally competitive is a priority of major importance. Therefore, the development work which Calderon is conducting presently under this Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy becomes more crucial than ever. During the 3rd quarter of 2005 which the present report covers, virtually all the effort to advance the Calderon technology to make iron units was concentrated towards forming a team with a steelmaker who needs both iron units in the form of hot metal and a substitute for natural gas (SNG), both being major contributors to higher costs in steelmaking. Calderon felt that a very good candidate would be Steel Dynamics (SDI) by virtue that it operates a rotary hearth facility in Butler, Indiana that uses large amounts of natural gas to reduce briquettes made from ore and coal that they subsequently melt

  5. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    ALBERT CALDERON

    1998-09-22

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (iv) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: � Consolidation of the project team-players; � Recruiting Koppers Industries as an additional stakeholder; � Developing a closed system for the production of binder pitch from tar in the Calderon coking process as the incentive for Koppers to join the team; � Gathering appropriate equipment for conducting a set of experiments at bench scale to simulate tar quality produced from the Calderon coking process for the production of binder pitch; and � Further progress made in the design of the commercial coking reactor.

  6. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2000-09-19

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (iv) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; (v) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports; and (vi) applying the Calderon technology to making additional iron units. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: (1) Bethlehem Steel's withdrawal and efforts expended to substitute U.S. Steel for Bethlehem; (2) Assessment work performed with U.S. Steel to show that the Calderon Technology has merit and would add to U.S. Steel's economic benefit by being involved in it, including for making additional iron units; (3) Addressing material selection and heat input capacity to increase heat input into the processing reactor by actual modeling of such approach; (4) Construction of two full size courses of heating tiles to verify the manufacturing and the fitting of the tiles with one another; (5) Making available equipment to test carbon deposition on sorbent; and (6) Permitting issues.

  7. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    1999-09-22

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (4) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (5) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Detailed workings of the team; Proposal to FETC for Phase II; Permitting and Environmental Work; and Engineering Progress.

  8. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2002-04-25

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy. The work performed to-date is encouraging by virtue that product was produced with the lowest cost raw material (ore concentrate), and the energy source being exclusively coal. The product was melted and cast. The equipment has been debugged and preparations are taking place towards the integration of the process to produce directly molten iron and/or molten steel. Also it is planned to conclude the 72 hours test at reasonably continuous steady state during next quarter.

  9. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2002-07-30

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  10. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2002-10-29

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  11. Phase II Calderon Process to Produce Direct Reduced Iron Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2003-06-30

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  12. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2003-04-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  13. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2003-01-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  14. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2000-06-21

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (iv) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (v) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter continued to be focused on the following: Concluding the Negotiation and completing Contracts among Stakeholders of the Team; Revision of Final Report for Phase I; Engineering Design Progress; Selection of Systems Associates, Inc. for design of Control System; Conclusion of Secrecy Agreement with Carborundum (St. Gobain); and Permitting Work and Revisions.

  15. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2000-03-22

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (iv) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (v) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter continued to be focused on the following: Concluding the Negotiation and completing Contracts among Stakeholders of the Team; Revision of Final Report for Phase I; Engineering Design Progress; Selection of Systems Associates, Inc. for design of Control System; Conclusion of Secrecy Agreement with Carborundum (St. Gobain); and Permitting Work and Revisions.

  16. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2006-04-19

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

  17. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2006-01-30

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

  18. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2004-04-27

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  19. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2004-10-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  20. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2003-10-22

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  1. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2004-07-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  2. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2005-01-25

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  3. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2005-01-26

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  4. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2005-07-29

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  5. Phase II Calderon Process to Produce Direct Reduced Iron Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2007-03-31

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase 1 was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

  6. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon; Reina Calderon

    2004-01-27

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  7. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    1998-12-23

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (4) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Conducting bench-scale tests to produce coke and acceptable tar from the process to satisfy Koppers, a prospective stakeholder; Consolidation of the project team players to execute the full size commercial cokemaking reactor demonstration; and Progress made in advancing the design of the full size commercial cokemaking reactor.

  8. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    1999-06-23

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (4) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (5) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Detailed studies of LTV's site for the installation of the commercial Demonstration Unit with site specific layouts; Environmental Work; Firm commitments for funding from the private sector; and Federal funding to complement the private contribution.

  9. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    ALBERT CALDERON

    1996-06-21

    This project deals with the demonstration of a full size commercial coking retort using Calderon's novel process for making metallurgical coke. Tests are currently being conducted on a heat resistant alloy by subjecting such alloy to raw gases from an actual operating coke oven at LTV Steel's coke plant in Warren, Ohio to determine the effects of sulfurous gases on the alloy before ordering 232,000 lbs of this alloy for the full size commercial coking retort. Design engineering is proceeding.

  10. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    1999-03-19

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (4) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Consolidation of the team of stakeholders; Move the site for the commercial demonstration to LTV Steel, Cleveland, Ohio; Permitting for new site; Site specific engineering; Cost update of the project as it relates to the Cleveland location; FETC update; DCAA audit; and Updated endorsement of Calderon process by Ohio EPA and U.S. EPA, Region 5.

  11. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    1998-04-08

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking reactor (Process Development Unit-- PDU-11) using Calderon's proprietary technology for making commercially acceptable coke. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: 1. Testing and Designing of the Submerged Quenching Closed System for the Process; 2. Usage of the Cracked Desulfurized Gas as a Reducing Gas to Make Directly Reduced Iron (DRI) in Order to Make the Process Economics Viable; 3. Changes in the Ceramic Liners for Supporting Them in the Coking Reactor; 4. Work Towards Testing of U.S. Steel's Coal in the Existing Process Development Unit in Alliance (PDU-1); 5. Permitting.

  12. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    ALBERT CALDERON

    1996-09-17

    This project which deals with the demonstration of a full size commercial coking retort using Calderon's proprietary technology for making metallurgical coke ran into a commercialization problem by virtue that the designed retort for two (2) tons of coke/hour necessitates thirty-two (32) retorts to produce the 500,000 tons of coke per year for a commercial plant. Bechtel Mining and Metals prepared a cost estimate of the commercial plant which indicated the commercial plant would not be economically feasible. The activity during this reporting period was directed to making changes to the design of the coking retort in order to reduce the number of retorts required for a 500,000 ton/year commercial coke facility. The result of this activity resulted in the drastic reduction of the number of retorts to eight (8) with each retort projected to produce 8.17 tons of coke/hour. Such decrease in number of retorts makes the Calderon technology quite competitive and therefore commercially feasible.

  13. Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

    1992-11-01

    The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

  14. Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

  15. Inverse Born series for the Calderon problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arridge, Simon; Moskow, Shari; Schotland, John C.

    2012-03-01

    We propose a direct reconstruction method for the Calderon problem based on inversion of the Born series. We characterize the convergence, stability and approximation error of the method and illustrate its use in numerical reconstructions.

  16. Image reconstruction technique of electrical capacitance tomography for low-contrast dielectrics using Calderon's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhang; Xu, Lijun; Wang, Huaxiang

    2009-10-01

    Calderon's method was introduced to electrical capacitance tomography in this paper. It is a direct algorithm of the image reconstruction for low-contrast dielectrics, as no matrix inversion or iterative process is needed. It was implemented through numerical integration. Since the Gauss-Legendre quadrature was applied and can be predetermined, the image reconstruction process was fast and resulted in images of high quality. Simulations were carried out to study the effect of different dielectric contrasts and different electrode numbers. Both simulated and experimental results validated the feasibility and effectiveness of Calderon's method in electrical capacitance tomography for low-contrast dielectrics.

  17. Discrete Calderon's projections on parallelepipeds and their application to computing exterior magnetic fields for FRC plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kansa, E.; Shumlak, U.; Tsynkov, S.

    2013-02-01

    Confining dense plasma in a field reversed configuration (FRC) is considered a promising approach to fusion. Numerical simulation of this process requires setting artificial boundary conditions (ABCs) for the magnetic field because whereas the plasma itself occupies a bounded region (within the FRC coils), the field extends from this region all the way to infinity. If the plasma is modeled using single fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), then the exterior magnetic field can be considered quasi-static. This field has a scalar potential governed by the Laplace equation. The quasi-static ABC for the magnetic field is obtained using the method of difference potentials, in the form of a discrete Calderon boundary equation with projection on the artificial boundary shaped as a parallelepiped. The Calderon projection itself is computed by convolution with the discrete fundamental solution on the three-dimensional Cartesian grid.

  18. Calderon cokemaking process/demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 set new emission standards for hazardous air pollutants from coke ovens. Congress, recognizing that the coke industry faces technological and financial difficulties in meeting these new, stringent emission standards, required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and DOE to conduct a joint six-year research and development program to assist the industry in developing and commercializing new technologies and work practices that would significantly reduce hazardous coke oven emissions. DOE`s purpose for sponsoring the proposed demonstration project is to provide the coke industry with a new option for the economical production of high quality coke that significantly reduces the quantity of pollutants entering the environment.

  19. Fortune and Responsibility in Calderon's "La gran Cenobia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    "La gran Cenobia" deals with the war between Queen Zenobia of Palmyra and the Emperor Aurelian. Calderon de la Barca draws most of his information from historical sources; the dramatist, however, changes history and adapts it to his own dramatic purpose. The theme of Fortune gives unity to the play. Aureliano is portrayed as a tyrant who, to prove…

  20. The SRC-II process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, B. K.; Jackson, D. M.

    1981-03-01

    The Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) process which produces low-sulfur distillate fuel oil from coal is discussed. The process dissolves coal in a process-derived solvent at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of hydrogen, separates the undissolved mineral residue, then recovers the original solvent by vacuum distillation. The distillate fuel oil produced is for use largely as a nonpolluting fuel for generating electrical power and steam and is expected to be competitive with petroleum fuels during the 1980s. During this period, the SRC-II fuel oil is expected to be attractive compared with combustion of coal with flue gas desulfurization in U.S. East Coast oil-burning power plants, as well as in small and medium-sized industrial boilers. The substantial quantities of methane, light hydrocarbons and naphtha produced by the process have value as feedstocks for preparation of pipeline gas, ethylene and high-octane unleaded gasoline, and can replace petroleum fractions in many applications. The liquid and gas products from a future large-scale plant, such as the 6000 t/day plant planned for Morgantown, West Virginia, are expected to have an overall selling price of $4.25 to $4.75/GJ.

  1. New global stability estimates for the Gel'fand-Calderon inverse problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, R. G.

    2011-01-01

    We prove new global stability estimates for the Gel'fand-Calderon inverse problem in 3D. For sufficiently regular potentials, this result of the present work is a principal improvement of the result of Alessandrini (1988 Appl. Anal. 27 153-172).

  2. II - Insulin processing in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Camberos, María Del Carmen; Pérez, Adriana A; Passicot, Gisel A; Martucci, Lucía C; Wanderley, María I; Udrisar, Daniel P; Cresto, Juan C

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to know how insulin is processing in mitochondria; if IDE is the only participant in mitochondrial insulin degradation and the role of insulin degradation on IDE accumulation in mitoplasts. Mitochondria and its fractions were isolated as described by Greenwalt. IDE was purified and detected in immunoblot with specific antibodies. High insulin degradation was obtained through addition to rat's diet of 25 g/rat of apple and 10 g/rat of hard-boiled eggs, 3 days a week. Mitochondrial insulin degradation was assayed with 5 % TCA, insulin antibody or Sephadex G50 chromatography. Degradation was also assayed 60 min at 37 °C in mitochondrial fractions (IMS and Mx) with diet or not and without IDE. Degradation in fractions precipitated with ammonium sulfates (60-80 %) were studied after mitochondrial insulin incubation (1 ng. insulin during 15 min, at 30 °C) or with addition of 2.5 mM ATP. Supplementary diet increased insulin degradation. High insulin did not increase mitoplasts accumulation and did not decrease mitochondrial degradation. High insulin and inhibition of degradation evidence insulin competition for a putative transport system. Mitochondrial incubation with insulin increased IDE in matrix as observed in immunoblot. ATP decreased degradation in Mx and increased it in IMS. Chromatography of IMS demonstrated an ATP-dependent protease that degraded insulin, similar to described by Sitte et al. Mitochondria participate in insulin degradation and the diet increased it. High insulin did not accomplish mitochondrial decrease of degradation or its accumulation in mitoplasts. Mitochondrial incubation with insulin increased IDE in matrix. ATP suggested being a regulator of mitochondrial insulin degradation.

  3. Direct recovery of the electrical admittivities in 2D electrical tomography by using Calderon's method and two-terminal/electrode excitation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhang; Xu, Lijun

    2013-07-01

    Calderon's method was used to reconstruct electrical admittivity, i.e. conductivity as well as permittivity, for electrical tomography in this paper. It is a direct algorithm of the image reconstruction, as the value of the real and imaginary parts of the admittivity at any position can be obtained independently. A new way to construct the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map from the data collected through two-terminal/electrode excitation strategy was also introduced to calculate the scattering transform. The image reconstruction was implemented through numerical integration. Since the Gauss-Legendre quadrature was applied and can be predetermined, the image reconstruction process was fast and resulted in images of good quality. Both simulated and experimental results validated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in dual-modality electrical tomography.

  4. Yeast and yeast-like diversity in the southernmost glacier of Europe (Calderone Glacier, Apennines, Italy).

    PubMed

    Branda, Eva; Turchetti, Benedetta; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Pecci, Massimo; Smiraglia, Claudio; Buzzini, Pietro

    2010-06-01

    The present study reports the characterization of psychrophilic yeast and yeast-like diversity in cold habitats (superficial and deep sediments, ice cores and meltwaters) of the Calderone Glacier (Italy), which is the southernmost glacier in Europe. After incubation at 4 and 20 degrees C, sediments contained about 10(2)-10(3) CFU of yeasts g(-1). The number of viable yeast cells in ice and meltwaters was several orders of magnitude lower. The concomitant presence of viable bacteria and filamentous fungi has also been observed. In all, 257 yeast strains were isolated and identified by 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 and internal transcribed spacers (1 and 2) sequencing as belonging to 28 ascomycetous and basidiomycetous species of 11 genera (Candida, Cystofilobasidium, Cryptococcus, Dioszegia, Erythrobasidium, Guehomyces, Mastigobasidium, Mrakia, Mrakiella, Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces). Among them, the species Cryptococcus gastricus accounted for almost 40% of the total isolates. In addition, 12 strains were identified as belonging to the yeast-like species Aureobasidium pullulans and Exophiala dermatitidis, whereas 15 strains, presumably belonging to new species, yet to be described, were also isolated. Results herein reported indicate that the Calderone Glacier, although currently considered a vanishing ice body due to the ongoing global-warming phenomenon, still harbors viable psychrophilic yeast populations. Differences of yeast and yeast-like diversity between the glacier under study and other worldwide cold habitats are also discussed.

  5. 47 CFR 90.711 - Processing of Phase II applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing of Phase II applications. 90.711... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.711 Processing of Phase II applications. (a) Phase II applications for... accordance with the provisions of § 90.173. (c) Phase II applications for authorization on all non-Government...

  6. Preconditioning based on Calderon's formulae for periodic fast multipole methods for Helmholtz' equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niino, Kazuki; Nishimura, Naoshi

    2012-01-01

    Solution of periodic boundary value problems is of interest in various branches of science and engineering such as optics, electromagnetics and mechanics. In our previous studies we have developed a periodic fast multipole method (FMM) as a fast solver of wave problems in periodic domains. It has been found, however, that the convergence of the iterative solvers for linear equations slows down when the solutions show anomalies related to the periodicity of the problems. In this paper, we propose preconditioning schemes based on Calderon's formulae to accelerate convergence of iterative solvers in the periodic FMM for Helmholtz' equations. The proposed preconditioners can be implemented more easily than conventional ones. We present several numerical examples to test the performance of the proposed preconditioners. We show that the effectiveness of these preconditioners is definite even near anomalies.

  7. 47 CFR 90.711 - Processing of Phase II applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Processing of Phase II applications. 90.711 Section 90.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.711 Processing of Phase II applications. (a) Phase II applications for...

  8. 47 CFR 90.711 - Processing of Phase II applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Processing of Phase II applications. 90.711 Section 90.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.711 Processing of Phase II applications. (a) Phase II applications for...

  9. 47 CFR 90.711 - Processing of Phase II applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Processing of Phase II applications. 90.711 Section 90.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.711 Processing of Phase II applications. (a) Phase II applications for...

  10. 47 CFR 90.711 - Processing of Phase II applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Processing of Phase II applications. 90.711 Section 90.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.711 Processing of Phase II applications. (a) Phase II applications for...

  11. 40 CFR Table II-2 to Subpart II - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes II Table II-2 to Subpart II Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt. 98...

  12. 40 CFR Table II-2 to Subpart II - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes II Table II-2 to Subpart II Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt. 98...

  13. Interactive Digital Image Processing Investigation. Phase II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    International Business Machines Corporation WORK UNIT NUMBERS La Federal Systems Division 18100 Frederick Pike naltber b _rg Maryland 2Q760 11...Radiance Versus Wavelength X. 6.2-2 Operation of a Scanning Sensor 6-6 6.2-3 Multispectral Scanner Measurements - Channel 1 6-7 6.2-4 Multispectral...contains recommendations for further work based on the results S of the present study. L. Ii tii iU 1- -i - " - • I1 --. LI I J-- - ----- t [ [ Section 2

  14. 2D image reconstruction of a human chest by using Calderon's method and the adjacent current pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Z.; Xu, L.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, Calderon's method is applied to a chest-like sensing region, as monitored by electrical impedance tomography. This method provides a direct algorithm for image reconstruction, where the gray value at any pixel of the reconstructed image is computed using a direct and independent approach. The major calculations of image reconstruction in Calderon's method are implemented for a circular boundary and, as a result, the complicated calculations of the scattering transform, as required by non-circular boundaries, are avoided. A unique conformal transformation is used to map a unit disk onto a sensing region with a non-circular boundary, such as a chest-like region. A new method to calculate the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map is also introduced, which is used to compute the scattering transform. The feasibility of the proposed method has been validated by testing the construction of phantoms with chest-like boundaries. Data collected from the chest of a male subject has been used to visualize lung movement, as monitored by the electrical impedance tomography system.

  15. Interpersonal processes in dentistry. Part II.

    PubMed

    Dunstone, S

    1990-06-01

    This paper relates an investigation of dentists' perceptions of their patients to a literature review of the interpersonal processes involved in professional helping. Although the concerns of dentists were markedly similar to those of other helping professionals there was a difference in priority possibly reflecting situational factors. The priority of the dentists' concerns were patient likeability, manageability and prognosis. It has been found that, for other helping professionals, four person-perception processes that occur in everyday life often lead to unfavourable perceptions of clients and work against the motivation to help them. Significant evidence of three of these four processes was found in the constructs described by the dentists. The three processes were: (a) attraction to similarity, (b) personalistic tendency in attributions, and (c) perceptual consequences of the patient's resistance to influence. The fourth process, a tendency to sample negative aspects of patients' behaviour, was not in evidence; on the contrary there was a significant tendency to sample positive aspects of the patients' behaviour by this sample of dentists.

  16. Acquisitions. ERIC Processing Manual, Section II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundstrom, Grace, Ed.

    Rules and guidelines are provided for the process of acquiring documents to be considered for inclusion in the ERIC database. The differing responsibilities of the Government, the ERIC Clearinghouses, and the ERIC Facility are delineated. The various methods by which documentary material can be obtained are described and preferences outlined.…

  17. Comparing Binaural Pre-processing Strategies II

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongmei; Krawczyk-Becker, Martin; Marquardt, Daniel; Herzke, Tobias; Coleman, Graham; Adiloğlu, Kamil; Bomke, Katrin; Plotz, Karsten; Gerkmann, Timo; Doclo, Simon; Kollmeier, Birger; Hohmann, Volker; Dietz, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Several binaural audio signal enhancement algorithms were evaluated with respect to their potential to improve speech intelligibility in noise for users of bilateral cochlear implants (CIs). 50% speech reception thresholds (SRT50) were assessed using an adaptive procedure in three distinct, realistic noise scenarios. All scenarios were highly nonstationary, complex, and included a significant amount of reverberation. Other aspects, such as the perfectly frontal target position, were idealized laboratory settings, allowing the algorithms to perform better than in corresponding real-world conditions. Eight bilaterally implanted CI users, wearing devices from three manufacturers, participated in the study. In all noise conditions, a substantial improvement in SRT50 compared to the unprocessed signal was observed for most of the algorithms tested, with the largest improvements generally provided by binaural minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming algorithms. The largest overall improvement in speech intelligibility was achieved by an adaptive binaural MVDR in a spatially separated, single competing talker noise scenario. A no-pre-processing condition and adaptive differential microphones without a binaural link served as the two baseline conditions. SRT50 improvements provided by the binaural MVDR beamformers surpassed the performance of the adaptive differential microphones in most cases. Speech intelligibility improvements predicted by instrumental measures were shown to account for some but not all aspects of the perceptually obtained SRT50 improvements measured in bilaterally implanted CI users. PMID:26721921

  18. Composting process design criteria. II. Detention time

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.

    1986-09-01

    Attention has always been directed to detention time as a criteria for design and operation of composting systems. Perhaps this is a logical outgrowth of work on liquid phase systems, where detention time is a fundamental parameter of design. Unlike liquid phase systems, however, the interpretation of detention time and actual values required for design have not been universally accepted in the case of composting. As a case in point, most compost systems incorporate facilities for curing the compost product. However, curing often is considered after the fact or as an add on with little relationship to the first stage, high-rate phase, whether reactor (in-vessel), static pile, or windrow. Design criteria for curing and the relationships between the first-stage, high-rate and second-stage, curing phases of a composting system have been unclear. In Part 2 of this paper, the concepts of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids residence time (SRT) are applied to the composting process. Definitions and design criteria for each are proposed. Based on these criteria, the first and second-stages can be designed and integrated into a complete composting system.

  19. Nonlinear neural networks. II. Information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. L.; Grensing, D.; Huber, A.; Kühn, R.

    1988-01-01

    Information processing in nonlinear neural networks with a finite number q of stored patterns is studied. Each network is characterized completely by its synaptic kernel Q. At low temperatures, the nonlinearity typically results in 2q-2- q metastable, pure states in addition to the q retrieval states that are associated with the q stored patterns. These spurious states start appearing at a temperaturetilde T_q , which depends on q. We give sufficient conditions to guarantee that the retrieval states bifurcate first at a critical temperature T c and thattilde T_q / T c → 0 as q→∞. Hence, there is a large temperature range where only the retrieval states and certain symmetric mixtures thereof exist. The latter are unstable, as they appear at T c . For clipped synapses, the bifurcation and stability structure is analyzed in detail and shown to approach that of the (linear) Hopfield model as q→∞. We also investigate memories that forget and indicate how forgetfulness can be explained in terms of the eigenvalue spectrum of the synaptic kernel Q.

  20. An analysis of the lumber planning process: Part II

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1956-01-01

    This study is part II of an investigation pertaining to the peripheral-milling process of planing lumber. Some relationships were determined between cutterhead horsepower and various combinations of specimen, cutterhead, and feed factors. Power demand curves were interpreted through comparison with simultaneously taken one micro-second photos of the forming chips....

  1. Development of an integrated process skill test: TIPS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Joseph C.; Okey, James R.; Wise, Kevin C.

    The purpose of this project was to develop a valid and reliable science process skill test for middle and high school students. Multiple-choice items were generated for each of five objectives. Following pilot testing and revision, the test was administered to middle and high school students in the northeastern United States. The 36-item test can be completed in a normal class period. Results yielded a mean score of 19.14 and a total test reliability of 0.86. Mean difficulty and discrimination indices were 0.53 and 0.35, respectively. Split-test correlations coefficients between TIPS II and the original TIPS items were 0.86 and 0.90. TIPS II provides another reliable instrument for measuring process skill achievement. Additionally, it increases the available item pool for measuring these skills.

  2. CO II laser free-form processing of hard tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Martin; Klasing, Manfred; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Drilling and surface processing of bone and tooth tissue belongs to standard medical procedures (bores and embeddings for implants, trepanation etc.). Small circular bores can be generally quickly produced with mechanical drills. However problems arise at angled drilling, the need to execute drilling procedures without damaging of sensitive soft tissue structures underneath the bone or the attempt to mill small non-circular cavities in hard tissue with high precision. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The processing of bone is done with a CO II laser (10.6 μm) with pulse durations of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled fast galvanic laser beam scanner and a fine water-spray, which helps keeping the ablation process effective and without thermal side-effects. Laser "milling" of non-circular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth can be especially interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser processing of these cavities without thermal damage and with minimised tapering. It included the exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines, etc.), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, and optimal water spray position. The optimised results give evidence for the applicability of pulsed CO II lasers for biologically tolerable effective processing of deep cavities in hard tissue.

  3. School Development Program (Comer Process Implementation) in Prince Georges County, Milliken II Schools. Process Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Norris M.; And Others

    This report presents results of a study of the effectiveness of the Comer Process, also known as the School Development Program (SDP) in the Milliken II Schools, Prince Georges County, Maryland. The process was introduced in the school system in summer 1985 to improve effectiveness of schools that could not be integrated because of their…

  4. Fabrication process for the PEP II RF cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, R.M.; Rimmer, R.A.; Schwarz, H.

    1997-06-05

    This paper presents the major steps used in the fabrication of the 26 RF Cavities required for the PEP-II B-factory. Several unique applications of conventional processes have been developed and successfully implemented: electron beam welding (EBW), with minimal porosity, of .75 inch (19 mm) copper cross-sections; extensive 5-axis milling of water channels; electroplating of .37 inch (10 mm) thick OFE copper; tuning of the cavity by profiling beam noses prior to final joining with the cavity body; and machining of the cavity interior, are described here.

  5. Fabrication Processes for the PEP II RF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, R.Mark; Rimmer, Robert A.; Schwarz, Heinz; /SLAC

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the major steps used in the fabrication of the 26 RF Cavities required for the PEP-II B-factory. Several unique applications of conventional processes have been developed and successfully implemented: electron beam welding (EBW), with minimal porosity, of .75 inch (19 mm) copper cross-sections; extensive 5-axis milling of water channels; electroplating of .37 inch (10 mm) thick OFE copper; tuning of the cavity by profiling beam noses prior to final joining with the cavity body; and machining of the cavity interior, are described here.

  6. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Shah, H.; Bannochie, C. J.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-07-25

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  7. Treating Attention in Mild Aphasia: Evaluation of Attention Process Training-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Laura L.; Keeton, R. Jessica; Karcher, Laura

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether attention processing training-II [Sohlberg, M. M., Johnson, L., Paule, L., Raskin, S. A., & Mateer, C. A. (2001). "Attention Process Training-II: A program to address attentional deficits for persons with mild cognitive dysfunction" (2nd ed.). Wake Forest, NC: Lash & Associates.; APT-II], when applied in the context of…

  8. Treating Attention in Mild Aphasia: Evaluation of Attention Process Training-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Laura L.; Keeton, R. Jessica; Karcher, Laura

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether attention processing training-II [Sohlberg, M. M., Johnson, L., Paule, L., Raskin, S. A., & Mateer, C. A. (2001). "Attention Process Training-II: A program to address attentional deficits for persons with mild cognitive dysfunction" (2nd ed.). Wake Forest, NC: Lash & Associates.; APT-II], when applied in the context of…

  9. The RNA polymerase II CTD coordinates transcription and RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, Jing-Ping; Manley, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit consists of multiple heptad repeats (consensus Tyr1–Ser2–Pro3–Thr4–Ser5–Pro6–Ser7), varying in number from 26 in yeast to 52 in vertebrates. The CTD functions to help couple transcription and processing of the nascent RNA and also plays roles in transcription elongation and termination. The CTD is subject to extensive post-translational modification, most notably phosphorylation, during the transcription cycle, which modulates its activities in the above processes. Therefore, understanding the nature of CTD modifications, including how they function and how they are regulated, is essential to understanding the mechanisms that control gene expression. While the significance of phosphorylation of Ser2 and Ser5 residues has been studied and appreciated for some time, several additional modifications have more recently been added to the CTD repertoire, and insight into their function has begun to emerge. Here, we review findings regarding modification and function of the CTD, highlighting the important role this unique domain plays in coordinating gene activity. PMID:23028141

  10. Process for forming shaped group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process.

  12. Tensegrity II. How structural networks influence cellular information processing networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    The major challenge in biology today is biocomplexity: the need to explain how cell and tissue behaviors emerge from collective interactions within complex molecular networks. Part I of this two-part article, described a mechanical model of cell structure based on tensegrity architecture that explains how the mechanical behavior of the cell emerges from physical interactions among the different molecular filament systems that form the cytoskeleton. Recent work shows that the cytoskeleton also orients much of the cell's metabolic and signal transduction machinery and that mechanical distortion of cells and the cytoskeleton through cell surface integrin receptors can profoundly affect cell behavior. In particular, gradual variations in this single physical control parameter (cell shape distortion) can switch cells between distinct gene programs (e.g. growth, differentiation and apoptosis), and this process can be viewed as a biological phase transition. Part II of this article covers how combined use of tensegrity and solid-state mechanochemistry by cells may mediate mechanotransduction and facilitate integration of chemical and physical signals that are responsible for control of cell behavior. In addition, it examines how cell structural networks affect gene and protein signaling networks to produce characteristic phenotypes and cell fate transitions during tissue development.

  13. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II does not process amyloid-β peptide.

    PubMed

    Sedlák, František; Šácha, Pavel; Blechová, Miroslava; Březinová, Anna; Šafařík, Martin; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Konvalinka, Jan

    2013-07-01

    The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is thought to be a major causative mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ accumulation could be caused by dysregulated processing of amyloid precursor protein, yielding excessive amounts of Aβ, and/or by inefficient proteolytic degradation of the peptide itself. Several proteases have been described as Aβ degradation enzymes, most notably metalloendopeptidases, aspartic endopeptidases, and some exopeptidases. Recently a report suggested that another metallopeptidase, glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), can also cleave Aβ. GCPII is a zinc exopeptidase that cleaves glutamate from N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate in the central nervous system and from pteroylpoly-γ-glutamate in the jejunum. GCPII has been proposed as a promising therapeutic target for disorders caused by glutamate neurotoxicity. However, an Aβ-degrading activity of GCPII would compromise potential pharmaceutical use of GCPII inhibitors, because the enzyme inhibition might lead to increased Aβ levels and consequently to Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we analyzed the reported Aβ-degrading activity of GCPII using highly purified recombinant enzyme and synthetic Aβ. We did not detect any Aβ degradation activity of GCPII or its homologue even under prolonged incubation at a high enzyme to substrate ratio. These results are in good agreement with the current detailed structural understanding of the substrate specificity and enzyme-ligand interactions of GCPII.

  14. Tensegrity II. How structural networks influence cellular information processing networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    The major challenge in biology today is biocomplexity: the need to explain how cell and tissue behaviors emerge from collective interactions within complex molecular networks. Part I of this two-part article, described a mechanical model of cell structure based on tensegrity architecture that explains how the mechanical behavior of the cell emerges from physical interactions among the different molecular filament systems that form the cytoskeleton. Recent work shows that the cytoskeleton also orients much of the cell's metabolic and signal transduction machinery and that mechanical distortion of cells and the cytoskeleton through cell surface integrin receptors can profoundly affect cell behavior. In particular, gradual variations in this single physical control parameter (cell shape distortion) can switch cells between distinct gene programs (e.g. growth, differentiation and apoptosis), and this process can be viewed as a biological phase transition. Part II of this article covers how combined use of tensegrity and solid-state mechanochemistry by cells may mediate mechanotransduction and facilitate integration of chemical and physical signals that are responsible for control of cell behavior. In addition, it examines how cell structural networks affect gene and protein signaling networks to produce characteristic phenotypes and cell fate transitions during tissue development.

  15. Process For Autoclaving HMW PMR-II Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Cifani, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Parts made of graphite-reinforced, high-molecular-weight (HMW) PMR-II polyimide easy to fabricate by autoclaving. Study showed autoclaved HMW PMR-II parts equal in quality to those made by compression molding. Well suited to use at temperatures up to 700 degrees F (371 degrees C). In aircraft engines, they offer advantages of strength and light weight.

  16. Employability Planning Process. STIP II (Skill Training Improvement Programs Round II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA.

    Four reports are presented detailing procedures for improving the employability of students enrolled in the Los Angeles Community College District's Skill Training Improvement Programs (STIP II). Each report was submitted by one of the four STIP II programs: Los Angeles Southwest College's program for computer programming; the programs for…

  17. Employability Planning Process. STIP II (Skill Training Improvement Programs Round II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA.

    Four reports are presented detailing procedures for improving the employability of students enrolled in the Los Angeles Community College District's Skill Training Improvement Programs (STIP II). Each report was submitted by one of the four STIP II programs: Los Angeles Southwest College's program for computer programming; the programs for…

  18. Large basolateral processes on type II hair cells comprise a novel processing unit in mammalian vestibular organs

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Rémy; Pickett, Sarah B.; Nguyen, Tot Bui; Stone, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory receptors in the vestibular system (hair cells) encode head movements and drive central motor reflexes that control gaze, body movements, and body orientation. In mammals, type I and II vestibular hair cells are defined by their shape, contacts with vestibular afferent nerves, and membrane conductance. Here, we describe unique morphological features of type II vestibular hair cells in mature rodents (mice and gerbils) and bats. These features are cytoplasmic processes that extend laterally from the hair cell’s base and project under type I hair cells. Closer analysis of adult mouse utricles demonstrated that the basolateral processes of type II hair cells range in shape, size, and branching, with the longest processes extending 3–4 hair cell widths. The hair cell basolateral processes synapse upon vestibular afferent nerves and receive inputs from vestibular efferent nerves. Further, some basolateral processes make physical contacts with the processes of other type II hair cells, forming some sort of network amongst type II hair cells. Basolateral processes are rare in perinatal mice and do not attain their mature form until 3–6 weeks of age. These observations demonstrate that basolateral processes are significant signaling regions of type II vestibular hair cells, and they suggest type II hair cells may directly communicate with each other, which has not been described in vertebrates. PMID:24825750

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of PNEUMOVAX II manufactured by a new process in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mair, Stuart; Fiquet, Anne; Meghlaoui, Gilles; Thomas, Stephane; Ledesma, Emilio

    2009-09-01

    In response to increased demand for the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine PNEUMOVAX II, a new manufacturing process has been implemented that improves the consistency and increases the scale of production. This double-blind, randomized, clinical study compared the immunogenicity and safety profiles of the new-process PNEUMOVAX II (n = 111) formulated with all 23 new process polysaccharides to the former-process PNEUMOVAX II (n = 109) formulation in adults aged > or =50 years. The primary aim of the study was to compare the post-vaccination geometric mean of antibody titres (GMT) to pneumococcal serotypes 3 and 8 in recipients of new- and former-process PNEUMOVAX II. The post-vaccination GMTs for serotypes 3 and 8 elicited by the new-process PNEUMOVAX II [1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.63) and 10.78 (95% CI, 9.10-12.77), respectively] were non-inferior to those elicited by the former-process PNEUMOVAX II [1.24 (95% CI, 1.07-1.43) and 9.72 (95% CI, 8.22-11.50), respectively]. Both PNEUMOVAX II formulations were well tolerated; there were no vaccine-related serious adverse events. A total of 74 (66.7%) subjects in the new-process group and 66 (60.6%) in the former-process group had at least one injection-site reaction or vaccine-related systemic event within 14 days following vaccination. There was a trend for higher incidence of two solicited injection-site reactions (erythmea and induration) and three solicited systemic events (asthenia, chills and body aches) with the new- versus former-process PNEUMOVAX II, but these were mainly of mild intensity and short duration. The new-process PNEUMOVAX(R II thus showed similar immunogenicity to the former-process vaccine for pneumococcal serotypes 3 and 8 and both vaccines were well tolerated in older subjects.

  20. Negative regulation by HLA-DO of MHC class II-restricted antigen processing.

    PubMed

    Denzin, L K; Sant'Angelo, D B; Hammond, C; Surman, M J; Cresswell, P

    1997-10-03

    HLA-DM is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-like molecule that facilitates antigen processing by catalyzing the exchange of invariant chain-derived peptides (CLIP) from class II molecules for antigenic peptides. HLA-DO is a second class II-like molecule that physically associates with HLA-DM in B cells. HLA-DO was shown to block HLA-DM function. Purified HLA-DM-DO complexes could not promote peptide exchange in vitro. Expression of HLA-DO in a class II+ and DM+, DO- human T cell line caused the accumulation of class II-CLIP complexes, indicating that HLA-DO blocked DM function in vivo and suggesting that HLA-DO is an important modulator of class II-restricted antigen processing.

  1. Intermediate Information Processing. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartor, Beth

    This course curriculum is intended for community college instructors and administrators to use in implementing an intermediate information processing course. A student's course syllabus provides this information: credit hours, catalog description, prerequisites, required texts, instructional process, objectives, student evaluation, and class…

  2. Principles of Information Processing. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Gloria

    This course curriculum is intended for community college instructors and administrators to use in implementing a principles of information processing course. A student's course syllabus provides this information: credit hours, catalog description, prerequisites, required texts, instructional process, objectives, student evaluation, and class…

  3. Review process and quality assurance in the EBR-II probabilistic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Roglans, J.; Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.

    1992-12-01

    A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), a Department of Energy (DOE) Category A reactor, has recently been completed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Within the scope of the ANL QA Programs, a QA Plan specifically for the EBR-II PRA was developed. The QA Plan covered all aspects of the PRA development, with emphasis on the procedures for document and software control, and the internal and external review process. The effort spent in the quality assurance tasks for the EBR-II PRA has reciprocated by providing acceptance of the work and confidence in the quality of the results.

  4. Review process and quality assurance in the EBR-II probabilistic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Roglans, J.; Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), a Department of Energy (DOE) Category A reactor, has recently been completed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Within the scope of the ANL QA Programs, a QA Plan specifically for the EBR-II PRA was developed. The QA Plan covered all aspects of the PRA development, with emphasis on the procedures for document and software control, and the internal and external review process. The effort spent in the quality assurance tasks for the EBR-II PRA has reciprocated by providing acceptance of the work and confidence in the quality of the results.

  5. Physiological bases of bone regeneration II. The remodeling process.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Tresguerres-Hernández-Gil, Isabel; Alobera-Gracia, Miguel Angel; del-Canto-Pingarrón, Mariano; Blanco-Jerez, Luis

    2006-03-01

    Bone remodeling is the restructuring process of existing bone, which is in constant resorption and formation. Under normal conditions, this balanced process allows the renewal of 5-10% of bone volume per year. At the microscopic level, bone remodeling is produced in basic multicellular units, where osteoclasts resorb a certain quantity of bone and osteoblasts form the osteoid matrix and mineralize it to fill the previously created cavity. These units contain osteoclasts, macrophages, preosteoblasts and osteoblasts, and are controlled by a series of factors, both general and local, allowing normal bone function and maintaining the bone mass. When this process becomes unbalanced then bone pathology appears, either in excess (osteopetrosis) or deficit (osteoporosis). The purpose of this study is to undertake a revision of current knowledge on the physiological and biological mechanisms of the bone remodeling process; highlighting the role played by the regulating factors, in particular that of the growth factors.

  6. Advanced Information Processing. Volume II. Instructor's Materials. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Linda

    This course curriculum is intended for use by community college insructors and administrators in implementing an advanced information processing course. It builds on the skills developed in the previous information processing course but goes one step further by requiring students to perform in a simulated office environment and improve their…

  7. Advanced Information Processing. Volume II. Instructor's Materials. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Linda

    This course curriculum is intended for use by community college insructors and administrators in implementing an advanced information processing course. It builds on the skills developed in the previous information processing course but goes one step further by requiring students to perform in a simulated office environment and improve their…

  8. Data Processing (Advanced Business Programming) Volume II. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litecky, Charles R.; Lamkin, Tim

    This curriculum guide for an advanced course in data processing is for use as a companion publication to a textbook or textbooks; references to appropriate textbooks are given in most units. Student completion of assignments in Volume I, available separately (see ED 220 604), is a prerequisite. Topics covered in the 18 units are introduction,…

  9. Data Processing (Advanced Business Programming) Volume II. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litecky, Charles R.; Lamkin, Tim

    This curriculum guide for an advanced course in data processing is for use as a companion publication to a textbook or textbooks; references to appropriate textbooks are given in most units. Student completion of assignments in Volume I, available separately (see ED 220 604), is a prerequisite. Topics covered in the 18 units are introduction,…

  10. Selective separation of copper(II) and nickel(II) from aqueous media using the complexation-ultrafiltration process.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Raffaele; Poerio, Teresa; Argurio, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    The polyethylenimine (PEI) as complexing agent was used to study the complexation-ultrafiltration (CP-UF) process in the selective removal of Cu(II) from Ni(II) contained in aqueous media. Preliminary tests showed that optimal chemical conditions for Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexation by the PEI polymer were pH>6.0 and 8.0, respectively, and polymer/metal weight ratio of 3.0 and 6.0, respectively. The effect of some important operating parameters on process selectivity was studied by performing UF tests at different parameters: pH, polymer/metal weight ratio, transmembrane pressure (TMP), and membrane cut-off in a batch experimental set-up. It was observed that process selectivity was achieved by choosing the pH value for obtaining a preferential copper complexation (pH 6.0), and the polymer/metal ratio needed to bound only the copper ion (3.0). The selective separation by UF tests was performed by using both a laboratory aqueous solution and a real aqueous effluent (water from Emoli torrent, Rende (CS)). The Iris 30 membrane at TMP of 200 kPa (2 bar) for both aqueous media gave the best results. A complete nickel recovery was reached, and copper recovery was the highest for this membrane (94% and 92%). Besides at this pressure, a lower water amount was needed to obtain total nickel recovery by diafiltration. A little higher membrane fouling was obtained by using the river effluent due to the presence of dissolved organic and inorganic matter.

  11. Planck 2015 results: II. Low Frequency Instrument data processings

    DOE PAGES

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; ...

    2016-09-20

    In this paper, we present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places where our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release, describing the products (especially timelines) and the ways in which they were obtained. We demonstrate that the pipeline is self-consistent (principally based on simulations) and report all null tests. For the first time, we present LFI maps in Stokes Q and U polarization. Finally, we refer to other relatedmore » papers where more detailed descriptions of the LFI data processing pipeline may be found if needed.« less

  12. Planck 2015 results. II. Low Frequency Instrument data processings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Rocha, G.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places where our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release, describing the products (especially timelines) and the ways in which they were obtained. We demonstrate that the pipeline is self-consistent (principally based on simulations) and report all null tests. For the first time, we present LFI maps in Stokes Q and U polarization. We refer to other related papers where more detailed descriptions of the LFI data processing pipeline may be found if needed.

  13. Filament winding cylinders. II - Validation of the process model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calius, Emilio P.; Lee, Soo-Yong; Springer, George S.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to validate the model developed by Lee and Springer for simulating the manufacturing process of filament wound composite cylinders. First, results calculated by the Lee-Springer model were compared to results of the Calius-Springer thin cylinder model. Second, temperatures and strains calculated by the Lee-Springer model were compared to data. The data used in these comparisons were generated during the course of this investigation with cylinders made of Hercules IM-6G/HBRF-55 and Fiberite T-300/976 graphite-epoxy tows. Good agreement was found between the calculated and measured stresses and strains, indicating that the model is a useful representation of the winding and curing processes.

  14. Filament winding cylinders. II - Validation of the process model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calius, Emilio P.; Lee, Soo-Yong; Springer, George S.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to validate the model developed by Lee and Springer for simulating the manufacturing process of filament wound composite cylinders. First, results calculated by the Lee-Springer model were compared to results of the Calius-Springer thin cylinder model. Second, temperatures and strains calculated by the Lee-Springer model were compared to data. The data used in these comparisons were generated during the course of this investigation with cylinders made of Hercules IM-6G/HBRF-55 and Fiberite T-300/976 graphite-epoxy tows. Good agreement was found between the calculated and measured stresses and strains, indicating that the model is a useful representation of the winding and curing processes.

  15. Identification of new fluorescence processes in the UV spectra of cool stars from new energy levels of Fe II and Cr II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, Sveneric; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    1988-01-01

    Two fluorescence processes operating in atmospheres of cool stars, symbiotic stars, and the Sun are presented. Two emission lines, at 1347.03 and 1360.17 A, are identified as fluorescence lines of Cr II and Fe II. The lines are due to transitions from highly excited levels, which are populated radiatively by the hydrogen Lyman alpha line due to accidental wavelength coincidences. Three energy levels, one in Cr II and two in Fe II, are reported.

  16. SEEP II, Shelf Edge Exchange Processes-II: Chlorophyll a fluorescence, temperature, and beam attenuation measurements from moored fluorometers

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, W.H.; Wirick, C.D.

    1992-02-01

    The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is a multi-institutional effort designed to investigate the flux of suspended material from the continental shelf to the waters of the upper slope, and then possibly into the slope sediments. The first SEEP experiment (SEEP I) was across the outer continental shelf of New England during 1983--1984 and consisted of a series of nine cruises and a mooring array. The second experiment (SEEP II) focused specifically of the shelf/slope frontal region of the mid-Atlantic Bight off the Delmarva peninsula. This report presents data collected during SEEP II. The SEEP II experiment consisted of a series of ten cruises and mooring arrays as well as over-flights by NASA aircraft. The cruises were consecutively designated SEEP2-01 to SEEP2-10. Hydrographic data were collected on all cruises except SEEP2-04 and SEEP2-07 during which benthic processes were investigated. Mooring arrays were deployed during three cruises in the Spring, Summer and Winter of 1988. Brookhaven National Laboratory deployed sixteen fluorometer instrument packages on their moorings with sensors to measure: the in vivo fluorescence of phytoplankton, temperature, subsurface light, dissolved oxygen, and water transparency. Data from the fluorometer, temperature, and transmissometer sensors are reported herein.

  17. SEEP II, Shelf Edge Exchange Processes-II: Chlorophyll a fluorescence, temperature, and beam attenuation measurements from moored fluorometers

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, W.H.; Wirick, C.D.

    1992-02-01

    The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is a multi-institutional effort designed to investigate the flux of suspended material from the continental shelf to the waters of the upper slope, and then possibly into the slope sediments. The first SEEP experiment (SEEP I) was across the outer continental shelf of New England during 1983--1984 and consisted of a series of nine cruises and a mooring array. The second experiment (SEEP II) focused specifically of the shelf/slope frontal region of the mid-Atlantic Bight off the Delmarva peninsula. This report presents data collected during SEEP II. The SEEP II experiment consisted of a series of ten cruises and mooring arrays as well as over-flights by NASA aircraft. The cruises were consecutively designated SEEP2-01 to SEEP2-10. Hydrographic data were collected on all cruises except SEEP2-04 and SEEP2-07 during which benthic processes were investigated. Mooring arrays were deployed during three cruises in the Spring, Summer and Winter of 1988. Brookhaven National Laboratory deployed sixteen fluorometer instrument packages on their moorings with sensors to measure: the in vivo fluorescence of phytoplankton, temperature, subsurface light, dissolved oxygen, and water transparency. Data from the fluorometer, temperature, and transmissometer sensors are reported herein.

  18. Language and the psychoanalytic process: psychoanalysis and Vygotskian psychology. II.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A; Weinstein, L

    1992-01-01

    This paper follows our previous one, where we described a psychoanalytic conception of language, thought, and internalization that is informed by the thinking of Lev Vygotsky. Here, several aspects of the analytic process which allow for the understanding of ineffable experiences in the analysand's history and the analytic situation are investigated: specifically, primal repression, metaphor, and the role of speech in free association. It is suggested that Freud's notion of primal repression be revived and redefined as one aspect of the descriptive unconscious. Some implications of primal repression for transference and resistance are explored. The metaphoric in its broad sense is examined as one example of how early dynamic experiences embedded in the process of language acquisition can be reached within the clinical situation. It is proposed that an understanding of free association is enhanced by awareness of distinctions between inner, egocentric, and social speech. The basic rule can be interpreted as an invitation for the analysand to use inner speech in collaboration with the analyst as best he or she can. Further, the aliveness and degree of superficiality of the analysis can be seen as a function of the analyst's ability to appreciate the properties of inner speech and foster the conditions in the analysis that allow for its unfolding.

  19. Planck 2013 results. II. Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falvella, M. C.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Robbers, G.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing centre (DPC) to create and characterize full-sky maps based on the first 15.5 months of operations at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data, from telemetry packets through to the production of cleaned, calibrated timelines and calibrated frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation induced on the mean temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation by the proper motion of the spacecraft. Sky signals other than the dipole are removed by an iterative procedure based on simultaneous fitting of calibration parameters and sky maps. Noise properties are estimated from time-ordered data after the sky signal has been removed, using a generalized least squares map-making algorithm. A destriping code (Madam) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated noise. Noise covariance matrices, required to compute statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products, are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the ≈- 20 dB level using Jupiter transits, which are also used for the geometrical calibration of the focal plane.

  20. Contract Modifications Processing Procedures: A Generalized Stochastic Model II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-03

    MORK DURATION DAYS GO TO @LITE’ ’ RECICLE ’ LET NOTICE(HOD)31 MORK .125 DAYS IF IASE.PRICE(HOD) (a 10 :0 TO ’SLIP’ I 127 ALWAYS MORK S DAYS LET GE(xODl...AccEPT’ ALWAYS IREWEG’ LET NEGOTIATION- TIRE u *125*aLSZ*PUICECRDD) WAIT MLGOTIATIOI*TIBE DAIS IF nANL’on.(5)(z.s REL1UNUISN 1 sTArF.orricta(1) 90 TO...BkI.DUEDE.LZN;TE AND UTILIZATION*100(O.sTkTF.orricER (1) revs HODEL oF coRPS oF ENGINEES CoANGE ORDER PRoCEssiva PROCESING ?IoE THE BEAR TIRE TO PROCESS A

  1. The role of mAKAPβ in the process of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    GUO, HUIXIN; LIU, BAOXIN; HOU, LEI; THE, ERLINDA; LI, GANG; WANG, DONGZHI; JIE, QIQIANG; CHE, WENLIANG; WEI, YIDONG

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is the central product of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and this octapeptide contributes to the pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. mAKAPβ is an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) that has the function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of mAKAPβ in AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the possible mechanisms involved. Cultured cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats were treated with AngII. Subsequently, the morphology of the cardiomyocytes was observed and the expression of mAKAPβ and cardiomyocyte hypertrophic markers was measured. mAKAPβ-shRNA was constructed for RNA interference; the expression of mAKAPβ and hypertrophic markers, the cell surface area and the [3H]Leucine incorporation rate in the AngII-treated rat cardiomyocytes were detected following RNA interference. Simultaneously, changes in the expression levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK)2 in the cardiomyocytes were assessed. The cell size of the AngII-treated cardiaomyocytes was significantly larger than that of the untreated cardiomyocytes. The expression of hypertrophic markers and p-ERK2, the cell surface area and the [3H]Leucine incorporation rate were all significantly increased in the AngII-treated cells. However, the expression of mAKAPβ remained unaltered in this process. RNA interference simultaneously inhibited the protein expression of mAKAPβ and p-ERK2, and the hypertrophy of the cardiomyocytes induced by AngII was attenuated. These results demonstrate that AngII induces hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes, and mAKAPβ is possibly involved in this process. The effects of mAKAPβ on AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy may be associated with p-ERK2 expression. PMID:25739102

  2. Protein sorting within the MHC class II antigen-processing pathway.

    PubMed

    Marks, M S

    1998-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are required for the presentation of antigenic peptides that are derived predominantly from internalized proteins. The assembly of MHC class II/peptide complexes occurs within endosomal compartments of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Therefore, for assembly to occur, MHC class II molecules, foreign proteins, and accessory molecules must be sorted to appropriate intracellular sites. My laboratory is trying to understand how proteins are sorted to various antigen-processing compartments as well as to conventional endosomal organelles. Using chimeric marker proteins and a variety of biochemical and genetic approaches, we are addressing the specificity of protein sorting and the mechanisms by which sorting signals are deciphered. By using a similar chimeric protein approach to target endogenous proteins to distinct compartments, we hope to address the role of processing events in each compartment in the generation of MHC class II ligands.

  3. Complete Element Abundances of Nine Stars in the r-process Galaxy Reticulum II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Alexander P.; Frebel, Anna; Simon, Joshua D.; Chiti, Anirudh

    2016-10-01

    We present chemical abundances derived from high-resolution Magellan/Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectra of the nine brightest known red giant members of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II (Ret II). These stars span the full metallicity range of Ret II (-3.5 < [Fe/H] < -2). Seven of the nine stars have extremely high levels of r-process material ([Eu/Fe] ˜ 1.7), in contrast to the extremely low neutron-capture element abundances found in every other ultra-faint dwarf galaxy studied to date. The other two stars are the most metal-poor stars in the system ([Fe/H] < -3), and they have neutron-capture element abundance limits similar to those in other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. We confirm that the relative abundances of Sr, Y, and Zr in these stars are similar to those found in r-process halo stars, but they are ˜0.5 dex lower than the solar r-process pattern. If the universal r-process pattern extends to those elements, the stars in Ret II display the least contaminated known r-process pattern. The abundances of lighter elements up to the iron peak are otherwise similar to abundances of stars in the halo and in other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. However, the scatter in abundance ratios is large enough to suggest that inhomogeneous metal mixing is required to explain the chemical evolution of this galaxy. The presence of low amounts of neutron-capture elements in other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies may imply the existence of additional r-process sites besides the source of r-process elements in Ret II. Galaxies like Ret II may be the original birth sites of r-process enhanced stars now found in the halo. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  4. High-throughput process development: II. Membrane chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S; Muthukumar, Sampath

    2014-01-01

    Membrane chromatography is gradually emerging as an alternative to conventional column chromatography. It alleviates some of the major disadvantages associated with the latter including high pressure drop across the column bed and dependence on intra-particle diffusion for the transport of solute molecules to their binding sites within the pores of separation media. In the last decade, it has emerged as a method of choice for final polishing of biopharmaceuticals, in particular monoclonal antibody products. The relevance of such a platform is high in view of the constraints with respect to time and resources that the biopharma industry faces today. This protocol describes the steps involved in performing HTPD of a membrane chromatography step. It describes operation of a commercially available device (AcroPrep™ Advance filter plate with Mustang S membrane from Pall Corporation). This device is available in 96-well format with 7 μL membrane in each well. We discuss the challenges that one faces when performing such experiments as well as possible solutions to alleviate them. Besides describing the operation of the device, the protocol also presents an approach for statistical analysis of the data that is gathered from such a platform. A case study involving use of the protocol for examining ion exchange chromatography of Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (GCSF), a therapeutic product, is briefly discussed. This is intended to demonstrate the usefulness of this protocol in generating data that is representative of the data obtained at the traditional lab scale. The agreement in the data is indeed very significant (regression coefficient 0.99). We think that this protocol will be of significant value to those involved in performing high-throughput process development of membrane chromatography.

  5. Coordination of RNA Polymerase II Pausing and 3′ End Processing Factor Recruitment with Alternative Polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Fusby, Becky; Kim, Soojin; Erickson, Benjamin; Kim, Hyunmin; Peterson, Martha L.

    2015-01-01

    Most mammalian genes produce transcripts whose 3′ ends are processed at multiple alternative positions by cleavage/polyadenylation (CPA). Poly(A) site cleavage frequently occurs cotranscriptionally and is facilitated by CPA factor binding to the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylated on Ser2 residues of its heptad repeats (YS2PTSPS). The function of cotranscriptional events in the selection of alternative poly(A) sites is poorly understood. We investigated Pol II pausing, CTD Ser2 phosphorylation, and processing factor CstF recruitment at wild-type and mutant IgM transgenes that use alternative poly(A) sites to produce mRNAs encoding the secreted and membrane-bound forms of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain. The results show that the sites of Pol II pausing and processing factor recruitment change depending on which poly(A) site is utilized. In contrast, the extent of Pol II CTD Ser2 phosphorylation does not closely correlate with poly(A) site selection. We conclude that changes in properties of the transcription elongation complex closely correlate with utilization of different poly(A) sites, suggesting that cotranscriptional events may influence the decision between alternative modes of pre-mRNA 3′ end processing. PMID:26527620

  6. The development of an integrated multistage fluid bed retorting process. [Kentort II process--50-lb/hr

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.; Stehn, J.; Vego, A.; Taulbee, D.

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT II) during the period of January 1, 1992 through March 31, 1992. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The design of the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II retort was completed and fabrication is ready to begin. Data from the cold-flow model of the system and operating experience from the 5-lb/hr unit were used as the basis for the design. In another aspect of the program, a study of the cracking and coking kinetics of shale oil vapors was continued. A mathematical model was implemented to characterize the important mass transfer effects of the system. This model will be eventually broadened to become a general fluidized bed coking model. In addition, experiments were performed to examine the effects of surface area, initial carbon content and steam treatment on coking activity. From the data that has been collected to-date, it appears that the coking activity of the tested substrates can be explained in terms of porosity (surface area and pore volume) and the initial carbon content of the solid.

  7. Exchange between Escherichia coli polymerases II and III on a processivity clamp

    PubMed Central

    Kath, James E.; Chang, Seungwoo; Scotland, Michelle K.; Wilbertz, Johannes H.; Jergic, Slobodan; Dixon, Nicholas E.; Sutton, Mark D.; Loparo, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli has three DNA polymerases implicated in the bypass of DNA damage, a process called translesion synthesis (TLS) that alleviates replication stalling. Although these polymerases are specialized for different DNA lesions, it is unclear if they interact differently with the replication machinery. Of the three, DNA polymerase (Pol) II remains the most enigmatic. Here we report a stable ternary complex of Pol II, the replicative polymerase Pol III core complex and the dimeric processivity clamp, β. Single-molecule experiments reveal that the interactions of Pol II and Pol III with β allow for rapid exchange during DNA synthesis. As with another TLS polymerase, Pol IV, increasing concentrations of Pol II displace the Pol III core during DNA synthesis in a minimal reconstitution of primer extension. However, in contrast to Pol IV, Pol II is inefficient at disrupting rolling-circle synthesis by the fully reconstituted Pol III replisome. Together, these data suggest a β-mediated mechanism of exchange between Pol II and Pol III that occurs outside the replication fork. PMID:26657641

  8. Zn(II)-coordination modulated ligand photophysical processes – the development of fluorescent indicators for imaging biological Zn(II) ions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhao; Simmons, J. Tyler; Sreenath, Kesavapillai

    2014-01-01

    Molecular photophysics and metal coordination chemistry are the two fundamental pillars that support the development of fluorescent cation indicators. In this article, we describe how Zn(II)-coordination alters various ligand-centered photophysical processes that are pertinent to developing Zn(II) indicators. The main aim is to show how small organic Zn(II) indicators work under the constraints of specific requirements, including Zn(II) detection range, photophysical requirements such as excitation energy and emission color, temporal and spatial resolutions in a heterogeneous intracellular environment, and fluorescence response selectivity between similar cations such as Zn(II) and Cd(II). In the last section, the biological questions that fluorescent Zn(II) indicators help to answer are described, which have been motivating and challenging this field of research. PMID:25071933

  9. [Emergent treatment process for raw water polluted by heavy metal Pb (II)].

    PubMed

    Chu, Wen-Hai; Gao, Nai-Yun; Yao, Juan-Juan; Shang, Ya-Bo; Qin, Zhu-Qun

    2008-10-01

    Based on two common coagulants-polyferric sulfate (PFS) and polyaluminum chloride (PACl), some measurements and processes in the background of Pb (II) concentration sudden increase in water were studied. The removal efficiency of Pb(II) was compared between PAC and diatomite absorption with coagulation. The effect of coagulant dosage, initial concentration of Pb(II), pH value and KMnO4 preoxidation on coagulation were investigated. The results showed that using PFS was better than PACl for the removal of Pb(II). The regulating pH value up to 9 could improve the removal efficiency of Pb(II) up to 95% by coagulation under the optimum dosage of coagulant PFS of 10 mg/L. KMnO4 preoxidation could improve the removal efficacy of Pb(II) by coagulation of PACl only. The Pb(II) removal efficiency of PAC and diatomite absorption with coagulation were almost equal. Pb(II) concentration could be lowered from 402 microg/L to below 10 microg/L under the condition that dosages of PAC or diatomite were 10 mg/L or 25 mg/L by using PFS. The same effect could be got under the condition that dosages of PAC or diatomite were 20 mg/L or 50 mg/L by using PACl. KMnO4 and diatomite are dosed at the same time would weaken their function each other. Therefore, diatomite adsorption coupled with coagulation is the simplest and most effective method for removing Pb(II).

  10. A Photo Storm Report Mobile Application, Processing/Distribution System, and AWIPS-II Display Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longmore, S. P.; Bikos, D.; Szoke, E.; Miller, S. D.; Brummer, R.; Lindsey, D. T.; Hillger, D.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones equipped with digital cameras and the ability to post images and information to the Internet in real-time has significantly improved the ability to report events almost instantaneously. In the context of severe weather reports, a representative digital image conveys significantly more information than a simple text or phone relayed report to a weather forecaster issuing severe weather warnings. It also allows the forecaster to reasonably discern the validity and quality of a storm report. Posting geo-located, time stamped storm report photographs utilizing a mobile phone application to NWS social media weather forecast office pages has generated recent positive feedback from forecasters. Building upon this feedback, this discussion advances the concept, development, and implementation of a formalized Photo Storm Report (PSR) mobile application, processing and distribution system and Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System II (AWIPS-II) plug-in display software.The PSR system would be composed of three core components: i) a mobile phone application, ii) a processing and distribution software and hardware system, and iii) AWIPS-II data, exchange and visualization plug-in software. i) The mobile phone application would allow web-registered users to send geo-location, view direction, and time stamped PSRs along with severe weather type and comments to the processing and distribution servers. ii) The servers would receive PSRs, convert images and information to NWS network bandwidth manageable sizes in an AWIPS-II data format, distribute them on the NWS data communications network, and archive the original PSRs for possible future research datasets. iii) The AWIPS-II data and exchange plug-ins would archive PSRs, and the visualization plug-in would display PSR locations, times and directions by hour, similar to surface observations. Hovering on individual PSRs would reveal photo thumbnails and clicking on them would display the

  11. Selective separation of Hg(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by complexation-ultrafiltration process.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jian Xian; Ye, Hong Qi; Huang, Nian Dong; Liu, Jun Feng; Zheng, Li Feng

    2009-07-01

    Complexation-ultrafiltration process was investigated to separate selectively Hg(II) and Cd(II) from binary metal solutions by using poly (acrylic acid) sodium salt as a complexing agent. Effects of operating parameters on selective separation factors (beta(Cd/Hg)) of the both metals have been examined in detail. Results indicated that loading rate, pH, concentration of salt added and low-molecular competitive complexing agent affect significantly beta(Cd/Hg) value. Further, a concentration experiment was carried out according to the previous optimum parameters. Rejection coefficient of mercury is close to 1, while that of cadmium is about 0.1. The experiment was characterized by good effectiveness, and enabled the rapid linear increase of mercury concentration and very slow increase of cadmium concentration in the retentate. Then, a diafiltration technique was applied to separate further the both metals. Cadmium concentration in the retentate declines sharply with the diafiltration volume, whereas for mercury it is the contrary.

  12. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE II) 2003 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 6th annual meeting of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes, was held in Cetraro, Italy, from May 11 to 15, 2003. This was also the first meeting of its Phase II study. 24 country representatives attended this meeting. This meeting was very ably run by th...

  13. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE II) 2003 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 6th annual meeting of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes, was held in Cetraro, Italy, from May 11 to 15, 2003. This was also the first meeting of its Phase II study. 24 country representatives attended this meeting. This meeting was very ably run by th...

  14. [Definition and stabilization of processes II. Clinical Processes in a Urology Department].

    PubMed

    Pascual, Carlos; Luján, Marcos; Mora, José Ramón; Diz, Manuel Ramón; Martín, Carlos; López, María Carmen

    2015-01-01

    New models in clinical management seek a clinical practice based on quality, efficacy and efficiency, avoiding variability and improvisation. In this paper we have developed one of the most frequent clinical processes in our speciality, the process based on DRG 311 or transurethral procedures without complications. Along it we will describe its components: Stabilization form, clinical trajectory, cost calculation, and finally the process flowchart.

  15. Primary microRNA processing is functionally coupled to RNAP II transcription in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shanye; Yu, Yong; Reed, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in vivo reported that processing of primary microRNA (pri-miRNA) is coupled to transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and can occur co-transcriptionally. Here we have established a robust in vivo system in which pri-miRNA is transcribed by RNAP II and processed to pre-miRNA in HeLa cell nuclear extracts. We show that both the kinetics and efficiency of pri-miRNA processing are dramatically enhanced in this system compared to that of the corresponding naked pri-miRNA. Moreover, this enhancement is general as it occurs with multiple pri-miRNAs. We also show that nascent pri-miRNA is efficiently processed before it is released from the DNA template. Together, our work directly demonstrates that transcription and pri-miRNA processing are functionally coupled and establishes the first in vivo model systems for this functional coupling and for co-transcriptional processing. PMID:26149087

  16. Comparative assessment of TRU waste forms and processes. Volume II. Waste form data, process descriptions, and costs.

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Thornhill, R.E.; Timmerman, C.L.; Treat, R.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    This volume contains supporting information for the comparative assessment of the transuranic waste forms and processes summarized in Volume I. Detailed data on the characterization of the waste forms selected for the assessment, process descriptions, and cost information are provided. The purpose of this volume is to provide additional information that may be useful when using the data in Volume I and to provide greater detail on particular waste forms and processes. Volume II is divided into two sections and two appendixes. The first section provides information on the preparation of the waste form specimens used in this study and additional characterization data in support of that in Volume I. The second section includes detailed process descriptions for the eight processes evaluated. Appendix A lists the results of MCC-1 leach test and Appendix B lists additional cost data. 56 figures, 12 tables.

  17. High power CO II lasers and their material processing applications at Centre for Advanced Technology, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, A. K.; Paul, C. P.; Rao, B. T.; Kau, R.; Raghu, T.; Mazumdar, J. Dutta; Dayal, R. K.; Mudali, U. Kamachi; Sastikumar, D.; Gandhi, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed high power transverse flow (TF) CW CO II lasers up to 15kW, a high repetition rate TEA CO II laser of 500Hz, 500W average power and a RF excited fast axial flow CO II laser at the Centre for Advanced Technology and have carried out various material processing applications with these lasers. We observed very little variation of discharge voltage with electrode gap in TF CO II lasers. With optimally modulated laser beam we obtained better results in laser piercing and cutting of titanium and resolidification of 3 16L stainless steel weld-metal for improving intergranular corrosion resistance. We carried out microstructure and phase analysis of laser bent 304 stainless steel sheet and optimum process zones were obtained. We carried out laser cladding of 316L stainless steel and Al-alloy substrates with Mo, WC, and Cr IIC 3 powder to improve their wear characteristics. We developed a laser rapid manufacturing facility and fabricated components of various geometries with minimum surface roughness of 5-7 microns Ra and surface waviness of 45 microns between overlapped layers using Colmonoy-6, 3 16L stainless steel and Inconel powders. Cutting of thick concrete blocks by repeated laser glazing followed by mechanical scrubbing process and drilling holes on a vertical concrete with laser beam incident at an optimum angle allowing molten material to flow out under gravity were also done. Some of these studies are briefly presented here.

  18. Processing of O.F.E. copper beam chambers for PEP-II high energy ring

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, E.; Hoyt, M.; Kirby, R.; Perkins, C.; Wright, D.; Farvid, A.

    1995-08-01

    Using laboratory scale and full size PEP-II vacuum chambers, chemical cleaning, glow discharge and thermal process effects were evaluated using surface analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These processes were optimized to reduce surface carbon and thereby minimize photodesorption gas loads. The relation of surface carbon to ion dose was investigated and compared for pure argon, 5% oxygen in argon, and pure hydrogen plasmas. Argon incorporation was noted only when the copper was oxidized in the mixed gas. Surfaces, stable in ambient atmosphere, were obtained having surface carbon values less than 10%. These optimized recipes will be used in processing copper vacuum chambers for the PEP-II B-Factory.

  19. Composition, apparatus, and process, for sorption of gaseous compounds of group II-VII elements

    DOEpatents

    Tom, Glenn M.; McManus, James V.; Luxon, Bruce A.

    1991-08-06

    Scavenger compositions are disclosed, which have utility for effecting the sorptive removal of hazardous gases containing Group II-VII elements of the Periodic Table, such as are widely encountered in the manufacture of semiconducting materials and semiconductor devices. Gas sorption processes including the contacting of Group II-VII gaseous compounds with such scavenger compositions are likewise disclosed, together with critical space velocity contacting conditions pertaining thereto. Further described are gas contacting apparatus, including mesh structures which may be deployed in gas contacting vessels containing such scavenger compositions, to prevent solids from being introduced to or discharged from the contacting vessel in the gas stream undergoing treatment. A reticulate heat transfer structure also is disclosed, for dampening localized exothermic reaction fronts when gas mixtures comprising Group II-VII constituents are contacted with the scavenger compositions in bulk sorption contacting vessels according to the invention.

  20. Completion of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II Sodium Processing at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Mary D.; Griffin, Charles D.; Baird, Daniel K.; Baily, Carl E.; Michelbacher, John A.; Rosenberg, Kenneth E.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2002-07-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. Located in eastern Idaho, this sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964, and was a test facility for fuels development, materials irradiation, system and control theory tests, and hardware development. The EBR-II termination activities began in October 1994, with the reactor being maintained in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for decommissioning. With the shutdown of EBR-II, its sodium coolant became a waste necessitating its reaction to a disposal form. A Sodium Process Facility (SPF), designed to convert sodium to 50 wt% sodium hydroxide, existed at the ANL-W site, but had never been operated. The SPF was upgraded to current standards and codes, and then modified in 1998 to convert the sodium to 70 wt% sodium hydroxide, a substance that solidifies at 65 deg. C (150 deg. F) and is acceptable for burial as low level radioactive waste in Idaho. In December 1998, the SPF began operations. Working with sodium and highly concentrated sodium hydroxide presented some unique operating and maintenance conditions. Several lessons were learned throughout the operating period. Processing of the 330 m{sup 3} (87,000 gallons) of EBR-II primary sodium, 50 m{sup 3} (13,000 gallons) of EBR-II secondary sodium, and 290 m{sup 3} (77,000 gallons) of Fermi-1 primary sodium was successfully completed in March 2001, ahead of schedule and within budget. (authors)

  1. Recruitment Early Warning System and Accession Contingency Planning Process. Phase II. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    RD-A154 613 RECRUITMENT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM AND ACCESSION i/7 CONTINGENCY PLANNING PROCE..(U) ECONOMIC RESEARCH LAB INC RESTON YA L GOLDBERG ET AL...11 TITLE (include Security Classification) Recruitment Early Warning System and Accession Contingency Planning Process Phase II, Part 1 Final Report...GROUP Early Warning System, Forecasting, Manpower Planning LV &V WA&Vm 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block ny.1ber

  2. NMR investigation of dynamic processes in complexes of nickel(II) and zinc(II) with iminodiacetate, n-methyliminodiacetate and n-ethyliminodiacetate

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.R.

    1985-11-01

    Analysis of oxygen-17 bulk water relaxation rates with an aqueous solution of 1:1 Ni(II):ida reveals that two rate-limiting processes are involved with solvent exchange. Analysis of carbon-13 longitudinal relaxation rates of the bis-ligand complexes with zinc(II) are used to determine molecular tumbling rates and methyl rotation rates. The carbon-13 transverse relaxation rates for the carbons in the bis-ligand complex with Ni(II) are adequately fitted to the Solomon-Bloembergen equation. Three carboxylate carbon peaks are seen with the /sup 13/C spectrum of the 1:2 Ni(II):ida complex, which coalesce into a single peak above about 360 K. The mechanism and rate of ligand exchange are determined for the complexes Zn(II)L/sub 2//sup -2/ (L = mida, eida) in aqueous solution by total lineshape analysis of the proton spectrum at 500 MHz.

  3. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  4. Efficient degradation of sulfamethoxazole by the Fe(II)/HSO5(-) process enhanced by hydroxylamine: Efficiency and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guifang; Li, Xuchun; Han, Bangjun; Chen, Liwei; Zhu, Linan; Campos, Luiza C

    2017-01-15

    Fenton or Fenton-like processes have been regarded as feasible methods to degrade a wide variety of contaminants by generating reactive species, but the efficiency is still challenged by the slow transformation from Fe(III) to Fe(II) and pH. This study employed hydroxylamine (HA) to improve the oxidation efficiency of Fe(II)/HSO5(-) (Fe(II)/PMS) process, by selecting sulfamethoxazole (SMX) as the target compound. The degradation efficiency and mechanism of SMX by the HA/Fe(II)/PMS process were elucidated for the first time. Compared with Fe(II)/PMS process, the HA/Fe(II)/PMS process showed about 4 times higher degradation efficiency of SMX at pH 3.0. The analysis of steady-state concentration of Fe species indicated that HA enhanced the transformation of Fe(III) to Fe(II), sustaining the rapid Fenton-like reactions. Both sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals accounted for the degradation of SMX, with the latter regarded as the dominant reactive species. Degradation intermediates of SMX were further analyzed, and three main transformation pathways were thus proposed. The HA/Fe(II)/PMS process was also effective in the removal of SMX and total organic carbon from real pharmaceutical wastewater. This work would broaden the scope of application of Fenton and Fenton-like processes enhanced by HA in contaminants treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A study of pickup and signal processing for HLS- II bunch current measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong-Liang; Ma, Tian-Ji; Sun, Bao-Gen; Wang, Ji-Gang; Zou, Jun-Ying; Cheng, Chao-Cai; Lu, Ping

    2013-09-01

    For the HLS-II bunch current measurement system, in order to obtain the absolute value of bunch current, the calibration factor should be determined by using DCCT. At the HLS storage ring, the stretch effect of bunch length is observed and the change rate is about 19% when the bunch current decays over time and this will affect the performance of bunch current detection. To overcome the bunch stretch influence in the HLS- II bunch current measurement, an evaluation about pickup type and signal processing is carried out. Strip-line pickup and button pickup are selectable, and the theoretical analysis and demonstration experiment are performed to find out an acceptable solution for the bunch current measurement system at HLS- II. The experimental data analysis shows that the normalized calibration factor will change by about 27% when the bunch length changes by about 19% if using the button pickup and processing by peak value of bunch signal; the influence will be reduced to 2% less if adopting the strip-line pickup and integral.

  6. Distributed real time data processing architecture for the TJ-II data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; Lopez, S.; Machon, D.; Vega, J.; Sanchez, E.

    2004-10-01

    This article describes the performance of a new model of architecture that has been developed for the TJ-II data acquisition system in order to increase its real time data processing capabilities. The current model consists of several compact PCI extension for instrumentation (PXI) standard chassis, each one with various digitizers. In this architecture, the data processing capability is restricted to the PXI controller's own performance. The controller must share its CPU resources between the data processing and the data acquisition tasks. In the new model, distributed data processing architecture has been developed. The solution adds one or more processing cards to each PXI chassis. This way it is possible to plan how to distribute the data processing of all acquired signals among the processing cards and the available resources of the PXI controller. This model allows scalability of the system. More or less processing cards can be added based on the requirements of the system. The processing algorithms are implemented in LabVIEW (from National Instruments), providing efficiency and time-saving application development when compared with other efficient solutions.

  7. Exogenous antigens bind MHC class II first, and are processed by cathepsins later.

    PubMed

    Sadegh-Nasseri, Scheherazade; Kim, AeRyon

    2015-12-01

    The field of antigen processing and presentation is likely one of the most well defined areas in immunology based on decades of intense molecular and structural studies. Many molecules contributing to antigen processing and presentation have been discovered and their mechanisms of action been largely defined, yet a major question, which lies at the very core of the field has remained hard to pin down. The question is what determines immunodominance? Immunodominance is defined as a few specific epitopes being selected to represent an antigen to the immune system and provide targets for T cells. Many studies have aimed at understanding how epitopes are selected. A range of hypotheses related to the structural features of antigens, sensitivity to proteases, epitope affinity for MHC II, T cell precursor frequency, and T cell receptor affinity for peptide/MHC II have been considered. However, because of the variety of proteins and factors involved in antigen processing and enormous complexity, finding an answer has been challenging. Here we make an effort to tease out the sequence of events in antigen processing that promote selection of immunodominant epitopes for exogenous antigens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct demonstration of rapid insulin-like growth factor II receptor internalization and recycling in rat adipocytes. Insulin stimulates SVI-insulin-like growth factor II degradation by modulating the IGF-II receptor recycling process

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Y.; Rozek, L.M.; Czech, M.P.

    1985-08-05

    The photoactive insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II analogue 4-azidobenzoyl- SVI-IGF-II was synthesized and used to label specifically and covalently the Mr = 250,000 Type II IGF receptor. When rat adipocytes are irradiated after a 10-min incubation with 4-azidobenzoyl- SVI-IGF-II at 10 degrees C and immediately homogenized, most of the labeled IGF-II receptors are associated with the plasma membrane fraction, indicating that receptors accessible to the labeling reagent at low temperature are on the cell surface. However, when the photolabeled cells are incubated at 37 degrees C for various times before homogenization, labeled IGF-II receptors are rapidly internalized with a half-time of 3.5 min as evidenced by a loss from the plasma membrane fraction and a concomitant appearance in the low density microsome fraction. The steady state level of cell surface IGF-II receptors in the presence or absence of IGF-II remains constant under these conditions, demonstrating that IGF-II receptors rapidly recycle back to the cell surface at the same rate as receptor internalization. Using the above methodology, it is shown that acute insulin action: 1) increases the steady state number of cell surface IGF-II receptors; 2) increases the number of ligand-bound IGF-II receptors that are internalized per unit of time; and 3) increases the rate of cellular SVI-IGF-II degradation by a process that is blocked by anti-IGF-II receptor antibody.

  9. Use of ELVIS II platform for random process modelling and analysis of its probability density function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslennikova, Yu. S.; Nugmanov, I. S.

    2016-08-01

    The problem of probability density function estimation for a random process is one of the most common in practice. There are several methods to solve this problem. Presented laboratory work uses methods of the mathematical statistics to detect patterns in the realization of random process. On the basis of ergodic theory, we construct algorithm for estimating univariate probability density distribution function for a random process. Correlational analysis of realizations is applied to estimate the necessary size of the sample and the time of observation. Hypothesis testing for two probability distributions (normal and Cauchy) is used on the experimental data, using χ2 criterion. To facilitate understanding and clarity of the problem solved, we use ELVIS II platform and LabVIEW software package that allows us to make the necessary calculations, display results of the experiment and, most importantly, to control the experiment. At the same time students are introduced to a LabVIEW software package and its capabilities.

  10. The RNA processing exosome is linked to elongating RNA polymerase II in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Andrulis, Erik D; Werner, Janis; Nazarian, Arpi; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Lis, John T

    The RNA polymerase II elongation complex contains several factors that facilitate transcription elongation and catalyse the processing of precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs). The conserved elongation factor Spt6 is recruited rapidly and robustly to sites of active transcription. Here we show that Drosophila Spt6 (dSpt6) co-purifies with the exosome, a complex of 3' to 5' exoribonucleases that is implicated in the processing of structural RNA and in the degradation of improperly processed pre-mRNA. Immunoprecipitation assays of Drosophila nuclear extracts show that the exosome also associates with the elongation factor dSpt5 and RNA polymerase II. In vivo, exosome subunits colocalize with dSpt6 at transcriptionally active loci on polytene chromosomes during normal development and are strongly recruited to heat-shock loci on gene induction. At higher resolution, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that the exosome is recruited to transcriptionally active units of heat-shock genes. These data provide a physical basis for the hypothesis that exosome-mediated pre-mRNA surveillance accompanies transcription elongation.

  11. Shelf edge exchange processes-II SEEP2-06, R/V Endeavor cruise 186

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Behrens, W.J.; Flagg, C.N.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Wyman, K.D.

    1989-12-01

    The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is a multi-institutional effort designed to investigate the flux of suspended material from the continental shelf to the waters of the upper slope, and then possibly into the slope sediments. Phase I of SEEP consisted of a series of nine cruises and a mooring array across the outer continental shelf of New England during 1983--1984. Phase II focused specifically on the shelf/slope frontal region of the mid-Atlantic bight off the Delmarva Peninsula. Hydrographic data were collected on eight of the six cruises.

  12. Patient-reported outcome following nonsurgical management of type II odontoid process fractures in adults

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Maged D; Zeineddine, Hussein A; Nassir, Rafiq Muhammed; Bhatt, Pragnesh; Kamel, Mahmoud H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transverse (type II) odontoid process fracture is among the most commonly encountered cervical spine fractures. Nonsurgical management through external immobilization is occasionally preferred to surgical management but is criticized for its higher rates of failure and lower patient satisfaction. Our aim is to analyze patient-reported outcomes in patients who underwent nonsurgical treatment for type II odontoid fractures. Methods: We identified patients >18-year-old who underwent external immobilization as a treatment for isolated type II odontoid fracture between 2007 and 2012. We collected demographic parameters, clinical presentation, mode of injury, imaging studies and modality and duration of treatment (soft collar, halo-vest, or both). Patients were contacted by telephone to participate in a 15-min survey addressing their recovery including their subjective rate of return to preinjury level of functioning. Results: Fifteen patients met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and participated in our survey. Patients were followed up for an average of 19 months after injury. Overall mean age was 61 years. Injury followed a mechanical fall or a road traffic accident in 11 and 4 cases, respectively. External immobilization was achieved by halo vest only in nine patients, soft collar only in two patients (13%), and through a sequential combination in the remaining 4 (27%). This was deployed for a mean of 7.8 months. Radiological studies at the last follow-up showed bony healing (27%), fibrous nonunion (60%), and persistent instability (13%). Patients reported gradual recovery of function throughout the 1st year after injury with levels above 70% of preinjury functioning achieved by 13% of patients at 6 months, 33% at 9 months, and 47% at 12 months. Overall satisfaction with nonsurgical management was 68%. Conclusion: In selected patients with type II odontoid fractures, external immobilization represents a good option with acceptable course of recovery. PMID

  13. 78 FR 22361 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative...

  14. 78 FR 9987 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative...

  15. 78 FR 8217 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative...

  16. Toward a Network Model of MHC Class II-Restricted Antigen Processing

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michael A.; Ganesan, Asha Purnima V.; Eisenlohr, Laurence C.

    2013-01-01

    The standard model of Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHCII)-restricted antigen processing depicts a straightforward, linear pathway: internalized antigens are converted into peptides that load in a chaperone dependent manner onto nascent MHCII in the late endosome, the complexes subsequently trafficking to the cell surface for recognition by CD4+ T cells (TCD4+). Several variations on this theme, both moderate and radical, have come to light but these alternatives have remained peripheral, the conventional pathway generally presumed to be the primary driver of TCD4+ responses. Here we continue to press for the conceptual repositioning of these alternatives toward the center while proposing that MHCII processing be thought of less in terms of discrete pathways and more in terms of a network whose major and minor conduits are variable depending upon many factors, including the epitope, the nature of the antigen, the source of the antigen, and the identity of the antigen-presenting cell. PMID:24379819

  17. Custom instruction for NIOS II processor FFT implementation for image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajana, Sindhuja; Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Botella, Guillermo

    2016-05-01

    Image processing can be considered as signal processing in two dimensions (2D). Filtering is one of the basic image processing operation. Filtering in frequency domain is computationally faster when compared to the corresponding spatial domain operation as the complex convolution process is modified as multiplication in frequency domain. The popular 2D transforms used in image processing are Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The common values for resolution of an image are 640x480, 800x600, 1024x768 and 1280x1024. As it can be seen, the image formats are generally not a power of 2. So power of 2 FFT lengths are not required and these cannot be built using shorter Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) blocks. Split radix based FFT algorithms like Good-Thomas FFT algorithm simplifies the implementation logic required for such applications and hence can be implemented in low area and power consumption and also meet the timing constraints thereby operating at high frequency. The Good-Thomas FFT algorithm which is a Prime Factor FFT algorithm (PFA) provides the means of computing DFT with least number of multiplication and addition operations. We will be providing an Altera FPGA based NIOS II custom instruction implementation of Good-Thomas FFT algorithm to improve the system performance and also provide the comparison when the same algorithm is completely implemented in software.

  18. SCALE UP OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR THE EBR-II SPENT FUEL TREATMENT PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew C. Morrison; Kenneth J. Bateman; Michael F. Simpson

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT SCALE UP OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR THE EBR-II SPENT FUEL TREATMENT PROCESS Matthew C. Morrison, Kenneth J. Bateman, Michael F. Simpson Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 The ceramic waste process is the intended method for disposing of waste salt electrolyte, which contains fission products from the fuel-processing electrorefiners (ER) at the INL. When mixed and processed with other materials, the waste salt can be stored in a durable ceramic waste form (CWF). The development of the CWF has recently progressed from small-scale testing and characterization to full-scale implementation and experimentation using surrogate materials in lieu of the ER electrolyte. Two full-scale (378 kg and 383 kg) CWF test runs have been successfully completed with final densities of 2.2 g/cm3 and 2.1 g/cm3, respectively. The purpose of the first CWF was to establish material preparation parameters. The emphasis of the second pre-qualification test run was to evaluate a preliminary multi-section CWF container design. Other considerations were to finalize material preparation parameters, measure the material height as it consolidates in the furnace, and identify when cracking occurs during the CWF cooldown process.

  19. Addition of carboxyalkyl radicals to alkenes through a catalytic process, using a Mn(II)/Co(II)/O2 redox system.

    PubMed

    Hirase, Koji; Sakaguchi, Satoshi; Ishii, Yasutaka

    2003-07-25

    A novel strategy for production of mono- and dicarboxylic acids by the addition of carboxyalkyl radicals to alkenes and dienes, respectively, was successfully developed through a catalytic process with use of Mn(II)/Co(II)/O(2) system. Thus, a variety of carboxylic acids were prepared by the reaction of alkenes and dienes with acid anhydrides in the presence of a very small amount of Mn(OAc)(2) (0.5 mol %) and Co(OAc)(2) (0.1 mol %) under dilute dioxygen.

  20. Hydrometallurgical process for zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD). Part II: Downstream processing and zinc recovery by electrowinning.

    PubMed

    Tsakiridis, P E; Oustadakis, P; Katsiapi, A; Agatzini-Leonardou, S

    2010-07-15

    The characterization and the agitation leaching of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) by diluted sulphuric acid have been studied in Part I, as a separate article. The aim of the present research work (Part II) is the development of a purification process of the leach liquor for the recovery of high-purity zinc by electrowinning. The proposed hydrometallurgical process consists of the following four (4) unit operations: (1) Removal of iron as easily filterable crystalline basic sulphate salt of the jarosite type, at atmospheric pressure, by chemical precipitation at pH: 3.5 and 95 degrees C. (2) Zinc solvent extraction by Cyanex 272 at pH: 3.5, T: 40 degrees C, with 25% extractant concentration. (3) Stripping of the loaded organic phase by zinc spent electrolyte (62.5 g/L Zn(2+)) at T: 40 degrees C with diluted H(2)SO(4) (3 mol/L). (4) Zinc electrowinning from sulphate solutions (at 38 degrees C) using Al as cathode and Pb as anode. The acidity of the electrolyte was fixed at 180 g/L H(2)SO(4), while the current density was kept constant at 500 A/m(2).

  1. Type I interferon drives a distinctive dendritic cell maturation phenotype that allows continued class II MHC synthesis and antigen processing

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Daimon P.; Wearsch, Pamela A.; Canaday, David H.; Meyerson, Howard J.; Liu, Yi C.; Wang, Ying; Boom, W. Henry; Harding, Clifford V.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial molecules or cytokines can stimulate dendritic cell (DC) maturation, which involves DC migration to lymph nodes and enhanced presentation of Ag to launch T cell responses. Microbial Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are the most studied inducers of DC maturation, but type I interferon (IFN-I) also promotes DC maturation. In response to TLR stimulation, DC maturation involves a burst of Ag processing with enhanced expression of peptide-MHC-II complexes and co-stimulator molecules. Subsequently, MHC-II synthesis and expression in intracellular vacuolar compartments is inhibited, decreasing Ag processing function. This limits presentation to a cohort of Ags kinetically associated with the maturation stimulus and excludes presentation of Ags subsequently experienced by the DC. In contrast, our studies show that IFN-I enhances DC expression of MHC-II and co-stimulatory molecules without a concomitant inhibition of subsequent MHC-II synthesis and Ag processing. Expression of mRNA for MHC-II and the transcription factor CIITA is inhibited in DCs treated with TLR agonists but maintained in cells treated with IFN-I. Following stimulation with IFN-I, MHC-II expression is increased on the plasma membrane but is also maintained in intracellular vacuolar compartments, consistent with sustained Ag processing function. These findings suggest that IFN-I drives a distinctive DC maturation program that enhances Ag presentation to T cells without a shutdown of Ag processing, allowing continued sampling of Ags for presentation. PMID:22371391

  2. Lumi I --> Lumi II: the last detergent independent process in rhodopsin photoexcitationt.

    PubMed

    Epps, Jacqueline; Lewis, James W; Szundi, Istvan; Kliger, David S

    2006-01-01

    Time-resolved absorbance difference spectra were collected at delays from 1 to 128 micros after photolysis of membrane and detergent suspensions of rhodopsin at 20 degrees C. Fitting both sets of data with two exponential decays plus a constant showed a similar fast process (lifetime 11 micros in membrane, 12 micros in 5% dodecyl maltoside) with a small but similar spectral change. This demonstrates that the Lumi I - Lumi II process, previously characterized in detergent suspensions, has similar properties in membrane without significant effect of detergent. The slower exponential process detected in the data is quite different in membrane compared to detergent solubilized samples, showing that the pronounced effect of detergent on the later rhodopsin photointermediates begins fairly abruptly near 20 micros. Besides affecting the late processes, the data collected here shows that detergent induces a small blue shift in the 1 micros difference spectrum (the Lumi I minus rhodopsin difference spectrum). The blue shift is similar to one induced by chloride ion in the E181Q rhodopsin mutant and may indicate that the ionization state of Glu181 in rhodopsin is affected by detergent.

  3. Biosorption of Lead(II) by Arthrobacter sp. 25: Process Optimization and Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yu; Wang, Xin; Zang, Tingting; Hu, Yang; Hu, Xiaojing; Ren, Guangming; Xu, Xiuhong; Qu, Juanjuan

    2016-08-28

    In the present work, Arthrobacter sp. 25, a lead-tolerant bacterium, was assayed to remove lead(II) from aqueous solution. The biosorption process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design. The relationships between dependent and independent variables were quantitatively determined by second-order polynomial equation and 3D response surface plots. The biosorption mechanism was explored by characterization of the biosorbent before and after biosorption using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of 9.6 mg/g was obtained at the initial lead ion concentration of 108.79 mg/l, pH value of 5.75, and biosorbent dosage of 9.9 g/l (fresh weight), which was close to the theoretically expected value of 9.88 mg/g. Arthrobacter sp. 25 is an ellipsoidalshaped bacterium covered with extracellular polymeric substances. The biosorption mechanism involved physical adsorption and microprecipitation as well as ion exchange, and functional groups such as phosphoryl, hydroxyl, amino, amide, carbonyl, and phosphate groups played vital roles in adsorption. The results indicate that Arthrobacter sp. 25 may be potentially used as a biosorbent for low-concentration lead(II) removal from wastewater.

  4. Beam size and position measurement based on logarithm processing algorithm in HLS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chao-Cai; Sun, Bao-Gen; Yang, Yong-Liang; Zhou, Ze-Ran; Lu, Ping; Wu, Fang-Fang; Wang, Ji-Gang; Tang, Kai; Luo, Qing; Li, Hao; Zheng, Jia-Jun; Duan, Qing-Ming

    2016-04-01

    A logarithm processing algorithm to measure beam transverse size and position is proposed and preliminary experimental results in Hefei Light Source II (HLS II) are given. The algorithm is based on only 4 successive channels of 16 anode channels of multianode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) R5900U-00-L16, which has typical rise time of 0.6 ns and effective area of 0.8×16 mm for a single anode channel. In the paper, we first elaborate the simulation results of the algorithm with and without channel inconsistency. Then we calibrate the channel inconsistency and verify the algorithm using a general current signal processor Libera Photon in a low-speed scheme. Finally we get turn-by-turn beam size and position and calculate the vertical tune in a high-speed scheme. The experimental results show that measured values fit well with simulation results after channel differences are calibrated, and the fractional part of the tune in vertical direction is 0.3628, which is very close to the nominal value 0.3621. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11005105, 11175173)

  5. Software architecture of data acquisition control process during TJ-II operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, J.; Crémy, C.; Sánchez, E.; Portas, A.; Dormido, S.

    1997-01-01

    Data from the diagnostics on the TJ-II device will be collected by several independent systems linked to local area networks (LANs). Some of these systems will consist of digitizers based on well-known standards: CAMAC, VME, VXI, etc. Other allowable systems would be personal computers or workstations with direct control over a specific diagnostic. In principal, any equipment capable of being linked in a LAN can be used as a controller for data collection. All systems will be programmed from a central computer. In this computer, an application program will allow the set up of data acquisition in any system. This will be achieved by communicating systems through a network standard protocol: TCP/IP. The central computer will also centralize the database of discharges. For this purpose, immediately after a discharge, data will be sent from the autonomous systems to the main computer. The latter will coordinate data reception, organize discharge information, and compress data. Data will be transferred rapidly so all diagnostic signals will be available to users for immediate analysis. The computer processes outlined here will provide an application program to provide users with an interface for all operations related to data acquisition, fast signal analysis, and remote control of diagnostics. A second functionality will be the management of TJ-II discharge database.

  6. DMA and DMB are the only genes in the class II region of the human MHC needed for class II-associated antigen processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ceman, S.; Rudersdorf, R.A.; Petersen, J.M.

    1995-03-15

    Previous studies have shown that homozygous mutations between the LMP2 and DNA loci in the human MHC cause class II molecules to be abnormally conformed and unstable in the presence of SDS at low temperature, and impede class II-associated Ag processing and presentation. These abnormalities result from impaired ability to form intracellular class II/peptide complexes that predominate in normal cells. We show in this work that this defect results from deficient expression of either the DMA or the DMB gene. Human B-LCL.174 (DR3) cells, which have a deletion of all known expressible genes in the class II region, express transgene-encoded HLA-DR3, but have the abnormalities. Transfer of cosmid HA14, which contains the DMA and DMB genes, into .174 (DR3) cells restored normal DR3 conformation, stability in 0.4% SDS at 0{degrees}, and ability to process and present tetanus toxoid, but only when both DMA and DMB mRNAs were present. The requirement for both genetic expressions in engendering normal phenotypes was confirmed by transferring the cloned genes into .174 (DR3) cells separately or together. Because normal phenotypes were fully restored in transferent cells expressing DMA plus DMB, other genes in the {approximately} 1-mb homozygous class II region deletion in .174 (DR3) cells either do not participate in or are dispensable for apparently normal production of intracellular class II/peptide complexes. The properties of DM-deficient EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) suggest ways of identifying humans in whom DM deficiency contributes to congenital immunodeficiency and malignancy. 67 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. pH-Induced processes in wire-like multichromophoric homo- and heterotrimetallic complexes of Fe(II), Ru(II), and Os(II).

    PubMed

    Maity, Dinesh; Mardanya, Sourav; Karmakar, Srikanta; Baitalik, Sujoy

    2015-06-07

    In this work we studied the influence of pH on the absorption, steady state and time-resolved emission spectroscopic behaviors of recently reported multichromophoric trimetallic complexes of the forms [(bpy)2M(phen-Hbzim-tpy)M'(tpy-Hbzim-phen)M(bpy)2](6+) (M = Ru(II) or Os(II), and M' = Fe(II), Ru(II), and Os(II)) derived from a heteroditopic phenanthroline-terpyridine bridge, 2-(4-(2,6-di(pyridin-2-yl)pyridine-4-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazole[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (tpy-Hbzim-phen) and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) as the auxiliary ligand. For purposes of comparison, the UV-vis absorption and emission titrations of three monometallic model compounds [(bpy)2Ru(phen-Hbzim-tpy)](ClO4)2 (1), [(bpy)2Os(phen-Hbzim-tpy)] (ClO4)2 (2) and [(tpy-PhCH3)Ru(tpy-Hbzim-phen)](ClO4)2 (3), where tpy-PhCH3 = 4'-(4-methylphenyl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) were studied under the same experimental conditions. The absorption titration data were used to determine the ground state pKa values, whereas the luminescence and lifetime data were utilized for the determination of excited state pKa* values of the complexes. The evolving factor analyses of the set of absorption spectra of the complexes obtained by varying the pH of the solution confirm that only three absorbing species exist in the pH window of 2-12. Moreover, the modulation of the rate of the intramolecular energy transfer among the components in the homo- and heterotrimetallic complexes as a function of pH of the solution was also demonstrated.

  8. Role of charge recombination processes in photodamage and photoprotection of the photosystem II complex.

    PubMed

    Vass, Imre

    2011-05-01

    Light-induced damage of the photosynthetic apparatus is an important and complex phenomenon, which affects primarily the photosystem II (PSII) complex. Here, the author summarizes the current state of understanding, which concerns the role of charge recombination reactions in photodamage and photoprotection. The main mechanism of photodamage induced by visible light appears to be mediated by acceptor side modifications, which develop under light intensity conditions when the capacity of light-independent photosynthetic processes limits the utilization of electrons produced in the initial photoreactions. This situation facilitates triplet chlorophyll formation and singlet oxygen production in the reaction center of PSII, which initiates the damage of electron transport components and protein structure. This mechanism is an important, but not exclusive, pathway of photodamage, and light-induced inactivation of the Mn cluster of water oxidation may occur in parallel with the singlet oxygen-dependent pathway. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  9. Effects of adsorbents and copper(II) on activated sludge microorganisms and sequencing batch reactor treatment process.

    PubMed

    Ong, S A; Lim, P E; Seng, C E

    2003-10-31

    Wastewater treatment systems employing simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes have proven to be effective in treating toxic pollutants present in industrial wastewater. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Cu(II) and the efficacy of the powdered activated carbon (PAC) and activated rice husk (ARH) in reducing the toxic effect of Cu(II) on the activated sludge microorganisms. The ARH was prepared by treatment with concentrated nitric acid for 15 h at 60-65 degrees C. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) systems were operated with FILL, REACT, SETTLE, DRAW and IDLE modes in the ratio of 0.5:3.5:1:0.75:0.25 for a cycle time of 6 h. The Cu(II) and COD removal efficiency were 90 and 85%, respectively, in the SBR system containing 10 mg/l Cu(II) with the addition of 143 mg/l PAC or 1.0 g PAC per cycle. In the case of 715 mg/l ARH or 5.0 g ARH per cycle addition, the Cu(II) and COD removal efficiency were 85 and 92%, respectively. ARH can be used as an alternate adsorbent to PAC in the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation wastewater treatment process for the removal of Cu(II). The specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and kinetic studies show that the addition of PAC and ARH reduce the toxic effect of Cu(II) on the activated sludge microorganisms.

  10. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  11. The plant RNA polymerase II elongation complex: a hub coordinating transcript elongation and mRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Grasser, Marion; Grasser, Klaus D

    2017-09-08

    Characterisation of the Arabidopsis RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) elongation complex revealed an assembly of a conserved set of transcript elongation factors associated with chromatin remodellers, histone modifiers as well as with various pre-mRNA splicing and polyadenylation factors. Therefore, transcribing RNAPII streamlines the processes of mRNA synthesis and processing in plants.

  12. Advanced oxidation removal of hypophosphite by O3/H2O2 combined with sequential Fe(II) catalytic process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zilong; Dong, Wenyi; Wang, Hongjie; Chen, Guanhan; Wang, Wei; Liu, Zekun; Gao, Yaguang; Zhou, Beili

    2017-08-01

    Elimination of hypophosphite (HP) was studied as an example of nickel plating effluents treatment by O3/H2O2 and sequential Fe(II) catalytic oxidation process. Performance assessment performed with artificial HP solution by varying initial pH and employing various oxidation processes clearly showed that the O3/H2O2─Fe(II) two-step oxidation process possessed the highest removal efficiency when operating under the same conditions. The effects of O3 dosing, H2O2 concentration, Fe(II) addition and Fe(II) feeding time on the removal efficiency of HP were further evaluated in terms of apparent kinetic rate constant. Under improved conditions (initial HP concentration of 50 mg L(-1), 75 mg L(-1) O3, 1 mL L(-1) H2O2, 150 mg L(-1) Fe(II) and pH 7.0), standard discharge (<0.5 mg L(-1) in China) could be achieved, and the Fe(II) feeding time was found to be the limiting factor for the evolution of apparent kinetic rate constant in the second stage. Characterization studies showed that neutralization process after oxidation treatment favored the improvement of phosphorus removal due to the formation of more metal hydroxides. Moreover, as a comparison with lab-scale Fenton approach, the O3/H2O2─Fe(II) oxidation process had more competitive advantages with respect to applicable pH range, removal efficiency, sludge production as well as economic costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Variable High-Pressure-Processing Sensitivities for Genogroup II Human Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Fangfei; DiCaprio, Erin; Li, Xinhui; Dai, Xianjun; Ma, Yuanmei; Hughes, John; Chen, Haiqiang; Kingsley, David H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a leading cause of foodborne diseases worldwide. High-pressure processing (HPP) is one of the most promising nonthermal technologies for the decontamination of viral pathogens in foods. However, the survival of HuNoVs after HPP is poorly understood because these viruses cannot be propagated in vitro. In this study, we estimated the survival of different HuNoV strains within genogroup II (GII) after HPP treatment using viral receptor-binding ability as an indicator. Four HuNoV strains (one GII genotype 1 [GII.1] strain, two GII.4 strains, and one GII.6 strain) were treated at high pressures ranging from 200 to 600 MPa. After treatment, the intact viral particles were captured by porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic beads (PGM-MBs) that contained histo-blood group antigens, the functional receptors for HuNoVs. The genomic RNA copies of the captured HuNoVs were quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Two GII.4 HuNoVs had similar sensitivities to HPP. The resistance of HuNoV strains against HPP ranked as follows: GII.1 > GII.6 > GII.4, with GII.4 being the most sensitive. Evaluation of temperature and matrix effects on HPP-mediated inactivation of HuNoV GII.4, GII.1, and GII.6 strains showed that HuNoV was more easily inactivated at lower temperatures and at a neutral pH. In addition, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and minimal essential medium (MEM) can provide protective effects against HuNoV inactivation compared to H2O. Collectively, this study demonstrated that (i) different HuNoV strains within GII exhibited different sensitivities to high pressure, and (ii) HPP is capable of inactivating HuNoV GII strains by optimizing pressure parameters. IMPORTANCE Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a leading cause of foodborne disease worldwide. Noroviruses are highly diverse, both antigenically and genetically. Genogroup II (GII) contains the majority of HuNoVs, with GII genotype 4 (GII.4) being the most prevalent

  14. Variable High-Pressure-Processing Sensitivities for Genogroup II Human Noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Lou, Fangfei; DiCaprio, Erin; Li, Xinhui; Dai, Xianjun; Ma, Yuanmei; Hughes, John; Chen, Haiqiang; Kingsley, David H; Li, Jianrong

    2016-10-01

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a leading cause of foodborne diseases worldwide. High-pressure processing (HPP) is one of the most promising nonthermal technologies for the decontamination of viral pathogens in foods. However, the survival of HuNoVs after HPP is poorly understood because these viruses cannot be propagated in vitro In this study, we estimated the survival of different HuNoV strains within genogroup II (GII) after HPP treatment using viral receptor-binding ability as an indicator. Four HuNoV strains (one GII genotype 1 [GII.1] strain, two GII.4 strains, and one GII.6 strain) were treated at high pressures ranging from 200 to 600 MPa. After treatment, the intact viral particles were captured by porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic beads (PGM-MBs) that contained histo-blood group antigens, the functional receptors for HuNoVs. The genomic RNA copies of the captured HuNoVs were quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Two GII.4 HuNoVs had similar sensitivities to HPP. The resistance of HuNoV strains against HPP ranked as follows: GII.1 > GII.6 > GII.4, with GII.4 being the most sensitive. Evaluation of temperature and matrix effects on HPP-mediated inactivation of HuNoV GII.4, GII.1, and GII.6 strains showed that HuNoV was more easily inactivated at lower temperatures and at a neutral pH. In addition, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and minimal essential medium (MEM) can provide protective effects against HuNoV inactivation compared to H2O. Collectively, this study demonstrated that (i) different HuNoV strains within GII exhibited different sensitivities to high pressure, and (ii) HPP is capable of inactivating HuNoV GII strains by optimizing pressure parameters. Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a leading cause of foodborne disease worldwide. Noroviruses are highly diverse, both antigenically and genetically. Genogroup II (GII) contains the majority of HuNoVs, with GII genotype 4 (GII.4) being the most prevalent. Recently, GII.1 and GII.6

  15. Enhancing processes for introduction, production, quality assurance, and delivery of US Title II food aid products.

    PubMed

    Schlossman, Nina; Webb, Patrick; Bagriansky, Jack; Johnson, Quentin; Rogers, Beatrice; Tilahun, Jessica; Masterson, Amelia Reese

    2011-09-01

    Enacted in 1950, Public Law 480 (PL480) dramatically increased the volume of U.S.food aid and the scope of interventions it supports. Billions of dollars have been invested, both to enhance the diets of chronically undernourished people in development settings, and to support nutritional needs during conflicts and natural disasters. Review the institutional processes-from procurement to delivery-that support this programming. We examined the systems that govern and oversee the many components of food aid programming and the extent to which they support a whole-of-government, multi-agency food aid agenda. We conducted consultations with US government employees and contractors, academics, industry representatives, donor agency staff United Nations personnel, and field-level food aid programming technical staff from many countries. A survey of USAID implementing partners conducted among 64 responding offices in 40 countries provided data on the use and effectiveness of enriched, fortified, or blended Title II commodities, the use of new commodities, and related procurement or logistics aspects. Expert panels provided input and feedback throughout the process. We identified potential improvements to overall delivery and cost-effectiveness of USAID programming to better meet the nutrition needs of beneficiaries. Options include changes in product formulation, the range of products provided, and/or the modes of product approval, processing, procurement, and distribution. This research points to several improvements in processes related to food aid: 1) Establish an interagency committee to oversee all government interests in the food aid agenda through an ongoing review process. 2) Enhance processes and quality assurance along the product value chain including the importance of effective interaction with the private sector to incorporate industry best practices and create public-private partnerships to promote product innovations. 3) Strengthen the evidence base for

  16. Role of oxidants in enhancing dewaterability of anaerobically digested sludge through Fe (II) activated oxidation processes: hydrogen peroxide versus persulfate

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kang; Zhou, Xu; Liu, Yiqi; Gong, Yanyan; Zhou, Beibei; Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    Improving dewaterability of sludge is important for the disposal of sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study, for the first time, investigated the Fe(II) activated oxidization processes in improving anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) dewaterability. The combination of Fe(II) (0–100 mg/g total solids (TS)) and persulfate (0–1,000 mg/g TS) under neutral pH as well as the combination of Fe(II) (0–100 mg/g TS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) (0–1,000 mg/g TS) under pH 3.0 were used to examine and compare their effect on the ADS dewaterability enhancement. The highest ADS dewaterability enhancement was attained at 25 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 50 mg HP/g TS, when the CST (CST: the capillary suction time, a sludge dewaterability indicator) was reduced by 95%. In contrast, the highest CST reduction in Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning was 90%, which was obtained at 50 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 250 mg persulfate/g TS. The results showed that Fe(II)-HP conditioning was comparable with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning in terms of highest CST reduction. Economic analysis suggested that the Fe(II)-HP conditioning was more promising for improving ADS dewaterability compared with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning, with the saving being up to $65,000 per year in a WWTP with a population equivalent of 100,000. PMID:27109500

  17. Role of oxidants in enhancing dewaterability of anaerobically digested sludge through Fe (II) activated oxidation processes: hydrogen peroxide versus persulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kang; Zhou, Xu; Liu, Yiqi; Gong, Yanyan; Zhou, Beibei; Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin

    2016-04-01

    Improving dewaterability of sludge is important for the disposal of sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study, for the first time, investigated the Fe(II) activated oxidization processes in improving anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) dewaterability. The combination of Fe(II) (0-100 mg/g total solids (TS)) and persulfate (0-1,000 mg/g TS) under neutral pH as well as the combination of Fe(II) (0-100 mg/g TS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) (0-1,000 mg/g TS) under pH 3.0 were used to examine and compare their effect on the ADS dewaterability enhancement. The highest ADS dewaterability enhancement was attained at 25 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 50 mg HP/g TS, when the CST (CST: the capillary suction time, a sludge dewaterability indicator) was reduced by 95%. In contrast, the highest CST reduction in Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning was 90%, which was obtained at 50 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 250 mg persulfate/g TS. The results showed that Fe(II)-HP conditioning was comparable with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning in terms of highest CST reduction. Economic analysis suggested that the Fe(II)-HP conditioning was more promising for improving ADS dewaterability compared with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning, with the saving being up to $65,000 per year in a WWTP with a population equivalent of 100,000.

  18. Membrane/distillation hybrid process research and development. Final report, phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Mazanec, T.J.

    1997-07-01

    This report covers work conducted under the grant awarded to BP by DOE in late 1991 entitled {open_quotes}Membrane/Distillation Hybrid Process Research and Development.{close_quotes} The program was directed towards development and commercialization of the BP process for separation of vapor phase olefins from non-olefins via facilitated transport using an aqueous facilitator. The program has come to a very successful conclusion, with formation of a partnership between BP and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) to market and commercialize the technology. The focus of this report is the final portion of the program, during which engineering re-design, facilitator optimization, economic analysis, and marketing have been the primary activities. At the end of Phase II BP was looking to partner with an engineering firm to advance the selective olefin recovery (SOR) technology from the lab/demo stage to full commercialization. In August 1995 BP and SWEC reached an agreement to advance the technology by completing additional Phase III work with DOE and beginning marketing activities.

  19. Shelf Edge Exchange Processes, II: SEEP2-08, R/V ENDEAVOR cruise 188

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Behrens, W.J.; Flagg, C.N.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Wyman, K.D.

    1989-12-01

    The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is a multi-institutional effort designed to investigate the flux of suspended material from the continental shelf to the waters of the upper slope, and then possibly into the slope sediments. Phase I of SEEP consisted of a series of nine cruises and a mooring array across the outer continental shelf of New England during 1983--1984 (Behrens and Flagg, 1986). Phase II focused specifically on the shelf/slope frontal region of the mid-Atlantic bight off the Delmarva Peninsula. This project consisted of a series of ten cruises, a mooring array, and a series of over-flights by NASA aircraft. Hydrographic data were collected on eight of the cruises, six of which were primarily mooring deployment or recovery cruises. The cruises were consecutively designated SEEP2-01 to SEEP2-10. Two cruises (SEEP2-04 and SEEP2-07) were dedicated to investigating benthic processes and hydrographic data were not collected.

  20. Promoter Clearance by RNA Polymerase II Is an Extended, Multistep Process Strongly Affected by Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Mahadeb; McKean, David; Luse, Donal S.

    2001-01-01

    We have characterized RNA polymerase II complexes halted from +16 to +49 on two templates which differ in the initial 20 nucleotides (nt) of the transcribed region. On a template with a purine-rich initial transcript, most complexes halted between +20 and +32 become arrested and cannot resume RNA synthesis without the SII elongation factor. These arrested complexes all translocate upstream to the same location, such that about 12 to 13 bases of RNA remain in each of the complexes after SII-mediated transcript cleavage. Much less arrest is observed over this same region with a second template in which the initially transcribed region is pyrimidine rich, but those complexes which do arrest on the second template also translocate upstream to the same location observed with the first template. Complexes stalled at +16 to +18 on either template do not become arrested. Complexes stalled at several locations downstream of +35 become partially arrested, but these more promoter-distal arrested complexes translocate upstream by less than 10 nt; that is, they do not translocate to a common, far-upstream location. Kinetic studies with nonlimiting levels of nucleoside triphosphates reveal strong pausing between +20 and +30 on both templates. These results indicate that promoter clearance by RNA polymerase II is at least a two-step process: a preclearance escape phase extending up to about +18 followed by an unstable clearance phase which extends over the formation of 9 to 17 more bonds. Polymerases halted during the clearance phase translocate upstream to the preclearance location and arrest in at least one sequence context. PMID:11486021

  1. Promoter clearance by RNA polymerase II is an extended, multistep process strongly affected by sequence.

    PubMed

    Pal, M; McKean, D; Luse, D S

    2001-09-01

    We have characterized RNA polymerase II complexes halted from +16 to +49 on two templates which differ in the initial 20 nucleotides (nt) of the transcribed region. On a template with a purine-rich initial transcript, most complexes halted between +20 and +32 become arrested and cannot resume RNA synthesis without the SII elongation factor. These arrested complexes all translocate upstream to the same location, such that about 12 to 13 bases of RNA remain in each of the complexes after SII-mediated transcript cleavage. Much less arrest is observed over this same region with a second template in which the initially transcribed region is pyrimidine rich, but those complexes which do arrest on the second template also translocate upstream to the same location observed with the first template. Complexes stalled at +16 to +18 on either template do not become arrested. Complexes stalled at several locations downstream of +35 become partially arrested, but these more promoter-distal arrested complexes translocate upstream by less than 10 nt; that is, they do not translocate to a common, far-upstream location. Kinetic studies with nonlimiting levels of nucleoside triphosphates reveal strong pausing between +20 and +30 on both templates. These results indicate that promoter clearance by RNA polymerase II is at least a two-step process: a preclearance escape phase extending up to about +18 followed by an unstable clearance phase which extends over the formation of 9 to 17 more bonds. Polymerases halted during the clearance phase translocate upstream to the preclearance location and arrest in at least one sequence context.

  2. The shelf edge exchange processes experiment, SEEP-II: an introduction to hypotheses, results and conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscaye, Pierre E.; Flagg, Charles N.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    The SEEP (Shelf Edge Exchange Processes)-II experiment was the second of two that took place in the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) of the eastern U.S. continental shelf and slope. The experiment included an array of 10 multi-instrumented moorings deployed for 15 months and 10 oceanographic cruises, all designed to address the problem of the fate of continental shelf particulate matter in general, and organic carbon in particular. This paper provides the setting and background for the SEEP Program, the SEEP-II experiment and an introduction to the 18 papers constituting the subject of this special volume. Because those papers lack one of a general nature on the physical oceanographic setting of the experiment, that aspect is treated in somewhat more detail here. The results of the experiment overwhelmingly show that the working hypothesis on which the SEEP Program was undertaken and sponsored by the Department of Energy is not valid. That is, there is not an export to the adjacent slope and open ocean of a large proportion of the particulate matter introduced to and biologically generated in the waters of the continental shelf; most of the biogenic particulate matter is recycled by consumption (bacterial and otherwise) and oxidation on the shelf, and only a small proportion (of order ≪5%) is exported to the adjacent slope. The small amount that is exported appears to be deposited preferentially in the sediments of an area of the slope centered at about 1000 m, and the export and sedimentation to that depocenter appears to increase from the northern to the southern MAB.

  3. Chemical and biological effects of heavy distillate recycle in the SRC-II process

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

    1983-12-01

    Recent work from the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction units shows that heavy distillate from the SRC-II process can be recycled to extinction, and hence a distillate product boiling entirely below 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) (or other selected boiling points) is feasible. In these runs distillate yield was not reduced; gas make was unaffected; and hydrogen consumption was increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of lighter end products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. Product endpoint is well below 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Chemical analyses showed both the < 270/sup 0/C (< 518/sup 0/F) and the < 310/sup 0/C (< 590/sup 0/F) distillates to be essentially devoid of several reference polycyclic compounds known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Tests for tumorigenic or carcinogenic activity were not carried out on these materials. However, a comparison of chemical data from the Merriam heavy distillate samples with data on the other SRC-II distillates where carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis data is available leads to the expectation that < 371/sup 0/C (< 700/sup 0/F) materials from the Merriam Laboratory will have greatly reduced tumorigenic and carcinogenic activity in skin painting tests. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

  4. Ultrafast excitation energy transfer and exciton-exciton annihilation processes in isolated light harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHC II) from spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, T.; Wasielewski, M.R. ); Irrgang, K.D.; Renger, G. )

    1994-11-17

    Excitation energy transfer and exciton-exciton annihilation in the isolated light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex of spinach photosystem II (LHC II) has been studied by two-color absorption difference spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution. After selectively exciting Chl b at 645 nm, the transient absorption changes were monitored at wavelengths where either Chl b (655 nm) or Chl a (680 nm) dominates the absorption of LHC II. From the good correspondence of the lifetimes obtained from a numerical analysis of the very fast relaxation in the Chl b absorption band (160 [+-] 20 fs) and the rise kinetics in the Chl a absorption band (145 [+-] 20 fs), it is suggested that the Chl b [yields] Chl a excitation energy transfer occurs on a time scale of about 150 fs. In addition, at both probe wavelengths (655 and 680 nm) lifetimes of 3-7 ps were observed which likely arise from excitation energy transfer processes connected with spectral shifting. The kinetic curves of the transient absorption changes at 680 nm show a remarkable intensity dependence which is ascribed to exciton-exciton annihilation. Since at a probe wavelength of 655 nm no intensity effect on the kinetics was observed, it is concluded that annihilation processes preferably occur among excited singlet states of Chl a molecules. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Study of the adsorption and electroadsorption process of Cu (II) ions within thermally and chemically modified activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Macías-García, A; Gómez Corzo, M; Alfaro Domínguez, M; Alexandre Franco, M; Martínez Naharro, J

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this work is to modify the porous texture and superficial groups of a commercial activated carbon through chemical and thermal treatment and subsequently study the kinetics of adsorption and electroadsorption of Cu (II) ion for these carbons. Samples of three activated carbons were used. These were a commercial activated carbon, commercial activated carbon modified thermically (C-N2-900) and finally commercial activated carbon modified chemically C-SO2-H2S-200. The activated carbons were characterized chemically and texturally and the electrical conductivity of them determined. Different kinetic models were applied. The kinetics of the adsorption and electroadsorption process of the Cu (II) ion fits a pseudo second order model and the most likely mechanism takes place in two stages. A first step through transfer of the metal mass through the boundary layer of the adsorbent and distribution of the Cu (II) on the external surface of the activated carbon and a second step that represents intraparticle diffusion and joining of the Cu (II) with the active centres of the activated carbon. Finally, the kinetics of the adsorption process are faster than the kinetics of the electroadsorption but the percentage of the Cu (II) ion retained is much higher in the electroadsorption process.

  6. Role of DDL processes during electrolytic reduction of Cu(II) in a low oxygen environment.

    PubMed

    Brosky, Rebekah T; Pamukcu, Sibel

    2013-11-15

    Heavy metals typically accumulate in reduced bottom sediments after being discharged into waterways by industrial and municipal processes. A laboratory experiment was conducted in order to determine if abundance of clay in the bottom sediments of a Cu-contaminated aqueous ecosystem could enhance electrolytic reduction of the heavy metal. Cu(NO3)2 · 2.5H2O was added to simulate a moderately contaminated system with 650 μg Cu/ml kaolinite clay-water slurry. A constant electrical potential of 1.0 V/cm was applied across platinum wire electrodes inserted into the continuously stirred system for four days while the system ORP(2) was monitored and periodic sub-samples were taken for analysis. The electrical as well as the chemical results indicate that the quantity of Cu(II) being reduced to Cu(I), especially within the aqueous phase, is increased within the first 48 h of experimentation by the presence of kaolinite clay up to 0.05 mg clay/l slurry.

  7. Critical Infrastructure Protection II, The International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 290.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    The information infrastructure -- comprising computers, embedded devices, networks and software systems -- is vital to day-to-day operations in every sector: information and telecommunications, banking and finance, energy, chemicals and hazardous materials, agriculture, food, water, public health, emergency services, transportation, postal and shipping, government and defense. Global business and industry, governments, indeed society itself, cannot function effectively if major components of the critical information infrastructure are degraded, disabled or destroyed. Critical Infrastructure Protection II describes original research results and innovative applications in the interdisciplinary field of critical infrastructure protection. Also, it highlights the importance of weaving science, technology and policy in crafting sophisticated, yet practical, solutions that will help secure information, computer and network assets in the various critical infrastructure sectors. Areas of coverage include: - Themes and Issues - Infrastructure Security - Control Systems Security - Security Strategies - Infrastructure Interdependencies - Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation This book is the second volume in the annual series produced by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Working Group 11.10 on Critical Infrastructure Protection, an international community of scientists, engineers, practitioners and policy makers dedicated to advancing research, development and implementation efforts focused on infrastructure protection. The book contains a selection of twenty edited papers from the Second Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection held at George Mason University, Arlington, Virginia, USA in the spring of 2008.

  8. Variety in excitation energy transfer processes from phycobilisomes to photosystems I and II.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Aikawa, Shimpei; Niwa, Kyosuke; Abe, Tomoko; Murakami, Akio; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2017-02-09

    The light-harvesting antennas of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms capture light energy and transfer it to the reaction centers of their photosystems. The light-harvesting antennas of cyanobacteria and red algae, called phycobilisomes (PBSs), supply light energy to both photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII). However, the excitation energy transfer processes from PBS to PSI and PSII are not understood in detail. In the present study, the energy transfer processes from PBS to PSs in various cyanobacteria and red algae were examined in vivo by selectively exciting their PSs or PBSs, and measuring the resulting picosecond to nanosecond time-resolved fluorescences. By observing the delayed fluorescence spectrum of PBS-selective excitation in Arthrospira platensis, we demonstrated that energy transfer from PBS to PSI via PSII (PBS→PSII→PSI transfer) occurs even for PSI trimers. The contribution of PBS→PSII→PSI transfer was species dependent, being largest in the wild-type of red alga Pyropia yezoensis (formerly Porphyra yezoensis) and smallest in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Comparing the time-resolved fluorescence after PSs- and PBS-selective excitation, we revealed that light energy flows from CP43 to CP47 by energy transfer between the neighboring PSII monomers in PBS-PSII supercomplexes. We also suggest two pathways of energy transfer: direct energy transfer from PBS to PSI (PBS→PSI transfer) and indirect transfer through PSII (PBS→PSII→PSI transfer). We also infer that PBS→PSI transfer conveys light energy to a lower-energy red chlorophyll than PBS→PSII→PSI transfer.

  9. I. Advances in NMR Signal Processing. II. Spin Dynamics in Quantum Dissipative Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yung-Ya

    1998-11-01

    Part I. Advances in IVMR Signal Processing. Improvements of sensitivity and resolution are two major objects in the development of NMR/MRI. A signal enhancement method is first presented which recovers signal from noise by a judicious combination of a priordmowledge to define the desired feasible solutions and a set theoretic estimation for restoring signal properties that have been lost due to noise contamination. The effect of noise can be significantly mitigated through the process of iteratively modifying the noisy data set to the smallest degree necessary so that it possesses a collection of prescribed properties and also lies closest to the original data set. A novel detection-estimation scheme is then introduced to analyze noisy and/or strongly damped or truncated FIDs. Based on exponential modeling, the number of signals is detected based on information estimated using the matrix pencil method. theory and the spectral parameters are Part II. Spin Dynamics in body dipole-coupled systems Quantum Dissipative Systems. Spin dynamics in manyconstitutes one of the most fundamental problems in magnetic resonance and condensed-matter physics. Its many-spin nature precludes any rigorous treatment. ‘Therefore, the spin-boson model is adopted to describe in the rotating frame the influence of the dipolar local fields on a tagged spin. Based on the polaronic transform and a perturbation treatment, an analytical solution is derived, suggesting the existence of self-trapped states in the. strong coupling limit, i.e., when transverse local field >> longitudinal local field. Such nonlinear phenomena originate from the joint action of the lattice fluctuations and the reaction field. Under semiclassical approximation, it is found that the main effect of the reaction field is the renormalization of the Hamiltonian of interest. Its direct consequence is the two-step relaxation process: the spin is initially localized in a quasiequilibrium state, which is later detrapped by

  10. Stress Induces Changes in the Phosphorylation of Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Polymerase II, Affecting Its Association with Chromatin and RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Antônio Augusto; Moretti, Nilmar Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal heptapeptide repeats of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) controls several transcription-related events in eukaryotes. Trypanosomatids lack these typical repeats and display an unusual transcription control. RNA Pol II associates with the transcription site of the spliced leader (SL) RNA, which is used in the trans-splicing of all mRNAs transcribed on long polycistronic units. We found that Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Pol II associated with chromatin is highly phosphorylated. When transcription is inhibited by actinomycin D, the enzyme runs off from SL genes, remaining hyperphosphorylated and associated with polycistronic transcription units. Upon heat shock, the enzyme is dephosphorylated and remains associated with the chromatin. Transcription is partially inhibited with the accumulation of housekeeping precursor mRNAs, except for heat shock genes. DNA damage caused dephosphorylation and transcription arrest, with RNA Pol II dissociating from chromatin although staying at the SL. In the presence of calyculin A, the hyperphosphorylated form detached from chromatin, including the SL loci. These results indicate that in trypanosomes, the unusual RNA Pol II is phosphorylated during the transcription of SL and polycistronic operons. Different types of stresses modify its phosphorylation state, affecting pre-RNA processing. PMID:24813189

  11. Pt(ii) coordination complexes as visible light photocatalysts for the oxidation of sulfides using batch and flow processes.

    PubMed

    Casado-Sánchez, Antonio; Gómez-Ballesteros, Rocío; Tato, Francisco; Soriano, Francisco J; Pascual-Coca, Gustavo; Cabrera, Silvia; Alemán, José

    2016-07-12

    A new catalytic system for the photooxidation of sulfides based on Pt(ii) complexes is presented. The catalyst is capable of oxidizing a large number of sulfides containing aryl, alkyl, allyl, benzyl, as well as more complex structures such as heterocycles and methionine amino acid, with complete chemoselectivity. In addition, the first sulfur oxidation in a continuous flow process has been developed.

  12. Kinetic and equilibrium studies for the adsorption process of cadmium(II) and copper(II) onto Pseudomonas aeruginosa using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry method.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bo; Tang, Biyu; Liu, Xiaoying; Zeng, Xiandong; Duan, Haiyan; Luo, Shenglian; Wei, Wanzhi

    2009-08-15

    A novel method for the simultaneous determination of cadmium(II) and copper(II) during the adsorption process onto Pseudomonas aeruginosa was developed. The concentration of the free metal ions was successfully detected by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) on the mercaptoethane sulfonate (MES) modified gold electrode, while the P. aeruginosa was efficiently avoided approaching to the electrode surface by the MES monolayer. And the anodic stripping peaks of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) appear at -0.13 and 0.34V respectively, at the concentration range of 5-50 microM, the peak currents of SWASV present linear relationships with the concentrations of cadmium and copper respectively. As the determination of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) was in real time and without pretreatment, the kinetic characteristics of the adsorption process were studied and all the corresponding regression parameters were obtained by fitting the electrochemical experimental data to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, Langmuir and Freundlich models well described the biosorption isotherms. And there were some differences in the amount of metal ion adsorbed at equilibrium (q(e)) and other kinetics parameters when the two ions coexisted were compared with the unaccompanied condition, which were also discussed in this paper. The proposed electrode system provides excellent platform for the simultaneous determination of trace metals in complex biosorption process.

  13. Fermentation and downstream process for high yield production of Plasmodium falciparum recombinant HRP II protein and its application in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anil K; Athmaram, T N; Shrivastava, Saurabh; Merwyn, S; Agarwal, G S; Gopalan, N

    2013-07-01

    Malaria represents the world's greatest public health problem in terms of number of people affected, levels of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical countries. Malaria parasites are members of the Apicomplexa, family of Plasmodiidae. Histidine-rich protein-II secreted by Plasmodium falciparum is known to be a compelling marker in malaria diagnosis and follow-up. In our present study, we have optimized the batch fermentation and downstream process for large scale production of recombinant P. falciparum HRP-II 62 kDa protein for diagnostic application. The culture broth was effectively induced with IPTG twice at different time intervals to sustain induction for a long period. Batch fermentation resulted in a wet weight of 61.34 g/L and dry cell biomass 12.81 g/L. With the improved downstream process, purified recombinant protein had a yield of 304.60 mg/L. The authenticity of the purified recombinant protein was confirmed via western blotting using indigenously developed HRP-II specific monoclonal antibodies and known positive human clinical sera samples. Further, the reactivity of recombinant HRP-II protein was validated using commercially available immuno chromatographic strips. Indirect ELISA using recombinant purified protein recognized the P. falciparum specific antibodies in suspected human sera samples. Our results clearly suggest that the recombinant HRP-II protein produced via batch fermentation has immense potential for routine diagnostic application.

  14. Flibe Coolant Cleanup and Processing in the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R W

    2001-03-23

    In the HYLIFE-II chamber design, a thick flowing blanket of molten-salt (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) called flibe is used to protect structures from radiation damage. Since it is directly exposed to the fusion target, the flibe will absorb the target debris. Removing the materials left over from target explosions at the rate of {approx}6/s and then recycling some of these materials poses a challenge for the inertial fusion energy power plant. The choice of target materials derives from multi-disciplinary criteria such as target performance, fabricability, safety and environment, corrosion, and cost of recycle. Indirect-drive targets require high-2 materials for the hohlraum. Gold and gadolinium are favorite target materials for laboratory experiments but cost considerations may preclude their use in power plants or at least requires cost effective recycle because a year's supply of gold and gadolinium is estimated at 520 M$ and 40 M$. Environmental and waste considerations alone require recycle of this material. Separation by volatility appears to be the most attractive (e.g., Hg and Xe); centrifugation (e.g., Pb) is acceptable with some problems (e.g., materials compatibility) and chemical separation is the least attractive (e.g. Gd and Hf). Mercury, hafnium and xenon might be substituted with equal target performance and have advantages in removal and recycle due to their high volatility, except for hafnium. Alternatively, lead, tungsten and xenon might be used due to the ability to use centrifugation and gaseous separation. Hafnium or tantalum form fluorides, which will complicate materials compatibility, corrosion and require sufficient volatility of the fluoride for separation. Further complicating the coolant cleanup and processing is the formation of free fluorine due to nuclear transformation of lithium and beryllium in the flibe, which requires chemical control of the fluoride level to minimize corrosion. The study of the choice of target materials and the

  15. Detection of functional class II-associated antigen: role of a low density endosomal compartment in antigen processing

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a functional assay to identify processed antigen in subcellular fractions from antigen-presenting cells; stimulatory activity in this assay may be caused by either free peptide fragments or by complexes of peptide fragments and class II molecules present on organellar membrane sheets and vesicles. In addition, we have developed a functional assay to identify proteolytic activity in subcellular fractions capable of generating antigenic peptides from intact proteins. These techniques permit the direct identification of intracellular sites of antigen processing and class II association. Using a murine B cell line stably transfected with a phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific membrane-bound immunoglobulin (Ig), we show that PC- conjugated antigens are rapidly internalized and efficiently degraded to generate processed antigen within an early low density compartment. Proteolytic activity capable of generating antigenic peptide fragments from intact proteins is found within low density endosomes and a dense compartment consistent with lysosomes. However, neither processed peptide nor peptide-class II complexes are detected in lysosomes from antigen-pulsed cells. Furthermore, blocking the intracellular transport of internalized antigen from the low density endosome to lysosomes does not inhibit the generation of processed antigen. Therefore, antigens internalized in association with membrane Ig on B cells can be efficiently processed in low density endosomal compartments without the contribution of proteases present within denser organelles. PMID:7722450

  16. Cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic processes coupled by myosin II in dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Chabaud, Mélanie; Heuzé, Mélina L.; Bretou, Marine; Vargas, Pablo; Maiuri, Paolo; Solanes, Paola; Maurin, Mathieu; Terriac, Emmanuel; Le Berre, Maël; Lankar, Danielle; Piolot, Tristan; Adelstein, Robert S.; Zhang, Yingfan; Sixt, Michael; Jacobelli, Jordan; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël; Piel, Matthieu; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    The immune response relies on the migration of leukocytes and on their ability to stop in precise anatomical locations to fulfil their task. How leukocyte migration and function are coordinated is unknown. Here we show that in immature dendritic cells, which patrol their environment by engulfing extracellular material, cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic. This antagonism results from transient enrichment of myosin IIA at the cell front, which disrupts the back-to-front gradient of the motor protein, slowing down locomotion but promoting antigen capture. We further highlight that myosin IIA enrichment at the cell front requires the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii). Thus, by controlling myosin IIA localization, Ii imposes on dendritic cells an intermittent antigen capture behaviour that might facilitate environment patrolling. We propose that the requirement for myosin II in both cell migration and specific cell functions may provide a general mechanism for their coordination in time and space. PMID:26109323

  17. Identification of prolyl carboxypeptidase as an alternative enzyme for processing of renal angiotensin II using mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Grobe, Nadja; Weir, Nathan M.; Leiva, Orly; Ong, Frank S.; Bernstein, Kenneth E.; Schmaier, Alvin H.; Morris, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) catalyzes conversion of ANG II to ANG-(1–7). The present study uses newly established proteomic approaches and genetic mouse models to examine the contribution of alternative renal peptidases to ACE2-independent formation of ANG-(1–7). In situ and in vitro mass spectrometric characterization showed that substrate concentration and pH control renal ANG II processing. At pH ≥6, ANG-(1–7) formation was significantly reduced in ACE2 knockout (KO) mice. However, at pH <6, formation of ANG-(1–7) in ACE2 KO mice was similar to that in wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting alternative peptidases for renal ANG II processing. Furthermore, the dual prolyl carboxypeptidase (PCP)-prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) inhibitor Z-prolyl-prolinal reduced ANG-(1–7) formation in ACE2 KO mice, while the ACE2 inhibitor MLN-4760 had no effect. Unlike the ACE2 KO mice, ANG-(1–7) formation from ANG II in PEP KO mice was not different from that in WT mice at any tested pH. However, at pH 5, this reaction was significantly reduced in kidneys and urine of PCP-depleted mice. In conclusion, results suggest that ACE2 metabolizes ANG II in the kidney at neutral and basic pH, while PCP catalyzes the same reaction at acidic pH. This is the first report demonstrating that renal ANG-(1–7) formation from ANG II is independent of ACE2. Elucidation of ACE2-independent ANG-(1–7) production pathways may have clinically important implications in patients with metabolic and renal disease. PMID:23392115

  18. Unraveling the Decomposition Process of Lead(II) Acetate: Anhydrous Polymorphs, Hydrates, and Byproducts and Room Temperature Phosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Casado, Francisco J; Ramos-Riesco, Miguel; Rodríguez-Cheda, José A; Cucinotta, Fabio; Matesanz, Emilio; Miletto, Ivana; Gianotti, Enrica; Marchese, Leonardo; Matěj, Zdeněk

    2016-09-06

    Lead(II) acetate [Pb(Ac)2, where Ac = acetate group (CH3-COO(-))2] is a very common salt with many and varied uses throughout history. However, only lead(II) acetate trihydrate [Pb(Ac)2·3H2O] has been characterized to date. In this paper, two enantiotropic polymorphs of the anhydrous salt, a novel hydrate [lead(II) acetate hemihydrate: Pb(Ac)2·(1)/2H2O], and two decomposition products [corresponding to two different basic lead(II) acetates: Pb4O(Ac)6 and Pb2O(Ac)2] are reported, with their structures being solved for the first time. The compounds present a variety of molecular arrangements, being 2D or 1D coordination polymers. A thorough thermal analysis, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), was also carried out to study the behavior and thermal data of the salt and its decomposition process, in inert and oxygenated atmospheres, identifying the phases and byproducts that appear. The complex thermal behavior of lead(II) acetate is now solved, finding the existence of another hydrate, two anhydrous enantiotropic polymorphs, and some byproducts. Moreover, some of them are phosphorescent at room temperature. The compounds were studied by TGA, DSC, X-ray diffraction, and UV-vis spectroscopy.

  19. Biogeochemical processes at the fringe of a landfill leachate pollution plume: potential for dissolved organic carbon, Fe(II), Mn(II), NH4, and CH4 oxidation.

    PubMed

    van Breukelen, Boris M; Griffioen, Jasper

    2004-09-01

    Various redox reactions may occur at the fringe of a landfill leachate plume, involving oxidation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CH4, Fe(II), Mn(II), and NH4 from leachate and reduction of O2, NO3 and SO4 from pristine groundwater. Knowledge on the relevance of these processes is essential for the simulation and evaluation of natural attenuation (NA) of pollution plumes. The occurrence of such biogeochemical processes was investigated at the top fringe of a landfill leachate plume (Banisveld, the Netherlands). Hydrochemical depth profiles of the top fringe were captured via installation of a series of multi-level samplers at 18, 39 and 58 m downstream from the landfill. Ten-centimeter vertical resolution was necessary to study NA within a fringe as thin as 0.5 m. Bromide appeared an equally well-conservative tracer as chloride to calculate dilution of landfill leachate, and its ratio to chloride was high compared to other possible sources of salt in groundwater. The plume fringe rose steadily from a depth of around 5 m towards the surface with a few meters in the period 1998-2003. The plume uplift may be caused by enhanced exfiltration to a brook downstream from the landfill, due to increased precipitation over this period and an artificial lowering of the water level of the brook. This rise invoked cation exchange including proton buffering, and triggered degassing of methane. The hydrochemical depth profile was simulated in a 1D vertical reactive transport model using PHREEQC-2. Optimization using the nonlinear optimization program PEST brought forward that solid organic carbon and not clay minerals controlled retardation of cations. Cation exchange resulted in spatial separation of Fe(II), Mn(II) and NH4 fronts from the fringe, and thereby prevented possible oxidation of these secondary redox species. Degradation of DOC may happen in the fringe zone. Re-dissolution of methane escaped from the plume and subsequent oxidation is an explanation for absence of

  20. Biogeochemical processes at the fringe of a landfill leachate pollution plume: potential for dissolved organic carbon, Fe(II), Mn(II), NH 4, and CH 4 oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breukelen, Boris M.; Griffioen, Jasper

    2004-09-01

    Various redox reactions may occur at the fringe of a landfill leachate plume, involving oxidation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CH 4, Fe(II), Mn(II), and NH 4 from leachate and reduction of O 2, NO 3 and SO 4 from pristine groundwater. Knowledge on the relevance of these processes is essential for the simulation and evaluation of natural attenuation (NA) of pollution plumes. The occurrence of such biogeochemical processes was investigated at the top fringe of a landfill leachate plume (Banisveld, the Netherlands). Hydrochemical depth profiles of the top fringe were captured via installation of a series of multi-level samplers at 18, 39 and 58 m downstream from the landfill. Ten-centimeter vertical resolution was necessary to study NA within a fringe as thin as 0.5 m. Bromide appeared an equally well-conservative tracer as chloride to calculate dilution of landfill leachate, and its ratio to chloride was high compared to other possible sources of salt in groundwater. The plume fringe rose steadily from a depth of around 5 m towards the surface with a few meters in the period 1998-2003. The plume uplift may be caused by enhanced exfiltration to a brook downstream from the landfill, due to increased precipitation over this period and an artificial lowering of the water level of the brook. This rise invoked cation exchange including proton buffering, and triggered degassing of methane. The hydrochemical depth profile was simulated in a 1D vertical reactive transport model using PHREEQC-2. Optimization using the nonlinear optimization program PEST brought forward that solid organic carbon and not clay minerals controlled retardation of cations. Cation exchange resulted in spatial separation of Fe(II), Mn(II) and NH 4 fronts from the fringe, and thereby prevented possible oxidation of these secondary redox species. Degradation of DOC may happen in the fringe zone. Re-dissolution of methane escaped from the plume and subsequent oxidation is an explanation for absence

  1. Deactivation processes in PsbA1-Photosystem II and PsbA3-Photosystem II under photoinhibitory conditions in the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus.

    PubMed

    Ogami, Shogo; Boussac, Alain; Sugiura, Miwa

    2012-08-01

    The sensitivity to high light conditions of Photosystem II with either PsbA1 (WT*1) or PsbA3 (WT*3) as the D1 protein was studied in whole cells of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus. When the cells are cultivated under high light conditions the following results were found: (i) The O(2) evolution activity decreases faster in WT*1 cells than in WT*3 cells both in the absence and in the presence of lincomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor; (ii) In WT*1 cells, the rate constant for the decrease of the O(2) evolution activity is comparable in the presence and in the absence of lincomycin; (iii) The D1 content revealed by western blot analysis decays similarly in both WT*1 and WT*3 cells and much slowly than O(2) evolution; (iv) The faster decrease in O(2) evolution in WT*1 than in WT*3 cells correlates with a much faster inhibition of the S(2)-state formation; (v) The shape of the WT*1 cells is altered. All these results are in agreement with a photo-inhibition process resulting in the loss of the O(2) activity much faster than the D1 turnover in PsbA1-PSII and likely to a greater production of reactive oxygen species under high light conditions in WT*1 than in WT*3. This latter result is discussed in view of the known effects of the PsbA1 to PsbA3 substitution on the redox properties of the Photosystem II cofactors. The observation that under low light conditions WT*3 cells are able to express the psbA(3) gene, whereas under similar conditions wild type cells are expressing mainly the psbA(1) gene is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antigen processing of glycoconjugate vaccines; the polysaccharide portion of the pneumococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine co-localizes with MHC II on the antigen processing cell surface.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zengzu; Schreiber, John R

    2009-05-21

    Pneumococcal (Pn) polysaccharides (PS) are T-independent (TI) antigens and do not induce immunological memory or antibodies in infants. Conjugation of PnPS to the carrier protein CRM(197) induces PS-specific antibody in infants, and memory similar to T-dependent (Td) antigens. Conjugates have improved immunogenicity via antigen processing and presentation of carrier protein with MHC II and recruitment of T cell help, but the fate of the PS attached to the carrier is unknown. To determine the location of the PS component of PnPS-CRM(197) in the APC, we separately labeled PS and protein and tracked their location. The PS of types 14-CRM(197) and 19F-CRM(197) was specifically labeled by Alexa Fluor 594 hydrazide (red). The CRM(197) was separately labeled red in a reaction that did not label PS. Labeled antigens were incubated with APC which were fixed, permeabilized and incubated with anti-MHC II antibody labeled green by Alexa Fluor 488, followed by confocal microscopy. Labeled CRM(197) was presented on APC surface and co-localized with MHC II (yellow). Labeled unconjugated 14 or 19F PS did not go to the APC surface, but PS labeled 14-CRM(197) and 19F-CRM(197) was internalized and co-localized with MHC II. Monoclonal antibody to type 14 PS bound to intracellular type 14 PS and PS-CRM(197). Brefeldin A and chloroquine blocked both CRM(197) and PS labeled 14-CRM(197) and 19F-CRM(197) from co-localizing with MHC II. These data suggest that the PS component of the CRM(197) glycoconjugate enters the endosome, travels with CRM(197) peptides to the APC surface and co-localizes with MHC II.

  3. OCCIDENTAL VERTICAL MODIFIED IN SITU PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF OIL FROM OIL SHALE. PHASE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Reid M.

    1980-09-01

    The progress presented in this report covers the period June 1, 1980 through August 31, 1980 under the work scope for.Phase II of the DOE/Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) Cooperative Agreement. The major activities at OOSI 1s Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7, 8 and 8x; completing Mini-Retort (MR) construction; continuing surface facility construction; tracer testing the MR 1 s; conducting Retorts 7 & 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests; setting up and debugging the Sandia B-61 trailer; and preparing the Phase II instrumentation plan.

  4. Sorting signals in the MHC class II invariant chain cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane region determine trafficking to an endocytic processing compartment

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Targeting of MHC class II molecules to the endocytic compartment where they encounter processed antigen is determined by the invariant chain (Ii). By analysis of Ii-transferrin receptor (TR) chimera trafficking, we have identified sorting signals in the Ii cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane region that mediate this process. Two non-tyrosine-based sorting signals in the Ii cytoplasmic tail were identified that mediate localization to plasma membrane clathrin-coated pits and promote rapid endocytosis. Leu7 and Ile8 were required for the activity of the signal most distal to the cell membrane whereas Pro15 Met16 Leu17 were important for the membrane-proximal signal. The same or overlapping non- tyrosine-based sorting signals are essential for delivery of Ii-TR chimeras, either by an intracellular route or via the plasma membrane, to an endocytic compartment where they are rapidly degraded. The Ii transmembrane region is also required for efficient delivery to this endocytic processing compartment and contains a signal distinct from the Ii cytoplasmic tail. More than 80% of the Ii-TR chimera containing the Ii cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane region is delivered directly to the endocytic pathway by an intracellular route, implying that the Ii sorting signals are efficiently recognized by sorting machinery located in the trans-Golgi. PMID:8034737

  5. Carbonaceous material obtained from exhausted coffee by an aqueous solution combustion process and used for cobalt (II) and cadmium (II) sorption.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Gómez, J; López-González, H; Olguín, M T; Bulbulian, S

    2015-06-01

    New carbonaceous materials were obtained using a fast aqueous solution combustion process from mixtures of exhausted coffee, ammonium nitrate (oxidizer) and urea (fuel) heated at 600, 700, 800 or 900 °C. The resulting powders were effective adsorbents for removing Co(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions. Exhausted coffee was also calcined at different temperatures and compared. The products were characterized, and the obtained carbons had BET specific surface areas of 114.27-390.85 m(2)/g and pore diameters of 4.19 to 2.44 nm when the temperature was increased from 600 to 800 °C. Cobalt and cadmium adsorption by the carbonaceous materials was correlated with the maximum adsorption capacities and specific surface areas of the materials. The method reported here is advantageous because it only required 5 min of reaction to improve the textural properties of carbon obtained from exhausted coffee, which play an important role in the material's cobalt and cadmium adsorption capacities.

  6. Effects of parasitic beam-beam interaction during the injection process at the PEP-II B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Y.H.

    1992-06-01

    This paper is concerned with beam-beam effects during the injection process at the proposed asymmetric SLAC/LBL/LLNL B-Factory, PEP-II. It is shown that the parasitic beam-beam interaction can lead to a significant blowup in the vertical size of the injected beam. Simulation results for the horizontal and the vertical injection schemes are presented, and their performances are studied.

  7. Chromate reduction in Fe(II)-containing soil affected by hyperalkaline leachate from chromite ore processing residue.

    PubMed

    Whittleston, Robert A; Stewart, Douglas I; Mortimer, Robert J G; Tilt, Zana C; Brown, Andrew P; Geraki, Kalotina; Burke, Ian T

    2011-10-30

    Highly alkaline (pH 12.2) chromate contaminated leachate (990 μmol L(-1)) has been entering soils below a chromite ore processing residue disposal (COPR) site for over 100 years. The soil immediately beneath the waste has a pH of 11→12.5, contains 0.3→0.5% (w/w) chromium, and 45→75% of the microbially available iron is Fe(II). Despite elevated pH, a viable microbial consortium of Firmicutes dominated iron reducers was isolated from this COPR affected soil. Soil pH and Cr concentration decrease with distance from the waste. XAS analysis of soil samples indicated that Cr is present as a mixed Cr(III)-Fe(III) oxy-hydroxide phase, suggesting that the elevated soil Cr content is due to reductive precipitation of Cr(VI) by Fe(II). Microcosm results demonstrate the capacity of COPR affected soil to abiotically remove all Cr(VI) from the leachate within 40 days. In air oxidation experiments less than 2% of the total Cr in the soil was remobilised despite significant Fe(II) oxidation. XAS analysis after air oxidation showed no change in Cr-speciation, indicating the Cr(III)-containing phase is a stable long term host for Cr. This work suggests that reductive precipitation of Cr(VI) is an effective method of contaminant immobilisation in soils where microbially produced Fe(II) is present.

  8. Oxalate enhanced mechanism of hydroxyl-Fe-pillared bentonite during the degradation of Orange II by UV-Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianxin; Zhu, Lizhong

    2011-01-30

    An enhanced method of hydroxyl-Fe-pillared bentonite (H-Fe-P-B) during the degradation of Orange II was studied to provide novel insight to interactions of degradation intermediates with heterogeneous catalyst in UV-Fenton system. Based on the degradation mechanism of Orange II, oxalate enhanced mechanism of H-Fe-P-B in heterogeneous UV-Fenton system was developed. The results showed that additional oxalate could increase the Fe leaching of H-Fe-P-B during heterogeneous UV-Fenton process, which led to higher mineralization efficiency of Orange II and lower energy consumption of treatment. When the concentrations of additional sodium oxalate increased up to 0.1 mmol L(-1), 0.2 mmol L(-1) and 0.4 mmol L(-1), the rate of Orange II degradation could increase 30%, 46% and 63%, respectively. The iron ions leached from catalyst could be adsorbed back to the catalyst again after the organic intermediates were mineralized completely. Then the catalyst of H-Fe-P-B could be reused and additional pollution caused by iron ions could be avoided.

  9. Abiotic process for Fe(II) oxidation and green rust mineralization driven by a heterotrophic nitrate reducing bacteria (Klebsiella mobilis).

    PubMed

    Etique, Marjorie; Jorand, Frédéric P A; Zegeye, Asfaw; Grégoire, Brian; Despas, Christelle; Ruby, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Green rusts (GRs) are mixed Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides with a high reactivity toward organic and inorganic pollutants. GRs can be produced from ferric reducing or ferrous oxidizing bacterial activities. In this study, we investigated the capability of Klebsiella mobilis to produce iron minerals in the presence of nitrate and ferrous iron. This bacterium is well-known to reduce nitrate using an organic carbon source as electron donor but is unable to enzymatically oxidize Fe(II) species. During incubation, GR formation occurred as a secondary iron mineral precipitating on cell surfaces, resulting from Fe(II) oxidation by nitrite produced via bacterial respiration of nitrate. For the first time, we demonstrate GR formation by indirect microbial oxidation of Fe(II) (i.e., a combination of biotic/abiotic processes). These results therefore suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria can potentially contribute to the formation of GR in natural environments. In addition, the chemical reduction of nitrite to ammonium by GR is observed, which gradually turns the GR into the end-product goethite. The nitrogen mass-balance clearly demonstrates that the total amount of ammonium produced corresponds to the quantity of bioreduced nitrate. These findings demonstrate how the activity of nitrate-reducing bacteria in ferrous environments may provide a direct link between the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and iron.

  10. EASY-II: a system for modelling of n, d, p, γ and α activation and transmutation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sublet, Jean-Christophe; Eastwood, James; Morgan, Guy; Koning, Arjan; Rochman, Dimitri

    2014-06-01

    EASY-II is designed as a functional replacement for the previous European Activation System, EASY-2010. It has extended nuclear data and new software, FISPACT-II, written in object-style Fortran to provide new capabilities for predictions of activation, transmutation, depletion and burnup. The new FISPACT-II code has allowed us to implement many more features in terms of energy range, up to GeV; incident particles: alpha, gamma, proton, deuteron and neutron; and neutron physics: self-shielding effects, temperature dependence, pathways analysis, sensitivity and error estimation using covariance data. These capabilities cover most application needs: nuclear fission and fusion, accelerator physics, isotope production, waste management and many more. In parallel, the maturity of modern general-purpose libraries such as TENDL-2012 encompassing thousands of target nuclides, the evolution of the ENDF format and the capabilities of the latest generation of processing codes PREPRO-2012, NJOY2012 and CALENDF-2010 have allowed the FISPACT-II code to be fed with more robust, complete and appropriate data: cross-sections with covariance, probability tables in the resonance ranges, kerma, dpa, gas and radionuclide production and 24 decay types. All such data for the five most important incident particles are placed in evaluated data files up to an incident energy of 200 MeV. The resulting code and data system, EASY-II, includes many new features and enhancements. It has been extensively tested, and also benefits from the feedback from wide-ranging validation and verification activities performed with its predecessor

  11. APPLEPIPS /Apple Personal Image Processing System/ - An interactive digital image processing system for the Apple II microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, E.; Rose, J.; Quattromani, M.

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments related to microprocessor-based personal computers have made low-cost digital image processing systems a reality. Image analysis systems built around these microcomputers provide color image displays for images as large as 256 by 240 pixels in sixteen colors. Descriptive statistics can be computed for portions of an image, and supervised image classification can be obtained. The systems support Basic, Fortran, Pascal, and assembler language. A description is provided of a system which is representative of the new microprocessor-based image processing systems currently on the market. While small systems may never be truly independent of larger mainframes, because they lack 9-track tape drives, the independent processing power of the microcomputers will help alleviate some of the turn-around time problems associated with image analysis and display on the larger multiuser systems.

  12. Angiotensin II-derived reactive oxygen species underpinning the processing of the cardiovascular reflexes in the medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Braga, Valdir A; Colombari, Eduardo; Jovita, Mariana G

    2011-08-01

    The brainstem is a major site in the central nervous system involved in the processing of the cardiovascular reflexes such as the baroreflex and the peripheral chemoreflex. The nucleus tractus solitarius and the rostral ventrolateral medulla are 2 important brainstem nuclei, and they play pivotal roles in autonomic cardiovascular regulation. Angiotensin II is one of the neurotransmitters involved in the processing of the cardiovascular reflexes within the brainstem. It is well-known that one of the mechanisms by which angiotensin II exerts its effect is via the activation of pathways that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the central nervous system, ROS are reported to be involved in several pathological diseases such as hypertension, heart failure and sleep apnea. However, little is known about the role of ROS in the processing of the cardiovascular reflexes within the brainstem. The present review mainly discussed some recent findings documenting a role for ROS in the processing of the baroreflex and the peripheral chemoreflex in the brainstem.

  13. Device Processing of II-VI Semiconductor Films and Quantum Well Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-07

    The objectives of this program is to develop a device processing technology necessary for proper utilization of Hg-based heterostructures and...superlattices in device applications. The specific focus or long term goal guiding the direction of the program is to develop the devices and processing ... technology required for an IR focal plane integrated with on-board signal processing electronics.

  14. Characterization of processes responsible for the distinct effect of herbicides DCMU and BNT on Photosystem II photoinactivation in cells of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942.

    PubMed

    Komenda, J; Koblízek, M; Prásil, O

    2000-01-01

    Light-induced modification of Photosystem II (PS II) complex was characterized in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 treated with either DCMU (a phenylurea PS II inhibitor) or BNT (a phenolic PS II inhibitor). The irradiance response of photoinactivation of PS II oxygen evolution indicated a BNT-specific photoinhibition that saturated at relatively low intensity of light. This BNT-specific process was slowed down under anaerobiosis, was accompanied by the oxygen-dependent formation of a 39 kDa D1 protein adduct, and was not related to stable Q(A) reduction or the ADRY effect. In the BNT-treated cells, the light-induced, oxygen-independent initial drop of PS II electron flow was not affected by formate, an anion modifying properties of the PS II non-heme iron. For DCMU-treated cells, anaerobiosis did not significantly affect PS II photoinactivation, the D1 adduct was not observed and addition of formate induced similar initial decrease of PS II electron flow as in the BNT-treated cells. Our results indicate that reactive oxygen species (most likely singlet oxygen) and modification of the PS II acceptor side are responsible for the fast BNT-induced photoinactivation of PS II.

  15. Heat and power networks in process design, part II, design procedure for equipment selection and process matching

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, D.W.; Linnhoff, B.

    1983-09-01

    In Part I, criteria for heat engine and heat pump placement in chemical process networks were derived, based on the ''temperature interval'' (T.I) analysis of the heat exchanger network problem. Using these criteria, this paper gives a method for identifying the best outline design for any combined system of chemical process, heat engines, and heat pumps. The method eliminates inferior alternatives early, and positively leads on to the most appropriate solution. A graphical procedure based on the T.I. analysis forms the heart of the approach, and the calculations involved are simple enough to be carried out on, say, a programmable calculator. Application to a case study is demonstrated. Optimization methods based on this procedure are currently under research.

  16. A new combined process for efficient removal of Cu(II) organic complexes from wastewater: Fe(III) displacement/UV degradation/alkaline precipitation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhe; Gao, Guandao; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu

    2015-12-15

    Efficient removal of heavy metals complexed with organic ligands from water is still an important but challenging task now. Herein, a novel combined process, i.e., Fe(III)-displacement/UV degradation/alkaline precipitation (abbreviated as Fe(III)/UV/OH) was developed to remove copper-organic complexes from synthetic solution and real electroplating effluent, and other processes including alkaline precipitation, Fe(III)/OH, UV/OH were employed for comparison. By using the Fe(III)/UV/OH process, some typical Cu(II) complexes, such as Cu(II)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), Cu(II)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), Cu(II)-citrate, Cu(II)-tartrate, and Cu(II)-sorbate, each at 19.2 mg Cu/L initially, were efficiently removed from synthetic solution with the residual Cu below 1 mg/L. Simultaneously, 30-48% of total organic carbon was eliminated with exception of Cu(II)-sorbate. Comparatively, the efficiency of other processes was much lower than the Fe(III)/UV/OH process. With Cu(II)-citrate as the model complex, the optimal conditions for the combined process were obtained as: initial pH for Fe(III) displacement, 1.8-5.4; molar ratio of [Fe]/[Cu], 4:1; UV irradiation, 10 min; precipitation pH, 6.6-13. The mechanism responsible for the process involved the liberation of Cu(II) ions from organic complexes as a result of Fe(III) displacement, decarboxylation of Fe(III)-ligand complexes subjected to UV irradiation, and final coprecipitation of Cu(II) and Fe(II)/Fe(III) ions. Up to 338.1 mg/L of Cu(II) in the electroplating effluent could be efficiently removed by the process with the residual Cu(II) below 1 mg/L and the removal efficiency of ∼99.8%, whereas direct precipitation by using NaOH could only result in total Cu(II) removal of ∼8.6%. In addition, sunlight could take the place of UV to achieve similar removal efficiency with longer irradiation time (90 min).

  17. HTGR high temperature process heat design and cost status report. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    Information is presented concerning the 850/sup 0/C IDC reactor vessel; primary cooling system; secondary helium system; steam generator; heat cycle evaluations for the 850/sup 0/C IDC plant; 950/sup 0/C DC reactor vessel; 950/sup 0/C DC steam generator; direct and indirect cycle reformers; methanation plant; thermochemical pipeline; methodology for screening candidate synfuel processes; ECCG process; project technical requirements; process gas explosion assessment; HTGR program economic guidelines; and vendor respones.

  18. Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication and analysis. Phase II. Annual report, 1 July 1979-30 June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, H.I.; Iles, P.A.; Ho, F.F.; Leung, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Solar cells were fabricated from EFG (RH) ribbons from multiple dies, silicon on ceramic (SOC), dendritic web, cast silicon by HEM, and semi-continuous CZ from both VARIAN and HAMCO. Baseline and improved solar cells were made from the sheets. Baseline solar cells processed in both Phase I and Phase II, involving cells from EFG, SOC, dendritic web, and HEM, indicated that no significant improvement in silicon sheet quality has been achieved in Phase II. Solar cells from semi-continuous CZ showed cell performance close to the conventional CZ control cells, although the cells from the semi-continuous CZ have shown wider performance range because of variation in crystalline perfection. Generally, process upgrading provided improvement in cell performance, the improvement depending on the process used and the quality of the sheet silicon. Study of the effect of grain size on solar cell performance suggested that the minimum grain size to make solar cells of 10% AMO efficiency is about 500 ..mu..m, which is expected to provide minimum module efficiency of 10% AMI. If other harmful impurities are added in the process of sheet growth, the minimum grain size must be increased. The BSF study showed that the higher the resistivity of the starting substrates, the greater the relative improvement in cell performance, probably because of greater shift in Fermi levels at the back L/H junction (pp+) and also because of the higher initial values of minority carrier diffusion length. This study also suggested that proper control of the back-surface field (BSF) process could minimize the junction shunting problems often introduced by the BSF processing.

  19. Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume II. Koppers-Totzek process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This volume of the report contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Koppers-Totzek gasification process. The report includes process descriptions, flow diagrams and equipment lists for the various subsystems associated with the gasifiers along with descriptions of the overall facility. The facility is analyzed from both an economic and environmental standpoint. Problems of construction are addressed together with an overall design and construction schedule for the total facility. Resource requirements are summarized along with suggested development areas, both process and environmental.

  20. Shelf edge exchange processes-II SEEP2-06, R/V Endeavor cruise 186. Hydrographic data report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Behrens, W.J.; Flagg, C.N.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Wyman, K.D.

    1989-12-01

    The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is a multi-institutional effort designed to investigate the flux of suspended material from the continental shelf to the waters of the upper slope, and then possibly into the slope sediments. Phase I of SEEP consisted of a series of nine cruises and a mooring array across the outer continental shelf of New England during 1983--1984. Phase II focused specifically on the shelf/slope frontal region of the mid-Atlantic bight off the Delmarva Peninsula. Hydrographic data were collected on eight of the six cruises.

  1. Advanced Information Processing. Volume I. Student's Materials. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Linda

    This course curriculum is intended for use in an advanced information processing course. It builds on the skills developed in the previous information processing course but goes one step further by requiring students to perform in a simulated office environment and improve their decision-making skills. This volume contains two parts of the…

  2. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: ii) behavior and hygiene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the daily behavior traits and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers housed in a freestall system are not understood. Our objective was to evaluate these factors in a trial with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) an...

  3. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: CHEMFIX TECHNOLOGIES, INC. - SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION PROCESS - CLACKAMAS, OREGON - VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CHEMFIX solidification/stabilization process was evaluated in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's SITE program. Waste from an uncontrolled hazardous waste site was treated by the CHEMFIX process and subjected to a variety of physical and chemical test methods. Physical...

  4. Advanced Information Processing. Volume I. Student's Materials. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Linda

    This course curriculum is intended for use in an advanced information processing course. It builds on the skills developed in the previous information processing course but goes one step further by requiring students to perform in a simulated office environment and improve their decision-making skills. This volume contains two parts of the…

  5. Microscopic Modeling of Intersubband Optical Processes in Type II Semiconductor Quantum Wells: Linear Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Kolokolov, Kanstantin I.; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Linear absorption spectra arising from intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum well heterostructures are analyzed using quantum kinetic theory by treating correlations to the first order within Hartree-Fock approximation. The resulting intersubband semiconductor Bloch equations take into account extrinsic dephasing contributions, carrier-longitudinal optical phonon interaction and carrier-interface roughness interaction which is considered with Ando s theory. As input for resonance lineshape calculation, a spurious-states-free 8-band kp Hamiltonian is used, in conjunction with the envelop function approximation, to compute self-consistently the energy subband structure of electrons in type II InAs/AlSb single quantum well structures. We demonstrate the interplay of nonparabolicity and many-body effects in the mid-infrared frequency range for such heterostructures.

  6. Microscopic Modeling of Intersubband Optical Processes in Type II Semiconductor Quantum Wells: Linear Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Kolokolov, Kanstantin I.; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Linear absorption spectra arising from intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum well heterostructures are analyzed using quantum kinetic theory by treating correlations to the first order within Hartree-Fock approximation. The resulting intersubband semiconductor Bloch equations take into account extrinsic dephasing contributions, carrier-longitudinal optical phonon interaction and carrier-interface roughness interaction which is considered with Ando s theory. As input for resonance lineshape calculation, a spurious-states-free 8-band kp Hamiltonian is used, in conjunction with the envelop function approximation, to compute self-consistently the energy subband structure of electrons in type II InAs/AlSb single quantum well structures. We demonstrate the interplay of nonparabolicity and many-body effects in the mid-infrared frequency range for such heterostructures.

  7. Stellar neutron capture on 180 Tam . II. Defining the s -process contribution to nature's rarest isotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käppeler, F.; Arlandini, C.; Heil, M.; Voss, F.; Wisshak, K.; Reifarth, R.; Straniero, O.; Gallino, R.; Masera, S.; Travaglio, C.

    2004-05-01

    The contribution of the slow neutron capture process ( s process) to the solar 180 Tam abundance has been investigated on the basis of new experimental information. Measured neutron capture cross sections of 180 Tam and the corresponding Maxwellian averaged ( n,γ ) rates were important for defining the s abundance of 180 Tam , and the result of a recent photoactivation experiment was providing an estimate of its half-life at the temperatures of the s -process site. Following the s -process network with stellar evolutionary models from the premain sequence through the asymptotic giant branch phase, it was found that the produced 180 Tam survives the high temperatures during He shell flashes because of the fast convective mixing, which provides an efficient means for transporting freshly synthesized matter into cooler, outer zones. Accordingly, 180 Tam appears to be predominantly of s -process origin.

  8. A field evaluation of subsurface and surface runoff. II. Runoff processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilgrim, D.H.; Huff, D.D.; Steele, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    Combined use of radioisotope tracer, flow rate, specific conductance and suspended-sediment measurements on a large field plot near Stanford, California, has provided more detailed information on surface and subsurface storm runoff processes than would be possible from any single approach used in isolation. Although the plot was surficially uniform, the runoff processes were shown to be grossly nonuniform, both spatially over the plot, and laterally and vertically within the soil. The three types of processes that have been suggested as sources of storm runoff (Horton-type surface runoff, saturated overland flow, and rapid subsurface throughflow) all occurred on the plot. The nonuniformity of the processes supports the partial- and variable-source area concepts. Subsurface storm runoff occurred in a saturated layer above the subsoil horizon, and short travel times resulted from flow through macropores rather than the soil matrix. Consideration of these observations would be necessary for physically realistic modeling of the storm runoff process. ?? 1978.

  9. Intracellular insulin processing is altered in monocytes from patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Trischitta, V.; Benzi, L.; Brunetti, A.; Cecchetti, P.; Marchetti, P.; Vigneri, R.; Navalesi, R.

    1987-05-01

    We studied total cell-associated A14-(/sup 125/I)insulin radioactivity (including surface-bound and internalized radioactivity), insulin internalization, and its intracellular degradation at 37 C in monocytes from nonobese type II untreated diabetic patients (n = 9) and normal subjects (n = 7). Total cell-associated radioactivity was decreased in diabetic patients (2.65 +/- 1.21% (+/- SD) vs. 4.47 +/- 1.04% of total radioactivity. Insulin internalization was also reduced in diabetic patients (34.0 +/- 6.8% vs. 59.0 +/- 11.3% of cell-associated radioactivity. Using high performance liquid chromatography six intracellular forms of radioactivity derived from A14-(/sup 125/I) insulin were identified; 10-20% of intracellular radioactivity had approximately 300,000 mol wt and was identified as radioactivity bound to the insulin receptor, and the remaining intracellular radioactivity included intact A14-(/sup 125/I)insulin, (/sup 125/I)iodide, or (/sup 125/I)tyrosine, and three intermediate compounds. A progressive reduction of intact insulin and a corresponding increase in iodine were found when the incubation time was prolonged. Intracellular insulin degradation was reduced in monocytes from diabetic patients; intracellular intact insulin was 65.6 +/- 18.1% vs. 37.4 +/- 18.0% of intracellular radioactivity after 2 min and 23.6 +/- 22.3% vs. 3.9 +/- 2.3% after 60 min in diabetic patients vs. normal subjects, respectively. In conclusion, 1) human monocytes internalize and degrade insulin in the intracellular compartment in a stepwise time-dependent manner; and 2) in monocytes from type II diabetic patients total cell-associated radioactivity, insulin internalization, and insulin degradation are significantly reduced. These defects may be related to the cellular insulin resistance present in these patients.

  10. Corn silage management II: effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing on digestion and energy content.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Swift, M; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of maturity and mechanical processing of two hybrids of whole plant corn on starch, fiber, and ether extract digestibilities and energy content of the total mixed ration fed to lactating Holstein cows. In the first experiment, Pioneer hybrid 3845 whole plant corn was harvested at hard dough, one-third milkline, and two-thirds milkline with a theoretical length of cut of 6.4 mm. At each stage of maturity, corn was harvested with and without mechanical processing. In the second experiment, Pioneer hybrids 3845 and Quanta were harvested at one-third milkline, two-thirds milkline, and blackline stages of maturity with and without mechanical processing. The theoretical length of cut was 12.7 mm. The measured TDN and NEL concentrations were lower for diets containing processed corn silage in experiment 1 and greater for diets containing processed corn silage in experiment 2, compared with diets containing unprocessed corn silage. The lower energy content for diets containing processed corn silage in experiment 1 can be explained by the lower total tract NDF, ether extract, and CP digestibilities. The greater energy content for diets containing processed corn silage in experiment 2 can be attributed to greater total tract starch and NDF digestibilities for cows fed processed corn silage diets. In experiment 2, diets containing processed corn silage (1.59 Mcal/kg) had approximately 2.6% more energy available per kilogram of DM consumed compared with diets containing unprocessed corn silage (1.55 Mcal/kg). For hybrid Quanta in experiment 2, the TDN and NEL concentrations of diets containing corn silage harvested at two-thirds ML were greater than at other maturities.

  11. Punch stretching process monitoring using acoustic emission signal analysis. II - Application of frequency domain deconvolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Steven Y.; Dornfeld, David A.; Nickerson, Jackson A.

    1987-01-01

    The coloring effect on the acoustic emission signal due to the frequency response of the data acquisition/processing instrumentation may bias the interpretation of AE signal characteristics. In this paper, a frequency domain deconvolution technique, which involves the identification of the instrumentation transfer functions and multiplication of the AE signal spectrum by the inverse of these system functions, has been carried out. In this way, the change in AE signal characteristics can be better interpreted as the result of the change in only the states of the process. Punch stretching process was used as an example to demonstrate the application of the technique. Results showed that, through the deconvolution, the frequency characteristics of AE signals generated during the stretching became more distinctive and can be more effectively used as tools for process monitoring.

  12. Process analytical technology (PAT) for biopharmaceutical products: Part II. Concepts and applications.

    PubMed

    Read, E K; Shah, R B; Riley, B S; Park, J T; Brorson, K A; Rathore, A S

    2010-02-01

    Implementing real-time product quality control meets one or both of the key goals outlined in FDA's PAT guidance: "variability is managed by the process" and "product quality attributes can be accurately and reliably predicted over the design space established for materials used, process parameters, manufacturing, environmental, and other conditions." The first part of the paper presented an overview of PAT concepts and applications in the areas of upstream and downstream processing. In this second part, we present principles and case studies to illustrate implementation of PAT for drug product manufacturing, rapid microbiology, and chemometrics. We further present our thoughts on how PAT will be applied to biotech processes going forward. The role of PAT as an enabling component of the Quality by Design framework is highlighted. Integration of PAT with the principles stated in the ICH Q8, Q9, and Q10 guidance documents is also discussed.

  13. Puzzles in modern biology. II. Language, cancer and the recursive processes of evolutionary innovation

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Human language emerged abruptly. Diverse body forms evolved suddenly. Seed-bearing plants spread rapidly. How do complex evolutionary innovations arise so quickly? Resolving alternative claims remains difficult. The great events of the past happened a long time ago. Cancer provides a model to study evolutionary innovation. A tumor must evolve many novel traits to become an aggressive cancer. I use what we know or could study about cancer to describe the key processes of innovation. In general, evolutionary systems form a hierarchy of recursive processes. Those recursive processes determine the rates at which innovations are generated, spread and transmitted. I relate the recursive processes to abrupt evolutionary innovation. PMID:28184282

  14. Virtex-II Pro Based Data Processing Unit for Small Spaceborne Camera Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierker, C.; Fiethe, B.; Michalik, H.; Osterloh, B.; Bubenhagen, F.; Zhou, G.

    2007-08-01

    Individual Data Processing Units (DPUs) are commonly used for operational control and specific data processing of scientific space instruments. To overcome the limitations of traditional rad-hard (RH) or fully commercial design approaches, we show a System-on- Chip (SoC) solution based on a state-of- he-art field programmable gate array (FPGA) with integrated hard- wired processors. Although the design has low resource requirements for both, power and mass, the processing power capabilities are moderate to high. By the shown design, the availability of standard CPUs for general purpose use and programmable logic for special functions in one device allows a very effective partitioning of data processing into hardware and software. High sensor data rates in the order of up to some hundred Mbit/s for advanced sensors can be handled by this approach. Various specific handling methods against radiation induced upsets are used for an efficient design.

  15. Puzzles in modern biology. II. Language, cancer and the recursive processes of evolutionary innovation.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Human language emerged abruptly. Diverse body forms evolved suddenly. Seed-bearing plants spread rapidly. How do complex evolutionary innovations arise so quickly? Resolving alternative claims remains difficult. The great events of the past happened a long time ago. Cancer provides a model to study evolutionary innovation. A tumor must evolve many novel traits to become an aggressive cancer. I use what we know or could study about cancer to describe the key processes of innovation. In general, evolutionary systems form a hierarchy of recursive processes. Those recursive processes determine the rates at which innovations are generated, spread and transmitted. I relate the recursive processes to abrupt evolutionary innovation.

  16. Transport and processing of beta-hexosaminidase in normal and mucolipidosis-II cultured fibroblasts. Effect of monensin and nigericin.

    PubMed Central

    Vladutiu, G D

    1984-01-01

    The univalent-cation ionophores monensin (4.0 microM) and nigericin (0.5 microM) inhibited the abnormal excretion of beta-hexosaminidase from mucolipidosis-II cultured fibroblasts by 62 and 76% respectively, with a corresponding intracellular accumulation of the enzyme. As shown by lectin binding, the enzyme which accumulated in monensin-treated cells did not contain galactose residues, whereas the corresponding enzyme from nigericin-treated cells was galactosylated. The results suggest that monensin acts at an early point in the process of hydrolase glycosylation, and nigericin acts later, both presumably within the Golgi region, allowing the accumulation of different glycosylated forms of the enzyme. The intra- and extra-cellular distribution of beta-hexosaminidase in ionophore-treated normal cells was essentially unchanged, whereas concanavalin A precipitability of excreted enzyme was increased and its ability to be taken up by deficient fibroblasts was decreased. The bivalent-cation ionophore A23187 (1 microM) reduced beta-hexosaminidase excretion from mucolipidosis-II cells by 82% and by 96% when used with EGTA (1 mM). However, there was no intracellular accumulation of enzyme, suggesting that the effect of this ionophore was restricted to the inhibition of synthesis. It therefore appears that the actual transport of beta-hexosaminidase in mucolipidosis-II cells is affected by univalent-cation ionophores in a selective manner. These findings suggest that individual ionophores could be used to identify the sites of hydrolase oligosaccharide processing in the Golgi region by causing intermediate glycosylated forms of the transported hydrolase to accumulate in a specific Golgi compartment preceding the blocking site of the ionophore. PMID:6231921

  17. Information Management of a Structured Admissions Interview Process in a Medical College with an Apple II System

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Robert; Fedorko, Steve; Nicholson, Nigel

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a structured interview process for medical school admissions supported by an Apple II computer system which provides feedback to interviewers and the College admissions committee. Presented are the rationale for the system, the preliminary results of analysis of some of the interview data, and a brief description of the computer program and output. The present data show that the structured interview yields very high interrater reliability coefficients, is acceptable to the medical school faculty, and results in quantitative data useful in the admission process. The system continues in development at this time, a second year of data will be shortly available, and further refinements are being made to the computer program to enhance its utilization and exportability.

  18. Real processing II: Extremal principles of irreversible thermodynamics, relations, generalizations and time dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiser, Bernhard

    We start presenting the extremal principles we will consider: The Statement of Helmholtz 1868 and Rayleigh (SHR) 1913, generalized by Reiser 1996, the Statement of Kelvin (SK) 1849, the Principle of Minimal Entropy Production (PME) of Prigogine 1947 for linear processes, that of Prigogine and Glansdorff 1954 for non-linear processes and finally, the Principle of Maximal Entropy (MEF) of Jaynes, 1957. First we show the relation between SHR and SK. This is a particular example for the property of Irreversible Thermodynamics (TIP) to treat all kinds of movements of fluids, compounds or any type of energy under the engineering term loss, or accurately spoken, entropy production. This possibility to treat different physical effects in the same manner causes by its simplification, considerable economical advantages of treating processes in the frame of TIP. For example, whereas a balance like the momentum balance (Navier-Stokes equation) has to distinguish between inertial, viscous or pressure effects, the PME treats the movements these effects cause with one term, and no pressure coupling or non-linearity is enclosed. Then we generalize the SK from potential velocity fields to general ones and show that it fits into the MEF. We continue with the generalization of the SHR from 1996 to compressible and non-Newtonian fluids. Further, we notice that these principles hold for time-dependent (non-stationary) processes. Therefore, the general fluid dynamical part of the PME 1947 can be generalized from stationary to time-dependent processes. We show that this is possible not only for velocity fields but also for scalar fields using as an example, the temperature in the case of heat conduction. We see that scalar fields need a transformation well known in mathematics. Comparing the PME 1954 with the completely generalized SHR we see that it holds also for non-linear processes. The same holds for the generalized SK. We close the consideration of extremal principles with the

  19. Modeling of the HiPco process for carbon nanotube production. II. Reactor-scale analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokcen, Tahir; Dateo, Christopher E.; Meyyappan, M.

    2002-01-01

    The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process, developed at Rice University, has been reported to produce single-walled carbon nanotubes from gas-phase reactions of iron carbonyl in carbon monoxide at high pressures (10-100 atm). Computational modeling is used here to develop an understanding of the HiPco process. A detailed kinetic model of the HiPco process that includes of the precursor, decomposition metal cluster formation and growth, and carbon nanotube growth was developed in the previous article (Part I). Decomposition of precursor molecules is necessary to initiate metal cluster formation. The metal clusters serve as catalysts for carbon nanotube growth. The diameter of metal clusters and number of atoms in these clusters are some of the essential information for predicting carbon nanotube formation and growth, which is then modeled by the Boudouard reaction with metal catalysts. Based on the detailed model simulations, a reduced kinetic model was also developed in Part I for use in reactor-scale flowfield calculations. Here this reduced kinetic model is integrated with a two-dimensional axisymmetric reactor flow model to predict reactor performance. Carbon nanotube growth is examined with respect to several process variables (peripheral jet temperature, reactor pressure, and Fe(CO)5 concentration) with the use of the axisymmetric model, and the computed results are compared with existing experimental data. The model yields most of the qualitative trends observed in the experiments and helps to understanding the fundamental processes in HiPco carbon nanotube production.

  20. Modeling of the HiPco process for carbon nanotube production. II. Reactor-scale analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokcen, Tahir; Dateo, Christopher E.; Meyyappan, M.

    2002-01-01

    The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process, developed at Rice University, has been reported to produce single-walled carbon nanotubes from gas-phase reactions of iron carbonyl in carbon monoxide at high pressures (10-100 atm). Computational modeling is used here to develop an understanding of the HiPco process. A detailed kinetic model of the HiPco process that includes of the precursor, decomposition metal cluster formation and growth, and carbon nanotube growth was developed in the previous article (Part I). Decomposition of precursor molecules is necessary to initiate metal cluster formation. The metal clusters serve as catalysts for carbon nanotube growth. The diameter of metal clusters and number of atoms in these clusters are some of the essential information for predicting carbon nanotube formation and growth, which is then modeled by the Boudouard reaction with metal catalysts. Based on the detailed model simulations, a reduced kinetic model was also developed in Part I for use in reactor-scale flowfield calculations. Here this reduced kinetic model is integrated with a two-dimensional axisymmetric reactor flow model to predict reactor performance. Carbon nanotube growth is examined with respect to several process variables (peripheral jet temperature, reactor pressure, and Fe(CO)5 concentration) with the use of the axisymmetric model, and the computed results are compared with existing experimental data. The model yields most of the qualitative trends observed in the experiments and helps to understanding the fundamental processes in HiPco carbon nanotube production.

  1. Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, David C.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Baich, Mark A.

    2005-08-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is in the process of investigating factors suspected of impacting catalytic hydrogen generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, Chemical Process Cell, CPC. Noble metal catalyzed hydrogen generation in simulation work constrains the allowable acid addition operating window in DWPF. This constraint potentially impacts washing strategies during sludge batch preparation. It can also influence decisions related to the addition of secondary waste streams to a sludge batch. Catalytic hydrogen generation data from 2002-2005 were reviewed. The data came from process simulations of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank, SRAT, and Slurry Mix Evaporator, SME. Most of the data was from the development work for the Sludge Batch 3 process flowsheet. This included simulant and radioactive waste testing. Preliminary Sludge Batch 4 data were also reviewed. A statistical analysis of SB3 simulant hydrogen generation data was performed. One factor considered in the statistical analysis was excess acid. Excess acid was determined experimentally as the acid added beyond that required to achieve satisfactory nitrite destruction.

  2. Maximum limit to the number of myosin II motors participating in processive sliding of actin.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Khushboo; Puliyakodan, Mohammed Shabeel; Pandey, Vikas; Nath, Sunil; Elangovan, Ravikrishnan

    2016-08-24

    In this work, we analysed processive sliding and breakage of actin filaments at various heavy meromyosin (HMM) densities and ATP concentrations in IVMA. We observed that with addition of ATP solution, the actin filaments fragmented stochastically; we then determined mean length and velocity of surviving actin filaments post breakage. Average filament length decreased with increase in HMM density at constant ATP, and increased with increase in ATP concentration at constant HMM density. Using density of HMM molecules and length of actin, we estimated the number of HMM molecules per actin filament (N) that participate in processive sliding of actin. N is solely a function of ATP concentration: 88 ± 24 and 54 ± 22 HMM molecules (mean ± S.D.) at 2 mM and 0.1 mM ATP respectively. Processive sliding of actin filament was observed only when N lay within a minimum lower limit (Nmin) and a maximum upper limit (Nmax) to the number of HMM molecules. When N < Nmin the actin filament diffused away from the surface and processivity was lost and when N > Nmax the filament underwent breakage eventually and could not sustain processive sliding. We postulate this maximum upper limit arises due to increased number of strongly bound myosin heads.

  3. Maximum limit to the number of myosin II motors participating in processive sliding of actin

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Khushboo; Puliyakodan, Mohammed Shabeel; Pandey, Vikas; Nath, Sunil; Elangovan, Ravikrishnan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analysed processive sliding and breakage of actin filaments at various heavy meromyosin (HMM) densities and ATP concentrations in IVMA. We observed that with addition of ATP solution, the actin filaments fragmented stochastically; we then determined mean length and velocity of surviving actin filaments post breakage. Average filament length decreased with increase in HMM density at constant ATP, and increased with increase in ATP concentration at constant HMM density. Using density of HMM molecules and length of actin, we estimated the number of HMM molecules per actin filament (N) that participate in processive sliding of actin. N is solely a function of ATP concentration: 88 ± 24 and 54 ± 22 HMM molecules (mean ± S.D.) at 2 mM and 0.1 mM ATP respectively. Processive sliding of actin filament was observed only when N lay within a minimum lower limit (Nmin) and a maximum upper limit (Nmax) to the number of HMM molecules. When N < Nmin the actin filament diffused away from the surface and processivity was lost and when N > Nmax the filament underwent breakage eventually and could not sustain processive sliding. We postulate this maximum upper limit arises due to increased number of strongly bound myosin heads. PMID:27554800

  4. Excited-state annihilation process involving a cyclometalated platinum(II) complex

    SciTech Connect

    Maestri, M.; Sandrini, D. ); von Zelewsky, A.; Deuschel-Cornioley, C. )

    1991-05-29

    The Pt(tpy)(ppz) complex exhibits strong luminescence with a relatively long excited-state lifetime (15.3 {mu}s) in deaerated acetonitrile solution, at room temperature and at low excitation intensity, and can be easily involved in excited-state quenching processes. The {sub 3}CT excited state is, in fact, quenched (1) by oxygen (k{sub q} {congruent} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}), (2) by the ground-state complex (k{sub q} = 5.7 {times} 10{sup 7} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}), and (3) by another {sup 3}CT excited state in an annihilation process, which is practically diffusion controlled (k{sub 3} > 6 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}). The ground-state quenching and the annihilation process most probably occur via an excimer formation mechanism. 46 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Producing thin strips by twin-roll casting—part II: Process modeling and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ben Q.

    1995-08-01

    Extensive modeling work has appeared over the last decade and has contributed significantly to the fundamental understanding of the physical phenomena involved in twin-roll casting, such as fluid flow, heat transfer, and thermomechanical processing. The commitment of metals producers to the technology is strong, which is evidenced by numerous pilot-scale casters that have been constructed worldwide. Together with the process models, these casters have been instrumental in developing new process designs and in improving and optimizing the performance of existing twin-roll casters. Current R&D efforts are intensive in both the aluminum and the steel industries, with the former aiming to gain a higher productivity and the latter striving to scale up from pilot plants to commercial production.

  6. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    PubMed Central

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  7. Phase II of the demonstration of the Koppelman series C process. Topical report, February 1995--February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.

    1998-12-31

    A pilot plant using the Koppelman Series C Process was designed, constructed, and operated near Gillette, Wyoming, as part of Phase I of this project. Construction was completed in late fall of 1993, and the shakedown was completed in early 1994. The initial series of tests performed to prove the process and to characterize the effluents was conducted during the first half of 1994. The results of those tests are described in the final report for Phase I. This report describes the activities conducted during Phase II of the project the objective of which was to move the process, which was proven during Phase I, a step closer to commercialization. Specifically, the work was planned to lower the cost of the process by developing a high-capacity processor, increasing the already high efficiency of the process by using a feed coal preheated, increasing the bulk density of the product by using mixed particle size extrudate, and preparing a preliminary scoping design for the water treatment plant for a 500,000 ton per year commercial plant.

  8. Thermal-capillary analysis of Czochralski and liquid encapsulated Czochralski crystal growth. II - Processing strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derby, J. J.; Brown, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The pseudosteady-state heat transfer model developed in a previous paper is augmented with constraints for constant crystal radius and melt/solid interface deflection. Combinations of growth rate, and crucible and bottom-heater temperatures are tested as processing parameters for satisfying the constrained thermal-capillary problem over a range of melt volumes corresponding to the sequence occuring during the batchwise Czochralski growth of a small-diameter silicon crystal. The applicability of each processing strategy is judged by the range of existence of the solution, in terms of melt volume and the values of the axial and radial temperature gradients in the crystal.

  9. Materials Science and Technology, Volume 17B, Processing of Ceramics Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Richard J.

    1996-12-01

    Progress in the processing of ceramics has made these materials very important for current and future technologies. Internationally renowned experts have contributed to this second of two volumes which provide a wealth of information indispensable for materials scientists and engineers. Contents of Volume B: Riedel: Advanced Ceramics from Inorganic Polymers. Calvert: Biomimetic Processing. Eisele: Sintering and Hot Pressing. Kwon: Liquid-Phase Sintering. Leriche/Cambier: Vitrification. Larker/Larker: Hot Isostatic Pressing. Harmer/Chan: Fired Microstructures and Their Charactzerization. Subramanian: Finishing. Nicholas: Joining of Ceramics. Hirai: Functional Gradient Materials.

  10. Microcomputer-based image processing system for CT/MRI scans: II. Expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, John C. K.; Yu, Peter K. N.; Cheng, Andrew Y. S.; Ho, Wai-Chin

    1991-06-01

    A microcomputer-based image processing system is used to digitize and process serial sections of CT/MRI scan and reconstruct three-dimensional images of brain structures and brain lesions. The images grabbed also serve as templates and different vital regions with different risk values are also traced out for 3D reconstruction. A knowledge-based system employing rule-based programming has been built to help identifying brain lesions and to help planning trajectory for operations. The volumes of the lesions are also automatically determined. Such system is very useful for medical skills archival, tumor size monitoring, survival and outcome forecasting, and consistent neurosurgical planning.

  11. Synthesis of, characterization of, and photoinduced processes in polymetallic triad complexes containing Fe(II), Ru(II), and Rh(III) metal centers

    SciTech Connect

    Ronco, S.E. |; Thompson, D.W.; Gahan, S.L.; Petersen, J.D. |

    1998-04-20

    A series of new trimetallic mixed complexes containing Fe(II), Ru(II), and Rh(III) metal centers have been prepared and characterized, and their excited-state properties in a nanosecond time domain have been investigated. These new compounds were synthesized by following a building block strategy from monomeric Rh(III) and Ru(II) polyazines and tetracyanoferrate(II) ions. The products generated in each synthetic step were fully characterized and their excited-state properties investigated. These new trimetallic complexes, [(CN){sub 4}Fe{sup II}(BL(1))Ru{sup II}(bpy)-(BL(2))Rh{sup III}(tpy)(MQ{sup +})](PF{sub 6}){sub 4} (tpy = 2,2{prime}:6{prime}:2{double_prime}-terpyridine; BL(1) = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine (dpp) or 2,2{prime}-bipyrimidine (bpm); BL(2) = dpp or bpm; MQ{sup +} = N-methyl-4,4{prime}-bipyridinium (monoquat)), consist of three fundamental parts linked by bridging ligands (1) an electron donor group, the tetracyanoferrate(II) unit; (2) an antenna fragment, the Ru(II) polypyridyl moiety; and (3) an electron acceptor group. The electron acceptor group is a Rh(III) polypyridyl that contains the ligands tpy and MQ{sup +}. No emission was observed in any of the reported complexes either in fluid solutions at room temperature or in glassy solutions at 77 K. Time-resolved experiments conducted on these triads showed formation of a transient intermediate within the laser pulse. Redox properties and transient absorption observations helped the authors to identify the nature of this intermediate as an Fe(III)/Ru(II) mixed-valence species that decays exponentially by following a first-order law with a lifetime of {tau} {le} 70 ns in fluid solution at room temperature.

  12. Degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid by a novel Electro-Fe(II)/Oxone process using iron sheet as the sacrificial anode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y R; Chu, W

    2011-07-01

    A novel electrochemically enhanced advanced oxidation process for the destruction of organic contaminants in aqueous solution is reported in this study. The process involves the use of an iron (Fe) sheet as sacrificial anode and a graphite bar as cathode. In the oxidation process, once an electric current is applied between the anode and the cathode, a predetermined amount of Oxone is added to the reactor. Ferrous ions generated from the sacrificed Fe anode mediate the generation of highly powerful radicals (SO(4)(•-)) through the decomposition of Oxone. The coupled process of Fe(II)/Oxone and electrochemical treatment (Electro-Fe(II)/Oxone) was evaluated in terms of 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid degradation in aqueous solution. Various parameters were investigated to optimize the process, including applied current, electrolyte and Oxone concentration. In addition, low solution pH facilitates the system performance due to the dual effects of weak Fenton reagent generation and persulfate ions generation, whereas the system performance was inhibited at basic pH levels through non-radical self-dissociation of Oxone and the formation of ferric hydroxide precipitates. Furthermore, the active radicals involved in the Electro-Fe(II)/Oxone process were also identified. The Electro-Fe(II)/Oxone process demonstrates a very high 2,4,5-T degradation efficiency (over 90% decay within 10 min), which justifies the novel Electro-Fe(II)/Oxone a promising treatment process for herbicide removal in water.

  13. Computational models of music perception and cognition II: Domain-specific music processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Grachten, Maarten; Herrera, Perfecto; Hazan, Amaury; Marxer, Ricard; Serra, Xavier

    2008-09-01

    In Part I [Purwins H, Herrera P, Grachten M, Hazan A, Marxer R, Serra X. Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain. Physics of Life Reviews 2008, in press, doi:10.1016/j.plrev.2008.03.004], we addressed the study of cognitive processes that underlie auditory perception of music, and their neural correlates. The aim of the present paper is to summarize empirical findings from music cognition research that are relevant to three prominent music theoretic domains: rhythm, melody, and tonality. Attention is paid to how cognitive processes like category formation, stimulus grouping, and expectation can account for the music theoretic key concepts in these domains, such as beat, meter, voice, consonance. We give an overview of computational models that have been proposed in the literature for a variety of music processing tasks related to rhythm, melody, and tonality. Although the present state-of-the-art in computational modeling of music cognition definitely provides valuable resources for testing specific hypotheses and theories, we observe the need for models that integrate the various aspects of music perception and cognition into a single framework. Such models should be able to account for aspects that until now have only rarely been addressed in computational models of music cognition, like the active nature of perception and the development of cognitive capacities from infancy to adulthood.

  14. Design Considerations for the Construction and Operation of Flour Milling Facilities. Part II: Process Design Considerations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flour milling facilities have been the cornerstone of agricultural processing for centuries. Like most agri-industrial production facilities, flour milling facilities have a number of unique design requirements. Design information, to date, has been limited. In an effort to summarize state of the ...

  15. Update: Validation, Edits, and Application Processing. Phase II and Error-Prone Model Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Susan; And Others

    An update to the Validation, Edits, and Application Processing and Error-Prone Model Report (Section 1, July 3, 1980) is presented. The objective is to present the most current data obtained from the June 1980 Basic Educational Opportunity Grant applicant and recipient files and to determine whether the findings reported in Section 1 of the July…

  16. Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part I - Observations, Part II - Control Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alfred W.

    This is the first in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. Part I of this document deals with physical observations which should be performed during each routine control test. Part II…

  17. Balancing bilinguals II: lexical comprehension and cognitive processing in children learning Spanish and English.

    PubMed

    Kohnert, Kathryn J; Bates, Elizabeth

    2002-04-01

    The present study investigated developmental changes in lexical comprehension skills in early sequential bilinguals, in both Spanish (L1) and English (L2), exploring the effects of age, years of experience, and basic-level cognitive processing (specifically the ability to maintain performance during mixed vs. single-language processing) within a timed picture-word verification task. Participants were 100 individuals, 20 at each of five different age levels (ages in years, 5-7, 8-10, 11-13, 14-16, and adults). All had learned Spanish as a first language in the home, with formal English experience beginning at 5 years. Gains (as indexed by increased response speed) were made in both languages across age, although these gains were greater in English than in Spanish. The youngest participants were relatively "balanced" in their crosslinguistic performance. By middle childhood, performance was better in English. There were no response decrements at any age between the mixed and single-language processing conditions. These results are compared to those from a previous study that investigated basic-level lexical production in developing Spanish-English bilinguals. Both studies show a move toward English dominance in middle childhood, but the transition occurs earlier in comprehension. The production study showed differences between mixed and single-language processing (reflecting potential interlanguage interference) that are not evident in comprehension.

  18. Transport induced by mean-eddy interaction: II. Analysis of transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Kayo; Wiggins, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    We present a framework for the analysis of transport processes resulting from the mean-eddy interaction in a flow. The framework is based on the Transport Induced by the Mean-Eddy Interaction (TIME) method presented in a companion paper (Ide and Wiggins, 2014) [1]. The TIME method estimates the (Lagrangian) transport across stationary (Eulerian) boundaries defined by chosen streamlines of the mean flow. Our framework proceeds after first carrying out a sequence of preparatory steps that link the flow dynamics to the transport processes. This includes the construction of the so-called "instantaneous flux" as the Hovmöller diagram. Transport processes are studied by linking the signals of the instantaneous flux field to the dynamical variability of the flow. This linkage also reveals how the variability of the flow contributes to the transport. The spatio-temporal analysis of the flux diagram can be used to assess the efficiency of the variability in transport processes. We apply the method to the double-gyre ocean circulation model in the situation where the Rossby-wave mode dominates the dynamic variability. The spatio-temporal analysis shows that the inter-gyre transport is controlled by the circulating eddy vortices in the fast eastward jet region, whereas the basin-scale Rossby waves have very little impact.

  19. Latin American Medical Graduates: II. The Readaptation Process for Those Who Return Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaviria, Moises; Wintrob, Ronald

    1982-01-01

    A discussion of the readaptation process of 70 physicians who returned to Peru to practice medicine after completing postgraduate training in the U.S. (1965-1975) covers the determinants of the decision to return; academic, familial, and adaptational problems; and the physicians' impact on medical education and health care services in Peru. (NQA)

  20. THE STRUCTURE AND PROCESS OF SCHOOL-COMMUNITY RELATIONS. VOLUME II, BETWEEN CITIZENS AND SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, RICHARD F.; CHAFFEE, STEVEN H.

    FROM A 1964 NATIONAL QUOTA-PROBABILITY SAMPLE OF INTERVIEWS WITH 1,500 CITIZENS 21 YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, MAJOR VARIABLES WERE DEFINED RELATING TO COMMUNICATION BETWEEN PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND THEIR COMMUNITIES. PRIMARY CONTENT OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS STUDIED WAS FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR SCHOOLS. FOR PURPOSES OF CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS, RESPONDENTS…

  1. Diagenetic processes near the sediment-water interface of Long Island Sound. II. Fe and Mn

    SciTech Connect

    Aller, R.C.

    1980-12-01

    The chemical diagenesis of iron and mangnese in the near-shore sediments of Long Island Sound are examined. Particular emphasis is place on quantifying the physical and biological transport-reaction processes controlling both the distribution of these metals within the upper few decimeters of a deposit and the exchange of their soluble forms with overlying water.

  2. A Computer-Aided Type-II Fuzzy Image Processing for Diagnosis of Meniscus Tear.

    PubMed

    Zarandi, M H Fazel; Khadangi, A; Karimi, F; Turksen, I B

    2016-12-01

    Meniscal tear is one of the prevalent knee disorders among young athletes and the aging population, and requires correct diagnosis and surgical intervention, if necessary. Not only the errors followed by human intervention but also the obstacles of manual meniscal tear detection highlight the need for automatic detection techniques. This paper presents a type-2 fuzzy expert system for meniscal tear diagnosis using PD magnetic resonance images (MRI). The scheme of the proposed type-2 fuzzy image processing model is composed of three distinct modules: Pre-processing, Segmentation, and Classification. λ-nhancement algorithm is used to perform the pre-processing step. For the segmentation step, first, Interval Type-2 Fuzzy C-Means (IT2FCM) is applied to the images, outputs of which are then employed by Interval Type-2 Possibilistic C-Means (IT2PCM) to perform post-processes. Second stage concludes with re-estimation of "η" value to enhance IT2PCM. Finally, a Perceptron neural network with two hidden layers is used for Classification stage. The results of the proposed type-2 expert system have been compared with a well-known segmentation algorithm, approving the superiority of the proposed system in meniscal tear recognition.

  3. Cardiac electrophysiological experiments in numero, Part II: Models of electrophysiological processes.

    PubMed

    Malik, M; Camm, A J

    1991-11-01

    This article is the second part of a three article series reviewing computer simulation models of the heart, in particular of cardiac electrophysiology. The previous section of the review discussed the methodological principles of the construction and application of computer models. This article overviews the development of mathematical and computer modeling studies applied to cardiology. The models are classified according to the physiological processes that were simulated; this article distinguishes models oriented to cardiac mechanics, hemodynamics, and electrophysiology. The electrophysiology models are discussed in more detail and the review classifies them into four main categories: models of cellular processes, models of tissue behavior, models of the ventricular electric field, and models of macroconduction disturbances. In each category, the historical development of the models and their key achievements are described.

  4. Data co-processing for extreme scale analysis level II ASC milestone (4745).

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, David; Moreland, Kenneth D.; Oldfield, Ron A.; Fabian, Nathan D.

    2013-03-01

    Exascale supercomputing will embody many revolutionary changes in the hardware and software of high-performance computing. A particularly pressing issue is gaining insight into the science behind the exascale computations. Power and I/O speed con- straints will fundamentally change current visualization and analysis work ows. A traditional post-processing work ow involves storing simulation results to disk and later retrieving them for visualization and data analysis. However, at exascale, scien- tists and analysts will need a range of options for moving data to persistent storage, as the current o ine or post-processing pipelines will not be able to capture the data necessary for data analysis of these extreme scale simulations. This Milestone explores two alternate work ows, characterized as in situ and in transit, and compares them. We nd each to have its own merits and faults, and we provide information to help pick the best option for a particular use.

  5. Planck 2015 results: II. Low Frequency Instrument data processings

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Rocha, G.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-20

    In this paper, we present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places where our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release, describing the products (especially timelines) and the ways in which they were obtained. We demonstrate that the pipeline is self-consistent (principally based on simulations) and report all null tests. For the first time, we present LFI maps in Stokes Q and U polarization. Finally, we refer to other related papers where more detailed descriptions of the LFI data processing pipeline may be found if needed.

  6. Implementation of the DYMAC system at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. Phase II report

    SciTech Connect

    Malanify, J.J.; Amsden, D.C.

    1982-08-01

    The DYnamic Materials ACcountability System - called DYMAC - performs accountability functions at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility where it began operation when the facility opened in January 1978. A demonstration program, DYMAC was designed to collect and assess inventory information for safeguards purposes. It accomplishes 75% of its design goals. DYMAC collects information about the physical inventory through deployment of nondestructive assay instrumentation and video terminals throughout the facility. The information resides in a minicomputer where it can be immediately sorted and displayed on the video terminals or produced in printed form. Although the capability now exists to assess the collected data, this portion of the program is not yet implemented. DYMAC in its present form is an excellent tool for process and quality control. The facility operator relies on it exclusively for keeping track of the inventory and for complying with accountability requirements of the US Department of Energy.

  7. A SLAM II simulation model for analyzing space station mission processing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Space station mission processing is modeled via the SLAM 2 simulation language on an IBM 4381 mainframe and an IBM PC microcomputer with 620K RAM, two double-sided disk drives and an 8087 coprocessor chip. Using a time phased mission (payload) schedule and parameters associated with the mission, orbiter (space shuttle) and ground facility databases, estimates for ground facility utilization are computed. Simulation output associated with the science and applications database is used to assess alternative mission schedules.

  8. —Part II. Development of the Electrolysis Devices and Process Technology Approval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaikov, Yurii P.; Shurov, Nikolay I.; Batukhtin, Victor P.; Molostov, Oleg G.

    2014-06-01

    The electrolyzers used to extract calcium from copper-calcium alloys at 0.5 to 3.0 kA were designed, manufactured, and utilized to study the process parameters more precisely. The pilot electrolysis device used to produce calcium from copper-calcium alloys at 12 to 15 kA was developed. The calcium production using the bipolar electrolyzer was proved to be possible and was experimentally tested.

  9. On the Processing of Martensitic Steels in Continuous Galvanizing Lines: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Taejin; Kwak, Jaihyun; de Cooman, B. C.

    2012-01-01

    The conventional continuous hot-dip galvanizing (GI) and galvannealing (GA) processes can be applied to untransformed austenite to produce Zn and Zn-alloy coated low-carbon ultra-high-strength martensitic steel provided specific alloying additions are made. The most suitable austenite decomposition behavior results from the combined addition of boron, Cr, and Mo, which results in a pronounced transformation bay during isothermal transformation. The occurrence of this transformation bay implies a considerable retardation of the austenite decomposition in the temperature range below the bay, which is close to the stages in the continuous galvanizing line (CGL) thermal cycle related to the GI and GA processes. After the GI and GA processes, a small amount of granular bainite, which consists of bainitic ferrite and discrete islands of martensite/austenite (M/A) constituents embedded in martensite matrix, is present in the microstructure. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the steel after the GI and GA cycle was over 1300 MPa, and the stress-strain curve was continuous without any yielding phenomena.

  10. Conversion of paper sludge to ethanol, II: process design and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhiliang; Lynd, Lee R

    2007-01-01

    Process design and economics are considered for conversion of paper sludge to ethanol. A particular site, a bleached kraft mill operated in Gorham, NH by Fraser Papers (15 tons dry sludge processed per day), is considered. In addition, profitability is examined for a larger plant (50 dry tons per day) and sensitivity analysis is carried out with respect to capacity, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Conversion based on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with intermittent feeding is examined, with ethanol recovery provided by distillation and molecular sieve adsorption. It was found that the Fraser plant achieves positive cash flow with or without xylose conversion and mineral recovery. Sensitivity analysis indicates economics are very sensitive to ethanol selling price and scale; significant but less sensitive to the tipping fee, and rather insensitive to the prices of cellulase and power. Internal rates of return exceeding 15% are projected for larger plants at most combinations of scale, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Our analysis lends support to the proposition that paper sludge is a leading point-of-entry and proving ground for emergent industrial processes featuring enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass.

  11. Emergence of patterns in random processes. II. Stochastic structure in random events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, William I.

    2014-06-01

    Random events can present what appears to be a pattern in the length of peak-to-peak sequences in time series and other point processes. Previously, we showed that this was the case in both individual and independently distributed processes as well as for Brownian walks. In addition, we introduced the use of the discrete form of the Langevin equation of statistical mechanics as a device for connecting the two limiting sets of behaviors, which we then compared with a variety of observations from the physical and social sciences. Here, we establish a probabilistic framework via the Smoluchowski equation for exploring the Langevin equation and its expected peak-to-peak sequence lengths, and we introduce a concept we call "stochastic structure in random events," or SSRE. We extend the Brownian model to include antipersistent processes via autoregressive (AR) models. We relate the latter to describe the behavior of Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, and we devise a further test for the validity of the Langevin and AR models. Given our analytic results, we show how the Langevin equation can be adapted to describe population cycles of three to four years observed among many mammalian species in biology.

  12. Emergence of patterns in random processes. II. Stochastic structure in random events.

    PubMed

    Newman, William I

    2014-06-01

    Random events can present what appears to be a pattern in the length of peak-to-peak sequences in time series and other point processes. Previously, we showed that this was the case in both individual and independently distributed processes as well as for Brownian walks. In addition, we introduced the use of the discrete form of the Langevin equation of statistical mechanics as a device for connecting the two limiting sets of behaviors, which we then compared with a variety of observations from the physical and social sciences. Here, we establish a probabilistic framework via the Smoluchowski equation for exploring the Langevin equation and its expected peak-to-peak sequence lengths, and we introduce a concept we call "stochastic structure in random events," or SSRE. We extend the Brownian model to include antipersistent processes via autoregressive (AR) models. We relate the latter to describe the behavior of Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, and we devise a further test for the validity of the Langevin and AR models. Given our analytic results, we show how the Langevin equation can be adapted to describe population cycles of three to four years observed among many mammalian species in biology.

  13. Kinetics of the zinc slag-Fuming Process: part II. mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, G. G.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1985-09-01

    A mathematical model of zinc slag fuming has been formulated based on the kinetic conception of the process developed in Part I of this paper. Each of the major reaction zones in the furnace — the slag bath where reduction of zinc oxide and ferric oxide takes place and the tuyere gas column where oxidation of coal and ferrous oxide occurs — have been characterized mathematically. The two zones and the water-jacketed furnace wall have been linked by overall heat and mass balances. Insufficient information is available, however, to characterize quantitatively two of the important kinetic processes occurring in the furnace: the division of coal between entrainment in the slag, combustion in the tuyere gas column and bypass; and oxygen utilization. To overcome this problem the model has been fitted to the data from eleven industrial fuming cycles. Consistent values have been obtained for these kinetic parameters over five different fuming operations indicating that the kinetic conception of the process is sound. The results indicate that about 33 pct of the injected coal is entrained in the slag, 55 pet combusts in the tuyere gas column, and 12 pct bypasses the bath completely. Oxygen utilization has been found to be high and can be correlated to bath depth.

  14. Pretreatment of furfural industrial wastewater by Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate processes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Yang, C W; Wang, D; Tang, Q

    2014-01-01

    The Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate (PDS) processes have been applied for the treatment of actual furfural industrial wastewater in this paper. Through the comparative study of the three processes, a suitable pretreatment technology for actual furfural wastewater treatment was obtained, and the mechanism and dynamics process of this technology is discussed. The experimental results show that Fenton technology has a good and stable effect without adjusting pH of furfural wastewater. At optimal conditions, which were 40 mmol/L H₂O₂ initial concentration and 10 mmol/L Fe²⁺ initial concentration, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate can reach 81.2% after 90 min reaction at 80 °C temperature. The PDS process also has a good performance. The COD removal rate could attain 80.3% when Na₂S₂O₈ initial concentration was 4.2 mmol/L, Fe²⁺ initial concentration was 0.1 mol/L, the temperature remained at 70 °C, and pH value remained at 2.0. The electro-Fenton process was not competent to deal with the high-temperature furfural industrial wastewater and only 10.2% COD was degraded at 80 °C temperature in the optimal conditions (2.25 mA/cm² current density, 4 mg/L Na₂SO₄, 0.3 m³/h aeration rate). For the Fenton, electro-Fenton and PDS processes in pretreatment of furfural wastewater, their kinetic processes follow the pseudo first order kinetics law. The pretreatment pathways of furfural wastewater degradation are also investigated in this study. The results show that furfural and furan formic acid in furfural wastewater were preferentially degraded by Fenton technology. Furfural can be degraded into low-toxicity or nontoxic compounds by Fenton pretreatment technology, which could make furfural wastewater harmless and even reusable.

  15. Analysis of the permitting processes associated with exploration of Federal OCS leases. Final report. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Under contract to the Office of Leasing Policy Development (LPDO), Jack Faucett Associates is currently undertaking the description and analysis of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) regulatory process to determine the nature of time delays that affect OCS production of oil and gas. This report represents the results of the first phase of research under this contract, the description and analysis of regulatory activity associated with exploration activities on the Federal OCS. Volume 1 contains the following three sections: (1) study results; (2) Federal regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases which involved the US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, US Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, and National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration; and (3) state regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases of Alaska, California, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina and Texas. Volume II contains appendices of US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, the Coastal Zone Management Act, and Alaska. The major causes of delay in the regulatory process governing exploration was summarized in four broad categories: (1) the long and tedious process associated with the Environmental Protection Agency's implementation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit; (2) thelack of mandated time periods for the completion of individual activities in the permitting process; (3) the lack of overall coordination of OCS exploratory regulation; and (4) the inexperience of states, the Federal government and industry relating to the appropriate level of regulation for first-time lease sale areas.

  16. Need for tripeptidyl-peptidase II in major histocompatibility complex class I viral antigen processing when proteasomes are detrimental.

    PubMed

    Guil, Sara; Rodríguez-Castro, Marta; Aguilar, Francisco; Villasevil, Eugenia M; Antón, Luis C; Del Val, Margarita

    2006-12-29

    CD8(+) T lymphocytes recognize infected cells that display virus-derived antigenic peptides complexed with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Peptides are mainly byproducts of cellular protein turnover by cytosolic proteasomes. Cytosolic tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPPII) also participates in protein degradation. Several peptidic epitopes unexpectedly do not require proteasomes, but it is unclear which proteases generate them. We studied antigen processing of influenza virus nucleoprotein epitope NP(147-155), an archetype epitope that is even destroyed by a proteasome-mediated mechanism. TPPII, with the assistance of endoplasmic reticulum trimming metallo-aminopeptidases, probably ERAAP (endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase associated with antigen processing), was crucial for nucleoprotein epitope generation both in the presence of functional proteasomes and when blocked by lactacystin, as shown with specific chemical inhibitors and gene silencing. Different protein contexts and subcellular targeting all allowed epitope processing by TPPII as well as trimming. The results show the plasticity of the cell's assortment of proteases for providing ligands for recognition by antiviral CD8(+) T cells. Our observations identify for the first time a set of proteases competent for antigen processing of an epitope that is susceptible to destruction by proteasomes.

  17. Extracellular Identification of a Processed Type II ComR/ComS Pheromone of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rabia; Rukke, Håkon V.; Ricomini Filho, Antonio Pedro; Fimland, Gunnar; Arntzen, Magnus Ø.; Thiede, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) and the sigX-inducing peptide (XIP) are known to induce Streptococcus mutans competence for genetic transformation. For both pheromones, direct identification of the native peptides has not been accomplished. The fact that extracellular XIP activity was recently observed in a chemically defined medium devoid of peptides, as mentioned in an accompanying paper (K. Desai, L. Mashburn-Warren, M. J. Federle, and D. A. Morrison, J. Bacteriol. 194:3774–3780, 2012), provided ideal conditions for native XIP identification. To search for the XIP identity, culture supernatants were filtered to select for peptides of less than 3 kDa, followed by C18 extraction. One peptide, not detected in the supernatant of a comS deletion mutant, was identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragmentation as identical to the ComS C-terminal sequence GLDWWSL. ComS processing did not require Eep, a peptidase involved in processing or import of bacterial small hydrophobic peptides, since eep deletion had no inhibitory effect on XIP production or on synthetic XIP response. We investigated whether extracellular CSP was also produced. A reporter assay for CSP activity detection, as well as MS analysis of supernatants, revealed that CSP was not present at detectable levels. In addition, a mutant with deletion of the CSP-encoding gene comC produced endogenous XIP levels similar to those of a nondeletion mutant. The results indicate that XIP pheromone production is a natural phenomenon that may occur in the absence of natural CSP pheromone activity and that the heptapeptide GLDWWSL is an extracellular processed form of ComS, possibly the active XIP pheromone. This is the first report of direct identification of a ComR/ComS pheromone. PMID:22609914

  18. Innovation through developing consumers communities. Part II: Digitalizing the innovation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avasilcai, S.; Galateanu (Avram, E.

    2015-11-01

    The current research recognises the concept of innovation as the main driver for organisational growth and profitability. The companies seek to develop new ways to engage consumers and customers into co - creation value through the product design, development and distribution processes. However the main concern is manifested for new and creative ways of customization products based on consumers’ requirements and needs. Thus the need for innovative virtual instruments arose as the demand from social communities for personalised products or services increased. Basically companies should develop own innovative platforms, where consumers can participate, with ideas, concepts or other relevant contributions, and interact with designers or engineers for product development. This paper aims to present the most important features of platform development within BMW Group as a concept and as innovative instrument. From this point of view it is important to enhance past experiences of the company in the field of co - creation projects. There will be highlighted the dual consumers’ character as co - creator and co - evaluator based on their involvement in the proposed and developed projects and platform structure. The significant impact on platform functioning it has the diversity of company's concerns for Research & Development and innovation activities. From this point of view there will be assessed the platform structure, the main proposed themes and the evaluation process. The main outcome is to highlight the significance of platform development as innovative tool for consumers’ communities’ enhancement. Based on the analysis of “BMW Co-Creation Lab”, there will be revealed the main consumers concerns in terms of safety, comfort and appearance of the products. Thus it is important to understand the evaluation process of gathered ideas and intellectual property policy. The importance of platform development and implementation will be highlighted by company

  19. Beam-beam dynamics during the injection process at the PEP-II B-Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Yong Ho

    1991-10-01

    This paper is concerned with beam-beam effects during the injection process at the proposed asymmetric SLAC/LBL/LLNL B-Factory based on PEP (PEP-2). For symmetric colliders, the primary source of the beam-beam effect is the head-on collision at the interaction point (IP), and this effect can be mitigated by separating the beams during the injection process. For an asymmetric collider, which intrinsically consists of two separate rings, the bunches not only collide at the IP but experience a long-range beam-beam force on the way into and out of the IP region. These collisions are called ``parasitic crossings (PC).`` The parasitic crossings emerge as a potential source of far stronger beam-beam impact during the injection process for the following reason. In the proposed injection scheme of the APIARY-6.3d design, the bunches are injected horizontally into the two rings with large horizontal offset of 8{sigma}{sub Ox}{sup sptm} where {sigma}{sub Ox}{sup sptm} is the nominal horizontal storage ring beam size at the end of the septum magnet. Then, the injected beam starts to travel around the ring oscillating horizontally. For the sake of discussion, let us assume that the beam in the other ring has already been fully stored. When the injected beam arrives at the 1st PC, where the two nominal orbits are separated horizontally by about 7.6 times the nominal horizontal beam size of the low energy ring, it may pass through the other beam far more closely than at the nominal separation distance, or it may even strike the other beam head-on.

  20. Beam-beam dynamics during the injection process at the PEP-II B-Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Yong Ho.

    1991-10-01

    This paper is concerned with beam-beam effects during the injection process at the proposed asymmetric SLAC/LBL/LLNL B-Factory based on PEP (PEP-2). For symmetric colliders, the primary source of the beam-beam effect is the head-on collision at the interaction point (IP), and this effect can be mitigated by separating the beams during the injection process. For an asymmetric collider, which intrinsically consists of two separate rings, the bunches not only collide at the IP but experience a long-range beam-beam force on the way into and out of the IP region. These collisions are called parasitic crossings (PC).'' The parasitic crossings emerge as a potential source of far stronger beam-beam impact during the injection process for the following reason. In the proposed injection scheme of the APIARY-6.3d design, the bunches are injected horizontally into the two rings with large horizontal offset of 8{sigma}{sub Ox}{sup sptm} where {sigma}{sub Ox}{sup sptm} is the nominal horizontal storage ring beam size at the end of the septum magnet. Then, the injected beam starts to travel around the ring oscillating horizontally. For the sake of discussion, let us assume that the beam in the other ring has already been fully stored. When the injected beam arrives at the 1st PC, where the two nominal orbits are separated horizontally by about 7.6 times the nominal horizontal beam size of the low energy ring, it may pass through the other beam far more closely than at the nominal separation distance, or it may even strike the other beam head-on.

  1. The possible influence of upstream upper-level baroclinic processes on the development of the QE II storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uccellini, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of the QE II storm of September 9-11, 1978 presents evidence for the existence of upper-level baroclinic processes upstream of the rapidly developing cyclone. The analysis shows that a deepening shortwave trough was located 400 to 500 km upstream of the site of the storm 12 h prior to rapid cyclogenesis. The trough was associated with: (1) a polar jet marked by 65 m/s winds in its core and significant vertical and horizontal wind shear, (2) positive vorticity advection and divergence at the 300 mb level, and (3) an intense frontal zone that extended from 300 mb down to the surface. It also appears that a tropopause fold likely extruded stratospheric air down to the 700-800 mb level, 400-500 km upstream of the surface low and 12 h prior to the explosive development phase of the cyclone. These findings raise questions about Gyakum's (1983) assertion that the QE II storm developed in an area in which the baroclinic support was confined to the lower troposphere and the related assertion by Anthes et al. (1983) that upper-level forcing upstream of the area of rapid cyclogenesis was weak and apparently not important in this case.

  2. Model-predictive control of the Czochralski crystallization process. Part II. Reduced-order convection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irizarry-Rivera, Roberto; Seider, Warren D.

    1997-07-01

    A new reduced-order model (ROM) is proposed for the bulk-controller presented in Part I. This model considers convection in the melt based upon the assumption of an idealized flow geometry consisting of horizontal donuts and vertical tubes with radial and axial dispersion, respectively. Boundary and bulk layers are assumed to separate the core fluid from the crystal and crucible. Scale analysis and integral boundary-layer theory are utilized to estimate the boundary-layer thicknesses and the maximum stream function in the core fluid. A strategy is presented for adjusting the imperfect model online to reduce the process/model mismatch during MPC.

  3. Paraho environmental data. Part I. Process characterization. Par II. Air quality. Part III. Water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Heistand, R.N.; Atwood, R.A.; Richardson, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    From 1973 to 1978, Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a subsidiary of Paraho Development Corporation, demostrated the Paraho technology for surface oil shale retorting at Anvil Points, Colorado. A considerable amount of environmentally-related research was also conducted. This body of data represents the most comprehensive environmental data base relating to surface retorting that is currently available. In order to make this information available, the DOE Office of Environment has undertaken to compile, assemble, and publish this environmental data. The compilation has been prepared by DEI. This report includes the process characterization, air quality, and water quality categories.

  4. Experimental investigation and numerical modeling of carbonation process in reinforced concrete structures Part II. Practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saetta, Anna V.; Vitaliani, Renato V

    2005-05-01

    The mathematical-numerical method developed by the authors to predict the corrosion initiation time of reinforced concrete structures due to carbonation process, recalled in Part I of this work, is here applied to some real cases. The final aim is to develop and test a practical method for determining the durability characteristics of existing buildings liable to carbonation, as well as estimating the corrosion initiation time of a building at the design stage. Two industrial sheds with different ages and located in different areas have been analyzed performing both experimental tests and numerical analyses. Finally, a case of carbonation-induced failure in a prestressed r.c. beam is presented.

  5. Automated image processing of Landsat II digital data for watershed runoff prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasso, R. R.; Jensen, J. R.; Estes, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Digital image processing of Landsat data from a 230 sq km area was examined as a possible means of generating soil cover information for use in the watershed runoff prediction of Kern County, California. The soil cover information included data on brush, grass, pasture lands and forests. A classification accuracy of 94% for the Landsat-based soil cover survey suggested that the technique could be applied to the watershed runoff estimate. However, problems involving the survey of complex mountainous environments may require further attention

  6. Post-processing V&V Level II ASC Milestone (2843) results.

    SciTech Connect

    Karelitz, David B.; Ice, Lisa G.; Wilke, Jason; Moreland, Kenneth D.; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2008-10-01

    The 9/30/2008 ASC Level 2 Post-Processing V&V Milestone (Milestone 2843) contains functionality required by the user community for certain verification and validation tasks. These capabilities include fragment detection from CTH simulation data, fragment characterization and analysis, and fragment sorting and display operations. The capabilities were tested extensively both on sample and actual simulations. In addition, a number of stretch criteria were met including a comparison between simulated and test data, and the ability to output each fragment as an individual geometric file.

  7. Translational research in pediatrics II: blood collection, processing, shipping, and storage.

    PubMed

    Gillio-Meina, Carolina; Cepinskas, Gediminas; Cecchini, Erin L; Fraser, Douglas D

    2013-04-01

    Translational research often involves tissue sampling and analysis. Blood is by far the most common tissue collected. Due to the many difficulties encountered with blood procurement from children, it is imperative to maximize the quality and stability of the collected samples to optimize research results. Collected blood can remain whole or be fractionated into serum, plasma, or cell concentrates such as red blood cells, leukocytes, or platelets. Serum and plasma can be used for analyte studies, including proteins, lipids, and small molecules, and as a source of cell-free nucleic acids. Cell concentrates are used in functional studies, flow cytometry, culture experiments, or as a source for cellular nucleic acids. Before initiating studies on blood, a thorough evaluation of practices that may influence analyte and/or cellular integrity is required. Thus, it is imperative that child health researchers working with human blood are aware of how experimental results can be altered by blood sampling methods, times to processing, container tubes, presence or absence of additives, shipping and storage variables, and freeze-thaw cycles. The authors of this review, in an effort to encourage and optimize translational research using blood from pediatric patients, outline best practices for blood collection, processing, shipment, and storage.

  8. Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. II. Bipartite systems, physical processes, and heterodyne squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell'Anno, Fabio; de Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    Extending the scheme developed for a single mode of the electromagnetic field in the preceding paper [

    F. Dell’Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 69, 033812 (2004)
    ], we introduce two-mode nonlinear canonical transformations depending on two heterodyne mixing angles. They are defined in terms of Hermitian nonlinear functions that realize heterodyne superpositions of conjugate quadratures of bipartite systems. The canonical transformations diagonalize a class of Hamiltonians describing nondegenerate and degenerate multiphoton processes. We determine the coherent states associated with the canonical transformations, which generalize the nondegenerate two-photon squeezed states. Such heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states are defined as the simultaneous eigenstates of the transformed, coupled annihilation operators. They are generated by nonlinear unitary evolutions acting on two-mode squeezed states. They are non-Gaussian, highly nonclassical, entangled states. For a quadratic nonlinearity the heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states define two-mode cubic phase states. The statistical properties of these states can be widely adjusted by tuning the heterodyne mixing angles, the phases of the nonlinear couplings, as well as the strength of the nonlinearity. For quadratic nonlinearity, we study the higher-order contributions to the susceptibility in nonlinear media and we suggest possible experimental realizations of multiphoton conversion processes generating the cubic-phase heterodyne squeezed states.

  9. Visual information processing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 14-16, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O. (Editor); Juday, Richard D. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Various papers on visual information processing are presented. Individual topics addressed include: aliasing as noise, satellite image processing using a hammering neural network, edge-detetion method using visual perception, adaptive vector median filters, design of a reading test for low-vision image warping, spatial transformation architectures, automatic image-enhancement method, redundancy reduction in image coding, lossless gray-scale image compression by predictive GDF, information efficiency in visual communication, optimizing JPEG quantization matrices for different applications, use of forward error correction to maintain image fidelity, effect of peanoscanning on image compression. Also discussed are: computer vision for autonomous robotics in space, optical processor for zero-crossing edge detection, fractal-based image edge detection, simulation of the neon spreading effect by bandpass filtering, wavelet transform (WT) on parallel SIMD architectures, nonseparable 2D wavelet image representation, adaptive image halftoning based on WT, wavelet analysis of global warming, use of the WT for signal detection, perfect reconstruction two-channel rational filter banks, N-wavelet coding for pattern classification, simulation of image of natural objects, number-theoretic coding for iconic systems.

  10. Shelf Edge Exchange Processes--II: SEEP2-10, R/V ENDEAVOR cruise 195

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, W.J.; Wilson, C.; Flagg, C.N.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Wyman, K.D.

    1990-04-01

    The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is a multi-institutional effort designed to investigate the flux of suspended material from the continental shelf to the waters of the upper slope, and then possibly into the slope sediments. This project consisted of a series of ten cruises, a mooring array, and a series of over-flights by NASA aircraft. Hydrographic data were collected on eight of the cruises, six of which were primarily mooring deployment or recovery cruises. The cruises were consecutively designated SEEP2-01 to SEEP2-10. Two cruises (SEEP2-04 and SEEP2-07) were dedicated to investigating benthic processes and hydrographic data were not collected. The R/V ENDEAVOR cruise 193, SEEP2-09, took place from 2--12 May 1989 and recovered ten mornings along two cross-shelf lines across the outer continental shelf. During this cruise 77 CTD casts were made measuring pressure, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence and light transmission. Discrete samples were taken in rosette-mounted Niskin bottles and analyzed for concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen. 14 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Application of the SULF-X process to coal conversion and utilization. Phase II final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, E.; Bramer, H.C.; New, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Pittsburgh Environmental and Energy Systems, Inc. contracted with the Department of Energy to demonstrate the efficacy of an iron sulfide flue gas treatment system (FGT) for removing sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) and to correlate process variables to system performance. Laboratory and bench-scale testing was conducted with the SULF-X process, using both synthesized gas and actual flue gas from a coal-fired furnace. Laboratory tests resulted in 95% SO/sub 2/ removal and up to 95% NO/sub x/ removal. The bench-scale system demonstrated similar SO/sub 2/ removal efficiencies, but achieved only 39% NO/sub x/ removal due to relatively high oxygen concentrations in the flue gas and insufficient liquid-gas interfacial area within the absorber. Elemental sulfur was recovered during the regeneration steps. Total capital investment for the SULF-X system was estimated to be $91 to $103 per kilowatt (electric), compared to $90/kw for sodium solution scrubbing, $78 to $83/kw for magnesia slurry scrubbing and $74/kw for limestone slurry scrubbing. Annual operating costs for the SULF-X system were estimated to be 5.44 to 6.90 mills per kilowatt-hour, compared to 4.96 to 5.22 for sodium, 3.68 to 3.99 for magnesia and 3.73 to 4.25 for limestone. 6 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  12. Introduction to ODP Leg 204 part II, processes at the summit of southern Hydrate Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrmann, G.; Odp Leg 204 Shipboard Scientific Party

    2003-04-01

    Since 1996, it has been known that the summit of Hydrate Ridge is a dynamic environment in which massive hydrate is forming at and near the seafloor and free gas is escaping vigorously into the ocean. In this presentation we summarize new data on subseafloor processes in this region obtained during ODP Leg 204. Several other presentations at this meeting provided additional discussion of the Leg 204 data and of the subseafloor processes they imply. During Leg 204, two sites were drilled at the summit. Integration of data from pressure core samples (PCS and HYACINTH autoclave system) with porewater chloride concentrations, electrical resistivity from logging while drilling (LWD) and infrared (IR) thermal imaging of cores on retrieval indicate that gas hydrate comprises as much as 30-40% of the total core volume in the upper 20-30 m. In addition, very high pore water chloride concentrations place constraints on rates of hydrate formation. The data imply high gas flux and movement of free gas through the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). One possible explanation for the presence of free gas in the GHSZ is that water is locally exhausted during hydrate formation, leading to the presence free gas in the pore space. Although the occurrence of free gas associated with gas hydrates had been documented prior to Leg 204, Leg 204 is the first time that free gas at in situ conditions has been documented, an observation made possible by the the first use of the integrated HYACINTH pressure coring and density logging system.

  13. Introduction to Leg 204, part II - processes at the summit of southern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrmann, G.; Trehu, A.; Torres, M.; Rack, F.; Milkov, A.; Schultheiss, P.; Collett, T.; Odp Leg 204 Shipboard Scientific Party (1) Presen

    2003-04-01

    Since 1996, it has been known that the summit of Hydrate Ridge is a dynamic environment in which massive hydrate is forming at and near the seafloor and free gas is escaping vigorously into the ocean. In this presentation we summarize new data on subseafloor processes in this region obtained during ODP Leg 204. Several other presentations at this meeting provided additional discussion of the Leg 204 data and of the subseafloor processes they imply. During Leg 204, two sites were drilled at the summit. Integration of data from pressure core samples (PCS and HYACINTH autoclave system) with porewater chloride concentrations, electrical resistivity from logging while drilling (LWD) and infrared (IR) thermal imaging of cores on retrieval indicate that gas hydrate comprises as much as 30-40% of the total core volume in the upper 20-30 m. In addition, very high pore water chloride concentrations place constraints on rates of hydrate formation. The data imply high gas flux and movement of free gas through the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). One possible explanation for the presence of free gas in the GHSZ is that water is locally exhausted during hydrate formation, leading to the presence free gas in the pore space. Although the occurrence of free gas associated with gas hydrates had been documented prior to Leg 204, Leg 204 is the first time that free gas at in situ conditions has been documented, an observation made possible by the the first use of the integrated HYACINTH pressure coring and density logging system.

  14. Visual information processing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 14-16, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O. (Editor); Juday, Richard D. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Various papers on visual information processing are presented. Individual topics addressed include: aliasing as noise, satellite image processing using a hammering neural network, edge-detetion method using visual perception, adaptive vector median filters, design of a reading test for low-vision image warping, spatial transformation architectures, automatic image-enhancement method, redundancy reduction in image coding, lossless gray-scale image compression by predictive GDF, information efficiency in visual communication, optimizing JPEG quantization matrices for different applications, use of forward error correction to maintain image fidelity, effect of peanoscanning on image compression. Also discussed are: computer vision for autonomous robotics in space, optical processor for zero-crossing edge detection, fractal-based image edge detection, simulation of the neon spreading effect by bandpass filtering, wavelet transform (WT) on parallel SIMD architectures, nonseparable 2D wavelet image representation, adaptive image halftoning based on WT, wavelet analysis of global warming, use of the WT for signal detection, perfect reconstruction two-channel rational filter banks, N-wavelet coding for pattern classification, simulation of image of natural objects, number-theoretic coding for iconic systems.

  15. Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. II. Bipartite systems, physical processes, and heterodyne squeezed states

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    Extending the scheme developed for a single mode of the electromagnetic field in the preceding paper [F. Dell'Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 69, 033812 (2004)], we introduce two-mode nonlinear canonical transformations depending on two heterodyne mixing angles. They are defined in terms of Hermitian nonlinear functions that realize heterodyne superpositions of conjugate quadratures of bipartite systems. The canonical transformations diagonalize a class of Hamiltonians describing nondegenerate and degenerate multiphoton processes. We determine the coherent states associated with the canonical transformations, which generalize the nondegenerate two-photon squeezed states. Such heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states are defined as the simultaneous eigenstates of the transformed, coupled annihilation operators. They are generated by nonlinear unitary evolutions acting on two-mode squeezed states. They are non-Gaussian, highly nonclassical, entangled states. For a quadratic nonlinearity the heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states define two-mode cubic phase states. The statistical properties of these states can be widely adjusted by tuning the heterodyne mixing angles, the phases of the nonlinear couplings, as well as the strength of the nonlinearity. For quadratic nonlinearity, we study the higher-order contributions to the susceptibility in nonlinear media and we suggest possible experimental realizations of multiphoton conversion processes generating the cubic-phase heterodyne squeezed states.

  16. Outcome measures in neurological physical therapy practice: part II. A patient-centered process.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jane E; Andrews, A Williams; Lanzino, Desiree; Perron, Aimee E; Peron, Aimee; Potter, Kirsten A

    2011-06-01

    Physical therapists working in neurological practice must make choices about which standardized outcome measures are most appropriate for each patient. Significant time constraints in the clinic limit the number of measures that one can reasonably administer. Therapists must choose measures that will provide results that guide the selection of appropriate interventions and are likely to show clinically meaningful change. Therefore, therapists must be able to compare the merits of available measures to identify those that are most relevant for each patient and setting. This article describes a process for selecting outcome measures and illustrates the use of that process with a patient who has had a stroke. The link between selecting objective outcome measures and tracking patient progress is emphasized. Comparisons are made between 2 motor function measures (the Fugl-Meyer Assessment [FMA] of Physical Performance vs the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement), and 2 balance measures (Berg Balance Scale vs the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale). The use of objective outcome measures allows therapists to quantify information that previously had been described in subjective terms. This allows the tracking of progress, and the comparison of effectiveness and costs across interventions, settings, providers, and patient characteristics.

  17. A complete solar eruption activity processing tool with robotization and real time (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ganghua; Zhao, Cui; Yang, Xiao

    2014-07-01

    Intense solar active events have made significant impacts on the modern high technology system and living environment of human being, therefore solar activities forecast and space weather forecast are getting more and more attention. Meanwhile, data volume acquisitioned by solar monitor facility is growing larger and larger due to the requirement of multiple dimensions observation and high temporal and spatial resolution. As staffs of a solar monitor data producer, we are encouraged to adopt new techniques and methods to provide valuable information to solar activities forecast organization and the other related users, and provide convenient products and tools to the users. In the previous paper "A complete solar eruption activities processing tool with robotization and real time (I)", we presented a fully automatic and real time detecting architecture for different solar erupt activities. In this paper, we present new components of new data sets in the architecture design, latest progresses on automatic recognition of solar flare, filament and magnetic field, and a newly introduced method with which solar photospheric magnetic nonpotentiality parameters are processed in real time, then its result directly can be used in solar active forecast.

  18. Assembly and intracellular transport of HLA-DM and correction of the class II antigen-processing defect in T2 cells.

    PubMed

    Denzin, L K; Robbins, N F; Carboy-Newcomb, C; Cresswell, P

    1994-10-01

    MHC class II molecules expressed in T2 cells fail to acquire a normal complement of endocytically generated peptides. The defect is repaired by introducing HLA-DMA and HLA-DMB cDNA expression vectors, determined by the restoration of SDS stability of class II alpha beta dimers, restoration of a normal conformation for HLA-DR3 as detected by a monoclonal antibody, and by a reduction in class II-associated invariant chain peptides. The intracellular distribution of class II and invariant chain molecules is also restored to that of wild-type cells. The HLA-DMA and HLA-DMB products appear to form a heterodimer that, although transported at least to the medial Golgi, is not expressed at the cell surface. These findings are consistent with HLA-DM functioning intracellularly to facilitate class II-restricted antigen processing.

  19. Brucella abortus Inhibits Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Expression and Antigen Processing through Interleukin-6 Secretion via Toll-Like Receptor 2▿

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, Paula; Cassataro, Juliana; Delpino, M. Victoria; Zwerdling, Astrid; Pasquevich, Karina A.; Samartino, Clara García; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.

    2008-01-01

    The strategies that allow Brucella abortus to survive inside macrophages for prolonged periods and to avoid the immunological surveillance of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-restricted gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes are poorly understood. We report here that infection of THP-1 cells with B. abortus inhibited expression of MHC-II molecules and antigen (Ag) processing. Heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) also induced both these phenomena, indicating the independence of bacterial viability and involvement of a structural component of the bacterium. Accordingly, outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19), a prototypical B. abortus lipoprotein, inhibited both MHC-II expression and Ag processing to the same extent as HKBA. Moreover, a synthetic lipohexapeptide that mimics the structure of the protein lipid moiety also inhibited MHC-II expression, indicating that any Brucella lipoprotein could down-modulate MHC-II expression and Ag processing. Inhibition of MHC-II expression and Ag processing by either HKBA or lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19) depended on Toll-like receptor 2 and was mediated by interleukin-6. HKBA or L-Omp19 also inhibited MHC-II expression and Ag processing of human monocytes. In addition, exposure to the synthetic lipohexapeptide inhibited Ag-specific T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Brucella-infected patients. Together, these results indicate that there is a mechanism by which B. abortus may prevent recognition by T cells to evade host immunity and establish a chronic infection. PMID:17984211

  20. Brucella abortus inhibits major histocompatibility complex class II expression and antigen processing through interleukin-6 secretion via Toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Barrionuevo, Paula; Cassataro, Juliana; Delpino, M Victoria; Zwerdling, Astrid; Pasquevich, Karina A; García Samartino, Clara; Wallach, Jorge C; Fossati, Carlos A; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2008-01-01

    The strategies that allow Brucella abortus to survive inside macrophages for prolonged periods and to avoid the immunological surveillance of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-restricted gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes are poorly understood. We report here that infection of THP-1 cells with B. abortus inhibited expression of MHC-II molecules and antigen (Ag) processing. Heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) also induced both these phenomena, indicating the independence of bacterial viability and involvement of a structural component of the bacterium. Accordingly, outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19), a prototypical B. abortus lipoprotein, inhibited both MHC-II expression and Ag processing to the same extent as HKBA. Moreover, a synthetic lipohexapeptide that mimics the structure of the protein lipid moiety also inhibited MHC-II expression, indicating that any Brucella lipoprotein could down-modulate MHC-II expression and Ag processing. Inhibition of MHC-II expression and Ag processing by either HKBA or lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19) depended on Toll-like receptor 2 and was mediated by interleukin-6. HKBA or L-Omp19 also inhibited MHC-II expression and Ag processing of human monocytes. In addition, exposure to the synthetic lipohexapeptide inhibited Ag-specific T-cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Brucella-infected patients. Together, these results indicate that there is a mechanism by which B. abortus may prevent recognition by T cells to evade host immunity and establish a chronic infection.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Part II: Sensitivity to Varying Cloud Microphysical Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Da-Lin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effects of various cloud microphysics processes on the hurricane intensity, precipitation, and inner-core structures are examined with a series of 5-day explicit simulations of Hurricane Bonnie (1998), using the results presented in Part I as a control run. It is found that varying cloud microphysics processes produces little sensitivity in hurricane track, except for very weak and shallow storms, but it produces pronounced departures in hurricane intensity and inner-core structures.Specifically, removing ice microphysics produces the weakest (15-hPa underdeepening) and shallowest storm with widespread cloud water but little rainwater in the upper troposphere. Removing graupel from the control run generates a weaker hurricane with a wider area of precipitation and more cloud coverage in the eyewall due to the enhanced horizontal advection of hydrometeors relative to the vertical fallouts (or increased water loading). Turning off the evaporation of cloud water and rainwater leads to the most rapid deepening storm (i.e., 90 hPa in 48 h) with the smallest radius but a wider eyewall and the strongest eyewall updrafts. The second strongest storm, but with the most amount of rainfall, is obtained when the melting effect is ignored. It is found that the cooling due to melting is more pronounced in the eyewall where more frozen hydrometeors, especially graupel, are available, whereas the evaporative cooling occurs more markedly when the storm environment is more unsaturated.It is shown that stronger storms tend to show more compact eyewalls with heavier precipitation and more symmetric structures in the warm-cored eye and in the eyewall. It is also shown that although the eyewall replacement scenarios occur as the simulated storms move into weak-sheared environments, the associated inner-core structural changes, timing, and location differ markedly, depending on the hurricane intensity. That is, the eyewall convection in weak storms tends to diminish

  2. Extraction of Ni(II) on micro crystalline naphthalene modified with organic-solution-processable functionalized nano graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghimi, Ali

    2014-07-01

    A novel and selective method for the fast determination of trace amounts of Ni(II) ions in water samples is described. Method has been developed for preconcentration of Ni on organic-solution-processable functionalized-nano graphene (SPFGraphene) adsorbent in the pH range 5.0-10.0, prior to its spectrophotometric determination, based on the oxidation of bromopyrogallol red at λ = 517 nm. This method makes it possible to quantitize Ni in the range of 4.2 × 10-9 to 2.3 × 10-5 M, with a detection limit ( S/N = 3) of 1.42 × 10-9 M. This procedure has been successfully applied to determine the ultra trace levels of Ni in the environmental samples, free from the interference of some diverse ions. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation of three measurements is better than 3.0%.

  3. [Stocking process for consumables and investement goods in the Italian public health service (part II)].

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Fulvio; Ameri, Cinzia; Tarchini, Renzo; Granata, Antonio; Zuccardi Merli, Mara

    2013-01-01

    The necessity for fairness and transparency during the processes of supply of consumables and capital goods within the Italian Health Service together with that of containing costs in line with budget reductions, are points outlined in the 2006 public and European Union allocation codes and related procedures. These include methods to guarantee open, limited negotiation both without or after the official announcement for competitive bidding has been made, plus mediation and framework agreement. The publicizing of announcements of bidding to potential Health Service suppliers, criteria for applicant selection and selection of personnel to comprise the panels who effectively make the choice of suppliers, are all phases that are carefully regulated at a legal level. Even small expenditures (down to 20,000) are covered by these regulations. An overview of specific responsibilities, the institution of boards of physicians and the application of sanctions ends the present review.

  4. Post-processing V&V level II ASC milestone (2360) results.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Elmer; Karelitz, David B.; Brunner, Thomas A.; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Moreland, Kenneth D.; Weirs, V. Gregory; Shead, Timothy M.

    2007-09-01

    The 9/30/2007 ASC Level 2 Post-Processing V&V Milestone (Milestone 2360) contains functionality required by the user community for certain verification and validation tasks. These capabilities include loading of edge and face data on an Exodus mesh, run-time computation of an exact solution to a verification problem, delivery of results data from the server to the client, computation of an integral-based error metric, simultaneous loading of simulation and test data, and comparison of that data using visual and quantitative methods. The capabilities were tested extensively by performing a typical ALEGRA HEDP verification task. In addition, a number of stretch criteria were met including completion of a verification task on a 13 million element mesh.

  5. Recent developments in modeling of hot rolling processes: Part II - Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, Gerhard; Bambach, Markus; Seuren, Simon; Henke, Thomas; Lohmar, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    This publication gives a short overview of current developments in modeling and simulation of hot rolling processes of metals at the Institute of Metal Forming of RWTH Aachen University. It is based on the fundamentals treated in Part I also contained in this conference issue. It features applications in the field of fast on-line models, where a fast multi-stage rolling model and an analytical approach for predicting the through-thickness shear distribution are presented. In addition, a new concept for sensitivity analysis by automatic differentiation is introduced and discussed. Finally, applications of rolling simulations in the field of integrated computational materials engineering are presented with a focus on TWIP and linepipe steels as well as aluminum.

  6. Intelligence-led crime scene processing. Part II: Intelligence and crime scene examination.

    PubMed

    Ribaux, Olivier; Baylon, Amélie; Lock, Eric; Delémont, Olivier; Roux, Claude; Zingg, Christian; Margot, Pierre

    2010-06-15

    A better integration of the information conveyed by traces within intelligence-led framework would allow forensic science to participate more intensively to security assessments through forensic intelligence (part I). In this view, the collection of data by examining crime scenes is an entire part of intelligence processes. This conception frames our proposal for a model that promotes to better use knowledge available in the organisation for driving and supporting crime scene examination. The suggested model also clarifies the uncomfortable situation of crime scene examiners who must simultaneously comply with justice needs and expectations, and serve organisations that are mostly driven by broader security objectives. It also opens new perspective for forensic science and crime scene investigation, by the proposal to follow other directions than the traditional path suggested by dominant movements in these fields. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reaction efficiency of diffusion-controlled processes on finite, planar arrays. II. Crystal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, John J.; Brzezinski, Jack; Garza-López, Roberto A.

    2009-08-01

    We consider 36 planar nets identified by O’Keeffe and Hyde and calculate for each, using the theory of finite Markovian processes, the overall mean walk length ⟨n⟩ (first passage time) of a reactant diffusing randomly on a finite platelet before being trapped at a reaction center; the results are analyzed in terms of the total number N of lattice sites, the number Nb of boundary sites, the average valence ν¯ , and the bond orientation function Ψ . We establish that crystalline platelets that are members of the same compatible class are characterized by very comparable catalytic efficiencies. The results obtained are also linked to an analysis of the kinetics of docking in postnucleation stages of protein self-assembly and to a recent conjecture on the symmetries of planar nets and the hard disk freezing transition.

  8. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: II. Process efficiency in event pyramiding and trait fixation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ting; Sun, Xiaochun; Mumm, Rita H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple trait integration (MTI) is a multi-step process of converting an elite variety/hybrid for value-added traits (e.g. transgenic events) through backcross breeding. From a breeding standpoint, MTI involves four steps: single event introgression, event pyramiding, trait fixation, and version testing. This study explores the feasibility of marker-aided backcross conversion of a target maize hybrid for 15 transgenic events in the light of the overall goal of MTI of recovering equivalent performance in the finished hybrid conversion along with reliable expression of the value-added traits. Using the results to optimize single event introgression (Peng et al. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: I. Minimizing linkage drag in single event introgression. Mol Breed, 2013) which produced single event conversions of recurrent parents (RPs) with ≤8 cM of residual non-recurrent parent (NRP) germplasm with ~1 cM of NRP germplasm in the 20 cM regions flanking the event, this study focused on optimizing process efficiency in the second and third steps in MTI: event pyramiding and trait fixation. Using computer simulation and probability theory, we aimed to (1) fit an optimal breeding strategy for pyramiding of eight events into the female RP and seven in the male RP, and (2) identify optimal breeding strategies for trait fixation to create a 'finished' conversion of each RP homozygous for all events. In addition, next-generation seed needs were taken into account for a practical approach to process efficiency. Building on work by Ishii and Yonezawa (Optimization of the marker-based procedures for pyramiding genes from multiple donor lines: I. Schedule of crossing between the donor lines. Crop Sci 47:537-546, 2007a), a symmetric crossing schedule for event pyramiding was devised for stacking eight (seven) events in a given RP. Options for trait fixation breeding strategies considered selfing and doubled haploid approaches to achieve homozygosity

  9. Identification process in mass graves from the Spanish Civil War II.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Luis; García-Rubio, Almudena; Martínez, Berta; Alonso, Andrea; Puente, Jorge

    2012-06-10

    The identification process of a mass grave from the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) is presented. The presumed location of the grave, as well as the presumed number and identities of the persons buried in the grave were obtained exclusively from witnesses' and relatives' testimonies. In agreement with the testimonies, the grave was located at the indicated location and five skeletons were exhumed. Also in agreement with the testimonies, the osteological and DNA study led investigators to propose the identification of two kin groups, a father and his son and a pair of brothers. But the genetic study did not support the identification of a fifth man presumed to have been buried in the grave. The differences and similarities between this case and another case reported earlier are discussed.

  10. A theory of local and global processes which affect solar wind electrons. II - Experimental support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Olbert, S.

    1979-01-01

    Strong observational support from data obtained on three different satellites and reported by three independent experimental groups is presented for all of the theoretically predicted correlations of a previous paper concerning local and global processes that affect solar-wind electrons. Specifically, it is shown that: (1) subthermal electrons behave most nearly as a classical gas; (2) the solar-wind extrathermal fraction of the electron density is anticorrelated within steady-state stream patterns with the local bulk speed; (3) the extrathermal electrons form a spectrally distinguishable subpopulation whose differential 'temperature' is anticorrelated with the local bulk speed; (4) the heat flux carried by electrons is anticorrelated with the bulk speed; and (5) the extrathermal 'temperature' is nearly independent of radius in the inner heliosphere. It is concluded that the previously discussed global and local Coulomb collisional effects are essential aspects of the solar-wind plasma as it is observed.

  11. Heat Conduction to Photoresist on Top of Wafer during Post Exposure Bake Process: II. Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hye-Keun; Kim, Do Wan; Lee, Ji-Eun

    2008-11-01

    Chemically amplified resists are used for 248 nm, 193 nm, immersion and extreme ultraviolet (UV) lithography. Among many process steps, post exposure bake (PEB) is the key process to make the desired small line width and critical dimension control. During PEB, the de-protection reaction and acid diffusion are determined by bake temperature and time. One of the key factors that determines the de-protection and acid diffusion is the initial temperature rising of the hot plate. The unpredictable temperature rising to the pre-set temperature is the main cause of line width variation. In order to predict the accurate PEB temperature and time dependency to the line width, the heat transfer from the hot plate to the resist on top of the silicon wafer is studied. Numerical approach is used to solve the heat conduction problem. Only the boundary temperature values are needed to solve this conduction, the information inside each layer is not required. We calculated the temperature rising characteristics of the photoresist on top of the several layers of the mask. The air conductivity, air gap, number of layers underneath the resist, thickness of the wafer, thickness of the layer including the resist, and different kind of layers are varied to see the characteristics of the bake temperature rising. We showed that there was small temperature difference at photoresist among the layer stack and thickness variation, even though it was very small. There is a strong possibility that this small PEB temperature difference would cause serious critical dimension (CD) control problem.

  12. [Coping styles, psychosocial factors and adjustment processes in patients with type I and II diabetes].

    PubMed

    Poerio, V; Merenda, M T; Congedo, M L

    2007-01-01

    Coping is defined by Perlin and Shooler as "... that behavior that protects people from psychological pressure due to social situations and problems". This intention Lazarus and Folkman affirm: "... the coping allows people to use different abilities to manage the difficulties (stressors) that they experience in daily existence..." When the stressor is diabetes, the requirements and pressures due to the illness and its physiological and psychosocial consequences are continuous and become chronic. In numerous studies, the coping, suitable or not, has been linked to different medical consequences of the diabetes: changes in glycosylated hemoglobin levels, in the physiological functionality, in the specific symptomatology, in body weight and body mass index. In other research, as in the present contribution, the coping and specific socio-cognitive dimensions have been correlated with the psychosocial consequences of the diabetes, particularly with quality of life and psychological and social adaptation (PSA). This last concept refers, within the illness process, to the attainment of the characteristic behavioral and psychological objectives of recovery. The purpose of the present work is to individualize the coping styles and to note the correlations with socio-cognitive dimensions in diabetic patients, and to measure their incidence on the APS, answering to a series of questions, such as: "What are the modalities of a more functional coping? Are they correlated with the socio-cognitive dimensions? Together do they influence the APS processes?". To 123 diabetic patients (51 with diabetes type 1; 72 with diabetes type 2), with a middle age of 63.7 and 54.9, respectively, have been administered, in sequence, two questionnaires: an adaptation of the Bernese Coping Modes (BECOMO) of Heim et coll. and the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire (MDQ) of Talbot et coll. The results, by using descriptive statistics and data analysis techniques, seem to point out that, in the

  13. Noble gases in presolar diamonds II: Component abundances reflect thermal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, Gary R.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1994-01-01

    Using the isotopic compositions derived in Huss and Lewis, 1994a, abundances of the P3, HL, and P6 noble-gas components were determined for 15 diamonds separates from primitive chondrites of 8 chondrite classes. Within a meteorite class, the relative abundances of these components correlate with the petrologic subtype of the host meteorite, indicating that metamorphism is primarily responsible for the variations. Relative abundances of P3, HL, and P6 among diamond samples can be understood in terms of thermal processing of a single mixture of diamonds like those now found in CI and CM2 chondrites. With relatively gentle heating, primitive diamonds first lose their low-temperature P3 gases and a 'labile' fraction of the HL component. Mass loss associated with release of these components produces an increase in the HL and P6 content of the remaining diamond relative to unprocessed diamond. Higher temperatures initiate destruction of the main HL carrier, while the HL content of the surviving diamonds remains essentially constant. At the same time, the P6 carrier begins to preferentially lose light noble gases. Meteorites that have experienced metamorphic temperatures greater than or = 650 C have lost essentially all of their presolar diamond through chemical reactions with surrounding minerals. The P3 abundance seems to be a function only of the maximum temperature experienced by the diamonds and thus is independent of the nature of the surrounding environment. If all classes inherited the same mixture of primitive diamonds, then P3 abundances would tie together the metamorphic scales in different meteorite classes. However, if the P3 abundance indicates a higher temperature than do other thermometers applicable to the host meteorite, then the P3 abundance may contain information about heating prior to accretion. Diamonds in the least metamorphosed EH, CV, and CO chondrites seem to carry a record of pre-accretionary thermal processing.

  14. The Formation of the First Stars. II. Radiative Feedback Processes and Implications for the Initial Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Christopher F.; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2008-07-01

    We consider the radiative feedback processes that operate during the formation of the first stars. (1) Photodissociation of H2 in the local dark matter minihalo occurs early in the growth of the protostar but does not affect subsequent accretion. (2) Lyα radiation pressure acting at the boundary of the H II region that the protostar creates in the accreting envelope reverses infall in the polar directions when the star reaches ~20-30 M⊙ but cannot prevent infall from other directions. (3) Expansion of the H II region beyond the gravitational escape radius for ionized gas occurs at masses ~50-100 M⊙. However, accretion from the equatorial regions can continue since the neutral accretion disk shields a substantial fraction of the accretion envelope from direct ionizing flux. (4) At higher stellar masses, ~140 M⊙ in the fiducial case, photoevaporation-driven mass loss from the disk, together with declining accretion rates, halts the increase in the protostellar mass. We identify this process as the mechanism that determines the mass of Population III.1 stars (i.e., stars with primordial composition that have not been affected by prior star formation). The initial mass function of these stars is set by the distribution of entropy and angular momentum. The Appendix gives approximate solutions to a number of problems relevant to the formation of the first stars: the effect of Rayleigh scattering on line profiles in media of very large optical depth, the intensity of Lyα radiation in very opaque media, radiative acceleration in terms of the gradient of a modified radiation pressure, the flux of radiation in a shell with an arbitrary distribution of opacity, and the vertical structure of an accretion disk supported by gas pressure with constant opacity.

  15. Digital image processing techniques for enhancement and classification of SeaMARC II side scan sonar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Thomas Beckett, IV; Hussong, Donald

    1989-06-01

    The recent growth in the production rate of digital side scan sonar images, coupled with the rapid expansion of systematic seafloor exploration programs, has created a need for fast and quantitative means of processing seafloor imagery. Computer-aided analytical techniques fill this need. A number of numerical techniques used to enhance and classify imagery produced by SeaMARC II, a long-range combination side scan sonar, and bathymetric seafloor mapping system are documented. Three categories of techniques are presented: (1) preprocessing corrections (radiometric and geometric), (2) feature extraction, and (3) image segmentation and classification. An introduction to the concept of "feature vectors" is provided, along with an explanation of the method of evaluation of a texture feature vector based upon gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM). An alternative to the a priori texel (texture element) subdivision of images is presented in the form of region growing and texture analysis (REGATA). This routine provides a texture map of spatial resolution superior to that obtainable with arbitrarily assigned texel boundaries and minimizes the possibility of mixed texture signals due to the combination of two or more textures in an arbitrarily assigned texel. Computer classification of these textural features extracted via the GLCM technique results in transformation of images into maps of image texture. These maps may either be interpreted in terms of the theoretical relationships shown between texture signatures and wavelength or converted to geologic maps by correlation of texture signatures with ground truth data. These techniques are applied to SeaMARC II side scan sonar imagery from a variety of geologic environments, including lithified and nonlithified sedimentary formations, volcanic and sedimentary debris flows, and crystalline basaltic outcrops. Application of the above processing steps provided not only superior images for both subjective and quantitative

  16. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein is required for efficient processing and repair of trapped Topoisomerase II-DNA cleavable complexes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hai; Goodrich, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Type II topoisomerases (TOP2) introduce transient double-stranded DNA breaks through a covalent TOP2-DNA intermediate. Anticancer agents like etoposide kill cells by trapping covalent TOP2-DNA cleavable complexes. Pathways influencing the repair of cleavable complexes are expected to be major determinants of therapeutic response to etoposide. Rb1 is required to enforce cell cycle checkpoints in response to DNA damage, but evidence for a direct role in the processing and repair of DNA lesions is lacking. We observe that degradation of trapped TOP2 cleavable complexes, liberation of DNA strand breaks, and repair of those breaks occurs more efficiently in cells expressing Rb1 protein (pRb). Cells lacking pRb are more sensitive to etoposide induced cytotoxicity. Rb1 mediated processing and repair of TOP2 cleavable complexes is genetically separable from its ability to bind E2F and enforce DNA damage induced cell cycle checkpoints. Rb1 protein binds both TOP2 and BRCA1 in intact cells, and pRb is required for association between TOP2 and BRCA1. These results suggest that pRb facilitates processing and repair of TOP2 cleavable complexes by recruiting proteins like BRCA1 to the damaged site. The functional status of pRb, therefore, may influence sensitivity to etoposide by facilitating the repair of trapped TOP2-DNA complexes as well as by enforcing cell cycle checkpoints. PMID:16091739

  17. Membrane lipid unsaturation modulates processing of the photosystem II reaction-center protein D1 at low temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Kanervo, E; Tasaka, Y; Murata, N; Aro, E M

    1997-01-01

    The role of membrane lipid unsaturation in the restoration of photosystem II (PSII) function and in the synthesis of the D1 protein at different temperatures after photoinhibition was studied in wild-type cells and a mutant of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 with genetically inactivated desaturase genes. We show that posttranslational carboxyl-terminal processing of the precursor form of the D1 protein is an extremely sensitive reaction in the PSII repair cycle and is readily affected by low temperatures. Furthermore, the threshold temperature at which perturbations in D1-protein processing start to emerge is specifically dependent on the extent of thylakoid membrane lipid unsaturation, as indicated by comparison of wild-type cells with the mutant defective in desaturation of 18:1 fatty acids of thylakoid membranes. When the temperature was decreased from 33 degrees C (growth temperature) to 18 degrees C, the inability of the fatty acid mutant to recover from photoinhibition was accompanied by a failure to process the newly synthesized D1 protein, which accumulated in considerable amounts as an unprocessed precursor D1 protein. Precursor D1 integrated into PSII monomer and dimer complexes even at low temperatures, but no activation of oxygen evolution occurred in these complexes in mutant cells defective in fatty acid unsaturation. PMID:9232871

  18. Preparation of a core-shell magnetic ion-imprinted polymer via a sol-gel process for selective extraction of Cu(II) from herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    He, Huan; Xiao, Deli; He, Jia; Li, Hui; He, Hua; Dai, Hao; Peng, Jun

    2014-05-21

    A novel magnetic surface ion-imprinted polymer (c-MMWCNTs-SiO2-IIP) was synthesized for the first time using magnetic CNTs/Fe3O4 composites (c-MMWCNTs) as the core, 3-ammonium propyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the functional monomer, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the cross-linker and Cu(II) as the template. c-MMWCNTs-SiO2-IIP was evaluated for selective extraction of Cu(II) from herbal medicines via a magnetic solid phase extraction (M-SPE) procedure. One factor affecting the separation and preconcentration of the target heavy metal was pH. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the adsorption kinetics and adsorption capacity of c-MMWCNTs-SiO2-IIP toward Cu(II) were estimated. The results indicated that the adsorption mechanism corresponds to a pseudo-second order adsorption process, with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.985 and a maximum adsorption capacity of 42.2 mg g(-1). The relative selectivity factor (β) values of Cu(II)/Zn(II) and Cu(II)/Pb(II) were 38.5 and 34.5, respectively. c-MMWCNTs-SiO2-IIP, combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry, was successfully applied in the extraction and detection of Cu(II) in herbal medicine, with high recoveries ranging from 95.6% to 108.4%.

  19. Identification of cathepsin B from large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) and its role in the processing of MHC class II-associated invariant chain.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingyu; Li, Qiuhua; Yang, Zhijun; Hu, Guohai; Li, Ting; Chen, Xinhua; Ao, Jingqun

    2014-08-01

    In teleost, cathepsin B has been identified from several species and shown to play roles in the host immune response during pathogen challenge. However, the mechanism of how cathepsin B modulates the immune response in teleosts remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified and characterized cathepsin B (LycCatB) and invariant chain (LycIi) from the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea). Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that LycCatB and LycIi are highly conserved within teleosts. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that LycCatB mRNA was widely expressed in all examined tissues. We then recombinantly expressed LycCatB and Lyc-TR-Ii (transmembrane domain removed Ii chain) in Pichia pastoris and Escherichiacoli, respectively. The recombinant LycCatB (rLycCatB) can hydrolyze the substrate Z-FR-AMC with a Km value of 40.68μM. Furthermore, co-incubation of rLycCatB with rLyc-TR-Ii led to an efficient cleavage of rLyc-TR-Ii in a time-dependant manner. These results indicated that cathepsin B may be involved in MHC class II-associated Ii processing in large yellow croaker, and provide new information helping to elucidate the immunological functions of teleost cathepsin B. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Slow electrons impinging on dielectric solids. II. Implantation profiles, electron mobility, and recombination processes

    SciTech Connect

    Miotello, A.; Dapor, M.

    1997-07-01

    When an insulator is subject to electron irradiation, a fraction of electrons is absorbed while the rest is backscattered. The injected electrons cannot be definitely trapped but they must instead recombine with positive charges left near the irradiated surface when secondary electrons are emitted; this is justified on the basis that dielectric breakdown is not observed during specific experiments of electron irradiation of insulators. The dynamics of the absorbed electrons depend on a number of parameters: the number of trapped electrons, the charge-space distribution, the mobility, and the number of secondary electrons emitted from the region near the surface of the dielectric. The time evolution of the surface electric has been studied by integration of the continutity equation for the relevant transport processes of the injected charge by adopting, as the charge source term, the distribution of the absorbed electrons as obtained by a Monte Carlo simulation. The image charge has been also introduced in the calculation in order to take into account the change in the dielectric constant when passing from the material to the vacuum. Selected computational results are reported to illustrate the role of the relevant parameters which control the charging effects in electron-irradiated insulators. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Convective Effects During the Physical Vapor Transport Process. II - Thermosolutal Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, Walter M. B.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of an inert gas on the diffusive-convective physical vapor transport process is investigated for the case when the temperature gradient is stabilizing, and the concentration gradient destabilizing, for a wide parametric range. When an inert gas is present, the thermal and solutal convection oppose each other. The solutal field is destabilizing while the thermal field and the advective-diffusive flux stabilize the flow field. When the pressure of the inert component is increased, the stabilizing effect of the advective-diffusive flux is decreased; thus, convection becomes more vigorous. The nonlinear dynamics of the flow field here show a transition from quasi-periodic to chaotic state. When both stabilizing mechanisms are present, the flow field shows a transition to a steady state. Toward steady state, growth and amalgamation of rolls occur, which result in an overturning motion. This leads to a superposed flow consisting of one roll and a unidirectional flow. However, when the pressure is increased, the advective-diffusive stability mechanism is decreased. and oscillations of the flow field occur. The low gravity environment is effective at eliminating oscillatory behavior of the flow field and results in uniform temperature and concentration gradients.

  2. The pace of modern life II: from rates of contemporary microevolution to pattern and process.

    PubMed

    Kinnison, M T; Hendry, A P

    2001-01-01

    We compiled a database of microevolution on contemporary time scales in nature (47 source articles; 30 animal species), comprising 2649 evolutionary rates in darwins (proportional change per million years) and 2151 evolutionary rates in haldanes (standard deviations per generation). Here we demonstrate how quantitative rate measures can provide general insights into patterns and processes of evolution. The frequency distribution of evolutionary rates was approximately log-normal, with many slow rates and few fast rates. Net selection intensities estimated from haldanes were on average lower than selection intensities commonly measured directly in natural populations. This difference suggests that natural selection could easily accomplish observed microevolution but that the intensities of selection typically measured in nature are rarely maintained for long (otherwise observed evolutionary rates would be higher). Traits closely associated with fitness (life history traits) appear to evolve at least as fast as traits less closely tied to fitness (morphology). The magnitude of evolutionary difference increased with the length of the time interval, particularly when maximum rates from a given study were considered. This pattern suggests a general underlying tendency toward increasing evolutionary diversification with time. However, evolutionary rates also tended to decrease with time, perhaps because longer time intervals average increasingly disparate rates over time, or because evolution slows when populations approach new optima or as genetic variation is depleted. In combination, our results suggest that macroevolutionary transitions may ultimately arise through microevolution occasionally 'writ large' but are perhaps temporally characterized by microevolution 'writ in fits and starts'.

  3. Kinetic theory of transport processes in partially ionized reactive plasma, II: Electron transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, V. M.; Stepanenko, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The previously obtained in (Zhdanov and Stepanenko, 2016) general transport equations for partially ionized reactive plasma are employed for analysis of electron transport properties in molecular and atomic plasmas. We account for both elastic and inelastic interaction channels of electrons with atoms and molecules of plasma and also the processes of electron impact ionization of neutral particles and three-body ion-electron recombination. The system of scalar transport equations for electrons is discussed and the expressions for non-equilibrium corrections to electron ionization and recombination rates and the diagonal part of the electron pressure tensor are derived. Special attention is paid to analysis of electron energy relaxation during collisions with plasma particles having internal degrees of freedom and the expression for the electron coefficient of inelastic energy losses is deduced. We also derive the expressions for electron vector and tensorial transport fluxes and the corresponding transport coefficients for partially ionized reactive plasma, which represent a generalization of the well-known results obtained by Devoto (1967). The results of numerical evaluation of contribution from electron inelastic collisions with neutral particles to electron transport properties are presented for a series of molecular and atomic gases.

  4. Comparing Binaural Pre-processing Strategies II: Speech Intelligibility of Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users.

    PubMed

    Baumgärtel, Regina M; Hu, Hongmei; Krawczyk-Becker, Martin; Marquardt, Daniel; Herzke, Tobias; Coleman, Graham; Adiloğlu, Kamil; Bomke, Katrin; Plotz, Karsten; Gerkmann, Timo; Doclo, Simon; Kollmeier, Birger; Hohmann, Volker; Dietz, Mathias

    2015-12-30

    Several binaural audio signal enhancement algorithms were evaluated with respect to their potential to improve speech intelligibility in noise for users of bilateral cochlear implants (CIs). 50% speech reception thresholds (SRT50) were assessed using an adaptive procedure in three distinct, realistic noise scenarios. All scenarios were highly nonstationary, complex, and included a significant amount of reverberation. Other aspects, such as the perfectly frontal target position, were idealized laboratory settings, allowing the algorithms to perform better than in corresponding real-world conditions. Eight bilaterally implanted CI users, wearing devices from three manufacturers, participated in the study. In all noise conditions, a substantial improvement in SRT50 compared to the unprocessed signal was observed for most of the algorithms tested, with the largest improvements generally provided by binaural minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming algorithms. The largest overall improvement in speech intelligibility was achieved by an adaptive binaural MVDR in a spatially separated, single competing talker noise scenario. A no-pre-processing condition and adaptive differential microphones without a binaural link served as the two baseline conditions. SRT50 improvements provided by the binaural MVDR beamformers surpassed the performance of the adaptive differential microphones in most cases. Speech intelligibility improvements predicted by instrumental measures were shown to account for some but not all aspects of the perceptually obtained SRT50 improvements measured in bilaterally implanted CI users.

  5. Cold Drawn Steel Wires-Processing, Residual Stresses and Ductility Part II: Synchrotron and Neutron Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Phelippeau,A.; Pommier, S.; Zakharchenko, I.; Levy-Tubiana, R.; Tsakalakos, T.; Clavel, M.; Croft, M.; Zhong, Z.; Prioul, C.

    2006-01-01

    Cold drawing of steel wires leads to an increase of their mechanical strength and to a drop in their ductility. The increase of their mechanical strength has long been related to the reduction of the various material scales by an intense plastic deformation. Besides, it was discussed in the companion paper that large plastic deformation leads to the loss of the material hardening capabilities and that, in such a case, residual stresses preserve the elongation to failure of wires. Experimental measurements of residual stresses inside the wire have therefore been undertaken. In this paper, lattice parameters as measured using synchrotron diffraction are compared with those calculated using the residual stress fields as determined by the finite-element method. There is a major disagreement between experimental and numerical results that is too large to be attributed to the errors of the finite-element analyses. Therefore, neutron diffraction experiments have also been performed. These measurements show that there is a significant variation of the lattice parameter with the drawing level, which is not inherited from residual stresses, and that variation is very sensitive to the cooling rate after processing. It is therefore proposed that cold drawing would induce a phase transformation of the steel, possibly a martensitic transformation.

  6. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars. Part II: Data Quality Control and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, Pavlos; Jo, Ieng; Borque, Paloma; Tatarevic, Aleksandra; Lamer, Katia; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Johnson, Karen L.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2014-03-01

    The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR’s) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the HS-RHI SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

  7. Simulation, planning, and optimization of redox processes involving the catalytic disproportionation of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ by manganese(II) complexes with glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Batyr, D.G.; Isak, V.G.; Kil'mininov, S.V.; Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.

    1987-11-01

    The applicability of the use of a method for the simulation, planning, and optimization of chemical processes has been demonstrated in the example case of the manganese(II)-glycine-hydrogen peroxide redox system. Theoretical calculations based on experimental data have made it possible to present a mechanism for the catalase-mediated decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of coordination compounds of manganese(II) with glycine.

  8. Cyclotron resonant scattering feature simulations. II. Description of the CRSF simulation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarm, F.-W.; Ballhausen, R.; Falkner, S.; Schönherr, G.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wolff, M. T.; Becker, P. A.; Fürst, F.; Marcu-Cheatham, D. M.; Hemphill, P. B.; Sokolova-Lapa, E.; Dauser, T.; Klochkov, D.; Ferrigno, C.; Wilms, J.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs) are formed by scattering of X-ray photons off quantized plasma electrons in the strong magnetic field (of the order 1012 G) close to the surface of an accreting X-ray pulsar. Due to the complex scattering cross-sections, the line profiles of CRSFs cannot be described by an analytic expression. Numerical methods, such as Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the scattering processes, are required in order to predict precise line shapes for a given physical setup, which can be compared to observations to gain information about the underlying physics in these systems. Aims: A versatile simulation code is needed for the generation of synthetic cyclotron lines. Sophisticated geometries should be investigatable by making their simulation possible for the first time. Methods: The simulation utilizes the mean free path tables described in the first paper of this series for the fast interpolation of propagation lengths. The code is parallelized to make the very time-consuming simulations possible on convenient time scales. Furthermore, it can generate responses to monoenergetic photon injections, producing Green's functions, which can be used later to generate spectra for arbitrary continua. Results: We develop a new simulation code to generate synthetic cyclotron lines for complex scenarios, allowing for unprecedented physical interpretation of the observed data. An associated XSPEC model implementation is used to fit synthetic line profiles to NuSTAR data of Cep X-4. The code has been developed with the main goal of overcoming previous geometrical constraints in MC simulations of CRSFs. By applying this code also to more simple, classic geometries used in previous works, we furthermore address issues of code verification and cross-comparison of various models. The XSPEC model and the Green's function tables are available online (see link in footnote, page 1).

  9. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part II: Inverse models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    A Bayesian network model has been developed to simulate a relatively simple problem of wave propagation in the surf zone (detailed in Part I). Here, we demonstrate that this Bayesian model can provide both inverse modeling and data-assimilation solutions for predicting offshore wave heights and depth estimates given limited wave-height and depth information from an onshore location. The inverse method is extended to allow data assimilation using observational inputs that are not compatible with deterministic solutions of the problem. These inputs include sand bar positions (instead of bathymetry) and estimates of the intensity of wave breaking (instead of wave-height observations). Our results indicate that wave breaking information is essential to reduce prediction errors. In many practical situations, this information could be provided from a shore-based observer or from remote-sensing systems. We show that various combinations of the assimilated inputs significantly reduce the uncertainty in the estimates of water depths and wave heights in the model domain. Application of the Bayesian network model to new field data demonstrated significant predictive skill (R2 = 0.7) for the inverse estimate of a month-long time series of offshore wave heights. The Bayesian inverse results include uncertainty estimates that were shown to be most accurate when given uncertainty in the inputs (e.g., depth and tuning parameters). Furthermore, the inverse modeling was extended to directly estimate tuning parameters associated with the underlying wave-process model. The inverse estimates of the model parameters not only showed an offshore wave height dependence consistent with results of previous studies but the uncertainty estimates of the tuning parameters also explain previously reported variations in the model parameters.

  10. Processing and thermodynamics research, Volume II. Monthly progress report, November 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-14

    Data assembly is in progress on the Venezuelan Cerro Negro, California, Wilmington and Mexican Mayan crudes. A draft of a proposal is in preparation that might join this correlational work with complementary correlational work at the University of Oklahoma (Project BPT1). Cerro Negro 200 to 425/sup 0/C and 425 to 550/sup 0/C saturate fractions were analyzed with the CEC 21-103 mass spectrometer using ASTM method D2786, and experiments were devised to establish reproducibility of analyses with the KRATOS MS-50 (Project BPT2). Thermodynamic property measurements on organic nitrogen compounds included a liquid phase heat capacity study of 2,5-dimethylpyridine, and the oxygen sensitivity of phenanthridine was checked prior to bomb calorimetry (Project BPT3A). Heat capacity measurements on chroman are progressing well, and vapor pressure measurements of tetrahydrophenanthrene are in progress (Project BPT3B). Work was begun on the design and procurement of equipment necessary for construction of a bench scale catalytic cracking unit. The supercritical extraction unit is being assembled (Project OPT1). Thiopene separations were begun on Cerro Negro 425 to 550/sup 0/C neutrals, and separation of sulfides from Cerro Negro 550 to 700/sup 0/C and 700+/sup 0/C neutrals was completed (Project OPT2). Preparations for PVT studies of methanol are nearing completion, and a list of critically needed PVT measurements was reviewed to help select the next compound for study. A possible candidate is hydrogen sulfide. (Project OPT3). Good progress continues in the treatment of the RP feed (Project OPT4) to recover Milspec F-76. It is anticipated that 85% recovery is possible by the chemical treatment/distillation process.

  11. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars Part II. Data Quality Control and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, Pavlos; Jo, Ieng; Borque, Paloma; Tatarevic, Aleksandra; Lamer, Katia; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Johnson, Karen; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2013-10-04

    The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR’s) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the Hemispherical Sky – Range Height Indicator SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

  12. Processes governing phytoplankton blooms in estuaries. II: The role of horizontal transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, L.V.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Cloern, J.E.; Thompson, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The development and distribution of phytoplankton blooms in estuaries are functions of both local conditions (i.e. the production-loss balance for a water column at a particular spatial location) and large-scale horizontal transport. In this study, the second of a 2-paper series, we use a depth-averaged hydrodynamic-biological model to identify transport-related mechanisms impacting phytoplankton biomass accumulation and distribution on a system level. We chose South San Francisco Bay as a model domain, since its combination of a deep channel surrounded by broad shoals is typical of drowned-river estuaries. Five general mechanisms involving interaction of horizontal transport with variability in local conditions are discussed. Residual (on the order of days to weeks) transport mechanisms affecting bloom development and location include residence time/export, import, and the role of deep channel regions as conduits for mass transport. Interactions occurring on tidal time scales, i.e. on the order of hours) include the phasing of lateral oscillatory tidal flow relative to temporal changes in local net phytoplankton growth rates, as well as lateral sloshing of shoal-derived biomass into deep channel regions during ebb and back into shallow regions during flood tide. Based on these results, we conclude that: (1) while local conditions control whether a bloom is possible, the combination of transport and spatial-temporal variability in local conditions determines if and where a bloom will actually occur; (2) tidal-time-scale physical-biological interactions provide important mechanisms for bloom development and evolution. As a result of both subtidal and tidal-time-scale transport processes, peak biomass may not be observed where local conditions are most favorable to phytoplankton production, and inherently unproductive areas may be regions of high biomass accumulation.

  13. Quantifying statistical interdependence by message passing on graphs-part II: multidimensional point processes.

    PubMed

    Dauwels, J; Vialatte, F; Weber, T; Musha, T; Cichocki, A

    2009-08-01

    Stochastic event synchrony is a technique to quantify the similarity of pairs of signals. First, events are extracted from the two given time series. Next, one tries to align events from one time series with events from the other. The better the alignment, the more similar the two time series are considered to be. In Part I, the companion letter in this issue, one-dimensional events are considered; this letter concerns multidimensional events. Although the basic idea is similar, the extension to multidimensional point processes involves a significantly more difficult combinatorial problem and therefore is nontrivial. Also in the multidimensional case, the problem of jointly computing the pairwise alignment and SES parameters is cast as a statistical inference problem. This problem is solved by coordinate descent, more specifically, by alternating the following two steps: (1) estimate the SES parameters from a given pairwise alignment; (2) with the resulting estimates, refine the pairwise alignment. The SES parameters are computed by maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation (step 1), in analogy to the one-dimensional case. The pairwise alignment (step 2) can no longer be obtained through dynamic programming, since the state space becomes too large. Instead it is determined by applying the max-product algorithm on a cyclic graphical model. In order to test the robustness and reliability of the SES method, it is first applied to surrogate data. Next, it is applied to detect anomalies in EEG synchrony of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. Numerical results suggest that SES is significantly more sensitive to perturbations in EEG synchrony than a large variety of classical synchrony measures.

  14. Species assembly in model ecosystems, II: Results of the assembly process.

    PubMed

    Capitán, José A; Cuesta, José A; Bascompte, Jordi

    2011-01-21

    In the companion paper of this set (Capitán and Cuesta, 2010) we have developed a full analytical treatment of the model of species assembly introduced in Capitán et al. (2009). This model is based on the construction of an assembly graph containing all viable configurations of the community, and the definition of a Markov chain whose transitions are the transformations of communities by new species invasions. In the present paper we provide an exhaustive numerical analysis of the model, describing the average time to the recurrent state, the statistics of avalanches, and the dependence of the results on the amount of available resource. Our results are based on the fact that the Markov chain provides an asymptotic probability distribution for the recurrent states, which can be used to obtain averages of observables as well as the time variation of these magnitudes during succession, in an exact manner. Since the absorption times into the recurrent set are found to be comparable to the size of the system, the end state is quickly reached (in units of the invasion time). Thus, the final ecosystem can be regarded as a fluctuating complex system where species are continually replaced by newcomers without ever leaving the set of recurrent patterns. The assembly graph is dominated by pathways in which most invasions are accepted, triggering small extinction avalanches. Through the assembly process, communities become less resilient (e.g., have a higher return time to equilibrium) but become more robust in terms of resistance against new invasions.

  15. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Flashing of SRC-II slurry in the vacuum column on Process Development Unit P-99. Interim report, February-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J. A.; Mathias, S. T.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents the results of 73 tests on the vacuum flash system of Process Development Unit P-99 performed during processing of three different coals; the second batch, fourth shipment (low ash batch) of Powhatan No. 5 Mine (LR-27383), Powhatan No. 6 Mine (LR-27596) and Ireland Mine (LR-27987). The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data for use in confirming and improving the design of the vacuum distillation column for the 6000 ton/day SRC-II Demonstration Plant. The 900/sup 0/F distillate content of the bottoms and the percent of feed flashed overhead were correlated with flash zone operating conditions for each coal, and the observed differences in performance were attributed to differences in the feed compositions. Retrogressive reactions appeared to be occurring in the 900/sup 0/F+ pyridine soluble material leading to an increase in the quantity of pyridine insoluble organic matter. Stream physical properties determined include specific gravity, viscosity and melting point. Elemental, distillation and solvent analyses were used to calculate component material balances. The Technology and Materials Department has used these results in a separate study comparing experimental K-values and vapor/liquid split with CHAMP computer program design predictions.

  16. CO and NO bind to Fe(II) DiGeorge critical region 8 heme but do not restore primary microRNA processing activity.

    PubMed

    Hines, Judy P; Smith, Aaron T; Jacob, Jose P; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; Barr, Ian; Rodgers, Kenton R; Guo, Feng; Burstyn, Judith N

    2016-12-01

    The RNA-binding heme protein DiGeorge critical region 8 (DGCR8) and its ribonuclease partner Drosha cleave primary transcripts of microRNA (pri-miRNA) as part of the canonical microRNA (miRNA) processing pathway. Previous studies show that bis-cysteine thiolate-coordinated Fe(III) DGCR8 supports pri-miRNA processing activity, while Fe(II) DGCR8 does not. In this study, we further characterized Fe(II) DGCR8 and tested whether CO or NO might bind and restore pri-miRNA processing activity to the reduced protein. Fe(II) DGCR8 RNA-binding heme domain (Rhed) undergoes a pH-dependent transition from 6-coordinate to 5-coordinate, due to protonation and loss of a lysine ligand; the ligand bound throughout the pH change is a histidine. Fe(II) Rhed binds CO and NO from 6- and 5-coordinate states, forming common CO and NO adducts at all pHs. Fe(II)-CO Rhed is 6-coordinate, low-spin, and pH insensitive with the histidine ligand retained, suggesting that the protonatable lysine ligand has been replaced by CO. Fe(II)-NO Rhed is 5-coordinate and pH insensitive. Fe(II)-NO also forms slowly upon reaction of Fe(III) Rhed with excess NO via a stepwise process. Heme reduction by NO is rate-limiting, and the rate would be negligible at physiological NO concentrations. Importantly, in vitro pri-miRNA processing assays show that both CO- and NO-bound DGCR8 species are inactive. Fe(II), Fe(II)-CO, and Fe(II)-NO Rhed do not bear either of the cysteine ligands found in the Fe(III) state. These data support a model in which the bis-cysteine thiolate ligand environment of Fe(III) DGCR8 is necessary for establishing proper pri-miRNA binding and enabling processing activity.

  17. Shelf Edge Exchange Processes, II: SEEP2-08, R/V ENDEAVOR cruise 188. Hydrographic data report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Behrens, W.J.; Flagg, C.N.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Wyman, K.D.

    1989-12-01

    The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is a multi-institutional effort designed to investigate the flux of suspended material from the continental shelf to the waters of the upper slope, and then possibly into the slope sediments. Phase I of SEEP consisted of a series of nine cruises and a mooring array across the outer continental shelf of New England during 1983--1984 (Behrens and Flagg, 1986). Phase II focused specifically on the shelf/slope frontal region of the mid-Atlantic bight off the Delmarva Peninsula. This project consisted of a series of ten cruises, a mooring array, and a series of over-flights by NASA aircraft. Hydrographic data were collected on eight of the cruises, six of which were primarily mooring deployment or recovery cruises. The cruises were consecutively designated SEEP2-01 to SEEP2-10. Two cruises (SEEP2-04 and SEEP2-07) were dedicated to investigating benthic processes and hydrographic data were not collected.

  18. Chitosan microparticles: influence of the gelation process on the release profile and oral bioavailability of albendazole, a class II compound.

    PubMed

    Piccirilli, Gisela N; García, Agustina; Leonardi, Darío; Mamprin, María E; Bolmaro, Raúl E; Salomón, Claudio J; Lamas, María C

    2014-11-01

    Encapsulation of albendazole, a class II compound, into polymeric microparticles based on chitosan-sodium lauryl sulfate was investigated as a strategy to improve drug dissolution and oral bioavailability. The microparticles were prepared by spray drying technique and further characterized by means of X-ray powder diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The formation of a novel polymeric structure between chitosan and sodium lauryl sulfate, after the internal or external gelation process, was observed by infrared spectroscopy. The efficiency of encapsulation was found to be between 60 and 85% depending on the internal or external gelation process. Almost spherically spray dried microparticles were observed using scanning electron microscopy. In vitro dissolution results indicated that the microparticles prepared by internal gelation released 8% of the drug within 30 min, while the microparticles prepared by external gelation released 67% within 30 min. It was observed that the AUC and Cmax values of ABZ from microparticles were greatly improved, in comparison with the non-encapsulated drug. In conclusion, the release properties and oral bioavailability of albendazole were greatly improved by using spraydried chitosan-sodium lauryl sulphate microparticles.

  19. Transcription Processing at 1,N2-ethenoguanine by Human RNA Polymerase II and Bacteriophage T7 RNA Polymerase†

    PubMed Central

    Dimitri, Alexandra; Goodenough, Angela K.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Broyde, Suse; Scicchitano, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The DNA lesion 1,N2-ethenoguanine is formed endogenously as a byproduct of lipid peroxidation or by reaction with epoxides that result from the metabolism of the industrial pollutant vinyl chloride, a known human carcinogen. DNA replication past 1,N2-ethenoguanine and site specific mutagenesis studies in mammalian cells have established the highly mutagenic and genotoxic properties of the damaged base. However, there is as yet no information on the processing of this lesion during transcription. Here, we report the results of transcription past a site specifically modified 1,N2-ethenoguanine DNA template. This lesion contains an exocyclic ring obstructing the Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding edge of guanine. Our results show that 1,N2-ethenoguanine acts as a partial block to the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, which allows nucleotide incorporation in the growing RNA with the selectivity A > G > (C = −1 deletion) >> U. In contrast, 1,N2-ethenoguanine poses an absolute block to human RNA polymerase II elongation, and nucleotide incorporation opposite the lesion is not observed. Computer modeling studies show that the more open active site of T7 RNA polymerase allows lesion bypass when the 1,N2-ethenoguanine adopts the syn conformation. This orientation places the exocylic ring in a collision free empty pocket of the polymerase, and the observed base incorporation preferences are in agreement with hydrogen bonding possibilities between the incoming nucleotides and the Hoogsteen edge of the lesion. On the other hand, in the more crowded active site of the human RNA polymerase II, the modeling studies show that both syn and anti conformations of the 1,N2-ethenoguanine are sterically impermissible. Polymerase stalling is currently believed to trigger the transcription coupled nucleotide excision repair machinery. Thus, our data suggest that this repair pathway likely is engaged in the clearance of the 1,N2-ethenoguanine from actively transcribed DNA. PMID

  20. Comparison of in-vitro and in-vivo studies with coal liquids from the SRC-II process

    SciTech Connect

    Mahlum, D.D.; Frazier, M.E.; Pelroy, R.A.; Renne, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    Coal liquids obtained from the SRC-II process and fractions prepared from these liquids have been assayed in a number of in vivo and in vitro systems for biological activity. The in vitro systems includes: (1) the standard Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, (2) the S. typhimurium fluctuation test; (3) forward mutation assay in S. typhimurium (8-Ag) test; (4) prophage induction (INDUCTEST); (5) Syrian hamster ovary (SHE) cell transformation assay; and (6) Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutation assay. In addition, both initiation/promotion (I/P) and chronic skin-painting assays were used as measures of tumorigenesis. In general, materials shown to be carcinogenic in the chronic skin-painting assay were also positive in the other assays. The failure of the Ames assay to respond to the neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fraction of SRC-II heavy distillate (HD) was a notable exception. Quantitatively, the Ames assay was more sensitive to nitrogen-containing compounds (particularly primary aromatic amines) and less sensitive to mixtures of PAH. The mammalian systems, both in vitro and in vivo, showed greater responses to the neutral PAH than to the nitrogen-containing compounds. Activity in all biological systems increased with increasing boiling point of the material tested. The I/P assay ranked the materials studied in the same order as did the chronic skin-painting assay; however, the results of the two assays diverged quantitatively, particularly for certain distillate cuts. Despite the lack of quantitative agreement between the in vitro microbial and in vivo skin-painting assays, the in vitro assays remain valuable screening tools for complex mixtures. Sufficient information now exists to qualify the use of the in vitro assays for complex mixtures and to increase their reliability.

  1. The Dendritic Cell Major Histocompatibility Complex II (MHC II) Peptidome Derives from a Variety of Processing Pathways and Includes Peptides with a Broad Spectrum of HLA-DM Sensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Cristina C.; Becerra, Aniuska; Yin, Liusong; Zolla, Valerio; Huang, Liling; Merlin, Simone; Follenzi, Antonia; Shaffer, Scott A.; Stern, Lawrence J.; Santambrogio, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The repertoire of peptides displayed in vivo by MHC II molecules derives from a wide spectrum of proteins produced by different cell types. Although intracellular endosomal processing in dendritic cells and B cells has been characterized for a few antigens, the overall range of processing pathways responsible for generating the MHC II peptidome are currently unclear. To determine the contribution of non-endosomal processing pathways, we eluted and sequenced over 3000 HLA-DR1-bound peptides presented in vivo by dendritic cells. The processing enzymes were identified by reference to a database of experimentally determined cleavage sites and experimentally validated for four epitopes derived from complement 3, collagen II, thymosin β4, and gelsolin. We determined that self-antigens processed by tissue-specific proteases, including complement, matrix metalloproteases, caspases, and granzymes, and carried by lymph, contribute significantly to the MHC II self-peptidome presented by conventional dendritic cells in vivo. Additionally, the presented peptides exhibited a wide spectrum of binding affinity and HLA-DM susceptibility. The results indicate that the HLA-DR1-restricted self-peptidome presented under physiological conditions derives from a variety of processing pathways. Non-endosomal processing enzymes add to the number of epitopes cleaved by cathepsins, altogether generating a wider peptide repertoire. Taken together with HLA-DM-dependent and-independent loading pathways, this ensures that a broad self-peptidome is presented by dendritic cells. This work brings attention to the role of “self-recognition” as a dynamic interaction between dendritic cells and the metabolic/catabolic activities ongoing in every parenchymal organ as part of tissue growth, remodeling, and physiological apoptosis. PMID:26740625

  2. The Dendritic Cell Major Histocompatibility Complex II (MHC II) Peptidome Derives from a Variety of Processing Pathways and Includes Peptides with a Broad Spectrum of HLA-DM Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Clement, Cristina C; Becerra, Aniuska; Yin, Liusong; Zolla, Valerio; Huang, Liling; Merlin, Simone; Follenzi, Antonia; Shaffer, Scott A; Stern, Lawrence J; Santambrogio, Laura

    2016-03-11

    The repertoire of peptides displayed in vivo by MHC II molecules derives from a wide spectrum of proteins produced by different cell types. Although intracellular endosomal processing in dendritic cells and B cells has been characterized for a few antigens, the overall range of processing pathways responsible for generating the MHC II peptidome are currently unclear. To determine the contribution of non-endosomal processing pathways, we eluted and sequenced over 3000 HLA-DR1-bound peptides presented in vivo by dendritic cells. The processing enzymes were identified by reference to a database of experimentally determined cleavage sites and experimentally validated for four epitopes derived from complement 3, collagen II, thymosin β4, and gelsolin. We determined that self-antigens processed by tissue-specific proteases, including complement, matrix metalloproteases, caspases, and granzymes, and carried by lymph, contribute significantly to the MHC II self-peptidome presented by conventional dendritic cells in vivo. Additionally, the presented peptides exhibited a wide spectrum of binding affinity and HLA-DM susceptibility. The results indicate that the HLA-DR1-restricted self-peptidome presented under physiological conditions derives from a variety of processing pathways. Non-endosomal processing enzymes add to the number of epitopes cleaved by cathepsins, altogether generating a wider peptide repertoire. Taken together with HLA-DM-dependent and-independent loading pathways, this ensures that a broad self-peptidome is presented by dendritic cells. This work brings attention to the role of "self-recognition" as a dynamic interaction between dendritic cells and the metabolic/catabolic activities ongoing in every parenchymal organ as part of tissue growth, remodeling, and physiological apoptosis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Cathepsin S, but not cathepsin L, participates in the MHC class II-associated invariant chain processing in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuhua; Ao, Jingqun; Mu, Yinnan; Yang, Zhijun; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-12-01

    Two cysteine proteases, cathepsin S (CatS) and cathepsin L (CatL), have been identified as the key enzymes involved in the processing of invariant chain (Ii chain) in mammals. However, little is known about the roles of fish cathepsins in the Ii chain processing. In this study, large yellow croaker cathepsin S (LycCatS) and L (LycCatL) were identified and characterized. Based on the sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis, both LycCatS and LycCatL are highly conserved to their counterparts in teleost. These two cathepsins were constitutively expressed in all tissues and immune-related cells tested, although at different levels. Both recombinant LycCatS (rLycCatS) and LycCatL (rLycCatL) possess the typical cysteine protease activity. Like other mammalian endopeptidase cathepsins, rLycCatS and rLycCatL could be autocatalytically activated to remove propeptides and release active mature peptides. On the other hand, the autocatalytic activation of rLycCatL could be inhibited by recombinant large yellow croaker Ii chain (rLyc-TR-Ii), but the autocatalytic activation of rLycCatS was not affected by rLyc-TR-Ii. Furthermore, the activated rLycCatS can efficiently process rLyc-TR-Ii in a stepwise manner in vitro, while the activated rLycCatL can not. These data indicate that cathepsin S may be the main cathepsin involved in the Ii chain processing in bony fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Photoinduced electron donor/acceptor processes in colloidal II-VI semiconductor quantum dots and nitroxide free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Poulami

    Electron transfer (ET) processes are one of the most researched topics for applications ranging from energy conversion to catalysis. An exciting variation is utilizing colloidal semiconductor nanostructures to explore such processes. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are emerging as a novel class of light harvesting, emitting and charge-separation materials for applications such as solar energy conversion. Detailed knowledge of the quantitative dissociation of the photogenerated excitons and the interfacial charge- (electron/hole) transfer is essential for optimization of the overall efficiency of many such applications. Organic free radicals are the attractive counterparts for studying ET to/from QDs because these undergo single-electron transfer steps in reversible fashion. Nitroxides are an exciting class of stable organic free radicals, which have recently been demonstrated to be efficient as redox mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells, making them even more interesting for the aforementioned studies. This dissertation investigates the interaction between nitroxide free radicals TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), 4-amino-TEMPO (4-amino- 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and II-VI semiconductor (CdSe and CdTe) QDs. The nature of interaction in these hybrids has been examined through ground-state UV-Vis absorbance, steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, transient absorbance, upconversion photoluminescence spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The detailed analysis of the PL quenching indicates that the intrinsic charge transfer is ultrafast however, the overall quenching is still limited by the lower binding capacities and slower diffusion related kinetics. Careful analysis of the time resolved PL decay kinetics reveal that the decay rate constants are distributed and that the trap states are involved in the overall quenching process. The ultrafast hole transfer from CdSe QDs to 4-Amino TEMPO observed

  5. A one-pot, three-step process for the diastereoselective synthesis of aminobicyclo[4.3.0]nonanes using consecutive palladium(II)- and ruthenium(II)-catalysis.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Mohamed A B; Grafton, Mark W; Wilson, Claire; Sutherland, Andrew

    2016-03-28

    A diastereoselective synthesis of highly substituted aminobicyclo[4.3.0]nonanes has been attained using a one-pot multi-bond forming process. A four-step synthetic route was developed for the efficient synthesis of a series of C-7 substituted hept-2-en-6-yn-1-ols. These compounds were then investigated as substrates for a one-pot, three-step tandem process involving a palladium(ii)-catalysed Overman rearrangement, a ruthenium(ii)-catalysed ring closing enyne metathesis reaction followed by a hydrogen bond directed Diels-Alder reaction. The optimisation of the one-pot process has allowed the rapid preparation of a library of aminobicyclo[4.3.0]nonanes with significant molecular complexity and up to four stereogenic centres.

  6. Studies on electrochemical recovery of silver from simulated waste water from Ag(II)/Ag(I) based mediated electrochemical oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekara Pillai, K; Chung, Sang Joon; Moon, Il-Shik

    2008-11-01

    In the Ag(II)/Ag(I) based mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO) process, the spent waste from the electrochemical cell, which is integrated with the scrubber columns, contains high concentrations of precious silver as dissolved ions in both the anolyte and the catholyte. This work presents an electrochemical developmental study for the recovery of silver from simulated waste water from Ag(II)/Ag(I) based MEO process. Galvanostatic method of silver deposition on Ti cathode in an undivided cell was used, and the silver recovery rate kinetics of silver deposition was followed. Various experimental parameters, which have a direct bearing on the metal recovery efficiency, were optimized. These included studies with the nitric acid concentration (0.75-6M), the solution stirring rate (0-1400 rpm), the inter-electrode distance between the anode and the cathode (2-8 cm), the applied current density (29.4-88.2 mA cm(-2)), and the initial Ag(I) ion concentration (0.01-0.2M). The silver recovered by the present electrodeposition method was re-dissolved in 6M nitric acid and subjected to electrooxidation of Ag(I) to Ag(II) to ascertain its activity towards Ag(II) electrogeneration from Ag(I), which is a key factor for the efficient working of MEO process. Our studies showed that the silver metal recovered by the present electrochemical deposition method could be reused repeatedly for MEO process with no loss in its electrochemical activity. Some work on silver deposition from sulfuric acid solution of different concentrations was also done because of its promising features as the catholyte in the Ag(II) generating electrochemical cell used in MEO process, which include: (i) complete elimination of poisonous NO(x) gas liberation in the cathode compartment, (ii) reduced Ag(+) ion migration across Nafion membrane from anolyte to catholyte thereby diminished catholyte contamination, and (iii) lower cell voltage and hence lesser power consumption.

  7. Function and Control of RNA Polymerase II C-Terminal Domain Phosphorylation in Vertebrate Transcription and RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, Jing-Ping; Xiang, Kehui

    2014-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (the Rpb1 CTD) is composed of tandem heptad repeats of the consensus sequence Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7. We reported previously that Thr 4 is phosphorylated and functions in histone mRNA 3′-end formation in chicken DT40 cells. Here, we have extended our studies on Thr 4 and to other CTD mutations by using these cells. We found that an Rpb1 derivative containing only the N-terminal half of the CTD, as well as a similar derivative containing all-consensus repeats (26r), conferred full viability, while the C-terminal half, with more-divergent repeats, did not, reflecting a strong and specific defect in snRNA 3′-end formation. Mutation in 26r of all Ser 2 (S2A) or Ser 5 (S5A) residues resulted in lethality, while Ser 7 (S7A) mutants were fully viable. While S2A and S5A cells displayed defects in transcription and RNA processing, S7A cells behaved identically to 26r cells in all respects. Finally, we found that Thr 4 was phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 9 in cells and dephosphorylated both in vitro and in vivo by the phosphatase Fcp1. PMID:24752900

  8. The synchrotron-maser theory of type II solar radio emission processes - The physical model and generation mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. S.; Steinolfson, R. S.; Zhou, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    A theory is proposed to explain the generation mechanism of type II solar radio bursts. It is suggested that the shock wave formed at the leading edge of a coronal transient can accelerate electrons. Because of the nature of the acceleration process, the energized electrons can possess a 'hollow-beam' type distribution function. When the electron beam propagates along the ambient magnetic field to lower altitudes and attains larger pitch angles, a synchrotron-maser instability can set in. This instability leads to the amplification of unpolarized or weakly polarized radiation. The present discussion incorporates a model which describes the ambient magnetic field and background plasma by means of MHD simulation. The potential emission regions may be located approximately, according to the time-dependent MHD simulation. Since the average local plasma frequency in the source region can be evaluated from the MHD model, the frequent drift associated with the radiation may be estimated. The result seems to be in good agreement with that derived from observations.

  9. Multireversible redox processes in pentanuclear bis(triple-helical) manganese complexes featuring an oxo-centered triangular {Mn(II)2Mn(III)(μ3-O)}5+ or {Mn(II)Mn(III)2(μ3-O)}6+ core wrapped by two {Mn(II)2(bpp)3}-.

    PubMed

    Romain, Sophie; Rich, Jordi; Sens, Cristina; Stoll, Thibaut; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Llobet, Antoni; Rodriguez, Montserrat; Romero, Isabel; Clérac, Rodolphe; Mathonière, Corine; Duboc, Carole; Deronzier, Alain; Collomb, Marie-Noëlle

    2011-09-05

    A new pentanuclear bis(triple-helical) manganese complex has been isolated and characterized by X-ray diffraction in two oxidation states: [{Mn(II)(μ-bpp)(3)}(2)Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(μ-O)](3+) (1(3+)) and [{Mn(II)(μ-bpp)(3)}(2)Mn(II)Mn(III)(2)(μ-O)](4+) (1(4+)). The structure consists of a central {Mn(3)(μ(3)-O)} core of Mn(II)(2)Mn(III) (1(3+)) or Mn(II)Mn(III)(2) ions (1(4+)) which is connected to two apical Mn(II) ions through six bpp(-) ligands. Both cations have a triple-stranded helicate configuration, and a pair of enantiomers is present in each crystal. The redox properties of 1(3+) have been investigated in CH(3)CN. A series of five distinct and reversible one-electron waves is observed in the -1.0 and +1.50 V potential range, assigned to the Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)/Mn(II)(5), Mn(II)(3)Mn(III)(2)/Mn(II)(4)Mn(III), Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(3)/Mn(II)(3)Mn(III)(2), Mn(II)Mn(III)(4)/Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(3), and Mn(III)(5)/Mn(II)Mn(III)(4) redox couples. The two first oxidation processes leading to Mn(II)(3)Mn(III)(2) (1(4+)) and Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(3) (1(5+)) are related to the oxidation of the Mn(II) ions of the central core and the two higher oxidation waves, close in potential, are thus assigned to the oxidation of the two apical Mn(II) ions. The 1(4+) and 1(5+) oxidized species and the reduced Mn(4)(II) (1(2+)) species are quantitatively generated by bulk electrolyses demonstrating the high stability of the pentanuclear structure in four oxidation states (1(2+) to 1(5+)). The spectroscopic characteristics (X-band electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR, and UV-visible) of these species are also described as well as the magnetic properties of 1(3+) and 1(4+) in solid state. The powder X- and Q-band EPR signature of 1(3+) corresponds to an S = 5/2 spin state characterized by a small zero-field splitting parameter (|D| = 0.071 cm(-1)) attributed to the two apical Mn(II) ions. At 40 K, the magnetic behavior is consistent for 1(3+) with two apical S = 5/2 {Mn(II)(bpp)(3)}(-) and one S

  10. A cystatin F homologue from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) inhibits activity of multiple cysteine proteinases and Ii chain processing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ao, Jingqun; Li, Qiuhua; Yang, Zhijun; Mu, Yinnan

    2016-01-01

    Cystatin F, a member of the family II cystatins, plays important roles in immune response-related processes through inhibiting specific enzyme targets. In this study, a cystatin F homologue, LycCysF, was identified and characterized from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). The deduced LycCysF protein exhibits a typical structural feature of type II cystatins, including three evolutionally conserved motifs, Gly(35), QVVRG(79-83) and PW(130-131). Tissue expression analysis showed that LycCysF mRNA was expressed in all tissues examined, albeit at different levels. Recombinant LycCysF (rLycCysF) produced in Pichia pastoris could inhibit the activity of multiple cysteine proteases, including papain, legumain and recombinant large yellow croaker cathepsin B, L and S. Moreover, rLycCysF could inhibit the Ii chain processing by recombinant cathepsin S in vitro. These data suggest that LycCysF may participate in regulation of cathepsins and MHC-II associated Ii chain processing. In addition, mammalian cystatin F is produced as an inactive dimer, becoming activated by proteolysis in the endo/lysosome of immune cells and then exerts its function of regulating downstream proteases activity. However, the N-terminal extension and two additional cysteine residues responsible for dimer formation are absent in LycCysF and cystatin F from other fish species, reptiles and Aves, indicating that these proteins can not form dimer and may regulate the proteases activity via an alternate pathway distinct from mammalian cystatin F. To our knowledge, this is the first report on molecular characteristics of a teleost cystatin F and its role in Ii chain processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoinduced energy transfer processes within dyads of metallophthalocyanines compactly fused to a ruthenium(II) polypyridine chromophore.

    PubMed

    Haas, Marco; Liu, Shi-Xia; Kahnt, Axel; Leiggener, Claudia; Guldi, Dirk M; Hauser, Andreas; Decurtins, Silvio

    2007-09-28

    An unsymmetric, peripherally octasubstituted phthalocyanine (Pc) 1, which contains a combination of dipyrido[3,2-f:2',3'-h] quinoxaline and 3,5-di-tert-butylphenoxy substituents, has been obtained via a statistical condensation reaction of two corresponding phthalonitriles. Synthetic procedures for the selective metalation of the macrocyclic cavity and the periphery of 1 were developed, leading to the preparation of the key precursor metallophthalocyanines 3-5 in good yields. Two different strategies were applied to the synthesis of compact dyads MPc-Ru(II) 6-8 (M = Mg(II), Co(II), Zn(II)). Intramolecular electronic interactions in these dyads were studied by absorption, emission, and transient absorption spectroscopy. Upon photoexcitation, these dyads exhibit efficient intramolecular energy transfer from the Ru(II) chromophore to the MPc moiety.

  12. Adsorption of Myoglobin to Cu(II)-IDA and Ni(II)-IDA Functionalized Langmuir Monolayers: Study of the Protein Layer Structure during the Adsorption Process by Neutron and X-Ray Reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.S.; Yim, H.; Sasaki, D.Y.; Satija, Sushil; Seo, Young-Soo; Majewski, J.

    2010-07-19

    The structure and orientation of adsorbed myoglobin as directed by metal-histidine complexation at the liquid-film interface was studied as a function of time using neutron and X-ray reflectivity (NR and XR, respectively). In this system, adsorption is due to the interaction between iminodiacetate (IDA)-chelated divalent metal ions Ni(II) and Cu(II) and histidine moieties at the outer surface of the protein. Adsorption was examined under conditions of constant area per lipid molecule at an initial pressure of 40 mN/m. Adsorption occurred over a time period of about 15 h, allowing detailed characterization of the layer structure throughout the process. The layer thickness and the in-plane averaged segment volume fraction were obtained at roughly 40 min intervals by NR. The binding constant of histidine with Cu(II)-IDA is known to be about four times greater than that of histidine with Ni(II)-IDA. The difference in interaction energy led to significant differences in the structure of the adsorbed layer. For Cu(II)-IDA, the thickness of the adsorbed layer at low protein coverage was {le} 20 {angstrom} and the thickness increased almost linearly with increasing coverage to 42 {angstrom}. For Ni(II)-IDA, the thickness at low coverage was 38 {angstrom} and increased gradually with coverage to 47 {angstrom}. The in-plane averaged segment volume fraction of the adsorbed layer independently confirmed a thinner layer at low coverage for Cu(II)-IDA. These structural differences at the early stages are discussed in terms of either different preferred orientations for isolated chains in the two cases or more extensive conformational changes upon adsorption in the case of Cu(II)-IDA. Subphase dilution experiments provided additional insight, indicating that the adsorbed layer was not in equilibrium with the bulk solution even at low coverages for both IDA-chelated metal ions. We conclude that the weight of the evidence favors the interpretation based on more extensive

  13. [Investigation of effect and process of nitric oxide removal in rotating drum biofilter coupled with absorption by Fe(II) (EDTA)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Yang, Xuan; Yu, Jian-Ming; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Chen, Jian-Meng

    2012-02-01

    In order to accelerate the NO removal efficiency, a novel and effective system was developed for the complete treatment of NO from flue gases. The system features NO absorption by Fe(II) (EDTA) and biological denitrification in a rotating drum biofilter (RDB) so as to promote biological reduction. The experimental results show that a moderate amount of Fe(II) (EDTA) was added to the nutrient solution to improve the mass transfer efficiency of NO from gas to liquid, with the concomitant formation of nitrosyl complex Fe(II) (EDTA)-NO. Under the experimental conditions of rotational speed was at 0.5 r x min(-1), EBRT of 57.7 s, temperature was at 30 degrees C, pH was 7-8, with the increasing concentration of Fe(II) (EDTA) was from 0 mg x L(-1) to 500 mg x L(-1), the NO removal efficiency was improved from 61.1% to 97.6%, and the elimination capacity was from 16.2 g (m3 x h)(-1) to 26.7 g (m3 x h)(-1). In order to simulate the denitrifying process of waste gas containing NO by using RDB coupled with Fe(II) (EDTA) absorption, a tie-in equation of NO removal and the Fe(II) (EDTA) concentration added in RDB was established. The experimental NO removal efficiency change tendency agrees fairly with that predicted by the proposed equation.

  14. Multi-objective optimization of process parameters in Electro-Discharge Diamond Face Grinding based on ANN-NSGA-II hybrid technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ravindra Nath; Yadava, Vinod; Singh, G. K.

    2013-09-01

    The effective study of hybrid machining processes (HMPs), in terms of modeling and optimization has always been a challenge to the researchers. The combined approach of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) has attracted attention of researchers for modeling and optimization of the complex machining processes. In this paper, a hybrid machining process of Electrical Discharge Face Grinding (EDFG) and Diamond Face Grinding (DFG) named as Electrical Discharge Diamond face Grinding (EDDFG) have been studied using a hybrid methodology of ANN-NSGA-II. In this study, ANN has been used for modeling while NSGA-II is used to optimize the control parameters of the EDDFG process. For observations of input-output relations, the experiments were conducted on a self developed face grinding setup, which is attached with the ram of EDM machine. During experimentation, the wheel speed, pulse current, pulse on-time and duty factor are taken as input parameters while output parameters are material removal rate (MRR) and average surface roughness ( R a). The results have shown that the developed ANN model is capable to predict the output responses within the acceptable limit for a given set of input parameters. It has also been found that hybrid approach of ANN-NSGAII gives a set of optimal solutions for getting appropriate value of outputs with multiple objectives.

  15. Processing and MHC class II presentation of exogenous soluble antigen involving a proteasome-dependent cytosolic pathway in CD40-activated B cells.

    PubMed

    Becker, Hans Jiro; Kondo, Eisei; Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Alexander; Theurich, Sebastian; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    Activated B cells have the capacity to present antigen and induce immune responses as potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs). As in other APCs, antigen presentation by B cells involves antigen internalization, antigen processing, and peptide loading onto MHC molecules. However, while the mechanism of antigen processing has been studied extensively in other APCs, this pathway remains elusive in B cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the MHC class II processing pathway in CD40-activated B cells (CD40Bs), as a model for activated, antigen-presenting B cells. Using CMV pp65 as a model antigen, we evaluated processing and presentation of the CD4 + T-cell epitope 509-523 (K509) by human CD40Bs in ELISPOT assays. As expected, stimulation of specific CD4 + T-cell clones was attenuated after pretreatment of CD40Bs with inhibitors of classic class II pathway components. However, proteasome inhibitors such as epoxomicin limited antigen presentation as well. This suggests that the antigen is processed in a non-classical, cytosolic MHC class II pathway. Further experiments with truncated protein variants revealed involvement of the proteasome in processing of the N and C extensions of the epitope. Access to the cytosol was shown to be size dependent. Epoxomicin sensitivity exclusively in CD40B cells, but not in dendritic cells, suggests a novel processing mechanism unique to this APC. Our data suggest that B cells process antigen using a distinct, non-classical class II pathway.

  16. Simultaneous surface-adsorbed organic matter desorption and cell integrity maintenance by moderate prechlorination to enhance Microcystis aeruginosa removal in KMnO4Fe(II) process.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jing; Lan, Huachun; Liu, Huijuan; Liu, Ruiping; Miao, Shiyu; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-11-15

    The KMnO4Fe(II) process was proved to have good application potential in Microcystis aeruginosa removal, although at relatively high doses. This study aims to improve the algae removal in KMnO4Fe(II) process by moderate prechlorination, which can realize the desorption of surface-adsorbed organic matter (S-AOM) from algae cells without damaging cell integrity. S-AOM was proved to not only inhibit algae removal but also maintain cell integrity, using various dilution methods for algal suspension preparation. The dilution after filtration method mainly removed the dissolved organics in cultured M. aeruginosa, while the dilution after centrifugal cleaning method could also remove the S-AOM on algae cells. Compared with the S-AOM-removed algal suspension, the lower algae removal in KMnO4Fe(II) process and the reduced proportion of damaged cells during prechlorination of algal suspension without S-AOM removed indicated the inhibitory role of S-AOM in algae removal and the protective function of S-AOM toward cell integrity, respectively. Moderate prechlorination of directly diluted M. aeruginosa could be realized at chlorine doses of below 0.5 mg/L, and the damaged cell ratios were below 4% after 5-min prechlorination. The ability of the KMnO4Fe(II) process to remove algae was dramatically enhanced by the elevation of chlorine dose from 0 to 0.5 mg/L, as more S-AOM was desorbed during prechlorination. Additionally, algae cells were easily captured by flocs after moderate prechlorination, which benefited the floc aggregation for formation of tightly bounded algae flocs. Therefore, the desorption of S-AOM without damaging cell integrity is the key feature of moderate prechlorination, which can be applied in improving the algae removal of KMnO4Fe(II) process. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Hydroxyl radical concentration profile in photo-Fenton oxidation process: generation and consumption of hydroxyl radicals during the discoloration of azo-dye Orange II.

    PubMed

    Maezono, Takuya; Tokumura, Masahiro; Sekine, Makoto; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2011-03-01

    Dynamic behaviors of hydroxyl (OH) radical generation and consumption in photo-Fenton oxidation process were investigated by measuring OH radical concentration during the discoloration of azo-dye Orange II. The effects of operating parameters for photo-Fenton discoloration, i.e. dosages of H(2)O(2) and Fe, initial dye concentration, solution pH and UV irradiation, on the generation and consumption of OH radicals playing the main role in advanced oxidation processes were extensively studied. The scavenger probe or trapping technique in which coumarin is scavenger of OH radical was applied to estimate OH radical concentration in the photoreactor during the photo-Fenton discoloration process. The OH radical generation was enhanced with increasing the dosages of Fenton regents, H(2)O(2) and Fe. At the initial stage of photo-Fenton discoloration of Orange II, the OH radical concentration rapidly increased (Phase-I) and the OH radical concentration decreased after reaching of OH radical concentration at maximum value (Phase-II). The decrease in OH radical concentration started when the complete discoloration of Orange II was nearly achieved and the H(2)O(2) concentration became rather low. The dynamic behavior of OH radical concentration during the discoloration of Orange II was found to be strongly linked with the change in H(2)O(2) concentration. The generation of OH radical was maximum at solution pH of 3.0 and decreased with an increase of solution pH. The OH radical generation rate in the Fenton Process was rather slower than that in the photo-Fenton process.

  18. Stimulation of RNA Polymerase II ubiquitination and degradation by yeast mRNA 3'-end processing factors is a conserved DNA damage response in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Kuehner, Jason N; Kaufman, James W; Moore, Claire

    2017-09-01

    The quality and retrieval of genetic information is imperative to the survival and reproduction of all living cells. Ultraviolet (UV) light induces lesions that obstruct DNA access during transcription, replication, and repair. Failure to remove UV-induced lesions can abrogate gene expression and cell division, resulting in permanent DNA mutations. To defend against UV damage, cells utilize transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) to quickly target lesions within active genes. In cases of long-term genotoxic stress, a slower alternative pathway promotes degradation of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) to allow for global genomic nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER). The crosstalk between TC-NER and GG-NER pathways and the extent of their coordination with other nuclear events has remained elusive. We aimed to identify functional links between the DNA damage response (DDR) and the mRNA 3'-end processing complex. Our labs have previously shown that UV-induced inhibition of mRNA processing is a conserved DDR between yeast and mammalian cells. Here we have identified mutations in the yeast mRNA 3'-end processing cleavage factor IA (CFIA) and cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPF) that confer sensitivity to UV-type DNA damage. In the absence of TC-NER, CFIA and CPF mutants show reduced UV tolerance and an increased frequency of UV-induced genomic mutations, consistent with a role for RNA processing factors in an alternative DNA repair pathway. CFIA and CPF mutants impaired the ubiquitination and degradation of Pol II following DNA damage, but the co-transcriptional recruitment of Pol II degradation factors Elc1 and Def1 was undiminished. Overall these data are consistent with yeast 3'-end processing factors contributing to the removal of Pol II stalled at UV-type DNA lesions, a functional interaction that is conserved between homologous factors in yeast and human cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Recombinant Lipoprotein Rv1016c Derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is a TLR-2 Ligand that Induces Macrophages Apoptosis and Inhibits MHC II Antigen Processing.

    PubMed

    Su, Haibo; Zhu, Shenglin; Zhu, Lin; Huang, Wei; Wang, Honghai; Zhang, Zhi; Xu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    TLR2-dependent cellular signaling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages causes apoptosis and inhibits class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules antigen processing, leading to evasion of surveillance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) lipoproteins are an important class of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand, and identified as specific components that mediate these effects. In this study, we identified and characterized MTB lipoprotein Rv1016c (lpqT) as a cell wall associated-protein that was exposed on the cell surface and enhanced the survival of recombinants M. smegmatis_Rv1016c under stress conditions. We found that Rv1016c lipoprotein was a novel TLR2 ligand and able to induce macrophage apoptosis in a both dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, apoptosis induced by Rv1016c was reserved in THP-1 cells blocked with anti-TLR-2 Abs or in TLR2(-/-) mouse macrophages, indicating that Rv1016c-induced apoptosis is dependent on TLR2. Moreover, we demonstrated that Rv1016c lipoprotein inhibited IFN-γ-induced MHC-II expression and processing of soluble antigens in a TLR2 dependent manner. Class II transactivator (CIITA) regulates MHC II expression. In this context, Rv1016c lipoprotein diminished IFN-γ-induced expression of CIITA IV through TLR2 and MAPK Signaling. TLR2-dependent apoptosis and inhibition of MHC-II Ag processing induced by Rv1016c during mycobacteria infection may promote the release of residual bacilli from apoptotic cells and decrease recognition by CD4(+) T cells. These mechanisms may allow intracellular MTB to evade immune surveillance and maintain chronic infection.

  20. Recombinant Lipoprotein Rv1016c Derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is a TLR-2 Ligand that Induces Macrophages Apoptosis and Inhibits MHC II Antigen Processing

    PubMed Central

    Su, Haibo; Zhu, Shenglin; Zhu, Lin; Huang, Wei; Wang, Honghai; Zhang, Zhi; Xu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    TLR2-dependent cellular signaling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages causes apoptosis and inhibits class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules antigen processing, leading to evasion of surveillance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) lipoproteins are an important class of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand, and identified as specific components that mediate these effects. In this study, we identified and characterized MTB lipoprotein Rv1016c (lpqT) as a cell wall associated-protein that was exposed on the cell surface and enhanced the survival of recombinants M. smegmatis_Rv1016c under stress conditions. We found that Rv1016c lipoprotein was a novel TLR2 ligand and able to induce macrophage apoptosis in a both dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, apoptosis induced by Rv1016c was reserved in THP-1 cells blocked with anti-TLR-2 Abs or in TLR2−/− mouse macrophages, indicating that Rv1016c-induced apoptosis is dependent on TLR2. Moreover, we demonstrated that Rv1016c lipoprotein inhibited IFN-γ-induced MHC-II expression and processing of soluble antigens in a TLR2 dependent manner. Class II transactivator (CIITA) regulates MHC II expression. In this context, Rv1016c lipoprotein diminished IFN-γ-induced expression of CIITA IV through TLR2 and MAPK Signaling. TLR2-dependent apoptosis and inhibition of MHC-II Ag processing induced by Rv1016c during mycobacteria infection may promote the release of residual bacilli from apoptotic cells and decrease recognition by CD4+ T cells. These mechanisms may allow intracellular MTB to evade immune surveillance and maintain chronic infection. PMID:27917375

  1. Process optimization for Ni(II) removal from wastewater by calcined oyster shell powders using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hsing Yuan; Li, Jun Yan

    2015-09-15

    Waste oyster shells cause great environmental concerns and nickel is a harmful heavy metal. Therefore, we applied the Taguchi method to take care of both issues by optimizing the controllable factors for Ni(II) removal by calcined oyster shell powders (OSP), including the pH (P), OSP calcined temperature (T), Ni(II) concentration (C), OSP dose (D), and contact time (t). The results show that their percentage contribution in descending order is P (64.3%) > T (18.9%) > C (8.8%) > D (5.1%) > t (1.7%). The optimum condition is pH of 10 and OSP calcined temperature of 900 °C. Under the optimum condition, the Ni(II) can be removed almost completely; the higher the pH, the more the precipitation; the higher the calcined temperature, the more the adsorption. The latter is due to the large number of porosities created at the calcination temperature of 900 °C. The porosities generate a large amount of cavities which significantly increase the surface area for adsorption. A multiple linear regression equation obtained to correlate Ni(II) removal with the controllable factors is: Ni(II) removal(%) = 10.35 × P + 0.045 × T - 1.29 × C + 19.33 × D + 0.09 × t - 59.83. This equation predicts Ni(II) removal well and can be used for estimating Ni(II) removal during the design stage of Ni(II) removal by calcined OSP. Thus, OSP can be used to remove nickel effectively and the formula for removal prediction is developed for practical applications.

  2. Denitrification-Coupled Iron(II) Oxidation: A Key Process Regulating the Fate and Transport of Nitrate, Phosphate, and Arsenic in a Wastewater-Contaminated Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. L.; Kent, D. B.; Repert, D. A.; Hart, C. P.

    2007-12-01

    Denitrification in the subsurface is often viewed as a heterotrophic process. However, some denitrifiers can also utilize inorganic electron donors. In particular, Fe(II), which is common in many aquifers, could be an important reductant for contaminant nitrate. Anoxic iron oxidation would have additional consequences, including decreased mobility for species like arsenic and phosphate, which bind strongly to hydrous Fe(III) oxide. A study was conducted in a wastewater contaminant plume on Cape Cod to assess the potential for denitrification- coupled Fe(II) oxidation. Previous changes in wastewater disposal upgradient of the study area had resulted in nitrate being transported into a portion of the anoxic zone of the plume and decreased concentrations of Fe(II), phosphate, and arsenic. A series of anoxic tracers (groundwater + nitrate + bromide) were injected into the unaffected, Fe(II)-containing zone under natural gradient conditions. Denitrification was stimulated within 1 m of transport (4 days) for both low and high (100 & 1000 μM) nitrate additions, initially producing stiochiometric quantities of nitrous oxide (>300 μM N) and trace amounts of nitrite. Subsequent injections at the same site reduced nitrate even more rapidly and produced less nitrous oxide, especially over longer transport distances. Fe(II) and nitrate concentrations decreased together and this was accompanied by an increase in colloidal Fe(III) and decreases in pH, total arsenic, and phosphate concentrations. All plume constituents returned to background levels several weeks after the tracer tests were completed. Groundwater microorganisms collected on filters during the tracer test rapidly and immediately reduced nitrite and oxidized Fe(II) in 3-hr laboratory incubations. Several pure cultures of Fe(II)-oxidizing denitrifying bacteria were isolated from core material and subsequently characterized. All of the isolates were mixotrophic, simultaneously oxidizing organic carbon and Fe(II

  3. Inside the removal of lead(II) from aqueous solutions by De-Oiled Allspice Husk in batch and continuous processes.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Olivares, J; Pérez-Alonso, C; Barrera-Díaz, C; López, G; Balderas-Hernández, P

    2010-09-15

    A new adsorbent material for removing lead ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The residue of the allspice extraction process (De-Oiled Allspice Husk) was used on the removal of Pb(II) from water solutions. The lead sorption capacity of De-Olied Allspice Husk (DOAH) was studied in batch and continuous processes. It was found that percentage removals of Pb(II) depend on the pH and the initial lead concentrations. The Pb(II) uptake process was maximum at pH 5 in a range concentrations of 5-25 mg L(-1). The overall sorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model under conditions of pH 5 (0.1 g adsorbent per 100 mL of contaminated solution) 0.001 mass/volume ratio and 25 degrees C. The sorption capacity of lead(II) onto DOAH in batch process was 5.00, 8.02, 11.59, 15.23 and 20.07 mg g(-1), when the concentration solutions were 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg L(-1) respectively. These values are lower than obtained in continuous process, where lead was removed by 95% and the experimental results were appropriately fitted by the Yoon-Nelson model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provides information regarding the interactions between lead ions and the adsorbent surface indicating that the formation of 2 complexes depends on the functional groups associated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Short-term and long-term effects of Zn (II) on the microbial activity and sludge property of partial nitrification process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Nan; Zheng, Kaiwei; Wang, Lina; Han, Guanglu; Zhang, Hongzhong

    2017-03-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal was an innovative and economical nitrogen removal technology with less oxygen and no organics consumption, in which partial nitrification (PN) is the key component. It is necessary to clear the impact of metal ions on PN since the development of industry increased their opportunity for entering into wastewater. In this study, PN process was successfully started-up in an SBR, the short-term and long-term effects of Zn (II) on microbial bioactivity and the sludge adsorption ability for Zn (II) were investigated. Results suggested that low Zn (II) were favorable for AOB bioactivity, while the long-term effect also induced NOB bioactivity. The suppression threshold of Zn (II) on AOB in short-term effect was 10mgL(-1), which rose to 50mgL(-1) in the long-term effect due to the self-adaption. The PN sludge presented prominent absorbability for zinc and performed a quadratic relation with the Zn (II) concentration.

  5. Preferential cleavage of des-31,32-proinsulin over intact proinsulin by the insulin secretory granule type II endopeptidase. Implication of a favored route for prohormone processing.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, C J; Lincoln, B; Shoelson, S E

    1992-11-15

    Two Ca(2+)-dependent endopeptidase activities are involved in proinsulin to insulin conversion: type I cleaves COOH-terminal to proinsulin Arg31-Arg32 (B-chain/C-peptide junction); and type II preferentially cleaves at the Lys64-Arg65 site (C-peptide/A-chain junction). To further understand the mechanism of proinsulin processing, we have investigated types I and II endopeptidase processing of intact proinsulin in parallel to that of the conversion intermediates, des-31,32-proinsulin and des-64,65-proinsulin. The type I processed des-64,65-proinsulin and proinsulin at the same rate. In contrast, the type II endopeptidase processed des-31,32-proinsulin at a much faster rate (> 19-fold; p < 0.001) than it did intact proinsulin. Furthermore, unlabeled proinsulin concentrations required for competitive inhibition of 125I-labeled des-64,65-proinsulin and 125I-proinsulin processing by a purified insulin secretory granule lysate were similar (ID50 = 14-16 microM), whereas inhibition of 125I-labeled des-31,32-proinsulin processing required a higher nonradiolabeled proinsulin concentration (ID50 = 197 microM). Synthetic peptides corresponding to the sequences surrounding Lys64-Arg65 (AC-peptide/substrate) and Arg31-Arg32 (BC-peptide/substrate) of human proinsulin were synthesized for use as specific substrates or competitive inhibitors. Cleavage of the BC-substrate by type I and AC-substrate by type II was COOH-terminal of the dibasic sequence, with similar Ca(2+)-and pH requirements previously observed for proinsulin cleavage. Apparent Km and Vmax for type I processing of the BC-substrate was Km = 20 microM; Vmax = 22.8 pmol/min, and for type II processing of the AC-substrate was Km = 68 microM; Vmax = 97 pmol/min. In competitive inhibition assays, the BC-peptide similarly blocked insulin secretory granule lysate processing of des-64,65-proinsulin and proinsulin (ID50 = 45-55 microM), but did not inhibit des-31,32-proinsulin processing. However, the AC

  6. Adding the s-Process Element Cerium to the APOGEE Survey: Identification and Characterization of Ce ii Lines in the H-band Spectral Window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Hasselquist, Sten; Souto, Diogo; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Frinchaboy, Peter; García-Hernández, D. Anibal; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jőnsson, Henrik; Majewski, Steven R.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Pinsonneault, Mark; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Zamora, Olga; Zasowski, Gail; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Nine Ce ii lines have been identified and characterized within the spectral window observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey (between λ1.51 and 1.69 μm). At solar metallicities, cerium is an element that is produced predominantly as a result of the slow capture of neutrons (the s-process) during asymptotic giant branch stellar evolution. The Ce ii lines were identified using a combination of a high-resolution (R=λ /δ λ ={{100,000}}) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) spectrum of α Boo and an APOGEE spectrum (R = 22,400) of a metal-poor, but s-process enriched, red giant (2M16011638-1201525). Laboratory oscillator strengths are not available for these lines. Astrophysical gf-values were derived using α Boo as a standard star, with the absolute cerium abundance in α Boo set by using optical Ce ii lines that have precise published laboratory gf-values. The near-infrared Ce ii lines identified here are also analyzed, as consistency checks, in a small number of bright red giants using archival FTS spectra, as well as a small sample of APOGEE red giants, including two members of the open cluster NGC 6819, two field stars, and seven metal-poor N- and Al-rich stars. The conclusion is that this set of Ce ii lines can be detected and analyzed in a large fraction of the APOGEE red giant sample and will be useful for probing chemical evolution of the s-process products in various populations of the Milky Way.

  7. Alternative endogenous protein processing via an autophagy-dependent pathway compensates for Yersinia-mediated inhibition of endosomal major histocompatibility complex class II antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Rüssmann, Holger; Panthel, Klaus; Köhn, Brigitte; Jellbauer, Stefan; Winter, Sebastian E; Garbom, Sara; Wolf-Watz, Hans; Hoffmann, Sigrid; Grauling-Halama, Silke; Geginat, Gernot

    2010-12-01

    Extracellular Yersinia pseudotuberculosis employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) for translocating virulence factors (Yersinia outer proteins [Yops]) directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Recently, we used YopE as a carrier molecule for T3SS-dependent secretion and translocation of listeriolysin O (LLO) from Listeria monocytogenes. We demonstrated that translocation of chimeric YopE/LLO into the cytosol of macrophages by Yersinia results in the induction of a codominant antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell response in orally immunized mice. In this study, we addressed the requirements for processing and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II presentation of chimeric YopE proteins translocated into the cytosol of macrophages by the Yersinia T3SS. Our data demonstrate the ability of Yersinia to counteract exogenous MHC class II antigen presentation of secreted hybrid YopE by the action of wild-type YopE and YopH. In the absence of exogenous MHC class II antigen presentation, an alternative pathway was identified for YopE fusion proteins originating in the cytosol. This endogenous antigen-processing pathway was sensitive to inhibitors of phagolysosomal acidification and macroautophagy, but it did not require the function either of the proteasome or of transporters associated with antigen processing. Thus, by an autophagy-dependent mechanism, macrophages are able to compensate for the YopE/YopH-mediated inhibition of the endosomal MHC class II antigen presentation pathway for exogenous antigens. This is the first report demonstrating that autophagy might enable the host to mount an MHC class II-restricted CD4 T-cell response against translocated bacterial virulence factors. We provide critical new insights into the interaction between the mammalian immune system and a human pathogen.

  8. Hydroxyl radical yields in the Fenton process under various pH, ligand concentrations and hydrogen peroxide/Fe(II) ratios.

    PubMed

    Fischbacher, Alexandra; von Sonntag, Clemens; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2017-09-01

    The Fenton process, one of several advanced oxidation processes, describes the reaction of Fe(II) with hydrogen peroxide. Fe(II) is oxidized to Fe(III) that reacts with hydrogen peroxide to Fe(II) and again initiates the Fenton reaction. In the course of the reactions reactive species, e.g. hydroxyl radicals, are formed. Conditions such as pH, ligand concentrations and the hydrogen peroxide/Fe(II) ratio may influence the OH radical yield. It could be shown that at pH < 2.7 and >3.5 the OH radical yield decreases significantly. Two ligands were investigated, pyrophosphate and sulfate. It was found that pyrophosphate forms a complex with Fe(III) that does not react with hydrogen peroxide and thus, the Fenton reaction is terminated and the OH radical yields do not further increase. The influence of sulfate is not as strong as that of pyrophosphate. The OH radical yield is decreased when sulfate is added but even at higher concentrations the Fenton reaction is not terminated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A customizable system for real-time image processing using the Blackfin DSProcessor and the MicroC/OS-II real-time kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, Stephen; Connell, Joseph

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a development platform for real-time image processing based on the ADSP-BF533 Blackfin processor and the MicroC/OS-II real-time operating system (RTOS). MicroC/OS-II is a completely portable, ROMable, pre-emptive, real-time kernel. The Blackfin Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), incorporating the Analog Devices/Intel Micro Signal Architecture (MSA), are a broad family of 16-bit fixed-point products with a dual Multiply Accumulate (MAC) core. In addition, they have a rich instruction set with variable instruction length and both DSP and MCU functionality thus making them ideal for media based applications. Using the MicroC/OS-II for task scheduling and management, the proposed system can capture and process raw RGB data from any standard 8-bit greyscale image sensor in soft real-time and then display the processed result using a simple PC graphical user interface (GUI). Additionally, the GUI allows configuration of the image capture rate and the system and core DSP clock rates thereby allowing connectivity to a selection of image sensors and memory devices. The GUI also allows selection from a set of image processing algorithms based in the embedded operating system.

  10. Satellite Infrared (SIRE) Sensor Data Processing Perspective and Definition. Volume II. Appendix A. Survey of Available IR Data Processing Options for SIRE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-31

    International Imaging System’s (12S) System 101, CDC’s Cyber- Ikon System, the Bendix Multispectral Data Analysis System, General Electric’s DIPS...Vision I Cyber- Ikon ESL IDIMS II Number installed 4 installed 40 installed New product 9 installed Processor DCC PDP-11/35 DEC LSI-l Cyber 18/20 HP

  11. Treatment of Industrial Process Effluents & Contaminated Groundwater Using the Biological Granular Activated Carbon-Fluidized Bed Reactor (GAC-FBR) Process. Volume II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-30

    20503 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2 . REPORT 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED DATE 30 Sept 96 Technical Report, Vol II 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5... 4 2 . MATERIALS AND METHODS...using biomass from the GAC-FBR system on 10/3/95 ......................................................................................... 35 Figure 4 - 2

  12. Chronic kidney disease certification process manual by the Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN): part II: programme management and clinical information management.

    PubMed

    Quintaliani, Giuseppe; Cappelli, Gianni; Lodetti, Laura; Manno, Corrado; Petrucci, Virgilio; Spinelli, Cosimo; Tarchini, Renzo; Virgilio, Michele; Faini, Mario; Alloatti, Sandro; Cancarini, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine

    2009-01-01

    This is the second part of a document describing a voluntary certification process based on Joint Commission International (JCI) criteria developed by the Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN) and JCI representatives. In the first part we discussed standards for clinical care delivery and performance measurements related to chronic kidney disease care. Herein (Part II), we complete the description of Performace measurements and CKD care by describing issues related the management and clinical information management.

  13. All-vapor processing of p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor and ohmic contacts thereof

    DOEpatents

    McCandless, Brian E.

    2001-06-26

    An all dry method for producing solar cells is provided comprising first heat-annealing a II-VI semiconductor; enhancing the conductivity and grain size of the annealed layer; modifying the surface and depositing a tellurium layer onto the enhanced layer; and then depositing copper onto the tellurium layer so as to produce a copper tellurium compound on the layer.

  14. Thermochemical study of the processes of complexation of cobalt(II) ions with L-histidine in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    Thermal effects of the complexation of cobalt(II) ions with L-histidine at 298.15 K and several values of the ionic strength against the background of KNO3 are determined by means of direct calorimetry. The standard thermodynamic characteristics of the reactions of complexation in the aqueous solution have been calculated.

  15. Simulating dynamic and mixed-severity fire regimes: a process-based fire extension for LANDIS-II

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Sturtevant; Robert M. Scheller; Brian R. Miranda; Douglas. Shinneman; Alexandra. Syphard

    2009-01-01

    Fire regimes result from reciprocal interactions between vegetation and fire that may be further affected by other disturbances, including climate, landform, and terrain. In this paper, we describe fire and fuel extensions for the forest landscape simulation model, LANDIS-II, that allow dynamic interactions among fire, vegetation, climate, and landscape structure, and...

  16. Adsorption of Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by rape straw biochar derived from different modification processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Yang, Lan; Wang, Chang-Quan; Zhang, Qing-Pei; Liu, Qing-Cheng; Li, Yi-Ding; Xiao, Rui

    2017-05-01

    In order to deal with cadmium (Cd(II)) pollution, three modified biochar materials: alkaline treatment of biochar (BC-NaOH), KMnO4 impregnation of biochar (BC-MnOx) and FeCl3 magnetic treatment of biochar (BC-FeOx), were investigated. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Boehm titration, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to determine the characteristics of adsorbents and explore the main adsorption mechanism. The results show that manganese oxide particles are carried successfully within the biochar, contributing to micropore creation, boosting specific surface area and forming innersphere complexes with oxygen-containing groups, while also increasing the number of oxygen-containing groups. The adsorption sites created by the loaded manganese oxide, rather than specific surface areas, play the most important roles in cadmium adsorption. Batch adsorption experiments demonstrate a Langmuir model fit for Cd(II), and BC-MnOx provided the highest sorption capacity (81.10 mg g(-1)). The sorption kinetics of Cd(II) on adsorbents follows pseudo-second-order kinetics and the adsorption rate of the BC-MnOx material was the highest (14.46 g (mg·h)(-1)). Therefore, biochar modification methods involving KMnO4 impregnation may provide effective ways of enhancing Cd(II) removal from aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-classical antigen processing pathways are required for MHC class II-restricted direct tumor recognition by NY-ESO-1-specific CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Tsuji, Takemasa; Luescher, Immanuel; Old, Lloyd J.; Shrikant, Protul; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2014-01-01

    Tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells that directly recognize cancer cells are important for orchestrating antitumor immune responses at the local tumor sites. However, the mechanisms of direct MHC class II (MHC-II) presentation of intracellular tumor antigen by cancer cells are poorly understood. We found that two functionally distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells were expanded after HLA-DPB1*04 (DP04)-binding NY-ESO-1157–170 peptide vaccination in ovarian cancer patients. While both subsets similarly recognized exogenous NY-ESO-1 protein pulsed on DP04+ target cells, only one type recognized target cells with intracellular expression of NY-ESO-1. The tumor-recognizing CD4+ T cells more efficiently recognized the short 8–9-mer peptides than the non-tumor-recognizing CD4+ T cells. In addition to endosomal/lysosomal proteases that are typically involved in MHC-II antigen presentation, several pathways in the MHC class I presentation pathways such as the proteasomal degradation and transporter-associated with antigen-processing (TAP)-mediated peptide transport were also involved in the presentation of intracellular NY-ESO-1 on MHC-II. The presentation was inhibited significantly by primaquine, a small molecule that inhibits endosomal recycling, consistent with findings that pharmacological inhibition of new protein synthesis enhances antigen presentation. Together, our data demonstrated that cancer cells selectively present peptides from intracellular tumor antigens on MHC-II by multiple non-classical antigen-processing pathways. Harnessing direct tumor-recognizing ability of CD4+ T cells could be a promising strategy to enhance antitumor immune responses in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. PMID:24764581

  18. Nonclassical antigen-processing pathways are required for MHC class II-restricted direct tumor recognition by NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Tsuji, Takemasa; Luescher, Immanuel; Old, Lloyd J; Shrikant, Protul; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2014-04-01

    Tumor antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that directly recognize cancer cells are important for orchestrating antitumor immune responses at the local tumor sites. However, the mechanisms of direct MHC class II (MHC-II) presentation of intracellular tumor antigen by cancer cells are poorly understood. We found that two functionally distinct subsets of CD4(+) T cells were expanded after HLA-DPB1*04 (DP04)-binding NY-ESO-1157-170 peptide vaccination in patients with ovarian cancer. Although both subsets recognized exogenous NY-ESO-1 protein pulsed on DP04(+) target cells, only one type recognized target cells with intracellular expression of NY-ESO-1. The tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells more efficiently recognized the short 8-9-mer peptides than the non-tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells. In addition to endosomal/lysosomal proteases that are typically involved in MHC-II antigen presentation, several pathways in the MHC class I presentation pathways, such as the proteasomal degradation and transporter-associated with antigen-processing-mediated peptide transport, were also involved in the presentation of intracellular NY-ESO-1 on MHC-II. The presentation was inhibited significantly by primaquine, a small molecule that inhibits endosomal recycling, consistent with findings that pharmacologic inhibition of new protein synthesis enhances antigen presentation. Together, our data demonstrate that cancer cells selectively present peptides from intracellular tumor antigens on MHC-II by multiple nonclassical antigen-processing pathways. Harnessing the direct tumor-recognizing ability of CD4(+) T cells could be a promising strategy to enhance antitumor immune responses in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

  19. THE IRON PROJECT AND THE RMAX PROJECT: Radiative and CollisionalProcesses of Iron Ions - Fe I, Fe II, Fe XVI, Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, Maximiliano; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil; Sur, Chiranjib

    2008-05-01

    Results from work in progress under the Iron Project and Rmax Project on electron impact excitation and radiative processes of photo-excitations, photoionization and electron-ion recombination will be reported. Whereas the Iron Project is involved in scattering and radiative atomic processes of iron and iron-peak elements, and the Rmax Project aims particularly at the X-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical objects. We will present (i) collision strengths of Fe II at low energies using an accurate wavefunction needed for spectral analysis of infrared region, (ii) oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for allowed and forbidden transitions in Fe I and Fe II, (iii) photoionization and electron-ion recombination of ground state of Fe XVI for over a large energy/temperature range up to and including K-shell ionization and core excitations as observed in X-ray spectra, and (iv) photoionization cross sections of large number fine structure levels (n<=10 and 0 <= 10) needed for astrophysical and modeling work. Relativistic approach in the Breit-Pauli approximation is being employed to study these atomic processes.

  20. Clustering of Mg II absorption line systems around massive galaxies: an important constraint on feedback processes in galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffmann, Guinevere; Nelson, Dylan; Ménard, Brice; Zhu, Guangtun

    2017-07-01

    We use the latest version of the metal line absorption catalogue of Zhu & Ménard to study the clustering of Mg II absorbers around massive galaxies (˜1011.5 M⊙), quasars and radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with redshifts between 0.4 and 0.75. Clustering is evaluated in two dimensions by binning absorbers both in the projected radius and velocity separation. Excess Mg II is detected around massive galaxies out to Rp = 20 Mpc. At projected radii less than 800 kpc, the excess extends out to velocity separations of 10 000 km s-1. The extent of the high-velocity tail within this radius is independent of the mean stellar age of the galaxy and whether or not it harbours an AGN. We interpret our results using the publicly available Illustris and Millennium simulations. Models where the Mg II absorbers trace the dark matter particle or subhalo distributions do not fit the data. They overpredict the clustering on small scales and do not reproduce the excess high velocity separation Mg II absorbers seen within the virial radius of the halo. The Illustris simulations that include thermal, but not mechanical feedback from AGNs, also do not provide an adequate fit to the properties of the cool halo gas within the virial radius. We propose that the large velocity separation Mg II absorbers trace gas that has been pushed out of the dark matter haloes, possibly by multiple episodes of AGN-driven mechanical feedback acting over long time-scales.

  1. Pilot-scale demonstration of the hybrid zero-valent iron process for treating flue-gas-desulfurization wastewater: part II.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong H; Peddi, Phani K; Zeng, Hui; Tang, Ci-Lai; Teng, Xinjun

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid zero-valent-iron (hZVI) process is a novel chemical treatment process that has shown promise for removing heavy metals and nutrients from industrial wastewaters. In this study, a pilot-scale demonstration was conducted to continuously treat 3.8-7.6 L/min (1-2 gpm) of the flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) wastewater at a coal-fired power plant for 5 months. In this paper, a spike test was conducted to evaluate performance of the hZVI process for removing selected toxic metals at artificially elevated concentrations. The results showed that a multiple-stage hZVI process could decrease selenate-Se from 22 mg/L to ~10 μg/L and dissolved Hg(2+) from 1.15 mg/L to ~10 ng/L. In addition, the process simultaneously removed a broad spectrum of heavy metals such as As(III), As(V), Cr(VI), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) from mg/L to near or sub-ppb (μg/L) level after a single-stage treatment. The process consumed about 0.3 kg ZVI per 1 m(3) FGD wastewater treated at a cost of about US$0.6/m(3). Solid waste production and energy consumption were reasonably low. The successful pilot study demonstrated that the hZVI technology can be a low-cost, high-performance treatment platform for solving some of the toughest heavy metal water problems.

  2. Dissociable Stages of Problem Solving (II): First Evidence for Process-Contingent Temporal Order of Activation in Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruh, Nina; Rahm, Benjamin; Unterrainer, Josef M.; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2012-01-01

    In a companion study, eye-movement analyses in the Tower of London task (TOL) revealed independent indicators of functionally separable cognitive processes during problem solving, with processes of building up an internal representation of the problem preceding actual planning processes. These results imply that processes of internalization and…

  3. Dissociable Stages of Problem Solving (II): First Evidence for Process-Contingent Temporal Order of Activation in Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruh, Nina; Rahm, Benjamin; Unterrainer, Josef M.; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2012-01-01

    In a companion study, eye-movement analyses in the Tower of London task (TOL) revealed independent indicators of functionally separable cognitive processes during problem solving, with processes of building up an internal representation of the problem preceding actual planning processes. These results imply that processes of internalization and…

  4. Review of SRC-II process product hydrotreating data, for completeness and applicability to the demo plant

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, G.C.; Faruqi, A.

    1981-03-01

    The SRC-II product naphtha, gas oil, and whole liquid product hydrotreating data base was reviewed for completeness and applicability to the design of the SRC-II Demonstration Plant. Primary data sources were the Chevron and the UOP experimental hydrotreating work and the PNL bioassay investigations on UOP hydrotreated samples. Secondary data were the hydrotreating data for both the EDS and the H-Coal liquid products. The SRC-II product hydrotreating data are sparse at this point, but in view of the fact that these data can be supplemented through correlation with the corresponding data for the EDS and H-Coal liquid fractions, it is concluded that a sufficient data base exists for the closure of a hydrotreating plant material balance at least in the hydrotreating severity range of the Phase 0 design goals. Little thermal property data appear in the literature for coal-derived liquids; thus it will be necessary to draw upon correlations developed in the petroleum industry for closure of the plant energy balance unless experimental thermal property data are forthcoming. An area of uncertainty and concern at this time is the extent to which the Demo Plant product mutagenicity would be reduced by hydrotreatment. Although bioassay tests were conducted on both moderately and severely hydrotreated SRC-II Pilot Plant gas oil, the Demo Plant product is expected to contain an appreciable fraction of 800/sup 0/F/sup +/ material, compared with the Pilot Plant product, which contained essentially no material in this higher boiling range.

  5. Giant Panda Genomic Data Provide Insight into the Birth-and-Death Process of Mammalian Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qiu-Hong; Zeng, Chang-Jun; Ni, Xiao-Wei; Pan, Hui-Juan; Fang, Sheng-Guo

    2009-01-01

    To gain an understanding of the genomic structure and evolutionary history of the giant panda major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, we determined a 636,503-bp nucleotide sequence spanning the MHC class II region. Analysis revealed that the MHC class II region from this rare species contained 26 loci (17 predicted to be expressed), of which 10 are classical class II genes (1 DRA, 2 DRB, 2 DQA, 3 DQB, 1 DYB, 1 DPA, and 2 DPB) and 4 are non-classical class II genes (1 DOA, 1 DOB, 1 DMA, and 1 DMB). The presence of DYB, a gene specific to ruminants, prompted a comparison of the giant panda class II sequence with those of humans, cats, dogs, cattle, pigs, and mice. The results indicated that birth and death events within the DQ and DRB-DY regions led to major lineage differences, with absence of these regions in the cat and in humans and mice respectively. The phylogenetic trees constructed using all expressed alpha and beta genes from marsupials and placental mammals showed that: (1) because marsupials carry loci corresponding to DR, DP, DO and DM genes, those subregions most likely developed before the divergence of marsupials and placental mammals, approximately 150 million years ago (MYA); (2) conversely, the DQ and DY regions must have evolved later, but before the radiation of placental mammals (100 MYA). As a result, the typical genomic structure of MHC class II genes for the giant panda is similar to that of the other placental mammals and corresponds to BTNL2∼DR1∼DQ∼DR2∼DY∼DO_box∼DP∼COL11A2. Over the past 100 million years, there has been birth and death of mammalian DR, DQ, DY, and DP genes, an evolutionary process that has brought about the current species-specific genomic structure of the MHC class II region. Furthermore, facing certain similar pathogens, mammals have adopted intra-subregion (DR and DQ) and inter-subregion (between DQ and DP) convergent evolutionary strategies for their alpha and beta genes, respectively. PMID:19127303

  6. Role of the C-Terminal Domain of RNA Polymerase II in U2 snRNA Transcription and 3′ Processing

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Erica Y.; Ogiwara, Ikuo; Weiner, Alan M.

    2004-01-01

    U small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and mRNAs are both transcribed by RNA polymerase II (Pol II), but the snRNAs have unusual TATA-less promoters and are neither spliced nor polyadenylated; instead, 3′ processing is directed by a highly conserved 3′ end formation signal that requires initiation from an snRNA promoter. Here we show that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II is required for efficient U2 snRNA transcription, as it is for mRNA transcription. However, CTD kinase inhibitors, such as 5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) and 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), that block mRNA elongation do not affect U2 transcription, although 3′ processing of the U2 primary transcript is impaired. We show further that U2 transcription is preferentially inhibited by low doses of UV irradiation or actinomycin D, which induce CTD kinase activity, and that UV inhibition can be rescued by treatment with DRB or H7. We propose that Pol II complexes transcribing snRNAs and mRNAs have distinct CTD phosphorylation patterns. mRNA promoters recruit factors including kinases that hyperphosphorylate the CTD, and the CTD in turn recruits proteins needed for mRNA splicing and polyadenylation. We predict that snRNA promoters recruit factors including a CTD kinase(s) whose snRNA-specific phosphorylation pattern recruits factors required for promoter-coupled 3′ end formation. PMID:14701755

  7. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III supernatant in human albumin separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Wang, Fei; Zang, Lixuan; Zang, Hengchang; Alcalà, Manel; Nie, Lei; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Lian

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, as a powerful process analytical tool, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely applied in process monitoring. In present work, NIRS combined with multivariate analysis was used to monitor the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III (FI + II + III) supernatant in human albumin (HA) separation to achieve qualitative and quantitative monitoring at the same time and assure the product's quality. First, a qualitative model was established by using principal component analysis (PCA) with 6 of 8 normal batches samples, and evaluated by the remaining 2 normal batches and 3 abnormal batches. The results showed that the first principal component (PC1) score chart could be successfully used for fault detection and diagnosis. Then, two quantitative models were built with 6 of 8 normal batches to determine the content of the total protein (TP) and HA separately by using partial least squares regression (PLS-R) strategy, and the models were validated by 2 remaining normal batches. The determination coefficient of validation (Rp2), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were 0.975, 0.501 g/L, 0.465 g/L and 5.57 for TP, and 0.969, 0.530 g/L, 0.341 g/L and 5.47 for HA, respectively. The results showed that the established models could give a rapid and accurate measurement of the content of TP and HA. The results of this study indicated that NIRS is an effective tool and could be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of FI + II + III supernatant simultaneously. This research has significant reference value for assuring the quality and improving the recovery ratio of HA in industrialization scale by using NIRS.

  8. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I+II+III supernatant in human albumin separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Can; Wang, Fei; Zang, Lixuan; Zang, Hengchang; Alcalà, Manel; Nie, Lei; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Lian

    2017-03-15

    Nowadays, as a powerful process analytical tool, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely applied in process monitoring. In present work, NIRS combined with multivariate analysis was used to monitor the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I+II+III (FI+II+III) supernatant in human albumin (HA) separation to achieve qualitative and quantitative monitoring at the same time and assure the product's quality. First, a qualitative model was established by using principal component analysis (PCA) with 6 of 8 normal batches samples, and evaluated by the remaining 2 normal batches and 3 abnormal batches. The results showed that the first principal component (PC1) score chart could be successfully used for fault detection and diagnosis. Then, two quantitative models were built with 6 of 8 normal batches to determine the content of the total protein (TP) and HA separately by using partial least squares regression (PLS-R) strategy, and the models were validated by 2 remaining normal batches. The determination coefficient of validation (Rp(2)), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were 0.975, 0.501g/L, 0.465g/L and 5.57 for TP, and 0.969, 0.530g/L, 0.341g/L and 5.47 for HA, respectively. The results showed that the established models could give a rapid and accurate measurement of the content of TP and HA. The results of this study indicated that NIRS is an effective tool and could be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of FI+II+III supernatant simultaneously. This research has significant reference value for assuring the quality and improving the recovery ratio of HA in industrialization scale by using NIRS.

  9. [Analysis of protein-on-DNA binding profiles, detected with chIP-seq method, reveals possible interaction of specific transcription factors with RNA polymerase II in the process of transcription elongation].

    PubMed

    Belostotskiĭ, A A

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that in the course of mRNA transcription almost all transcription factors stay on a promoter while RNA polymerase II "clears" the promoter and "proceeds" to elongation. However, analysis of some specific transcription factors and RNA polymerase II binding profiles on DNA, detected with ChIP-seq method, revealed the possibility of interaction between transcription factors and RNA polymerase II in the process of transcription elongation.

  10. Cartilage Turnover Reflected by Metabolic Processing of Type II Collagen: A Novel Marker of Anabolic Function in Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gudmann, Natasja Stæhr; Wang, Jianxia; Hoielt, Sabine; Chen, Pingping; Siebuhr, Anne Sofie; He, Yi; Christiansen, Thorbjørn G.; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Bay-Jensen, Anne Christine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enable measurement of cartilage formation by a novel biomarker of type II collagen formation. The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Pro-C2 was developed and characterized for assessment of the beta splice variant of type II procollagen (PIIBNP). This is expected to originate primarily from remodeling of hyaline cartilage. A mouse monoclonal antibody (Mab) was raised in mouse, targeting specifically PIIBNP (QDVRQPG) and used in development of the assay. The specificity, sensitivity, 4-parameter fit and stability of the assay were tested. Levels of PIIBNP were quantified in human serum (0.6–2.2 nM), human amniotic fluid (163–188 nM) and sera from different animal species, e.g., fetal bovine serum (851–901 nM) with general good linearity (100% (SD 7.6) recovery) and good intra- and inter-assay variation (CV% < 10). Dose (0.1 to 100 ng/mL) and time (7, 14 and 21 days) dependent release of PIIBNP were evaluated in the conditioned medium from bovine cartilage explants (BEX) and human cartilage explants (HEX) upon stimulation with insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and fibroblastic growth factor-2 (FGF-2). TGF-β1 and IGF-1 in concentrations of 10–100 ng/mL significantly (p < 0.05) induced release of PIIBNP in BEX compared to conditions without treatment (WO). In HEX, IGF-1 100 ng/mL was able to induce a significant increase of PIIBNP after one week compared to WO. FGF-2 did not induce a PIIBNP release in our models. To our knowledge this is the first assay, which is able to specifically evaluate PIIBNP excretion. The Pro-C2 assay seems to provide a promising and novel marker of type II collagen formation. PMID:25329619

  11. Cartilage turnover reflected by metabolic processing of type II collagen: a novel marker of anabolic function in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Gudmann, Natasja Stæhr; Wang, Jianxia; Hoielt, Sabine; Chen, Pingping; Siebuhr, Anne Sofie; He, Yi; Christiansen, Thorbjørn G; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Bay-Jensen, Anne Christine

    2014-10-17

    The aim of this study was to enable measurement of cartilage formation by a novel biomarker of type II collagen formation. The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Pro-C2 was developed and characterized for assessment of the beta splice variant of type II procollagen (PIIBNP). This is expected to originate primarily from remodeling of hyaline cartilage. A mouse monoclonal antibody (Mab) was raised in mouse, targeting specifically PIIBNP (QDVRQPG) and used in development of the assay. The specificity, sensitivity, 4-parameter fit and stability of the assay were tested. Levels of PIIBNP were quantified in human serum (0.6-2.2 nM), human amniotic fluid (163-188 nM) and sera from different animal species, e.g., fetal bovine serum (851-901 nM) with general good linearity (100% (SD 7.6) recovery) and good intra- and inter-assay variation (CV% < 10). Dose (0.1 to 100 ng/mL) and time (7, 14 and 21 days) dependent release of PIIBNP were evaluated in the conditioned medium from bovine cartilage explants (BEX) and human cartilage explants (HEX) upon stimulation with insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and fibroblastic growth factor-2 (FGF-2). TGF-β1 and IGF-1 in concentrations of 10-100 ng/mL significantly (p < 0.05) induced release of PIIBNP in BEX compared to conditions without treatment (WO). In HEX, IGF-1 100 ng/mL was able to induce a significant increase of PIIBNP after one week compared to WO. FGF-2 did not induce a PIIBNP release in our models. To our knowledge this is the first assay, which is able to specifically evaluate PIIBNP excretion. The Pro-C2 assay seems to provide a promising and novel marker of type II collagen formation.

  12. Speciation of the new ligand di-isopropyliminodiacetoamide with Cu(II) using computational processing and graphical methods.

    PubMed

    Bernabé-Pineda, Margarita; Ramírez-Silva, María Teresa; Tapia-Benavides, Rafael; Rojas-Hernández, Alberto

    2004-04-01

    The importance assigned to chelating agents in diverse areas has impelled studies concerning their development as related to metal ions representing a biological concern. The synthesis of di-isopropyliminodiacetoamide (D) is presented in this work. The acidity constant obtained for D was pKa = 5.79 +/- 0.04 with the aid of program SUPERQUAD. The equilibrium constants for D with Cu(II) were obtained with the aid of program SQUAD for CuD2+ and CuD2(2)+ species giving log beta1 = 4.795 +/- 0.002 and log beta2 = 8.374 +/- 0.004, respectively.

  13. Novel process for simultaneous removal of NO(x) and SO2 from simulated flue gas by using a sustainable Ag(I)/Ag(II) redox mediator.

    PubMed

    Raju, Thasan; Chung, Sang Joon; Moon, Il Shik

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a sustainable process for simultaneous removal of waste gases such as NO, NO2, and SO2 by an electrochemically generated Ag(I)/Ag(II) redox mediator system. High removal efficiency was achieved for NO and SO2 by the wet scrubbing method at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. This removal is achieved through oxidation and absorption by contacting the gaseous stream with redox mediator ions that offer specific or selective solubility for the solute gases to be recovered in a wet scrubber. The process parameters such as gas velocity, liquid velocity, Ag(I) concentration, and HNO3 concentration were investigated to explore the possibility of complete removal of waste gases. The Ag(I)/Ag(II)-based mediated electrochemical oxidation process proved to be quite effective for simultaneous removal of NO, NO(x), and SO2 from the simulated flue gas mixtures containing NO and SO2 over a wide concentration range of 100-400 ppm. Studies were carried out with individual gas components for the mixture, and the effect of input NO and input SO2 concentrations on the NO(x) and SO2 removal efficiencies at 20 degrees C was examined. Complete oxidation of NO to NO2 with 100% NO removal efficiency and 92% NO(x) removal efficiency was achieved along with 100% SO2 removal efficiency, highlighting a potentially far greater efficiency of the Ag(I)/Ag(II)-based system in functionality and selectivity. Active research work in this direction is anticipated in the near future.

  14. Using the Iterative Input variable Selection (IIS) algorithm to assess the relevance of ENSO teleconnections patterns on hydro-meteorological processes at the catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrame, Ludovica; Carbonin, Daniele; Galelli, Stefano; Castelletti, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Population growth, water scarcity and climate change are three major factors making the understanding of variations in water availability increasingly important. Therefore, reliable medium-to-long range forecasts of streamflows are essential to the development of water management policies. To this purpose, recent modelling efforts have been dedicated to seasonal and inter-annual streamflow forecasts based on the teleconnection between "at-site" hydro-meteorological processes and low frequency climate fluctuations, such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This work proposes a novel procedure for first detecting the impact of ENSO on hydro-meteorological processes at the catchment scale, and then assessing the potential of ENSO indicators for building medium-to-long range statistical streamflow prediction models. Core of this procedure is the adoption of the Iterative Input variable Selection (IIS) algorithm that is employed to find the most relevant forcings of streamflow variability and derive predictive models based on the selected inputs. The procedure is tested on the Columbia (USA) and Williams (Australia) Rivers, where ENSO influence has been well-documented, and then adopted on the unexplored Red River basin (Vietnam). Results show that IIS outcomes on the Columbia and Williams Rivers are consistent with the results of previous studies, and that ENSO indicators can be effectively used to enhance the streamflow forecast models capabilities. The experiments on the Red River basin show that the ENSO influence is less pronounced, inducing little effects on the basin hydro-meteorological processes.

  15. Development of improved processing and evaluation methods for high reliability structural ceramics for advanced heat engine applications Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pujari, V.J.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R.

    1996-02-01

    The research program had as goals the development and demonstration of significant improvements in processing methods, process controls, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) which can be commercially implemented to produce high reliability silicon nitride components for advanced heat engine applications at temperatures to 1370{degrees}C. In Phase I of the program a process was developed that resulted in a silicon nitride - 4 w% yttria HIP`ed material (NCX 5102) that displayed unprecedented strength and reliability. An average tensile strength of 1 GPa and a strength distribution following a 3-parameter Weibull distribution were demonstrated by testing several hundred buttonhead tensile specimens. The Phase II program focused on the development of methodology for colloidal consolidation producing green microstructure which minimizes downstream process problems such as drying, shrinkage, cracking, and part distortion during densification. Furthermore, the program focused on the extension of the process to gas pressure sinterable (GPS) compositions. Excellent results were obtained for the HIP composition processed for minimal density gradients, both with respect to room-temperature strength and high-temperature creep resistance. Complex component fabricability of this material was demonstrated by producing engine-vane prototypes. Strength data for the GPS material (NCX-5400) suggest that it ranks very high relative to other silicon nitride materials in terms of tensile/flexure strength ratio, a measure of volume quality. This high quality was derived from the closed-loop colloidal process employed in the program.

  16. Redox process catalysed by growing crystal-strengite, FePO4,2H2O, crystallizing from solution with iron(II) and hydroxylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundager Madsen, Hans Erik

    2014-09-01

    In an attempt to grow pure crystals of the iron(II) phosphate vivianite, Fe3(PO4)2,8H2O, from a solution of Mohr's salt, Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2,6H2O, added to a solution of ammonium phosphate, hydroxylammonium chloride, NH3OHCl, was added to the iron(II) stock solution to eliminate oxidation of iron(II) by oxygen from the air. However, the effect turned out to be the opposite of the expected: whereas hydroxylamine reduces iron(III) in bulk solution, it acted as a strong oxidant in the presence of growing iron phosphate crystals, causing the crystallization of the iron(III) phosphate strengite, FePO4,2H2O, as the only solid phase. Evidently the crystal surface catalyses oxidation of iron(II) by hydroxylamine. The usual composite kinetics of spiral growth and surface nucleation was found. The surface-nucleation part yielded edge free energy λ in the range 12-45 pJ/m, virtually independent of temperature and in the range typical for phosphates of divalent metals. The scatter of values for λ presumably arises from contributions from different crystal forms to the overall growth rate. The low mean value points to strong adsorption of iron(II), which is subsequently oxidized at the crystal surface, forming strengite. The state of the system did not tend to thermodynamic equilibrium, but to a metastable state, presumably controlled by the iron(II) rich surface layer of the crystal. In addition to crystal growth, it was possible to measure nucleation kinetics by light scattering (turbidimetry). A point of transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous nucleation was found, and from the results for the homogeneous domain a rather precise value of crystal surface free energy γ=55 mJ/m2 was found. This is a relatively low value as well, indicating that the redox process plays a role already at the nucleation stage.

  17. Stochastic state-space temperature regulation of biochar production Part II: Application to manure processing via pyrolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: The concept of a designer biochar that targets the improvement of a specific soil property imposes the need for production processes to generate biochars with both high consistency and quality. These important production parameters can be affected by variations in process temperature tha...

  18. Process-based modeling of temperature and water profiles in the seedling recruitment zone: Part II. Seedling emergence timing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predictions of seedling emergence timing for spring wheat are facilitated by process-based modeling of the microsite environment in the shallow seedling recruitment zone. Hourly temperature and water profiles within the recruitment zone for 60 days after planting were simulated from the process-base...

  19. The Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Modulated by All-Trans-β-Carotene in the Process of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianyu; Zhang, Ye; Gong, Nan; Li, Zuowei; Sun, Chenglin; Men, Zhiwei

    2016-06-21

    Modulating the chlorophyll a (Chl-a) fluorescence by all-trans-β-Carotene (β-Car) in the polarity and non-polarity solutions was investigated. The fluorescence intensity of Chl-a decreased as the concentration of β-Car increased. The excited electronic levels of Chl-a and β-Car became much closer owing to the solvent effect, which led to the electron transfer between both two molecules. A electron-separated pair Chl(-)·Chl⁺ that is not luminous was formed due to electron transfer. The solution of Chl-a and β-car in C₃H₆O was similar to the internal environment of chloroplast. We conclude that the polar solvent is good for the fluorescent modulation in photosystem II.

  20. The Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Modulated by All-Trans-β-Carotene in the Process of Photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianyu; Zhang, Ye; Gong, Nan; Li, Zuowei; Sun, Chenglin; Men, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Modulating the chlorophyll a (Chl-a) fluorescence by all-trans-β-Carotene (β-Car) in the polarity and non-polarity solutions was investigated. The fluorescence intensity of Chl-a decreased as the concentration of β-Car increased. The excited electronic levels of Chl-a and β-Car became much closer owing to the solvent effect, which led to the electron transfer between both two molecules. A electron-separated pair Chl−·Chl+ that is not luminous was formed due to electron transfer. The solution of Chl-a and β-car in C3H6O was similar to the internal environment of chloroplast. We conclude that the polar solvent is good for the fluorescent modulation in photosystem II. PMID:27338363

  1. The s-process in low-metallicity stars - II. Interpretation of high-resolution spectroscopic observations with asymptotic giant branch models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisterzo, S.; Gallino, R.; Straniero, O.; Cristallo, S.; Käppeler, F.

    2011-11-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic observations of 100 metal-poor carbon and s-rich stars (CEMP-s) collected from the literature are compared with the theoretical nucleosynthesis models of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) presented in Paper I (MAGBini= 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2 M⊙, - 3.6 ≲ [ Fe/H ] ≲- 1.5). The s-process enhancement detected in these objects is associated with binary systems: the more massive companion evolved faster through the thermally pulsing AGB phase (TP-AGB), synthesizing s-elements in the inner He intershell, which are partly dredged up to the surface during the third dredge-up (TDU) episode. The secondary observed low-mass companion became CEMP-s by the mass transfer of C- and s-rich material from the primary AGB. We analyse the light elements C, N, O, Na and Mg, as well as the two s-process indicators, [hs/ls] (where ls = is the the light-s peak at N = 50 and hs = the heavy-s peak at N = 82) and [Pb/hs]. We distinguish between CEMP-s with high s-process enhancement, [hs/Fe] >rsim 1.5 (CEMP-sII), and mild s-process enhanced stars, [hs/Fe] < 1.5 (CEMP-sI). To interpret the observations, a range of s-process efficiencies at any given metallicity is necessary. This is confirmed by the high spread observed in [Pb/hs] (˜2 dex). A degeneration of solutions is found with some exceptions: most main-sequence CEMP-sII stars with low [Na/Fe] can only be interpreted with MAGBini= 1.3-1.4 M⊙. Giants having suffered the first dredge-up (FDU) need a dilution >rsim1 dex (dil is defined as the mass of the convective envelope of the observed star, Mobs★, over the material transferred from the AGB to the companion, MtransAGB). Then AGB models with higher AGB initial masses (MAGBini= 1.5-2 M⊙) are adopted to interpret CEMP-sII giants. In general, solutions with AGB models in the mass range MAGBini= 1.3-2 M⊙ and different dilution factors are found for CEMP-sI stars. About half of the CEMP-s stars with europium measurements show a high r-process

  2. Void reduction in autoclave processing of thermoset composites. I - High pressure effects on void reduction. II - Void reduction in a microwave curing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boey, F. Y. C.; Lye, S. W.

    1992-07-01

    Two novel methods for reducing void levels in thermoset composites are reported. The first procedure, which eliminates vacuum application, uses high pressure of up to 7000 kPa, by means of an isostatic press, effectively reducing the void levels to below 3 percent. The second process uses microwave curing by means of a modified approach involving vacuum bagging and applied autoclave pressure. This process achieves a void level of 4 percent.

  3. Gamma II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, M.; Cline, J.; Owen, L.; Boehme, J.; Rottler, L.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.

    2011-05-01

    GAMMA II is the Guide Star Automatic Measuring MAchine relocated from STScI to the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). GAMMA II is a multi-channel laser-scanning microdensitometer that was used to measure POSS and SERC plates to create the Guide Star Catalog and the Digital Sky Survey. The microdensitometer is designed with submicron accuracy in x and y measurements using a HP 5507 laser interferometer, 15 micron sampling, and the capability to measure plates as large as 0.5-m across. GAMMA II is a vital instrument for the success of digitizing the direct, objective prism, and spectra photographic plate collections in APDA for research. We plan several targeted projects. One is a collaboration with Drs. P.D. Hemenway and R. L. Duncombe who plan to scan 1000 plates of 34 minor planets to identify systematic errors in the Fundamental System of celestial coordinates. Another is a collaboration with Dr. R. Hudec (Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) who is working within the Gaia Variability Unit CU7 to digitize objective prism spectra on the Henize plates and Burrell-Schmidt plates located in APDA. These low dispersion spectral plates provide optical counterparts of celestial high-energy sources and cataclysmic variables enabling the simulation of Gaia BP/RP outputs. The astronomical community is invited to explore the more than 140,000 plates from 20 observatories now archived in APDA, and use GAMMA II. The process of relocating GAMMA to APDA, re-commissioning, and starting up the production scan programs will be described. Also, we will present planned research and future upgrades to GAMMA II.

  4. [Use of chigo seed (Campsiandra comosa, Benth) in human nutrition. II. Process of non-industrial manufacture of chiga].

    PubMed

    Barreiro, J A; Brito, O; Hevia, P; Pérez, C; Orozco, M

    1984-09-01

    A quantitative study of the traditional process for making "chiga" flour was performed. The "chiga" flour is obtained from the seed of the "chigo" (Campsiandra comosa, Benth) and is utilized as a human food in areas of Venezuela in the Orinoco basin, especially in the State of Apure and in the Territorio Federal Amazonas. The block diagram with the description of the traditional process is presented, together with labor and time requirement studies of the different stages of the process. The yields as well as the requirements for raw materials are also discussed. This research work was carried out to study and provide quantitative information that may allow the duplication of the process, in order to improve the efficiency and yield of the product.

  5. Recent trends and current practices for secondary processing of zinc and lead. Part II: zinc recovery from secondary sources.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Kamala Kanta; Agrawal, Archana; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2004-08-01

    Almost all metallurgical processes are associated with the generation of wastes and residues that may be hazardous or non-hazardous in nature depending upon the criteria specified by institutions such as the US Environment Protection Agency, etc. Wastes containing heavy and toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, copper, mercury, zinc, etc., that are present beyond permissible limits deemed to be treated or disposed of, and non-hazardous wastes can be utilized for metal recovery or safe disposal. Zinc is in growing demand all over the world. In India, a major amount of zinc is imported and therefore processing of zinc secondaries will assist in satisfying the gap between demand and supply to some extent. This report mainly focuses on the current practices and recent trends on the secondary processing of zinc. Attempts made by various laboratories to develop ecofriendly processes for the recovery of zinc from secondary raw materials are also described and discussed.

  6. Decomplexation efficiency and mechanism of Cu(II)-EDTA by H2O2 coupled internal micro-electrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dongfang; Hu, Yongyou; Guo, Qian; Yuan, Weiguang; Deng, Jiefan; Dang, Yapan

    2016-12-29

    Internal micro-electrolysis (IE) coupled with Fenton oxidation (IEF) was a very effective technology for copper (Cu)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) wastewater treatment. However, the mechanisms of Cu(2+) removal and EDTA degradation were scarce and lack persuasion in the IEF process. In this paper, the decomplexation and removal efficiency of Cu-EDTA and the corresponding mechanisms during the IEF process were investigated by batch test. An empirical equation and the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) index were proposed to flexibly control IE and the Fenton process, respectively. The results showed that Cu(2+), total organic carbon (TOC), and EDTA removal efficiencies were 99.6, 80.3, and 83.4%, respectively, under the proper operation conditions of iron dosage of 30 g/L, Fe/C of 3/1, initial pH of 3.0, Fe(2+)/H2O2 molar ratio of 1/4, and reaction time of 20 min, respectively for IE and the Fenton process. The contributions of IE and Fenton to Cu(2+) removal were 91.2 and 8.4%, respectively, and those to TOC and EDTA removal were 23.3, 25.1, and 57, 58.3%, respectively. It was found that Fe(2+)-based replacement-precipitation and hydroxyl radical (•OH) were the most important effects during the IEF process. •OH played an important role in the degradation of EDTA, whose yield and productive rate were 3.13 mg/L and 0.157 mg/(L min(-1)), respectively. Based on the intermediates detected by GC-MS, including acetic acid, propionic acid, pentanoic acid, amino acetic acid, 3-(diethylamino)-1,2-propanediol, and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), a possible degradation pathway of Cu-EDTA in the IEF process was proposed. Graphical abstract The mechanism diagram of IEF process.

  7. High-Efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery, STTR Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Timothy

    2011-01-07

    This is the final report of DoE STTR Phase II project, “High-efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery”. The objective of this STTR project is to develop a cost-effective processing approach to produce bulk high-performance thermoelectric (TE) nanocomposites, which will enable the development of high-power, high-power-density TE modulus for waste heat recovery and industrial refrigeration. The use of this nanocomposite into TE modules are expected to bring about significant technical benefits in TE systems (e.g. enhanced energy efficiency, smaller sizes and light weight). The successful development and applications of such nanocomposite and the resultant TE modules can lead to reducing energy consumption and environmental impacts, and creating new economic development opportunities.

  8. "An Economic Process for Coal Liquefaction to Liquid Fuels" SBIR Phase II -- Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguli, Partha Sarathi

    2009-02-19

    The current commercial processes for direct coal liquefaction utilize expensive backmix-flow reactor system and conventional catalysts resulting in incomplete and retrogressive reactions that produce low distillate liquid yield and high gas yield, with high hydrogen consumption. The new process we have developed, which uses a less expensive reactor system and highly active special catalysts, resulted in high distillate liquid yield, low gas yield and low hydrogen consumption. The new reactor system using the special catalyst can be operated smoothly for direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Due to high hydrogenation and hydrocracking activities of the special catalysts, moderate temperatures and high residence time in each stage of the reactor system resulted in high distillate yield in the C4-650°F range with no 650°F+ product formed except for the remaining unconverted coal residue. The C4-650°F distillate is more valuable than the light petroleum crude. Since there is no 650°F+ liquid product, simple reforming and hydrotreating of the C4-650°F product will produce the commercial grade light liquid fuels. There is no need for further refinement using catalytic cracking process that is currently used in petroleum refining. The special catalysts prepared and used in the experimental runs had surface area between 40-155 m2/gm. The liquid distillate yield in the new process is >20 w% higher than that in the current commercial process. Coal conversion in the experimental runs was moderate, in the range of 88 - 94 w% maf-coal. Though coal conversion can be increased by adjustment in operating conditions, the purpose of limiting coal conversion to moderate amounts in the process was to use the remaining unconverted coal for hydrogen production by steam reforming. Hydrogen consumption was in the range of 4.0 - 6.0 w% maf-coal. A preliminary economic analysis of the new coal liquefaction process was

  9. The Process and Product of T & I High School Level Vocational Education in the United States. Volume II-The Process Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eninger, M.U.

    The primary objective of this study was to provide a description of the process variables of trade and industrial education, such as curriculum, facilities, guidance and placement services, teachers and instructional methods, advisory committees and community relations, and administration. Data were collected from a stratified random sample of 100…

  10. Structures, luminescence and photocatalytic properties of two nanostructured cadmium(II) coordination polymers synthesized by sonochemical process.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shao Yun; Li, Yue Hua; Zhu, Jing; Cui, Guang Hua

    2018-01-01

    By varying the dicarboxylate coligands, two nano-sized cadmium(II) coordination polymers (CPs), [Cd(bix)(DCTP)]n (1) and [Cd(bix)2(BPDC)]n (2) (bix=1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene, H2DCTP=2,5-dichloroterephthalic acid, H2BPDC=biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid) were synthesized hydrothermally and sonochemical irradiation. CPs 1-2 and their nanostructures have been characterized by elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CP 1 features a uninodal 4-connected 2D sql network consisting of two different helical arrays. Whilst, CP 2 displays 2D layer which constructed by the linear chains and M2L2 type discrete loops. The effect of ultrasonic power and temperature on the morphology and size of CPs 1-2 are investigated in detail. Nano-sized 1-2 show the relatively high photocatalytic performance for degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) under UV irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fusion pore expansion is a slow, discontinuous, and Ca2+-dependent process regulating secretion from alveolar type II cells

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Thomas; Dietl, Paul; Pfaller, Kristian; Frick, Manfred; Mair, Norbert; Paulmichl, Markus; Hess, Michael W.; Fürst, Johannes; Maly, Karl

    2001-01-01

    In alveolar type II cells, the release of surfactant is considerably delayed after the formation of exocytotic fusion pores, suggesting that content dispersal may be limited by fusion pore diameter and subject to regulation at a postfusion level. To address this issue, we used confocal FRAP and N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(4-[dibutylamino]styryl) pyridinium dibromide (FM 1-43), a dye yielding intense localized fluorescence of surfactant when entering the vesicle lumen through the fusion pore (Haller, T., J. Ortmayr, F. Friedrich, H. Volkl, and P. Dietl. 1998. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 95:1579–1584). Thus, we have been able to monitor the dynamics of individual fusion pores up to hours in intact cells, and to calculate pore diameters using a diffusion model derived from Fick's law. After formation, fusion pores were arrested in a state impeding the release of vesicle contents, and expanded at irregular times thereafter. The expansion rate of initial pores and the probability of late expansions were increased by elevation of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration. Consistently, content release correlated with the occurrence of Ca2+ oscillations in ATP-treated cells, and expanded fusion pores were detectable by EM. This study supports a new concept in exocytosis, implicating fusion pores in the regulation of content release for extended periods after initial formation. PMID:11604423

  12. Phase II of the demonstration of the Koppelman Series C Process. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.

    1998-12-31

    A pilot plant using the Koppelman Series C Process was designed, constructed, and operated near Gillette, Wyoming, as part of Phase I of this project. Construction was completed in late fall of 1993, and the shakedown was completed in early 1994. The initial series of tests performed to prove the process and to characterize the effluents was conducted during the first half of 1994. The results of those tests are described the final report for Phase I (Merriam 1994). This report describes the activities conducted during Phase U of the project the objective of which was to move the process, which was proven during Phase I, a step closer to commercialization. Specifically, the work was planned to lower the cost of the process by developing a high-capacity processor, increasing the already high efficiency of the process by using a feed coal preheater, increasing the bulk density of the product by using mixed particle size extrudate, and preparing a preliminary scoping design for the water treatment plant for a 500,000 ton per year commercial plant.

  13. Image processing algorithms and techniques II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Jose, CA, Feb. 25-Mar. 1, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civanlar, Mehmet R.; Mitra, Sanjit K.; Moorhead, Robert J., II

    Recent developments and novel ideas in electronic imaging science and technology are examined. Particular attention is given to color imagery, image processing and filtering techniques, image/image sequence restoration and reconstruction, image analysis and pattern recognition, image coding, and parallel architectures for image processing. Consideration is also given to color correction using principal components, optimum intensity-dependent spread filters in image processing, iterative algorithms with fast-convergence rates in nonlinear image restoration, optimal regularization parameter estimation for image restoration, simultaneous object estimation and image reconstruction in a Bayesian setting, automatic recognition of bones in X-ray bone densitometry, a novel nonlinear filter for image enhancement, image compression for digital video tape recording with high-speed playback capability, image-coding based on two-channel conjugate vector quantization, and artificial neural network models for image understanding.

  14. Real-time image processing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 16-18, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in the fields of feature extraction and implementation, filter and correlation algorithms, optical correlators, high-level algorithms, and digital image processing for ranging and remote driving. Attention is given to a nonlinear filter derived from topological image features, IR image segmentation through iterative thresholding, orthogonal subspaces for correlation masking, composite filter trees and image recognition via binary search, and features of matrix-coherent optical image processing. Also discussed are multitarget tracking via hybrid joint transform correlator, binary joint Fourier transform correlator considerations, global image processing operations on parallel architectures, real-time implementation of a differential range finder, and real-time binocular stereo range and motion detection.

  15. Hybrid image and signal processing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 18-20, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.; Tescher, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in the research fields of multisensor recognition and tracking, optical correlators and pattern recognition, optical processing applications, phase-only filters, digital signal processing techniques, and neural nets for image processing. Attention is given to multisensor data fusion for multitarget tracking, fast digital phase detection using SAWs, miniature hybrid optical correlators, shape representations by Gabor expansion, and a digital optoelectronic computer for textual pattern matching. Also discussed are feature detection and enhancement by a rotating kernel min-max transformation, a phase-phase implementation of optical correlators, the use of directional consistency with Sobel edge detectors, image-pattern algorithms using neural networks, assembly line inspection using neural networks, and image deconvolution by nonlinear techniques in the Fourier domain.

  16. Theoretical Studies of Photodeactivation Pathways of NHC-Chelate Pt(II) Compounds with Different Numbers of Triarylboron Units: Radiative and Nonradiative Decay Processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Yanyan; Zhang, Wenting; Shen, Wei; Li, Ming; He, Rongxing

    2017-01-26

    The radiative and nonradiative decay processes of four platinum(II) complexes chelated with triarylboron (TAB)-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) are investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculation, for probing into the influence of different numbers of TAB on the phosphorescent emission properties. For the radiative decay processes, zero-field splitting energies, radiative rates, and lifetimes are explored, and corresponding factors including transition dipole moments, singlet-triplet splitting energies as well as spin-orbit coupling matrix elements are also analyzed in detail. Additionally, energy-gap law is considered in the temperature-independent nonradiative decay processes; meanwhile, potential energy profiles are obtained to elaborate the temperature-dependent nonradiative decay processes. As a result, radiative rates declined slightly with the increased numbers of TAB. The minimum temperature-independent nonradiative decay may occur in BC-3 due to its smallest structural distortion between S0 and T1 states. According to the potential energy profiles of the deactivation pathways, four investigated phosphors have the similar temperature-dependent nonradiative decay processes because of the incredibly analogous energy barriers. We speculate that it does not mean greater phosphorescent emission and higher phosphorescent quantum yield with more TAB units, which would provide extraordinary assistance for further research in potential phosphors of organic light-emitting diodes.

  17. Tripodal polyphosphine ligands as inductors of chelate ring-opening processes in mononuclear palladium(II) and platinum(II) compounds. The X-ray crystal structure of two derivatives containing dangling phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Anca, Damián; García-Seijo, M Inés; García-Fernández, M Esther

    2010-03-07

    of the two five-membered chelate rings to M into three (structure I) or two (structure II) fused five-membered chelate rings, formation of species where Pt(II) retained its square-planar environment with the two dangling phosphine arms of each PP(3) bound to Cu(I) or Ag(I) (structure III) and complexes bearing distorted square-planar (P(2)MCl(2)) and presumably tetrahedral (AuP(4)+ P(2)AuCl(2)) arrangements (structure IV). The processes with Ag(I) salts also gave mixtures of I+III (chloride and nitrate) or II+III (nitrate).

  18. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Metals Processing Specialist, Blocks I and II, Classroom Course 13-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These curriculum materials are the first section of a four-part, secondary-postsecondary-level course in metals processing. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Block I, Introduction to Oxyacetylene Welding,…

  19. Part I. Improved flame retardant textiles. Part II. Novel approach to layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textiles.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical re...

  20. Part I. improve flame retardant textile. Part II. novel approach layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textile.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical rea...

  1. Final Report of NATO/SPS Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I and II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early in 1998 the NATO Committee for Challenges to Modern Society (SPS) (Science for Peace and Security) approved the Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes for an initial period of five years. The pilot was to provide a forum for member country representatives to discuss t...

  2. Exploring Innovation Processes from a Complexity Perspective. Part II. Experiences from the Subsea Increased Oil Recovery Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Tone Merethe Berg; Johannessen, Stig

    2007-01-01

    In this second part of the papers, exploring innovation processes from a complexity perspective, we present an empirical example to strengthen further the relevance of the approach. The example draws on a longitudinal research initiative conducted in cooperation with the Norwegian petroleum company Statoil ASA. We conducted our research into the…

  3. Primary and secondary relaxation process in plastically crystalline cyanocyclohexane studied by 2H nuclear magnetic resonance. II. Quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micko, B.; Kruk, D.; Rössler, E. A.

    2013-02-01

    We analyze the results of our previously reported 2H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in the plastically crystalline (PC) phase of cyanocyclohexane (Part I of this work) to study the fast secondary relaxation (or β-process) in detail. Both, the occurrence of an additional minimum in the spin-lattice relaxation T1 and the pronounced effects arising in the solid-echo spectrum above the glass transition temperature Tg = 134 K, allow for a direct determination of the restricting geometry of the β-process in terms of the "wobbling-in-a-cone" model. Whereas at temperatures below Tg the reorientation is confined to rather small solid angles (below 10°), the spatial restriction decreases strongly with temperature above Tg, i.e., the distribution of cone angles shifts continuously towards higher values. The β-process in the PC phase of cyanocyclohexane proceeds via the same mechanism as found in structural glass formers. This is substantiated by demonstrating the very similar behavior (for T < Tg) of spin-lattice relaxation, stimulated echo decays, and spectral parameters when plotted as a function of ⟨log τβ⟩ (taken from dielectric spectroscopy). We do, however, not observe a clear-cut relation between the relaxation strength of the β-process observed by NMR (calculated within the wobbling-in-a-cone model) and dielectric spectroscopy.

  4. Improving the two-step remediation process for CCA-treated wood. Part II, Evaluating bacterial nutrient sources

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen

    2004-01-01

    Remediation processes for recovery and reuse of chromated-copper-arsenate-(CCA) treated wood are not gaining wide acceptance because they are more expensive than landfill disposal. One reason is the high cost of the nutrient medium used to culture the metal tolerant bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, which removes 70-100% of the copper, chromium, and arsenic from CCA-...

  5. Business Education and Training: A Value-Laden Process. Volume II: The Developing Professional: Maintaining Values in "Practical" Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Samuel M., Ed.; Fenton, Mark B., Ed.

    This volume contains 19 papers that explore value conflicts in all professions: "Changing Student Teacher Values with Respect to Business and Industry" (Ralph P. Williams, Elizabeth J. Foster); "Admissions Processes into Canadian Master of Social Work Programs in the 1990s" (John R. Graham, Beatrice Traub-Werner); "Organizational Paradigms and…

  6. Evidence-Based Research in Complementary and Alternative Medicine II: The Process of Evidence-Based Research

    PubMed Central

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Prolo, Paolo; Rosenblum, Monica; Edgerton, Myeshia; Cajulis, Olivia S.

    2006-01-01

    It is a common practice in contemporary medicine to follow stringently the scientific method in the process of validating efficacy and effectiveness of new or improved modes of treatment intervention. It follows that these complementary or alternative interventions must be validated by stringent research before they can be reliably integrated into Western medicine. The next decades will witness an increasing number of evidence-based research directed at establishing the best available evidence in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This second paper in this lecture series examines the process of evidence-based research (EBR) in the context of CAM. We outline the fundamental principles, process and relevance of EBR, and its implication to CAM. We underscore areas of future development in EBR. We note that the main problem of applying EBR to CAM at present has to do with the fact that the contribution of EBR can be significant only to the extent to which studies used in the process of EBR are of good quality. All too often CAM research is not of sufficient quality to warrant the generation of a consensus statement. EBR, nevertheless, can contribute to CAM by identifying current weaknesses of CAM research. We present a revised instrument to assess quality of the literature. PMID:16550218

  7. Business Education and Training: A Value-Laden Process. Volume II: The Developing Professional: Maintaining Values in "Practical" Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Samuel M., Ed.; Fenton, Mark B., Ed.

    This volume contains 19 papers that explore value conflicts in all professions: "Changing Student Teacher Values with Respect to Business and Industry" (Ralph P. Williams, Elizabeth J. Foster); "Admissions Processes into Canadian Master of Social Work Programs in the 1990s" (John R. Graham, Beatrice Traub-Werner); "Organizational Paradigms and…

  8. Integrated Sensing and Processing (ISP) Phase II: Demonstration and Evaluation for Distributed Sensor Netowrks and Missile Seeker Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-28

    Overview,” H. Schmitt, D. Waagen, S. Bellofiore, N. Shah, R. Cramer, T. Stevens, C. Savage, and V. Berisha , Defense Applications of Signal Processing...2006, 10-14 December 2006, King Fisher Bay, Australia. 2. “Sparse Manifold Learning with Applications to SAR Image Classification,” V. Berisha , N

  9. Final Report of NATO/SPS Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I and II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early in 1998 the NATO Committee for Challenges to Modern Society (SPS) (Science for Peace and Security) approved the Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes for an initial period of five years. The pilot was to provide a forum for member country representatives to discuss t...

  10. Service Delivery to the Handicapped: The Role of the Federal Procurement Process. Part II. Selecting Contractors by Competitive Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldosn, William S.; Stephens, Thomas M.

    1979-01-01

    Sections address the RFP/IFB (Request for Proposals/Invitation for Bids) process and procedures for selecting the "best" contract. In reviewing the federal procurement code, and the recent decision of the Government Accounting Office, particularly regarding the NIMIS (National Instructional Materials Information System contract), inconsistencies…

  11. Predictive modeling of infrared radiative heating in tomato dry-peeling process: Part II. Model validation and sensitivity analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A predictive mathematical model was developed to simulate heat transfer in a tomato undergoing double sided infrared (IR) heating in a dry-peeling process. The aims of this study were to validate the developed model using experimental data and to investigate different engineering parameters that mos...

  12. Exploring Innovation Processes from a Complexity Perspective. Part II. Experiences from the Subsea Increased Oil Recovery Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Tone Merethe Berg; Johannessen, Stig

    2007-01-01

    In this second part of the papers, exploring innovation processes from a complexity perspective, we present an empirical example to strengthen further the relevance of the approach. The example draws on a longitudinal research initiative conducted in cooperation with the Norwegian petroleum company Statoil ASA. We conducted our research into the…

  13. Industrial fuel gas plant project. Phase II. Memphis industrial fuel gas plant. Final report. [U-GAS process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Industrial Fuel Gas Plant produces a nominal 50 billion Btu/day of product gas. The entire IFG production will be sold to MLGW. Under normal conditions, 20% of the output of the plant will be sold by MLGW to the local MAPCO refinery and exchanged for pipeline quality refinery gas. The MAPCO refinery gas will be inserted into the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System. A portion (normally 10%) of the IFG output of the plant will be diverted to a Credit Generation Unit, owned by MLGW, where the IFG will be upgraded to pipeline quality (950 Btu/SCF). This gas will be inserted into MLGW's Natural Gas Distribution System. The remaining output of the IFG plant (gas with a gross heating value of 300 Btu/SCF) will be sold by MLGW as Industrial Fuel Gas. During periods when the IFG plant is partially or totally off-stream, natural gas from the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System will be sent to an air mixing unit where the gas will be diluted to a medium Btu content and distributed to the IFG customers. Drawing 2200-1-50-00104 is the plant block flow diagram showing the process sequence and process related support facilities of this industrial plant. Each process unit as well as each process-related support facility is described briefly.

  14. Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Magnetohydrodynamical Jets from Collapsars. II --- Heavy-Element Nucleosynthesis of s, p, r-Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Fujimoto, S.; Kotake, K.; Yamada, S.

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the nucleosynthesis in a massive star of 70 M_{⊙} with solar metallicity in the main sequence stage. The helium core mass after hydrogen burning corresponds to 32 M_{⊙}. Nucleosynthesis calculations have been performed during the stellar evolution and the jetlike supernova explosion of a collapsar model. We focus on the production of elements heavier than iron group nuclei. Nucleosynthesis calculations have been accomplished consistently from hydrostatic to dynamic stages by using large nuclear reaction networks, where the weak s-, p-, and r-processes are taken into account. We confirm that s-elements of 60 < A < 90 are highly overproduced relative to the solar abundances in the hydrostatic nucleosynthesis. During oxygen burning, p-elements of A > 90 are produced via photodisintegrations of seed s-elements. However, the produced p-elements are disintegrated in later stages except for ^{180}Ta. In the explosive nucleosynthesis, elements of 90 < A < 160 are significantly overproduced relative to the solar values owing to the r-process, which is very different from the results of spherical explosion models. Only heavy p-elements (N > 50) are overproduced via the p-process because of the low peak temperatures in the oxygen- and neon-rich layers. Compared with the previous study of r-process nucleosynthesis calculations in the collapsar model of 40 M_{⊙} by Fujimoto et al. [S. Fujimoto, M. Hashimoto, K. Kotake and S. Yamada, Astrophys. J. 656 (2007), 382; S. Fujimoto, N. Nishimura and M. Hashimoto, Astrophys. J. 680 (2008), 1350], our jet model cannot contribute to the third peak of the solar r-elements and intermediate p-elements, which have been much produced because of the distribution of the lowest part of electron fraction in the ejecta. Averaging the overproduction factors over the progenitor masses with the use of Salpeter's IMF, we suggest that the 70 M_{⊙} star could contribute to the solar weak s}-elements of 60 < A < 90 and neutron

  15. Progression of natural attenuation processes at a crude oil spill site: II. Controls on spatial distribution of microbial populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, B.A.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Godsy, E.M.; Warren, E.; Essaid, H.I.; Tuccillo, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of a crude-oil contaminated aquifer shows that the distribution of microbial physiologic types is strongly controlled by the aquifer properties and crude oil location. The microbial populations of four physiologic types were analyzed together with permeability, pore-water chemistry, nonaqueous oil content, and extractable sediment iron. Microbial data from three vertical profiles through the anaerobic portion of the contaminated aquifer clearly show areas that have progressed from iron-reduction to methanogenesis. These locations contain lower numbers of iron reducers, and increased numbers of fermenters with detectable methanogens. Methanogenic conditions exist both in the area contaminated by nonaqueous oil and also below the oil where high hydrocarbon concentrations correspond to local increases in aquifer permeability. The results indicate that high contaminant flux either from local dissolution or by advective transport plays a key role in determining which areas first become methanogenic. Other factors besides flux that are important include the sediment Fe(II) content and proximity to the water table. In locations near a seasonally oscillating water table, methanogenic conditions exist only below the lowest typical water table elevation. During 20 years since the oil spill occurred, a laterally continuous methanogenic zone has developed along a narrow horizon extending from the source area to 50-60 m downgradient. A companion paper [J. Contam. Hydrol. 53, 369-386] documents how the growth of the methanogenic zone results in expansion of the aquifer volume contaminated with the highest concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Copyright ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Process technological effects of deletion and amplification of hydrophobins I and II in transformants of Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Bailey, M J; Askolin, S; Hörhammer, N; Tenkanen, M; Linder, M; Penttilä, M; Nakari-Setälä, T

    2002-05-01

    Transformants of the Trichoderma reeseistrains QM9414 and Rut-C30 were constructed in which the genes for the two major hydrophobin proteins, hydrophobins I (HFBI) and II (HFBII), were deleted or amplified by molecular biological techniques. Growth parameters and foam production of the transformant strains were compared with the corresponding properties of the parent strains by cultivation in laboratory bioreactors under conditions of catabolite repression (glucose medium) or induction of cellulolytic enzymes and other secondary metabolites (cellulose and lactose media). All the transformed strains exhibited vegetative growth properties similar to those of their parent. The Delta hfb2 (but not the Delta hfb1) transformant showed reduced tendency to foam, whereas both strains overproducing hydrophobins foamed extensively, particularly in the case of HFBII. Enzyme production on cellulose medium was unaltered in the Delta hfb2 transformant VTT D-99676, but both the Delta hfb2 and HFBII-overproducing transformants exhibited somewhat decreased enzyme production properties on lactose medium. Production of HFBI by the multi-copy transformant VTT D-98692 was almost 3-fold that of the parent strain QM9414. Overproduction of HFBII by the transformant VTT D-99745, obtained by transformation with three additional copies of the hfb2 gene under the cbh1 promoter, was over 5-fold compared to production by the parent strain Rut-C30. The Delta hfb2transformant VTT D-99676 produced a greatly increased number of spores on lactose medium compared with the parent strain, whereas the HFBII-overproducing transformant VTT D-99745 produced fewer spores.

  17. Size exclusion removal of model mammalian viruses using a unique membrane system, Part II: Module qualification and process simulation.

    PubMed

    DiLeo, A J; Vacante, D A; Deane, E F

    1993-09-01

    The performance of a fabricated device may be influenced by the characteristics of the fluid management within the device and reproducibility with which the device is manufactured. The performance of the Viresolve/70 membrane is not diminished when incorporated into a fabricated module. The Viresolve/70 fabricated modules are shown to reproducibly retain viruses via a sieving mechanism, independent of virus type or character, in excellent agreement with the base membrane retention coefficients reported previously. The retention coefficients measured for the Viresolve/70 modules are shown to increase with increased recirculation flow rate within the module. Mammalian virus spiked protein solutions processed through the Viresolve/70 system show that mammalian viruses can be removed from solution in accordance with the apparent membrane retention coefficients. The retained virus is recoverable on the upstream side of the membrane. Process clearance factors for murine leukemia virus is in excess of 6.7 LRV and that of human immunodeficiency virus I is 8.5 LRV.

  18. Optoelectronic signal processing for phased-array antennas II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 16, 17, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickson, Brian M.; Koepf, Gerhard A.

    Various papers on optoelectronic signal processing for phased-array antennas (PAAs) are presented. Individual topics addressed include: the dynamics of high-frequency lasers, an electrooptic phase modulator for PA applications, a laser mixer for microwave fiber optics, optical control of microwaves with III-V semiconductor optical waveguides, a high-dynamic-range modulator for microwave PAs, the high-modulation-rate potential of surface-emitter laser-diode arrays, an electrooptical switch for antenna beam steering, and adaptive PA radar processing using photorefractive crystals. Also discussed are an optical processor for array antenna beam shaping and steering, an integrated optical Butler matrix for beam forming in PAAs, an acoustooptic/photorefractive processor for adaptive antenna arrays, BER testing of fiber-optic data links for MMIC-based phased-array antennas, and the design of an optically controlled K(a)-band GaAs MMIC PAA.

  19. Mycotoxins in cereal grain. Part II. The fate of ochratoxin A after processing of wheat and barley grain.

    PubMed

    Chelkowski, J; Goliński, P; Szebiotko, K

    1981-01-01

    Ochratoxin A was to be evenly distributed in kernels of different lots of wheat and barley grain. Dry cleaning and wet cleaning did not eliminate ochratoxin from grain. After milling the level of ochratoxin in flour was similar to its concentration in bran. In pearl barley concentration of ochratoxin A stated only 10-30% of initial concentration in barley grain. Detoxification is necessary for the whole kernel, because processing did not remove ochratoxin A effectively.

  20. Spatiotemporal distribution of cortical processing of first and second languages in bilinguals. II. Effects of phonologic and semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Hillel; Abbasi, Dalal Abu-Amneh; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi; Starr, Arnold

    2013-11-01

    This study determined the effects of phonology and semantics on the distribution of cortical activity to the second of a pair of words in first and second language (mixed pairs). The effects of relative proficiency in the two languages and linguistic setting (monolinguistic or mixed) are reported in a companion paper. Ten early bilinguals and 14 late bilinguals listened to mixed pairs of words in Arabic (L1) and Hebrew (L2) and indicated whether both words in the pair had the same or different meanings. The spatio-temporal distribution of current densities of event-related potentials were estimated for each language and according to semantic and phonologic relationship (same or different) compared with the first word in the pair. During early processing (<300 ms), brain activity in temporal and temporoparietal auditory areas was enhanced by phonologic incongruence between words in the pair and in Wernicke's area by both phonologic and semantic priming. In contrast, brain activities during late processing (>300 ms) were enhanced by semantic incongruence between the two words, particularly in temporal areas and in left hemisphere Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The latter differences were greater when words were in L2. Surprisingly, no significant effects of relative proficiency on processing the second word in the pair were found. These results indicate that the distribution of brain activity to the second of two words presented bilingually is affected differently during early and late processing by both semantic and phonologic priming by- and incongruence with the immediately preceding word. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Long-Term Memory Competitive Process Model of a Common Procedural Error. Part II: Working Memory Load and Capacity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    incorporated Altmann and Trafton’s (Altmann & Trafton, 2002) Memory for Goals (MfG) mechanism for encoding a retrievable episodic trace of every...Altmann & Trafton, 2002), posits that we encode episodic traces of our goals as we complete tasks. Each goal is encapsulated in an episodic memory ...retrospective, episodic memory (Altmann & Trafton, 2007; Ratwani & Trafton, 2010, 2011; Trafton, Altmann, & Ratwani, 2009). The decay process has a cost, which

  2. Coal hydrogasification process development. Volume II. Peat studies. Second annual technical progress report, government fiscal year 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Sprouse, K.M.; Rosemary, J.K.

    1980-10-20

    This report describes work performed on a program directed towards investigating the effects of peat hydrogasification in an entrained flow reactor. The program was conducted in three phases: peat dense-phase feed system flow studies, hydrogasification entrained flow reactor testing, and preliminary peat process economic evaluations. The peat dense-phase feeding studies included low-pressure (below 150 psig) testing at nominal solid peat flow rates of 1 ton/hr and analytical modeling efforts. The hydrogasification reactor testing was performed at peat flow rates of over 1000 lb/hr and reactor temperatures to 1900/sup 0/F in hydrogen atmospheres from 500 to 1000 psig. A simple analytical kinetic model was developed to predict total carbon conversion as a function of reactor operating variables and its agreement with experimental data was found to be excellent. Finally, preliminary process economics were established for three variations of the Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Flash Hydropyrolysis Process with the cost of high-Btu gas ranging from $3.43 to $4.06 per million Btu.

  3. Developments in triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. I. Distributed processing control system. II. Screening applications for fuel analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Myerholtz, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    A data acquisition and control system for a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer has been developed using several microprocessors in a distributed processing system. This system includes four processors, one acting as the system master controlling three slave processors. In such a distributed processing system each processor is assigned a specific task. Critical to this application is the allocation of the task of data acquisition, ion path control, and peak finding to separate slave processors. This modular approach leads to a system where each major section of the instrument has it's own dedicated intelligence. This parallel processing system allows operations that are often implemented in hardware (for speed considerations) to be performed in software. The use of triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, and MS/MS technique, to detect selected species in middle distillate fuels was examined. Collision-activated dissociation (CAD) spectra were obtained for reference compounds from several heteroatom-containing compound classes. The CAD results were used to select screening reactions for each compound class. The effectiveness of these screening reactions was demonstrated by identifying the presence of various species in samples of Jet A aviation fuel, a shale oil derived fuel and No. 2 diesel fuel.

  4. Membrane processes for gas separations: Part I. Removal of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from low-quality natural gas. Part II. Enrichment of krypton in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jibin

    1998-12-01

    I. The objective of this study was to determine the process design characteristics and economics of membrane separation processes for reducing the concentrations of H2S and CO2 in low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of the two acid gases to pipeline specifications ( ≤ 2 mole-% CO2 and ≤ 4 ppm H2S). The new processes considered the simultaneous use of two different types of polymer membranes for the above application, namely, one with higher CO2/CH4 selectivity and the other with higher H2S/CH4 selectivity. The performance and economics of membrane process configurations comprising one, two, and three permeation stages, with and without recycle streams, were examined and optimized via extensive computer simulations. Most computations assumed as a "base-case", the processing of a medium-size natural gas stream of 35 MMSCFD at 800 psia. The natural gas was taken to contain ≤ 10 mole-% H2S and ≤ 40 mole-% CO2. The most economical process configuration was two permeation stages in series, with H2S-selective membranes in the first stage and CO2-selective membranes in the second stage. The most economical process configurations for upgrading natural gas containing either only substantial amounts of H2S or of CO2 were also determined. The sensitivity of the process economics to feed flow rate, feed pressure, membrane module cost, and wellhead cost of natural gas was studied. A comparison of the processing cost of membrane processes with that of conventional gas absorption processes utilizing diethanolamine as solvent was also investigated. II. A membrane process for enrichment of Kr in air was studied experimentally as a technique of improving the accuracy of Kr analysis. "Asymmetric" silicone rubber membranes were found to be most suitable for this application. The study was investigated with a feed gas mixture containing 0.99 mole-% Kr, 20.70 mole-% O2, and 78.30 mole-% N2. The Kr concentration could be increased from 0.99 to 2.23 mole-% in a

  5. Use of a computerised decision aid (DA) to inform the decision process on adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II colorectal cancer: development and preliminary evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Miles, A; Chronakis, I; Fox, J; Mayer, A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To develop a computerised decision aid (DA) to inform the decision process on adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II colorectal cancer, and examine perceived usefulness, acceptability and areas for improvement of the DA. Design Mixed methods. Setting Single outpatient oncology department in central London. Participants Consecutive recruitment of 13 patients with stage II colorectal cancer, 12 of whom completed the study. Inclusion criteria were: age >18 years; complete resection for stage II adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum; patients within 14–56 days after surgery; no contraindication to adjuvant chemotherapy; able to give written informed consent. Exclusion criterion: previous chemotherapy. Primary outcomes Patient perceived usefulness (assessed by the PrepDM questionnaire) and acceptability of the DA. Results PrepDM scores, measuring the perceived usefulness of the DA in preparing the patient to communicate with their doctor and make a health decision, were above those reported in other patient groups. Patient acceptability scores were also high; however, interviews showed that there was evidence of a lack of understanding of key information among some patients, in particular their baseline risk of recurrence, the net benefit of combination chemotherapy and the rationale for having chemotherapy when cancer had apparently gone. Conclusions Patients found the DA acceptable and useful in supporting their decision about whether or not to have adjuvant chemotherapy. Suggested improvements for the DA include: sequential presentation of treatment options (eg, no treatment vs 1 drug, 1 drug vs 2 drugs) to enhance patient understanding of the difference between combination and single therapy, diagrams to help patients understand the rationale for chemotherapy to prevent a recurrence and inbuilt checks on patient understanding of baseline risk of recurrence and net benefit of chemotherapy. PMID:28341685

  6. Use of a computerised decision aid (DA) to inform the decision process on adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II colorectal cancer: development and preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Miles, A; Chronakis, I; Fox, J; Mayer, A

    2017-03-24

    To develop a computerised decision aid (DA) to inform the decision process on adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II colorectal cancer, and examine perceived usefulness, acceptability and areas for improvement of the DA. Mixed methods. Single outpatient oncology department in central London. Consecutive recruitment of 13 patients with stage II colorectal cancer, 12 of whom completed the study. Inclusion criteria were: age >18 years; complete resection for stage II adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum; patients within 14-56 days after surgery; no contraindication to adjuvant chemotherapy; able to give written informed consent. Exclusion criterion: previous chemotherapy. Patient perceived usefulness (assessed by the PrepDM questionnaire) and acceptability of the DA. PrepDM scores, measuring the perceived usefulness of the DA in preparing the patient to communicate with their doctor and make a health decision, were above those reported in other patient groups. Patient acceptability scores were also high; however, interviews showed that there was evidence of a lack of understanding of key information among some patients, in particular their baseline risk of recurrence, the net benefit of combination chemotherapy and the rationale for having chemotherapy when cancer had apparently gone. Patients found the DA acceptable and useful in supporting their decision about whether or not to have adjuvant chemotherapy. Suggested improvements for the DA include: sequential presentation of treatment options (eg, no treatment vs 1 drug, 1 drug vs 2 drugs) to enhance patient understanding of the difference between combination and single therapy, diagrams to help patients understand the rationale for chemotherapy to prevent a recurrence and inbuilt checks on patient understanding of baseline risk of recurrence and net benefit of chemotherapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Data requirements for EOR surfactant-polymer process simulation and analysis of El Dorado pilot-project simulation, Butler County, Kansas. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Claridge, E.L.; Lohse, A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of computer simulation of the El Dorado surfactant-polymer EOR pilot project, Butler County, Kansas indicated that conventional data from the project and other data in the public domain were not adequate for geologic, reservoir and process characterizations in a complex numerical simulation. As used by GURC in geologic characterization, and by INTERCOMP in process characterization and input into the CFTE simulator, the collective body of field and chemical data and related assumptions necessary for simulator input was not sufficient to predict how the chemical flood would behave in the Admire 650-foot sandstone reservoir. Based upon this study, a comprehensive body of data requirements for EOR simulation is defined in detail. Geologic characterization includes descriptors for rock, interwell and intrasystem correlations; reservoir characterization includes descriptors for fluid/rock, production, and flow rate properties; process characterization includes descriptors for chemical properties, interactions and functions. Reservoir heterogeneity is a principal problem in EOR simulation. It can be overcome within reasonable economic limits by successive orders of descriptors from: microscale (rock), achieved through borehole and core analyses; to macroscale (interwell), achieved through multiple borehole correlations; to megascale (intrasystem), achieved through extrapolation of rock and correlative well data into a generic depositional model that contains a description of internal mass properties within a given external morphology. Volume II contains appendices for: flow chart for surfactant-polymer process simulation; INTERCOMP reports to GURC describing the CFTE simulator program used in this study.

  8. A description of the ceramic waste form production process from the demonstration phase of the electrometallurical treatment of EBR-II spent fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M. F.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S. G.; Bateman, K. J.; Battisti, T. J.; Hirsche, K. L.; Frank, S. M.; Sinkler, W.; Moschetti, T. L.; O'Holleran, T. P.; Nuclear Technology

    2001-06-01

    The electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) process has been designed and developed for stabilizing sodium-bonded, metallic fuel into two high-level waste forms. This process has recently been successfully demonstrated with irradiated EBR-II fuel at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Part of the EMT process is to immobilize fission-product-bearing waste salt, which results from electrorefining, in a ceramic waste form-a glass-bonded sodalite. The sodalite is formed by hot isostatically pressing salt-loaded zeolite at temperatures up to 850 {sup o}C and pressures up to 100 MPa. The specific unit operations that comprise ceramic waste production include steps for salt grinding, zeolite drying, blending salt and zeolite and glass frit in a v-blender, and consolidating the powders in a hot isostatic press. The results of testing these unit operations with irradiated salt from the EMT demonstration are summarized and include some preliminary characterization of the final irradiated ceramic waste form created by this process.

  9. A Description of the Ceramic Waste Form Production Process from the Demonstration Phase of the Electrometallurgical Treatment of EBR-II Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Michael F.; Goff, K. Michael; Johnson, Stephen G.; Bateman, Kenneth J.; Battisti, Terry J.; Toews, Karen L.; Frank, Steven M.; Moschetti, Tanya L.; O'Holleran, Tom P.; Sinkler, Wharton

    2001-06-15

    The electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) process has been designed and developed for stabilizing sodium-bonded, metallic fuel into two high-level waste forms. This process has recently been successfully demonstrated with irradiated EBR-II fuel at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Part of the EMT process is to immobilize fission-product-bearing waste salt, which results from electrorefining, in a ceramic waste form - a glass-bonded sodalite. The sodalite is formed by hot isostatically pressing salt-loaded zeolite at temperatures up to 850 deg. C and pressures up to 100 MPa. The specific unit operations that comprise ceramic waste production include steps for salt grinding, zeolite drying, blending salt and zeolite and glass frit in a v-blender, and consolidating the powders in a hot isostatic press. The results of testing these unit operations with irradiated salt from the EMT demonstration are summarized and include some preliminary characterization of the final irradiated ceramic waste form created by this process.

  10. Pain medication management processes used by oncology outpatients and family caregivers part II: home and lifestyle contexts.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Karen L; Plano Clark, Vicki L; West, Claudia M; Dodd, Marylin J; Rabow, Michael W; Miaskowski, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Despite the increasing complexity of medication regimens for persistent cancer pain, little is known about how oncology outpatients and their family caregivers manage pain medications at home. To describe the day-to-day management of pain medications from the perspectives of oncology outpatients and their family caregivers who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention called the Pro-Self(©) Plus Pain Control Program. In this article, we focus on pain medication management in the context of highly individualized home environments and lifestyles. This qualitative study was conducted as part of a randomized clinical trial, in which an embedded mixed methods research design was used. Audio-recorded dialogue among patients, family caregivers, and intervention nurses was analyzed using qualitative research methods. Home and lifestyle contexts for managing pain medications included highly individualized home environments, work and recreational activities, personal routines, and family characteristics. Pain medication management processes particularly relevant in these contexts included understanding, organizing, storing, scheduling, remembering, and taking the medications. With the exception of their interactions with the intervention nurses, most study participants had little involvement with clinicians as they worked through these processes. Pain medication management is an ongoing multidimensional process, each step of which has to be mastered by patients and their family caregivers when cancer treatment and supportive care are provided on an outpatient basis. Realistic patient- and family-centered skill-building interventions are needed to achieve effective and safe pain medication management in the contexts of individual home environments and lifestyles. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The C-terminal domain of pol II and a DRB-sensitive kinase are required for 3′ processing of U2 snRNA

    PubMed Central

    Medlin, Joanne E.; Uguen, Patricia; Taylor, Alice; Bentley, David L.; Murphy, Shona

    2003-01-01

    The human snRNA genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II (e.g. U1 and U2) have a characteristic TATA-less promoter containing an essential proximal sequence element. Formation of the 3′ end of these non-polyadenylated RNAs requires a specialized 3′ box element whose function is promoter specific. Here we show that truncation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II and treatment of cells with CTD kinase inhibitors, including DRB (5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole), causes a dramatic reduction in proper 3′ end formation of U2 transcripts. Activation of 3′ box recognition by the phosphorylated CTD would be consistent with the role of phospho-CTD in mRNA processing. CTD kinase inhibitors, however, have little effect on initiation or elongation of transcription of the U2 genes, whereas elongation of transcription of the β-actin gene is severely affected. This result highlights differences in transcription of snRNA and mRNA genes. PMID:12574128

  12. New aqua N-heterocyclic carbene Ru(II) complexes with two-electron process as selective epoxidation catalysts: an evaluation of geometrical and electronic effects.

    PubMed

    Dakkach, Mohamed; Atlamsani, Ahmed; Parella, Teodor; Fontrodona, Xavier; Romero, Isabel; Rodríguez, Montserrat

    2013-05-06

    New ruthenium complexes with general formula [Ru(II)(T)(CN-Me)X](n+) (X = Cl(-) or H2O; T = 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine, trpy, or N,N-bis(2-pyridyl)ethylamine, bpea; CN-Me = N-methyl-N'-2-pyridylimidazolium) have been prepared. The complexes obtained have been characterized in solution by spectroscopic (1D- and 2D-NMR and UV-vis) techniques, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. The chloro complexes have also been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. The redox properties of all the compounds were studied by CV revealing, for the reported Ru-OH2 complexes, bielectronic Ru(IV/II) redox processes throughout a wide pH range. The catalytic activity of aquo complexes was evaluated in the epoxidation of olefins using PhIO as oxidant, displaying in general good yields and high selectivities for the epoxide product. The influence of electronic and geometrical factors on the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties as well as on the catalytic activity is discussed.

  13. Structural insights into the light-driven auto-assembly process of the water-oxidizing Mn4CaO5-cluster in photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miao; Bommer, Martin; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Hussein, Rana; Yano, Junko; Dau, Holger; Kern, Jan; Dobbek, Holger; Zouni, Athina

    2017-01-01

    In plants, algae and cyanobacteria, Photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes the light-driven splitting of water at a protein-bound Mn4CaO5-cluster, the water-oxidizing complex (WOC). In the photosynthetic organisms, the light-driven formation of the WOC from dissolved metal ions is a key process because it is essential in both initial activation and continuous repair of PSII. Structural information is required for understanding of this chaperone-free metal-cluster assembly. For the first time, we obtained a structure of PSII from Thermosynechococcus elongatus without the Mn4CaO5-cluster. Surprisingly, cluster-removal leaves the positions of all coordinating amino acid residues and most nearby water molecules largely unaffected, resulting in a pre-organized ligand shell for kinetically competent and error-free photo-assembly of the Mn4CaO5-cluster. First experiments initiating (i) partial disassembly and (ii) partial re-assembly after complete depletion of the Mn4CaO5-cluster agree with a specific bi-manganese cluster, likely a di-µ-oxo bridged pair of Mn(III) ions, as an assembly intermediate. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26933.001 PMID:28718766

  14. Collaborative Care for Patients With Severe Personality Disorders: Analyzing the Execution Process in a Pilot Study (Part II).

    PubMed

    Stringer, Barbara; van Meijel, Berno; Karman, Pieter; Koekkoek, Bauke; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2015-07-01

    To examine the factors that influence the effective execution of a collaborative care program (CCP) for patients with severe personality disorders. A multiple case study using qualitative research methods. Three factors were identified as influencing the execution process: (a) the context in which the CCP was executed, (b) the patient population, and (c) the individual application of the CCP by nurses. The prominent position of mental health nurses in complex intervention programs such as CCPs poses new challenges for them in making these programs work. A CCP could be a useful intervention for patients with severe personality disorders because it offers the necessary structure in treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Energy stability of thermocapillary convection in a model of the float-zone crystal-growth process. II - Nonaxisymmetric disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, G. P.; Law, C. C.; Jankowski, D. F.; Mittelmann, H. D.

    1991-01-01

    Energy-stability theory has been applied to investigate the stability properties of thermocapillary convection in a half-zone model of the float-zone crystal-growth process. An earlier axisymmetric model has been extended to permit nonaxisymmetric disturbances, thus determining sufficient conditions for stability to disturbances of arbitrary amplitude. The results for nonaxisymmetric disturbances are compared with earlier axisymmetric results, with linear-stability results for a geometry with an infinitely long aspect ratio and with stability boundaries from recent laboratory experiments.

  16. Challenges and Recent Developments in Hearing Aids: Part II. Feedback and Occlusion Effect Reduction Strategies, Laser Shell Manufacturing Processes, and Other Signal Processing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types of feedback (acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic) are discussed. The strategies currently used to reduce acoustic feedback (i.e., adaptive feedback reduction algorithms using adaptive gain reduction, notch filtering, and phase cancellation strategies) and the design of new receivers that are built to reduce mechanical and electromagnetic feedback are explained. In addition, various new strategies (i.e., redesigned sound delivery devices and receiver-in-the-ear-canal hearing aid configuration) to reduce the occlusion effect are reviewed. Many manufacturers have recently adopted laser shell-manufacturing technologies to overcome problems associated with manufacturing custom hearing aid shells. The mechanisms of selected laser sintering and stereo lithographic apparatus and the properties of custom shells produced by these two processes are reviewed. Further, various new developments in hearing aid transducers, telecoils, channel-free amplification, open-platform programming options, rechargeable hearing aids, ear-level frequency modulated (FM) receivers, wireless Bluetooth FM systems, and wireless programming options are briefly explained and discussed. Finally, the applications of advanced hearing aid technologies to enhance other devices such as cochlear implants, hearing protectors, and cellular phones are discussed. PMID:15735871

  17. Challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Part II. Feedback and occlusion effect reduction strategies, laser shell manufacturing processes, and other signal processing technologies.

    PubMed

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types of feedback (acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic) are discussed. The strategies currently used to reduce acoustic feedback (i.e., adaptive feedback reduction algorithms using adaptive gain reduction, notch filtering, and phase cancellation strategies) and the design of new receivers that are built to reduce mechanical and electromagnetic feedback are explained. In addition, various new strategies (i.e., redesigned sound delivery devices and receiver-in-the-ear-canal hearing aid configuration) to reduce the occlusion effect are reviewed. Many manufacturers have recently adopted laser shell-manufacturing technologies to overcome problems associated with manufacturing custom hearing aid shells. The mechanisms of selected laser sintering and stereo lithographic apparatus and the properties of custom shells produced by these two processes are reviewed. Further, various new developments in hearing aid transducers, telecoils, channel-free amplification, open-platform programming options, rechargeable hearing aids, ear-level frequency modulated (FM) receivers, wireless Bluetooth FM systems, and wireless programming options are briefly explained and discussed. Finally, the applications of advanced hearing aid technologies to enhance other devices such as cochlear implants, hearing protectors, and cellular phones are discussed.

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of the diffusion process of deuterium-labeled molecules in wood. Part II: hardwood.

    PubMed

    Tsuchikawa, Satoru; Siesler, H W

    2003-06-01

    Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) transmission spectroscopy was applied to monitor the diffusion process of deuterium-labeled molecules in hardwood (Beech). The results are compared with previous data obtained on softwood (Sitka spruce) in order to consistently understand the state of order in cellulose of wood. The saturation accessibility and diffusion rate varied characteristically with the OH groups in different states of order in the wood substance, the diffusants, and the wood species, respectively. The variation of saturation accessibility should be associated with the fundamental difference of the fine structure such as the microfibrils in the wood substance. The effect of the anatomical cellular structure on the accessibility was reflected in the variation of the diffusion rate with the wood species. The size effect of the diffusants also played an important role for the diffusion process in wood. Since the volumetric percentage of wood fibers and wood rays is relatively similar, the dichroic effects due to the anisotropy of the cellulose chains were apparently diminished. Finally, we proposed a new interpretation of the fine structure of the microfibrils in the cell wall by comparing a series of results from hardwood and softwood. Each elementary fibril in the hardwood has a more homogeneous arrangement in the microfibrils compared to that in the softwood.

  19. Boolean Modeling of Neural Systems with Point-Process Inputs and Outputs. Part II: Application to the Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zanos, Theodoros P.; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Samuel E.; Berger, Theodore W.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a pilot application of the Boolean–Volterra modeling methodology presented in the companion paper (Part I) that is suitable for the analysis of systems with point-process inputs and outputs (e.g., recordings of the activity of neuronal ensembles). This application seeks to discover the causal links between two neuronal ensembles in the hippocampus of a behaving rat. The experimental data come from multi-unit recordings in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus in the form of sequences of action potentials—treated mathematically as point-processes and computationally as spike-trains—that are collected in vivo during two behavioral tasks. The modeling objective is to identify and quantify the causal links among the neurons generating the recorded activity, using Boolean–Volterra models estimated directly from the data according to the methodological framework presented in the companion paper. The obtained models demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach using short data-records and provide some insights into the functional properties of the system (e.g., regarding the presence of rhythmic characteristics in the neuronal dynamics of these ensembles), making the proposed methodology an attractive tool for the analysis and modeling of multi-unit recordings from neuronal systems in a practical context. PMID:19499341

  20. Enzymatic saccharification of woody biomass micro/nanofibrillated by continuous extrusion process II: effect of hot-compressed water treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Inoue, Seiichi; Teramoto, Yoshikuni; Endo, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    An extrusion process involving a twin-screw extruder was used for the micro/nanofibrillation of Douglas fir and Eucalyptus treated with hot-compressed water (HCW). Partial removal of hemicellulose and lignin by HCW treatment effectively improved the fibrillation by extrusion. Only HCW treatment produced glucose less than 5 weight percent (wt.%) in Douglas fir in a temperature range of 140-180 degrees C by enzymatic hydrolysis. Glucose production yields of 18 and 26 wt.% were obtained by HCW treatment at 170 and 180 degrees C, respectively, in Eucalyptus. Use of extrusion after HCW treatment drastically improved monosaccharide production yield in both woods. In the case of Douglas fir, the obtained values were 5 times higher than those obtained by HCW treatment alone. Total monosaccharide production yields were higher in Eucalyptus than in Douglas fir. The extruded production had a fine fibrous morphology on a sub-micro/nanoscopic scale. This result shows the great potential of the extrusion process after HCW treatment as a cost-effective pretreatment for enzymatic saccharification of woody biomass.

  1. Fate and behaviour of copper and zinc in secondary biological wastewater treatment processes: II. Removal at varying sludge age.

    PubMed

    Santos, A; Barton, P; Cartmell, E; Coulon, F; Crane, R S; Hillis, P; Lester, J N; Stephenson, T; Judd, S J

    2010-06-01

    The mechanisms for the removal of heavy metals during secondary biological treatment of wastewater, with particular emphasis on the activated sludge process, are considered. It is concluded that the predominant mechanism is the entrapment and co-settlement of insoluble metal species in the mixed liquor (biomass). Secondary extracellular polymeric materials, particularly extracellular polysaccharides and other capsule-forming materials, may also play a role. In general, removal of both copper and zinc was superior at the higher sludge ages employed in this study, 4.3 and 8 days, and can in part be attributed to the superior removals of both biochemical oxygen demand and effluent suspended solids achieved at these sludge ages compared with the lowest sludge age studied, 3.6 days. For both copper and zinc there is an increase in soluble metal across the activated sludge process. However, significant removal of both metals occurs as a consequence of the removal of substantial amounts of insoluble metal. The presence of returned sludge liquors, high in settleable solids, to the mixed liquor appears to moderately enhance the percentage removal of copper and zinc. Membranes used in place of secondary sedimentation also enhance removal of both metals by reducing effluent suspended solids. It is concluded that there is potential for maximizing metal removal by optimization of secondary biological treatment in a sustainable manner, without recourse to energy-intensive or chemically-dependent tertiary treatment technologies.

  2. Multimodal processing of emotional information in 9-month-old infants II: prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety.

    PubMed

    Otte, R A; Donkers, F C L; Braeken, M A K A; Van den Bergh, B R H

    2015-04-01

    The ability to read emotional expressions from human face and voice is an important skill in our day-to-day interactions with others. How this ability develops may be influenced by atypical experiences early in life. Here, we investigated multimodal processing of fearful and happy face/voice pairs in 9-month-olds prenatally exposed to maternal anxiety, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Infants were presented with emotional vocalisations (happy/fearful) preceded by emotional facial expressions (happy/fearful). The results revealed larger P350 amplitudes in response to fearful vocalisations when infants had been exposed to higher levels of anxiety, regardless of the type of visual prime, which may indicate increased attention to fearful vocalisations. A trend for a positive association between P150 amplitudes and maternal anxiety scores during pregnancy may suggest these infants are more easily aroused by and extract features more thoroughly from fearful vocalisations as well. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety is related to more extensive processing of fear-related stimuli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. INCOG recommendations for management of cognition following traumatic brain injury, part II: attention and information processing speed.

    PubMed

    Ponsford, Jennie; Bayley, Mark; Wiseman-Hakes, Catherine; Togher, Leanne; Velikonja, Diana; McIntyre, Amanda; Janzen, Shannon; Tate, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, due to its diffuse nature and high frequency of injury to frontotemporal and midbrain reticular activating systems, may cause disruption in many aspects of attention: arousal, selective attention, speed of information processing, and strategic control of attention, including sustained attention, shifting and dividing of attention, and working memory. An international team of researchers and clinicians (known as INCOG) convened to develop recommendations for the management of attentional problems. The experts selected recommendations from published guidelines and then reviewed literature to ensure that recommendations were current. Decision algorithms incorporating the recommendations based on inclusion and exclusion criteria of published trials were developed. The team then prioritized recommendations for implementation and developed audit criteria to evaluate adherence to these best practices. The recommendations and discussion highlight that metacognitive strategy training focused on functional everyday activities is appropriate. Appropriate use of dual task training, environmental modifications, and cognitive behavioral therapy is also discussed. There is insufficient evidence to support mindfulness meditation and practice on de-contextualized computer-based tasks for attention. Administration of the medication methylphenidate should be considered to improve information-processing speed. The INCOG recommendations for rehabilitation of attention provide up-to-date guidance for clinicians treating people with traumatic brain injury.

  4. Gap-fill type HSQ/ZEP520A bilayer resist process-(II): HSQ island and spacer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Su; Gu, Pei-Yi; Kao, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Ming-Jinn

    2008-03-01

    Hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) bilayer resist (BLR) processes are attractive to obtain nano-sized features with high aspect ratio by dry-transferring thin e-beam pattern to thick underlayer to strengthen the etch resistance. However, there are drawbacks of high e-beam dosage for HSQ patterning and difficulty in controlling the underlayer resist profile by O2 plasma with anisotropic etching. In this study gap-fill type HSQ/ZEP520A BLR processes were studied to overcome these problems. The advantage of gap-fill type BLR processes is that the dosage for patterning on thick ZEP520A e-beam positive resist is not as high as that for HSQ and the resist profile can be tuned by exposure and development processes without depending on O2 plasma. By gap-filling of HSQ in ZEP520A trench patterns and then stripping ZEP520A by O2 plasma the tone is conversed from trench to line. The gap filling quality attributes include (1) the void size and number of HSQ lines and (2) spacer adhesion on HSQ line edge. Only the non-diluted HSQ solution could completely fill the trench and the HSQ line formed after stripping of ZEP520A. The spacer formed by diluted HSQ is found to be composed of oxide without any ZEP520A-related elements by FTIR analysis. The ZEP520A trench CD monotonically increases with decrease of W/L ratio. The HSQ line CD also follows the same trend. The extension of HSQ in ZEP520A, i.e. HSQ line CD minus ZEP520A trench CD, basically follows the reverse trend. It is therefore concluded that extension of HSQ lines in ZEP520A and HSQ spacers are formed from the diffused HSQ in trench sidewall without any reaction with ZEP520A. Voids were generally observed at the bottom of the HSQ line. Size and quantity of voids are larger for lower W/L ratios, indicating that the voids were formed due to insufficient HSQ volume for gap-filling. Increasing e-beam dose, baking or reflow temperature, and reflow of ZEP520A before HSQ coating could reduce the void formation. Multiple gap

  5. Forecasting and prevention of water inrush during the excavation process of a diversion tunnel at the Jinping II Hydropower Station, China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tian-Xing; Yang, Xing-Guo; Xing, Hui-Ge; Huang, Kang-Xin; Zhou, Jia-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Estimating groundwater inflow into a tunnel before and during the excavation process is an important task to ensure the safety and schedule during the underground construction process. Here we report a case of the forecasting and prevention of water inrush at the Jinping II Hydropower Station diversion tunnel groups during the excavation process. The diversion tunnel groups are located in mountains and valleys, and with high water pressure head. Three forecasting methods are used to predict the total water inflow of the #2 diversion tunnel. Furthermore, based on the accurate estimation of the water inrush around the tunnel working area, a theoretical method is presented to forecast the water inflow at the working area during the excavation process. The simulated results show that the total water flow is 1586.9, 1309.4 and 2070.2 m(3)/h using the Qshima method, Kostyakov method and Ochiai method, respectively. The Qshima method is the best one because it most closely matches the monitoring result. According to the huge water inflow into the #2 diversion tunnel, reasonable drainage measures are arranged to prevent the potential disaster of water inrush. The groundwater pressure head can be determined using the water flow velocity from the advancing holes; then, the groundwater pressure head can be used to predict the possible water inflow. The simulated results show that the groundwater pressure head and water inflow re stable and relatively small around the region of the intact rock mass, but there is a sudden change around the fault region with a large water inflow and groundwater pressure head. Different countermeasures are adopted to prevent water inrush disasters during the tunnel excavation process. Reasonable forecasting the characteristic parameters of water inrush is very useful for the formation of prevention and mitigation schemes during the tunnel excavation process.

  6. Fabrication of high-resolution 4,8(2) -type archimedean nanolattices composed of solution processable spin cross-over Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers.

    PubMed

    Venkataramudu, Uppari; Chandrasekhar, Naisa; Basak, Supratim; Prasad, Muvva D; Chandrasekar, Rajadurai

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of two highly soluble Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers with two counter anions from a novel back-to-back coupled hybrid ligand. The spin cross-over (SCO) temperature of polymers with BF4 and ClO4 counter anions is T1/2 = 313 K and T1/2 = 326 K, respectively. By following the top-down approach, one of the polymers (with ClO4 counter anion) is successfully solution processed using a lithographically controlled wetting technique to create laser readable high-resolution Archimedean (4,8(2) ) nanolattices (consist of diamagnetic octagons and SCO squares). The thickness and top area of each SCO square are ≈75 nm and ≈2 × 2 μm(2) , respectively.

  7. Fractionally distilled SRC-I, SRC-II, EDS, H-Coal and ITSL direct coal liquefaction process materials: a comparative summary of chemical analysis and biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.; Dauble, D.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-07-01

    This document reports and compares the results compiled from chemical analyses and biological testing of coal liquefaction process materials which were fractionally distilled, after production, into various comparable boiling-point range cuts. Comparative analyses were performed on solvent refined coal (SRC)-I, SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS an integrated two-stage liquefaction (ITSL) distillate materials. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative, chemical and biological assessments. Where possible, results obtained from the distillate cuts are compared to those from coal liquefaction materials with limited boiling ranges. Work reported here was conducted by investigators in the Biology and Chemistry Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, WA. 38 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  8. Development of remedial process options: Phase II, Feasibility study: Installation Restoration Program, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R.; Schlosser, R.M.

    1991-11-01

    This technical memorandum develops process options which are appropriate for environmental restoration activities at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada. Introduction of contaminants to the environment has resulted from deliberate disposal activities (both through dumping and landfilling) and accidental spills and leaks associated with normal activities at NAS Fallon over its lifetime of operation. Environmental sampling results indicate that the vast majority of contaminants of concern are petroleum hydrocarbon related. These contaminants include JP-4, JP-5, leaded and unleaded gasoline, waste oils and lubricants, hydraulic fluids, and numerous solvents and cleaners. The principal exposure pathways of concern associated with NAS Fallon contaminants appear to be the surface flows and shallow drainage systems to which the base contributes. Available data indicate NAS Fallon IR Program sites are not contributing excessive contamination to surface flows emanating from the base. Contaminants appear to be contained in a relatively immobile state in the shallow subsurface with little or no contaminant migration off site.

  9. Refining of Military Jet Fuels from Shale Oil. Part II. Volume III. Above Ground Shale Oil Process Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    including detailed product properties and material for further processing, as a function of hydrotreater catalyst and fraction- ator endpoint. -68- 7D-A120...70 897 775 451 833 CS-600 28.80 90 985 891 532 921 6004- 48.08 96 1017 987 603 980 Coke 13.88 UP 1020 1017 660 995 a- Based on the 600 OF point a...Temporature,0 1’ 1017 OAPI 25.1 31.2 38.5 21.7 Cat/Oil Ratio 10.29 Carbon, %w,, - - - - C on Ragan Cat,% 0.16 Hydrogen.%ow - - 12.45 11.32 Conversion, Wt

  10. Human vision, visual processing, and digital display II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Jose, CA, Feb. 27-Mar. 1, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rogowitz, B.E.; Brill, M.H.; Allebach, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to the quality of displayed information; perceptual processing of spatial and spatio-temporal images; model-based image coding, compression, and enhancement; biologically based machine vision; and machine and human color vision. Particular attention is given to image quality measurements with a neural brightness perception model, a new approach to palette selection for color images; subjective evaluation of scale-space image coding, detecting spatial and temporal dot patterns in noise, a network compensation for missing sensors, quantization of color image components in the DCT domain, model-based halftoning, a computational model of an integrated vision system, a vision-based artificial texture perception, mean-field stereo correspondence for natural images, photometric models in multispectral machine vision, and apparent contrast and surface color in complex scenes.

  11. Development of remedial process options: Phase II, Feasibility study: Installation Restoration Program, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R. ); Schlosser, R.M. )

    1991-11-01

    This technical memorandum develops process options which are appropriate for environmental restoration activities at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada. Introduction of contaminants to the environment has resulted from deliberate disposal activities (both through dumping and landfilling) and accidental spills and leaks associated with normal activities at NAS Fallon over its lifetime of operation. Environmental sampling results indicate that the vast majority of contaminants of concern are petroleum hydrocarbon related. These contaminants include JP-4, JP-5, leaded and unleaded gasoline, waste oils and lubricants, hydraulic fluids, and numerous solvents and cleaners. The principal exposure pathways of concern associated with NAS Fallon contaminants appear to be the surface flows and shallow drainage systems to which the base contributes. Available data indicate NAS Fallon IR Program sites are not contributing excessive contamination to surface flows emanating from the base. Contaminants appear to be contained in a relatively immobile state in the shallow subsurface with little or no contaminant migration off site.

  12. s-PROCESSING IN AGB STARS REVISITED. II. ENHANCED {sup 13}C PRODUCTION THROUGH MHD-INDUCED MIXING

    SciTech Connect

    Trippella, O.; Busso, M.; Palmerini, S.; Maiorca, E.; Nucci, M. C.

    2016-02-20

    Slow neutron captures are responsible for the production of about 50% of elements heavier than iron, mainly occurring during the asymptotic giant branch phase of low-mass stars (1 ≲ M/M{sub ⊙} ≲ 3), where the main neutron source is the {sup 13}C(α, n){sup 16}O reaction. This last reaction is activated from locally produced {sup 13}C, formed by partial mixing of hydrogen into the He-rich layers. We present here the first attempt to describe a physical mechanism for the formation of the {sup 13}C reservoir, studying the mass circulation induced by magnetic buoyancy without adding new free parameters to those already involved in stellar modeling. Our approach represents the application to the stellar layers relevant for s-processing of recent exact analytical 2D and 3D models for magneto-hydrodynamic processes at the base of convective envelopes in evolved stars in order to promote downflows of envelope material for mass conservation during the occurrence of a dredge-up phenomenon. We find that the proton penetration is characterized by small concentrations, but is extended over a large fractional mass of the He-layers, thus producing {sup 13}C reservoirs of several 10{sup −3} M{sub ⊙}. The ensuing {sup 13}C-enriched zone has an almost flat profile, while only a limited production of {sup 14}N occurs. In order to verify the effects of our new findings we show how the abundances of the main s-component nuclei can be accounted for in solar proportions and how our large {sup 13}C-reservoir allows us to solve a few so far unexplained features in the abundance distribution of post-AGB objects.

  13. s-Processing in AGB Stars Revisited. II. Enhanced 13C Production through MHD-induced Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippella, O.; Busso, M.; Palmerini, S.; Maiorca, E.; Nucci, M. C.

    2016-02-01

    Slow neutron captures are responsible for the production of about 50% of elements heavier than iron, mainly occurring during the asymptotic giant branch phase of low-mass stars (1 ≲ M/M⊙ ≲ 3), where the main neutron source is the 13C(α, n)16O reaction. This last reaction is activated from locally produced 13C, formed by partial mixing of hydrogen into the He-rich layers. We present here the first attempt to describe a physical mechanism for the formation of the 13C reservoir, studying the mass circulation induced by magnetic buoyancy without adding new free parameters to those already involved in stellar modeling. Our approach represents the application to the stellar layers relevant for s-processing of recent exact analytical 2D and 3D models for magneto-hydrodynamic processes at the base of convective envelopes in evolved stars in order to promote downflows of envelope material for mass conservation during the occurrence of a dredge-up phenomenon. We find that the proton penetration is characterized by small concentrations, but is extended over a large fractional mass of the He-layers, thus producing 13C reservoirs of several 10-3 M⊙. The ensuing 13C-enriched zone has an almost flat profile, while only a limited production of 14N occurs. In order to verify the effects of our new findings we show how the abundances of the main s-component nuclei can be accounted for in solar proportions and how our large 13C-reservoir allows us to solve a few so far unexplained features in the abundance distribution of post-AGB objects.

  14. Hot-spot model for accretion disc variability as random process. II. Mathematics of the power-spectrum break frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecháček, T.; Goosmann, R. W.; Karas, V.; Czerny, B.; Dovčiak, M.

    2013-08-01

    Context. We study some general properties of accretion disc variability in the context of stationary random processes. In particular, we are interested in mathematical constraints that can be imposed on the functional form of the Fourier power-spectrum density (PSD) that exhibits a multiply broken shape and several local maxima. Aims: We develop a methodology for determining the regions of the model parameter space that can in principle reproduce a PSD shape with a given number and position of local peaks and breaks of the PSD slope. Given the vast space of possible parameters, it is an important requirement that the method is fast in estimating the PSD shape for a given parameter set of the model. Methods: We generated and discuss the theoretical PSD profiles of a shot-noise-type random process with exponentially decaying flares. Then we determined conditions under which one, two, or more breaks or local maxima occur in the PSD. We calculated positions of these features and determined the changing slope of the model PSD. Furthermore, we considered the influence of the modulation by the orbital motion for a variability pattern assumed to result from an orbiting-spot model. Results: We suggest that our general methodology can be useful for describing non-monotonic PSD profiles (such as the trend seen, on different scales, in exemplary cases of the high-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 and the narrow-line Seyfert galaxy Ark 564). We adopt a model where these power spectra are reproduced as a superposition of several Lorentzians with varying amplitudes in the X-ray-band light curve. Our general approach can help in constraining the model parameters and in determining which parts of the parameter space are accessible under various circumstances.

  15. Simulations of light induced processes in water based on ab initio path integrals molecular dynamics. II. Photoionization.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Ondřej; Ončák, Milan; Slavíček, Petr

    2011-10-21

    We have applied ab initio based reflection principle to simulate photoelectron spectra of small water clusters, ranging from monomer to octamer. The role of quantum and thermal effects on the structure of the water photoelectron spectra is discussed within the ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) framework. We have used the PIMD method with up to 40 beads to sample the ground state quantum distribution at temperature T = 180 K. We have thoroughly tested the performance of various density functionals (B3LYP, BHandHLYP, M06HF, BNL, LC-ωPBE, and CAM-B3LYP) for the ionization process description. The benchmarking based on a comparison of simulated photoelectron spectra to experimental data and high level equation-of-motion ionization potential coupled clusters with singles and doubles calculations has singled out the BHandHLYP and LC-ωPBE functionals as the most reliable ones for simulations of light induced processes in water. The good performance of the density functional theory functionals to model the water photoelectron spectra also reflects their ability to reliably describe open shell excited states. The width of the photoelectron spectrum converges quickly with the cluster size as it is controlled by specific interactions of local character. The peak position is, on the other hand, defined by long-range non-specific solvent effects; it therefore only slowly converges to the corresponding bulk value. We are able to reproduce the experimental valence photoelectron spectrum of liquid water within the combined model of the water octamer embedded in a polarizable dielectric continuum. We demonstrate that including the long-range polarization and the state-specific treatment of the solvent response are needed for a reliable liquid water ionization description. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  16. Simulations of light induced processes in water based on ab initio path integrals molecular dynamics. II. Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, Ondřej; Ončák, Milan; Slavíček, Petr

    2011-10-01

    We have applied ab initio based reflection principle to simulate photoelectron spectra of small water clusters, ranging from monomer to octamer. The role of quantum and thermal effects on the structure of the water photoelectron spectra is discussed within the ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) framework. We have used the PIMD method with up to 40 beads to sample the ground state quantum distribution at temperature T = 180 K. We have thoroughly tested the performance of various density functionals (B3LYP, BHandHLYP, M06HF, BNL, LC-ωPBE, and CAM-B3LYP) for the ionization process description. The benchmarking based on a comparison of simulated photoelectron spectra to experimental data and high level equation-of-motion ionization potential coupled clusters with singles and doubles calculations has singled out the BHandHLYP and LC-ωPBE functionals as the most reliable ones for simulations of light induced processes in water. The good performance of the density functional theory functionals to model the water photoelectron spectra also reflects their ability to reliably describe open shell excited states. The width of the photoelectron spectrum converges quickly with the cluster size as it is controlled by specific interactions of local character. The peak position is, on the other hand, defined by long-range non-specific solvent effects; it therefore only slowly converges to the corresponding bulk value. We are able to reproduce the experimental valence photoelectron spectrum of liquid water within the combined model of the water octamer embedded in a polarizable dielectric continuum. We demonstrate that including the long-range polarization and the state-specific treatment of the solvent response are needed for a reliable liquid water ionization description.

  17. Minors' and Young Adults' Experiences of the Research Consent Process in a Phase II Safety Study of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV.

    PubMed

    Knopf, Amelia S; Ott, Mary A; Liu, Nancy; Kapogiannis, Bill G; Zimet, Gregory D; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Hosek, Sybil G

    2017-09-26

    There is a persistent HIV epidemic among sexual and gender minority adolescents in the U.S. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an efficacious prevention strategy, but not yet approved for minors. Minors' access to biomedical HIV prevention technologies is impeded by the ethical and legal complexities of consent to research participation. We explore autonomous consent and study experiences among minor and adult participants in Project PrEPare, a Phase II safety study of PrEP for HIV prevention. Data for this mixed-methods descriptive study were collected via self-administered web-survey and in-depth telephone interviews in early 2016. Eligible participants were previously enrolled in Project PrEPare. We attempted to contact 191 participants; 74 were reached and expressed interest in participating and 58 enrolled. Participants nearly universally felt well informed, understood the study, and freely volunteered with the clear understanding they could withdraw any time. All felt supported by study staff, but a small minority wished for more support during enrollment. Minors were more likely than adults to indicate a wish for more support in decision-making, and adults expressed higher satisfaction with their decision compared to minors. There was no association between elements of consent and Project PrEPare study outcomes. Participants had an overwhelmingly positive experience in a Phase II safety study of PrEP for HIV prevention. Some minors wished for more support during the decision-making process, but none consulted their parents about the decision. Our results support the inclusion of decisional supports in consent processes for adolescents, while also protecting their privacy. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reversal of type 1 diabetes by a new MHC II-peptide chimera: "Single-epitope-mediated suppression" to stabilize a polyclonal autoimmune T-cell process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Marvin; Stoica-Nazarov, Cristina; Surls, Jacqueline; Kehl, Margaret; Bona, Constantin; Olsen, Cara; Brumeanu, Teodor D; Casares, Sofia

    2010-08-01

    Polyclonality of self-reactive CD4(+) T cells is the hallmark of several autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes. We have previously reported that a soluble dimeric MHC II-peptide chimera prevents and reverses type 1 diabetes induced by a monoclonal diabetogenic T-cell population in double Tg mice [Casares, S. et al., Nat. Immunol. 2002. 3: 383-391]. Since most of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65)-specific CD4(+) T cells in the NOD mouse are tolerogenic but unable to function in an autoimmune environment, we have activated a silent, monoclonal T-regulatory cell population (GAD65(217-230)-specific CD4(+) T cells) using a soluble I-A(αβ) (g7)/GAD65(217-230)/Fcγ2a dimer, and measured the effect on the ongoing polyclonal diabetogenic T-cell process. Activated GAD65(217-230)-specific T cells and a fraction of the diabetogenic (B(9-23)-specific) T cells were polarized toward the IL-10-secreting T-regulatory type 1-like function in the pancreas of diabetic NOD mice. More importantly, this led to the reversal of hyperglycemia for more than 2 months post-therapy in 80% of mice in the context of stabilization of pancreatic insulitis and improved insulin secretion by the β cells. These findings argue for the stabilization of a polyclonal self-reactive T-cell process by a single epitope-mediated bystander suppression. Dimeric MHC class II-peptide chimeras-like approach may provide rational grounds for the development of more efficient antigen-specific therapies in type 1 diabetes.

  19. Chromium remediation or release? Effect of iron(II) sulfate addition on chromium(VI) leaching from columns of chromite ore processing residue.

    PubMed

    Geelhoed, Jeanine S; Meeussen, Johannes C L; Roe, Martin J; Hillier, Stephen; Thomas, Rhodri P; Farmer, John G; Paterson, Edward

    2003-07-15

    Chromite ore processing residue (COPR), derived from the so-called high lime processing of chromite ore, contains high levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) and has a pH between 11 and 12. Ferrous sulfate, which is used for remediation of Cr(VI) contamination in wastewater and soils via reduction to Cr(III) and subsequent precipitation of iron(III)/chromium(III) hydroxide, has also been proposed for remediation of Cr(VI) in COPR. Instead, however, addition of FeSO4 to the infiltrating solution in column experiments with COPR greatly increased leaching of Cr(VI). Leached Cr(VI) increased from 3.8 to 12.3 mmol kg(-1) COPR in 25 pore volumes with 20 mM FeSO4, reaching solution concentrations as high as 1.6 mM. Fe(II) was ineffective in reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III) because it precipitated when it entered the column due to the high pH of COPR, while Cr(VI) in solution was transported away with the infiltrating solution. The large increase in leaching of Cr(VI) upon infiltration of sulfate, either as FeSO4 or Na2SO4, was caused by anion exchange of sulfate for chromate in the layered double hydroxide mineral hydrocalumite, a process for which scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis provided direct evidence.

  20. [Legal issues of physician-assisted euthanasia. Part II--Help in the dying process, direct and indirect active euthanasia].

    PubMed

    Laux, Johannes; Röbel, Andreas; Parzeller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In Germany, physician-assisted euthanasia involves numerous risks for the attending physician under criminal and professional law. In the absence of clear legal provisions, four different categories of euthanasia have been developed in legal practice and the relevant literature: help in the dying process, direct active euthanasia, indirect active euthanasia and passive euthanasia. The so-called "help during the dying process" by administering medically indicated analgesic drugs without a life-shortening effect is exempt from punishment if it corresponds to the will of the patient. If the physician omits to give such analgesic drugs although the patient demands them, this is deemed a punishable act of bodily injury. The same applies if the physician administers analgesics against the will of the patient. Medically indicated pain treatment which has a potential or certain life-shortening effect (indirect active euthanasia) is permitted under certain conditions: if there are no alternative and equally suitable treatment options without the risk of shortening the patient's life, if the patient has given his consent to the treatment and if the physician does not act with the intention to kill. The deliberate killing of a dying or terminally ill patient for the purpose of ending his suffering (direct active euthanasia) is prohibited. This includes both deliberately killing a patient against or without his will (by so-called "angels of death") and the killing of a patient who expressly and earnestly demands such an act from his physician (killing on request/on demand). Physician-assisted suicide is generally not liable to punishment in Germany. Nevertheless, the action may be subject to punishment if the physician omits to rescue the life of an unconscious suicide victim. "Palliative sedation" is regarded as a special case. It may become necessary if certain symptoms in the terminal stage of a fatal disease unbearable for the patient cannot be controlled by any other

  1. C-terminal processing of reaction center protein D1 is essential for the function and assembly of photosystem II in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Che, Yufen; Fu, Aigen; Hou, Xin; McDonald, Kent; Buchanan, Bob B.; Huang, Weidong; Luan, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein D1 is synthesized as a precursor (pD1) with a short C-terminal extension. The pD1 is processed to mature D1 by carboxyl-terminal peptidase A to remove the C-terminal extension and form active protein. Here we report functional characterization of the Arabidopsis gene encoding D1 C-terminal processing enzyme (AtCtpA) in the chloroplast thylakoid lumen. Recombinant AtCtpA converted pD1 to mature D1 and a mutant lacking AtCtpA retained all D1 in precursor form, confirming that AtCtpA is solely responsible for processing. As with cyanobacterial ctpa, a knockout Arabidopsis atctpa mutant was lethal under normal growth conditions but was viable with sucrose under low-light conditions. Viable plants, however, showed deficiencies in PSII and thylakoid stacking. Surprisingly, unlike its cyanobacterial counterpart, the Arabidopsis mutant retained both monomer and dimer forms of the PSII complexes that, although nonfunctional, contained both the core and extrinsic subunits. This mutant was also essentially devoid of PSII supercomplexes, providing an unexpected link between D1 maturation and supercomplex assembly. A knock-down mutant expressing about 2% wild-type level of AtCtpA showed normal growth under low light but was stunted and accumulated pD1 under high light, indicative of delayed C-terminal processing. Although demonstrating the functional significance of C-terminal D1 processing in PSII biogenesis, our study reveals an unsuspected link between D1 maturation and PSII supercomplex assembly in land plants, opening an avenue for exploring the mechanism for the association of light-harvesting complexes with the PSII core complexes. PMID:24043802

  2. Analysis of heat-induced disassembly process of three different monomeric forms of the major light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajie; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Chunhong

    2012-03-01

    The temperature-dependent disassembly process of three monomeric isoforms, namely Lhcb1, Lhcb2, and Lhcb3, of the major light-harvesting chlorophyll (Chl) a/b complexes of photosystem II (LHCIIb) were characterized by observing the changes of absorption spectra, circular dichroism (CD), and dissociation processes of the bound pigments to the in vitro reconstituted complexes subjected to high temperatures. Our results suggest that the three isoforms of LHCIIb undergo conformational rearrangements, structural changes, and dissociations of the bound pigments when the ambient temperature increases from 20 to 90°C. The conformation of the complexes changed sensitively to the changing temperatures because the absorption peaks in the Soret region (436 and 471 nm) and the Qy region (650-660 and 680 nm) decreased immediately upon elevating the ambient temperatures. Analyzing temperature-dependent denaturing and pigment dissociation process, we can divide the disassembly process into three stages: The first stage, appeared from 20°C to around 50-60°C, was characterized by the diminishment of the absorption around 650-660 and 680 nm, accompanied by the blue-shift of the peak at 471 nm and disappearance of the absorbance at 436 nm, which is related to changes in the transition energy of the Chl b cluster, and the red-most Chl a cluster in the LHCIIb. The second stage, beginning at about 50-60°C, was signified by the diminishment of the CD signal between (+)483 nm and (-)490 nm, which implied the disturbance of dipole-dipole interaction of pigments, and the onset of the pigment dissociation. The last stage, beginning at about 70-80°C, indicates the complete dissociation of the pigments from the complex. The physiological aspects of the three stages in the denaturing process are also discussed.

  3. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (P<0.05) more longer chain (C≥10) fatty acids were present in the digesta of rats gavaged with raw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Entropy Budget of an Atmosphere in Radiative-Convective Equilibrium. Part II: Latent Heat Transport and Moist Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauluis, Olivier; Held, Isaac M.

    2002-01-01

    In moist convection, atmospheric motions transport water vapor from the earth's surface to the regions where condensation occurs. This transport is associated with three other aspects of convection: the latent heat transport, the expansion work performed by water vapor, and the irreversible entropy production due to diffusion of water vapor and phase changes. An analysis of the thermodynamic transformations of atmospheric water yields what is referred to as the entropy budget of the water substance, providing a quantitative relationship between these three aspects of moist convection. The water vapor transport can be viewed as an imperfect heat engine that produces less mechanical work than the corresponding Carnot cycle because of diffusion of water vapor and irreversible phase changes.The entropy budget of the water substance provides an alternative method of determining the irreversible entropy production due to phase changes and diffusion of water vapor. This method has the advantage that it does not require explicit knowledge of the relative humidity or of the molecular flux of water vapor for the estimation of the entropy production. Scaling arguments show that the expansion work of water vapor accounts for a small fraction of the work that would be produced in the absence of irreversible moist processes. It is also shown that diffusion of water vapor and irreversible phase changes can be interpreted as the irreversible counterpart to the continuous dehumidification resulting from condensation and precipitation. This leads to a description of moist convection where it acts more as an atmospheric dehumidifier than as a heat engine.

  5. Concurrent cognitive processes in rat serial pattern learning: II. Discrimination learning, rule learning, chunk length, and multiple-item memories.

    PubMed

    Muller, Melissa D; Fountain, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    The current experiment examined the factors that determine acquisition for elements of highly structured serial patterns. Three groups of rats were trained on three patterns with parallel rule-based hierarchical structure, but with 3-, 4-, or 5-element chunks, each with a final violation element. Once rats mastered their patterns, probe patterns were introduced to answer several questions. To assess the extent to which the learned response pattern depended on intrachamber location cues for anticipating different element types, Spatial Shift Probes shifted the starting lever of patterns to locations that positioned chunk boundaries where they had never been experienced during training. To assess the extent to which a phrasing cue is necessary for rats to perform a chunk-boundary response, a Cue Removal Probe tested whether rats would produce a chunk-boundary response in the correct serial position if the phrasing cue was omitted. To assess the extent to which cues from multiple trials leading up to the violation element are required to anticipate the violation element, Multiple-Item Memory Probes required rats to make an unexpected response on one of the elements in the last two chunks of the pattern prior to the violation element. The results indicated that rats used multiple concurrent learning and memory processes to master serial patterns, including discrimination learning, rule learning, encoding of chunk length, and multiple-item memories.

  6. Spark Plasma Sintering of Cryomilled Nanocrystalline Al Alloy - Part II: Influence of Processing Conditions on Densification and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongming; Xiong, Yuhong; Topping, Troy D.; Zhou, Yizhang; Haines, Chris; Paras, Joseph; Martin, Darold; Kapoor, Deepak; Schoenung, Julie M.; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, nanostructured Al 5083 powders, which were prepared via cryomilling, were consolidated using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The influence of processing conditions, e.g., the loading mode, starting microstructure ( i.e., atomized vs cryomilled powders), sintering pressure, sintering temperature, and powder particle size on the consolidation response and associated mechanical properties were studied. Additionally, the mechanisms that govern densification during SPS were discussed also. The results reported herein suggest that the morphology and microstructure of the cryomilled powder resulted in an enhanced densification rate compared with that of atomized powder. The pressure-loading mode had a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the samples consolidated by SPS. The consolidated compact revealed differences in mechanical response when tested along the SPS loading axis and radial directions. Higher sintering pressures improved both the strength and ductility of the samples. The influence of grain size on diffusion was considered on the basis of available diffusion equations, and the results show that densification was attributed primarily to a plastic flow mechanism during the loading pressure period. Once the final pressure was applied, power law creep became the dominant densification mechanism. Higher sintering temperature improved the ductility of the consolidated compact at the expense of strength, whereas samples sintered at lower temperature exhibited brittle behavior. Finally, densification rate was found to be inversely proportional to the particle size.

  7. [Oligonucleotide derivatives in the nucleic acid hybridization analysis. II. Isothermal signal amplification in process of DNA analysis by minisequencing].

    PubMed

    Dmitrienko, E V; Khomiakova, E A; Pyshnaia; Bragin, A G; Vedernikov, V E; Pyshnyĭ, D V

    2010-01-01

    The isothermal amplification of reporter signal via limited probe extension (minisequencing) upon hybridization of nucleic acids has been studied. The intensity of reporter signal has been shown to increase due to enzymatic labeling of multiple probes upon consecutive hybridization with one DNA template both in homophase and heterophase assays using various kinds of detection signal: radioisotope label, fluorescent label, and enzyme-linked assay. The kinetic scheme of the process has been proposed and kinetic parameters for each step have been determined. The signal intensity has been shown to correlate with physicochemical characteristics of both complexes: probe/DNA and product/DNA. The maximum intensity has been observed at minimal difference between the thermodynamic stability of these complexes, provided the reaction temperature has been adjusted near their melting temperature values; rising or lowering the reaction temperature reduces the amount of reporting product. The signal intensity has been shown to decrease significantly upon hybridization with the DNA template containing single-nucleotide mismatches. Limited probe extension assay is useful not only for detection of DNA template but also for its quantitative characterization.

  8. Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schrodt, J.T.

    1981-02-01

    Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

  9. Conductometric study of shear-dependent processes in red cell suspensions. II. Transient cross-stream hematocrit distribution.

    PubMed

    Pribush, A; Meyerstein, D; Meiselman, H J; Meyerstein, N

    2004-01-01

    A novel experimental approach based on electrical properties of red blood cell (RBC) suspensions was applied to study the effects of the size and morphology of RBC aggregates on the transient cross-stream hematocrit distribution in suspensions flowing through a square cross-section flow channel. The information about the effective size of RBC aggregates and their morphology is extracted from the capacitance (C) and conductance (G) recorded during RBC aggregation, whereas a slower process of particle migration is manifested by delayed long-term changes in the conductance. Migration-induced changes in the conductance measured at low shear rates (< or =3.1 s(-1)) for suspensions of RBCs in a strongly aggregating medium reveal an increase to a maximum followed by a decrease to the stationary level. The ascending branch of G(t) curves reflects the aggregate migration in the direction of decreasing shear rate. A further RBC aggregation in the region of lower shear stresses leads to the formation of RBC networks and results in the transformation of the rheological behavior of suspensions from the thinning to the thickening. It is suggested that the descending branches of the G(t) curves recorded at low shear rates reflect an adjustment of the Hct distribution to a new state caused by a partial dispersion of RBC networks. For suspensions of non-aggregating RBCs it is found that depending on whether the shear rate is higher or lower compared with the prior value, individual RBCs migrate either toward the centerline of the flow or in the opposite direction.

  10. Development of a Commercial Process for the Production of Silicon Carbide Fibrils - Draft Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, RD

    2002-10-24

    The current work continues a project completed in 1999 by ReMaxCo Technologies in which a novel, microwave based, VLS Silicon Carbide Fibrils concept was verified. This project continues the process development of a pilot scale commercial reactor. Success will lead to sufficient quantities of fibrils to expand work by ORNL and others on heat exchanger tube development. A semi-continuous, microwave heated, vacuum reactor was designed, fabricated and tested in these experiments. Cylindrical aluminum oxide reaction boats are coated, on the inner surface, with a catalyst and placed into the reactor under a light vacuum. A series of reaction boats are then moved, one at a time, through the reactor. Each boat is first preheated with resistance heaters to 850 C to 900 C. Each reaction boat is then moved, in turn, to the microwave heated section. The catalyst is heated to the required temperature of 1200 C to 1300 C while a mixture of MTS (methyl trichlorosilane) and hydrogen are introduced into the annulus of the boat. The MTS is dissociated to allow the carbon and silicon components to be dissolved into the catalyst. The catalyst saturates and precipitates silicon carbide onto the surface of the reaction boat to grow the Fibrils. The reaction continues as long as the MTS is introduced into the reactor. The major obstacle that had to be overcome during this project was the performance of the reactor. The original design of the reactor focused the microwaves in such a manner that they missed the catalyst/Fibrils growth zone. The microwaves did react with the insulation and the reactor was heated by heating the insulation. Modifications were made to the reactor to focus the microwaves on the catalyst. SiC Fibrils were produced using both MTS and Starfire SP4000 as feed-gas precursors. Both precursors produced fibrils at temperatures of less than 1000 C. The new Starfire SP4000 produced fibrils as low as 800 C, without the use of hydrogen and without producing the hazardous

  11. Surface states characterization and simulation of Type-II In(Ga)Sb quantum dot structures for processing optimization of LWIR detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Rajabi, Mina; Karim, Amir; Almqvist, Susanne; Bakowski, Mietek; Savage, Susan; Andersson, Jan Y.; Göthelid, Mats; Yu, Shun; Gustafsson, Oscar; Hammar, Mattias; Asplund, Carl

    2013-06-01

    Quantum structures base on type-II In(Ga)Sb quantum dots (QDs) embedded in an InAs matrix were used as active material for achieving long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) photodetectors in this work. Both InAs and In(Ga)Sb are narrow band semiconductor materials and known to possess a large number of surface states, which apparently play significant impact for the detector's electrical and optical performance. These surface states are caused not only by material or device processing induced defects but also by surface dangling bonds, oxides, roughness and contaminants. To experimentally analyze the surface states of the QD structures treated by different device fabrication steps, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were performed. The results were used to optimize the fabrication process of the LWIR photodetectors in our ongoing project. The dark current and its temperature dependence of the fabricated IR photodetectors were characterized in temperature range 10 K to 300 K, and the experiment results were analyzed by a theoretic modeling obtained using simulation tool MEDICI.

  12. Concerted One-Electron Two-Proton Transfer Processes in Models Inspired by the Tyr-His Couple of Photosystem II

    DOE PAGES

    Huynh, Mioy T.; Mora, S. Jimena; Villalba, Matias; ...

    2017-05-09

    Nature employs a TyrZ-His pair as a redox relay that couples proton transfer to the redox process between P680 and the water oxidizing catalyst in photosystem II. Artificial redox relays composed of different benzimidazole–phenol dyads (benzimidazole models His and phenol models Tyr) with substituents designed to simulate the hydrogen bond network surrounding the TyrZ-His pair have been prepared. Furthermore, when the benzimidazole substituents are strong proton acceptors such as primary or tertiary amines, theory predicts that a concerted two proton transfer process associated with the electrochemical oxidation of the phenol will take place. Furthermore, theory predicts a decrease in themore » redox potential of the phenol by ~300 mV and a small kinetic isotope effect (KIE). Indeed, electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical, and KIE experimental data are consistent with these predictions. Our results were obtained by using theory to guide the rational design of artificial systems and have implications for managing proton activity to optimize efficiency at energy conversion sites involving water oxidation and reduction.« less

  13. Resonance energy transfer and competing processes in donor-acceptor of sodium zinc (II)-2,9,16,23-phthalocyanine tetracarboxylate molecule.

    PubMed

    Al-Omari, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    An important issue that should be taken into consideration when applying the molecules in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer is the occurrence of homo-resonance energy transfer process between them. We have determined the probability of energy transfer for sodium zinc (II)-2,9,16,23-phthalocyanine tetracarboxylate (ZnPc(COONa)4) molecules in aqueous NaOH solution. The homo-quenching effect of the molecule was also measured by calculating the diffusion controlled bimolecular rate constant of k q = 6.5 × 10(9) M(-1)s(-1), which did not show a significant competition with the rate constant of homo-resonance energy transfer process at the applied concentration of the molecules (6 μM). The Förster radius (R  0) for ZnPc(COONa)4 molecules was calculated to be 42 Å. The availability of these calculations should facilitate the potential application of ZnPc(COONa)4 molecule as an anticancer drug in PDT.

  14. Phase II-inducing, polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of corn (Zea mays L.) from phenotypes of white, blue, red and purple colors processed into masa and tortillas.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Martinez, Leticia X; Parkin, Kirk L; Garcia, Hugo S

    2011-03-01

    White, blue, red and purple corns (Zea mays L.) were lime-cooked to obtain masa for tortillas. The total phenolics and anthocyanins content, antioxidant activity expressed as total reducing power (TRP), peroxyl radical bleaching (PRAC), total antioxidant activity (TAA) and quinone reductase (QR) induction in the murine hepatoma (Hepa 1 c1c7 cell line) as a biological marker for phase II detoxification enzymes were investigated. Among the extracts prepared from raw corn varieties the highest concentration of total phenolics, anthocyanins, antioxidant index and induction of QR-inducing activity were found in the Veracruz 42 (Ver 42) genotype. The nixtamalization process (masa) reduced total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant activities and the ability for QR induction when was compared to raw grain. Processing masa into tortillas also negatively affected total phenolics, anthocyanin concentration, antioxidant activities, and QR induction in the colored corn varieties. The blue variety and its corresponding masa and tortillas did not induce QR. Ver 42 genotype and their products (masa and tortilla) showed the greatest antioxidant activity and capacity to induce QR.

  15. Copper(II)-mediated thermolysis of alginates: a model kinetic study on the influence of metal ions in the thermochemical processing of macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    Rowbotham, J. S.; Dyer, P. W.; Greenwell, H. C.; Selby, D.; Theodorou, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Thermochemical processing methods such as pyrolysis are of growing interest as a means of converting biomass into fuels and commodity chemicals in a sustainable manner. Macroalgae, or seaweed, represent a novel class of feedstock for pyrolysis that, owing to the nature of the environments in which they grow coupled with their biochemistry, naturally possess high metal contents. Although the impact of metals upon the pyrolysis of terrestrial biomass is well documented, their influence on the thermochemical conversion of marine-derived feeds is largely unknown. Furthermore, these effects are inherently difficult to study, owing to the heterogeneous character of natural seaweed samples. The work described in this paper uses copper(II) alginate, together with alginic acid and sodium alginate as model compounds for exploring the effects of metals upon macroalgae thermolysis. A thermogravimetric analysis–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study revealed that, unusually, Cu2+ ions promote the onset of pyrolysis in the alginate polymer, with copper(II) alginate initiating rapid devolatilization at 143°C, 14°C lower than alginic acid and 61°C below the equivalent point for sodium alginate. Moreover, this effect was mirrored in a sample of wild Laminaria digitata that had been doped with Cu2+ ions prior to pyrolysis, thus validating the use of alginates as model compounds with which to study the thermolysis of macroalgae. These observations indicate the varying impact of different metal species on thermochemical behaviour of seaweeds and offer an insight into the pyrolysis of brown macroalgae used in phytoremediation of metal-containing waste streams. PMID:24427515

  16. Copper(II)-mediated thermolysis of alginates: a model kinetic study on the influence of metal ions in the thermochemical processing of macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, J S; Dyer, P W; Greenwell, H C; Selby, D; Theodorou, M K

    2013-02-06

    Thermochemical processing methods such as pyrolysis are of growing interest as a means of converting biomass into fuels and commodity chemicals in a sustainable manner. Macroalgae, or seaweed, represent a novel class of feedstock for pyrolysis that, owing to the nature of the environments in which they grow coupled with their biochemistry, naturally possess high metal contents. Although the impact of metals upon the pyrolysis of terrestrial biomass is well documented, their influence on the thermochemical conversion of marine-derived feeds is largely unknown. Furthermore, these effects are inherently difficult to study, owing to the heterogeneous character of natural seaweed samples. The work described in this paper uses copper(II) alginate, together with alginic acid and sodium alginate as model compounds for exploring the effects of metals upon macroalgae thermolysis. A thermogravimetric analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study revealed that, unusually, Cu(2+) ions promote the onset of pyrolysis in the alginate polymer, with copper(II) alginate initiating rapid devolatilization at 143°C, 14°C lower than alginic acid and 61°C below the equivalent point for sodium alginate. Moreover, this effect was mirrored in a sample of wild Laminaria digitata that had been doped with Cu(2+) ions prior to pyrolysis, thus validating the use of alginates as model compounds with which to study the thermolysis of macroalgae. These observations indicate the varying impact of different metal species on thermochemical behaviour of seaweeds and offer an insight into the pyrolysis of brown macroalgae used in phytoremediation of metal-containing waste streams.

  17. What Controls the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol? Relationships Between Process Sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and Inter-Model Variation from AeroCom Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kipling, Zak; Stier, Philip; Johnson, Colin E.; Mann, Graham W.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bergman, Tommi; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors in one particular model, we investigate the effects of individual processes in HadGEM3-UKCA and compare the resulting diversity of aerosol vertical profiles with the inter-model diversity from the AeroCom Phase II control experiment. In this way we show that (in this model at least) the vertical profile is controlled by a relatively small number of processes, although these vary among aerosol components and particle sizes. We also show that sufficiently coarse variations in these processes can produce a similar diversity to that among different models in terms of the global-mean profile and, to a lesser extent, the zonal-mean vertical position. However, there are features of certain models' profiles that cannot be reproduced, suggesting the influence of further structural differences between models. In HadGEM3-UKCA, convective transport is found to be very important in controlling the vertical profile of all aerosol components by mass. In-cloud scavenging is very important for all except mineral dust. Growth by condensation is important for sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol (along with aqueous oxidation for the former and ageing by soluble material for the latter). The vertical extent of biomass-burning emissions into the free troposphere is also important for the profile of carbonaceous aerosol. Boundary-layer mixing plays a dominant role for sea salt and mineral dust, which are emitted only from the surface. Dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are important for the profile of mineral dust only. In this model, the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation and coagulation dominate the vertical profile of the smallest particles by number (e.g. total CN >3 nm), while the profiles of larger particles (e.g. CN>100 nm) are controlled by the

  18. What controls the vertical distribution of aerosol? Relationships between process sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and inter-model variation from AeroCom Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipling, Zak; Stier, Philip; Johnson, Colin E.; Mann, Graham W.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bergman, Tommi; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevåg, Alf; Kokkola, Harri; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Gan; van Noije, Twan; Pringle, Kirsty J.; von Salzen, Knut; Schulz, Michael; Seland, Øyvind; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

    2016-02-01

    The vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors in one particular model, we investigate the effects of individual processes in HadGEM3-UKCA and compare the resulting diversity of aerosol vertical profiles with the inter-model diversity from the AeroCom Phase II control experiment. In this way we show that (in this model at least) the vertical profile is controlled by a relatively small number of processes, although these vary among aerosol components and particle sizes. We also show that sufficiently coarse variations in these processes can produce a similar diversity to that among different models in terms of the global-mean profile and, to a lesser extent, the zonal-mean vertical position. However, there are features of certain models' profiles that cannot be reproduced, suggesting the influence of further structural differences between models. In HadGEM3-UKCA, convective transport is found to be very important in controlling the vertical profile of all aerosol components by mass. In-cloud scavenging is very important for all except mineral dust. Growth by condensation is important for sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol (along with aqueous oxidation for the former and ageing by soluble material for the latter). The vertical extent of biomass-burning emissions into the free troposphere is also important for the profile of carbonaceous aerosol. Boundary-layer mixing plays a dominant role for sea salt and mineral dust, which are emitted only from the surface. Dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are important for the profile of mineral dust only. In this model, the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation and coagulation dominate the vertical profile of the smallest particles by number (e.g. total CN > 3 nm), while the profiles of larger particles (e.g. CN > 100 nm) are controlled by the

  19. What Controls the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol? Relationships Between Process Sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and Inter-Model Variation from AeroCom Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kipling, Zak; Stier, Philip; Johnson, Colin E.; Mann, Graham W.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bergman, Tommi; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven J.; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    The vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors in one particular model, we investigate the effects of individual processes in HadGEM3-UKCA and compare the resulting diversity of aerosol vertical profiles with the inter-model diversity from the AeroCom Phase II control experiment. In this way we show that (in this model at least) the vertical profile is controlled by a relatively small number of processes, although these vary among aerosol components and particle sizes. We also show that sufficiently coarse variations in these processes can produce a similar diversity to that among different models in terms of the global-mean profile and, to a lesser extent, the zonal-mean vertical position. However, there are features of certain models' profiles that cannot be reproduced, suggesting the influence of further structural differences between models. In HadGEM3-UKCA, convective transport is found to be very important in controlling the vertical profile of all aerosol components by mass. In-cloud scavenging is very important for all except mineral dust. Growth by condensation is important for sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol (along with aqueous oxidation for the former and ageing by soluble material for the latter). The vertical extent of biomass-burning emissions into the free troposphere is also important for the profile of carbonaceous aerosol. Boundary-layer mixing plays a dominant role for sea salt and mineral dust, which are emitted only from the surface. Dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are important for the profile of mineral dust only. In this model, the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation and coagulation dominate the vertical profile of the smallest particles by number (e.g. total CN >3 nm), while the profiles of larger particles (e.g. CN>100 nm) are controlled by the

  20. What controls the vertical distribution of aerosol? Relationships between process sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and inter-model variation from AeroCom Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipling, Z.; Stier, P.; Johnson, C. E.; Mann, G. W.; Bellouin, N.; Bauer, S. E.; Bergman, T.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Kokkola, H.; Liu, X.; Luo, G.; van Noije, T.; Pringle, K. J.; von Salzen, K.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Zhang, K.

    2015-09-01

    The vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors, we investigate the effects of individual processes in one particular model (HadGEM3-UKCA), and compare the resulting diversity of aerosol vertical profiles with the inter-model diversity from the AeroCom Phase II control experiment. In this way we show that (in this model at least) the vertical profile is controlled by a relatively small number of processes, although these vary among aerosol components and particle sizes. We also show that sufficiently coarse variations in these processes can produce a similar diversity to that among different models in terms of the global mean profile and zonal-mean vertical position. However, there are features of certain models' profiles that cannot be reproduced, suggesting the influence of further structural differences between models. Convective transport is found to be very important in controlling the vertical profile of all aerosol components by mass. In-cloud scavenging is very important for all except mineral dust. Growth by condensation is important for sulphate and carbonaceous aerosol (along with aqueous oxidation for the former and ageing by soluble material for the latter). The vertical extent of biomass-burning emissions into the free troposphere is also important for the profile of carbonaceous aerosol. Boundary-layer mixing plays a dominant role for sea-salt and mineral dust, which are emitted only from the surface. Dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are important for the profile of mineral dust only. In this model, the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation and coagulation dominate the vertical profile of the smallest particles by number, while the profiles of larger particles are controlled by the same processes as the component mass profiles, plus the size distribution of

  1. A Microstructure Evolution Model for the Processing of Single-Crystal Alloy CMSX-4 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair (Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Bansal, Rohan; Gambone, Justin J.; Das, Suman

    2014-12-01

    Part I [Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2014, DOI:10.1007/s11663-014-0117-9] presented a comprehensive thermal, fluid flow, and solidification model that can predict the temperature distribution and flow characteristics for the processing of CMSX-4 alloy powder through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE). SLE is an additive manufacturing technology aimed at the creation of equiaxed, directionally solidified and single-crystal (SX) deposits of nickel-based superalloys using a fast-scanning laser beam. Part II here further explores the Marangoni convection-based model to predict the solidification microstructure as a function of the conditions at the trailing edge of the melt pool formed during the SLE process. Empirical values for several microstructural characteristics such as the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) criterion and the oriented-to-misoriented transition (OMT) criterion are obtained. Optical microscopy provides visual information on the various microstructural characteristics of the deposited material such as melt depth, CET location, OMT location, PDAS, etc. A quantitative and consistent investigation of this complex set of characteristics is both challenging and unprecedented. A customized image-analysis technique based on active contouring is developed to automatically extract these data from experimental micrographs. Quantitative metallography verifies that even for the raster scan pattern in SLE and the corresponding line heat source assumption, the PDAS follows the growth relation w ~ G -0.5 V -0.25 ( w = PDAS, G = temperature gradient and V = solidification velocity) developed for marginal stability under constrained growth. Models for the CET and OMT are experimentally validated, thereby providing powerful predictive capabilities for controlling the microstructure of SX alloys processed through SLE.

  2. Expression of cyclin D{sub 1} during endotoxin-induced aleveolar type II cell hyperplasia in rat lung and the detection of apoptotic cells during the remodeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Wood, M.B.; Johnson, N.F.

    1995-12-01

    Our studies have shown that endotoxin intratracheally instilled into the rat lung induces proliferation of alveolar type II cells. In that study, the alveolar type II cells. In that study, the alveolar type II cell hyperplasia occurred 2 d after instillation of endotoxin and persisted for a further 2 d. After hyperplasia, the lung remodeled and returned to a normal state within 24-48 h. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the remodeling process of this transient hyperplasia may be useful to identify molecular changes that are altered in neoplasia. The purpose of the present study was to corroborate induction of epithelial cell hyperplasia by endotoxin and to delineate mechanisms involved in tissue remodeling after endotoxin-induced alveolar type II cell hyperplasia. In conclusion, immonostaining with cyclin D1 and cytokeratin shows that endotoxin induced epithelial cell proliferation and resulted in hyperplasia in the lung which persisted through 4 d post-instillation.

  3. A study of separation and solidification of group II nuclides in waste salt delivered from the pyrochemical process of used nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, H. C.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, N. Y.; Lee, T. K.; Han, S. Y.; Jang, S. A.; Kim, T. J.; Park, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.

    2017-08-01

    If group II nuclides, which contain high heat-generative elements, in waste salt are fabricated into a waste form rich in group II nuclides, the waste form can be used in radionuclide thermoelectric generator applications. For this reason, the separation of group II nuclides in salt (LiCl, LiCl-KCl) was conducted, after which a waste form rich in them was fabricated. In this study, group II nuclide chlorides in salt were effectively separated into a carbonate or oxychloride form, and the separated nuclides were successfully fabricated into a homogenous and stable glass waste form with high contents (45-50 wt%) of these nuclides.

  4. Probing the many energy-transfer processes in the photosynthetic light-harvesting complex II at 77 K using energy-selective sub-picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, H. M.; Kleima, F. J.; van Stokkum, I. H. M.; van Grondelle, R.; van Amerongen, H.

    1996-10-01

    The dynamics of energy equilibration in the main plant light-harvesting complex, LHCII, at a temperature of 77 K was probed using sub-picosecond excitation pulses at 649, 661, 672 and 682 nm and detection of the resulting difference absorption spectra from 630 to 700 nm. We find three distinct chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a (Chl a) transfer times, of < 0.3, 0.6 and 4-9 ps, respectively. From a comparison of the amplitudes of the bleaching signal, a plausible scheme for the Chl b to Chl a transfer in the LHCII complex is proposed. Two Chl b molecules transfer energy to Chl a in less than 0.3 ps, two Chl b molecules transfer with 0.6 ps and one Chl b has a transfer time of 4-9 ps. In the Chl a absorption region, a 2.4 ps energy-transfer process from a pigment absorbing around 661 nm, and a 0.4 ps process from a pigment absorbing around 672 nm is found. Furthermore, evidence is found for slow, 10-20 ps energy-transfer processes between some of the Chl a molecules. The data are compared to model calculations using the 3.4 Å LHCII monomer structure (containing 5 Chl b and 7 Chl a molecules) and Förster energy transfer. We conclude that the observed energy-transfer rates are consistent with both the preliminary assignment of the Chl identities ( a or b) of Kühlbrandt et al. and a recent proposal for the arrangement of some of the transition dipole moments (Gülen et al.). Singlet-singlet and singlet-triplet annihilation processes are observed in two different experiments, and both these processes occur with time constants of 2-3 and 12-20 ps, suggesting that both annihilation pathways are at least partly limited by slow energy transfer. The wide range of observed time constants in the equilibration, from < 0.3 to ˜ 20 ps, most likely reflects the irregular arrangement of the pigments in the complex, which shows much less symmetry than the recently obtained structure of the peripheral antenna complex of purple bacteria, LH-II (McDermott et al.).

  5. Understanding of regional air pollution over China using CMAQ, part II. Process analysis and sensitivity of ozone and particulate matter to precursor emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Huan; Zhang, Yang; Xing, Jia; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Kai; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey; Wang, Wen-Xing; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2010-09-01

    Following model evaluation in part I, this part II paper focuses on the process analysis and chemical regime analysis for the formation of ozone (O 3) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 μm (PM 10) in China. The process analysis results show that horizontal transport is the main contributor to the accumulation of O 3 in Jan., Apr., and Oct., and gas-phase chemistry and vertical transport contribute to the production and accumulation of O 3 in Jul. Removal pathways of O 3 include vertical and horizontal transport, gas-phase chemistry, and cloud processes, depending on locations and seasons. PM 10 is mainly produced by primary emissions and aerosol processes and removed by horizontal transport. Cloud processes could either decrease or increase PM 10 concentrations, depending on locations and seasons. Among all indicators examined, the ratio of P/PO provides the most robust indicator for O 3 chemistry, indicating a VOC-limited O 3 chemistry over most of the eastern China in Jan., NO x-limited in Jul., and either VOC- or NO x-limited in Apr. and Oct. O 3 chemistry is NO x-limited in most central and western China and VOC-limited in major cities throughout the year. The adjusted gas ratio, AdjGR, indicates that PM formation in the eastern China is most sensitive to the emissions of SO 2 and may be more sensitive to emission reductions in NO x than in NH 3. These results are fairly consistent with the responses of O 3 and PM 2.5 to the reductions of their precursor emissions predicted from sensitivity simulations. A 50% reduction of NO x or AVOC emissions leads to a reduction of O 3 over the eastern China. Unlike the reduction of emissions of SO 2, NO x, and NH 3 that leads to a decrease in PM 10, a 50% reduction of AVOC emissions increases PM 10 levels. Such results indicate the complexity of O 3 and PM chemistry and a need for an integrated, region-specific emission control strategy with seasonal variations to effectively control

  6. Photobilirubin II.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, R; Buckley, D G; Hamzetash, D; Hawkes, G E; Ioannou, S; Stoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    An improved preparation of photobilirubin II in ammoniacal methanol is described. Evidence is presented which distinguishes between the two structures proposed earlier for photobilirubin II in favour of the cycloheptadienyl structure. Nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement measurements with bilirubin IX alpha and photobilirubin II in dimethyl sulphoxide are complicated by the occurrence of negative and zero effects. The partition coefficient of photobilirubin II between chloroform and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) is 0.67. PMID:6743241

  7. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    SAGE II Data and Information The goals of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment ( SAGE ) II are to determine the spatial distributions of stratospheric ... profiles and calculating monthly averages of each. The SAGE II sensor (a Sun Photometer) was launched into a 57-degree inclination ...

  8. Current theories of neuronal information processing performed by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with support and insights from computer modelling and simulation.

    PubMed

    Coomber, C

    1998-01-01

    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is concentrated in brain, and is particularly enriched in synaptic structures where it comprises 20-50% of all proteins. The abundant nature of CaMKII and its ability to phosphorylate a wide range of substrate proteins, including itself, earmarks it as a protein kinase that may have a vital role in neuronal information processing and memory. A computer model of CaMKII is investigated that incorporates recent findings about the geometrical arrangement of subunits, the mechanism of Ca(2+)-dependent subunit activation, and Ca(2+)-independent autophosphorylation. The model is framed as a system of nonlinear differential equations. It is demonstrated numerically that (1) CaMKII is tuned to be activated by stimulation protocols associated with the induction of long-term potentiation; (2) the observed slow dissociation of trapped Ca2+/calmodulin may require the autonomy site to be protected from dephosphorylation; and (3) Ca(2+)-independent kinase activity is expressed in a manner akin to a graded switch. The model validates current theories concerning how CaMKII may be a Ca2+ pulse frequency detector, a molecular switch, or a mediator of the threshold for long-term synaptic plasticity.

  9. Catalytic degradation of recalcitrant pollutants by Fenton-like process using polyacrylonitrile-supported iron (II) phthalocyanine nanofibers: Intermediates and pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhexin; Chen, Yi; Gu, Yan; Wu, Fei; Lu, Wangyang; Xu, Tiefeng; Chen, Wenxing

    2016-04-15

    Iron (II) phthalocyanine (FePc) molecules were isolated in polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers by electrospinning to prevent the formation of dimers and oligomers. Carbamazepine (CBZ) and Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation was investigated during a Fenton-like process with FePc/PAN nanofibers. Classical quenching tests with isopropanol and electron paramagnetic resonance tests with 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline-oxide as spin-trapping agent were performed to determine the formation of active species during hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) decomposition by FePc/PAN nanofibers. After eight recycles for CBZ degradation over the FePc/PAN nanofibers/H2O2 system, the removal ratios of CBZ remained at 99%. Seven by-products of RhB and twelve intermediates of CBZ were identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Pathways of CBZ and RhB degradation were proposed based on the identified intermediates. As the reaction proceeded, all CBZ and RhB aromatic nucleus intermediates decreased and were transformed to small acids, but also to potentially toxic epoxide-containing intermediates and acridine, because of the powerful oxidation ability of •OH in the catalytic system.

  10. Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: II. Water Level Models, Floodplain Wetland Inundation, and System Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, David A.; Borde, Amy B.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2016-04-26

    Spatially varying water-level regimes are a factor controlling estuarine and tidal-fluvial wetland vegetation patterns. As described in Part I, water levels in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) are influenced by tides, river flow, hydropower operations, and coastal processes. In Part II, regression models based on tidal theory are used to quantify the role of these processes in determining water levels in the mainstem river and floodplain wetlands, and to provide 21-year inundation hindcasts. Analyses are conducted at 19 LCRE mainstem channel stations and 23 tidally exposed floodplain wetland stations. Sum exceedance values (SEVs) are used to compare wetland hydrologic regimes at different locations on the river floodplain. A new predictive tool is introduced and validated, the potential SEV (pSEV), which can reduce the need for extensive new data collection in wetland restoration planning. Models of water levels and inundation frequency distinguish four zones encompassing eight reaches. The system zones are the wave- and current-dominated Entrance to river kilometer (rkm) 5; the Estuary (rkm-5 to 87), comprised of a lower reach with salinity, the energy minimum (where the turbidity maximum normally occurs), and an upper estuary reach without salinity; the Tidal River (rkm-87 to 229), with lower, middle, and upper reaches in which river flow becomes increasingly dominant over tides in determining water levels; and the steep and weakly tidal Cascade (rkm-229 to 234) immediately downstream from Bonneville Dam. The same zonation is seen in the water levels of floodplain stations, with considerable modification of tidal properties. The system zones and reaches defined here reflect geological features and their boundaries are congruent with five wetland vegetation zones

  11. Air/Water-Stable Tridentate NHC-PdII Complex; Catalytic C-H Activation of Hydrocarbons via H/D Exchange Process in D2O

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo Ho; Yoo, Kyung Soo; Park, Chan Pil; Olsen, Janet M.; Sakaguchi, Satoshi; Surya Prakash, G. K.; Mathew, Thomas; Jung, Kyung Woon

    2009-01-01

    While developing novel catalysts for carbon-carbon or carbon-heteroatom coupling (N, O, or F), we were able to introduce tridentate NHC-amidate-alkoxide palladium(II) complexes. In aqueous solution, these NHC-Pd(II) complexes showed high ability for C-H activation of various hydrocarbons (cyclohexane, cyclopentane, dimethyl ether, THF, acetone, and toluene) under mild conditions. PMID:20221298

  12. CATALYST ACTIVITY MAINTENANCE FOR THE LIQUID PHASE SYNTHESIS GAS-TO-DIMETHYL ETHER PROCESS PART II: DEVELOPMENT OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE AS THE DEHYDRATION CATALYST FOR THE SINGLE-STEP LIQUID PHASE SYNGAS-TO-DME PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang-Dong Peng

    2002-05-01

    At the heart of the single-step liquid phase syngas-to-DME process (LPDME{trademark}) is a catalyst system that can be active as well as stable. In the Alternative Fuels I program, a dual-catalyst system containing a Cu-based commercial methanol synthesis catalyst (BASF S3-86) and a commercial dehydration material ({gamma}-alumina) was demonstrated. It provided the productivity and selectivity expected from the LPDME process. However, the catalyst system deactivated too rapidly to warrant a viable commercial process [1]. The mechanistic investigation in the early part of the DOE's Alternative Fuels II program revealed that the accelerated catalyst deactivation under LPDME conditions is due to detrimental interaction between the methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst [2,3]. The interaction was attributed to migration of Cu- and/or Zn-containing species from the synthesis catalyst to the dehydration catalyst. Identification of a dehydration catalyst that did not lead to this detrimental interaction while retaining adequate dehydration activity was elusive. Twenty-nine different dehydration materials were tested, but none showed the desired performance [2]. The search came to a turning point when aluminum phosphate was tested. This amorphous material is prepared by precipitating a solution containing Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with NH{sub 4}OH, followed by washing, drying and calcination. The aluminum phosphate catalyst has adequate dehydration activity and good stability. It can co-exist with the Cu-based methanol synthesis catalyst without negatively affecting the latter catalyst's stability. This report documents the details of the development of this catalyst. These include initial leads, efforts in improving activity and stability, investigation and development of the best preparation parameters and procedures, mechanistic understanding and resulting preparation guidelines, and the accomplishments of this work.

  13. Process for Transition of Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    This document presents guidance for implementing the process that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) will use for assuming perpetual responsibility for a closed uranium mill tailings site. The transition process specifically addresses sites regulated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) but is applicable in principle to the transition of sites under other regulatory structures, such as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program.

  14. Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Sixth interim report Task 9: hydrotreating 400/sup 0/F+ SRC-II oil for biological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.F.

    1982-04-01

    400/sup 0/F+ SRC-II oil derived from Pittsburgh Seam coal was hydrotreated to provide DOE samples for subsequent biological testing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Samples containing about 500 ppM nitrogen, 2000 ppM nitrogen, and 5000 ppM nitrogen were prepared. These samples do not represent finished products, but conditions were selected to provide a wide range of processing severities. The feedstock was somewhat higher boiling and more difficult to hydrotreat than another 400/sup 0/F+ SRC-II oil studied previously.

  15. Pyrazolate-based cobalt(II)-containing metal-organic frameworks in heterogeneous catalytic oxidation reactions: elucidating the role of entatic states for biomimetic oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Tonigold, Markus; Lu, Ying; Mavrandonakis, Andreas; Puls, Angela; Staudt, Reiner; Möllmer, Jens; Sauer, Joachim; Volkmer, Dirk

    2011-07-25

    Crystal structures of two metal-organic frameworks (MFU-1 and MFU-2) are presented, both of which contain redox-active Co(II) centres coordinated by linear 1,4-bis[(3,5-dimethyl)pyrazol-4-yl] ligands. In contrast to many MOFs reported previously, these compounds show excellent stability against hydrolytic decomposition. Catalytic turnover is achieved in oxidation reactions by employing tert-butyl hydroperoxide and the solid catalysts are easily recovered from the reaction mixture. Whereas heterogeneous catalysis is unambiguously demonstrated for MFU-1, MFU-2 shows catalytic activity due to slow metal leaching, emphasising the need for a deeper understanding of structure-reactivity relationships in the future design of redox-active metal-organic frameworks. Mechanistic details for oxidation reactions employing tert-butyl hydroperoxide are studied by UV/Vis and IR spectroscopy and XRPD measurements. The catalytic process accompanying changes of redox states and structural changes were investigated by means of cobalt K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. To probe the putative binding modes of molecular oxygen, the isosteric heats of adsorption of O(2) were determined and compared with models from DFT calculations. The stabilities of the frameworks in an oxygen atmosphere as a reactive gas were examined by temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). Solution impregnation of MFU-1 with a co-catalyst (N-hydroxyphthalimide) led to NHPI@MFU-1, which oxidised a range of organic substrates under ambient conditions by employing molecular oxygen from air. The catalytic reaction involved a biomimetic reaction cascade based on free radicals. The concept of an entatic state of the cobalt centres is proposed and its relevance for sustained catalytic activity is briefly discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Belle II production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi

    2015-12-01

    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  17. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047576 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  18. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047582 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  19. Reversible shuttle action upon dehydration and rehydration processes in cationic coordinatively-bonded (4,4) square-grid nets threaded by supramolecular bonded anions, {[Cu(II)(4,4'-bpy)2(H2O)][Cu(II)(2-pySO3)3](NO3)}·H2O.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi-Min; Yin, Zheng; He, Kun-Huan; Zeng, Ming-Hua; Kurmoo, Mohamedally

    2011-03-21

    {[Cu(II)(4,4'-bpy)(2)(H(2)O)][Cu(II)(2-pySO(3))(3)](NO(3))}·H(2)O, obtained serendipitously by the reaction of the constituents in water, consists of parallel coordinatively bonded cationic (4,4) corrugated square-grids polymer of {[Cu(II)(4,4'-bpy)(2)(H(2)O)](2+)}(n) threaded by π-π and H-bonded supramolecular chains of [Cu(II)(2-pySO(3))(3)](-) through the open squares. A single-crystal to single-crystal transformation takes place upon removal of the noncoordinated water by controlled heating. The resulting structure exhibits a rearrangement of the coordination of the copper atoms in the grids, where the Cu-H(2)O bond is elongated from 2.250(3) to 2.628(3) Å while the Cu-NO(3) is shortened from 3.122(3) to 2.796(1) Å. This process is reversible as demonstrated by the single crystal structure after rehydration with corresponding bond distances of 2.224(3) and 3.152(3) Å. Such a cooperative effect may be associated with the Jahn-Teller distortion of the copper(II) ion accompanying the shuttle action of the hydrogen-bonded water and nitrate moiety.

  20. Characterization of cellulose I/II hybrid fibers isolated from energycane bagasse during the delignification process: Morphology, crystallinity and percentage estimation.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yiying; Han, Jingquan; Han, Guangping; Zhang, Quanguo; French, Alfred D; Wu, Qinglin

    2015-11-20

    Cellulose I, cellulose II and cellulose I/II hybrid fibers were prepared from energycane bagasse using NaOH and NaClO2 treatments. The definitive defibrillation effect with an average width of 12±5μm was observed for the fibers treated with 20wt% NaOH for 10h