Science.gov

Sample records for ii economic analysis

  1. User's Guide To CHEAP0 II-Economic Analysis of Stand Prognosis Model Outputs

    Treesearch

    Joseph E. Horn; E. Lee Medema; Ervin G. Schuster

    1986-01-01

    CHEAP0 II provides supplemental economic analysis capability for users of version 5.1 of the Stand Prognosis Model, including recent regeneration and insect outbreak extensions. Although patterned after the old CHEAP0 model, CHEAP0 II has more features and analytic capabilities, especially for analysis of existing and uneven-aged stands....

  2. Economic Analysis Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Analysis Defined .............. 2 D. Commonsense Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 E. Motivation for Economic Analysis ........... 3 II. THE...decision. The material developed in this Economic Analysis Handbook is premised on the concept of a few basic economic and commonsense principles . This...reader is a novice in the field of economic analysis (behefit/cost analysis), so the material is developed slowly from simple ekamples and principles

  3. A case study of packaging waste collection systems in Portugal - Part II: Environmental and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Ana; Sargedas, João; Miguel, Mécia; Pina, Joaquim; Martinho, Graça

    2017-03-01

    An understanding of the environmental impacts and costs related to waste collection is needed to ensure that existing waste collection schemes are the most appropriate with regard to both environment and cost. This paper is Part II of a three-part study of a mixed packaging waste collection system (curbside plus bring collection). Here, the mixed collection system is compared to an exclusive curbside system and an exclusive bring system. The scenarios were assessed using life cycle assessment and an assessment of costs to the waste management company. The analysis focuses on the collection itself so as to be relevant to waste managers and decision-makers who are involved only in this step of the packaging life cycle. The results show that the bring system has lower environmental impacts and lower economic costs, and is capable of reducing the environmental impacts of the mixed system. However, a sensitivity analysis shows that these results could differ if the curbside collection were to be optimized. From economic and environmental perspectives, the mixed system has few advantages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  5. Conversion of paper sludge to ethanol, II: process design and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhiliang; Lynd, Lee R

    2007-01-01

    Process design and economics are considered for conversion of paper sludge to ethanol. A particular site, a bleached kraft mill operated in Gorham, NH by Fraser Papers (15 tons dry sludge processed per day), is considered. In addition, profitability is examined for a larger plant (50 dry tons per day) and sensitivity analysis is carried out with respect to capacity, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Conversion based on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with intermittent feeding is examined, with ethanol recovery provided by distillation and molecular sieve adsorption. It was found that the Fraser plant achieves positive cash flow with or without xylose conversion and mineral recovery. Sensitivity analysis indicates economics are very sensitive to ethanol selling price and scale; significant but less sensitive to the tipping fee, and rather insensitive to the prices of cellulase and power. Internal rates of return exceeding 15% are projected for larger plants at most combinations of scale, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Our analysis lends support to the proposition that paper sludge is a leading point-of-entry and proving ground for emergent industrial processes featuring enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass.

  6. Utility response to Phase I and Phase II acid rain legislation - an economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keeth, R.J.; Ireland, P.A.; Radliffe, P.

    1995-06-01

    Electric utility companies in the U.S. have already implemented their plans for compliance with the Phase I Acid Rain legislation contained in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Out of the 261 units located at 110 power plants affected by Phase I legislation (all located in the midwest and east), FGD systems were installed on only 13,500 MW of capacity, a total of only 14 plants on 25 units. This paper will summarize the total installed capital cost experience for these facilities, which included a variety of FGD processes, vendors, designs and performance requirements. Costs for other recent FGD installations will also be presented. In addition, potential compliance plan options for Phase II legislation requirements will be discussed, providing a description of the decision making process and the plant characteristics that would lead to installation of SO{sub 2} control technology. The paper finishes with an update on the results of the latest FGD economic evaluations that have been completed recently. Brief process descriptions are followed by the operating and capital cost estimate comparisons with commercial technology.

  7. The economics of clinical genetics services. II. A time analysis of a medical genetics clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, B A; Weiner, J; Foster, E C; Tumpson, J E; Pyeritz, R E

    1987-01-01

    In a time-and-reimbursement analysis of our clinical genetics service, we documented (1) the time spent by professionals and staff in serving families before, during, and after the clinic visit; (2) the charges and reimbursement for the services provided; and (3) the relationship between income from clinical practice and the personnel costs of the clinic. We found that newly referred and returning families required 7.1 and 4.0 h, respectively. Average collections for professional services were +135 (+19/h) for new families and +49 (+12/h) for returning families. Income from clinical practice covered 37% of the clinical portion of personnel costs. These results indicate that cognitive clinical genetics services are labor intensive, yield low payments per service hour, and are not financially self-supporting. To improve the economic status of genetics clinics, administrators might consider rendering services more efficiently; increasing charges for services; billing for all services provided to all family members; billing for all genetics professionals, including counselors and social workers; and requesting payment at the time of service. PMID:3116845

  8. Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands II: comparison of control strategies.

    PubMed

    Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    A combined epidemiological-economic modelling approach was used to analyse strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) control for the Netherlands. The modelling framework used was InterSpread Plus (ISP), a spatially based, stochastic and dynamic simulation model. A total of eight control strategies were analysed, including pre-emptive depopulation and vaccination strategies. The analysis was carried out for three different regions in the Netherlands: high-, medium- and low-density areas (HDA, MDA and LDA, respectively). The analysis included the veterinary impact (e.g. number of infected premises and duration), but was particularly focused on the impact on direct costs (DC) and direct consequential costs. The efficient set of control strategies for HDA and MDA included strategies based on either pre-emptive depopulation only or combined vaccination and pre-emptive depopulation: D2 (pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 2 km), RV3 + D1 (ring vaccination within a radius of 3 km and additional pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km) and PV + D1 (preventive vaccination in non-affected HDAs and pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km in the affected HDA). Although control solely based on depopulation in most cases showed to be effective for LDA, pre-emptive depopulation showed to have an additional advantage in these areas, that is, prevention of 'virus jumps' to other areas. The pros and cons of the efficient control strategies were discussed, for example, public perception and risk of export restrictions. It was concluded that for the Netherlands control of HPAI preferably should be carried out using strategies including pre-emptive depopulation with or without vaccination. Particularly, the short- and long-term implications on export, that is, indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs of these strategies, should be analysed further.

  9. Prophylactic Antibiotics to Prevent Cellulitis of the Leg: Economic Analysis of the PATCH I & II Trials

    PubMed Central

    Mason, James M.; Thomas, Kim S.; Crook, Angela M.; Foster, Katharine A.; Chalmers, Joanne R.; Nunn, Andrew J.; Williams, Hywel C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cellulitis (erysipelas) is a recurring and debilitating bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotic treatment to prevent the recurrence of cellulitis using low dose penicillin V in patients following a first episode (6 months prophylaxis) and more recurrent cellulitis (12 months prophylaxis, or 6 months in those declining 12 months). Methods Within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using the findings of two randomised placebo-controlled multicentre trials (PATCH I and PATCH II), in which patients recruited in the UK and Ireland were followed-up for up to 3 years. Incremental cost, reduction in recurrence, cost per recurrence prevented and cost/QALY were estimated. National unit and reference costs for England in 2010 were applied to resource use, exploring NHS and societal perspectives. A total of 397 patients from the two trials contributed to the analysis. Results There was a 29% reduction in the number of recurrences occurring within the trial (IRR: 0.71 95%CI: 0.53 to 0.90, p = 0.02), corresponding to an absolute reduction of recurrence of 0.31 recurrences/patient (95%CI: 0.05 to 0.59, p = 0.02). Incremental costs of prophylaxis suggested a small cost saving but were not statistically significant, comparing the two groups. If a decision-maker is willing to pay up to £25,000/QALY then there is a 66% probability of antibiotic prophylaxis being cost-effective from an NHS perspective, rising to 76% probability from a secondary, societal perspective. Conclusion Following first episode or recurrent cellulitis of the leg, prophylactic low dose penicillin is a very low cost intervention which, on balance, is effective and cost-effective at preventing subsequent attacks. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces cellulitis recurrence by nearly a third but is not associated with a significant increase in costs. PMID:24551029

  10. Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent cellulitis of the leg: economic analysis of the PATCH I & II trials.

    PubMed

    Mason, James M; Thomas, Kim S; Crook, Angela M; Foster, Katharine A; Chalmers, Joanne R; Nunn, Andrew J; Williams, Hywel C

    2014-01-01

    Cellulitis (erysipelas) is a recurring and debilitating bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotic treatment to prevent the recurrence of cellulitis using low dose penicillin V in patients following a first episode (6 months prophylaxis) and more recurrent cellulitis (12 months prophylaxis, or 6 months in those declining 12 months). Within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using the findings of two randomised placebo-controlled multicentre trials (PATCH I and PATCH II), in which patients recruited in the UK and Ireland were followed-up for up to 3 years. Incremental cost, reduction in recurrence, cost per recurrence prevented and cost/QALY were estimated. National unit and reference costs for England in 2010 were applied to resource use, exploring NHS and societal perspectives. A total of 397 patients from the two trials contributed to the analysis. There was a 29% reduction in the number of recurrences occurring within the trial (IRR: 0.71 95%CI: 0.53 to 0.90, p = 0.02), corresponding to an absolute reduction of recurrence of 0.31 recurrences/patient (95%CI: 0.05 to 0.59, p = 0.02). Incremental costs of prophylaxis suggested a small cost saving but were not statistically significant, comparing the two groups. If a decision-maker is willing to pay up to £25,000/QALY then there is a 66% probability of antibiotic prophylaxis being cost-effective from an NHS perspective, rising to 76% probability from a secondary, societal perspective. Following first episode or recurrent cellulitis of the leg, prophylactic low dose penicillin is a very low cost intervention which, on balance, is effective and cost-effective at preventing subsequent attacks. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces cellulitis recurrence by nearly a third but is not associated with a significant increase in costs.

  11. Health economic analysis of costs of laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer within a randomized trial (COLOR II).

    PubMed

    Gehrman, Jacob; Björholt, Ingela; Angenete, Eva; Andersson, John; Bonjer, Jaap; Haglind, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies regarding the comparative costs of laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer provide ambiguous conclusions, and there are no large randomized trials or long-term follow-up. A prospective cost-minimization analysis was carried out by using data of clinical resource use from the randomized controlled trial COLOR II. Some data needed for the health economic evaluation were not collected in the clinical trial; therefore, a retrospective data collection was made for COLOR II-patients operated at the largest participating Swedish hospital (n = 105). Sick leave information was provided by the Swedish social insurance agency. Unit costs were collected from Swedish sources. The primary outcome was the difference in mean cost between laparoscopic and open surgery. The COLOR II-trial enrolled 1044 rectal cancer patients randomized between laparoscopic and open surgery 2:1. At the 3-year follow-up data for the clinical variables used in the analysis were available for 74-89 % of patients. Laparoscopic surgery costs the health care sector more than the open technique, both at 28 days ($1910, 95 % CI 677-3143) and 3 years ($3854, 95 % CI 1527-6182) after surgery. There were, however, no differences in long-term costs to society between laparoscopic and open surgery ($684, 95 % CI -5799 to 7166). Though the study found short- and long-term cost differences for the healthcare sector, there was no difference in regard to the long-term societal perspective. Future research is suggested to investigate the effects of sick leave costs using material from a greater number of patients.

  12. Advanced Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Marc W.; Laing, William

    2013-01-01

    An Economic Analysis (EA) is a systematic approach to the problem of choosing the best method of allocating scarce resources to achieve a given objective. An EA helps guide decisions on the "worth" of pursuing an action that departs from status quo ... an EA is the crux of decision-support.

  13. DOE/NETL's phase II mercury control technology field testing program: preliminary economic analysis of activated carbon injection.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew P; Hoffmann, Jeffrey W; Smith, Dennis N; Feeley, Thomas J; Murphy, James T

    2007-02-15

    Based on results of field testing conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), this article provides preliminary costs for mercury control via conventional activated carbon injection (ACI), brominated ACI, and conventional ACI coupled with the application of a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) to coal prior to combustion. The economic analyses are reported on a plant-specific basis in terms of the cost required to achieve low (50%), mid (70%), and high (90%) levels of mercury removal "above and beyond" the baseline mercury removal achieved by existing emission control equipment. In other words, the levels of mercury control are directly attributable to ACI. Mercury control costs via ACI have been amortized on a current dollar basis. Using a 20-year book life, levelized costs for the incremental increase in cost of electricity (COE), expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour (mills/kWh), and the incremental cost of mercury control, expressed in dollars per pound of mercury removed ($/lb Hg removed), have been calculated for each level of ACI mercury control. For this analysis, the increase in COE varied from 0.14 mills/kWh to 3.92 mills/kWh. Meanwhile, the incremental cost of mercury control ranged from $3810/lb Hg removed to $166000/lb Hg removed.

  14. Probit Analysis and Economic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Lee C.; Mazzeo, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Points out shortcomings in much of the existing research on economics and economics education. Topics include inappropriate uses of various quantitative techniques, an explanation of probit analysis and its potential application to analysis of discrete economic education variables, and assessment of innovative methods in economic education.…

  15. ALMR deployment economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Hudson, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    This analysis seeks to model and evaluate the economics of the use of Advanced Liquid Metal Reactors (ALMR) as a component of this country`s future electricity generation mix. The ALMR concept has the ability to utilize as fuel the fissile material contained in previously irradiated nuclear fuel (i.e., spent fuel). While not a requirement for the successful deployment of ALMR power plant technology, the reprocessing of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWR) is necessary for any rapid introduction of ALMR power plants. In addition, the reprocessing of LWR spent fuel may reduce the number of high level waste repositories needed in the future by burning the long-lived actinides produced in the fission process. With this study, the relative economics of a number of potential scenarios related to these issues are evaluated. While not encompassing the full range of all possibilities, the cases reported here provide an indication of the potential costs, timings, and relative economic attractiveness of ALMR deployment.

  16. [Nervous syndrome in sheep on the Ivory Coast. II. Economic impact, trials and cost-benefit analysis of preventive plans].

    PubMed

    Domenech, J; Formenty, P

    1993-01-01

    The clinical and epidemiological aspects of the ovine nervous syndrome in Côte-d'Ivoire were presented in the first part of this paper and the disease was considered to be similar to the cerebrocortical necrosis as related to vitamin B1 deficiency. The economic losses by this disease being 1,500 to 2,000 F CFA (30-40 FF) per animal and per year, it seemed to be very important to consider its prophylaxis. A programme involving a daily injection of 100 mg of thiamine chlorhydrate throughout the dry season proved to be very efficient. In addition, if excluding the cost of the injection, this programme appeared to be beneficial to the farmer. When including only the price of the product, the profit to cost ratio of the programme was 4.8 (thiamine at 400 F CFA) to 30.6 (thiamine at 66 F CFA). The other profit earning criteria, i.e. the differential actualized net value and the induced gains, showed the same positive effect of this prophylaxis programme. However, it should be emphasized that the nervous syndrome in sheep mainly remains an accident due to a poor flock management. Hence, to prevent this disease the farmer should correctly adapt the rearing methods to the intensification of the production. Nevertheless, as the accurate etiopathogenesis of the syndrome remains to be elucidated and as the daily injection of the product to all animals of the flock represents an important constraint, research should be pursued to solve a problem which seems to affect the whole region.

  17. Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands I: epidemiological modelling to support economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    Economic analysis of control strategies for contagious diseases is a necessity in the development of contingency plans. Economic impacts arising from epidemics such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) consist of direct costs (DC), direct consequential costs (DCC), indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs (AC). Epidemiological models to support economic analysis need to provide adequate outputs for these critical economic parameters. Of particular importance for DCC, ICC and AC is the spatial production structure of a region. Spatial simulation models are therefore particularly suited for economic analysis; however, they often require a large number of parameters. The aims of this study are (i) to provide an economic rationale of epidemiological modelling in general, (ii) to provide a transparent description of the parameterization of a spatially based epidemiological model for the analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands and (iii) to discuss the validity and usefulness of this model for subsequent economic analysis. In the model, HPAI virus transmission occurs via local spread and animal movements. Control mechanisms include surveillance and tracing, movement restrictions and depopulation. Sensitivity analysis of key parameters indicated that the epidemiological outputs with the largest influence on the economic impacts (i.e. epidemic duration and number of farms in the movement restriction zone) were more robust than less influential indicators (i.e. number of infected farms). Economically relevant outputs for strategy comparison were most sensitive to the relative role of the different transmission parameters. The default simulation and results of the sensitivity analysis were consistent with the general outcomes of known HPAI models. Comparison was, however, limited due to the absence of some economically relevant outputs. It was concluded that the model creates economically relevant, adequate and credible output for subsequent use in

  18. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  19. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  20. Home Economics II. Basic Core. Tenth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ann

    Seven home economics curriculum areas for grade 10 are presented in this guide, with each area consisting of one or more instructional units as follows: (1) Career Exploration (obtaining a job, progress on the job, business etiquette); (2) Child Development (guiding the preschool child, middle childhood); (3) Clothing and Textiles (labeling,…

  1. Home Economics II. Basic Core. Tenth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ann

    Seven home economics curriculum areas for grade 10 are presented in this guide, with each area consisting of one or more instructional units as follows: (1) Career Exploration (obtaining a job, progress on the job, business etiquette); (2) Child Development (guiding the preschool child, middle childhood); (3) Clothing and Textiles (labeling,…

  2. Economic analysis and pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Rovira, J

    1995-10-01

    Economic evaluation, a comparative analysis of alternative actions in terms of costs and consequences, allows rational decisions to be made concerning the deployment of resources (people, time, equipment, facilities and knowledge). Pharmaceutical policy reflects the various objectives of the many social groups, some of which are conflicting. While new methodologies for evaluation of health care programmes still need to gain wider acceptance, resource limitations for both care providers and decision makers make economic analysis an increasingly important tool.

  3. Economic analysis of amifostine as adjunctive support for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: preliminary results from a randomized phase II clinical trial from Germany.

    PubMed

    Bennett, C L; Lane, D; Stinson, T; Glatzel, M; Buntzel, J

    2001-01-01

    In a randomized phase II trial in Germany, we investigated the clinical and economic impact of amifostine protection against the hematological and oral toxicities of carboplatin administered concurrently with standard fractions of radiotherapy. 28 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck received adjunctive or primary radiotherapy (5 days per week with daily fractions of 2 Gy, up to a total dose of 60 Gy) in conjunction with carboplatin (70 mg/m2) on days 1-5 and days 21-26. All patients received radiation encompassing at least 75% of the major salivary glands. Patients were randomized to receive radiation and carboplatin (RCT) alone or RCT preceded by rapid infusion of amifostine (500 mg) on days carboplatin was administered. The 14 patients who received amifostine, in comparison to 14 patients in the control arm, had significantly fewer episodes of grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia (p = 0.001), mucositis (p = 0.001), and xerostomia (p = 0.001). The patients receiving amifostine accrued significantly lower supportive care costs for resources related to infection ($241 vs. $1,275, p < 0.01), red blood cell and platelet support ($286 vs. $1,276 p = 0.06) alimentation ($343 vs. $894, p = .01), and hospitalization ($286 vs. $2,429, p < 0.01). Overall, including the costs of amifostine, mean per patient supportive care costs were $4,401 for the amifostine group and $5,873 (p = .02) for the control group. Our results from a randomized phase II trial indicate that selective cytoprotection with amifostine potentially offers clinical and economic benefits in patients with advanced head and neck cancer receiving radiochemotherapy. Additional economic studies alongside randomized phase III trials and from other countries are needed.

  4. Economic Analysis. Computer Simulation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

    A multimedia course in economic analysis was developed and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This volume of the text discusses the simulation of behavioral relationships among variable elements in an economy and presents…

  5. Media Economics: Terms of Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomery, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    Lays out a framework for economic analysis of the mass media in American culture. Argues for its utility for understanding the workings of the television, motion picture, newspaper, and radio industries, as well as for evaluating appropriate public policy responses and considering historical trends. (MS)

  6. Home Economics. Sample Test Items. Levels I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Educational Testing.

    A sample of behavioral objectives and related test items that could be developed for content modules in Home Economics levels I and II, this book is intended to enable teachers to construct more valid and reliable test materials. Forty-eight one-page modules are presented, and opposite each module are listed two to seven specific behavioral…

  7. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  8. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A

    2008-07-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities.

  9. Energy-Systems Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, J.; Slonski, M. L.; Borden, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Energy Systems Economic Analysis (ESEA) program is flexible analytical tool for rank ordering of alternative energy systems. Basic ESEA approach derives an estimate of those costs incurred as result of purchasing, installing and operating an energy system. These costs, suitably aggregated into yearly costs over lifetime of system, are divided by expected yearly energy output to determine busbar energy costs. ESEA, developed in 1979, is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  10. Energy-Systems Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, J.; Slonski, M. L.; Borden, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Energy Systems Economic Analysis (ESEA) program is flexible analytical tool for rank ordering of alternative energy systems. Basic ESEA approach derives an estimate of those costs incurred as result of purchasing, installing and operating an energy system. These costs, suitably aggregated into yearly costs over lifetime of system, are divided by expected yearly energy output to determine busbar energy costs. ESEA, developed in 1979, is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  11. Behavioral economics and regulatory analysis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lisa A; Hammitt, James K

    2011-09-01

    Behavioral economics has captured the interest of scholars and the general public by demonstrating ways in which individuals make decisions that appear irrational. While increasing attention is being focused on the implications of this research for the design of risk-reducing policies, less attention has been paid to how it affects the economic valuation of policy consequences. This article considers the latter issue, reviewing the behavioral economics literature and discussing its implications for the conduct of benefit-cost analysis, particularly in the context of environmental, health, and safety regulations. We explore three concerns: using estimates of willingness to pay or willingness to accept compensation for valuation, considering the psychological aspects of risk when valuing mortality-risk reductions, and discounting future consequences. In each case, we take the perspective that analysts should avoid making judgments about whether values are "rational" or "irrational." Instead, they should make every effort to rely on well-designed studies, using ranges, sensitivity analysis, or probabilistic modeling to reflect uncertainty. More generally, behavioral research has led some to argue for a more paternalistic approach to policy analysis. We argue instead for continued focus on describing the preferences of those affected, while working to ensure that these preferences are based on knowledge and careful reflection.

  12. Graduates of Higher Education in the Food and Agricultural Sciences: An Analysis of Supply/Demand Relationship. Volume II--Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Kyle Jane; Stanton, Marge

    Information on the supply of new college graduates seeking home economics-related positions, home economics job openings, and projected levels of employment is presented. Based on a Department of Agriculture manpower assessment project, supply and demand relationships through 1990 were analyzed, and supply data were aggregated by 11 educational…

  13. Graduates of Higher Education in the Food and Agricultural Sciences: An Analysis of Supply/Demand Relationship. Volume II--Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Kyle Jane; Stanton, Marge

    Information on the supply of new college graduates seeking home economics-related positions, home economics job openings, and projected levels of employment is presented. Based on a Department of Agriculture manpower assessment project, supply and demand relationships through 1990 were analyzed, and supply data were aggregated by 11 educational…

  14. Economic modeling and sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Hay, J W

    1998-09-01

    The field of pharmacoeconomics (PE) faces serious concerns of research credibility and bias. The failure of researchers to reproduce similar results in similar settings, the inappropriate use of clinical data in economic models, the lack of transparency, and the inability of readers to make meaningful comparisons across published studies have greatly contributed to skepticism about the validity, reliability, and relevance of these studies to healthcare decision-makers. Using a case study in the field of lipid PE, two suggestions are presented for generally applicable reporting standards that will improve the credibility of PE. Health economists and researchers should be expected to provide either the software used to create their PE model or a multivariate sensitivity analysis of their PE model. Software distribution would allow other users to validate the assumptions and calculations of a particular model and apply it to their own circumstances. Multivariate sensitivity analysis can also be used to present results in a consistent and meaningful way that will facilitate comparisons across the PE literature. Using these methods, broader acceptance and application of PE results by policy-makers would become possible. To reduce the uncertainty about what is being accomplished with PE studies, it is recommended that these guidelines become requirements of both scientific journals and healthcare plan decision-makers. The standardization of economic modeling in this manner will increase the acceptability of pharmacoeconomics as a practical, real-world science.

  15. Tests of Behavioral-Economic Assessments of Relative Reinforcer Efficacy II: Economic Complements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Gregory J.; Smethells, John R.; Ewan, Eric E.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test the predictions of two behavioral-economic approaches to quantifying relative reinforcer efficacy. The normalized demand analysis suggests that characteristics of averaged normalized demand curves may be used to predict progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak responding. By contrast, the demand analysis holds…

  16. Tests of Behavioral-Economic Assessments of Relative Reinforcer Efficacy II: Economic Complements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Gregory J.; Smethells, John R.; Ewan, Eric E.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test the predictions of two behavioral-economic approaches to quantifying relative reinforcer efficacy. The normalized demand analysis suggests that characteristics of averaged normalized demand curves may be used to predict progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak responding. By contrast, the demand analysis holds…

  17. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 2: Tug concepts analysis. Part 2: Economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of space tug operations is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) cost uncertainties, (2) scenario analysis, (3) economic sensitivities, (4) mixed integer programming formulation of the space tug problem, and (5) critical parameters in the evaluation of a public expenditure.

  18. Definitions and Basic Concepts of Supply and Demand Analysis Used to Determine Market Equilibrium. Principles of Economics II (Microeconomics), Lesson Plan No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu-Irion, Vicky

    Developed as part of a 37.5-hour microeconomics course, this lesson plan focuses on the concepts of supply and demand analysis used to determine market equilibrium. The objectives of the 50-minute lesson are to enable the student to: (1) explain how a demand schedule is derived from raw data; (2) graph a demand curve from the demand schedule; (3)…

  19. Economic Analysis of Transnational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the effects of a branch campus on the individual college education decision and the economic welfare of a developing country. There are a single domestic college and a single branch campus established by a foreign university. A graduate from the branch campus has an opportunity to emigrate and work abroad, earning a higher…

  20. Economic Analysis of Transnational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the effects of a branch campus on the individual college education decision and the economic welfare of a developing country. There are a single domestic college and a single branch campus established by a foreign university. A graduate from the branch campus has an opportunity to emigrate and work abroad, earning a higher…

  1. Economic analysis of fuel treatments

    Treesearch

    D. Evan Mercer; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2012-01-01

    The economics of wildfire is complicated because wildfire behavior depends on the spatial and temporal scale at which management decisions made, and because of uncertainties surrounding the results of management actions. Like the wildfire processes they seek to manage, interventions through fire prevention programs, suppression, and fuels management are scale dependent...

  2. Economic analysis of same-sex marriage.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Christopher J

    2004-01-01

    This article applies the neoclassical microeconomic analysis of marriage as developed by Nobel laureate economist Gary Becker to same-sex marriage. The objective is to demonstrate that the economic analysis of marriage supports allowing same-sex marriage, and that same-sex marriages would strengthen the incentive to marry, increase the efficiency of marriage markets, provide for more children to be raised in two-parent optimum environments, and benefit states economically overall. The article concludes with an overview of the economic impact of same-sex marriages on states based on the analysis, data and fiscal information currently available from researchers and economists in the field.

  3. Economic Analysis of Cyber Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    calculated and require a good deal of guesswork ( Lemos , 2002). 2.2.3 Mi2g The British firm Mi2g has published numerous economic impact estimates...policy, has fallen out of favor. Users who are forced to periodically change their password are more likely to write it down or reuse a password used...Post. Lemos , Robert. January 21, 2002. “Data on Internet Threats Still Out Cold.” Available at <http://news.com.com/Data+on+Internet+threats+still

  4. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.28 Directorate for Economic Analysis. The Directorate for Economic Analysis, which is managed by the Associate Executive Director for Economic Analysis, is responsible for...

  5. Economic Analysis in Plain English: A Course in Economic Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunin, Lori; Lindauer, David L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an experimental course designed as a journalism workshop where economics students became reporters writing articles on economic events, issues, and prominent economists and their ideas. The requirement to explain economics to lay readers accurately and clearly, developed the students' own economic literacy. (Author/JDH)

  6. Computer Based Economic Analysis Techniques to Support Functional Economic Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    is one of the most frequently used tools to uncover and explore profit potential. B. CALCULATION OF BREAK EVER ANALYSIS Haga and Lang (1992) state...BENEFITS For benfits that are quantifiable, Haga and Lang (1992) express BCR in the following notation. BCR=QOM Equation 9-1UAC (Where QOM is a...emulation. In addition to the software requirements, FEAM has the following hardware criteria: 68 * A mouse "* 2MB of RAM "* 20MB of Hard Disk space "* EGA

  7. Adding Economic Analysis to Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-07

    in all of our fights around the world; economics. Throughout history, economic factors have been the tinder that feeds the flames of war. Economics... tinder box for the animosity that grew into the Third Reich and the flames of World War II. Learning from our post-WWI economic failure, the Marshall

  8. Economic analysis in health care research.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Diaa E E

    2008-04-01

    There is contemporary widespread acceptance in the medical community of the need to address economic perspective of healthcare, specifically whether the benefits of a proposed or existing medical intervention are sufficient to justify that particular use of scarce health resources. The use of any scarce resources whether manpower, buildings or equipment has an opportunity cost in terms of the benefits foregone by denying those resources to other competing claims. Health economics emphasizes the need to assess formally the implications of choices over the deployment of resources. A number of economic evaluation techniques such as cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis have thus been developed to aid this formal assessment and to help identify the most efficient allocation of resources. The methodological quality and principles of economic analyses studies recently published in the biomedical literature, however, can be further improved. The most common limitations are in the methodology or presentation of cost, incremental analyses, sensitivity analysis and discounting. The ten methodological principles that should be incorporated in studies addressing economic analyses are highlighted. Understanding the methodology of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis is critical for biomedical researchers, editors, reviewers and readers from developing countries to accurately interpret the results of the growing body of these articles.

  9. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for providing an objective economic perspective to understand and evaluate the economic dimension of...

  10. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for providing an objective economic perspective to understand and evaluate the economic dimension of...

  11. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for providing an objective economic perspective to understand and evaluate the economic dimension of the...

  12. Tests of Behavioral-Economic Assessments of Relative Reinforcer Efficacy II: Economic Complements

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Gregory J; Smethells, John R; Ewan, Eric E; Hursh, Steven R

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test the predictions of two behavioral-economic approaches to quantifying relative reinforcer efficacy. The normalized demand analysis suggests that characteristics of averaged normalized demand curves may be used to predict progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak responding. By contrast, the demand analysis holds that traditional measures of relative reinforcer efficacy (breakpoint, peak response rate, and choice) correspond to specific characteristics of non-normalized demand curves. The accuracy of these predictions was evaluated in rats' responding for food or water: two reinforcers known to function as complements. Consistent with the first approach, predicted peak normalized response output values obtained under single-schedule conditions ordinally predicted progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak response rates obtained in a separate condition. Combining the minimum-needs hypothesis with the normalized demand analysis helped to interpret prior findings, but was less useful in predicting choice between food and water—two strongly complementary reinforcers. Predictions of the demand analysis had mixed success. Peak response outputs predicted from the non-normalized water demand curves were significantly correlated with obtained peak responding for water in a separate condition, but none of the remaining three predicted correlations was statistically significant. The demand analysis fared better in predicting choice—relative consumption of food and water under single schedules of reinforcement predicted preference under concurrent schedules significantly better than chance. PMID:18047226

  13. 77 FR 60965 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of... economic analysis and recent statistical developments in national accounting. DATES: Friday, November...

  14. 75 FR 49890 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of... economic analysis and recent statistical developments in national accounting. DATES: Friday, November 5...

  15. 76 FR 59111 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of... economic analysis and recent statistical developments in national accounting. DATES: Friday, November 4...

  16. 76 FR 9743 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of... economic analysis and recent statistical developments in national accounting. DATES: Friday, May 6, 2011...

  17. 78 FR 10599 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of... economic analysis and recent statistical developments in national accounting. DATES: Friday, May 10, 2013...

  18. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

    2006-12-01

    A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

  19. Gainful Employment in Home Economics, Phase II; Seminar on Gainful Employment in Home Economics, July 1, 1967--June 30, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Agnes Fenster

    Phase II of this three-phase study was a seminar held to inform teachers of information obtained in Phase I, a survey of 483 Florida businesses. During the course of the seminar 59 home economics teachers and supervisors participated in 3 weeks of intensive in-service education. Pre- and post-tests were made of participants' knowledge, attitudes,…

  20. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Directorate for Economic Analysis. 1000.28... AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.28 Directorate for Economic Analysis. The Directorate for Economic Analysis, which is managed by the Associate Executive Director for Economic Analysis, is responsible for...

  1. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Directorate for Economic Analysis. 1000.28... AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.28 Directorate for Economic Analysis. The Directorate for Economic Analysis, which is managed by the Associate Executive Director for Economic Analysis, is responsible for...

  2. 78 FR 59648 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, we are announcing a meeting of the Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee. The meeting...

  3. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Directorate for Economic Analysis. 1000.28... AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.28 Directorate for Economic Analysis. The Directorate for Economic Analysis, which is managed by the Associate Executive Director for Economic Analysis, is responsible for providing...

  4. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 2 - epidemiology, wildlife and economics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research ings in the fields of (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of foot-and- economics. Although the three sections, epidemiology, wildlife and economics are presented as separate entities, the fields are ...

  5. The Economic Analysis of University Participation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallis, George

    2015-01-01

    Over the postwar period in most developed countries, the university participation rate has risen steadily to well over 30 percent, although there remain differences between countries. Students from lower income families have lower participation rates than those from higher income families. The article provides an economic analysis of these…

  6. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, a prototype Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) modeling system. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (...

  7. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, a prototype Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) modeling system. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (...

  8. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, a prototype Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) modeling system. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (...

  9. The Economic Analysis of University Participation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallis, George

    2015-01-01

    Over the postwar period in most developed countries, the university participation rate has risen steadily to well over 30 percent, although there remain differences between countries. Students from lower income families have lower participation rates than those from higher income families. The article provides an economic analysis of these…

  10. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  11. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  12. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for... Commission's regulatory oversight. It performs economic analyses of proposed rule changes, current or...

  13. 77 FR 21081 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee...), we are announcing a meeting of the Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee. The meeting will...

  14. 75 FR 8922 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee...), we are announcing a meeting of the Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee. The meeting will...

  15. HERO HELPS for Home Economics Related Occupation Coordinators. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff. Center for Vocational Education.

    These 26 modules for independent study comprise the second volume of a two-volume set of HERO (Home Economics Related Occupations) HELPS for student use in competency-based professional development. Each module contains teacher and student materials. Teacher materials include an information sheet listing resources and materials needed by students,…

  16. Consumer Economics, Book I [and] Book II. DECIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Ruth E.; And Others

    This module, Consumer Economics, is one of five from Project DECIDE, which was created to design, develop, write, and implement materials to provide adult basic education administrators, instructors, para-professionals, and other personnel with curriculum to accompany the Indiana Adult Basic Education Curriculum Guide, "Learning for Everyday…

  17. Consumer Economics, Book I [and] Book II. DECIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Ruth E.; And Others

    This module, Consumer Economics, is one of five from Project DECIDE, which was created to design, develop, write, and implement materials to provide adult basic education administrators, instructors, para-professionals, and other personnel with curriculum to accompany the Indiana Adult Basic Education Curriculum Guide, "Learning for Everyday…

  18. Economic analysis of age at first marriage.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, K

    1989-09-01

    A subject of great interest to demographers is to relate the timing of demographic events to individual characteristics and environmental variables. Static models of marriage tend to give corner solutions, the choice of marriage, or remaining single. This article develops an economic model of marriage which gives interior solutions to the optimum age at 1st marriage and which does not include an explicit argument about the age at marriage in the utility function. In theoretical analysis, the life cycle model is modified to capture different aspects of the decision of when to get married. Results from empirical analysis support implications derived from the theoretical analysis.

  19. Preliminary energy sector assessments of Jamaica. Volume II: economic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an economic assessment of the specialized study areas, reviewing recommendations from the specialized studies in relation to each other and to the GOJ's 5-year Development and Energy Sector Plans. After analyzing the effects of these recommendations on Jamaica's energy situation and economy, the recommendations are integrated and prioritized in a proposed Combined Energy Program (CEP) which is recommended for immediate GOJ implementation. Highest priority items include research, testing, training, and tax structures to encourage solar hot water and agricultural drying systems; installation of small- and medium-size biogas plants; and negotiating joint port usage for a possible coal-fired electricity plant.

  20. [[Economic analysis of marriage: survey and reconsideration

    PubMed

    Matsushita, K

    1986-10-01

    This article is concerned with the economic analysis of marriage and is based on a review of the relevant literature. A basic household production function model is described that defines the partial equilibrium condition of a couple and a single person. The existence of public goods, or joint consumption goods, and changes in the shadow price of commodities are shown to explain the difference between being married or single. The theory of bargaining is used to compare individuals and households. Consideration is also given to the theory of job search to examine marriage timing, the theory of general equilibrium, and the theory of optimal assignments. The author concludes that the existing economic literature does not adequately deal with either the timing of marriage or future uncertainty concerning marriage.

  1. Project analysis and integration economic analyses summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macomber, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    An economic-analysis summary was presented for the manufacture of crystalline-silicon modules involving silicon ingot/sheet, growth, slicing, cell manufacture, and module assembly. Economic analyses provided: useful quantitative aspects for complex decision-making to the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project; yardsticks for design and performance to industry; and demonstration of how to evaluate and understand the worth of research and development both to JPL and other government agencies and programs. It was concluded that future research and development funds for photovoltaics must be provided by the Federal Government because the solar industry today does not reap enough profits from its present-day sales of photovoltaic equipment.

  2. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  3. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  4. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan

    2014-08-27

    This report is the third annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market. It includes the following major sections: Section 1: key data on developments in the offshore wind technology sector and the global development of offshore wind projects, with a particular focus on progress in the United States; Section 2: analysis of policy developments at the federal and state levels that have been effective in advancing offshore wind deployment in the United States; Section 3: analysis of actual and projected economic impact, including regional development and job creation; Section 4: analysis of developments in relevant sectors of the economy with the potential to affect offshore wind deployment in the United States

  5. Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortin, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

  6. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis. 200.23a Section 200.23a Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible...

  7. Economic analysis of recycling contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen, A.; Ayers, K.W.; Boren, J.K.; Parker, F.L.

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning activities in the DOE complex generate large volumes of radioactively contaminated and uncontaminated concrete. Currently, this concrete is usually decontaminated, the contaminated waste is disposed of in a LLW facility and the decontaminated concrete is placed in C&D landfills. A number of alternatives to this practice are available including recycling of the concrete. Cost estimates for six alternatives were developed using a spreadsheet model. The results of this analysis show that recycling alternatives are at least as economical as current practice.

  8. Economic Aspects of Higher Education Taken Under the World War II Bill of Rights. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggertsson, Thrainn

    The aim of this thesis is to bring to bear the concepts, tools, and theories of human capital and human resources economics to evaluate the Federal Government's massive involvement in higher education under the World War II GI Bill of Rights. The major findings include estimates of total human capital formation by education, both during and after…

  9. Economic analysis of the space shuttle system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of the space shuttle system is presented. The analysis is based on economic benefits, recurring costs, non-recurring costs, and ecomomic tradeoff functions. The most economic space shuttle configuration is determined on the basis of: (1) objectives of reusable space transportation system, (2) various space transportation systems considered and (3) alternative space shuttle systems.

  10. Law and Technology Theory: Bringing in Some Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosow, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The author argues economic analysis needs to be explicitly included in an overall theory of law and technology. Differing approaches to the economics of information are considered, and the copyright policy environment of the 1990s is taken as an example of how the lack of substantive economic analysis resulted in poor policy-making.

  11. Economic analysis of the health impacts of housing improvement studies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Elisabeth; Macdonald, Catriona; Thomson, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the difficulties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. Methods Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had reported costs and economic analysis (n=29/45). The reported data were assessed for their suitability to economic evaluation. Where an economic analysis was reported the analysis was described according to pre-set definitions of various types of economic analysis used in the field of health economics. Results 25 studies reported cost data on the intervention and/or benefits to the recipients. Of these, 11 studies reported data which was considered amenable to economic evaluation. A further four studies reported conducting an economic evaluation. Three of these studies presented a hybrid ‘balance sheet’ approach and indicated a net economic benefit associated with the intervention. One cost-effectiveness evaluation was identified but the data were unclearly reported; the cost-effectiveness plane suggested that the intervention was more costly and less effective than the status quo. Conclusions Future studies planning an economic evaluation need to (i) make best use of available data and (ii) ensure that all relevant data are collected. To facilitate this, economic evaluations should be planned alongside the intervention with input from health economists from the outset of the study. When undertaken appropriately, economic evaluation provides the potential to make significant contributions to housing policy. PMID:23929616

  12. Economic analysis of the health impacts of housing improvement studies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Elisabeth; Macdonald, Catriona; Thomson, Hilary

    2013-10-01

    Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the difficulties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had reported costs and economic analysis (n=29/45). The reported data were assessed for their suitability to economic evaluation. Where an economic analysis was reported the analysis was described according to pre-set definitions of various types of economic analysis used in the field of health economics. 25 studies reported cost data on the intervention and/or benefits to the recipients. Of these, 11 studies reported data which was considered amenable to economic evaluation. A further four studies reported conducting an economic evaluation. Three of these studies presented a hybrid 'balance sheet' approach and indicated a net economic benefit associated with the intervention. One cost-effectiveness evaluation was identified but the data were unclearly reported; the cost-effectiveness plane suggested that the intervention was more costly and less effective than the status quo. Future studies planning an economic evaluation need to (i) make best use of available data and (ii) ensure that all relevant data are collected. To facilitate this, economic evaluations should be planned alongside the intervention with input from health economists from the outset of the study. When undertaken appropriately, economic evaluation provides the potential to make significant contributions to housing policy.

  13. Basic relationships for LTA economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Operating costs based on data of actual and proposed airships for conventional lighter than air craft (LTA) are presented. An economic comparison of LTA with the B-47F is included, and possible LTA economic trends are discussed.

  14. EMERGY ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our mission at USEPA is to protect human health and safeguard the natural environment. We aim to base our environmental regulations and policies on sound scientific and, where appropriate, economic analyses. Although EPA has conducted analysis of the impact of regulations on ...

  15. EMERGY ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our mission at USEPA is to protect human health and safeguard the natural environment. We aim to base our environmental regulations and policies on sound scientific and, where appropriate, economic analyses. Although EPA has conducted analysis of the impact of regulations on ...

  16. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  17. Economic analysis of basiliximab in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Keown, P A; Balshaw, R; Krueger, H; Baladi, J F

    2001-06-15

    groups. The principal costs associated with repeat admission to the transplant ward and the general ward were marginally higher for placebo ($7,395 vs. $6,300 and $5,986 vs. $4,625). Treatment of acute rejection and maintenance immunosuppressive drug use were associated with only limited savings as a result of basiliximab (savings <$200 each). Sensitivity analysis indicated that the most influential parameters affecting the savings as a result of using basiliximab were a reduction in the duration of initial and repeat hospitalization followed by the reduced risks of acute rejection and graft loss. Before accounting for the cost of the therapy itself, basiliximab produces an estimated economic saving of $4,554 during the first year after transplant, of which $3,344 is attributable to the reduced costs of graft dysfunction, including graft loss and dialysis ($1,722) and follow-up hospitalizations ($1,622). When marketed, basiliximab is expected to cost approximately $3,000 per course (two doses of 20 mg), resulting in a net first-year saving of $1,554. Under these circumstances, basiliximab can be considered a dominant therapy in renal transplantation.

  18. Advancing school-based interventions through economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Tina M; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis within school-based prevention remains cursory. Largely, economic analyses of school-based prevention efforts are undertaken as secondary research. This limits these efforts to data that have been collected previously as part of epidemiological and outcomes research. Therefore, economic analyses suffer from gaps in the knowledge generated by these studies. This chapter addresses the importance of economic analysis for the future of school-based substance abuse prevention programs and highlights the role of prevention research in the development of knowledge that can be used for economic analysis.

  19. The Potential Economic Impact of Electricity Restructuring in the State of Oklahoma: Phase II Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, SW

    2001-10-30

    Because of the recent experiences of several states undergoing restructuring (e.g., higher prices, greater volatility, lower reliability), concerns have been raised in states currently considering restructuring as to whether their systems are equally vulnerable. Factors such as local generation costs, transmission constraints, market concentration, and market design can all play a role in the success or failure of the market. These factors along with the mix of generation capacity supplying the state will influence the relative prices paid by consumers. The purpose of this project is to provide a model and process to evaluate the potential price and economic impacts of restructuring the Oklahoma electric industry. The Phase I report concentrated on providing an analysis of the Oklahoma system in the near-term, using only present generation resources and customer demands. This Phase II study analyzed the Oklahoma power market in 2010, incorporating the potential of new generation resources and customer responses. Five key findings of this Phase II were made: (1) Projected expansion in generating capacity exceeds by over 3,000 MW the demands within the state plus the amount that could be exported with the current transmission system. (2) Even with reduced new plant construction, most new plants could lose money (although residential consumers would see lower rates) unless they have sufficient market power to raise their prices without losing significant market share (Figure S-1). (3) If new plants can raise prices to stay profitable, existing low-cost coal and hydro plants will have very high profits. Average prices to customers could be 5% to 25% higher than regulated rates (Figure S-1). If the coal and hydro plants are priced at cost-based rates (through long-term contracts or continued regulation) while all other plants use market-based rates then prices are lower. (4) Customer response to real-time prices can lower the peak capacity requirements by around 9

  20. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe.

    PubMed

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P; Winter, Joachim K

    2014-03-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure-experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages.

  1. Economic Impact Forecast System (EIFS) II: User’s Manual. Updated Edition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    to EIFS II. 4J. W. Hamilton and R. D. Webster, Economic Impact Forecast System, Version 2.0: User’s Manual, Technical Report N-69/ADA117661 (CERL...out. 19 U of I Computing Services Office Unix System Login: hamilton Password: 12Jan79 sys =- da.noncpunix. (misc) For Unix help, type help rp5: 2087...Estimates of Regional Input-Output Multipliers: Methodology and Evaluation." 16J. W. Hamilton and R. D. Webster, Local Economic Consequences Study (LECS

  2. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  3. Advancing School-Based Interventions through Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Tina M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis…

  4. Advancing School-Based Interventions through Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Tina M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis…

  5. Task Analysis Inventories. Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Carl E.

    This second in a series of task analysis inventories contains checklists of work performed in twenty-two occupations. Each inventory is a comprehensive list of work activities, responsibilities, educational courses, machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used and the products produced or services rendered in a designated occupational area. The…

  6. Economic analysis of aeronautical research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gellman, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The appropriateness of government intervention in the civilian market for aeronautics research and technology (R&T) is examined. The economic rationale for government intervention is examined. The conclusion is that the institutional role played by NASA in civilian aeronautics R&T markets is economically justified.

  7. Welfare Triangles and Economic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the concepts of consumer's surplus and producer's surplus can be related to basic welfare economics. Provides illustrations of the ways in which these concepts can be applied in introductory economics courses. Examines the social cost of monopoly, the tax burden, free trade, tariffs, and the English Channel Tunnel. (KO)

  8. Welfare Triangles and Economic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the concepts of consumer's surplus and producer's surplus can be related to basic welfare economics. Provides illustrations of the ways in which these concepts can be applied in introductory economics courses. Examines the social cost of monopoly, the tax burden, free trade, tariffs, and the English Channel Tunnel. (KO)

  9. Economic Analysis of Biological Invasions in Forests

    Treesearch

    Tomas P. Holmes; Julian Aukema; Jeffrey Englin; Robert G. Haight; Kent Kovacs; Brian Leung

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions of native forests by nonnative pests result from complex stochastic processes that are difficult to predict. Although economic optimization models describe efficient controls across the stages of an invasion, the ability to calibrate such models is constrained by lack of information on pest population dynamics and consequent economic damages. Here...

  10. Economic Analysis and Assumptions in Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven L.

    Economic educators recognize the importance of a global perspective, at least in part because the international sector has become more important over the past few decades. The application of economic principles calls into question some assumptions that appear to be common among members of the global education movement. That these assumptions might…

  11. Business Conditions and Economic Analysis: An Experiential Learning Program for Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Robert C.; Stevens, Jerry L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the Business Conditions and Economic Analysis (BCEA) program developed at the University of Richmond. The BCEA program is an experiential learning format for economics students built on the success of student-managed investment funds (SMIF) in finance. In its initial implementation, the BCEA group conducts domestic and global…

  12. Summary of CPAS Gen II Parachute Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Moore, James W.; Olson, Leah M.; Ray, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft is currently under development by NASA and Lockheed Martin. Like Apollo, Orion will use a series of parachutes to slow its descent and splashdown safely. The Orion parachute system, known as the CEV Parachute Assembly System (CPAS), is being designed by NASA, the Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG), and Airborne Systems. The first generation (Gen I) of CPAS testing consisted of thirteen tests and was executed in the 2007-2008 timeframe. The Gen I tests provided an initial understanding of the CPAS parachutes. Knowledge gained from Gen I testing was used to plan the second generation of testing (Gen II). Gen II consisted of six tests: three singleparachute tests, designated as Main Development Tests, and three Cluster Development Tests. Gen II required a more thorough investigation into parachute performance than Gen I. Higher fidelity instrumentation, enhanced analysis methods and tools, and advanced test techniques were developed. The results of the Gen II test series are being incorporated into the CPAS design. Further testing and refinement of the design and model of parachute performance will occur during the upcoming third generation of testing (Gen III). This paper will provide an overview of the developments in CPAS analysis following the end of Gen I, including descriptions of new tools and techniques as well as overviews of the Gen II tests.

  13. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  14. WASTES II: Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation. Version II. User's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, M.R.; Buxbaum, M.E.

    1986-02-01

    The WASTES II model was developed to provide detailed analyses beyond the capabilities of other available models. WASTES uses discrete event simulation techniques to model the generation of commercial spent nuclear fuel, the buildup of spent fuel inventories within the system, and the transportation requirements for the movement of radioactive waste throughout the system. The model is written in FORTRAN 77 as an extension to the SLAM commercial simulation language package. In addition to the pool storage and dry storage located at the reactors, the WASTES model provides a choice of up to ten other storage facilities of four different types. The simulation performed by WASTES may be controlled by a combination of source- and/or destination-controlled transfers that are requested by the code user. The user supplies shipping cask characteristics for truck or rail shipment casks. As part of the facility description, the user specifies which casks the facility can use. Shipments within the system can be user specified to occur optimally, or proximally. Optimized shipping can be used when exactly two destination facilities of the same facility type are open for receipt of fuel. Optimized shipping selects source/destination pairs so that the total shipping distance or total shipping costs in a given year are minimized when both facilities are fully utilized. Proximity shipping sequentially fills the closest facility to the source according to the shipment priorities without regard for the total annual shipments. This results in sub-optimal routing of waste material but can be used to approximate an optimal shipping strategy when more than two facilities of the same type are available to receive waste. WASTES is currently able to analyze each of the commercial spent fuel logistics scenarios specified in the 1985 DOE Mission Plan.

  15. [The population and economic issues in West Asia after WW II].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y

    1985-05-29

    Using statistical data, this report analyzes population and economic issues in West Asia after World War II. The high rate of development as witnessed in West Asian countries after their gaining of political independence following World War II was accompained by an accelerated population growth. This population growth spead unevenly among different areas. Based on surveys of 17 countries in West Asia, the socioeconomic development and rapid rate of population growth have largely affected the population age, sex, urban and rural residential, and economic sector employment structures. With the help of indicators and mathematical methods to plot population development, these countries can be divided into 3 categories based on population development features. The semiindustrial countries demonstrate a gradually slowing population growth rate, most of these countries having experienced a peak period in the growth rate during the time of population transition. The agricultural countries show a natural population growth rate which is generally considered low. The 3rd category, the oil-producing countries, are currently experiencing a peak in population growth. In general, the popuation growth rate has dramatically accelerated in West Asia since World War II. Between 1950-1960 this rate was 2.58%; between 1960-1970, 2.75%; and between 1970-1980, 2.92%. This rate shows an increase of 6.6% between 1950-1960 and 6.2% between 1960-1970. It surpasses the average world population growth rate and most of the developing country growth rates. It has been augmented by post-World War II economic and social developments.

  16. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-23

    A typical residential solar water heater, and typical cost and performance information are described briefly. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the Payback Period for any non-typical solar water heater are described. This calculated Payback Period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the puchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. (MHR)

  17. Economic Stimulus Proposals for 2008: An Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    provide broader support for the economy than monetary policy actions alone.” Quoted in Ben Bernanke , “The Economic Outlook,” testimony before the House...limit for mortgages from $417,000 up to $729,750 in high-cost areas. The need for fiscal stimulus depends, by definition, on the state of the economy ...While the economy is not officially in a recession at present, there are signs that economic activity may be slowing. Some economists are predicting

  18. Economic concepts for the analysis of behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, Steven R.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the relationship between schedule of reinforcement, response rate, and choice suggests that certain unifying concepts from economics can contribute to a more complete science of behavior. Four points are made: 1) a behavioral experiment is an economic system and its characteristics—open or closed—can strongly determine the results; 2) reinforcers can be distinguished by a functional property called elasticity; 3) reinforcers may interact as complements as well as substitutes; 4) no simple choice rule, such as strict matching, can account for all choice behavior. PMID:16812188

  19. System 6 alternatives: an economic analysis

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Hansen; Hugh W. Reynolds; Hugh W. Reynolds

    1984-01-01

    Three System 6 mill-size alternatives were designed and evaluated to determine their overall economic potential for producing standard-size hardwood blanks. Internal rates of return ranged from about 15 to 35 percent after taxes. Cost per square foot of blanks ranged from about $0.88 to $1.19, depending on mill size and the amount of new investment required.

  20. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  1. Economic Analysis of Equal Educational Opportunity Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mela, Ken

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods for assessing the impact and economic viability of federal equal-educational-opportunity programs, particularly in higher education. Techniques for gathering needed data and analyzing them are offered in the context of a hypothetical community college Veterans Upward Bound (VUB) program and two real VUB programs. (MSE)

  2. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  3. Buffer$--An Economic Analysis Tool

    Treesearch

    Gary Bentrup

    2007-01-01

    Buffer$ is an economic spreadsheet tool for analyzing the cost-benefits of conservation buffers by resource professionals. Conservation buffers are linear strips of vegetation managed for multiple landowner and societal objectives. The Microsoft Excel based spreadsheet can calculate potential income derived from a buffer, including income from cost-share/incentive...

  4. [Health technology assessment: II. Cost effectiveness analysis].

    PubMed

    Secoli, Silvia Regina; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Ono-Nita, Suzane Kioko; Nobre, Moacyr

    2010-01-01

    New health technologies have made an impact in clinical and economic outcomes. Therefore, research methodologies that allow to evaluate the efficiency of these new technologies such as cost-effectiveness analysis are necessary. Cost-effectiveness analysis assess the value of health care interventions or drugs, the technology. Cost-effectiveness analysis is also deemed a determinant of modern health care practice, because the therapeutic options available at public (SUS) or private health care system must go through a formal health technology assessment in Brazil; thus, both the health care system and the health care professionals have to reevaluate the clinical consequences and costs of their actions to assure that the most efficient technologies are the one used in the practice. In this second article about health technology assessment we review the concepts of cost-effectiveness analysis, the steps involved in performing such analysis, and the criteria most frequently used to critically review the results.

  5. Economic analysis of new space transportation systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An economic analysis of alternative space transportation systems is presented. Results indicate that the expendable systems represent modest investments, but the recurring costs of operation would remain high. The space shuttle and tug system requires a substantial investment, but would substantially reduce the recurring costs of operation. Economic benefits and costs of the different systems are also analyzed. Findings are summarized.

  6. Online Courses, Instructional Quality, and Economics: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Craig H.; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the development of online courses in higher education in terms of the in- structional quality and economic costs. In our conceptual analysis, we point out problems in developing online courses with sufficient quality due to limited funds being made available for online course development. Moreover, economic costs exist…

  7. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  8. Treatment of Periprosthetic Infections: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Vaquero, Daniel; Fernández-Fairen, Mariano; Torres, Ana; Menzie, Ann M.; Fernández-Carreira, José Manuel; Murcia-Mazon, Antonio; Merzthal, Luis

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the existing economic literature, assesses the value of current data, and presents procedures that are the less costly and more effective options for the treatment of periprosthetic infections of knee and hip. Optimizing antibiotic use in the prevention and treatment of periprosthetic infection, combined with systemic and behavioral changes in the operating room, the detection and treatment of high-risk patient groups, as well as the rational management of the existing infection by using the different procedures according to each particular case, could allow for improved outcomes and lead to the highest quality of life for patients and the lowest economic impact. Nevertheless, the costeffectiveness of different interventions to treat periprosthetic infections remains unclear. PMID:23781163

  9. Busted Butte Phase II Excavation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Keifer

    2000-11-29

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an engineering excavation and ground support design for the Busted Butte phase II mine back. The analysis will apply engineering practices and previous proven design methods for pillar design and ground support in accordance with applicable Integrated Safety Management principles and functions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Busted Butte Test Facility. The intended use of this analysis is to provide testing excavation boundaries, ground support and pillar design input to drawing(s) to support test operations implementation. This design activity has been prepared under ''Technical Work Plan For Test Facilities Design FY01 Work Activities'' (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2000b). No deviations from the TWP have been necessary for this analysis.

  10. Economic Analysis of World Bank Education Projects and Project Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vawda, Ayesha Yaqub; Moock, Peter; Gittinger, J. Price; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that World Bank education projects have a higher likelihood of being successful if at the time of appraisal, they underwent good quality economic analysis. Analysis shows a strong relationship between the quality of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis and the quality of project outcomes. Economic…

  11. The different modes of hydro-economic analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harou, J. J.; Binions, O.; Erfani, T.

    2013-12-01

    In the face of growing water demands, climate change and spatial and temporal water access variability, accurately assessing the economic impacts of proposed water resource management changes is useful. The objective of this project funded by UK Water Industry Research was to present and demonstrate a framework for identifying and using the ';value of water' to enable water utilities and their regulators to make better decisions. A hydro-economic model can help evaluate water management options in terms of their hydrological and economic impact at different locations throughout a catchment over time. In this talk we discuss three modes in which hydro-economic models can be implemented: evaluative, behavioral and prescriptive. In evaluation mode economic water demand and benefit functions are used to post-process water resource management model results to assess the economic impacts (over space and time) of a policy under consideration. In behavioral hydro-economic models users are represented as agents and the economics is used to help predict their actions. In prescriptive mode optimization is used to find the most economically efficient management actions such as allocation patterns or source selection. These three types of hydro-economic analysis are demonstrated on a UK watershed (Great River Ouse) that includes 97 different water abstractors from amongst the public water supply, agriculture, industry and energy plant cooling sectors. The following issues under dry and normal historical conditions were investigated: Supply/demand investment planning, societal cost of environmental flows, water market prices, and scarcity-sensitive charges for water rights. The talk discusses which hydro-economic modeling mode is used to study each of these issues and why; example results are shown and discussed. The topic of how hydro-economic models can be built and deployed effectively is covered along with how existing water utility operational and planning tools can be

  12. American Airlines Propeller STOL Transport Economic Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, B.

    1972-01-01

    A Monte Carlo risk analysis on the economics of STOL transports in air passenger traffic established the probability of making the expected internal rate of financial return, or better, in a hypothetical regular Washington/New York intercity operation.

  13. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  14. The science of ecological economics: a content analysis of Ecological Economics, 1989-2004.

    PubMed

    Luzadis, Valerie A; Castello, Leandro; Choi, Jaewon; Greenfield, Eric; Kim, Sung-kyun; Munsell, John; Nordman, Erik; Franco, Carol; Olowabi, Flavien

    2010-01-01

    The Ecological Economics journal is a primary source for inquiry on ecological economics and sustainability. To explore the scholarly pursuit of ecological economics, we conducted a content analysis of 200 randomly sampled research, survey, and methodological articles published in Ecological Economics during the 15-year period of 1989-2004. Results of the analysis were used to investigate facets of transdisciplinarity within the journal. A robust qualitative approach was used to gather and examine data to identify themes representing substantive content found within the span of sampled journal papers. The extent to which each theme was represented was counted as well as additional data, such as author discipline, year published, etc. Four main categories were revealed: (1) foundations (self-reflexive themes stemming from direct discussions about ecological economics); (2) human systems, represented by the themes of values, social indicators of well-being, intergenerational distribution, and equity; (3) biophysical systems, including themes, such as carrying capacity and scarcity, energy, and resource use, relating directly to the biophysical aspects of systems; and (4) policy and management encompassing themes of development, growth, trade, accounting, and valuation, as well as institutional structures and management. The results provide empirical evidence for discussing the future direction of ecological economic efforts.

  15. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE LONGTERM 2 ENHANCED ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents an analysis of the projected costs and benefits of new drinking water regulation that will reduce exposure to disease-causing microorganisms in drinking water. Cost and benefit analysis LT2ESWTR

  16. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE LONGTERM 2 ENHANCED ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents an analysis of the projected costs and benefits of new drinking water regulation that will reduce exposure to disease-causing microorganisms in drinking water. Cost and benefit analysis LT2ESWTR

  17. An economic analysis of migration in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J; Ladman, J R

    1978-07-01

    This paper analyzes internal migration in Mexico over the 1960-70 period. A model of the determinants of migration is specified and estimated for aggregated interstate migration flows. Results show that distance serves as a significant deterrent to migration, that higher destination earning levels are attractive to migrants, and that regions with high unemployment rates experience lower rates of inmigration. An unanticipated finding is that regions with higher earning levels have greater rates of outmigration. The data are disaggregated to examine separate migration relationships for each state. The results are that distance is a lesser deterrent for those migrants with more accessible alternatives, that higher earning levels reduce the deterring effects of distance, and that regions with higher earning levels have lower associated elasticities of migration. It is concluded that economic factors have played a crucial role in internal migration and thus in the changing occupational and geographic structure of the Mexican labor force.

  18. Economic analysis of large solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaiss, Helmut; Nitsch, Joachim; Geyer, Michael

    1987-11-01

    The current status and future potential of solar-tower, parabolic-reflector/Stirling-engine, channel-collector, and photovoltaic solar power plants of capacity 10 MWe or more are discussed. Consideration is given to the geographic and technological limitations, initial investment and operating costs, presently operating facilities, market openings, and critical technological challenges controlling future expansion. Numerical data are presented in tables and graphs, and it is concluded that solar power production will soon become economically competitive. It is suggested that the channel collector, at present the most mature and cost-efficient technology, has the least potential for further improvement, and that parabolic/Stirling and photovoltaic systems are probably better suited to smaller applications than to large-scale commercial power production.

  19. Economical analysis of saturation mutagenesis experiments

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G.; Reetz, Manfred T.; Nov, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Saturation mutagenesis is a powerful technique for engineering proteins, metabolic pathways and genomes. In spite of its numerous applications, creating high-quality saturation mutagenesis libraries remains a challenge, as various experimental parameters influence in a complex manner the resulting diversity. We explore from the economical perspective various aspects of saturation mutagenesis library preparation: We introduce a cheaper and faster control for assessing library quality based on liquid media; analyze the role of primer purity and supplier in libraries with and without redundancy; compare library quality, yield, randomization efficiency, and annealing bias using traditional and emergent randomization schemes based on mixtures of mutagenic primers; and establish a methodology for choosing the most cost-effective randomization scheme given the screening costs and other experimental parameters. We show that by carefully considering these parameters, laboratory expenses can be significantly reduced. PMID:26190439

  20. Quantitative analysis of the economically recoverable resource

    SciTech Connect

    Pulle, C.V.; Seskus, A.P.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain estimates of the economically recoverable gas in the Appalachian Basin. The estimates were obtained in terms of a probability distribution, which quantifies the inherent uncertainty associated with estimates where geologic and production uncertainties prevail. It is established that well productivity on a county and regional basis is lognormally distributed, and the total recoverable gas is Normally distributed. The expected (mean), total economically recoverable gas is 20.2 trillion cubic feet (TCF) with a standard deviation of 1.6 TCF, conditional on the use of shooting technology on 160-acre well-spacing. From properties of the Normal distribution, it is seen that a 95 percent probability exists for the total recoverable gas to lie between 17.06 and 23.34 TCF. The estimates are sensitive to well spacings and the technology applied to a particular geologic environment. It is observed that with smaller well spacings - for example, at 80 acres - the estimate is substantially increased, and that advanced technology, such as foam fracturing, has the potential of significantly increasing gas recovery. However, the threshold and optimum conditions governing advanced exploitation technology, based on well spacing and other parameters, were not analyzed in this study. Their technological impact on gas recovery is mentioned in the text where relevant; and on the basis of a rough projection an additional 10 TCF could be expected with the use of foam fracturing on wells with initial open flows lower than 300 MCFD. From the exploration point of view, the lognormal distribution of well productivity suggests that even in smaller areas, such as a county basis, intense exploration might be appropriate. This is evident from the small tail probabilities of the lognormal distribution, which represent the small number of wells with relatively very high productivity.

  1. Energy, entropy, and economic analysis: some new directions

    SciTech Connect

    Huettner, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    A review of the literature on economic modeling of exhaustible resources notes the debate over how energy analysis, entropy analysis, and economic analysis are related since they all yield different results. The choice of analysis among decision makers shows them dividing into three camps on the basis of the value they give to particular energy sources, the environment, technological change, and other factors. The solution will be a method which combines a realistic treatment of human activity and sees energy as one of several constraints. Future modeling efforts should continue to explore intergenerational equity under uncertainty as well as efficiency. 31 references, 2 figures. (DCK)

  2. Overcoming barriers to integrating economic analysis into risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sandra

    2011-09-01

    Regulatory risk analysis is designed to provide decisionmakers with a clearer understanding of how policies are likely to affect risk. The systems that produce risk are biological, physical, and social and economic. As a result, risk analysis is an inherently interdisciplinary task. Yet in practice, risk analysis has been interdisciplinary in only limited ways. Risk analysis could provide more accurate assessments of risk if there were better integration of economics and other social sciences into risk assessment itself. This essay examines how discussions about risk analysis policy have influenced the roles of various disciplines in risk analysis. It explores ways in which integrated bio/physical-economic modeling could contribute to more accurate assessments of risk. It reviews examples of the kind of integrated economics-bio/physical modeling that could be used to enhance risk assessment. The essay ends with a discussion of institutional barriers to greater integration of economic modeling into risk assessment and provides suggestions on how these might be overcome.

  3. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia.

  4. Chaotic time series analysis in economics: Balance and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Faggini, Marisa

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the paper is not to review the large body of work concerning nonlinear time series analysis in economics, about which much has been written, but rather to focus on the new techniques developed to detect chaotic behaviours in economic data. More specifically, our attention will be devoted to reviewing some of these techniques and their application to economic and financial data in order to understand why chaos theory, after a period of growing interest, appears now not to be such an interesting and promising research area.

  5. Satellite power system: Engineering and economic analysis summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A system engineering and economic analysis was conducted to establish typical reference baselines for the photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear satellite power systems. Tentative conclusions indicate that feasibility and economic viability are characteristic of the Satellite Power System. Anticipated technology related to manufacturing, construction, and maintenance operations is described. Fuel consumption, environmental effects, and orbital transfer are investigated. Space shuttles, local space transportation, and the heavy lift launch vehicle required are also discussed.

  6. An Economic Analysis of College Scholarship Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, John D.

    A national scholarship policy based on a cost-benefit analysis of the social value of education is proposed as one method for improving current patterns of allocating US college scholarships and tuition funds. A central college subsidy agency, operating on a limited budget, would be required to allocate funds according to the maximum overall…

  7. Economic Modeling and Analysis of Educational Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epple, Dennis; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of educational vouchers has evolved from market-based analogies to models that incorporate distinctive features of the educational environment. These distinctive features include peer effects, scope for private school pricing and admissions based on student characteristics, the linkage of household residential and school choices in…

  8. Economic Modeling and Analysis of Educational Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epple, Dennis; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of educational vouchers has evolved from market-based analogies to models that incorporate distinctive features of the educational environment. These distinctive features include peer effects, scope for private school pricing and admissions based on student characteristics, the linkage of household residential and school choices in…

  9. Compendium of Operations Research and Economic Analysis Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    applications. 86-23. Economic Analysis Railway Operacions at the Defense Construction Supply Center (DCSC) (June 1986) The objective of this analysis was...from four DSCs and their totals. First, with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), correlation matrices were developed to determine

  10. Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module II, Your Economic Decisions and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

    Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students function effectively within the rapidly changing…

  11. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  12. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  13. Pilot Economic Analysis of Library Circulation Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF INFORMATION PROCESSING; A * / STRUCTURED APPROACH FOR SIMPLIFYING SYSTEMS DESIGN, Grayce M. Booth , 1973 215. FUNDAMENTALS OF COBOL...IN COMMAND, Hubert Essame, 1974 / * * 404. PEBBLES AS A HOBBY, Janet Barber, 1972 - 405. PEOPLE-ORIENTED COMPUTER SYSTEMS; THE COMPUTER IN / * CRISIS...L, . .. . - m i " I ... ". . LIBRARY DUPLICATION Title, Author, Date : 4C < I 1 i I I Z : I 482. SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS, Cecil I

  14. Economic Analysis of Hazardous Waste Minimization Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    OF REPORT OF THIS PP,,E OF ABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassilied Unclassified SAR NSN 7540 01-280 5500 SuxVl form t (Rev 2- R ]I Pe•nbed or ANSi Srd 2r39...Consulting Associates, Inc.. 15 June 1987). Chapter 7. T . Page, R . Harris, and J. Bruser, Removal of Carcinogens from Drinking Water: A Cost-Benefit Analysis...Pretreatment of Hazardous Waste, EPA/600/D-87/047 (EPA, January 1987), pp 58-70. Page, T ., R . Harris, and J. Bruser. Removal of Carcinogens from Drinking Water

  15. An Economic Analysis of Alternative Tray Pack Sizes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    I"IC FILE COPY TECHNICAL REPORT AD NATICK/TR-90/048 AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE TRAY PACK SIZES BY NMARK M. DAVIS BENTLEY COLLEGE, WALTHAM...AUGUST 199 FINAL REPORT APR 89 TO SEP 89 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE PE 62 786 TRAY PACK SIZES PR AH99...the current tray pack container to a 6/9 and to an 8/12 portion tray padr container. Force structures for field feeding were derived from data

  16. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  17. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  18. Economic effectiveness of disease management programs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Krause, David S

    2005-04-01

    The economic effectiveness of disease management programs, which are designed to improve the clinical and economic outcomes for chronically ill individuals, has been evaluated extensively. A literature search was performed with MEDLINE and other published sources for the period covering January 1995 to September 2003. The search was limited to empirical articles that measured the direct economic outcomes for asthma, diabetes, and heart disease management programs. Of the 360 articles and presentations evaluated, only 67 met the selection criteria for meta-analysis, which included 32,041 subjects. Although some studies contained multiple measurements of direct economic outcomes, only one average effect size per study was included in the meta-analysis. Based on the studies included in the research, a meta-analysis provided a statistically significant answer to the question of whether disease management programs are economically effective. The magnitude of the observed average effect size for equally weighted studies was 0.311 (95% CI = 0.272-0.350). Statistically significant differences of effect sizes by study design, disease type and intensity of disease management program interventions were not found after a moderating variable, disease severity, was taken into consideration. The results suggest that disease management programs are more effective economically with severely ill enrollees and that chronic disease program interventions are most effective when coordinated with the overall level of disease severity. The findings can be generalized, which may assist health care policy makers and practitioners in addressing the issue of providing economically effective care for the growing number of individuals with chronic illness.

  19. Comparative economics of a 12-gene assay for predicting risk of recurrence in stage II colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Steven R; Yu, Tiffany M; Behrens, Robert J; Renfro, Lindsay A; Srivastava, Geetika; Soori, Gamini S; Dakhil, Shaker R; Mowat, Rex B; Kuebler, John P; Kim, George P; Mazurczak, Miroslaw A; Hornberger, John

    2014-12-01

    Prior economic analysis that compared the 12-gene assay to published patterns of care predicted the assay would improve outcomes while lowering medical costs for stage II, T3, mismatch-repair-proficient (MMR-P) colon cancer patients. This study assessed the validity of those findings with real-world adjuvant chemotherapy (aCT) recommendations from the US third-party payer perspective. Costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were estimated for stage II, T3, MMR-P colon cancer patients using guideline-compliant, state-transition probability estimation methods in a Markov model. A study of 141 patients from 17 sites in the Mayo Clinic Cancer Research Consortium provided aCT recommendations before and after knowledge of the 12-gene assay results. Progression and adverse events data with aCT regimens were based on published literature. Drug and administration costs for aCT were obtained from 2014 Medicare Fee Schedule. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the drivers and robustness of the primary outcomes. After receiving the 12-gene assay results, physician recommendations in favor of aCT decreased 22 %; fluoropyrimidine monotherapy and FOLFOX recommendations each declined 11 %. Average per-patient drugs, administration, and adverse events costs decreased $US2,339, $US733, and $US3,211, respectively. Average total direct medical costs decreased $US991. Average patient well-being improved by 0.114 QALYs. Savings are expected to persist even if the cost of oxaliplatin drops by >75 % due to generic substitution. This study provides evidence that real-world changes in aCT recommendations due to the 12-gene assay are likely to reduce direct medical costs and improve well-being for stage II, T3, MMR-P colon cancer patients.

  20. An Economic Analysis of Robotically Assisted Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jason D.; Ananth, Cande V.; Tergas, Ana I.; Herzog, Thomas J.; Burke, William M.; Lewin, Sharyn N.; Lu, Yu-Shiang; Neugut, Alfred I.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To perform an econometric analysis to examine the influence of procedure volume, variation in hospital accounting methodology, and use of various analytic methodologies on cost of robotically assisted hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease and endometrial cancer. METHODS A national sample was used to identify women who underwent laparoscopic or robotically assisted hysterectomy for benign indications or endometrial cancer from 2006 to 2012. Surgeon and hospital volume were classified as the number of procedures performed before the index surgery. Total costs as well as fixed and variable costs were modeled using multivariable quantile regression methodology. RESULTS A total of 180,230 women, including 169,324 women who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy for benign indications and 10,906 patients whose hysterectomy was performed for endometrial cancer, were identified. The unadjusted median cost of robotically assisted hysterectomy for benign indications was $8,152 (interquartile range [IQR] $6,011–10,932) compared with $6,535 (IQR $5,127–8,357) for laparoscopic hysterectomy (P<.001). The cost differential decreased with increasing surgeon and hospital volume. The unadjusted median cost of robotically assisted hysterectomy for endometrial cancer was $9,691 (IQR $7,591–12,428) compared with $8,237 (IQR $6,400–10,807) for laparoscopic hysterectomy (P<.001). The cost differential decreased with increasing hospital volume from $2,471 for the first 5 to 15 cases to $924 for more than 50 cases. Based on surgeon volume, robotically assisted hysterectomy for endometrial cancer was $1,761 more expensive than laparoscopy for those who had performed fewer than five cases; the differential declined to $688 for more than 50 procedures compared with laparoscopic hysterectomy. CONCLUSION The cost of robotic gynecologic surgery decreases with increased procedure volume. However, in all of the scenarios modeled, robotically assisted hysterectomy

  1. An economic analysis of robotically assisted hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jason D; Ananth, Cande V; Tergas, Ana I; Herzog, Thomas J; Burke, William M; Lewin, Sharyn N; Lu, Yu-Shiang; Neugut, Alfred I; Hershman, Dawn L

    2014-05-01

    To perform an econometric analysis to examine the influence of procedure volume, variation in hospital accounting methodology, and use of various analytic methodologies on cost of robotically assisted hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease and endometrial cancer. A national sample was used to identify women who underwent laparoscopic or robotically assisted hysterectomy for benign indications or endometrial cancer from 2006 to 2012. Surgeon and hospital volume were classified as the number of procedures performed before the index surgery. Total costs as well as fixed and variable costs were modeled using multivariable quantile regression methodology. A total of 180,230 women, including 169,324 women who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy for benign indications and 10,906 patients whose hysterectomy was performed for endometrial cancer, were identified. The unadjusted median cost of robotically assisted hysterectomy for benign indications was $8,152 (interquartile range [IQR] $6,011-10,932) compared with $6,535 (IQR $5,127-8,357) for laparoscopic hysterectomy (P<.001). The cost differential decreased with increasing surgeon and hospital volume. The unadjusted median cost of robotically assisted hysterectomy for endometrial cancer was $9,691 (IQR $7,591-12,428) compared with $8,237 (IQR $6,400-10,807) for laparoscopic hysterectomy (P<.001). The cost differential decreased with increasing hospital volume from $2,471 for the first 5 to 15 cases to $924 for more than 50 cases. Based on surgeon volume, robotically assisted hysterectomy for endometrial cancer was $1,761 more expensive than laparoscopy for those who had performed fewer than five cases; the differential declined to $688 for more than 50 procedures compared with laparoscopic hysterectomy. The cost of robotic gynecologic surgery decreases with increased procedure volume. However, in all of the scenarios modeled, robotically assisted hysterectomy remained substantially more costly than laparoscopic

  2. Automated Dental Epidemiology System. II. Systems Analysis and Functional Design,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    A"D-n134 803 AUTOMATED DENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY SYSTEM II SYSTEMSi/ ANALYSIS AND FUNCTIONAL DE5IGN(U) NAVAnL DENTAL RESERRCH INST GREAT LAKES IL M C DIEHL... DENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY SYSTEM: II. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND FUNCTIONAL DESIGN M. C. DIEHL DTICSELECTEOCT 218 D >- NAVAL 8DENTAL RESEARCH ’INSTITUTE Naval...NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL BASE, BUILDING I-H GREAT LAKES, ILLINOIS 60088 AUTOMATED DENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY SYSTEM: II. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

  3. Development of economic consequence methodology for process risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Zadakbar, Omid; Khan, Faisal; Imtiaz, Syed

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive methodology for economic consequence analysis with appropriate models for risk analysis of process systems is proposed. This methodology uses loss functions to relate process deviations in a given scenario to economic losses. It consists of four steps: definition of a scenario, identification of losses, quantification of losses, and integration of losses. In this methodology, the process deviations that contribute to a given accident scenario are identified and mapped to assess potential consequences. Losses are assessed with an appropriate loss function (revised Taguchi, modified inverted normal) for each type of loss. The total loss is quantified by integrating different loss functions. The proposed methodology has been examined on two industrial case studies. Implementation of this new economic consequence methodology in quantitative risk assessment will provide better understanding and quantification of risk. This will improve design, decision making, and risk management strategies.

  4. Assessing Climate Information Use in Agribusiness. Part II: Decision Experiments to Estimate Economic Value.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonka, Steven T.; Changnon, Stanley A.; Hofing, Steven

    1988-08-01

    Difficulty in evaluating the economic effectiveness of climate information is a significant impediment to expanding the use of that information. An innovative approach, combining a decision experiment and an empirical economic analysis was implemented in this paper as a mans to conduct such an economic evaluation. The decision setting was that of planning the distribution of varieties and amounts of seed corn for a major seed corn producing firm in the midwestern United States. Actual managers, accustomed to making this decision, wore provided forecasts of July and August temperature and precipitation. Their responses to that information were evaluated in terms of cost savings for the firm. Across the range of relevant parameter values tested, savings from the use of perfect forecast information were estimated to be 2% to 5% of production costs. Interestingly, imperfect forecasts of relatively adverse conditions were shown to have considerable value. For example, forecasts of adverse condition accurate only 50% of the time, wore shown to have about two-thirds of the value of perfect forecast information.

  5. An Economic Analysis of a Change in an Excise Tax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, John M.; Blanchard, Kelly Hunt; Umbeck, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an example of the effect a change in the excise tax can have on retail gasoline prices. The findings provide support for standard economic theory, as well as provide a vehicle for illustrating some of the subtleties of the analysis, including the implicit assumptions regarding the implications for the buying and selling prices…

  6. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  7. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  8. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  9. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE - VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  10. An Economic Analysis of the Truth in Negotiations Act

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-27

    current TINA practice, despite its good intention, is subject to many unintended negative consequences that arise from contractors’ bad incentives. Such... bad incentives are inherently associated with the current TINA framework. We employ an incentive-centric approach to perform an economic analysis of...14 Various Contract Types and Power Incentive Schemes.............................15 Fixed Price, Cost-Plus, and

  11. An Economic Analysis of a Change in an Excise Tax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, John M.; Blanchard, Kelly Hunt; Umbeck, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an example of the effect a change in the excise tax can have on retail gasoline prices. The findings provide support for standard economic theory, as well as provide a vehicle for illustrating some of the subtleties of the analysis, including the implicit assumptions regarding the implications for the buying and selling prices…

  12. Analysis of recent Council on Economic Priorities newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferson, R M; Luna, R E; McClure, J D; Wilmot, E L

    1982-06-01

    Questions relating to the safety of spent fuel shipments were raised by a recent Council on Economic Priorities Newsletter. Specific quotes from the newsletter were grouped into major issue questions and evaluated to determine consistency with available experimental data and analysis.

  13. Fire in longleaf pine stand management: an economic analysis

    Treesearch

    Rodney L. Busby; Donald G. Hodges

    1999-01-01

    A simulation analysis of the economics of using prescribed fire as a forest management tool in the management of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations was conducted. A management regime using frequent prescribed fire was compared to management regimes involving fertilization and chemical release, chemical control, and mechanical control. Determining the...

  14. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE - VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  15. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  16. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  17. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  18. Economic analysis of transmission line engineering based on industrial engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixuan

    2017-05-01

    The modern industrial engineering is applied to the technical analysis and cost analysis of power transmission and transformation engineering. It can effectively reduce the cost of investment. First, the power transmission project is economically analyzed. Based on the feasibility study of power transmission and transformation project investment, the proposal on the company system cost management is put forward through the economic analysis of the effect of the system. The cost management system is optimized. Then, through the cost analysis of power transmission and transformation project, the new situation caused by the cost of construction is found. It is of guiding significance to further improve the cost management of power transmission and transformation project. Finally, according to the present situation of current power transmission project cost management, concrete measures to reduce the cost of power transmission project are given from the two aspects of system optimization and technology optimization.

  19. Economic Analysis of Family Housing at Fort Lewis, Washington.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    of the Military Authorization Act of 1984 were followed in the analysis. b. MCA housing would involve Government construction, maintenance, and... Government Costs For Economic Analysis 3 1-2 Additional Decision Criteria 4 2-1 Total Housing Supply 9 2-2 Build to Lease Assumptions 12 2-3 Matrix...developer must plan to either demolish the housing and return the land to its .’- natural state or to sell the development to the Government at the end of

  20. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  1. Economic benefits of treating high-risk hypertension with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (blockers).

    PubMed

    Coca, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease and represents a major health and economic burden. Most patients with high- or very high-risk hypertension have multiple cardiovascular risk factors with or without accompanying subclinical organ damage or established cardiovascular or renal disease. Patients with severe hypertension or with moderate hypertension and one to two additional risk factors have absolute 10-year risks of cardiovascular disease of 21-30% and 15-20%, respectively. Current European treatment guidelines recommend that antihypertensive therapy be initiated rapidly and aggressively in patients with high-risk hypertension. Most patients require two or more antihypertensive agents to achieve the strict blood pressure target of <130/80 mmHg. This article reviews the existing cost-effectiveness data on the use of angiotensin II receptor antagonists (blockers) [ARBs] in patients with high-risk hypertension. Aggressive ARB treatment of patients in the early (microalbuminuric) stages of diabetic nephropathy has a significant renoprotective effect, delaying the onset of overt (proteinuric) nephropathy. By slowing the progression of these patients to end-stage renal disease, substantial cost savings can be made. There is a paucity of cost-effectiveness data regarding the use of fixed-dose ARB plus thiazide diuretic combination therapies. Longitudinal cost-benefit studies of this attractive and efficacious first-line treatment option are needed.

  2. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Rodger

    This course presents basic economic concepts and explores issues such as how goods and services are produced and distributed, what affects costs and profits, and how wealth is spread around or concentrated. The course is designed to be used with students enrolled in an adult high school diploma program; course content is appropriate to meet social…

  3. Ex-ante economic analysis of animal disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Tambi, E N; Maina, O W; Mariner, J C

    2004-12-01

    This paper provides an ex-ante economic analysis comparing four alternative intervention strategies for the control and eradication of rinderpest against a scenario of no intervention in a cattle population similar in size to that of Ethiopia. The interventions were three different coverage levels of mass vaccination and one surveillance-based programme where vaccination targeted infected sub-populations. For each scenario, the disease impact was estimated using an open-population, state-transition SEIR ('susceptible', 'exposed', 'infectious', 'recovered') disease transmission model with parameter estimates developed for lineage 1 rinderpest virus. Projected economic surplus gains and costs estimated from the rinderpest eradication programme in Ethiopia were analysed using benefit-cost methods. Social net present values (NPVs) and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) were calculated. Although the economic model found that BCRs were greater than one for all interventions examined, the scenarios of intensive mass vaccination (75% vaccination coverage) and surveillance with targeted vaccination were economically preferable. The BCRs for these strategies were 5.08 and 3.68, respectively. Sensitivity analysis revealed that an increase in market prices for beef and milk increased the value of economic loss, the economic surplus and returns to investments in terms of NPVs and BCRs. An increase in demand and supply elasticities for beef and milk decreased the value of economic losses. This also had a negative effect on economic surplus and NPVs. The effect of an increase in the discount rate reduced returns to investments, with lower NPVs and BCRs. The authors note that 75% mass vaccination coverage was attempted in Ethiopia in the early 1990s, but failed to eradicate rinderpest because the approach was logistically too difficult to implement in practice. Subsequently, an effective surveillance and epidemiologically targeted vaccination programme was developed and has apparently

  4. Run II data analysis on the grid

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Mandrichenko, Igor Terekhov and Frank Wurthwein

    2002-12-02

    In this document, we begin the technical design for the distributed RunII computing for CDF and D0. The present paper defines the three components of the data handling area of Run II computing, namely the Data Handling System, the Storage System and the Application. We outline their functionality and interaction between them. We identify necessary and desirable elements of the interfaces.

  5. Analysis of published economic evaluations of angiotensin receptor blockers.

    PubMed

    Theodoratou, Dorina; Maniadakis, Nikos; Fragoulakis, Vasilis; Stamouli, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we reviewed the published literature on the economic evaluation of the use of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) for the treatment of hypertension, either primary or due to diabetes. An extensive literature review was undertaken. The HEED (Health Economic Evaluations Database) of the Office for Health Economics and the NHS-EED (NHS Economic Evaluation Database) databases were searched. Keywords used were "losartan", "irbesartan", "valsartan", "candesartan", "olmesartan", "telmisartan", "eprosartan", "primary hypertension" and "diabetes". The study included all articles retrieved from 2001 onwards. Exclusion criteria included economic evaluations of ARBs for other indications (e.g. heart failure, myocardial infarction, etc.), an underage population, as well as prevalence studies of hypertension for a disease-specific population. Of the 63 studies retrieved in the literature search, 35 were included in the review. The majority of the studies were of irbesartan (16) or losartan (8). In each study, the model used country-specific data to project and evaluate the clinical and cost outcomes of the treatment arms. The most common method undertaken was cost-consequence analysis (52.94%) followed by cost-effectiveness analysis (32.35%). In most cases, costs and benefits results were not synthesised. Results failed to show a clear advantage in favour of specific therapy, as the outcomes suffered from heterogeneity, referred to specific circumstances and were rather difficult to compare. For different treatment comparators, all the analyses demonstrated an improved life expectancy and a cost-saving choice. The robustness of results was tested with a series of sensitivity analyses, which showed a statistically significant result in each case. The evidence from this review suggests that the available ARBs represent a cost-saving and cost-effective treatment compared with other conventional treatment options for patients with hypertension and associated

  6. [Emergy analysis of ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Qing; Li, Xiu-Juan; Song, Yang; Li, Guang-Jun

    2008-03-01

    By the methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the emergy flow in the ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province in 1990-2005, and the relationships between the environmental stress caused by resources' input, output and consumption and the sustainable development of the Province. The results showed that in Liaoning Province, the non-renewable resources occupied over 74% of the total consumed emergy, and the realistic population in 2005 was 3.26 times higher than the supportable population. In 1990-2005, the emergy yield ratio decreased from 65.40 to 10.13, emergy loading ratio increased from 2.72 to 7.18, and emergy sustainable index decreased from 24.03 to 1.41. The rapid economic growth in Liaoning Province was chiefly supported by the consumption of vast non-renewable resources, which caused the pressure of economic development on ecosystem getting more and more intense, the economic development increasingly depending on exogenous resources, and the sustainable development of Liaoning ecological-economic system having a continuing decrease. To realize the sustainable development in Liaoning Province, the principles of reduction, reutilization and recycling should be taken as the guidelines for promoting the reuse of wastes and the closed fine circulation of resources to minimize the discharge of wastes.

  7. Turning for Ulcer Reduction (TURN) Study: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paulden, Mike; Bergstrom, Nancy; Horn, Susan D.; Rapp, Mary; Stern, Anita; Barrett, Ryan; Watkiss, Michael; Krahn, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Background The Turning for Ulcer Reduction (TURN) study was a multisite, randomized controlled trial that aimed to determine the optimal frequency of turning nursing facility residents with mobility limitations who are at moderate and high risk for pressure ulcer (PrU) development. Here we present data from the economic analysis. Objectives This economic analysis aims to estimate the economic consequences for Ontario of switching from a repositioning schedule of 2-hour intervals to a schedule of 3-hour or 4-hour intervals. Data Sources Costs considered in the analysis included those associated with nursing staff time spent repositioning residents and with incontinent care supplies, which included briefs, barrier cream, and washcloths. Results The total economic benefit of switching to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning is estimated to be $11.05 or $16.74 per day, respectively, for every resident at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs. For a typical facility with 123 residents, 41 (33%) of whom are at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs, the total economic benefit is estimated to be $453 daily for 3-hour or $686 daily for 4-hour repositioning. For Ontario as a whole, assuming that there are 77,933 residents at 634 LTC facilities, 25,927 (33%) of whom are at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs, the total economic benefits of switching to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning are estimated to be $286,420 or $433,913 daily, respectively, equivalent to $104.5 million or $158.4 million per year. Limitations We did not consider the savings the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care might incur should less frequent repositioning reduce the incidence of work-related injury among nursing staff, so our findings are potentially conservative. Conclusions A switch to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning appears likely to yield substantial economic benefits to Ontario without placing residents at greater risk of developing PrUs. PMID:26330894

  8. Southern New Mexico low temperature geothermal resource economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, C.L.; Whittier, J.; Witcher, J.C.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents an overview of geothermal resource development for three-low temperature (i.e, <200{degree}F) sites in southern New Mexico: the Lower Animas Valley, the Las Cruces East Mesa, and Truth or Consequences. This report is intended to provide potential geothermal developers with detailed information on each site for planning and decision making purposes. Included in the overview for each site is both a full site characterization and an economic analysis of development costs associated with the construction and operation of both geothermal and fresh water systems at each of the three locations. The economic analysis focuses on providing utility services to a commercial greenhouse because greenhouse operations are among the most likely candidates for use of the resource base. 9 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. Economic analysis in medical education: definition of essential terms.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2014-10-01

    Medical education is expensive. There is a growing interest in the subject of cost and value in medical education. However, in the medical education literature, terms are sometimes used loosely - and so there is a need for basic grounding in the meaning of commonly used and important terms in medical education economics. The purpose of this article is to define some terms that are frequently used in economic analysis in medical education. In this article, terms are described, and the descriptions are followed by a worked example of how the terms might be used in practice. The following terms are described: opportunity cost, total cost of ownership, sensitivity analysis, viewpoint, activity-based costing, efficiency, technical efficiency, allocative efficiency, price and transaction costs.

  10. Hemophilia home treatment. Economic analysis and implications for health policy.

    PubMed

    Ross-Degnan, D; Soumerai, S B; Avorn, J; Bohn, R L; Bright, R; Aledort, L M

    1995-01-01

    This analysis describes the development of technology for home self-infusion of factor VII in the treatment of hemophilia and its clinical, economic, and social consequences, and uses the case study of such home care treatment to illustrate the potentials and pitfalls of formal economic analyses of programs to treat chronically ill children. A comprehensive review of all original data on hemophilia programs, their related costs, and outcomes, conducted from 1966 through 1993, examined the economic outcomes for two hypothetical cohorts, one aged 0-4 years and the other aged 30-34 years. Including the measurement of treatment effects on the productivity of parental caregivers substantially increases the benefit-cost relationship of an intervention directed at chronically ill children. Increased economic productivity and societal return resulting from such a program for young adults exceeds those for a cohort of children, primarily due to assumptions related to discounting. However, estimation of quality-adjusted life years favors the younger age cohort, since children survive for a longer period of time and with each year survived comes a higher quality of life. Unlike simpler instances in which economic benefits can be shown to outweigh resource costs, policy decisions concerning services for chronically ill children raise an additional set of complex analytic issues. Inclusion of the benefits in productivity experienced by family caregivers provides an important added dimension to such analyses. The development of cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness analyses of these programs illustrates the importance of careful measurement of outcomes and explicit statements of underlying assumptions. Such an analysis of home care for children with hemophilia therefore demonstrates both the strengths and the limitations of this approach.

  11. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of space tug operations is presented. The space tug is defined as any liquid propulsion stage under 100,000 pounds propellant loading that is flown from the space shuttle cargo bay. Two classes of vehicles are the orbit injection stages and reusable space tugs. The vehicle configurations, propellant combinations, and operating modes used for the study are reported. The summary contains data on the study approach, results, conclusions, and recommendations.

  12. The Clinical and Economic Impact of Generic Locking Plate Utilization at a Level II Trauma Center.

    PubMed

    Mcphillamy, Austin; Gurnea, Taylor P; Moody, Alastair E; Kurnik, Christopher G; Lu, Minggen

    2016-12-01

    In today's climate of cost containment and fiscal responsibility, generic implant alternatives represent an interesting area of untapped resources. As patents have expired on many commonly used trauma implants, generic alternatives have recently become available from a variety of sources. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical and economic impact of a cost containment program using high quality, generic orthopaedic locking plates. The implants available for study were anatomically precontoured plates for the clavicle, proximal humerus, distal radius, proximal tibia, distal tibia, and distal fibula. Retrospective review. Level II Trauma center. 828 adult patients with operatively managed clavicle, proximal humerus, distal radius, proximal tibia, tibial pilon, and ankle fractures. Operative treatment with conventional or generic implants. The 414 patients treated with generic implants were compared with 414 patients treated with conventional implants. There were no significant differences in age, sex, presence of diabetes, smoking history or fracture type between the generic and conventional groups. No difference in operative time, estimated blood loss or intraoperative complication rate was observed. No increase in postoperative infection rate, hardware failure, hardware loosening, malunion, nonunion or need for hardware removal was noted. Overall, our hospital realized a 56% reduction in implant costs, an average savings of $1197 per case, and a total savings of $458,080 for the study period. Use of generic orthopaedic implants has been successful at our institution, providing equivalent clinical outcomes while significantly reducing implant expenditures. Based on our data, the use of generic implants has the potential to markedly reduce operative costs as long as quality products are used. Therapeutic Level III.

  13. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  14. Economic analysis of PV hybrid power system: Pinnacles National Monument

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.; Durand, S.; Thomas, M.; Post, H.

    1997-11-01

    PV hybrid electric power systems can offer an economically competitive alternative to engine generator (genset) systems in many off-grid applications. Besides the obvious `green` advantages of producing less noise and emissions, the PV hybrid can, in some cases, offer a lower life-cycle cost (LCC) then the genset. This paper evaluates the LCC of the 9.6 kWp PV hybrid power system installed by the National Park Services (NPS) at Pinnacles National Monument, CA. NPS motivation for installation of this hybrid was not based on economics, but rather the need to replace two aging diesel gensets with an alternative that would be quieter, fuel efficient, and more in keeping with new NPS emphasis on sustainable design and operations. In fact, economic analysis shows a lower 20-year LCC for the installed PV hybrid than for simple replacement of the two gensets. The analysis projects are net savings by the PV hybrid system of $83,561 and over 162,000 gallons of propane when compared with the genset-only system. This net savings is independent of the costs associated with environmental emissions. The effects of including emissions costs, according to NPS guidelines, is also discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Thermo-economic analysis of a trigeneration HCPVT power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selviaridis, Angelos; Burg, Brian R.; Wallerand, Anna Sophia; Maréchal, François; Michel, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    The increasing need for electricity and heat in a growing global economy must be combined with CO2 emissions reduction, in order to limit the human influence on the environment. This calls for energy-efficient and cost-competitive renewable energy systems that are able to satisfy both pressing needs. A High-Concentration Photovoltaic Thermal (HCPVT) system is a cogeneration concept that shows promising potential in delivering electricity and heat in an efficient and cost-competitive manner. This study investigates the transient behavior of the HCPVT system and presents a thermo-economic analysis of a MW-scale trigeneration (electricity, heating and cooling) power plant. Transient simulations show a fast dynamic response of the system which results in short heat-up intervals, maximizing heat recuperation throughout the day. Despite suboptimal coupling between demand and supply, partial heat utilization throughout the year and low COP of commercially available devices for the conversion of heat into cooling, the thermo-economic analysis shows promising economic behavior, with a levelized cost of electricity close to current retail prices.

  16. [Ecological economic analysis of a rice-crab model].

    PubMed

    Chen, Feixing; Zhang, Zengjie

    2002-03-01

    Based on field investigation and experimental data analysis, ecological economic principles were applied to study the structure and function, the characteristics of material and energy flows, and the economic and ecological benefits of a rice-crab model. The results show that rice-crab model had a higher integral benefit than rice model, and its net income, cost-benefit ratio, and labor productivity were increased by 382%, 67.7% and 295%, respectively. In view of the ecological benefits produced, the total nitrogen, alkaline-hydrolyzal nitrogen, total phosphorus, rapidly available phosphorus, rapidly available potassium, and organic matter in the soil after 1-year carb breeding were increased by 10.6%, 3.3%, 5.8%, 11.7%, 3.5% and 10.5%, respectively. Moreover, 6.375 kg N.hm-2 of non-point source pollution load could be cut down annually.

  17. An economic systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite land-mobile radio service systems. The cellular, trunked and satellite land-mobile systems are described. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as functions of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/km squared) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  18. An economics systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite systems is considered. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as a function of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/sq km) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price/demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  19. An economic systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite land-mobile radio service systems. The cellular, trunked and satellite land-mobile systems are described. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as functions of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/km squared) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  20. Techno-economic analysis of biofuel production considering logistic configurations.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Hu, Guiping

    2016-04-01

    In the study, a techno-economic analysis method considering logistic configurations is proposed. The economic feasibility of a low temperature biomass gasification pathway and an integrated pathway with fast pyrolysis and bio-oil gasification are evaluated and compared with the proposed method in Iowa. The results show that both pathways are profitable, biomass gasification pathway could achieve an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 10.00% by building a single biorefinery and integrated bio-oil gasification pathway could achieve an IRR of 3.32% by applying decentralized supply chain structure. A Monte-Carlo simulation considering interactions among parameters is also proposed and conducted, which indicates that both pathways are at high risk currently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis of Mg(II), Ca(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pt(II) adducts with monomethoxypolyethylene glycol 5000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwelase, S. R.; Bariyanga, J.

    2002-05-01

    We have prepared and isolated complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pt(II) with monomethoxypolyethylene glycol 5000 in a pH 7 buffer at 40 °C in order to study the interaction of this polymer carrier with the ions likely to be found in the human body. Their characterization was done by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, thermogravimetry and elemental analysis. The mass spectra allowed us to determine not only the molecular weights but also the nature of the complexes and the findings were in agreement with the elementary analysis data. The calcium ion was found not directly linked to polyethylene glycol but through water molecules. The overall results indicated strong bonding for Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes and weak interactions for Mg(II), Ca(II) and Pt(II).

  2. Clinical laboratory as an economic model for business performance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buljanović, Vikica; Patajac, Hrvoje; Petrovečki, Mladen

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a clinical laboratory as an economic model that may be used to improve business performance of laboratories by removing weaknesses, minimizing threats, and using external opportunities and internal strengths. Methods Impact of possible threats to and weaknesses of the Clinical Laboratory at Našice General County Hospital business performance and use of strengths and opportunities to improve operating profit were simulated using models created on the basis of SWOT analysis results. The operating profit as a measure of profitability of the clinical laboratory was defined as total revenue minus total expenses and presented using a profit and loss account. Changes in the input parameters in the profit and loss account for 2008 were determined using opportunities and potential threats, and economic sensitivity analysis was made by using changes in the key parameters. The profit and loss account and economic sensitivity analysis were tools for quantifying the impact of changes in the revenues and expenses on the business operations of clinical laboratory. Results Results of simulation models showed that operational profit of €470 723 in 2008 could be reduced to only €21 542 if all possible threats became a reality and current weaknesses remained the same. Also, operational gain could be increased to €535 804 if laboratory strengths and opportunities were utilized. If both the opportunities and threats became a reality, the operational profit would decrease by €384 465. Conclusion The operational profit of the clinical laboratory could be significantly reduced if all threats became a reality and the current weaknesses remained the same. The operational profit could be increased by utilizing strengths and opportunities as much as possible. This type of modeling may be used to monitor business operations of any clinical laboratory and improve its financial situation by

  3. Clinical laboratory as an economic model for business performance analysis.

    PubMed

    Buljanović, Vikica; Patajac, Hrvoje; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2011-08-15

    To perform SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a clinical laboratory as an economic model that may be used to improve business performance of laboratories by removing weaknesses, minimizing threats, and using external opportunities and internal strengths. Impact of possible threats to and weaknesses of the Clinical Laboratory at Našice General County Hospital business performance and use of strengths and opportunities to improve operating profit were simulated using models created on the basis of SWOT analysis results. The operating profit as a measure of profitability of the clinical laboratory was defined as total revenue minus total expenses and presented using a profit and loss account. Changes in the input parameters in the profit and loss account for 2008 were determined using opportunities and potential threats, and economic sensitivity analysis was made by using changes in the key parameters. The profit and loss account and economic sensitivity analysis were tools for quantifying the impact of changes in the revenues and expenses on the business operations of clinical laboratory. Results of simulation models showed that operational profit of €470 723 in 2008 could be reduced to only €21 542 if all possible threats became a reality and current weaknesses remained the same. Also, operational gain could be increased to €535 804 if laboratory strengths and opportunities were utilized. If both the opportunities and threats became a reality, the operational profit would decrease by €384 465. The operational profit of the clinical laboratory could be significantly reduced if all threats became a reality and the current weaknesses remained the same. The operational profit could be increased by utilizing strengths and opportunities as much as possible. This type of modeling may be used to monitor business operations of any clinical laboratory and improve its financial situation by implementing changes in the next fiscal

  4. An Analysis of Economic Learning among Undergraduates in Introductory Economics Courses in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happ, Roland; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Schmidt, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the findings of a pretest-posttest measurement of the economic knowledge of students in introductory economics courses in undergraduate study programs in Germany. The responses of 403 students to 14 items selected from the "Test of Economic Literacy" (Soper and Walstad 1987) were analyzed to identify…

  5. An Analysis of Economic Learning among Undergraduates in Introductory Economics Courses in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happ, Roland; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Schmidt, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the findings of a pretest-posttest measurement of the economic knowledge of students in introductory economics courses in undergraduate study programs in Germany. The responses of 403 students to 14 items selected from the "Test of Economic Literacy" (Soper and Walstad 1987) were analyzed to identify…

  6. Folic acid fortification of grain: an economic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Romano, P S; Waitzman, N J; Scheffler, R M; Pi, R D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to compare the economic costs and benefits of fortifying grain with folic acid to prevent neural tube defects. METHODS. A cost-benefit analysis based on the US population, using the human capital approach to estimate the costs associated with preventable neural tube defects, was conducted. RESULTS. Under a range of assumptions about discount rates, baseline folate intake, the effectiveness of folate in preventing neural tube defects, the threshold dose that minimizes risk, and the cost of surveillance, fortification would likely yield a net economic benefit. The best estimate of this benefit is $94 million with low-level (140 micrograms [mcg] per 100 g grain) fortification and $252 million with high-level (350 mcg/100 g) fortification. The benefit-to-cost ratio is estimated at 4.3:1 for low-level and 6.1:1 for high-level fortification. CONCLUSIONS. By averting costly birth defects, folic acid fortification of grain in the United States may yield a substantial economic benefit. We may have underestimated net benefits because of unmeasured costs of neural tube defects and unmeasured benefits of higher folate intake. We may have overestimated net benefits if the cost of neurologic sequelae related to delayed diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds our projection. PMID:7733427

  7. The MATHEMATICA economic analysis of the Space Shuttle System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiss, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed economic analysis shows the Thrust Assisted Orbiter Space Shuttle System (TAOS) to be the most economic Space Shuttle configuration among the systems studied. The development of a TAOS Shuttle system is economically justified within a level of space activities between 300 and 360 Shuttle flights in the 1979-1990 period, or about 25 to 30 flights per year, well within the U.S. Space Program including NASA and DoD missions. If the NASA and DoD models are taken at face value (624 flights), the benefits of the Shuttle system are estimated to be $13.9 billion with a standard deviation of plus or minus $1.45 billion in 1970 dollars (at a 10% social rate of discount). If the expected program is modified to 514 flights (in the 1979-1990 period), the estimated benefits of the Shuttle system are $10.2 billion, with a standard deviation of $940 million (at a 10% social rate of discount).

  8. The MATHEMATICA economic analysis of the Space Shuttle System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiss, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed economic analysis shows the Thrust Assisted Orbiter Space Shuttle System (TAOS) to be the most economic Space Shuttle configuration among the systems studied. The development of a TAOS Shuttle system is economically justified within a level of space activities between 300 and 360 Shuttle flights in the 1979-1990 period, or about 25 to 30 flights per year, well within the U.S. Space Program including NASA and DoD missions. If the NASA and DoD models are taken at face value (624 flights), the benefits of the Shuttle system are estimated to be $13.9 billion with a standard deviation of plus or minus $1.45 billion in 1970 dollars (at a 10% social rate of discount). If the expected program is modified to 514 flights (in the 1979-1990 period), the estimated benefits of the Shuttle system are $10.2 billion, with a standard deviation of $940 million (at a 10% social rate of discount).

  9. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biofuels Production Based on Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, R. M.; Platon, A.; Satrio, J. A.; Brown, R. C.; Hsu, D. D.

    2010-11-01

    This study compares capital and production costs of two biomass-to-liquid production plants based on gasification. The first biorefinery scenario is an oxygen-fed, low-temperature (870?C), non-slagging, fluidized bed gasifier. The second scenario is an oxygen-fed, high-temperature (1,300?C), slagging, entrained flow gasifier. Both are followed by catalytic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and hydroprocessing to naphtha-range (gasoline blend stock) and distillate-range (diesel blend stock) liquid fractions. Process modeling software (Aspen Plus) is utilized to organize the mass and energy streams and cost estimation software is used to generate equipment costs. Economic analysis is performed to estimate the capital investment and operating costs. Results show that the total capital investment required for nth plant scenarios is $610 million and $500 million for high-temperature and low-temperature scenarios, respectively. Product value (PV) for the high-temperature and low-temperature scenarios is estimated to be $4.30 and $4.80 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE), respectively, based on a feedstock cost of $75 per dry short ton. Sensitivity analysis is also performed on process and economic parameters. This analysis shows that total capital investment and feedstock cost are among the most influential parameters affecting the PV.

  10. Economic Analysis of Investment and Regulatory Decisions--A Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-15

    wismoi COST OL COSTo B u g ’ j~ Y Y A . eeu bCan55 a lOYAi L-U Ina COLc. N&’TIL s95 * m* e (44 ACCOUNT :eAseewe YOIAL .3 . 06& * mlcc ~ oww~ (bt...value of each component. This permits additional effort to be devoted to improving the reliability of estimates for those components to which the results...are sensitive. Where reliability cannot be improved, it puts the decisionmaker on notice as to potential weaknesses of the economic analysis. To

  11. The Global Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance: Insights from Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Karen; Zhang, Ruifang; Zeckhauser, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR) limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement other methods of tracing the evolution of AR internationally. We also discuss integrating antimicrobial stewardship into global health governance. PMID:20948953

  12. ANALYSIS OF NSLS-II TOUSCHEK LIFETIME

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.; Kramer, S.L.

    2011-03-28

    As scrapers are adopted for the loss control of NSLS-II storage ring, Touschek lifetime estimations for various cases are required to assure the stable operation. However, to estimate the Touschek lifetime, momentum apertures should be measured all along the ring and, if we want to estimate the lifetime in various situations, it can take extremely long time. Thus, rather than simulating for each case, a semi-analytic methods with the interpolations are used for the measurements of the momentum apertures. In this paper, we described the methods and showed the results. Having enough Touschek lifetime is important for synchrotron light source for the users to perform experiments with stable beams. In NSLS-II, the scrapers will be installed for the loss control. Especially, the horizontal scrapers will be installed where the dispersions are maximum. Therefore, we need to find the proper scraper gap values which do not reduce the lifetime too much for the stable beam operation. To estimate reliable Touschek lifetime, we should measure the momentum apertures at many positions along the ring. For the rough estimation of the Touschek lifetime, the RF momentum acceptance can be used and for a more detailed estimation, the linear approximation of synchrotron oscillation can be used. However, for the strong focussing synchrotrons, like NSLS-II, the linear approximation is not enough to obtain the reliable momentum apertures, and, in general, particle tracking simulations are used. However, for NSLS-II case, we need to track the particle about 400 turns at each point to make it a full synchrotron oscillation period and to obtain the reliable Touschek lifetime we need measure the momentum apertures at several hundred positions at least. Therefore, it can take quite a long time if we want to have the reasonable resolution for the measurements. Furthermore, at the simulation, if we want to measure the aperture inside a element, we should divide the element and this will make the

  13. The Use of Programmable Calculators in the Teaching of Economics, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addis, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the use of programmable calculators to perform classroom controlled experiments on economic models. The complete program for exploring the dynamics of the Harrod-Domar equation is given. Some difficulties encountered and statistical uses are mentioned. (BC)

  14. Economic analysis of an immunosuppressive strategy in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, T; Fagnani, F; Lanoe, J L; Hourmant, M; Soulillou, J P

    1988-01-01

    Recently introduced immunosuppressants, which have been shown to be more effective but apparently more costly than conventional regimens, have renewed interest in the economic evaluation of national policies regarding the management of end-stage renal disease. The present paper addresses these questions, together with the different methods of expressing the costs involved, with reference to a sequential protocol using anti-lymphocyte serum (ALS), followed by cyclosporine from the third post-graft month onwards. The analysis is based on the results of a randomized trial carried out at the University Hospital, Nantes (France), from 1982 to 1984, in which the above protocol was compared to conventional treatment with ALS alone. Despite the considerable cost of long-term cyclosporine treatment, analysis reveals collective financial and social benefits from the reduced rate of graft failure and subsequent return to dialysis.

  15. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis of algae biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Sanjay; Chou, Siaw Kiang; Cao, Shenyan; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Algae biodiesel is a promising but expensive alternative fuel to petro-diesel. To overcome cost barriers, detailed cost analyses are needed. A decade-old cost analysis by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicated that the costs of algae biodiesel were in the range of $0.53-0.85/L (2012 USD values). However, the cost of land and transesterification were just roughly estimated. In this study, an updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis was conducted with optimized processes and improved cost estimations. Latest process improvement, quotes from vendors, government databases, and other relevant data sources were used to calculate the updated algal biodiesel costs, and the final costs of biodiesel are in the range of $0.42-0.97/L. Additional improvements on cost-effective biodiesel production around the globe to cultivate algae was also recommended. Overall, the calculated costs seem promising, suggesting that a single step biodiesel production process is close to commercial reality.

  16. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions.

  17. Tritium modeling/BEATRIX-II data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.; Attaya, H.; Johnson, C.E.; Kopasz, J.P.

    1992-12-31

    Models have been developed to describe the tritium transport in Li{sub 2}O. The mechanisms considered are bulk diffusion, surface desorption, surface adsorption, and solubility. These models have been incorporated into the TIARA steady-state inventory code and the DISPL2 steady-state and transient code. Preliminary validation efforts have focused on the inventory and tritium release rate data from in-reactor, purge-flow tests VOM-15H, EXOTIC-2, CRITIC-1, and MOZART. The models and validation effort are reported in detail in ANL/FPP/TM-260. Since the BEATRIX-II data were released officially in November 1991, validation efforts have been concentrated on the tritium release rate data from the {open_quotes}isothermal{close_quotes} thin-ring sample. In this report, results are presented for the comparison of predicted long-time inventory changes (in response to temperature and hydrogen purge pressure changes) to values determined from the tritium release data.

  18. Economic evaluation of four angiotensin II receptor blockers in the treatment of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lesley-Ann; Wade, Rolin; Dai, Dingwei; Cziraky, Mark J; Ramaswamy, Krishnan; Panjabi, Sumeet

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the cost effectiveness of achieving JNC 7 blood pressure goals with angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). Cost effectiveness of olmesartan, losartan, valsartan, and irbesartan was compared with real world patient chart and claims data from a large US health plan. Patients 18 and older with >or=2 claims for an ARB between May 1, 2002 and December 31, 2005 were identified from the claims database. Patients with a diagnosis of hypertension in the 6-month baseline period before the first (index) ARB claim and ARB-free during baseline were included. Medical charts were randomly sampled from the cohort of identified patients; effectiveness data were obtained from charts and linked to healthcare claims and costs. These data were used to populate the decision analytic model. All-cause and hypertension-attributable costs to achieve JNC 7 goals were measured. Comparisons were made within low and high-dose strata and pooled across ARB doses. 121 472 patients were identified, and charts were randomly abstracted for 1600. Of these, 1293 patients were hypertensive at index. Baseline patient characteristics for the chart group were modestly different from the larger cohort. More patients treated with olmesartan (77.8%) than with losartan (66.5%), valasartan (68.8%), or irbesartan (68.8%) achieved JNC 7 BP goals. In pooled-dose comparisons, cost per patient reaching BP goal was $8964 (all-cause) and $2704 (hypertension-attributable) for olmesartan; compared with $10 848 and $3291 for losartan; $10 557 and $3577 for valsartan; and $13395 and $4325 for irbesartan, respectively. The trend was similar for the dose stratification analysis, except in the comparison between high-dose losartan and olmesartan, where losartan had a lower cost-effectiveness ratio. Overall olmesartan was the most effective and cost-saving treatment option compared to losartan, valsartan, and irbesartan for the achievement of JNC 7 BP goals in this managed-care population.

  19. Breeding objectives for pigs in Kenya. II: economic values incorporating risks in different smallholder production systems.

    PubMed

    Mbuthia, Jackson Mwenda; Rewe, Thomas Odiwuor; Kahi, Alexander Kigunzu

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated economic values for production traits (dressing percentage (DP), %; live weight for growers (LWg), kg; live weight for sows (LWs), kg) and functional traits (feed intake for growers (FEEDg), feed intake for sow (FEEDs), preweaning survival rate (PrSR), %; postweaning survival (PoSR), %; sow survival rate (SoSR), %, total number of piglets born (TNB) and farrowing interval (FI), days) under different smallholder pig production systems in Kenya. Economic values were estimated considering two production circumstances: fixed-herd and fixed-feed. Under the fixed-herd scenario, economic values were estimated assuming a situation where the herd cannot be increased due to other constraints apart from feed resources. The fixed-feed input scenario assumed that the herd size is restricted by limitation of feed resources available. In addition to the tradition profit model, a risk-rated bio-economic model was used to derive risk-rated economic values. This model accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and variance of input and output prices. Positive economic values obtained for traits DP, LWg, LWs, PoSR, PrSR, SoSR and TNB indicate that targeting them in improvement would positively impact profitability in pig breeding programmes. Under the fixed-feed basis, the risk-rated economic values for DP, LWg, LWs and SoSR were similar to those obtained under the fixed-herd situation. Accounting for risks in the EVs did not yield errors greater than ±50 % in all the production systems and basis of evaluation meaning there would be relatively little effect on the real genetic gain of a selection index. Therefore, both traditional and risk-rated models can be satisfactorily used to predict profitability in pig breeding programmes.

  20. An economic analysis of the processing technologies in CDW recycling platforms.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Neto, Raul; Gastineau, Pascal; Cazacliu, Bogdan Grigore; Le Guen, Lauredan; Paranhos, Régis Sebben; Petter, Carlos Otávio

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes an economic analysis of three different types of processing in CDW (construction and demolition waste) recycling platforms, according to the sophistication of the processing technologies (current advanced, advanced and advanced sorting). The methodology that is adopted is in the economic evaluation concept of projects and is classified with a scoping study phase. In these contexts, three levels of CDW processing capabilities for recycling platforms are analyzed (100, 300 and 600 thousand tons per year). This article considers databases obtained from similar projects that have been published in the specialized literature; the data sources are primarily from the European continent. The paper shows that current advanced process has better economic performance, in terms of IRR, related to the other two processes. The IRR associated with advanced and advanced sorting processes could be raised by, (i) higher price of secondary primary material, and/or (ii) higher capacity of platforms, and/or (iii) higher sharing of secondary primary material in the total production. The first two points depend on the market conditions (prices and total quantity of CDW available) and (potential) fiscal or incentive policies. The last one depends on technological progress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Employing SWOT Analysis in Coursework on the Geographies of Regional Economic Development and Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Sonnichsen, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The use of SWOT analysis is a means through which geography students can investigate key concepts in economic geography and essential topics in regional economic development. This article discusses the results of a course project where economic geography students employed SWOT analysis to explore medium-sized metropolitan areas across the southern…

  2. Employing SWOT Analysis in Coursework on the Geographies of Regional Economic Development and Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Sonnichsen, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The use of SWOT analysis is a means through which geography students can investigate key concepts in economic geography and essential topics in regional economic development. This article discusses the results of a course project where economic geography students employed SWOT analysis to explore medium-sized metropolitan areas across the southern…

  3. Preparation and Spectrophotometric Analysis of Hexaamminenickel(II) Chloride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an experiment developed at Brooklyn College (New York) in which the preparation and ammonia analysis of an amminenickel(II) chloride is extended to include a spectrophotometric analysis for nickel. Discusses the materials needed and the procedure for the experiment which takes nine hours of laboratory work. (TW)

  4. Preparation and Spectrophotometric Analysis of Hexaamminenickel(II) Chloride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an experiment developed at Brooklyn College (New York) in which the preparation and ammonia analysis of an amminenickel(II) chloride is extended to include a spectrophotometric analysis for nickel. Discusses the materials needed and the procedure for the experiment which takes nine hours of laboratory work. (TW)

  5. Medical Store Management: An Integrated Economic Analysis of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Mahatme, MS; Dakhale, GN; Hiware, SK; Shinde, AT; Salve, AM

    2012-01-01

    Economic analysis plays a pivotal role in the management of medical store. The main objectives of this study were to consider always better control-vital, essential and desirable (ABC-VED) analysis with economic order quantity (EOQ), comparison of indexed cost and the actual cost, and to assess the expenditure for the forthcoming years. Based on cost and criticality, a matrix of nine groups by combining ABC and VED analysis was formulated. Drug categories were narrowed down for prioritization to direct supervisory monitoring. The subgroups AE and AV of the categories category I and II should be ordered based on EOQ. The difference between the actual annual drug expenditure (ADE) and the derived indexed cost using the cost inflation index (CII) was calculated. Linear regression was used to assess the expenditure for the forth coming years. The total ADE for the financial year of 2010–2011 was Rs. 1,91,44,253 which was only 7.68% of annual hospital expenditure. Using the inflation index, the indexed cost of acquisition of ADE for year 2010–2011 was Rs. 1,95,10,387. The difference between the two was estimated to be 2.11%. Thus, the CII justifies the demand of increased budget for next year and prompts us for cautious use of drugs. By taking into consideration the ADE of last 10 years, we have forecasted the budget for forthcoming years which will help significantly for making policies according to the available budget. PMID:22754264

  6. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Mariner, Jeffrey C; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia.

  7. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bryony A.; Rich, Karl M.; Mariner, Jeffrey C.; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R.; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia. PMID:26900944

  8. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T.; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors. PMID:26280804

  10. Economic Analysis of Immunization Strategies for PRRS Control [corrected].

    PubMed

    Linhares, Daniel C L; Johnson, Clayton; Morrison, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) is a swine-specific pathogen that causes significant increases in production costs. When a breeding herd becomes infected, in an attempt to hasten control and elimination of PRRSv, some veterinarians have adopted a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introductions into the herd for several weeks (herd closure) and exposing the whole herd to a replicating PRRSv to boost herd immunity. Either modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine or live field-virus inoculation (FVI) is used. This study consisted of partial budget analyses to compare MLV to FVI as the exposure method of load-close-expose program to control and eliminate PRRSv from infected breeding herds, and secondly to estimate benefit / cost of vaccinating sow herds preventatively. Under the assumptions used in this study, MLV held economic advantage over FVI. However, sensitivity analysis revealed that decreasing margin over variable costs below $ 47.32, or increasing PRRSv-attributed cost above $18.89 or achieving time-to-stability before 25 weeks resulted in advantage of FVI over MLV. Preventive vaccination of sow herds was beneficial when the frequency of PRRSv infection was at least every 1 year and 9 months [corrected]. The economics of preventative vaccination was minimally affected by cost attributed to field-type PRRSv infection on growing pigs or by the breeding herd productivity level. The models developed and described in this paper provide valuable tools to assist veterinarians in their efforts to control PRRSv.

  11. A behavioral economic analysis of fat appetite in rats.

    PubMed

    Freed, D E; Green, L

    1998-12-01

    A behavioral economic analysis of rats' consumption of various fat and sweet solutions was conducted in order to assess whether rats' fat appetite is readily modifiable. According to economic demand theory, changes in the price of a reinforcer will produce substantial changes in its consumption under conditions in which a substitutable reinforcer is available. Results from income-compensated price changes revealed that sucrose, mineral oil and saccharin solutions substituted for a corn oil solution: increases in the price of the corn oil led to large decreases in its consumption and sizable increases in consumption of these alternatives. On the other hand, plain water did not substitute for the corn oil solution: increasing the price of the corn oil did not result in nearly as marked a change in its consumption nor in consumption of the water. Neither the strength of preference for the corn oil under baseline conditions nor the caloric content of the alternative solution predicted whether the alternative reinforcer substituted for the corn oil. Rather, palatability appeared to be a dimension along which substitution was based. These results suggest that fat appetite is modified when palatable alternatives are available, independent of how strongly the fat is preferred.

  12. Production of butyl solvents from lignocellulose: An economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J D; Daling, R; Sandel, R L; Fitzpatrick, S W

    1986-11-01

    A process is described that produces butyl solvents, butanol, isopropanol, and ethanol from wood or other lignocellulosic feedstock. Two new elements of technology introduced are the processing batch reactor developed at SERI that produces high yields of fermentable sugars (hexoses and pentoses) at the appropriate concentration for the butyl solvents fermentation and a novel method of separating products using liquid-liquid extraction, which reduces the separation energy required to about 30% of energy required in the conventional batch method. Economic analysis suggests that the project is attractive at a feedstock capacity of 400,000 dry MTA or larger (178 million lb/yr solvents). There are, however, uncertainties associated with the project because of the relatively early stage of development of the key elements of the process technology and the sensitivity of the DCFIROR to estimated capital cost. A further conclusion is that the process economics would benefit greatly from reduced capital cost of the fermentation section. This could perhaps be accomplished by developing a continuous fermentation process. Such fermentation technology has been demonstrated on laboratory scale, but as far as is known, has not been developed to pilot scale. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. The Planning of Higher Education. The Social Demand. Educational Studies and Social Sciences: A Third Level Course. Economics and Education Policy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Vera; And Others

    Two papers comprising Block II of a course in economics and education policy are presented along with a conclusion to Block I and II of the series published by the Open University. The first paper, "Education as a Social Investment," by Vera Morris, focuses on such areas as the identification of costs and benefits, the return on the social…

  14. Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power: A Comparative Analysis of Impacts within the Western Governors' Association States; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2007-06-01

    This paper uses NREL's newest Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI II) model to assess economic impacts from alternative power technologies, with a focus on wind energy, for a variety of states.

  15. Supplementation to meet metabolizable protein requirements of primiparous beef heifers: II. Pregnancy and economics.

    PubMed

    Patterson, H H; Adams, D C; Klopfenstein, T J; Clark, R T; Teichert, B

    2003-03-01

    Metabolizable protein (MP) requirements of spring calving heifers increase over the winter due to advancing gestation. The MP content of grazed winter forage is low, which may result in an MP deficiency. The objective was to compare the response of supplementing pregnant yearling heifers to meet MP requirements versus conventional CP supplementation. In 1997-98 and in 1998-99, pregnant, March-calving heifers (2,120 animals; 358 kg) at two locations of a commercial ranch in the Nebraska Sandhills, were used following breeding through calving as 2-yr-olds (cows). Heifers were randomly allotted to one of two supplementation treatments (about 265 heifers/treatment) each year at each of two locations (Ashby and Whitman, NE). Treatments were 1) supplementation to meet MP requirements (MPR) or 2) supplementation to meet CP requirements (CPR). Heifers grazed upland range and meadow and were offered supplements three times weekly from mid-September to mid- or late-February. Increasing amounts of meadow hay were fed from mid-December through calving. After supplementation ended in February, heifers were managed in one group at each location until the following October. Body weights and body condition scores were taken in September, February, and October. Two-yr-old pregnancy rates were determined via rectal palpation in October. Capital budgeting techniques were used to determine the economic return of supplementation strategies. There were no differences in BW (P = 0.41) or body condition score (P = 0.99) change during the winter among treatment groups across years and locations, but MPR cows were heavier (425 kg) than CPR cows (421 kg) at the time of 2-yr-old pregnancy testing (P = 0.07). Pregnancy rate was higher (P = 0.001) in the MPR (91%) compared to the CPR treatment (86%). Regression analysis showed that the response of the MPR treatment on pregancy rates tended to be negatively correlated with precalving body condition score (P = 0.11), body condition score loss

  16. The October 1973 NASA mission model analysis and economic assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the 1973 NASA Mission Model Analysis. The purpose was to obtain an economic assessment of using the Shuttle to accommodate the payloads and requirements as identified by the NASA Program Offices and the DoD. The 1973 Payload Model represents a baseline candidate set of future payloads which can be used as a reference base for planning purposes. The cost of implementing these payload programs utilizing the capabilities of the shuttle system is analyzed and compared with the cost of conducting the same payload effort using expendable launch vehicles. There is a net benefit of 14.1 billion dollars as a result of using the shuttle during the 12-year period as compared to using an expendable launch vehicle fleet.

  17. An approach for economic analysis of intermodal transportation.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Bahri; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  18. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode. PMID:25152919

  19. A citation-analysis of economic research institutes.

    PubMed

    Ketzler, Rolf; Zimmermann, Klaus F

    2013-06-01

    The citation analysis of the research output of the German economic research institutes presented here is based on publications in peer-reviewed journals listed in the Social Science Citation Index for the 2000-2009 period. The novel feature of the paper is that a count data model quantifies the determinants of citation success and simulates their citation potential. Among the determinants of the number of cites the quality of the publication outlet exhibits a strong positive effect. The same effect has the number of the published pages, but journals with size limits also yield more cites. Field journals get less citations in comparison to general journals. Controlling for journal quality, the number of co-authors of a paper has no effect, but it is positive when co-authors are located outside the own institution. We find that the potential citations predicted by our best model lead to different rankings across the institutes than current citations indicating structural change.

  20. Weight-loss dieting behavior: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Odelia

    2012-07-01

    In light of the widespread phenomena of diet failure and excessive dieting, this paper presents a theoretical economic analysis of the decision-making process of weight-loss dieting. The paper incorporates behavioral elements involved in the process of dieting: effort exerted in dieting, influence of social norms concerning body weight, time-inconsistent present biased preferences, and a distinction between naiveté and sophistication. The model explains cyclic dieting and provides interesting insights on the extent of weight-loss dieting. The extent of dieting is an increasing function of initial body weight and a decreasing function of the effort exerted in dieting and the strength of social norms concerning ideal weight. Income and diet strictness have an ambiguous effect. In addition, greater dieting efforts are not necessarily balanced against a slowdown in body metabolism or a higher initial body weight.

  1. Orbit Response Matrix Analysis Applied at PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Steier, C.; Wolski, A.; Ecklund, S.; Safranek, J.A.; Tenenbaum, P.; Terebilo, A.; Turner, J.L.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC

    2005-05-17

    The analysis of orbit response matrices has been used very successfully to measure and correct the gradient and skew gradient distribution in many accelerators. It allows determination of an accurately calibrated model of the coupled machine lattice, which then can be used to calculate the corrections necessary to improve coupling, dynamic aperture and ultimately luminosity. At PEP-II, the Matlab version of LOCO has been used to analyze coupled response matrices for both the LER and the HER. The large number of elements in PEP-II and the very complicated interaction region present unique challenges to the data analysis. All necessary tools to make the analysis method useable at PEP-II have been implemented and LOCO can now be used as a routine tool for lattice diagnostic.

  2. Economic Ethics and Industrial Policy: The Analysis of Ethical Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnal, Juliette

    2008-01-01

    Beyond the presupposed cleavage between economics and ethics, the institutional dimension of economic ethics needs to be emphasized. The firm can use a large scope of instruments in order to formalize economic ethics. The asset of ethical standards is that they represent a specific way of coordination. They engender positive effects such as the…

  3. An Analysis of the College's Economic Impact, 1996-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Fred

    This economic impact study examines the ways in which Pellissippi State Technical Community College (Tennessee) is a major contributor to the economic base of Knox and Blount Counties. The report is based on a standard model of economic impact modified for community colleges, and it uses conservative income and employment modifiers to determine…

  4. Economic analysis in support of broad scale land management strategies.

    Treesearch

    Richard. Haynes

    2003-01-01

    The US has a century of experience with the development of forest policies that have benefited from or been influenced by economic research activities in the forest sector. At the same time, increasing rigor in policy debates stimulated economics research. During the past four decades economic research has evolved to include increased understanding of consumer demands...

  5. End-of-Life Care Interventions: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pham, B; Krahn, M

    2014-01-01

    Background The annual cost of providing care for patients in their last year of life is estimated to account for approximately 9% of the Ontario health care budget. Access to integrated, comprehensive support and pain/symptom management appears to be inadequate and inequitable. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of end-of-life (EoL) care interventions included in the EoL care mega-analysis. Data Sources Multiple sources were used, including systematic reviews, linked health administration databases, survey data, planning documents, expert input, and additional literature searches. Review Methods We conducted a literature review of cost-effectiveness studies to inform the primary economic analysis. We conducted the primary economic analysis and budget impact analysis for an Ontario cohort of decedents and their families and included interventions pertaining to team-based models of care, patient care planning discussions, educational interventions for patients and caregivers, and supportive interventions for informal caregivers. The time horizon was the last year of life. Costs were in 2013 Canadian dollars. Effectiveness measures included days at home, percentage dying at home, and quality-adjusted life-days. We developed a Markov model; model inputs were obtained from a cohort of Ontario decedents assembled from Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences databases and published literature. Results In-home palliative team care was cost-effective; it increased the chance of dying at home by 10%, increased the average number of days at home (6 days) and quality-adjusted life-days (0.5 days), and it reduced costs by approximately $4,400 per patient. Expanding in-home palliative team care to those currently not receiving such services (approximately 45,000 per year, at an annual cost of $76–108 million) is likely to improve quality of life, reduce the use of acute care resources, and save $191–$385 million in health care costs. Results for the other

  6. Strategies for Equality: Vocational Education, Including Home Economics and Industrial Arts. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopkin, Doris, Ed.; And Others

    This document contains descriptions of projects in vocational education, including home economics and industrial arts, which were developed by participants in workshops for nondiscriminatory curriculum development training. The first seven chapters describe projects dealing with (1) high school program planning (vocational enrollment survey,…

  7. The Army’s Local Economic Effects: Appendix B, Volume II: Mississippi Through Wyoming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Office asked the RAND Arroyo Center to provide an empirical understanding of how Army spending affects communities and states. This report presents...findings from RAND Arroyo Center research on the economic activity supported by Army spending at the local level.

  8. Energy and Economics for the Middle Grades. Unit II. Lessons and Activities for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backler, Alan

    Working knowledge of basic economics concepts can assist in developing the necessary understanding and decision-making skills inherent in dealing with changing energy situations. The eight basic and four advanced lessons included in this guide have been designed to help students in becoming more aware of the energy choices that they must make in…

  9. Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis: A Foundation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Neoclassical economics has shaped our understanding of human behavior for several decades. While still an important starting point for economic studies, neoclassical frameworks have generally imposed strong assumptions, for example regarding utility maximization, information, and foresight, while treating consumer preferences as given or external to the framework. In real life, however, such strong assumptions tend to be less than fully valid. Behavioral economics refers to the study and formalizing of theories regarding deviations from traditionally-modeled economic decision-making in the behavior of individuals. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has an interest in behavioral economics as one influence on energy demand.

  10. Los Alamos National Laboratory Economic Analysis Capability Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Boero, Riccardo; Edwards, Brian Keith; Pasqualini, Donatella; Rivera, Michael Kelly

    2016-04-19

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed two types of models to compute the economic impact of infrastructure disruptions. FastEcon is a fast running model that estimates first-­order economic impacts of large scale events such as hurricanes and floods and can be used to identify the amount of economic activity that occurs in a specific area. LANL’s Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model estimates more comprehensive static and dynamic economic impacts of a broader array of events and captures the interactions between sectors and industries when estimating economic impacts.

  11. Multiwell experiment: reservoir modeling analysis, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, A.I.

    1985-05-01

    This report updates an ongoing analysis by reservoir modelers at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of well test data from the Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment (MWX). Results of previous efforts were presented in a recent METC Technical Note (Horton 1985). Results included in this report pertain to the poststimulation well tests of Zones 3 and 4 of the Paludal Sandstone Interval and the prestimulation well tests of the Red and Yellow Zones of the Coastal Sandstone Interval. The following results were obtained by using a reservoir model and history matching procedures: (1) Post-minifracture analysis indicated that the minifracture stimulation of the Paludal Interval did not produce an induced fracture, and extreme formation damage did occur, since a 65% permeability reduction around the wellbore was estimated. The design for this minifracture was from 200 to 300 feet on each side of the wellbore; (2) Post full-scale stimulation analysis for the Paludal Interval also showed that extreme formation damage occurred during the stimulation as indicated by a 75% permeability reduction 20 feet on each side of the induced fracture. Also, an induced fracture half-length of 100 feet was determined to have occurred, as compared to a designed fracture half-length of 500 to 600 feet; and (3) Analysis of prestimulation well test data from the Coastal Interval agreed with previous well-to-well interference tests that showed extreme permeability anisotropy was not a factor for this zone. This lack of permeability anisotropy was also verified by a nitrogen injection test performed on the Coastal Red and Yellow Zones. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Long-term clinical and economic analysis of the Endeavor drug-eluting stent versus the Driver bare-metal stent: 4-year results from the ENDEAVOR II trial (Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of the Medtronic AVE ABT-578 Eluting Driver Coronary Stent in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions).

    PubMed

    Eisenstein, Eric L; Wijns, William; Fajadet, Jean; Mauri, Laura; Edwards, Rex; Cowper, Patricia A; Kong, David F; Anstrom, Kevin J

    2009-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate long-term clinical and economic outcomes for subjects receiving Endeavor drug-eluting versus Driver bare-metal stents (both Medtronic CardioVascular, Santa Rosa, California). Early studies found that the drug-eluting stent (DES) was a clinically and economically attractive alternative to the bare-metal stent; however, associations between DES and very late stent thrombosis suggest that longer follow-up is required. We used clinical, resource use and follow-up data from 1,197 subjects randomized to receive Endeavor (n = 598) versus Driver (n = 599) stents in ENDEAVOR II (Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of the Medtronic AVE ABT-578 Eluting Driver Coronary Stent in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions) study with Medicare cost weights and quality of life adjustments applied from secondary sources. We compared differences through 4-year follow-up (1,440 days). Patients in both treatment groups had similar baseline characteristics. The use of Endeavor versus Driver reduced 4-year target vessel revascularization rates per 100 subjects (10.4 vs. 21.5; difference: -11.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -16.0 to -6.1; p < 0.001), with no difference in the rates per 100 subjects of death (5.0 vs. 5.2; difference: -0.2; 95% CI: -2.7 to 2.4; p = 0.90) or nonfatal myocardial infarction (3.2 vs. 4.4; difference: -1.2; 95% CI: -3.4 to 1.0; p = 0.29). After discounting at a 3% annual rate, there were no differences in quality-adjusted survival days (1,093 vs. 1,090; difference: 3; 95% CI: -13 to 19; p = 0.69) and total medical costs ($21,483 vs. $21,680; difference: -$198; 95% CI: -$1,608 to $1,207; p = 0.78). The use of Endeavor versus Driver was associated with a significant reduction in target vessel revascularization through 4-year follow-up with no difference in death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, quality-adjusted survival, or total medical costs. These results are comparable to those for other studies

  13. Efficient ecologic and economic operational rules for dammed systems by means of nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niayifar, A.; Perona, P.

    2015-12-01

    River impoundment by dams is known to strongly affect the natural flow regime and in turn the river attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Making hydropower sustainable implies to seek for innovative operational policies able to generate dynamic environmental flows while maintaining economic efficiency. For dammed systems, we build the ecological and economical efficiency plot for non-proportional flow redistribution operational rules compared to minimal flow operational. As for the case of small hydropower plants (e.g., see the companion paper by Gorla et al., this session), we use a four parameters Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution to mathematically formulate non-proportional redistribution rules. These rules allocate a fraction of water to the riverine environment depending on current reservoir inflows and storage. Riverine ecological benefits associated to dynamic environmental flows are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, we apply nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) to an ensemble of non-proportional and minimal flow redistribution rules in order to generate the Pareto frontier showing the system performances in the ecologic and economic space. This fast and elitist multiobjective optimization method is eventually applied to a case study. It is found that non-proportional dynamic flow releases ensure maximal power production on the one hand, while conciliating ecological sustainability on the other hand. Much of the improvement in the environmental indicator is seen to arise from a better use of the reservoir storage dynamics, which allows to capture, and laminate flood events while recovering part of them for energy production. In conclusion, adopting such new operational policies would unravel a spectrum of globally-efficient performances of the dammed system when compared with those resulting from policies based on constant minimum flow releases.

  14. Economics of lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-11-01

    Interest in alternatives to fossil fuels has risen significantly during the current decade. Although a variety of different alternative technologies have experienced rapid growth, biofuels have emerged as the main alternative transportation fuel. Energy policies in several countries envision blending biofuels with fossil fuels as the main mechanism to increase energy independence and energy security. Climate change policies in several regions are also riding on the same hope for reducing emissions from transportation. The main advantage of biofuels is that they are technically mature, cheaper to produce and more convenient to use relative to other alternative fuels. However, the impact of current biofuels on the environment and on economic welfare, is controversial. In my dissertation I focus on three topics relevant to future energy and climate policies. The first is the economics of lifecycle analysis and its application to the assessment of environmental impact of biofuel policies. The potential of biofuel for reducing greenhouse gas emissions was brought to the fore by research that relied on the methodology called lifecycle analysis (LCA). Subsequent research however showed that the traditional LCA fails to account for market-mediated effects that will arise when biofuel technologies are scaled up. These effects can increase or decrease emissions at each stage of the lifecycle. I discuss how the LCA will differ depending on the scale, a single firm versus a region and why LCA of the future should be distinguished from LCA of the past. I describe some approaches for extending the LCA methodology so that it can be applied under these different situations. The second topic is the economic impact of biofuels. Biofuels reduce the demand for oil and increase the demand for agricultural goods. To high income countries which tend to be both large importers of oil and large exporters of agricultural goods, this implies two major benefits. One of the one hand it reduces

  15. Economic analysis of athletic team coverage by an orthopedic practice.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Nicholas; Freedman, Kevin; Tucker, Brad; Austin, Luke; Eck, Brandon; Pepe, Matt; Tjoumakaris, Fotios

    2015-11-01

    Coverage of high school football by orthopedic sports medicine specialists is considered standard of care in many localities. Determining the economic viability of this endeavor has never been investigated. The primary purpose of the present investigation was to perform an economic analysis of local high school sports coverage by an orthopedic sports medicine practice. From January 2010 to June 2012, a prospective injury report database was used to collect sports injuries from five high school athletic programs covered by a single, private orthopedic sports medicine practice. Patients referred for orthopedic care were then tracked to determine expected cost of care (potential revenue). Evaluation and management codes and current procedure terminology codes were obtained to determine the value of physician visits and surgical care rendered. Overhead costs were calculated based on historical rates within our practice and incorporated to determine estimated profit. 19,165 athletic trainer contacts with athletes playing all sports, including both those 'on-field' and in the training room, resulted in 473 (2.5%) physician referrals. The covering orthopedic practice handled 89 (27.9%) of the orthopedic referrals. Of orthopedic physician referrals, 26 (5.4%) required orthopedic surgical treatment. The covering team practice handled 17/26 (65%) surgical cases. The total revenue collected by the covering team practice was $26,226.14. The overhead cost of treatment was $9441.41. Overall estimated profit of orthopedic visits and treatment during this period for the covering practice was $16,784.73. The covering team practice handled 28% of the orthopedic referrals, 65% of the surgical cases and captured 59% of the potential profit. An increase in physician referrals could increase the benefit for orthopedic surgeons.

  16. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    PubMed

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology.

  17. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Systems and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Peretz, Fred J; Qualls, A L

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a large-output [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The AHTR's large thermal output enables direct comparison of its performance and requirements with other high output reactor concepts. As high-temperature plants, FHRs can support either high-efficiency electricity generation or industrial process heat production. The AHTR analysis presented in this report is limited to the electricity generation mission. FHRs, in principle, have the potential to be low-cost electricity producers while maintaining full passive safety. However, no FHR has been built, and no FHR design has reached the stage of maturity where realistic economic analysis can be performed. The system design effort described in this report represents early steps along the design path toward being able to predict the cost and performance characteristics of the AHTR as well as toward being able to identify the technology developments necessary to build an FHR power plant. While FHRs represent a distinct reactor class, they inherit desirable attributes from other thermal power plants whose characteristics can be studied to provide general guidance on plant configuration, anticipated performance, and costs. Molten salt reactors provide experience on the materials, procedures, and components necessary to use liquid fluoride salts. Liquid metal reactors provide design experience on using low-pressure liquid coolants, passive decay heat removal, and hot refueling. High temperature gas-cooled reactors provide experience with coated particle fuel and graphite components. Light water reactors (LWRs) show the potentials of transparent, high-heat capacity coolants with low chemical reactivity. Modern coal-fired power plants provide design experience with

  18. Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM

    SciTech Connect

    DiOrio, Nicholas; Dobos, Aron; Janzou, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Interest in energy storage has continued to increase as states like California have introduced mandates and subsidies to spur adoption. This energy storage includes customer sited behind-the-meter storage coupled with photovoltaics (PV). This paper presents case study results from California and Tennessee, which were performed to assess the economic benefit of customer-installed systems. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued.

  19. Neutronics analysis for HYLIFE-II

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, M.T.

    1990-12-20

    A preliminary neutronics analysis of the HYLIFE-2 reactor concept gives a tritium breeding ratio of 1.17 and a system energy multiplication factor of 1.14. Modified SS-316 (in which Mn is substituted for Ni) is superior to Hastelloy X and Hastelloy N as a firstwall material considering He generation, dpa-limited lifetime, and shallow-burial index. Since Flibe is corrosive to Mn metals, however, a favorable first-wall material is yet to be decided on. Flibe impurities considered (e.g., inherent impurities and those arising from wall erosion or secondary-coolant leakage) do not increase the hazard to the public over that of pure Flibe. The main issues for HYLIFE-2 are the high shallow-burial index (106) and the requirement to contain some 99.7% of the {sup 18}F inventory to prevent its release to the public 18 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. On intracluster Faraday rotation. II - Statistical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawler, J. M.; Dennison, B.

    1982-01-01

    The comparison of a reliable sample of radio source Faraday rotation measurements seen through rich clusters of galaxies, with sources seen through the outer parts of clusters and therefore having little intracluster Faraday rotation, indicates that the distribution of rotation in the former population is broadened, but only at the 80% level of statistical confidence. Employing a physical model for the intracluster medium in which the square root of magnetic field strength/turbulent cell per gas core radius number ratio equals approximately 0.07 microgauss, a Monte Carlo simulation is able to reproduce the observed broadening. An upper-limit analysis figure of less than 0.20 microgauss for the field strength/turbulent cell ratio, combined with lower limits on field strength imposed by limitations on the Compton-scattered flux, shows that intracluster magnetic fields must be tangled on scales greater than about 20 kpc.

  1. Managed care's clinical and economic impact on patients with type II diabetes in France: a controlled population-based study.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Laurent; François, Patrice; Fourny, Magali; Ohrond, Céline; Chanut, Charles; Labarère, José; Auquier, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of five type II diabetes managed care programmes (MCPs) in clinical and economic terms at the community level in which these programmes function in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France. A prospective, controlled, before-and-after study (2001-2004) compared diabetic patients who lived in departments (localities) with (the experimental group) and without a MCP (the control group). Quality of care was estimated by the conformity of health care professionals' practices when following-up type II diabetes. Costs are compared from a health service perspective. The study finds that of 626 patients enrolled, 529 lived in departments with an MCP and 97 patients in departments without. Type II diabetes follow-up globally improved between the two study periods (2001 and 2004), but the study did not show significant differences between the two groups, except for the proportion of creatinine and ophthalmologic examinations, which were higher for the control group. The study did not find significant differences in the increase of costs between the two groups from 2001 to 2004. This type of study could constitute a methodological model to assess the MCPs population impact. MCPs probably did not reach a critical size in terms of patient recruitment and healthcare professional adhesion to have a significant impact at a population level. The study highlights a number of points to consider for future MCPs in France.

  2. A Comprehensive Economical Analysis Concerning Biomass Gasification Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowaki, Kiyoshi; Mori, Shunsuke; Fukushima, Chihiro; Asai, Noriyasu

    This paper describes on a comprehensive economic analysis concerning biomass gasification systems. In Japan, promoting biomass energy systems in domestic area comes to be expected recently. However, there are some problems in achieving this project. The costs for plant building are very expensive comparing with conventional ones. Accordingly, the unit costs of electricity increase up to as high as other environmental energy systems. In this paper, biomass energy systems using woody biomass are proposed from the viewpoints of successful environmental business. The biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant by Independent Power Producer and biomass gasification co-generation (BGCGS) plant in the sawmill or the asphalt-concrete production factory will have opportunities to be implemented in the near future. Our analysis concludes that the systems proposed in this paper provide the following outcomes with subsidies: (1) the generating cost in BIGCC becomes from 15.1 to 36.6 yen/kWh, (2) the generating cost in BGCGS becomes from 2.6 to 32.2 yen/kWh, (3) the cost reduction of products in BGCGS in asphalt factory comes to about 60 million yen per year.

  3. Economics: An Analysis of Unintended Consequences. Volume 2: Introduction to Macroeconomics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, Robert E.

    This curriculum guide emphasizes that economics is a method of thought or analysis and highlights the teaching of macroeconomic concepts. Definitions of economics, economic actions and their results, individual and group relationships, and supply and demand principles are reviewed. Macroeconomic concepts that are introduced include: (1) economic…

  4. Economics: An Analysis of Unintended Consequences. Volume 2: Introduction to Macroeconomics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, Robert E.

    This curriculum guide emphasizes that economics is a method of thought or analysis and highlights the teaching of macroeconomic concepts. Definitions of economics, economic actions and their results, individual and group relationships, and supply and demand principles are reviewed. Macroeconomic concepts that are introduced include: (1) economic…

  5. Effects of economic downturns on child mortality: a global economic analysis, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watson, Robert A; Watkins, Johnathan; Zeltner, Thomas; Raine, Rosalind; Atun, Rifat

    2017-03-01

    To analyse how economic downturns affect child mortality both globally and among subgroups of countries of variable income levels. Retrospective observational study using economic data from the World Bank's Development Indicators and Global Development Finance (2013 edition). Child mortality data were sourced from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Global. 204 countries between 1981 and 2010. Child mortality, controlling for country-specific differences in political, healthcare, cultural, structural, educational and economic factors. 197 countries experienced at least 1 economic downturn between 1981 and 2010, with a mean of 7.97 downturns per country (range 0-21; SD 0.45). At the global level, downturns were associated with significant (p<0.0001) deteriorations in each child mortality measure, in comparison with non-downturn years: neonatal (coefficient: 1.11, 95% CI 0.855 to 1.37), postneonatal (2.00, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.38), child (2.93, 95% CI 2.26 to 3.60) and under 5 years of age (5.44, 95% CI 4.31 to 6.58) mortality rates. Stronger (larger falls in the growth rate of gross domestic product/capita) and longer (lasting 2 years rather than 1) downturns were associated with larger significant deteriorations (p<0.001). During economic downturns, countries in the poorest quartile experienced ∼1½ times greater deterioration in neonatal mortality, compared with their own baseline; a 3-fold deterioration in postneonatal mortality; a 9-fold deterioration in child mortality and a 3-fold deterioration in under-5 mortality, than countries in the wealthiest quartile (p<0.0005). For 1-5 years after downturns ended, each mortality measure continued to display significant deteriorations (p<0.0001). Economic downturns occur frequently and are associated with significant deteriorations in child mortality, with worse declines in lower income countries.

  6. Decomposition of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate: A Sequential Gravimetric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Arlo D.; Kalbus, Lee H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an improved experiment of the thermal dehydration of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate. The improvements described here are control of the temperature environment and a quantitative study of the decomposition reaction to a thermally stable oxide. Data will suffice to show sequential gravimetric analysis. (Author/SA)

  7. Decomposition of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate: A Sequential Gravimetric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Arlo D.; Kalbus, Lee H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an improved experiment of the thermal dehydration of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate. The improvements described here are control of the temperature environment and a quantitative study of the decomposition reaction to a thermally stable oxide. Data will suffice to show sequential gravimetric analysis. (Author/SA)

  8. [Economic studies and decision analysis as tools for decision making].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pimentel, Leticia; Silva-Romo, Rodolfo; Wacher-Rodarte, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Management implies decision-making and economics deals with efficiency which means to obtain the best possible results with the available resources, and to compare such results with those that were foreseen. The economic evaluation comprises a set of techniques aimed at comparing resource allocation on alternate courses of action and its consequences. In health care, these results are the overall well-being of the society. This paper summarizes the techniques that are customarily used in economic evaluation, and intends to serve as an introductory text to increasing the ability of the readers to grasp original articles in the field of health economics.

  9. The Economic Contributions of Canada's Colleges and Institutes: An Analysis of Investment Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Volume 1: Main Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, M. Henry; Christophersen, Kjell A.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis of the economic impacts generated by Canada's Colleges and Institutes is based on a sample of 61 colleges in 9 provinces, representing roughly two-fifths of the some 150 Colleges and Institutes in the country. The findings from the sample were used to generate results by inference for all colleges in Canada. Two major analyses are…

  10. The Economic Contributions of Canada's Colleges and Institutes: An Analysis of Investment Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Volume 1: Main Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, M. Henry; Christophersen, Kjell A.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis of the economic impacts generated by Canada's Colleges and Institutes is based on a sample of 61 colleges in 9 provinces, representing roughly two-fifths of the some 150 Colleges and Institutes in the country. The findings from the sample were used to generate results by inference for all colleges in Canada. Two major analyses are…

  11. Dental indications for the instrumental functional analysis in additional consideration of health-economic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Tinnemann, Peter; Stöber, Yvonne; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N.; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Background Besides clinical and radiological examination instrumental functional analyses are performed as diagnostic procedures for craniomandibular dysfunctions. Instrumental functional analyses cause substantial costs and shows a considerable variability between individual dentist practices. Objectives On the basis of published scientific evidence the validity of the instrumental functional analysis for the diagnosis of craniomandibular dysfunctions compared to clinical diagnostic procedures; the difference of the various forms of the instrumental functional analysis; the existence of a dependency on additional other factors and the need for further research are determined in this report. In addition, the cost effectiveness of the instrumental functional analysis is analysed in a health-policy context, and social, legal and ethical aspects are considered. Methods A literature search is performed in over 27 databases and by hand. Relevant companies and institutions are contacted concerning unpublished studies. The inclusion criteria for publications are (i) diagnostic studies with the indication “craniomandibular malfunction”, (ii) a comparison between clinical and instrumental functional analysis, (iii) publications since 1990, (iv) publications in English or German. The identified literature is evaluated by two scientists regarding the relevance of content and methodical quality. Results The systematic database search resulted in 962 hits. 187 medical and economic complete publications are evaluated. Since the evaluated studies are not relevant enough to answer the medical or health economic questions no study is included. Discussion The inconsistent terminology concerning craniomandibular dysfunctions and instrumental functional analyses results in a broad literature search in databases and an extensive search by hand. Since no relevant results concerning the validity of the instrumental functional analysis in comparison to the clinical functional analysis

  12. The Economics of Terrorism: Economics Methods of Analysis in the Study of Terrorism and Counterterrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    actors because they seek to maximize their utility subject to a set of constraints. The game theory formulation introduces the principles of...addition to outlining definitions, data sources, choice theory , game theory , and the economic consequences of terrorism, this study identifies how...18 7 Choice Theory and its Applications 7.1

  13. An Economic Analysis of USDA Erosion Control Programs: A New Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 560.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Roger, Ed.

    A study analyzed the total (public and private) economic costs and benefits of three U.S. Department of Agriculture erosion control programs. These were the Conservation Technical Assistance Program, Great Plains Conservation Program, and Agricultural Conservation Program. Significant efforts at funding for current programs were directed to…

  14. Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES). Volume II. Detailed results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The energy effectiveness and the economic viability of the ACES concept are examined. ACES is studied in a variety of different applications and compared to a number of conventional systems. The different applications are studied in two groups: the class of building into which the ACES is incorporated and the climatic region in which the ACES is located. Buildings investigated include single-family and multi-family residences and a commercial office building. The application of ACES to each of these building types is studied in Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. The economic evaluation of the ACES is based on a comparison of the present worth of the ACES to the present worth of conventional systems; namely, electric resistance heating, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; air-to-air heat pump and electric domestic water heating; oil-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; and gas-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and gas domestic water heating.

  15. Integrated data analysis at TJ-II: The density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Milligen, B. Ph. van; Estrada, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Tafalla, D.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Fraguas, A. Lopez; Jimenez, J. A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Dinklage, A.; Fischer, R.

    2011-07-15

    An integrated data analysis system based on Bayesian inference has been developed for the TJ-II stellarator. It reconstructs the electron density profile at a single time point, using data from interferometry, reflectometry, Thomson scattering, and the Helium beam, while providing a detailed error analysis. In this work, we present a novel analysis of the ambiguity inherent in profile reconstruction from reflectometry and show how the integrated data analysis approach elegantly resolves it. Several examples of the application of the technique are provided, in both low-density discharges with and without electrode biasing, and in high-density discharges with an (L-H) confinement transition.

  16. An Economic Analysis of Alternative Programs to Finance Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematica, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    The Federal government operates several programs that provide money, either as loans or as a combination of grants and loans, to students. This paper attempts to clarify the economic and budgetary implications associated with continuing these existing programs, and discusses the differing economic consequences that would follow if some alternative…

  17. The Analysis of the Relation between Education and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteils, Marielle

    2004-01-01

    The debate concerning the various determinants of economic growth has attracted considerable attention. The argument according to which endogenous growth models explain long-term economic growth is often put forward. Particularly, it is held that the production of knowledge by education induces self-sustained growth. In spite of numerous…

  18. An Analysis of the College's Economic Impact, 1995-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Fred

    This report measures the five-year (1995-2000) economic impact of Pellissippi State Technical Community College (PSTCC) on Knox and Blount counties in Tennessee. Results are based on a standard model of economic impact modified for community colleges. The model uses conservative income and employment multipliers to determine PSTCC's economic…

  19. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., social and environmental effects of Commission actions. It analyzes the potential effects of CPSC actions.... The Directorate acquires, compiles, and maintains economic data on movements and trends in the general... economic, societal, and environmental impact of product safety rules and standards. It performs...

  20. The Music Industry as a Vehicle for Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Issues arising in the music industry in response to the availability of digital music files provide an opportunity for exposing undergraduate students to economic analyses rarely covered in the undergraduate economics curriculum. Three of these analyses are covered here: the optimal copyright term, the effect of piracy or illegal file sharing, and…

  1. Comparative Economic Organization: The Analysis of Discrete Structural Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Oliver E.

    1991-01-01

    Combines institutional economics with aspects of contract law and organization theory to identify and explicate the key differences distinguishing three generic forms of economic organization: market, hybrid, and hierarchy. These generic forms are distinguished by different coordinating and control mechanisms and by different abilities to adapt to…

  2. The Music Industry as a Vehicle for Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Issues arising in the music industry in response to the availability of digital music files provide an opportunity for exposing undergraduate students to economic analyses rarely covered in the undergraduate economics curriculum. Three of these analyses are covered here: the optimal copyright term, the effect of piracy or illegal file sharing, and…

  3. [Methodological aspects of a political-economic analysis of population].

    PubMed

    Lisina, N V; Ruzavina, E I

    1988-01-01

    The authors examine the role of political and economic factors in the study of population issues, with a focus on the relationship between demographic factors and the standard of living of a society. Attention is paid to the division of the population into the economically active and the inactive.

  4. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Pietronero, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country’s economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990–2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990–2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States. PMID:28926577

  5. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis.

    PubMed

    Sbardella, Angelica; Pugliese, Emanuele; Pietronero, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country's economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990-2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990-2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States.

  6. Smoking cessation: an economic analysis and review of varenicline.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Michele A

    2009-01-01

    Despite efforts to decrease tobacco use, smoking continues to be a leading cause of preventable morbidity and premature death. The associated economic burden is substantial, both in the form of direct costs (healthcare expenditures) and indirect costs (lost productivity), regardless of whether the burden is assessed from the standpoint of an employer, a health plan, or society as a whole. Cessation programs are considered among the most cost-effective in healthcare, and are often used as a benchmark for other medical interventions. This analysis specifically considers the cost-effectiveness of varenicline, a novel α(4)β(2) partial agonist used for smoking cessation, in comparison to other approved therapies. Clinical trial data have demonstrated that varenicline has the ability to decrease cravings and withdrawal symptoms, and lessen positive reinforcement associated with smoking. Varenicline's novel mechanism has translated into superior efficacy in comparison to other available therapies. For this reason, despite an initial cost that typically exceeds that of other medications, varenicline is a cost-effective option for smoking cessation.

  7. Economic analysis of open space box model utilization in spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    It is a known fact that the amount of data about space that is stored is getting larger on an everyday basis. However, the utilization of Big Data and related tools to perform ETL (Extract, Transform and Load) applications will soon be pervasive in the space sciences. We have entered in a crucial time where using Big Data can be the difference (for terrestrial applications) between organizations underperforming and outperforming their peers. The same is true for NASA and other space agencies, as well as for individual missions and the highly-competitive process of mission data analysis and publication. In most industries, conventional opponents and new candidates alike will influence data-driven approaches to revolutionize and capture the value of Big Data archives. The Open Space Box Model is poised to take the proverbial "giant leap", as it provides autonomic data processing and communications for spacecraft. We can find economic value generated from such use of data processing in our earthly organizations in every sector, such as healthcare, retail. We also can easily find retailers, performing research on Big Data, by utilizing sensors driven embedded data in products within their stores and warehouses to determine how these products are actually used in the real world.

  8. Multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations. [economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.; Vaughan, J. C., III

    1979-01-01

    A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits. Air cushion landing gear configurations are identified as an option for avoiding runway constraints on airport requirements and/or operational constraints are noted.

  9. Parametric sensitivity analysis of an agro-economic model of management of irrigation water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ouadi, Ihssan; Ouazar, Driss; El Menyari, Younesse

    2015-04-01

    The current work aims to build an analysis and decision support tool for policy options concerning the optimal allocation of water resources, while allowing a better reflection on the issue of valuation of water by the agricultural sector in particular. Thus, a model disaggregated by farm type was developed for the rural town of Ait Ben Yacoub located in the east Morocco. This model integrates economic, agronomic and hydraulic data and simulates agricultural gross margin across in this area taking into consideration changes in public policy and climatic conditions, taking into account the competition for collective resources. To identify the model input parameters that influence over the results of the model, a parametric sensitivity analysis is performed by the "One-Factor-At-A-Time" approach within the "Screening Designs" method. Preliminary results of this analysis show that among the 10 parameters analyzed, 6 parameters affect significantly the objective function of the model, it is in order of influence: i) Coefficient of crop yield response to water, ii) Average daily gain in weight of livestock, iii) Exchange of livestock reproduction, iv) maximum yield of crops, v) Supply of irrigation water and vi) precipitation. These 6 parameters register sensitivity indexes ranging between 0.22 and 1.28. Those results show high uncertainties on these parameters that can dramatically skew the results of the model or the need to pay particular attention to their estimates. Keywords: water, agriculture, modeling, optimal allocation, parametric sensitivity analysis, Screening Designs, One-Factor-At-A-Time, agricultural policy, climate change.

  10. Water transfers, agriculture, and groundwater management: a dynamic economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Keith C; Weinberg, Marca; Howitt, Richard; Posnikoff, Judith F

    2003-04-01

    Water transfers from agricultural to urban and environmental uses will likely become increasingly common worldwide. Many agricultural areas rely heavily on underlying groundwater aquifers. Out-of-basin surface water transfers will increase aquifer withdrawals while reducing recharge, thereby altering the evolution of the agricultural production/groundwater aquifer system over time. An empirical analysis is conducted for a representative region in California. Transfers via involuntary surface water cutbacks tilt the extraction schedule and lower water table levels and net benefits over time. The effects are large for the water table but more modest for the other variables. Break-even prices are calculated for voluntary quantity contract transfers at the district level. These prices differ considerably from what might be calculated under a static analysis which ignores water table dynamics. Canal-lining implies that districts may gain in the short-run but lose over time if all the reduction in conveyance losses is transferred outside the district. Water markets imply an evolving quantity of exported flows over time and a reduction in basin net benefits under common property usage. Most aquifers underlying major agricultural regions are currently unregulated. Out-of-basin surface water transfers increase stress on the aquifer and management benefits can increase substantially in percentage terms but overall continue to remain small. Conversely, we find that economically efficient management can mitigate some of the adverse consequences of transfers, but not in many circumstances or by much. Management significantly reduced the water table impacts of cutbacks but not annual net benefit impacts. Neither the break-even prices nor the canal-lining impacts were altered by much. The most significant difference is that regional water users gain from water markets under efficient management.

  11. Effects of economic downturns on child mortality: a global economic analysis, 1981–2010

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watson, Robert A; Watkins, Johnathan; Zeltner, Thomas; Raine, Rosalind; Atun, Rifat

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To analyse how economic downturns affect child mortality both globally and among subgroups of countries of variable income levels. Design Retrospective observational study using economic data from the World Bank's Development Indicators and Global Development Finance (2013 edition). Child mortality data were sourced from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Setting Global. Participants 204 countries between 1981 and 2010. Main outcome measures Child mortality, controlling for country-specific differences in political, healthcare, cultural, structural, educational and economic factors. Results 197 countries experienced at least 1 economic downturn between 1981 and 2010, with a mean of 7.97 downturns per country (range 0–21; SD 0.45). At the global level, downturns were associated with significant (p<0.0001) deteriorations in each child mortality measure, in comparison with non-downturn years: neonatal (coefficient: 1.11, 95% CI 0.855 to 1.37), postneonatal (2.00, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.38), child (2.93, 95% CI 2.26 to 3.60) and under 5 years of age (5.44, 95% CI 4.31 to 6.58) mortality rates. Stronger (larger falls in the growth rate of gross domestic product/capita) and longer (lasting 2 years rather than 1) downturns were associated with larger significant deteriorations (p<0.001). During economic downturns, countries in the poorest quartile experienced ∼1½ times greater deterioration in neonatal mortality, compared with their own baseline; a 3-fold deterioration in postneonatal mortality; a 9-fold deterioration in child mortality and a 3-fold deterioration in under-5 mortality, than countries in the wealthiest quartile (p<0.0005). For 1–5 years after downturns ended, each mortality measure continued to display significant deteriorations (p<0.0001). Conclusions Economic downturns occur frequently and are associated with significant deteriorations in child mortality, with worse declines in lower income countries. PMID:28589010

  12. Phase II final report and second update of the energy economic data base (EEDB) program. Volume 1 of 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    The Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) Program deals with the development of cost data for nuclear and comparison electric power generating stations. The objective of the USDOE EEDB Program is to provide periodic updates of technical and cost (capital, fuel and operating and maintenance) information of significance to the US Department of Energy. This information is intended to be used by USDOE in evaluating and monitoring US Civilian nuclear power programs, and to provide them with a consistent means of evaluating the nuclear option against alternatives. This report presents the Second Update of the EEDB for a cost and regulation date of January 1, 1979, prepared during Phase II of the EEDB Program. The Second Update is the first of a series of periodic updates marking the beginning of the next step in meeting the objective of the EEDB Program.

  13. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  14. Economic analysis of selected water policy options for the Pacific northwest. Agriculture economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Schaible, G.D.; Gollehon, N.R.; Kramer, M.S.; Aillery, M.P.; Moore, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    Agriculture in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) could use significantly less water with minimal impact on agricultural economic returns. Less water use by agriculture makes more water available for municipal, industrial, and recreational uses; for improved water quality and wildlife habitat; and for Native American water rights claims. Net water savings up to 18.5 percent of current levels of field-crop use can be realized by such actions as reducing Bureau of Reclamation (BoR) surface-water diversion, improving water-use efficiency, and raising the cost of water. Effects on agricultural economic returns for PNW field crops range from a decline of $22 million (1.7 percent) to an increase of $171 million (13.1 percent). Combining different approaches spreads the conservation burden among farmers, water suppliers, and production regions.

  15. Economic Pressure, Parent Personality and Child Development: An Interactionist Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas K.; Conger, Katherine J.; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2010-01-01

    The current economic downturn in the U.S. and around the world has refocused attention on the processes through which families and children are affected by economic hardship. This study examines the response to economic pressure of a cohort of youth first studied 20 years ago as adolescents and now grown to adulthood. A total of 271 of the original G2 adolescents (M age = 25.6 years) participated in the study with their young child (G3, M age = 2.31 years at the first time of assessment) and the child’s other parent in 81% of the cases. Data analyses were guided by the interactionist model which proposed that positive G2 personality attributes during adolescence would predict lower economic pressure during adulthood and would diminish the negative family processes related to economic pressure expected to disrupt competent G3 development. The findings were consistent with this social selection aspect of the interactionist model. The model also predicted that economic pressure and other aspects of the related family stress process would affect G3 development net of earlier G2 personality. This social causation aspect of the interactionist model also received support. The findings suggest that the relationship between economic conditions and child development reflect a dynamic process of selection and causation that plays out over time and generations. PMID:21209795

  16. Economic analysis of vertical wells for coalbed methane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Previous economic studies of the recovery and utilization of methane from coalbeds using vertical wells were based on drainage in advance of mining where a single seam is drained with well spacing designed for rapid predrainage. This study extends the earlier work and shows that methane recovery costs can be reduced significantly by increasing well spacing and draining multiple coalbeds. A favorable return on investment can be realized in many geologic settings using this method. Sensitivity of recovery economics to certain development costs and parametric variations are also examined as are the economics of three methane utilization options.

  17. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume II. Introduction and technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of a study subcontracted by PNL to the United Technologies Research Center on the engineering feasibility and economics of a CAES concept which uses a coal fired, fluidized bed combustor (FBC) to heat the air being returned from storage during the power production cycle. By burning coal instead of fuel oil, the CAES/FBC concept can completely eliminate the dependence of compressed air energy storage on petroleum fuels. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume II presents a discussion of program background and an in-depth coverage of both fluid bed combustion and turbomachinery technology pertinent to their application in a CAES power plant system. The CAES/FBC concept appears technically feasible and economically competitive with conventional CAES. However, significant advancement is required in FBC technology before serious commercial commitment to CAES/FBC can be realized. At present, other elements of DOE, industrial groups, and other countries are performing the required R and D for advancement of FBC technology. The CAES/FBC will be reevaluated at a later date when FBC technology has matured and many of the concerns now plaguing FBC are resolved. (LCL)

  18. A health-economic analysis of porcine islet xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, Jessica; Nyman, John A; Flanagan, Brian; Schrover, Rudolf; Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Islet cell transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes. To overcome the shortage of deceased human pancreas donors, porcine islet cell xenotransplantation is being developed as an alternative to allotransplantation. The objective of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of porcine islet transplantation in comparison with standard insulin therapy. The patient population for this study was young adults, ages 20 to 40, for whom standard medical care is inadequate in controlling blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia unawareness). Since trial data were lacking, estimates used extrapolations from data found in the literature and ongoing trials in clinical allotransplantation. Cost estimates were based on the data available in the USA. Markov modeling and Monte Carlo simulations using software specifically developed for health-economic evaluations were used. Outcomes data for ongoing clinical islet allotransplantation from the University of Minnesota were used, along with probabilities of complications from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were the effectiveness measure. The upper limit of being cost-effective is $100,000 per QALY. Cost data from the literature were used and adjusted to 2007 US dollars using the medical care portion of the Consumer Price Index. In both Markov modeling and Monte Carlo simulations, porcine islet xenotransplantation was both more effective and less costly over the course of the 20-yr model. For standard insulin therapy, cumulative cost per patient was $661,000, while cumulative effectiveness was 9.4 QALYs, for a cost of $71,100 per QALY. Transplantation had a cumulative cost of $659 000 per patient, a cumulative effectiveness of 10.9 QALYs, and a cost per QALY of $60,700. Islet transplantation became cost-effective at 4 yr after transplantation, and was more cost-effective than standard insulin treatment at 14 yr. These findings are related to relative high

  19. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. An economic analysis of adult hepatitis B vaccination in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui; Wang, Fu-zhen; Zhang, Guo-min; Cui, Fu-qiang; Wu, Zhen-hua; Miao, Ning; Sun, Xiao-jin; Liang, Xiao-feng; Li, Li

    2015-11-27

    With the universal infant hepatitis B vaccination (HepB) program, China has made remarkable achievements to prevent and control hepatitis B. In order to further reduce hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the Chinese government is considering implementing a widespread adult HBV vaccination campaign. We performed an economic analysis of two different adult HepB vaccination strategies for 21-59-years-olds: vaccination without screening and screening-based vaccination. Cost-benefit analyses were conducted. All 21-59-year-olds were divided into two groups: young adults (ages 21-39) and middle-aged adults (ages 40-59). Costs and benefits were estimated using the direct cost and societal (direct and indirect costs) perspectives. All costs and benefits were adjusted to 2014 US dollars, where future values were discounted at a 3% annual rate. We calculated benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) of the two vaccination strategies for the two different age groups. Sensitivity analyses varied key parameters within plausible ranges. Among young adults, the direct and societal BCRs for a vaccination campaign with no screening would be 1.06 and 1.42; with a screening-based vaccination campaign, the model estimated the direct and societal BCRs would be 1.19 and 1.73. Among middle-aged adults, the direct and societal BCRs for a vaccination campaign without screening would be 0.59 and 0.59; with a screening-based vaccination campaign, the model estimated the direct and societal BCRs would be 0.68 and 0.73. The results of our study support a HepB vaccination campaign for young adults. Additionally, a vaccination campaign with screening appeared to provide greater value than a vaccination without screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of Economic Analysis to School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blonigen, Bruce A.; Harbaugh, William T.; Singell, Larry D.; Horner, Robert H.; Irvin, Larry K.; Smolkowski, Keith S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss how to use economic techniques to evaluate educational programs and show how to apply basic cost analysis to implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS). A description of cost analysis concepts used for economic program evaluation is provided, emphasizing the suitability of these concepts for evaluating…

  2. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  3. Internal migration in India in the seventies: a demo-economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Nair, P S

    1986-01-01

    "This paper is aimed to address mainly the following three aspects of spatial mobility within India during the last inter-censal decade of 1971-1981: (i) Levels of inmigration, outmigration and net migration in the major states (ii) estimates of state-to-state migration flows and (iii) some insights on the socio-economic determinants of internal migration."

  4. Economic analysis of an internet-based depression prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Alexander; Marko-Holguin, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2013-09-01

    -based interventions like CATCH-IT appears economically viable in the context of an Accountable Care Organization. Furthermore, while the cost of implementing an effective safety protocol is proportionally high for this intervention, CATCH-IT is still significantly cheaper to implement than current treatment options. Limitations of this research included diminished participation in follow-up surveys assessing willingness-to-pay. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND USE AND HEALTH POLICIES: This research emphasizes that preventive interventions have the potential to be cheaper to implement than treatment protocols, even before taking into account lost productivity due to illness. Research such as this business application analysis of the CATCH-IT program highlights the importance of supporting preventive medical interventions as the healthcare system already does for treatment interventions. This research is the first to analyze the economic costs of an Internet-based intervention. Further research into the costs and outcomes of such interventions is certainly warranted before they are widely adopted. Furthermore, more research regarding the safety of Internet-based programs will likely need to be conducted before they are broadly accepted.

  5. Economical Analysis on Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Periprosthetic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fairen, Mariano; Torres, Ana; Menzie, Ann; Hernandez-Vaquero, Daniel; Fernandez-Carreira, José Manuel; Murcia-Mazon, Antonio; Guerado, Enrique; Merzthal, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The economic burden of periprosthetic infections is enormous, but the number of economic studies dealing with this issue is very scarce. This review tries to know the economic literature existing, assess the value of current data, and recognize the less costly and more effective procedures for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of periprosthetic infections. Forty five studies meeting the inclusion criteria and adhering to the quality criteria used were carefully analyzed to extract the economic data of relevance in evaluating the magnitude of problem and the more cost-effective solutions. However, because the heterogeneity and the low-quality of most of these studies meta-analytical technique has not been possible. Instead, the studies have been reviewed descriptively. Optimizing the antibiotic use in the prevention and treatment of periprosthetic infection, combined with systemic and behavioral changes in the operating room; detecting and treating the high-risk groups; a quick, simple, reliable, safe, and cost-effective diagnosis, and the rationale management of the instituted infection, specifically using the different procedures according to each particular case, could allow to improve outcomes and produce the highest quality of life for patients and the lowest economic impact. Nevertheless, the cost effectiveness of different interventions to prevent and to treat the periprosthetic infection remains unclear. PMID:24082966

  6. Dietary balanced protein in broiler chickens. 2. An economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Eits, R M; Giesen, G W J; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Den Hartog, L A

    2005-06-01

    An economic model was developed that calculates economic optimal dietary balanced protein (DBP) contents for broiler chickens, based on performance input and prices of meat and feed. Input on broiler responses to DBP content (growth rate, feed conversion, carcase yield and breast meat yield) was obtained from the model described by Eits et al. (2005). Changes in broiler age, price of protein-rich raw materials and large changes (40%) in meat prices resulted in economic relevant differences in DBP content for maximum profit. Effects of changes in sex or feed price on DBP content for maximum profit were negligible. Formulating diets for maximum profit instead of maximum broiler performance can strongly increase the profitability of a broiler production enterprise. DBP content for maximum profitability depends on how the broilers are marketed; as whole birds, carcase or portions.

  7. Economic viability of phytoremediation of a cadmium contaminated agricultural area using energy maize. Part II: economics of anaerobic digestion of metal contaminated maize in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Thewys, T; Witters, N; Meers, E; Vangronsveld, J

    2010-09-01

    This paper deals with remediation of the Campine soil, an agricultural area diffusely contaminated with metals where most farmers raise dairy cattle and grow fodder maize. In a previous study, we calculated the effect of switching from fodder to energy maize on the farmer's income. Selling this energy maize as feedstock for anaerobic digestion to produce renewable energy could lead to a significant increase in his income. This paper explores the economic opportunities for the farmer of digesting the harvested contaminated biomass himself, by performing a Net Present Value (NPV) analysis on the digestion activity and by calculating the probability of a positive NPV of income resulting from the digestion installation. We investigate the trade off between the maximum price for energy maize that can be paid by the digestion activity and the minimum price that the farming activity needs to compensate for covering its production costs. Integrating the previous study in the current analysis results in an increase of total extra income for the farmer (i.e., from both growing energy maize and performing digestion).

  8. Critical analysis of economic tools and economic measurement applied to rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Her, Minyoung; Kavanaugh, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is chronic, progressive systemic inflammatory disease that if uncontrolled may lead to significant joint damage, dysfunction, work disability and other sequelae that result in large economic losses. A rich literature estimating the economic burden of RA, has been intensified recently, driven by costly biologic agents that have had a notable effect improving the outcomes of patients with RA. In order to optimally assess the value of therapies, it is best to take a comprehensive approach, considering all related costs of illness. This includes direct costs (e.g. the costs of the medications themselves and the monitoring required), indirect costs (e.g. loss of productivity, such as employment due to uncontrolled disease) and intangible cost (e.g. effects on pain and quality of life). Indirect costs constitute a substantial part of total cost in the patient with RA. In order to help assess the impact of RA on productivity, various tools for measuring productive loss like absenteeism and presenteeism have been introduced. No single tool reflects the entire spectrum of the productive loss clearly, as other factors such as use of a human capital approach or friction cost approach affect the valuation of productive loss monetarily. Although favourable outcomes are achieved with the use of biologic agents, their higher acquisition costs, as compared to traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) remain a barrier to their use. Assessments of the cost effectiveness of novel therapies are critically important, but published results have been contradictory, in some measure due to the heterogeneity of instruments utilised. While the various instruments appear to be valid and reliable, correlations between instruments has been modest, driven by factors such as differences in recall times, attribution and other confounders.

  9. Bayesian analysis of the dynamic structure in China's economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyo, Koki; Noda, Hideo

    2008-11-01

    To analyze the dynamic structure in China's economic growth during the period 1952-1998, we introduce a model of the aggregate production function for the Chinese economy that considers total factor productivity (TFP) and output elasticities as time-varying parameters. Specifically, this paper is concerned with the relationship between the rate of economic growth in China and the trend in TFP. Here, we consider the time-varying parameters as random variables and introduce smoothness priors to construct a set of Bayesian linear models for parameter estimation. The results of the estimation are in agreement with the movements in China's social economy, thus illustrating the validity of the proposed methods.

  10. Analysis of World Economic Variables Using Multidimensional Scaling

    PubMed Central

    Machado, J.A. Tenreiro; Mata, Maria Eugénia

    2015-01-01

    Waves of globalization reflect the historical technical progress and modern economic growth. The dynamics of this process are here approached using the multidimensional scaling (MDS) methodology to analyze the evolution of GDP per capita, international trade openness, life expectancy, and education tertiary enrollment in 14 countries. MDS provides the appropriate theoretical concepts and the exact mathematical tools to describe the joint evolution of these indicators of economic growth, globalization, welfare and human development of the world economy from 1977 up to 2012. The polarization dance of countries enlightens the convergence paths, potential warfare and present-day rivalries in the global geopolitical scene. PMID:25811177

  11. Perspectives on the economic analysis of ethanol production from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Prebluda, H.J.; Williams, R.

    1981-01-01

    The potential and economics of ethanol production from biomass is examined. Among the topics covered are: the Brazilian gasohol program; the effect of large scale conversion of grain to alcohol on U.S. food and animal feed prices; the Ex-Ferm process for fermenting sugar cane; the effect on cane sugar markets of the large-scale development in the U.S. of high fructose corn syrup; and better utilization of by-products. Significant breakthroughs which have recently taken place and which will improve the economic picture for making alcohol from solid waste are reviewed. (Refs. 26).

  12. Analysis of world economic variables using multidimensional scaling.

    PubMed

    Machado, J A Tenreiro; Mata, Maria Eugénia

    2015-01-01

    Waves of globalization reflect the historical technical progress and modern economic growth. The dynamics of this process are here approached using the multidimensional scaling (MDS) methodology to analyze the evolution of GDP per capita, international trade openness, life expectancy, and education tertiary enrollment in 14 countries. MDS provides the appropriate theoretical concepts and the exact mathematical tools to describe the joint evolution of these indicators of economic growth, globalization, welfare and human development of the world economy from 1977 up to 2012. The polarization dance of countries enlightens the convergence paths, potential warfare and present-day rivalries in the global geopolitical scene.

  13. The REFLEX II galaxy cluster survey: power spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguera-Antolínez, A.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Böhringer, H.; Collins, C.; Guzzo, L.; Phleps, S.

    2011-05-01

    We present the power spectrum of galaxy clusters measured from the new ROSAT-ESO Flux-Limited X-Ray (REFLEX II) galaxy cluster catalogue. This new sample extends the flux limit of the original REFLEX catalogue to 1.8 × 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2, yielding a total of 911 clusters with ≥94 per cent completeness in redshift follow-up. The analysis of the data is improved by creating a set of 100 REFLEX II-catalogue-like mock galaxy cluster catalogues built from a suite of large-volume Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) N-body simulations (L-BASICC II). The measured power spectrum is in agreement with the predictions from a ΛCDM cosmological model. The measurements show the expected increase in the amplitude of the power spectrum with increasing X-ray luminosity. On large scales, we show that the shape of the measured power spectrum is compatible with a scale-independent bias and provide a model for the amplitude that allows us to connect our measurements with a cosmological model. By implementing a luminosity-dependent power-spectrum estimator, we observe that the power spectrum measured from the REFLEX II sample is weakly affected by flux-selection effects. The shape of the measured power spectrum is compatible with a featureless power spectrum on scales k > 0.01 h Mpc-1 and hence no statistically significant signal of baryonic acoustic oscillations can be detected. We show that the measured REFLEX II power spectrum displays signatures of non-linear evolution.

  14. Economic Analysis of National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Modernization Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    ecological systems, political systems, and economic systems. The model is implemented using a software package called STELLA, distributed by isee systems. 3 ...detailed and probably better at their specific tasks than the corresponding module of the Enterprise Model. 3 Go to the isee systems Web site...30 3 . Assembly/Disassembly Facilities ................................................................... 33 vi 4

  15. Sector analysis of economic impacts from heritage centers

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Strauss; Bruce E. Lord

    1995-01-01

    The economic impact of six of America's Industrial Heritage Project visitor centers was evaluated within a nine-county region of Pennsylvania. The total sales impact of these expenditures was $29.2 million. Over 60% of the direct sales impact was in the lodging and food service sectors. The labor-intensive character of both sectors created a substantial induced...

  16. AN ENERGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    There is a strong linear dependence of economic activity as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) on both the fossil fuel energy and the total emergy consumed by nations. Conceptual models of global and regional environmental systems were developed to examine the factors c...

  17. Simplified preliminary economic analysis for passive solar heating. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Baldetti, P.J.; Lockard, M.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report establishes economic feasibility criteria for considering the use of passive solar design. In light of the growing cost of supplying the energy demands of the Air Force, a method is needed to simplify the adaptation of passive solar heating and cooling in future building construction.

  18. An Economic Analysis of Solar Water & Space Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Solar system designs for 13 cities were optimized so as to minimize the life cycle cost over the assumed 20-year lifetime of the solar energy systems. A number of major assumptions were made regarding the solar system, type and use of building, financial considerations, and economic environment used in the design optimization. Seven optimum…

  19. AN ENERGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    There is a strong linear dependence of economic activity as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) on both the fossil fuel energy and the total emergy consumed by nations. Conceptual models of global and regional environmental systems were developed to examine the factors c...

  20. Recruitment of Rural Teachers in Developing Countries: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Monetary and nonmonetary incentives for rural teacher recruitment are common in developing-country education systems. This paper interprets incentive policies within the framework of the economic theory of compensating differentials, clarifying implicit assumptions of incentive policies and aids in organizing further empirical work on their…

  1. Recruitment of Rural Teachers in Developing Countries: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Monetary and nonmonetary incentives for rural teacher recruitment are common in developing-country education systems. This paper interprets incentive policies within the framework of the economic theory of compensating differentials, clarifying implicit assumptions of incentive policies and aids in organizing further empirical work on their…

  2. An Economic Analysis of the California Art Royalty Statute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Ben W.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The probable economic impact on the art market, museums, and the artist of California's "droit de suite" legislation, designed to yield to artists a portion of the resale value of their works, is examined. It is argued that only a few living artists will benefit. The statute, California Civil Code 986, is appended. (JMD)

  3. An Analysis of the College's Economic Impact, 1997-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Fred H.

    This is the 15th annual study of the 5-year (1997-2002) economic impact of Pellissippi State Technical Community College, Tennessee, on the Knox and Blount County area. The study measures the direct impact of the college on the community in terms of business volume, employment, and individual income. The study does not include data pertaining to…

  4. Preliminary Economic Analysis of the Ozark Gateway District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Thirty-nine tables on the economic and social trends from 1950-67 in the Ozark Gateway District are presented in this report. This four-county area in Southwest Missouri was dormant for over 10 years, with limited population growth, low levels of productivity, and low incomes. It was operating below its potential level of general business activity…

  5. Behavioral Economic Analysis of Cue-elicited Craving for Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    MacKillop, James; O’Hagen, Sean; Lisman, Stephen A.; Murphy, James G.; Ray, Lara A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Craving as a motivational determinant of drug use remains controversial because of ambiguous empirical findings. A behavioral economic approach may clarify the nature of craving, theorizing that subjective craving functionally reflects an acute increase in a drug’s value. The current study tested this hypothesis via a multidimensional assessment of alcohol demand over the course of an alcohol cue reactivity procedure. Method Heavy drinkers (n = 92) underwent exposures to neutral (water) cues followed by personalized alcohol cues. Participants were assessed for craving, alcohol demand, affect, and salivation following each exposure. Findings Alcohol versus neutral cues significantly increased craving and multiple behavioral economic measures of the relative value of alcohol, including alcohol consumption under conditions of zero cost (intensity), maximum expenditure on alcohol (Omax), persistence in drinking to higher prices (breakpoint) and proportionate price insensitivity (normalized Pmax). Craving was significantly correlated with demand measures at levels ranging from .21 – .43. Conclusions These findings support the potential utility of a behavioral economic approach to understanding the role of environmental stimuli in alcohol-related decision making. Specifically, they suggest that the behavioral economic indices of demand may provide complementary motivational information that is related to though not entirely redundant with measures of subjective craving. PMID:20626376

  6. The importance of economics in fire management analysis

    Treesearch

    Robert Mavsar; Armando González-Cabán; Verónica Farrera

    2010-01-01

    Wildfires are a societal problem that threatens many ecosystems, affects millions of people worldwide, and causes major ecosystem and economic impacts at local regional, national and global scales. In Europe, and especially in the Mediterranean countries (France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain), wildfires continue to be a major environmental threat (Requardt et al....

  7. Economic analysis of tree improvement: A status report

    Treesearch

    George F. Dutrow

    1974-01-01

    Review of current literature establishes that most authors believe that tree improvement expands production, although some point out drawbacks and alternatives. Both softwood and hardwood improvement programs have been analyzed. The authors used various models, economic assumptions, and standards of measurement, but available data were limited. Future models shouId...

  8. Rapid economic analysis of northern hardwood stand improvement options

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak

    1980-01-01

    Data and methodology are provided for projecting basal area, diameter, volumes, and values by product for northern hardwood stands, and for determining the rate of return on stand improvement investments. The method is rapid, requires a minimum amount of information, and should prove useful for on-the-ground economic analyses.

  9. Educational Stock and Economic Output: A Quantitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuxiang

    A series of multiple linear regressions analyses was used to investigate the relationship between educational stock and economic output. The gross state product (GSP) per capita was used as the dependent variable. Used as independent variables were percentages of: (1) state residents with a high school diploma and above; (2) state residents with…

  10. The Great Asian International School Gold Rush: An Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Denry

    2017-01-01

    The number of international schools is growing, especially in Asia. This presents competitive challenges; most obviously for student recruitment and retention. However, demand for places at these schools is also growing. As a result, while international schooling may feel competitive, aggregate economic data show that growing numbers do not…

  11. An Economic Analysis of Solar Water & Space Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Solar system designs for 13 cities were optimized so as to minimize the life cycle cost over the assumed 20-year lifetime of the solar energy systems. A number of major assumptions were made regarding the solar system, type and use of building, financial considerations, and economic environment used in the design optimization. Seven optimum…

  12. Contributions and Shortfalls: Economic Analysis and Non-Formal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, John M.

    Education in general and specific educational projects fit into the construct of the allocation of investment resources that is basic to economic theory. Two techniques of computing returns to education and education projects are benefit-cost ratios and rates of return, which both rely on measuring costs and benefits. While measuring costs is…

  13. Confronting challenges to economic analysis of biological invasions in forests

    Treesearch

    Thomas P Holmes

    2010-01-01

    Biological invasions of forests by non-indigenous organisms present a complex, persistent, and largely irreversible threat to forest ecosystems around the globe. Rigorous assessments of the economic impacts of introduced species, at a national scale, are needed to provide credible information to policy makers. It is proposed here that microeconomic models of damage due...

  14. Job Attitudes among Different Occupational Status Groups. An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronen, Simcha; Sadan, Simcha

    1984-01-01

    An economic model is applied to employee attitudinal variables to compare the contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic factors to job satisfaction for skilled workers and managers in an electronics manufacturing organization. Intrinsic rewards are found to increase in importance as employment level increases, suggesting different frames of…

  15. Economic Analysis of Navy Ownership versus Leasing of Vehicles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    firm, which usually handles vehicle leasing as a side-line with vehicle sales. This source may be favored for considerations of personal recognition...H 36 -1—••- V. ECONOMIC ANALISIS OP THE ALTERNATIVES This thesis has, to this point, provided a discussion of the relative merits of ownership

  16. Home Economics Education. Topic Analysis for Vocational Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Three papers on home economics education which were presented at a teacher education leadership conference on the development of common core curriculum for vocational education teachers are contained in this booklet. The title and authors are as follow: "Non-Degree Inservice Education Program," by Delores Allenspach; "Job Training Teaching Methods…

  17. Exergo-Economic Analysis of an Experimental Aircraft Turboprop Engine Under Low Torque Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atilgan, Ramazan; Turan, Onder; Aydin, Hakan

    Exergo-economic analysis is an unique combination of exergy analysis and cost analysis conducted at the component level. In exergo-economic analysis, cost of each exergy stream is determined. Inlet and outlet exergy streams of the each component are associated to a monetary cost. This is essential to detect cost-ineffective processes and identify technical options which could improve the cost effectiveness of the overall energy system. In this study, exergo-economic analysis is applied to an aircraft turboprop engine. Analysis is based on experimental values at low torque condition (240 N m). Main components of investigated turboprop engine are the compressor, the combustor, the gas generator turbine, the free power turbine and the exhaust. Cost balance equations have been formed for all components individually and exergo-economic parameters including cost rates and unit exergy costs have been calculated for each component.

  18. Financial and Economic Analysis of Reduced Impact Logging

    Treesearch

    Tom Holmes

    2016-01-01

    Concern regarding extensive damage to tropical forests resulting from logging increased dramatically after World War II when mechanized logging systems developed in industrialized countries were deployed in the tropics. As a consequence, tropical foresters began developing logging procedures that were more environmentally benign, and by the 1990s, these practices began...

  19. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics: Basic Business and Consumer Education (Secondary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niss, James F.; And Others

    Part of the Master Curriculum Guide Project, the document presents strategies for teaching economic concepts as related to basic business and consumer education in secondary schools. The objective is to provide detailed classroom lessons illustrating ways economic ideas can be taught at differing levels of difficulty. The 18 lessons are…

  20. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics. Intermediate Level (Grades 4-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Council on Economic Education, New York, NY.

    This guide contains concept based lessons and activities in economics for use with students in grades 4-6. One component of a two-part publication, the guide demonstrates how the conceptual structure of the economics discipline presented in the first publication (ED 148 648) can be used to help students at the intermediate grade level make more…

  1. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics: Junior High School Level (Grades 7-9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaszak, Ronald A.; Clawson, Elmer U.

    This guide contains concept-based lessons and activities in economics for use with students in grades 7-9. One component of a two-part publication, the guide demonstrates how the conceptual structure of the economics discipline presented in the first publication (ED 148 648) can be used to help students at the junior high school level make more…

  2. An economic and energy analysis of poplar intensive cultures in the Lake States.

    Treesearch

    Dietmar Rose; Karen Ferguson; David C. Lothner; J. Zavitkovski

    1981-01-01

    Short- (5 to 10 years) and long- (15 years) rotation, irrigated and nonirrigated intensive cultures of hybrid poplar were analyzed economically via cash flow analysis. Energy balances we also calculated for each alternative. Nonirrigated systems offer reasonable economic returns whereas irrigated systems do not. All systems produce more energy than they use as...

  3. Economic analysis of light brown apple moth using GIS and quantitative modeling

    Treesearch

    Glenn Fowler; Lynn Garrett; Alison Neeley; Roger Magarey; Dan Borchert; Brian. Spears

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an economic analysis of the light brown apple moth (LBAM), (piphyas postvittana (Walker)), whose presence in California has resulted in a regulatory program. Our objective was to quantitatively characterize the economic costs to apple, grape, orange, and pear crops that would result from LBAM's introduction into the continental...

  4. Higher Education in Tennessee: An Economic Analysis from a Student, Society, and State Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Regents, Nashville.

    This document presents an economic analysis of higher education in Tennessee from a student, societal, and state perspective. The cost-benefit ratios speak favorably for the economic value of higher education in Tennessee from the student's perspective. On average, a student may expect a return of $5.44 for each dollar invested; the return for an…

  5. Tuition Rate Setting for Organized Camps: An Economic Analysis. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Robert E.; Levine, Frank M.

    1979-01-01

    An economic analysis of setting tuition rates for organized camps addresses four topics of general interest: (1) measuring the economic value (revenues and expenses) of a camp; (2) measuring the true costs (fixed holding costs, fixed costs, and variable operating costs) of operation; (3) establishing a demand curve for measuring camp revenue; and…

  6. Commentary on Crowley et al.'s research priorities for economic analysis of prevention.

    PubMed

    Caulkins, Jonathan P

    2014-12-01

    Economic theory provides a textbook ideal for how to conduct efficiency analysis that determines optimal resource allocation. The real world is not, however, an ideal place. This article suggests that common sense should be allowed to temper zealous commitment to textbook ideals. The spirit and the process of economic evaluation may be as important as the "final answer" expressed as a summary statistic.

  7. Economic analysis of model validation for a challenge problem

    DOE PAGES

    Paez, Paul J.; Paez, Thomas L.; Hasselman, Timothy K.

    2016-02-19

    It is now commonplace for engineers to build mathematical models of the systems they are designing, building, or testing. And, it is nearly universally accepted that phenomenological models of physical systems must be validated prior to use for prediction in consequential scenarios. Yet, there are certain situations in which testing only or no testing and no modeling may be economically viable alternatives to modeling and its associated testing. This paper develops an economic framework within which benefit–cost can be evaluated for modeling and model validation relative to other options. The development is presented in terms of a challenge problem. Asmore » a result, we provide a numerical example that quantifies when modeling, calibration, and validation yield higher benefit–cost than a testing only or no modeling and no testing option.« less

  8. Economic analysis of model validation for a challenge problem

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, Paul J.; Paez, Thomas L.; Hasselman, Timothy K.

    2016-02-19

    It is now commonplace for engineers to build mathematical models of the systems they are designing, building, or testing. And, it is nearly universally accepted that phenomenological models of physical systems must be validated prior to use for prediction in consequential scenarios. Yet, there are certain situations in which testing only or no testing and no modeling may be economically viable alternatives to modeling and its associated testing. This paper develops an economic framework within which benefit–cost can be evaluated for modeling and model validation relative to other options. The development is presented in terms of a challenge problem. As a result, we provide a numerical example that quantifies when modeling, calibration, and validation yield higher benefit–cost than a testing only or no modeling and no testing option.

  9. Southern New Mexico low temperature geothermal resource economic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Carol L.; Whittier, Jack; Witcher, James C.; Schoenmackers, Rudi

    1990-08-01

    An economic evaluation of three low-temperature geothermal sites in New Mexico were performed. A hypothetical geothermal system was designed to supply sufficient energy to satisfy thermal loads for one, four, ten, and fifteen acre commercial greenhouses. Geothermal sites were evaluated to identify the important infrastructure requirements. Capital and operating costs were estimated. Annual levelized costs were calculated for the provision of hot water and fresh water for each site. Geothermal costs were compared with annual levelized costs for a natural gas system to supply the equivalent thermal load. Calculated results indicate that geothermal systems may be competitive with natural gas for larger installations. It is not economically attractive to develop a small geothermal system because the initial capital costs are not recovered with reduced operating costs, relative to natural gas.

  10. Techno-economic analysis of decentralized biomass processing depots

    DOE PAGES

    Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S.; Tumuluru, Jaya S.; ...

    2015-07-08

    Decentralized biomass processing facilities, known as biomass depots, may be necessary to achieve feedstock cost, quantity, and quality required to grow the future U.S. bioeconomy. In this paper, we assess three distinct depot configurations for technical difference and economic performance. The depot designs were chosen to compare and contrast a suite of capabilities that a depot could perform ranging from conventional pelleting to sophisticated pretreatment technologies. Our economic analyses indicate that depot processing costs are likely to range from ~US$30 to US$63 per dry metric tonne (Mg), depending upon the specific technology implemented and the energy consumption for processing equipmentmore » such as grinders and dryers. We conclude that the benefits of integrating depots into the overall biomass feedstock supply chain will outweigh depot processing costs and that incorporation of this technology should be aggressively pursued.« less

  11. Techno-economic analysis of decentralized biomass processing depots.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S; Tumuluru, Jaya S; Jacobson, Jacob J; Cafferty, Kara G; Hansen, Jason K; Kenney, Kevin; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Bals, Bryan

    2015-10-01

    Decentralized biomass processing facilities, known as biomass depots, may be necessary to achieve feedstock cost, quantity, and quality required to grow the future U.S. bioeconomy. In this paper, we assess three distinct depot configurations for technical difference and economic performance. The depot designs were chosen to compare and contrast a suite of capabilities that a depot could perform ranging from conventional pelleting to sophisticated pretreatment technologies. Our economic analyses indicate that depot processing costs are likely to range from ∼US$30 to US$63 per dry metric tonne (Mg), depending upon the specific technology implemented and the energy consumption for processing equipment such as grinders and dryers. We conclude that the benefits of integrating depots into the overall biomass feedstock supply chain will outweigh depot processing costs and that incorporation of this technology should be aggressively pursued.

  12. Plant design and economic analysis for solar coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Aiman, W.R.; Thorsness, C.B.; Gregg, D.W.

    1981-04-09

    The advantage of the solar coal gasification (SCG) method, compared to a similar Lurgi plant, is conservation of coal; 40% more product can be produced from a given amount of coal. The primary detriment of SCG is an 8 h/day operation; which leads to a higher plant investment for a given annual production. This higher plant investment is twice as important as the cost of the heliostat field. Providing excess heliostat capacity to maximize the output of the processing units probably is economically justified. Operating costs are lower for SCG, but capital costs are higher. In the future, as coal costs increase relative to investment costs, the SCG plant will become more economical than the Lurgi plant.

  13. PAX ECONOPACK Economic Analysis Package. User’s Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    QUARTERS IN EACH BLDC (CR) >APPLY VINYL SIDING TO EXTERIORS (CR) >(CR) NOTES: None. COMPUTER’S RESPONSE: ENTER THE ECONOMIC LIFE OF ALTERNATIVE 2...8217JAN 1986’ PROJECT ’PUBLICATION FACILITY MODERNIZATION ’ OBJECTIVE ’PROVIDE LEAST COST DOCUMENTATION PROCESSING’ r It is a good idea to include a comment...modification, modernization , etc., required for continued operation of the alternative. M. NEW [Optional; if NEW (proposed primary): used, follow with

  14. Techno-economic analysis of a biomass depot

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Jacob Jordan; Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad Sadekuzzaman; Cafferty, Kara Grace; Kenney, Kevin Louis; Heath, Brendi May; Hansen, Jason K

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) promotes the production of an array of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the technical, economic, and environmental performance of different feedstock supply systems and their impacts on the downstream conversion processes.

  15. Socio-economic Value Analysis in Geospatial and Earth Observation: A methodology review (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coote, A. M.; Bernknopf, R.; Smart, A.

    2013-12-01

    Many industries have long since realised that applying macro-economic analysis methodologies to assess the socio-economic value of a programme is a critical step to convincing decision makers to authorise investment. The geospatial and earth observation industry has however been slow to embrace economic analysis. There are however a growing number of studies, published in the last few years, that have applied economic principles to this domain. They have adopted a variety of different approaches, including: - Computable General Equilibrium Modelling (CGE) - Revealed preference, stated preference (Willingness to Pay surveys) - Partial Analysis - Simulations - Cost-benefit analysis (with and without risk analysis) This paper will critically review these approaches and assess their applicability to different situations and to meet multiple objectives.

  16. Why Economic Analysis of Health System Improvement Interventions Matters.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Edward Ivor; Marquez, Lani

    2016-01-01

    There is little evidence to direct health systems toward providing efficient interventions to address medical errors, defined as an unintended act of omission or commission or one not executed as intended that may or may not cause harm to the patient but does not achieve its intended outcome. We believe that lack of guidance on what is the most efficient way to reduce medical errors and improve the quality of health-care limits the scale-up of health system improvement interventions. Challenges to economic evaluation of these interventions include defining and implementing improvement interventions in different settings with high fidelity, capturing all of the positive and negative effects of the intervention, using process measures of effectiveness rather than health outcomes, and determining the full cost of the intervention and all economic consequences of its effects. However, health system improvement interventions should be treated similarly to individual medical interventions and undergo rigorous economic evaluation to provide actionable evidence to guide policy-makers in decisions of resource allocation for improvement activities among other competing demands for health-care resources.

  17. Integrated environmental policy: A review of economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Holistic environmental policies, which emerged from a mere combination of technical activities in waste management some 40 years ago, constitute the most advanced level of environmental policies. These approaches to environmental policy, among them the policies in integrated waste management, attempt to guide economic agents to an environment-friendly behaviour. Nevertheless, current holistic policies in waste management, including policies on one-way drinks containers and waste electrical and electronic equipment, and implementations of extended producer responsibility with further applications to waste electrical and electronic equipment, reveal more or less severe deficiencies - despite some positive examples. This article relates these policy failures, which are not necessarily the result of an insufficient compliance with the regulations, to missing constitutive elements of what is going to be called an 'integrated environmental policy'. This article therefore investigates - mostly from a practical point of view - constitutive elements, which are necessary for a holistic policy to serve as a well-functioning allocation mechanism. As these constitutive elements result from a careful 'integration' of the environmental commodities into the economic allocation problems, we refer to these policies as 'integrated environmental policies'. The article also discusses and illustrates the main steps of designing such a policy - for waste electrical and electronic equipment and a (possible) ban of Glyphosat in agriculture. As these policies are dependent on economic and political stability with environmental awareness sufficiently developed, the article addresses mostly waste management policies in highly industrialised countries.

  18. The Spectrum and Term Analysis of V II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, A. P.; Pickering, J. C.; Semeniuk, J. I.

    2013-07-01

    The spectrum and extended term analysis of V II are presented. Fourier transform spectrometry was used to record high resolution spectra of singly ionized vanadium in the region 1492-5800 Å (67020-17260 cm-1) with vanadium-neon and vanadium-argon hollow cathode lamps as sources. The wavenumber uncertainty for the center of gravity of the strongest lines is typically 0.002 cm-1, an improvement of an order of magnitude over previous measurements. Most of the lines exhibit partly resolved hyperfine structure. The V II energy levels in the 1985 compilation of Sugar and Corliss have been confirmed and revised, with the exception of the high-lying 4f levels and eight of the lower levels. Thirty-nine of the additional eighty-five high levels published by Iglesias et al. have also been confirmed and revised, and three of their missing levels have been found. The energy uncertainty of the revised levels has been reduced by about an order of magnitude. In total, 176 even levels and 233 odd levels are presented. Wavenumbers and classifications are given for 1242 V II lines.

  19. THE SPECTRUM AND TERM ANALYSIS OF V II

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, A. P.; Pickering, J. C.; Semeniuk, J. I.

    2013-07-15

    The spectrum and extended term analysis of V II are presented. Fourier transform spectrometry was used to record high resolution spectra of singly ionized vanadium in the region 1492-5800 A (67020-17260 cm{sup -1}) with vanadium-neon and vanadium-argon hollow cathode lamps as sources. The wavenumber uncertainty for the center of gravity of the strongest lines is typically 0.002 cm{sup -1}, an improvement of an order of magnitude over previous measurements. Most of the lines exhibit partly resolved hyperfine structure. The V II energy levels in the 1985 compilation of Sugar and Corliss have been confirmed and revised, with the exception of the high-lying 4f levels and eight of the lower levels. Thirty-nine of the additional eighty-five high levels published by Iglesias et al. have also been confirmed and revised, and three of their missing levels have been found. The energy uncertainty of the revised levels has been reduced by about an order of magnitude. In total, 176 even levels and 233 odd levels are presented. Wavenumbers and classifications are given for 1242 V II lines.

  20. An economic analysis of marital fertility: some notes.

    PubMed

    Canlas, D B

    1981-01-01

    As an aspect of household behavior, the decision of whether to have a child or not appears to be an appropriate economic problem: children have consumption and production values, and childbearing and rearing involves resources of time and goods. With markets for birth control techniques present, it has been argued that the decision to have children or not could be regarded as a choice problem. Some of the problems with the economics of fertility behavior based on the household production function resemble the problem that has been raised concerning efforts to mathematize economics. A few critical notes are made in this paper on the theory of the demand for children based on the household production function. On an analytical level, a major criticism of this model pertains to its adherence to the belief that the economic values of children are reducible to a single utility element. Its descriptive and normative worth are diminished by its silence on aspects of uncertainty and imperfect information. The assumptions of the household production function model are examined, focusing on the extent that the mathematical treatment is useful in describing the empirical reality it purports to explain. The examination covers the use of a real valued utility function, the substitution possibilities, and the representation of household activities by the household production function. The household production function model of fertility behavior assumes that the household maximizes a real valued utility function. Adoption of this assumption rests on accepting the idea that wants or economic values attached to children can be reduced to a single utility element. A review of the literature on the worth of children shows a recognition of the multiplicity of wants attached to children. Rather than adopting the assumption that wants are reducible to a single utility element, it would be more suitable to accept the irreducibility and a hierarchical ordering of wants. A more useful

  1. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved

  2. Economic Analysis of Pandemic Influenza Vaccination Strategies in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vernon J.; Tok, Mei Yin; Chow, Vincent T.; Phua, Kai Hong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Tambyah, Paul A.; Chen, Mark I.

    2009-01-01

    Background All influenza pandemic plans advocate pandemic vaccination. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. This paper compares the economic outcomes of vaccination compared with treatment with antiviral agents alone, in Singapore. Methodology We analyzed the economic outcomes of pandemic vaccination (immediate vaccination and vaccine stockpiling) compared with treatment-only in Singapore using a decision-based model to perform cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. We also explored the annual insurance premium (willingness to pay) depending on the perceived risk of the next pandemic occurring. Principal Findings The treatment-only strategy resulted in 690 deaths, 13,950 hospitalization days, and economic cost of USD$497 million. For immediate vaccination, at vaccine effectiveness of >55%, vaccination was cost-beneficial over treatment-only. Vaccine stockpiling is not cost-effective in most scenarios even with 100% vaccine effectiveness. The annual insurance premium was highest with immediate vaccination, and was lower with increased duration to the next pandemic. The premium was also higher with higher vaccine effectiveness, attack rates, and case-fatality rates. Stockpiling with case-fatality rates of 0.4–0.6% would be cost-beneficial if vaccine effectiveness was >80%; while at case-fatality of >5% stockpiling would be cost-beneficial even if vaccine effectiveness was 20%. High-risk sub-groups warrant higher premiums than low-risk sub-groups. Conclusions The actual pandemic vaccine effectiveness and lead time is unknown. Vaccine strategy should be based on perception of severity. Immediate vaccination is most cost-effective, but requires vaccines to be available when required. Vaccine stockpiling as insurance against worst-case scenarios is also cost-effective. Research and development is therefore critical to develop and stockpile cheap, readily available effective vaccines. PMID:19771173

  3. [Analysis of occupational chronic n-hexane poisoning economic burden].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xintian; Qiu, Xingyuan; Bian, Huanfeng; Zhang, Suli; Zhu, Zhiliang; Wu, Junhua

    2014-07-01

    To study the economic burden caused by occupational chronic n-hexane poisoning. Information about the cost of treatment, compensation, board, wage, diagnosis, escorts, transportation and the days off work were collected in a 34 cases of occupational chronic n-hexane poisoning accident to estimate the economic burden. There were 4 mild, 19 moderate, 11 severe in the 34 cases and the total cost was 6 084 809 yuan. The hospitalization days was respectively (204.0 ± 3.7) d, (226.6 ± 78.3) d and (417.6 ± 94.1) d, averaging (285.8 ± 96.3) d. The treatment cost was respectively 62 525.8, 69 409.7 and 128 155.6 yuan. The compensation was respectively 20 000.0, 20 052.6 and 30 290.9 yuan. The wage was respectively 23 460.0, 26 062.6 and 47 644.0 yuan. The board was respectively 17 566.5, 19 499.8 and 36 230.1 yuan. The days of work was respectively (176.8 ± 3.2) d, (196.4 ± 67.9) d and (361.4 ± 81.6) d, averaging (247.7 ± 83.5). The lost productivity was respectively 1 809 724.8, 2 010 350.4 and 3 699 290.4 yuan. The economic burden of occupational chronic n-hexane poisoning was so heavy that prevention measures should be strengthened.

  4. Status Report on Modeling and Analysis of Small Modular Reactor Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J; Hale, Richard Edward; Moses, Rebecca J

    2013-04-01

    This report describes the work performed to generate the model for SMR economic analysis. The model is based on the G4-ECONS calculation tool developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF).

  5. Economic Analysis of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Electronic Reporting Final Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Economic Analysis (EA) quantifies the costs and savings of the proposed NPDES Electronic Reporting Rule, while acknowledging many of the qualitative benefits that will result from its implementation.

  6. Initial Economic Analysis of Utility-Scale Wind Integration in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes an analysis, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in May 2010, of the economic characteristics of a particular utility-scale wind configuration project that has been referred to as the 'Big Wind' project.

  7. Techno-economic analysis of supercritical carbon dioxide power blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meybodi, Mehdi Aghaei; Beath, Andrew; Gwynn-Jones, Stephen; Veeraragavan, Anand; Gurgenci, Hal; Hooman, Kamel

    2017-06-01

    Developing highly efficient power blocks holds the key to enhancing the cost competitiveness of Concentration Solar Thermal (CST) technologies. Supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycles have proved promising in providing equivalent or higher cycle efficiency than supercritical or superheated steam cycles at temperatures and scales relevant for Australian CST applications. In this study, a techno-economic methodology is developed using a stochastic approach to determine the ranges for the cost and performance of different components of central receiver power plants utilizing sCO2 power blocks that are necessary to meet the Australian Solar Thermal Initiative (ASTRI) final LCOE target of 12 c/kWh.

  8. Saving money with energy conservation: economic analysis of conservation measures

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.E.; Roller, D.A.; Moor, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    The basic tools for performing simple economic analyses of energy-conservation measures are reviewed. Energy accounting establishes energy-utilization patterns and performance goals. Directions for analyzing the utility bill are presented. Part 2 introduces ways to calculate the payback period, return on investment, and present worth of energy-conservation measures. Examples are given for reducing parking lot and indoor lighting, adding storm windows, reducing ventilation-fan running time, recycling boiler condensate, and shifting electrical-demand peak. A discussion of the inflation, depreciation, and income-tax ramifications of energy conservation is offered.

  9. Economic analysis of wind-powered crop drying. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in crop drying. Drying of corn, soybeans, rice, peanuts, tobacco, and dehydrated alfalfa were addressed.

  10. Final Safety Analysis Addenda to Hazards Summary Report, Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II): upgrading of plant protection system. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, N. L.; Keeton, J. M.; Sackett, J. I.

    1980-06-01

    This report is the second in a series of compilations of the formal Final Safety Analysis Addenda (FSAA`s) to the EBR-II Hazard Summary Report and Addendum. Sections 2 and 3 are edited versions of the original FSAA`s prepared in support of certain modifications to the reactor-shutdown-system portion of the EBR-II plant-protection system. Section 4 is an edited version of the original FSAA prepared in support of certain modifications to a system classified as an engineered safety feature. These sections describe the pre- and postmodification system, the rationale for the modification, and required supporting safety analysis. Section 5 provides an updated description and analysis of the EBR-II emergency power system. Section 6 summarizes all significant modifications to the EBR-II plant-protection system to date.

  11. Aerothermal Analysis of the Project Fire II Afterbody Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael J.; Loomis, Mark; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the wake flow and afterbody heating of the Project Fire II ballistic reentry to Earth at 11.4 km/sec. Laminar results are obtained over a portion of the trajectory between the initial heat pulse and peak afterbody heating. Although non-catalytic forebody convective heating results are in excellent agreement with previous computations, initial predictions of afterbody heating were about a factor of two below the experimental values. Further analysis suggests that significant catalysis may be occurring on the afterbody heat shield. Computations including finite-rate catalysis on the afterbody surface are in good agreement with the data over the early portion of the trajectory, but are conservative near the peak afterbody heating point, especially on the rear portion of the conical frustum. Further analysis of the flight data from Fire II shows that peak afterbody heating occurs before peak forebody heating, a result that contradicts computations and flight data from other entry vehicles. This result suggests that another mechanism, possibly pyrolysis, may be occurring during the later portion of the trajectory, resulting in less total heat transfer than the current predictions.

  12. SHEFEX II Flight Instrumentation And Preparation Of Post Flight Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, Thomas; Siebe, Frank; Gulhan, Ali

    2011-05-01

    A main disadvantage of modern TPS systems for re- entry vehicles is the expensive manufacturing and maintenance process due to the complex geometry of these blunt nose configurations. To reduce the costs and to improve the aerodynamic performance the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is following a different approach using TPS structures consisting of flat ceramic tiles. To test these new sharp edged TPS structures the SHEFEX I flight experiment was designed and successfully performed by DLR in 2005. To further improve the reliability of the sharp edged TPS design at even higher Mach numbers, a second flight experiment SHEFEX II will be performed in September 2011. In comparison to SHEFEX I the second flight experiment has a fully symmetrical shape and will reach a maximum Mach number of about 11. Furthermore the vehicle has an active steering system using four canards to control the flight attitude during re-entry, e.g. roll angle, angle of attack and sideslip. After a successful flight the evaluation of the flight data will be performed using a combination of numerical and experimental tools. The data will be used for the improvement of the present numerical analysis tools and to get a better understanding of the aerothermal behaviour of sharp TPS structures. This paper presents the flight instrumentation of the SHEFEX II TPS. In addition the concept of the post flight analysis is presented.

  13. SLR precision analysis for LAGEOS I and II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilsu, Gaye; Sahin, Muhammed

    2000-10-01

    This paper deals with the problem of properly weighting satellite observations which are non-uniform in quality. The technique, the variance component estimation method developed by Helmert, was first applied to the 1987 LAGEOS I SLR data by Sahin et al. (1992). This paper investigates the performance of the globally distributed SLR stations using the Helmert type variance component estimation. As well as LAGEOS I data, LAGEOS II data were analysed, in order to compare with the previously analysed 1987 LAGEOS I data. The LAGEOS I and II data used in this research were obtained from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS), which archives data acquired from stations operated by NASA and by other U.S. and international organizations. The data covers the years 1994, 1995 and 1996. The analysis is based on "full-rate" laser observations, which consist of hundreds to thousands of ranges per satellite pass. The software used is based on the SATAN package (SATellite ANalysis) developed at the Royal Greenwich Observatory in the UK.

  14. The economics of project analysis: Optimal investment criteria and methods of study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scriven, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Insight is provided toward the development of an optimal program for investment analysis of project proposals offering commercial potential and its components. This involves a critique of economic investment criteria viewed in relation to requirements of engineering economy analysis. An outline for a systems approach to project analysis is given Application of the Leontief input-output methodology to analysis of projects involving multiple processes and products is investigated. Effective application of elements of neoclassical economic theory to investment analysis of project components is demonstrated. Patterns of both static and dynamic activity levels are incorporated.

  15. Influence of different mineral and Organic pesticide treatments on Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) contents determined by derivative potentiometric stripping analysis in Italian white and red wines.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Francesco; La Pera, Lara; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Nicotina, Mariano; Dugo, Giacomo

    2003-02-12

    This paper deals with the use of derivative potentiometric stripping analysis (dPSA) as a rapid and precise method to determine Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels in red and white wine samples from Sicily, Campania, and Tuscany and to investigate the possible connection between the content of these metals and the pesticide treatments used in vine-growing to control plant diseases and pests. dPSA allowed direct quantitation of heavy metals in acidified wines without any sample pretreatment. Mean recoveries of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) ranged from 95.5 to 99.2% for white wine samples and from 96.1 to 100.0% for red wine samples. The obtained results showed that Cd(II) was not found in any sample and that Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels were always lower than the toxicity limits in both fungicide- and water-treated wines. Nevertheless, the contents of metals were increased in samples from organic and inorganic pesticides treatment with respect to the water-treated samples. In particular, quinoxyfen, dinocap-penconazole, and dinocap applications considerably increased Cu(II) and Zn(II) contents in white and red wines. The levels of lead were significantly raised by azoxystrobin and sulfur treatments.

  16. Systemic Risk Analysis on Reconstructed Economic and Financial Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cimini, Giulio; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Gabrielli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We address a fundamental problem that is systematically encountered when modeling real-world complex systems of societal relevance: the limitedness of the information available. In the case of economic and financial networks, privacy issues severely limit the information that can be accessed and, as a consequence, the possibility of correctly estimating the resilience of these systems to events such as financial shocks, crises and cascade failures. Here we present an innovative method to reconstruct the structure of such partially-accessible systems, based on the knowledge of intrinsic node-specific properties and of the number of connections of only a limited subset of nodes. This information is used to calibrate an inference procedure based on fundamental concepts derived from statistical physics, which allows to generate ensembles of directed weighted networks intended to represent the real system—so that the real network properties can be estimated as their average values within the ensemble. We test the method both on synthetic and empirical networks, focusing on the properties that are commonly used to measure systemic risk. Indeed, the method shows a remarkable robustness with respect to the limitedness of the information available, thus representing a valuable tool for gaining insights on privacy-protected economic and financial systems. PMID:26507849

  17. [Comparison Analysis of Economic and Engineering Control of Industrial VOCs].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-fei; Liu, Chang-xin; Cheng, Jie; Hao, Zheng-ping; Wang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollutant has become China's major air pollutant in key urban areas like sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. It is mainly produced from industry sectors, and engineering control is one of the most important reduction measures. During the 12th Five-Year Plan, China decides to invest 40 billion RMB to build pollution control projects in key industry sectors with annual emission reduction of 605 000 t x a(-1). It shows that China attaches a great importance to emission reduction by engineering projects and highlights the awareness of engineering reduction technologies. In this paper, a macroeconomic model, namely computable general equilibrium model, (CGE model) was employed to simulate engineering control and economic control (imposing environmental tax). We aim to compare the pros and cons of the two reduction policies. Considering the economic loss of the whole country, the environmental tax has more impacts on the economy system than engineering reduction measures. We suggest that the central government provides 7 500 RMB x t(-1) as subsidy for enterprises in industry sectors to encourage engineering reduction.

  18. Techno-economic analysis of lignocellulosic ethanol: A review.

    PubMed

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Dauriat, Arnaud

    2010-07-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol is expected to be commercialised during the next decade as renewable energy for transport. Competiveness with first generation bioethanol and with gasoline is commonly considered in techno-economic analyses for commercial stage. Several existing reviews conclude about the high spread of current and projected production costs of lignocellulosic ethanol due to the significant differences in assumptions concerning the following factors: composition and cost of feedstock, process design, conversion efficiency, valorisation of co-products, and energy conservation. Focusing on the studies in the United States of America and in Europe, the present review investigates the different natures of the techno-economic evaluations during the development process of the supply chain i.e., standard costing with respect to Value Engineering, and Target Costing based on the projected market price. The paper highlights the significant contribution of feedstock to the lignocellulosic ethanol production cost and the need to consider competition between different uses for resources. It is recommended the use of a value-based approach that considers sustainability characteristics and potential competition for resources complementarily to Target Costing and Value Engineering.

  19. Systemic Risk Analysis on Reconstructed Economic and Financial Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimini, Giulio; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Gabrielli, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We address a fundamental problem that is systematically encountered when modeling real-world complex systems of societal relevance: the limitedness of the information available. In the case of economic and financial networks, privacy issues severely limit the information that can be accessed and, as a consequence, the possibility of correctly estimating the resilience of these systems to events such as financial shocks, crises and cascade failures. Here we present an innovative method to reconstruct the structure of such partially-accessible systems, based on the knowledge of intrinsic node-specific properties and of the number of connections of only a limited subset of nodes. This information is used to calibrate an inference procedure based on fundamental concepts derived from statistical physics, which allows to generate ensembles of directed weighted networks intended to represent the real system—so that the real network properties can be estimated as their average values within the ensemble. We test the method both on synthetic and empirical networks, focusing on the properties that are commonly used to measure systemic risk. Indeed, the method shows a remarkable robustness with respect to the limitedness of the information available, thus representing a valuable tool for gaining insights on privacy-protected economic and financial systems.

  20. Time series analysis of nuclear instrumentation in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Imel, G.R.

    1996-05-01

    Results of a time series analysis of the scaler count data from the 3 wide range nuclear detectors in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II are presented. One of the channels was replaced, and it was desired to determine if there was any statistically significant change (ie, improvement) in the channel`s response after the replacement. Data were collected from all 3 channels for 16-day periods before and after detector replacement. Time series analysis and statistical tests showed that there was no significant change after the detector replacement. Also, there were no statistically significant differences among the 3 channels, either before or after the replacement. Finally, it was determined that errors in the reactivity change inferred from subcritical count monitoring during fuel handling would be on the other of 20-30 cents for single count intervals.

  1. Voltammetric analysis of Cu (II), Cd (II) and Zn (II) complexes and their cyclic voltammetry with several cephalosporin antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Maali, N; Osman, A H; Aly, A A M; Al-Hazmi, G A A

    2005-02-01

    Both osteryoung square wave voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry have been utilized to elucidate and confirm the possible complexation reaction that occur between the various cephalosporin antibiotics and either the toxic, non-essential metal ion, viz. Cd (II), or the essential but toxic (when their concentration exceeds certain level in serum) metal ions, viz. Cu (II) and Zn (II). Voltammetric measurements indicated the existence of 1:1 metal-to-ligand ratio (as in cephalexin and cephapirin complexes), 1:2 ratio (such as in cefamandole, cefuroxime and cefotaxime complexes) and 2:1 ratio in case of ceftazidime complexes. Adsorption behavior was evidenced for Cu (II)-cefuroxime or ceftazidime complexes as well as for those for Zn (II)-cephalexin or cephapirin. This phenomenon could be used for the determination of either the antibiotic or the metal ion using adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Detection limits down to 7x10(-10) M have been easily achieved.

  2. The Use of Computer Simulation Methods to Reach Data for Economic Analysis of Automated Logistic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neradilová, Hana; Fedorko, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    Automated logistic systems are becoming more widely used within enterprise logistics processes. Their main advantage is that they allow increasing the efficiency and reliability of logistics processes. In terms of evaluating their effectiveness, it is necessary to take into account the economic aspect of the entire process. However, many users ignore and underestimate this area,which is not correct. One of the reasons why the economic aspect is overlooked is the fact that obtaining information for such an analysis is not easy. The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of computer simulation methods for obtaining data for full-scale economic analysis implementation.

  3. Arms race modeling: systematic analysis and synthesis. (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderton, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years there has been a significant proliferation of arms race models in journals and books across many disciplines. Numerous factors have been put forth as relevant by arms race modelers and diverse analytical and explanatory approaches have been employed. This indicates that arms race modeling can be advanced by a systematic analysis (review) and synthesis. This is the purpose of this thesis). Part I discusses the perspective, purposes, and organization of this thesis, definitions of arms race, and mathematical modeling as a tool of arms race research. Parts II-VI review in detail over 125 arms race models and numerous other defense determination models. Part VII synthesizes arms race modeling factors and approaches from the perspective of economics. Each side in an arms race is viewed as facing an economic choice problem of how to allocate scarce resources between defense and nondefense goods. Part VIII undertakes policy analysis using the models developed in Part VII. The three issues investigated are (1) nuclear-conventional substitutability in the European theater, (2) the Strategic Defense Initiative, and (3) the impact of arms races on outputs and factor rewards. Part IX discusses future research avenues related to arms race modeling.

  4. The Economic Value of Mangroves: A Meta-Analysis

    Treesearch

    Marwa Salem; D. Evan Mercer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of the mangrove ecosystem valuation literature through a meta-regression analysis. The main contribution of this study is that it is the first meta-analysis focusing solely on mangrove forests, whereas previous studies have included different types of wetlands. The number of studies included in the regression analysis is 44 for a total...

  5. Economic solvency in the context of violence against women: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, Heidi; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this concept analysis is to define economic solvency in the context of violence against women. Poverty, or lack of resources, is often discussed as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. The concept of economic solvency, which may be a protective factor for women, is less often discussed and not well defined. Databases searched for the analysis included EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed and Gender Watch. The Rodgers evolutionary method was used to perform the concept analysis. A total of 134 articles were retrieved, using the specified search terms 'economic solvency and women', 'economic self-reliance and women' and 'economic self-sufficiency and women'. Articles were included if they were peer reviewed, contained the keywords with sufficient context to determine the author's intended meaning, and focused on women only or contrasted men to women. Thirty-five articles were used in the concept analysis. The definition of economic solvency drawn from the concept analysis is: a long-term state that occurs when there is societal structure that supports gender equity and external resources are available and can be used by a woman who has necessary human capital, sustainable employment and independence. Just as poverty and violence are cyclical, so are economic solvency and empowerment of women. To decrease women's risk of intimate partner violence around the world and further improve the status of women, we recommend continued research on economic solvency, including the individual, family, community and societal resources required to obtain economic solvency and the human capital characteristics needed for sustainability. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Economic analysis of eating and physical activity: a next step for research and policy change.

    PubMed

    Hill, James O; Sallis, James F; Peters, John C

    2004-10-01

    Poor nutrition and physical inactivity are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States, and widespread behavior modification is needed to improve health now and in the future. There is growing evidence that modifications in the physical environment and in social policies will be required to accomplish this goal. There is also growing recognition that economic factors have contributed to current eating and physical activity patterns, and that economic factors need to be considered when developing strategies for improving these behaviors. Identifying where economic and public health priorities converge could suggest new avenues for sustainable policy changes, which will, in turn, promote healthy choices on both an individual and population-wide level. To review the effect that economics has on eating and physical activity behaviors, the Partnership to Promote Healthy Eating and Active Living convened an Economic Analysis Forum. Two working groups were formed-one focusing on eating behaviors and one on physical activity, and both with equal representation from health-related and economic disciplines. The groups examined how economics has contributed to present eating and physical activity patterns and how economics could be used to develop interventions to improve these patterns. This article describes the challenges the groups faced in their work, the way in which the public health and economic approaches were integrated, and the questions left unanswered.

  7. FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (UNIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Predictions of fatigue crack growth behavior can be made with the Fatigue Crack Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN II) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to a selected crack configuration with an initial crack size, FASTRAN II predicts crack growth as a function of cyclic load history until either a desired crack size is reached or failure occurs. FASTRAN II is based on plasticity-induced crack-closure behavior of cracks in metallic materials and accounts for load-interaction effects, such as retardation and acceleration, under variable-amplitude loading. The closure model is based on the Dugdale model with modifications to allow plastically deformed material to be left along the crack surfaces as the crack grows. Plane stress and plane strain conditions, as well as conditions between these two, can be simulated in FASTRAN II by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack front to approximately account for three-dimensional stress states. FASTRAN II contains seventeen predefined crack configurations (standard laboratory fatigue crack growth rate specimens and many common crack configurations found in structures); and the user can define one additional crack configuration. The baseline crack growth rate properties (effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate) may be given in either equation or tabular form. For three-dimensional crack configurations, such as surface cracks or corner cracks at holes or notches, the fatigue crack growth rate properties may be different in the crack depth and crack length directions. Final failure of the cracked structure can be modelled with fracture toughness properties using either linear-elastic fracture mechanics (brittle materials), a two-parameter fracture criterion (brittle to ductile materials), or plastic collapse (extremely ductile materials). The crack configurations in FASTRAN II can be subjected to either constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude or spectrum loading. The applied

  8. FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Predictions of fatigue crack growth behavior can be made with the Fatigue Crack Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN II) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to a selected crack configuration with an initial crack size, FASTRAN II predicts crack growth as a function of cyclic load history until either a desired crack size is reached or failure occurs. FASTRAN II is based on plasticity-induced crack-closure behavior of cracks in metallic materials and accounts for load-interaction effects, such as retardation and acceleration, under variable-amplitude loading. The closure model is based on the Dugdale model with modifications to allow plastically deformed material to be left along the crack surfaces as the crack grows. Plane stress and plane strain conditions, as well as conditions between these two, can be simulated in FASTRAN II by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack front to approximately account for three-dimensional stress states. FASTRAN II contains seventeen predefined crack configurations (standard laboratory fatigue crack growth rate specimens and many common crack configurations found in structures); and the user can define one additional crack configuration. The baseline crack growth rate properties (effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate) may be given in either equation or tabular form. For three-dimensional crack configurations, such as surface cracks or corner cracks at holes or notches, the fatigue crack growth rate properties may be different in the crack depth and crack length directions. Final failure of the cracked structure can be modelled with fracture toughness properties using either linear-elastic fracture mechanics (brittle materials), a two-parameter fracture criterion (brittle to ductile materials), or plastic collapse (extremely ductile materials). The crack configurations in FASTRAN II can be subjected to either constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude or spectrum loading. The applied

  9. FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (UNIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Predictions of fatigue crack growth behavior can be made with the Fatigue Crack Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN II) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to a selected crack configuration with an initial crack size, FASTRAN II predicts crack growth as a function of cyclic load history until either a desired crack size is reached or failure occurs. FASTRAN II is based on plasticity-induced crack-closure behavior of cracks in metallic materials and accounts for load-interaction effects, such as retardation and acceleration, under variable-amplitude loading. The closure model is based on the Dugdale model with modifications to allow plastically deformed material to be left along the crack surfaces as the crack grows. Plane stress and plane strain conditions, as well as conditions between these two, can be simulated in FASTRAN II by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack front to approximately account for three-dimensional stress states. FASTRAN II contains seventeen predefined crack configurations (standard laboratory fatigue crack growth rate specimens and many common crack configurations found in structures); and the user can define one additional crack configuration. The baseline crack growth rate properties (effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate) may be given in either equation or tabular form. For three-dimensional crack configurations, such as surface cracks or corner cracks at holes or notches, the fatigue crack growth rate properties may be different in the crack depth and crack length directions. Final failure of the cracked structure can be modelled with fracture toughness properties using either linear-elastic fracture mechanics (brittle materials), a two-parameter fracture criterion (brittle to ductile materials), or plastic collapse (extremely ductile materials). The crack configurations in FASTRAN II can be subjected to either constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude or spectrum loading. The applied

  10. FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Predictions of fatigue crack growth behavior can be made with the Fatigue Crack Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN II) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to a selected crack configuration with an initial crack size, FASTRAN II predicts crack growth as a function of cyclic load history until either a desired crack size is reached or failure occurs. FASTRAN II is based on plasticity-induced crack-closure behavior of cracks in metallic materials and accounts for load-interaction effects, such as retardation and acceleration, under variable-amplitude loading. The closure model is based on the Dugdale model with modifications to allow plastically deformed material to be left along the crack surfaces as the crack grows. Plane stress and plane strain conditions, as well as conditions between these two, can be simulated in FASTRAN II by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack front to approximately account for three-dimensional stress states. FASTRAN II contains seventeen predefined crack configurations (standard laboratory fatigue crack growth rate specimens and many common crack configurations found in structures); and the user can define one additional crack configuration. The baseline crack growth rate properties (effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate) may be given in either equation or tabular form. For three-dimensional crack configurations, such as surface cracks or corner cracks at holes or notches, the fatigue crack growth rate properties may be different in the crack depth and crack length directions. Final failure of the cracked structure can be modelled with fracture toughness properties using either linear-elastic fracture mechanics (brittle materials), a two-parameter fracture criterion (brittle to ductile materials), or plastic collapse (extremely ductile materials). The crack configurations in FASTRAN II can be subjected to either constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude or spectrum loading. The applied

  11. Ecosystems, ecological restoration, and economics: does habitat or resource equivalency analysis mean other economic valuation methods are not needed?

    PubMed

    Shaw, W Douglass; Wlodarz, Marta

    2013-09-01

    Coastal and other area resources such as tidal wetlands, seagrasses, coral reefs, wetlands, and other ecosystems are often harmed by environmental damage that might be inflicted by human actions, or could occur from natural hazards such as hurricanes. Society may wish to restore resources to offset the harm, or receive compensation if this is not possible, but faces difficult choices among potential compensation projects. The optimal amount of restoration efforts can be determined by non-market valuation methods, service-to-service, or resource-to-resource approaches such as habitat equivalency analysis (HEA). HEA scales injured resources and lost services on a one-to-one trade-off basis. Here, we present the main differences between the HEA approach and other non-market valuation approaches. Particular focus is on the role of the social discount rate, which appears in the HEA equation and underlies calculations of the present value of future damages. We argue that while HEA involves elements of economic analysis, the assumption of a one-to-one trade-off between lost and restored services sometimes does not hold, and then other non-market economic valuation approaches may help in restoration scaling or in damage determination.

  12. Economic Analysis of a Postulated space Tourism Transportation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Allan S.

    2002-01-01

    Design concepts and associated costs were defined for a family of launch vehicles supporting a space tourism endeavor requiring the weekly transport of space tourists to and from an Earth- orbiting facility. The stated business goal for the Space Tourist Transportation System (STTS) element of the proposed commercial space venture was to transport and return ~50 passengers a week to LEO at a cost of roughly 50 K per seat commencing in 2005. This paper summarizes the economic analyses conducted within a broader Systems Engineering study of the postulated concept. Parametric costs were derived using TransCostSystems' (TCS) Cost Engineering Handbook, version 7. Costs were developed as a function of critical system characteristics and selected business scenarios. Various economic strategies directed toward achieving a cost of ~50 K per seat were identified and examined. The study indicated that with a `nominal' business scenario, the initial cost for developing and producing a fully reusable, 2-stage STTS element for a baseline of 46-passengers was about 15.5 B assuming a plausible `commercialization factor' of 0.333. The associated per-seat ticket cost was ~890 K, more than an order of magnitude higher than desired. If the system is enlarged to 104 passengers for better efficiency, the STTS initial cost for the nominal business scenario is increased to about 19.8 B and the per-seat ticket cost is reduced to ~530 K. It was concluded that achieving the desired ticket cost of 50 K per seat is not feasible unless the size of the STTS, and therefore of the entire system, is substantially increased. However, for the specified operational characteristics, it was shown that a system capacity of thousands of passengers per week is required. This implies an extremely high total system development cost, which is not very realistic as a commercial venture, especially in the proposed time frame. These results suggested that ambitious commercial space ventures may have to rely on

  13. Economic growth analysis system (E-GAS) for EPA region 1 - northeast area (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The E - Gas modeling system is a forecast model used to predict National and regional economic activity in order to estimate attainment of ozone and photochemical air quality standards. Since growth in source emissions largely depends on the amount of economic activity growth in an area, a consistent set of growth factors requires forecasts using consistent Gross National Product (GNP) forecasts and a consistent methodology for estimating economic activity in Urban Airshed Model (UAM) and Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) modeling regions. The need for consistent economic growth facts, however, must be satisfied in a way that allows States to use their own estimates of National and regional economic activity. The Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) is an economic and activity forecast model which satisfies both of these standards. The E-GAS modeling system contains three tiers. The first tier includes available national economic forecasts which are used to drive the regional economic models. The second tier includes regional economic models for the UAM modeling areas, as well as the States in the ROM modeling regions. The third tier estimates fuel consumption, physical output, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) based on the second tier`s regional economic forecasts. The tiers must be sequentially executed, since data are created by and passed from early tiers for transfers to later tiers. The three-tiered structure of E-GAS allows users flexibility in modeling. Although a tier must be run before preceding to later tiers, the system allows the models to be rerun at the user`s discretion. For example, users may run the National model using either BLS or WEFA forecasts before performing regional modeling on the last national model run. E-GAS is designed such that growth factor projection scenarios for each nonattainment area and attainment portion of States can be made using a common assumption about future U.S. economic activity.

  14. Impact of climate on energy sector in economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, H.E.; LeDuc, S.K.

    1981-12-01

    Assessments of economic conditions by region or sector attempt to include relevant climatic variability through residual adjustment techniques. There is no direct consideration of climatic fluctuations. Three recent severe winters combined with the increasing price of energy have intensified the need to quantify the interaction of climate with the energy sector of the economy. This paper presents examples of the uses of climatic data by utilities, public service commissions and the NOAA Center for Environmental Assessment Services to determine econoclimatic energy relationships at the local, state, regional and national levels. A technique based on the linear relationships between heating degree days and natural gas consumption for space heating is used to quantify the interaction of climate and prices on gas consumption. This provides regional estimates of the response of gas consumption to degree days and price.

  15. Economic analysis of gradual "social exhaustion" of waste management capacity.

    PubMed

    Koide, Hideo; Nakayama, Hirofumi

    2013-12-01

    This article proposes to analyze the quantitative effects of a gradual physical and "social" exhaustion of a landfill site on an equilibrium waste management service. A gradual social exhaustion of a landfill is defined here as an upward shift of a "subjective factor" associated with the amount of waste, based on the plausible hypothesis that an individual will not accept excessive presence of landfilled waste. Physical exhaustion occurs when the absolute capacity of a landfill site decreases. The paper shows some numerical examples using specific functions and parameters, and proposes appropriate directions for three policy objectives: to decrease the equilibrium waste disposal, to increase the economic surplus of the individual and/or the waste management firm, and to lower the equilibrium collection fee.

  16. [Population development and economic growth. A simulation analysis for Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C; Straubhaar, T

    1996-01-01

    "A simulation exercise of a general equilibrium model for Switzerland makes clear that the macroeconomic impacts of aging populations are not very strong. There is no need for urgent policy actions to avoid severe negative economic consequences....However, the aging of population affects negatively the net income of the active labor force. An increasing share of their gross salaries goes to the retirement system to finance the pension payments of a growing number of pensioners. Attempts to moderate the elderly dependency ratio would lower this burden for the active labor force. Options are an increase of the female participation rate, an increase of the labor participation rate of the elderly--[which] also means a higher retirement age--and an increasing flow of immigrants. But socioeconomic problems might probably generate practical limits on the extent to which immigration can be increased." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  17. Entropy analysis in foreign exchange markets and economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jin-Gi; Yim, Kyubin; Kim, Seunghwan; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in 11 foreign exchange markets by using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity algorithm and several entropy values such as the Shannon entropy, the approximate entropy, and the sample entropy. With daily data in 11 foreign exchange markets from Jan. 2000 to Sep. 2011, we observe that mature markets have higher LZ complexities and entropy values than emerging markets. Furthermore, with sliding time windows, we also investigate the temporal evolutions of those entropies from Jan. 1994 to Sep. 2011, and we find that, after an economic crisis, the approximate entropy and the sample entropy of mature markets such as Japan, Europe and the United Kingdom suddenly become lower.

  18. Rankine engine solar power generation. I - Performance and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gossler, A. A.; Orrock, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a computer simulation of the performance of a solar flat plate collector powered electrical generation system are presented. The simulation was configured to include locations in New Mexico, North Dakota, Tennessee, and Massachusetts, and considered a water-based heat-transfer fluid collector system with storage. The collectors also powered a Rankine-cycle boiler filled with a low temperature working fluid. The generator was considered to be run only when excess solar heat and full storage would otherwise require heat purging through the collectors. All power was directed into the utility grid. The solar powered generator unit addition was found to be dependent on site location and collector area, and reduced the effective solar cost with collector areas greater than 400-670 sq m. The sites were economically ranked, best to worst: New Mexico, North Dakota, Massachusetts, and Tennessee.

  19. Rankine engine solar power generation. I - Performance and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gossler, A. A.; Orrock, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a computer simulation of the performance of a solar flat plate collector powered electrical generation system are presented. The simulation was configured to include locations in New Mexico, North Dakota, Tennessee, and Massachusetts, and considered a water-based heat-transfer fluid collector system with storage. The collectors also powered a Rankine-cycle boiler filled with a low temperature working fluid. The generator was considered to be run only when excess solar heat and full storage would otherwise require heat purging through the collectors. All power was directed into the utility grid. The solar powered generator unit addition was found to be dependent on site location and collector area, and reduced the effective solar cost with collector areas greater than 400-670 sq m. The sites were economically ranked, best to worst: New Mexico, North Dakota, Massachusetts, and Tennessee.

  20. Behavioral economic analysis of demand for fuel in North America.

    PubMed

    Reed, Derek D; Partington, Scott W; Kaplan, Brent A; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research clearly indicates that human behavior is contributing to climate change, notably, the use of fossil fuels as a form of energy for everyday behaviors. This dependence on oil in North America has led to assertions that the current level of demand is the social equivalent to an "addiction." The purpose of this study was to apply behavioral economic demand curves-a broadly applicable method of evaluating relative reinforcer efficacy in behavioral models of addiction-to North American oil consumption to examine whether such claims of oil addiction are warranted. Toward this end, we examined government data from the United States and Canada on per capita energy consumption for transportation and oil prices between 1995 and 2008. Our findings indicate that consumption either persisted or simultaneously increased despite sharp increases in oil price per barrel over the past decade.

  1. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 1, Rev. 14

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The condensed version of the TRUPACT-II Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) contains essential material required by TRUPACT-II users, plus additional contents (payload) information previously submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All or part of the following sections, which are not required by users of the TRUPACT-II, are deleted from the condensed version: (i) structural analysis, (ii) thermal analysis, (iii) containment analysis, (iv) criticality analysis, (v) shielding analysis, and (vi) hypothetical accident test results.

  2. Subfield profitability analysis reveals an economic case for cropland diversification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, E.; McNunn, G. S.; Schulte, L. A.; Bonner, I. J.; Muth, D. J.; Babcock, B. A.; Sharma, B.; Heaton, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Public agencies and private enterprises increasingly desire to achieve ecosystem service outcomes in agricultural systems, but are limited by perceived conflicts between economic and ecosystem service goals and a lack of tools enabling effective operational management. Here we use Iowa—an agriculturally homogeneous state representative of the Maize Belt—to demonstrate an economic rationale for cropland diversification at the subfield scale. We used a novel computational framework that integrates disparate but publicly available data to map ˜3.3 million unique potential management polygons (9.3 Mha) and reveal subfield opportunities to increase overall field profitability. We analyzed subfield profitability for maize/soybean fields during 2010-2013—four of the most profitable years in recent history—and projected results for 2015. While cropland operating at a loss of US 250 ha-1 or more was negligible between 2010 and 2013 at 18 000-190 000 ha (<2% of row-crop land), the extent of highly unprofitable land increased to 2.5 Mha, or 27% of row-crop land, in the 2015 projection. Aggregation of these areas to the township level revealed ‘hotspots’ for potential management change in Western, Central, and Northeast Iowa. In these least profitable areas, incorporating conservation management that breaks even (e.g., planting low-input perennials), into low-yielding portions of fields could increase overall cropland profitability by 80%. This approach is applicable to the broader region and differs substantially from the status quo of ‘top-down’ land management for conservation by harnessing private interest to align profitability with the production of ecosystem services.

  3. An economic analysis on optical Ethernet in the access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Hwi; Nam, Dohyun; Yoo, Gunil; Kim, WoonHa

    2004-04-01

    Nowadays, Broadband service subscribers have increased exponentially and have almost saturated in Korea. Several types of solutions for broadband service applied to the field. Among several types of broadband services, most of subscribers provided xDSL service like ADSL or VDSL. Usually, they who live in an apartment provided Internet service by Ntopia network as FTTC structure that is a dormant network in economical view at KT. Under competitive telecom environment for new services like video, we faced with needing to expand or rebuild portions of our access networks, are looking for ways to provide any service that competitors might offer presently or in the near future. In order to look for new business model like FTTH service, we consider deploying optical access network. In spite of numerous benefits of PON until now, we cannot believe that PON is the best solution in Korea. Because we already deployed optical access network of ring type feeder cable and have densely population of subscribers that mainly distributed inside 6km from central office. So we try to utilize an existing Ntopia network for FTTH service under optical access environment. Despite of such situations, we try to deploy PON solution in the field as FTTC or FTTH architecture. Therefore we analyze PON structure in comparison with AON structure in order to look for optimized structure in Korea. At first, we describe the existing optical access networks and network architecture briefly. Secondly we investigate the cost of building optical access networks by modeling cost functions on AON and PON structure which based on Ethernet protocol, and analyze two different network architectures according to different deployment scenarios: Urban, small town, rural. Finally we suggest the economic and best solution with PON structure to optimize to optical access environment of KT.

  4. Uncertainty analysis and global sensitivity analysis of techno-economic assessments for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhang-Chun; Zhenzhou, Lu; Zhiwen, Liu; Ningcong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    There are various uncertain parameters in the techno-economic assessments (TEAs) of biodiesel production, including capital cost, interest rate, feedstock price, maintenance rate, biodiesel conversion efficiency, glycerol price and operating cost. However, fewer studies focus on the influence of these parameters on TEAs. This paper investigated the effects of these parameters on the life cycle cost (LCC) and the unit cost (UC) in the TEAs of biodiesel production. The results show that LCC and UC exhibit variations when involving uncertain parameters. Based on the uncertainty analysis, three global sensitivity analysis (GSA) methods are utilized to quantify the contribution of an individual uncertain parameter to LCC and UC. The GSA results reveal that the feedstock price and the interest rate produce considerable effects on the TEAs. These results can provide a useful guide for entrepreneurs when they plan plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Coal, Natural Gas, and Wind: The Expanded Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model (JEDI II); Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we examine the impacts of building new coal, gas, or wind plants in three states: Colorado, Michigan, and Virginia. Our findings indicate that local/state economic impacts are directly related to the availability and utilization of local industries and services to build and operate the power plant. For gas and coal plants, the economic benefit depends significantly on whether the fuel is obtained from within the state, out of state, or some combination. We also find that the taxes generated by power plants can have a significant impact on local economies via increased expenditures on public goods.

  6. Hestian Hermeneutics: A Lens of Analysis for Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia J.

    Feminist and women scholars in all disciplines have challenged the traditional masculist "lens of analysis" and have sought to bring into focus the "missing text" of female experience. This paper proposes an alternative to gender-bound lens of analysis because either or both masculist and feminist lenses are too limited to…

  7. Randomizing world trade. II. A weighted network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Fagiolo, Giorgio; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2011-10-01

    Based on the misleading expectation that weighted network properties always offer a more complete description than purely topological ones, current economic models of the International Trade Network (ITN) generally aim at explaining local weighted properties, not local binary ones. Here we complement our analysis of the binary projections of the ITN by considering its weighted representations. We show that, unlike the binary case, all possible weighted representations of the ITN (directed and undirected, aggregated and disaggregated) cannot be traced back to local country-specific properties, which are therefore of limited informativeness. Our two papers show that traditional macroeconomic approaches systematically fail to capture the key properties of the ITN. In the binary case, they do not focus on the degree sequence and hence cannot characterize or replicate higher-order properties. In the weighted case, they generally focus on the strength sequence, but the knowledge of the latter is not enough in order to understand or reproduce indirect effects.

  8. The Economics of Information: A Guide to Economic and Cost-Benefit Analysis for Information Professionals. Library and Information Science Text Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, Bruce R.

    This book provides readers with an introduction to economics and cost-benefit analysis and will be particularly valuable to individuals who are, or plan to be, managers of information services in academic, public, or special libraries. Part 1 provides a rational for economic studies in librarianship, specifically, gaining understanding of consumer…

  9. The Potential for Human Resources and Economic Growth in a Declining Local Community, A Socio-Economic Study of the Johnstown, Pennsylvania Economy, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Louis; And Others

    The data provided in the second volume of this two-volume report are interpreted within the context of the social and economic problems identified in the first volume. With its lack of diversified industry, Johnstown, Pennsylvania was found to have the revenue problems typical of a depressed economy, accentuated by a decline in markets for its…

  10. An economic analysis of unilateral refusals to license intellectual  property

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Richard J.; Shapiro, Carl

    1996-01-01

    The intellectual property laws in the United States provide the owners of intellectual property with discretion to license the right to use that property or to make or sell products that embody the intellectual property. However, the antitrust laws constrain the use of property, including intellectual property, by a firm with market power and may place limitations on the licensing of intellectual property. This paper focuses on one aspect of antitrust law, the so-called “essential facilities doctrine,” which may impose a duty upon firms controlling an “essential facility” to make that facility available to their rivals. In the intellectual property context, an obligation to make property available is equivalent to a requirement for compulsory licensing. Compulsory licensing may embrace the requirement that the owner of software permit access to the underlying code so that others can develop compatible application programs. Compulsory licensing may undermine incentives for research and development by reducing the value of an innovation to the inventor. This paper shows that compulsory licensing also may reduce economic efficiency in the short run by facilitating the entry of inefficient producers and by promoting licensing arrangements that result in higher prices. PMID:8917489

  11. Market and economic analysis of residential photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabors, R. D.

    1982-06-01

    The overall structure of a project to evaluate the U.S. residential photovoltaic market or markets is reviewed and experience obtained before cuts in federal funding for the project were reduced is summarized. Topics covered include residential worth analysis, (including retrofit applications); evaluation of presently available regional, econometric models which could be used to project housing stocks; and the analysis of retrofit potential for residential photovoltaic power systems given available roof area.

  12. An economic analysis of the illicit drug market.

    PubMed

    Bernard, G

    1983-07-01

    Analyses of heroin addiction have often focused on its relationship to crime. It is assumed that with an increase in price, the addict who has a dependence must commit crime to support his habit. The present analysis proposes a new and critical approach to the problem based upon Consumer Behavior Analysis. It identifies the variables of Complements and Substitutes, and their effects upon price, supply and demand, criminality, and possible implementation of treatment modalities.

  13. Economic Evaluation in Global Perspective: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Catherine; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara

    2016-02-01

    We present a bibliometric analysis of recently published full economic evaluations of health interventions and reflect critically on the implications of our findings for this growing field. We created a database drawing on 14 health, economic, and/or general literature databases for articles published between 1 January 2012 and 3 May 2014 and identified 2844 economic evaluations meeting our criteria. We present findings regarding the sensitivity, specificity, and added value of searches in the different databases. We examine the distribution of publications between countries, regions, and health areas studied and compare the relative volume of research with disease burden. We analyse authors' country and institutional affiliations, journals and journal type, language, and type of economic evaluation conducted. More than 1200 economic evaluations were published annually, of which 4% addressed low-income countries, 4% lower-middle-income countries, 14% upper-middle-income countries, and 83% high-income countries. Across country income levels, 53, 54, 86, and 100% of articles, respectively, included an author based in a country within the income level studied. Biomedical journals published 74% of economic evaluations. The volume of research across health areas correlates more closely with disease burden in high-income than in low-income and middle-income countries. Our findings provide an empirical basis for further study on methods, research prioritization, and capacity development in health economic evaluation. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Chloroplast Genetics of Chlamydomonas. II. Mapping by Cosegregation Frequency Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sager, Ruth; Ramanis, Zenta

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents segregation and cosegregation data for a set of 15 chloroplast genes of Chlamydomonas, and uses these data to generate a linear map of the chloroplast genome. The data were derived from pedigree analysis of a total of 1596 zoospore clones resulting from 12 crosses in each of which 4 to 7 pairs of chloroplast alleles were segregating. The crosses are a subset of those previously described (Sager and Ramanis 1976). By means of pedigree analysis, Type II segregations (nonreciprocal conversion-like events) were distinguished from Type III segregations (reciprocal events). The average frequency of Type II segregation was found to be the same for all 15 genes, indicating randomness of this event with respect to map location (Figure 1). Type III segregations occurred with a different and characteristic frequency for each gene, and were interpreted as a measure of the distance of each gene from the postulated centromere-like attachment point. Cosegregations, involving two or more genes, occurred with frequencies characteristic of the particular genes and much lower than expected for the product of single-gene events, indicating strong positive interference. Pairwise cosegregation frequencies provided unambiguous data for the gene order, confirmed by cosegregation runs of three or more genes. Apparent lengths of cosegregation runs, as fractions of the total map, indicate much longer stretches of gene conversion-like events than have been reported for other genetic systems. Comparisons of cosegregation frequencies in cross 20 after 15'', 30'' and 15'' UV irradiation of the mt+ before mating, indicate little if any consistent effect of this irradiation on segregation events. PMID:17248717

  15. Economic analysis of residential and commercial solar heating and hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-23

    The economic evaluation of residential and commercial solar heating and hot water systems is presented. Commercial systems are further categorized as taxable and non-taxable applications in recognition of the effect of Federal and state tax incentives and disincentives for solar energy systems. The economic evaluation of each system type is performed utilizing two distinct methods of analysis. The economic analyses follow a brief description of each method. The Cash Flow Analyses provide insight into the short and long term effects of a solar investment on the budget of the solar energy system purchaser while the Return-On-Investment Analyses provide an appropriate method of measuring the attractiveness of a solar investment in comparison to alternative long term investments. Utilizing a typical system for each system type and application the Cash Flow and Return-On-Investment Analyses are presented. The sensitivity of the results on the numerous variables in the economic analyses is shown. Maps provide a graphic display of the results of the economic analysis of typical systems using Federal and state tax credits and average state conventional fuel costs for each system type. Conclusions based on the economic analyses performed and a thorough discussion of the present status of the data required for the complete economic evaluation of solar energy systems are summarized. The current availability and limitations of data and requirements for further work in this area are discussed.

  16. Military construction program economic analysis manual: Text and appendixes: Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This manual enables the US Air Force to comprehensively and systematically analyze alternative approaches to meeting its military construction requirements. The manual includes step-by-step procedures for completing economic analyses for military construction projects, beginning with determining if an analysis is necessary. Instructions and a checklist of the tasks involved for each step are provided; and examples of calculations and illustrations of completed forms are included. The manual explains the major tasks of an economic analysis, including identifying the problem, selecting realistic alternatives for solving it, formulating appropriate assumptions, determining the costs and benefits of the alternatives, comparing the alternatives, testing the sensitivity of major uncertainties, and ranking the alternatives. Appendixes are included that contain data, indexes, and worksheets to aid in performing the economic analyses. For reference, Volume 2 contains sample economic analyses that illustrate how each form is filled out and that include a complete example of the documentation required. 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  18. What is the value of graduate education? An economic analysis of Army Medical Department Graduate Programs.

    PubMed

    Bewley, Lee W; Broom, Kevin D; Bonica, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Current and forward-looking resource constraints within the federal health system and general health market are generating questions of fiscal or economic viability of a number of programs including graduate education. This article establishes a framework for assessing economic value among graduate health-related programs within the Army Medical Department. The findings of this analysis indicated that the programs evaluated in the study generate positive economic value based on a market-based valuation of extrinsic benefits compared to extrinsic costs for conducting graduate education within each of the programs. Suggestions for future research and policy application are also discussed.

  19. Assessment of DOE radioactive scrap metal disposition options: Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.R.; Kasper, K.M.; Bossert, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    The analysis defines a baseline management approach for the estimated 1.2 million tons of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) expected to be generated from DOE deactivation and decommissioning activities, and compares two options using a net cost model. The baseline and competing options are described here. Baseline: Packaging and land disposal of RSM using standard DOE procedures, and procurement of a virgin-metal waste container (for comparative analysis with competing options). Option 1: RSM recycling by melting and fabrication into limited reuse products, generally waste containers. The analysis considers different types of waste container products. Option 2: RSM recycling by decontamination and release of scrap metal into commercial markets, and procurement of a comparable virgin-metal waste container. The analysis concludes that, for standard waste container products, the net cost of recycling RSM under Option 2 is lower than the net cost of recycling RSM under Option 1, considering the projected costs of melting RSM and fabricating drums and boxes. The analysis also suggests that the preferred products for recycling under Option 1 are specialized waste containers fabricated with high-value metals (e.g. stainless steel Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters). Other factors favoring each of the recycling options, are also identified.

  20. An economic analysis of different cannabis decriminalization scenarios.

    PubMed

    Ogrodnik, Marysia; Kopp, Pierre; Bongaerts, Xavier; Tecco, Juan M

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in European countries. In countries with repressive cannabis policies, prevalence is not lower than in those with tolerant laws. Repressive policies not only have uncertain benefits but they are also expensive. Economists tend to believe that good public policies minimize social costs; that is, they help to improve collective wellbeing at a lower cost. The paper draws on a review of international literature on cannabis legislative models around the world. After a description of some of the fundamental concepts of a market economy, several existing policy scenarios will be presented and analyzed from an economic perspective. Strength and weaknesses will be summarized for each alternative. In addition to consumption tolerance in countries such as the Netherlands, recent decriminalization of domestic markets in the Unites States and Uruguay present alternatives to reduce the negative impact of cannabis on society. Earlier initiation age and rise in consumption are unintended potential consequences of decriminalization that need to be addressed by public authorities when designing a liberalized cannabis policy environment. Price is a key variable that needs to be addressed to prevent a rise in consumption. Repressive cannabis policies are expensive and have limited impact on consumption. Consumption legalization significantly reduces expenses for repression and law enforcement, allowing for the allocation of more resources to other targets such as education and prevention. With legalization of supply along with consumption, repression and law enforcement costs are reduced even further. Moreover, a legal market would create employment and generate tax revenues that could be allocated to the prevention of increased consumption. Legalizing cannabis would not lead to a sudden rise in consumption, providing the duty imposed by the state kept the product at its current price.

  1. Environmental NGOs in Ecuador: an economic analysis of institutional change.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C A

    1993-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Latin America have grown more rapidly than has our understanding of the economic and political implications of this major institutional change. In Ecuador, between 1984 and late 1992, at least 24 new environmental NGOs emerged. An economist does a case study of them, especially Fundacion Natura (FN) in Ecuador, to understand their role and behavior which are a large part of environmental politics in Latin America. NGOs are successful because the public sector cannot meet the countries' needs and donors want to help NGOs, thereby providing the demand. For example, FN has received funding from USAID, World Wildlife Fund, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, and other groups. FN charges donors 15% to cover administrative costs while many other NGOs do not receive international funding for administrative costs. FN is well connected with the public sector which is supportive and beneficial. FN activities complement the public sector's efforts in the environment. Further, it is well connected with private industry from whom it receives financial support. It has been criticized for supporting industry on some environmental issues, however. In fact, its Cuenca chapter split from FN in 1984 to form Tierra Viva, because FN sided with industry when industry wanted to build on agricultural land in Cuenca. FN's relationship with USAID is strained. FN is successful because it employs quality personnel who are committed to FN objectives. Yet FN and other NGOs do not have the monetary incentives for efficient production. Most other NGOs are financially strapped and depend on volunteers. The more radical environmental NGOs do not accept donations from the private sector and do not want to work with government. Despite the influence donors have on NGOs, the NGOs' powerful presence and their environmental education programs have consequences beyond donor control (e.g., FN and USAID).

  2. An economic analysis of hand transplantation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kevin C; Oda, Takashi; Saddawi-Konefka, Daniel; Shauver, Melissa J

    2010-02-01

    Hand transplantation has received international attention in recent years; however, the economic impact of this innovative treatment is uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the utility and estimate the costs of hand transplantation and the use of hand prostheses for forearm amputations. One hundred medical students completed a time trade-off survey to assess the utilities of single and double hand transplantation and the use of hand prostheses. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated for each outcome to create decision trees. Cost data for medical care were estimated based on Medicare fee schedules using the Current Procedural Terminology code for forearm replantation. The cost of immunosuppressive therapy was estimated based on the wholesale price of drugs. The incremental cost-utility ratio was calculated from the differences in costs and utilities between transplantation and prosthesis. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the results. For unilateral hand amputation, prosthetic use was favored over hand transplantation (30.00 QALYs versus 28.81 QALYs; p = 0.03). Double hand transplantation was favored over the use of prostheses (26.73 QALYs versus 25.20 QALYs; p = 0.01). The incremental cost-utility ratio of double transplantation when compared with prostheses was $381,961/QALY, exceeding the traditionally accepted cost-effectiveness threshold of $50,000/QALY. Prosthetic adaption is the dominant strategy for unilateral hand amputation. For bilateral hand amputation, double hand transplantation exceeds the societally acceptable threshold for general adoption. Improvements in immunosuppressive strategies may change the incremental cost-utility ratio for hand transplantation.

  3. An Economic Analysis of Hand Transplantation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Oda, Takashi; Saddawi-Konefka, Daniel; Shauver, Melissa J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hand transplantation has received international attention in recent years; however, the economic impact of this innovative treatment is uncertain. The aim of this study is to assess the utility and estimate the costs of hand transplantation and the use of hand prostheses for forearm amputations. Methods 100 medical students completed a time trade-off survey to assess the utilities of single and double hand transplantation and the use of hand prostheses. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated for each outcome to create decision trees. Cost data for medical care were estimated based on Medicare fee schedules using the Current Procedural Terminology code for forearm replantation. The cost of immunosuppressive therapy was estimated based on the wholesale price of drugs. The incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) was calculated from the differences in costs and utilities between transplantation and prosthesis. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the results. Results For unilateral hand amputation, prosthetic use was favored over hand transplantation (30.00 QALYS vs. 28.81 QALYs; p = 0.03). Double hand transplantation was favored over the use of prostheses (26.73 QALYs vs. 25.20 QALYs; p = 0.01). The ICUR of double transplantation when compared with prostheses was $381,961/QALY, exceeding the traditionally accepted cost-effectiveness threshold of $50,000/QALY. Conclusion Prosthetic adaption is the dominant strategy for unilateral hand amputation. For bilateral hand amputation, double hand transplantation exceeds the societally acceptable threshold for general adoption. Improvements in immunosuppressive strategies may change the ICUR for hand transplantation. PMID:19910847

  4. Analysis of the effectiveness of industrial R and D. [costs and impact on economic growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, W. H.; Kleiman, H. S.; Moore, J. L.; Triplett, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    The criteria used by private industry in evaluating and selecting proposed research and development projects for implementation, and also in determining which R and D facilities are to be acquired were investigated. Conceptual and practical issues inherent in any quantitative analysis of the contribution of R and D to economic growth were identified in order to assist NASA in developing approaches for analzying the economic implication of its own R and D efforts.

  5. Economics definitions, methods, models, and analysis procedures for Homeland Security applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Loose, Verne William; Vargas, Vanessa N.; Smith, Braeton J.; Warren, Drake E.; Downes, Paula Sue; Eidson, Eric D.; Mackey, Greg Edward

    2010-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the types of economic methodologies and models used by Sandia economists in their consequence analysis work for the National Infrastructure Simulation & Analysis Center and other DHS programs. It describes the three primary resolutions at which analysis is conducted (microeconomic, mesoeconomic, and macroeconomic), the tools used at these three levels (from data analysis to internally developed and publicly available tools), and how they are used individually and in concert with each other and other infrastructure tools.

  6. An Economic Analysis of Occupational Licensure. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayack, Elton

    To examine the hypothesis that occupational licensure is primarily a restrictive device to protect those licensed from competition, analysis focused on the licensure of non-professional occupations in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, covering 36 licenses issued by the three states for 12 occupations (e.g. electricians, barbers,…

  7. An Economical Method for Static Headspace Enrichment for Arson Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen, Bjorn

    2010-01-01

    Static headspace analysis of accelerants from suspected arsons is accomplished by placing an arson sample in a sealed container with a carbon strip suspended above the sample. The sample is heated, cooled to room temperature, and then the organic components are extracted from the carbon strip with carbon disulfide followed by gas chromatography…

  8. Economic Risk Analysis: Using Analytical and Monte Carlo Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Brendan R.; Hickner, Michael A.; Barna, Bruce A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and instructional use of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet template that facilitates analytical and Monte Carlo risk analysis of investment decisions. Discusses a variety of risk assessment methods followed by applications of the analytical and Monte Carlo methods. Uses a case study to illustrate use of the spreadsheet tool…

  9. A General Economic Framework for Welfare Reform Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeTray, Dennis N.

    An analysis of the potential effects of different types of welfare reforms can proceed in one of two ways. One can explore the effects of a given plan in detail, or one can cull from the set of feasible alternative plans the major changes that these plans will bring about and then analyze the effect of these changes in a general framework. At…

  10. An Economical Method for Static Headspace Enrichment for Arson Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen, Bjorn

    2010-01-01

    Static headspace analysis of accelerants from suspected arsons is accomplished by placing an arson sample in a sealed container with a carbon strip suspended above the sample. The sample is heated, cooled to room temperature, and then the organic components are extracted from the carbon strip with carbon disulfide followed by gas chromatography…

  11. Conducting On-Farm Animal Research: Procedures & Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Pervaiz; Knipscheer, Hendrik C.

    This book is intended to give animal scientists elementary tools to perform on-farm livestock analysis and to provide crop-oriented farming systems researchers with methods for conducting animal research. Chapter 1 describes farming systems research as a systems approach to on-farm animal research. Chapter 2 outlines some important…

  12. An Economic Wellbeing Index for the Spanish Provinces: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murias, Pilar; Martinez, Fidel; De Miguel, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the estimation of a synthetic economic wellbeing index using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The DEA is a multidimensional technique that has its origins in efficiency analysis, but its usage within the social indicators context is particularly appropriate. It allows the researcher to take advantage of the inherent…

  13. ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGIES TO TREAT MERCURY AND DISPOSE IN A WASTE CONTAINMENT FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is intended to describe an economic and environmental analysis of a number of technologies for the treatment and disposal of elemental mercury. The analysis considers three treatment technologies that convert elemental mercury into a stable form of mercury. The techno...

  14. A descriptive analysis of change in eligibility status for the USDA Forest Service Economic Recovery Program

    Treesearch

    Krista M. Gebert; Susan L. Odell

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a 2004 analysis of county-level eligibility for financial and technical assistance through the USDA Forest Service Economic Recovery program and contrasts those results to the initial eligibility analysis performed in 1993. County-level eligibility was based on three criteria: (1) proximity to a National Forest or National...

  15. An Economic Analysis of Military Family Housing: Should the Government Continue to Privatize?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING : SHOULD THE GOVERNMENT CONTINUE TO PRIVATIZE? THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of...ANALYSIS OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING : SHOULD THE GOVERNMENT CONTINUE TO PRIVATIZE? Chad A. Woods, B.S. Captain, USAF...Providing military family housing has always been a difficult task for the United States government . To solve the latest housing short fall

  16. ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGIES TO TREAT MERCURY AND DISPOSE IN A WASTE CONTAINMENT FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is intended to describe an economic and environmental analysis of a number of technologies for the treatment and disposal of elemental mercury. The analysis considers three treatment technologies that convert elemental mercury into a stable form of mercury. The techno...

  17. Analysis of economic vulnerability to flash floods in urban areas of Castilla y León (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aroca-Jimenez, Estefanía; Bodoque, Jose Maria; García, Juan Antonio; Diez-Herrero, Andres

    2017-04-01

    The growth of exposed population to floods, the expansion in allocation of economical activities to flood-prone areas and the rise of extraordinary event frequency over the last few decades, have resulted in an increase of flash flood-related casualties and economic losses. The increase in these losses at an even higher rate than the increase of magnitude and frequency of extreme events, underline that the vulnerability of societies exposed is a key aspect to be considered. Vulnerability is defined as the conditions determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards such as floods, being flash floods one of the natural hazards with the greatest capacity to generate risk. In recent years, numerous papers have deal with the assessment of the social dimension of vulnerability. However, economic factors are often a neglected aspect in traditional risk assessments which mainly focus on structural measures and flood damage models. In this context, the aim of this research is to identify those economic characteristics which render people vulnerable to flash flood hazard, and consider whether these characteristics are identifiable as local patterns at regional level. The result of this task is an Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI) based on susceptibility profiles of the population per township. These profiles are obtained by Hierarchical Segmentation and Latent Class Cluster Analysis of economic information provided by different public institutional databases. The methodology proposed here is implemented in the region of Castilla y León (94,230 km2), placed in Central-Northern Spain. Townships included in this study meet two requirements: i) urban areas are potentially affected by flash floods (i.e. villages are crossed by rivers or streams with a longitudinal slope higher than 0.01 m m-1); ii) urban areas are affected by an area with low or exceptional probability of

  18. The cost of blood collection in Greece: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Fragoulakis, Vassilis; Stamoulis, Kostas; Grouzi, Elisabeth; Maniadakis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate the cost of production of 1 unit of blood from a National Health Service perspective in Greece. In agreement with guidelines, the cost of blood production in this study accounted only for the resources expended for collection, processing, laboratory testing, and storage. Hence, the costs associated with donor recruitment, pretransfusion preparation, transfusion administration, follow-up management of adverse events, and other long-term relevant costs were not taken into consideration. The indirect cost of blood donations for donors (productivity loss) was also considered. A questionnaire was used to collect data regarding personnel time, annual blood quantities collected, percentage of wastage, utilization of consumables, institutional overhead, information technology expenditure, medical equipment utilized, nuclear acid tests, and other factors. Data gathered by 53 hospitals across the country were assessed. A model was constructed with economic data collected by the National School of Public Health and the Ministry of Health. All data refer to the year 2013. The weighted mean direct cost of producing 1 unit of blood was estimated at €131.49 (SD, €22.12; minimum/maximum, €94.96-€239.20). The mean total indirect cost was estimated at €34 per unit of blood. The cost distribution was positively skewed (skewness, 1.642 [0.327]). The major cost component was the cost of personnel, accounting for 32.5% of total costs, and the average of blood unit wastage was estimated at 4.90%. There were no differences between the cost of producing 1 unit of blood in Athens compared with the rest of the country (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.341). This study suggests that the cost of producing 1 unit of blood is not insignificant. These figures need to be complemented with those concerning the cost of transfusion to have a complete picture of producing and using 1 unit of blood locally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All

  19. Eradication versus control for poliomyelitis: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer

    2007-04-21

    Worldwide eradication of wild polioviruses is likely to yield substantial health and financial benefits, provided we finish the job. Challenges in the four endemic areas combined with continuing demands for financial resources for eradication have led some to question the goal of eradication and to suggest switching to a policy of control. We developed a dynamic model, based on modelling of the currently endemic areas in India, to show the importance of maintaining and increasing the immunisation intensity to complete eradication and to illustrate how policies based on perception about high short-term costs or cost-effectiveness ratios without consideration of long-term benefits could undermine any eradication effort. An extended model assesses the economic implications and disease burden of a change in policy from eradication to control. Our results suggest that the intensity of immunisation must be increased to achieve eradication, and that even small decreases in intensity could lead to large outbreaks. This finding implies the need to pay even higher short-run costs than are currently being spent, which will further exacerbate concerns about continued investment in interventions with high perceived cost-effectiveness ratios. We show that a wavering commitment leads to a failure to eradicate, greater cumulative costs, and a much larger number of cases. We further show that as long as it is technically achievable, eradication offers both lower cumulative costs and cases than control, even with the costs of achieving eradication exceeding several billion dollars more. A low-cost control policy that relies only on routine immunisation for 20 years with discounted costs of more than $3500 million could lead to roughly 200 000 expected paralytic poliomyelitis cases every year in low-income countries, whereas a low-case control policy that keeps the number of cases at about 1500 per year could cost around $10 000 million discounted over the 20 years. Focusing on the

  20. Economic analysis of esophageal stenting for management of malignant dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Rao, C; Haycock, A; Zacharakis, E; Krasopoulos, G; Yakoub, D; Protopapas, A; Darzi, A; Hanna, G B; Athanasiou, T

    2009-01-01

    Over half of patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer are unsuitable for curative resection. A significant proportion of these patients will subsequently require palliative stenting to alleviate dysphagia. There is growing consensus in the literature that the deployment of a Self-Expanding Metal Stent is the optimum stenting strategy; however, it remains unclear whether covered or uncovered metal stents are more cost-effective. In order to determine which type of prosthesis is more cost-effective, we compared the different stenting strategies in terms of 1-year stent-related mortality, health-related quality of life, and cost. A decision analytical model was constructed to compare the 1-year stent-related mortality, health-related quality of life, and cost between covered and uncovered stents. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to quantify the uncertainty associated with our results. Value of Information analysis was performed to assess the value of further research. In order to fully characterize the uncertainty associated with this decision, plastic stents were included in our analysis. Stent-related mortality was slightly lower following covered stent deployment compared with uncovered stent deployment (1.00% vs. 1.26%). Covered stents were more effective by 0.0013 Quality-Adjusted Life Years (Standard Deviation [SD] 0.0013 Quality-Adjusted Life Years). They were also less expensive by $729.58 (SD $390.63). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that these results were not sensitive to model parameter uncertainty. Plastic stents deployment was $2832.64 (SD $1182.72) more expensive than uncovered metal stent deployment. Value of Information analysis suggests that the maximum value of further research in the UK is $61,124.30. The results of this study represent strong evidence for the cost-effectiveness of covered compared with uncovered self-expanding metal stents for the palliation of patients with malignant dysphagia. The findings support

  1. Ex post power economic analysis of record of decision operational restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam.

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-07-31

    On October 9, 1996, Bruce Babbitt, then-Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed the Record of Decision (ROD) on operating criteria for the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD). Criteria selected were based on the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) Alternative as described in the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Arizona, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (Reclamation 1995). These restrictions reduced the operating flexibility of the hydroelectric power plant and therefore its economic value. The EIS provided impact information to support the ROD, including an analysis of operating criteria alternatives on power system economics. This ex post study reevaluates ROD power economic impacts and compares these results to the economic analysis performed prior (ex ante) to the ROD for the MLFF Alternative. On the basis of the methodology used in the ex ante analysis, anticipated annual economic impacts of the ROD were estimated to range from approximately $15.1 million to $44.2 million in terms of 1991 dollars ($1991). This ex post analysis incorporates historical events that took place between 1997 and 2005, including the evolution of power markets in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council as reflected in market prices for capacity and energy. Prompted by ROD operational restrictions, this analysis also incorporates a decision made by the Western Area Power Administration to modify commitments that it made to its customers. Simulated operations of GCD were based on the premise that hourly production patterns would maximize the economic value of the hydropower resource. On the basis of this assumption, it was estimated that economic impacts were on average $26.3 million in $1991, or $39 million in $2009.

  2. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Vargas, Vanessa N; Jones, Shannon M; Dealy, Bern Caudill; Shaneyfelt, Calvin; Smith, Braeton James; Moreland, Barbara Denise

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  3. Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production from Wind: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Levene, J. I.

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine the cost of using wind energy to produce hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel. This analysis assumes that a market exists for 50,000 kg of hydrogen per day produced from wind at the wind site; only production costs to the front gate are included, no delivery or dispensing costs are included. Three different scenarios are examined: near term, which represents 2005 currently available technology; mid term, which represents technological improvements and price reductions in the next 5-10 years; and long term, which is representative of the best technology gains and price reductions surmised by industry at this point, and represents the next 10-25 years.

  4. Economic-Analysis Program for a Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    Prices and profits of alternative designs compared. Objective of Land Mobile Satellite Service Finance Report (LMSS) program is to provide means for comparing alternative designs of LMSS systems. Program is Multiplan worksheet program. Labels used in worksheet chosen for satellite-based cellular communication service, but analysis not restricted to such cases. LMSS written for interactive execution with Multiplan (version 1.2) and implemented on IBM PC series computer operating under DOS (version 2.11).

  5. Economic-Analysis Program for a Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    Prices and profits of alternative designs compared. Objective of Land Mobile Satellite Service Finance Report (LMSS) program is to provide means for comparing alternative designs of LMSS systems. Program is Multiplan worksheet program. Labels used in worksheet chosen for satellite-based cellular communication service, but analysis not restricted to such cases. LMSS written for interactive execution with Multiplan (version 1.2) and implemented on IBM PC series computer operating under DOS (version 2.11).

  6. Compendium of Operations Research and Economic Analysis Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    whipping cream, half and half, sour cream and yogurt . Analysis shows that the Minnesota-Wisconsin (M-W) Manufacturing Grade Price Series provide a good...continues. In logistics parlance, parts obsolescence is known as a Diminishing Manufacturing Source ([MS) problem. Continued supply of an obsolete [143 item... manufacture the processed products. The report provides the recommended EPA factors for each product. I ISC-91-PIO001. Final Report an Axsiticn

  7. Statistical analysis of serum pepsinogen I (PG I) and II (PG II) levels, PG I/PG II ratios and serum gastrin levels in a general population.

    PubMed

    Kazuo, A; Junichi, M

    1996-10-01

    To allow adoption of serum pepsinogen as a screening indicator of gastric cancer, serum pepsinogen I & II levels, the ratios of PG I / PG II and the serum gastrin levels in a general population were studied using 850 samples selected at random from a rural area in Japan. The collected data were analyzed statistically to determine the distribution characteristics by various categories of sex and age. The following results were obtained:1. The distributions of PG I and PG II, the ratios of PG I/PG II and serum gastrin values largely deviated from the normal distribution. Therefore, the use of non-parametrical methods was recommended for analysis of these data.2. Although no significant difference between all selected men and all selected women was observed in any of the three parameters of PG I and PG II levels and the ratios of PG I / PG II, a significant difference between men and women was observed for PG I levels in under-fifty age groups. On the other hand, the median serum gastrin value (92.0 pg/ml) in all selected men was significantly lower than that (101.0 pg/ml) in all selected women. A statistically significant difference between men and women was observed in serum gastrin levels both in the under-forty age group and in the sixty and over age group.3. No significant difference was observed in the pattern of changes in PG I levels with increasing age in either men or women. While PG II levels in men varied irregularly with advancing age, PG II levels in women showed obvious increases with advancing age. The ratios of PG I / PG II showed a tendency to decrease with advancing age in both men and women. Conversely, serum gastrin levels increased with advancing age in both men and women.

  8. Molecular analysis of HLA class II genes in Goodpasture's disease.

    PubMed

    Burns, A P; Fisher, M; Li, P; Pusey, C D; Rees, A J

    1995-02-01

    A molecular analysis of HLA class II genes was undertaken in order to characterize the previously reported association between HLA-DR2 and glomerulonephritis caused by antibodies to glomerular basement membrane (Goodpasture's disease). Genomic DNA was prepared from 53 patients with Goodpasture's disease and analysed by: (i) Southern blotting using cDNA probes to DRB, DQA and DQB genes, after digestion with TaqI endonuclease; (ii) allele-specific oligonucleotide probing of specifically amplified DNA; and (iii) nucleotide sequencing of relevant alleles. The patients had a greatly increased frequency of DRw15 (a subspecificity of DR2) which was present in 75.5% of patients and 31% of controls (p < 0.0001). The frequency of DR4 was also increased, especially in patients without DRw15. Overall, 90.5% of the patients had either DRw15 or DR4. In contrast, the frequency of DR1 was significantly reduced (patients 5.6%, controls 20.7%, p < 0.01). Differences in the frequencies of DQA and DQB alleles could all be explained by linkage disequilibrium. Nucleotide sequences of relevant alleles were identical to those previously published. Comparison of derived amino acid sequences of expressed DR beta chains showed that the DR beta chains of DRw15 and DR4 shared a six-amino-acid motif from positions 26-31, that included four polymorphic amino acids none of which are shared with DR1. A sequence-specific oligonucleotide detected this amino-acid motif in 45/49 (91.8%) patients tested. Thus, this particular motif, which lies on the floor of the antigen binding groove, has a stronger association with Goodpasture's disease than any individual allele, and may be of pathogenic significance.

  9. Data analysis of photon beam position at PLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, J.; Shin, S. Huang, Jung-Yun; Kim, D.; Kim, C.; Kim, Ilyou; Lee, T.-Y.; Park, C.-D.; Kim, K. R.; Cho, Moohyun

    2016-07-27

    In the third generation light source, photon beam position stability is critical issue on user experiment. Generally photon beam position monitors have been developed for the detection of the real photon beam position and the position is controlled by feedback system in order to keep the reference photon beam position. In the PLS-II, photon beam position stability for front end of particular beam line, in which photon beam position monitor is installed, has been obtained less than rms 1μm for user service period. Nevertheless, detail analysis for photon beam position data in order to demonstrate the performance of photon beam position monitor is necessary, since it can be suffers from various unknown noises. (for instance, a back ground contamination due to upstream or downstream dipole radiation, undulator gap dependence, etc.) In this paper, we will describe the start to end study for photon beam position stability and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analysis to demonstrate the reliability on photon beam position data.

  10. Full-scale phosphorus recovery from digested wastewater sludge in Belgium - part II: economic opportunities and risks.

    PubMed

    Geerts, Sam; Marchi, Adrien; Weemaes, Marjoleine

    2015-01-01

    One of the options to recycle phosphorus (P) in the wastewater sector is to recover it as struvite crystals from digested sludge. Measurements on a full-scale demonstration plant in Leuven, Belgium, yielded a first indication of the profitability of struvite recovery, in function of different variables such as incoming PO(4)(3-) concentration, MgCl₂dosing, improved dewaterability, etc. An uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was carried out. Although possible improvement in sludge dewaterability when recovering struvite from digested sludge has a positive economic amortization effect, it is at the same time the largest source of financial risk. A theoretical exercise showed that for struvite recovery from centrate, uncertainty would be lower, and the largest sensitivity would be attributed to ingoing PO(4)(3-) concentration. Although struvite recovery from digested sludge is riskier, it is an investment with potentially a higher return than investment in struvite recovery from centrate. The article provides information for possible financial incentive schemes to support P-recovery.

  11. An analysis of prosthodontic research productivity: geographic, economic, and collaborative perspective.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Kathryn; Lee, Damian J; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Knoernschild, Kent L; Campbell, Stephen D; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the quantity of prosthodontic literature produced globally by continent in three prosthodontic journals over a 10-year period, 1998-2008. Prosthodontic research productivity relative to economic status of countries and collaboration among countries grouped by economic status was assessed. Three peer-reviewed prosthodontic journals were used for the analysis of articles published in 1998, 2003, and 2008: The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, International Journal of Prosthodontics, and Journal of Prosthodontics. The country of every author listed for each included article was recorded. The number of articles published by each continent and each country was reported. Countries were grouped according to the World Bank economic classification system, and the number of articles published by each economic class was found. The majority of publications over the 10-year period were produced in Asia (Japan), Europe (Germany), and North America (USA). Productivity declined by 14.4% in high-income countries while it increased in upper middle-, lower middle-, and low-income countries. The majority of publications written by upper and lower middle- and low-income countries were independent works. Articles resulting from collaboration increased over time for all economic classes of countries. The origins of prosthodontic literature are becoming more geographically and economically diverse, with increased contributions from Africa, Asia, and South America, and middle- and low-income countries between 1998 and 2008. Collaboration between high-income countries and the other economic group countries increased over time. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  12. Analysis of the Economics of DC Arc CVD Diamond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    sta MCH2A Deposition Rate 2 9/hr DKP2 Carbon Capture Factor 20.0% CCF2 "’-chine Load/Unlcad Time 120 min/cvc PTIME2 A..... a~e Deposition Time 8, 640...analysis, the deposition rate has been assumed to be 2 gram/hr, with a carbon capture factor of twenty percent. While much higher deposition rates have been...has a dramatic influence on the cost per wafer. I Also, the carbon capture factor (CCF), or percentage of carbon atoms which are deposited as diamond

  13. Mekong malaria. II. Update of malaria, multi-drug resistance and economic development in the Mekong region of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Socheat, Doung; Denis, Mey Bouth; Fandeur, Thierry; Zhang, Zaixing; Yang, Henglin; Xu, Jianwei; Zhou, Xingwu; Phompida, Samlane; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaxay; Lwin, Saw; Lin, Khin; Win, Than; Than, Soe Win; Htut, Ye; Prajakwong, Somsak; Rojanawatsirivet, Chaiporn; Tipmontree, Rungrawee; Vijaykadga, Saowanit; Konchom, Supawadee; Cong, Le Dinh; Thien, Nong Thi; Thuan, Le Khanh; Ringwald, Pascal; Schapira, Allan; Christophel, Eva; Palmer, Kevin; Arbani, P R; Prasittisuk, Chusak; Rastogi, R; Monti, Feliciano; Urbani, Carlo; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Hoyer, Stefan; Otega, Leonard; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Songcharoen, Sakda; Meert, Jean-Pierre; Gay, Frederick; Crissman, Lawrence; Cho-Min-Naing; Chansuda, Wongsrichanalai; Darasri, Dowreang; Indaratna, Kaemthong; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Chuprapawan, Sirichai; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Supavej, Suvanee; Kidson, Chev; Baimai, Visut; Yimsamran, Surapon; Buchachart, Kasinee

    2003-01-01

    In an expansion of the first Mekong Malaria monograph published in 1999, this second monograph updates the malaria database in the countries comprising the Mekong region of Southeast Asia. The update adds another 3 years' information to cover cumulative data from the 6 Mekong countries (Cambodia, China/Yunnan, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam) for the six-year period 1999-2001. The objective is to generate a more comprehensive regional perspective in what is a global epicenter of drug resistant falciparum malaria, in order to improve malaria control on a regional basis in the context of social and economic change. The further application of geographical information systems (GIS) to the analysis has underscored the overall asymmetry of disease patterns in the region, with increased emphasis on population mobility in disease spread. Of great importance is the continuing expansion of resistance of P. falciparum to antimalarial drugs in common use and the increasing employment of differing drug combinations as a result. The variation in drug policy among the 6 countries still represents a major obstacle to the institution of region-wide restrictions on drug misuse. An important step forward has been the establishment of 36 sentinel sites throughout the 6 countries, with the objective of standardizing the drug monitoring process; while not all sentinel sites are fully operational yet, the initial implementation has already given encouraging results in relation to disease monitoring. Some decreases in malaria mortality have been recorded. The disease patterns delineated by GIS are particularly instructive when focused on inter-country distribution, which is where more local collaborative effort can be made to rationalize resource utilization and policy development. Placing disease data in the context of socio-economic trends within and between countries serves to further identify the needs and the potential for placing emphasis on resource rationalization on a

  14. An Economic Analysis of Generation IV Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J S; Lamont, A D; Rothwell, G S; Smith, C F; Greenspan, E; Brown, N; Barak, A

    2002-03-01

    This report examines some conditions necessary for Generation IV Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) to be competitive in the world energy market. The key areas that make nuclear reactors an attractive choice for investors are reviewed, and a cost model based on the ideal conditions is developed. Recommendations are then made based on the output of the cost model and on conditions and tactics that have proven successful in other industries. The Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS), a specific SMR design concept, is used to develop the cost model and complete the analysis because information about the ENHS design is readily available from the University of California at Berkeley Nuclear Engineering Department. However, the cost model can be used to analyze any of the current SMR designs being considered. On the basis of our analysis, we determined that the nuclear power industry can benefit from and SMRs can become competitive in the world energy market if a combination of standardization and simplification of orders, configuration, and production are implemented. This would require wholesale changes in the way SMRs are produced, manufactured and regulated, but nothing that other industries have not implemented and proven successful.

  15. Improving SFR Economics through Innovations from Thermal Design and Analysis Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Per F. Peterson

    2008-06-01

    Achieving economic competitiveness as compared to LWRs and other Generation IV (Gen-IV) reactors is one of the major requirements for large-scale investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants. Advances in R&D for advanced SFR fuel and structural materials provide key long-term opportunities to improve SFR economics. In addition, other new opportunities are emerging to further improve SFR economics. This paper provides an overview on potential ideas from the perspective of thermal hydraulics to improve SFR economics. These include a new hybrid loop-pool reactor design to further optimize economics, safety, and reliability of SFRs with more flexibility, a multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle to improve plant thermal efficiency and reduce safety related overnight and operation costs, and modern multi-physics thermal analysis methods to reduce analysis uncertainties and associated requirements for over-conservatism in reactor design. This paper reviews advances in all three of these areas and their potential beneficial impacts on SFR economics.

  16. Economic Analysis: An Approach to Provide Basic Guidance for Conducting and Reviewing Economic Analysis within the Venezuelan Navy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    relationships available In a formal sense--either mathematical or graphic--can be quite useful in performing -sensitivity analysis.’ If the analyst...Venezuela, South America 1I. Jefatura de Educacion Comandancia General de la Armada Caracas 1010 Venezuela, South America 12. CF Marco Jlmenez Ferrer

  17. Techno-economic and Monte Carlo probabilistic analysis of microalgae biofuel production system.

    PubMed

    Batan, Liaw Y; Graff, Gregory D; Bradley, Thomas H

    2016-11-01

    This study focuses on the characterization of the technical and economic feasibility of an enclosed photobioreactor microalgae system with annual production of 37.85 million liters (10 million gallons) of biofuel. The analysis characterizes and breaks down the capital investment and operating costs and the production cost of unit of algal diesel. The economic modelling shows total cost of production of algal raw oil and diesel of $3.46 and $3.69 per liter, respectively. Additionally, the effects of co-products' credit and their impact in the economic performance of algal-to-biofuel system are discussed. The Monte Carlo methodology is used to address price and cost projections and to simulate scenarios with probabilities of financial performance and profits of the analyzed model. Different markets for allocation of co-products have shown significant shifts for economic viability of algal biofuel system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  19. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  20. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Two Solar Energy Systems with Domestic Water Heating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayali, R.

    1998-06-01

    In this work, an economic analysis of different types of thermosiphons and geysers and flat plate collectors and solar ponds employeed in conventional solar energy systems used in houses is analized and the results obtained for these systems are compared with each other. These comparisons show that when the inflation rate is 50% or less solar energy systems are more economical than the other conventional systems, except for conventional systems in which solid fuels are used. If the calculations are done assuming that the consumer credit interest rate varies between 55-70%, it is seen that solar energy systems will only be more economical than thermosiphons operating with electrical energy and geysers using LPG. Thermosiphons operating with electrical energy will never be economical under any inflation.

  1. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial "socially" performs in comparison with its alternatives. "Industrial economics" methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a "pragmatic regulatory impact analysis", that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is "pragmatic" in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess "what happens" with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  2. ENGINEERING ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A PROGRAM FOR ARTIFICIAL GROUNDWATER RECHARGE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric G.; Bredehoeft, John D.

    1984-01-01

    This study describes and demonstrates two alternate methods for evaluating the relative costs and benefits of artificial groundwater recharge using percolation ponds. The first analysis considers the benefits to be the reduction of pumping lifts and land subsidence; the second considers benefits as the alternative costs of a comparable surface delivery system. Example computations are carried out for an existing artificial recharge program in Santa Clara Valley in California. A computer groundwater model is used to estimate both the average long term and the drought period effects of artificial recharge in the study area. Results indicate that the costs of artificial recharge are considerably smaller than the alternative costs of an equivalent surface system. Refs.

  3. California-Wyoming Grid Integration Study: Phase 1 -- Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Schwabe, P.; Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.; Brinkman, G.; Paduru, A.; Diakov, V.; Hand, M.

    2014-03-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of two different renewable energy options for the California energy market between 2017 and 2020: 12,000 GWh per year from new California in-state renewable energy resources; and 12,000 GWh per year from Wyoming wind delivered to the California marketplace. Either option would add to the California resources already existing or under construction, theoretically providing the last measure of power needed to meet (or to slightly exceed) the state's 33% renewable portfolio standard. Both options have discretely measurable differences in transmission costs, capital costs (due to the enabling of different generation portfolios), capacity values, and production costs. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the two different options to provide additional insight for future planning.

  4. Economic Analysis of Different Electric Vehicle Charging Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Li; Haiming, Zhou; Xiufan, Ma; Hao, Wang

    2017-05-01

    Influence of electric vehicles (EV) to grid cannot be ignored. Research on the economy analysis of different charging scenarios is helpful to guide the user to charge or discharge orderly. EV charging models are built such as disordered charging, valley charging, intelligent charging, and V2G (Vehicle to Grid), by which changes of charging load in different scenarios can be seen to analyze the influence to initial load curve, and comparison can be done about user’s average cost. Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the electric vehicle charging behavior, cost in different charging scenarios are compared, social cost is introduced in V2G scene, and the relationship between user’s average cost and social cost is analyzed. By test, it is proved that user’s cost is the lowest in V2G scenario, and the larger the scale of vehicles is, the more the social cost can save.

  5. [Analysis of soft tissue thickness in persons with malocclusions of Class II division 1 and Class II division 2].

    PubMed

    Tanić, Tatjana; Blažej, Zorica; Mitić, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Different malocclusions indicate different thickness of facial soft tissue. The aim of the study was to establish the differences in the thickness of facial soft tissue profile in persons with dentoskeletal Class II/1 and II/2 relationship. In the study we used cephalometric rendgenograms profile analysis of 60 patients aged 12-18 years of the Dental Clinic in Nis who had not previously undergone orthodontical treatment. According to the dentoskeletal jaws relations the patients were divided into two groups with Class II division 1 and Class II class division 2. In all of them the standard dentoskeletal profile analysis by Steiner and soft tissue profile analysis by Burston was done. The obtained findings were statistically analyzed and the comparison between the studied groups was performed. The results indicated the following: in the patients with Class II/1 relationship there was a significantly thinner upper lip (t=5.741; p<0.0001), thinner upper lip sulcus (t=3.858; p<0.001) and significantly thinner lower lip (t=2.009; p<0.05) in relation to the patients with Class 11/2. Compensatory effect in the Class II/1 patients was more distinctive in females, as their soft tissue profiles were thicker. In Class 11/2 patients this relationship was in favor of males. The facial soft tissue profile indicated significant differences in the thickness dependant on the type of malocclusion and gender. Because of their great variability and a significant participation in the formation of the profile, while planning orthodontic therapy, it is necessary to pay them full attention, with obligatory analysis of the dentoskeletal profile.

  6. Analysis of the economics of typical business applications of solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    An economic analysis is provided of flat plate collector systems in industrial, commercial, and agricultural business applications in a variety of locations. A key element of the analysis is the federal solar investment tax credit. The SOLCOST Solar Energy Design Program is used for the study. The differences between industrial/agricultural and commercial applications are considered, as are finance and tax data and fuel data. The rate of return and payback are the criteria used to compare the economic viability of systems. Market penetration estimates for process steam were derived for seven southwestern states where direct solar radiation is highest. (LEW)

  7. Optimizing chronic disease management mega-analysis: economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    As Ontario's population ages, chronic diseases are becoming increasingly common. There is growing interest in services and care models designed to optimize the management of chronic disease. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and expected budget impact of interventions in chronic disease cohorts evaluated as part of the Optimizing Chronic Disease Management mega-analysis. Sector-specific costs, disease incidence, and mortality were calculated for each condition using administrative databases from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Intervention outcomes were based on literature identified in the evidence-based analyses. Quality-of-life and disease prevalence data were obtained from the literature. Analyses were restricted to interventions that showed significant benefit for resource use or mortality from the evidence-based analyses. An Ontario cohort of patients with each chronic disease was constructed and followed over 5 years (2006-2011). A phase-based approach was used to estimate costs across all sectors of the health care system. Utility values identified in the literature and effect estimates for resource use and mortality obtained from the evidence-based analyses were applied to calculate incremental costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Given uncertainty about how many patients would benefit from each intervention, a system-wide budget impact was not determined. Instead, the difference in lifetime cost between an individual-administered intervention and no intervention was presented. Of 70 potential cost-effectiveness analyses, 8 met our inclusion criteria. All were found to result in QALY gains and cost savings compared with usual care. The models were robust to the majority of sensitivity analyses undertaken, but due to structural limitations and time constraints, few sensitivity analyses were conducted. Incremental cost savings per patient who received intervention ranged between $15 per diabetic patient with specialized nursing to

  8. Economic inequality and economic crisis: a challenge for social workers.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-07-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The article identifies interrelated changes in ideology, the market economy, and government policies since the mid-1970s; contrasts the political economy of this period with the preceding post-World War II decades when the trend was toward a "shared prosperity"; and shows how increased economic inequality and political consequences that undermined democracy itself contributed to the economic meltdown. The analysis has implications for the direction of social reform and for broadening the constituency of social movements in pursuit of the social work mission of social justice. How social workers can contribute to such movements and to a reduction of economic and political inequality is explored.

  9. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 2: Tug concepts analysis. Part 1: Overall approach and data generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of space tug operations is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) data base for orbit injection stages, (2) data base for reusable space tug, (3) performance equations, (4) data integration and interpretation, (5) tug performance and mission model accomodation, (6) total program cost, (7) payload analysis, (8) computer software, and (9) comparison of tug concepts.

  10. Analysis of Antarctic Denitrification in 2003 Winter Observed by ILAS-II Onboard the ADEOS-II Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Saeki, K.; Sugita, T.

    2005-12-01

    Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC) play an important role in ozone destruction in both Arctic and Antarctic stratosphere in winter. They take up gas-phase nitric acid (HNO3) and grow up when temperature is below nitric acid saturation temperature (TNAT). When PSC becomes large, it starts to descend and nitric acid is removed from the air mass, resulting in denitrification. The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) successfully made measurements for the whole Antarctic winter in 2003. ILAS-II measured vertical profiles of O3, HNO3, NO2, H2O, N2O, CH4, ClONO2, N2O5, etc. in addition to the aerosol extinction coefficients at 780 nm. In this study, we analyzed denitrification from ILAS-II HNO3 and N2O data in regard to temperature history on the trajectory. The quantity of denitrification was estimated from the difference between measured HNO3 and HNO3* assumed from HNO3-- N2O correlation. In this analysis, it was found that denitrification was observed only for those airmass that experienced temperature below TICE (ice saturation temperature) in late June, 2003. In late July, it was found that most airmass inside the polar vortex was denitrified regardless of temperature history. This suggests that permanent denitrification has occurred in June-July period. The transition of relationship between denitrification and airmass temperature history was discovered from the ILAS-II data. Also, major types of PSC have found to be changed from nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in June to ice in July, from the ILAS-II data. This is considered to be due to the lack of nitric acid in the airmass due to the denitrification in July.

  11. Choosing among alternative recycling systems: An economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stedge, G.D. . Dept. of Agricultural and Applied Economics); Halstead, J.M. . Dept. of Resource Economics and Development)

    1994-03-01

    Due to the increasing concern over the disposal of municipal solid waste, municipalities have begun searching for ways to recycle a larger percentage to their waste stream at a reasonable cost. This report examines bag-based recycling. This system, due to its efficient collection and separation method, and its convenience, should be able to capture a larger share of the waste stream at a lower cost per metric ton than conventional recycling programs. Using a case study approach, a bag-based program is compared with a curbside-sort program and a drop-off program. Using time/motion analysis, a garbage composition study, a household survey, and the recording of set-out rates of a sample of dwelling units, the efficiency of the three programs was defined and estimated. The efficiency of the bag-based system was also estimated for three areas with distinct household densities. Although the curbside-sort program was found to divert a larger percentage of the residential waste stream than the bag-based system, the cost per metric ton of the bag-based system is so much lower that it clearly is the most efficient of the three programs. The drop-off program had a very low cost per metric ton; however, if failed to divert the minimum acceptable level of the waste stream. The bag-based system proved to be more efficient in areas with higher household densities.

  12. Clinical and economic analysis of spa therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Desboeuf, Karine; Thalamas, Claire; Galitzky, Monique; Senard, Jean-Michel; Rascol, Olivier; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2003-05-01

    The effectiveness of spa therapy in the management of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) has never been evaluated. This is assessed in this pilot study. A prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled study was conducted in 31 PD patients who underwent a 20-week spa period, including spa therapy for 3 weeks, and a 20-week non-spa period. Effectiveness was assessed using quality of life scales (PDQ-39 and SF-36), motor scale (UPDRS) and psychological questionnaire (GHQ-28), at baseline and at 4 (T4) and at 20 weeks (T20). Direct medical costs (radiological and laboratory tests, physician fees, drug therapy, and ancillary care) were recorded over each 20-week period. At T4, spa therapy improved significantly several dimensions of PDQ-39 and SF-36, part IV of the UPDRS, and GHQ-28. At T20, no difference in any parameter was found. The mean direct medical cost over 20 weeks (euro;1,328 +/- 167; pound 776 +/- 97 per patient) in the spa period was slightly but significantly reduced in comparison with that of the non-spa period (euro;1380 +/- 523; pound 807 +/- 306 per patient). This cost-effectiveness analysis suggests that spa therapy is more effective and less expensive than conventional treatment alone and could be beneficial in the management of PD.

  13. Competition in the Natural Gas Pipeline Industry: An economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gallick, E.C.

    1993-12-31

    The essence of this book is that transportation monopoly power in the natural gas pipeline industry of the United States may be questionable. The author implicity built on the notion of contestable markets, that market power arises more from barriers to entry and exit that economies of scale. To reach these conclusions, the author constructed analyses of the short, medium, and long term potential entry condition for metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). The author`s analysis show that 123 of 208 relevant MSA were noncompetitive at the present time. In the medium term, the picture changes dramatically as new pipeline projects become feasible and expiring gas contracts begin to entice competitors. Finally, in the long run nearly all potential pipeline entrants, and thus natural gas suppliers, have an impact on markets and the only constraint is the number of bidders. The natural gas industry in the U.S. has been through momentous change, but all indications are that, on the whole, all consumers are likely to benefit from the policy reform and industry restructuring. The goal of deregulation is to encourage competition wherever possible and to efficiently and effectively regulate wherever competition does not exist or may not be feasible.

  14. An economic analysis of trial of labor after cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Alexander M; Ananth, Cande V; Chen, Ling; D'Alton, Mary E; Wright, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Given that cesarean delivery is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the United States and an important contributor to obstetric care costs, this analysis sought to examine maternal hospital costs associated with trial of labor after cesarean delivery (TOLAC) versus repeat cesarean delivery (RCD). A national sample was used to identify women with singleton pregnancy who underwent either TOLAC or RCD from 2006 to 2012. Women with diagnoses that could confound cost via extended hospital length of stay prior to delivery were excluded. Other medical and obstetric covariates that could influence cost were included in an adjusted model. A total of 485,247 women were identified, including 365,596 (75.3%) cesarean deliveries without labor, 41,988 (8.6%) successful and 77,663 (16.0%) unsuccessful TOLAC deliveries. The inflation-adjusted median costs in this cohort were $5512 for cesarean without labor, $4175 for successful TOLAC, $5166 for all TOLAC attempts, and $5759 for failed TOLAC. In a multivariable model, hospital region was a major predictor of median cost as were demographic variables and medical comorbidities. TOLAC is associated with modest reductions of cost for maternal hospitalizations. However, other medical, demographic and hospital factors appear to be more important factors.

  15. Economic analysis and assessment of syngas production using a modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hakkwan; Parajuli, Prem B.; Yu, Fei; Columbus, Eugene P.

    2011-08-10

    Economic analysis and modeling are essential and important issues for the development of current feedstock and process technology for bio-gasification. The objective of this study was to develop an economic model and apply to predict the unit cost of syngas production from a micro-scale bio-gasification facility. An economic model was programmed in C++ computer programming language and developed using a parametric cost approach, which included processes to calculate the total capital costs and the total operating costs. The model used measured economic data from the bio-gasification facility at Mississippi State University. The modeling results showed that the unit cost of syngas production was $1.217 for a 60 Nm-3 h-1 capacity bio-gasifier. The operating cost was the major part of the total production cost. The equipment purchase cost and the labor cost were the largest part of the total capital cost and the total operating cost, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that labor costs rank the top as followed by equipment cost, loan life, feedstock cost, interest rate, utility cost, and waste treatment cost. The unit cost of syngas production increased with the increase of all parameters with exception of loan life. The annual cost regarding equipment, labor, feedstock, waste treatment, and utility cost showed a linear relationship with percent changes, while loan life and annual interest rate showed a non-linear relationship. This study provides the useful information for economic analysis and assessment of the syngas production using a modeling approach.

  16. Solar Electric Generating System II finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dohner, J.L.; Anderson, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    On June 2, 1992, Landers` earthquake struck the Solar Electric Generating System II, located in Daggett, California. The 30 megawatt power station, operated by the Daggett Leasing Corporation (DLC), suffered substantial damage due to structural failures in the solar farm. These failures consisted of the separation of sliding joints supporting a distribution of parabolic glass mirrors. At separation, the mirrors fell to the ground and broke. It was the desire of the DLC and the Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and to redesign these joints so that, in the event of future quakes, costly breakage will be avoided. To accomplish this task, drawings of collector components were developed by the STDAC, from which a detailed finite element computer model of a solar collector was produced. This nonlinear dynamic model, which consisted of over 8,560 degrees of freedom, underwent model reduction to form a low order nonlinear dynamic model containing only 40 degrees of freedom. This model was then used as a design tool to estimate joint dynamics. Using this design tool, joint configurations were modified, and an acceptable joint redesign determined. The results of this analysis showed that the implementation of metal stops welded to support shafts for the purpose of preventing joint separation is a suitable joint redesign. Moreover, it was found that, for quakes of Landers` magnitude, mirror breakage due to enhanced vibration in the trough assembly is unlikely.

  17. Analysis of Myosin II Minifilament Orientation at Epithelial Zonula Adherens

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Magdalene; Liang, Xuan; Gomez, Guillermo A.

    2017-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II (NMII) form bipolar filaments, which bind F-actin to exert cellular contractility during physiological processes (Vicente-Manzanares et al., 2009). Using a combinatorial approach to fluorescently label both N- and C-termini of the NMII heavy chain, recent works have demonstrated the ability to visualize NMII bipolar filaments at various subcellular localizations (Ebrahim et al., 2013; Beach et al., 2014). At the zonula adherens (ZA) of epithelia, NMII minifilaments bind the circumferential actin bundles in a pseudo-sarcomeric manner (Ebrahim et al., 2013), a conformation required to maintain junctional tension and tissue integrity (Ratheesh et al., 2012). By expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-NMIIA heavy chain and immunolabel it using a NMIIA C-terminus specific antibody, we were able to visualize the NMII minifilaments bound to F-actin bundles in Caco-2 cells (Michael et al., 2016), as previously reported (Ebrahim et al., 2013; Beach et al., 2014). In addition, we designed an FIJI/MATLAB analysis module to quantify the size, distance and alignment of these minifilaments with respect to junctional F-actin at the ZA. Measurements of the dispersion of minifilaments angles were proven to be a useful parameter that closely correlated to the extent of contractility at junctions (Michael et al., 2016). PMID:28251171

  18. ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF THE SPICA H II REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.-W.; Min, K.-W.; Seon, K.-I.; Han, W.; Edelstein, J.

    2010-08-20

    Far ultraviolet (FUV) spectral images of the Spica H II region are first presented here for the Si II* {lambda}1533.4 and Al II {lambda}1670.8 lines and then compared with the optical H{alpha} image. The H{alpha} and Si II* images show enhanced emissions in the southern part of the H II region where H I density increases outward. This high density region, which we identify as part of the 'interaction ring' of the Loop I superbubble and the Local Bubble, seems to bound the southern H II region. On the other hand, the observed profile of Al II shows a broad central peak, without much difference between the northern and southern parts, which we suspect results from multiple resonant scattering. The extended tails seen in the radial profiles of the FUV intensities suggest that the nebula may be embedded in a warm ionized gas. Simulation with a spectral synthesis code yields values of the Lyman continuum luminosity and the effective temperature of the central star similar to previous estimates with 10{sup 46.2} photons s{sup -1} and 26,000 K, respectively, but the density of the northern H II region, 0.22 cm{sup -3}, is much smaller than previous estimates for the H{alpha} brightest region.

  19. Some reciprocal roles between behavior analysis and institutional economics in post-darwinian science

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Sigrid S.

    1985-01-01

    Behavior analysis and institutional economics are viewed as having common origins in the early 20th century effort to benefit from the conceptual revolution spurred by Darwin's synthesis. Institutional economics, initiated by Thorstein Veblen, appears to have failed to develop a progressive scientific technology, while behavior analysis has done so. It is suggested that institutional economics has been held back by lack of a synthesizing scientific mechanism that elucidates the relation between technological and ceremonial processes, the two cultural forces described by Veblen. The theory of institutional economist C. E. Ayres, built on Veblen's distinction, is used to clarify the concepts of technological and ceremonial processes for the reader. An analysis of the behavioral processes that might underlie the cultural processes described by Veblen/Ayres suggests that the experimental analysis of behavior has provided concepts that might function as a synthesizing mechanism for the social sciences and, in particular, institutional economics. The Veblen/Ayres dichotomy, now seen in terms of underlying behavioral processes, is used to examine the field of behavior analysis in terms of its origins, its relation to psychology and its current state. The paper concludes with a few practical suggestions as to how behavior analysts might work to enhance survival. PMID:22478617

  20. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biochemical Scenarios for Production of Cellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kazi, F. K.; Fortman, J.; Anex, R.; Kothandaraman, G.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Dutta, A.

    2010-06-01

    A techno-economic analysis on the production of cellulosic ethanol by fermentation was conducted to understand the viability of liquid biofuel production processes within the next 5-8 years. Initially, 35 technologies were reviewed, then a two-step down selection was performed to choose scenarios to be evaluated in a more detailed economic analysis. The lignocellulosic ethanol process was selected because it is well studied and portions of the process have been tested at pilot scales. Seven process variations were selected and examined in detail. Process designs were constrained to public data published in 2007 or earlier, without projecting for future process improvements. Economic analysis was performed for an 'nth plant' (mature technology) to obtain total investment and product value (PV). Sensitivity analysis was performed on PV to assess the impact of variations in process and economic parameters. Results show that the modeled dilute acid pretreatment process without any downstream process variation had the lowest PV of $3.40/gal of ethanol ($5.15/gallon of gasoline equivalent) in 2007 dollars. Sensitivity analysis shows that PV is most sensitive to feedstock and enzyme costs.

  1. An Economic Analysis of Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jane; Caleo, Sue; Stevenson, Janine; Meares, Russell

    2001-03-01

    BACKGROUND: BPD is a serious mental illness in which psychotherapy has been shown to improve patient outcomes and reduce the use of health services. In most studies of psychotherapy, lower use of health services has been taken to imply lower health service costs. However, the costs of psychotherapy can offset any cost savings due to reduced use of other health services. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To estimate the net costs of health service use in a group of BPD patients receiving intensive psychotherapy. METHODS: Data on use of inpatient hospital, emergency hospital, ambulatory care, diagnostic tests and medications were collected for the twelve months before psychotherapy and the twelve months after the completion of treatment. Cost estimates were developed using standardised unit costs. RESULTS: There was a saving of approximately $670,000 in health service use over the thirty patients compared to a cost of $130,000 for psychotherapy, giving a net cost saving of $18,000 per patient. Most of this was due to reduced hospital admissions. Cost saving was higher in those patients who were high users of hospital services. Sensitivity analyses were performed; overall, the findings consistently show a reduction in the cost of health services used. DISCUSSION: The group studied consisted of 30 patients and comprised a before/after design. Therefore it does not overcome criticisms of other work in this area, that is of observational studies and small sample sizes. Nonetheless, the results were based on detailed costing of service use, using conservative assumptions and subject to sensitivity analysis. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND USE: The use of intensive psychotherapy in BPD patients who are high users of health services, particularly those who have had multiple hospital admissions, is probably warranted until more evidence is available. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: There is little rigorous evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy

  2. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee. Final report and appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  3. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  4. Techno-economic analysis of advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping

    2015-09-01

    This paper evaluates the economic feasibility of an integrated production pathway combining fast pyrolysis and bio-oil gasification. The conversion process is simulated with Aspen Plus® for a 2000 metric ton per day facility. Techno-economic analysis of this integrated pathway has been conducted. A total capital investment of $510 million has been estimated and the minimum fuel selling price (MSP) is $5.59 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis shows that the MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return, fuel yield, biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital investment. Monte-Carlo simulation shows that MSP for bio-oil gasification would be more than $6/gal with a probability of 0.24, which indicates this pathway is still at high risk with current economic and technical situation.

  5. Economic analysis of U.S. ethanol expansion issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Malika

    The dependency of the U.S. economy on crude oil imported from politically unstable countries, escalating energy demand world wide, growing nationwide environmental consciousness, and the Renewable Fuels Standards (RFS) government mandates are some of the primary factors that have provided a favorable environment for the growth and development of the U.S. ethanol industry. The first essay derives decision rules for a discrete-time dynamic hedging model in a multiple commodity framework under expected utility maximization and basis risk. It compares hedging performance of three types of hedging models, namely constant hedging, time-varying static hedging model and the new dynamic hedging rule derived in this study. Findings show that natural gas futures contracts were effective instruments for hedging ethanol spot price risk before March, 2005, when ethanol futures trading was initiated on the CBOT. However, post-March, 2005, corn and ethanol futures contracts proved to be efficient hedging instruments. Results also indicate that ethanol producers may effectively decrease variance of cumulative cash flows by hedging using ethanol, natural gas and corn futures prices using the traditional techniques. The study concludes that using the new dynamic hedge model in a three period and two commodity set up, producers can effectively reduce variance of cumulative cash flow by 13.2% as compared to the 'no hedge' scenario. In my second essay, I use choice based, conjoint analysis methods to estimate consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for alternative transportation fuels in the U.S. In this study, I consider unleaded gasoline and ethanol, which may be derived from corn or three different sources of cellulosic biomass as alternative transportation fuels. Results suggest that age and household income are some of the socioeconomic variables that significantly influence consumer's choice behavior. Results indicate considerable consumer preference heterogeneity. Welfare effects are

  6. Economic Analysis of Nutrition Interventions for Chronic Disease Prevention: Methods, Research, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, John B.; Coates, Paul M.; Russell, Robert M.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Schuttinga, James A.; Bowman, Barbara A.; Peterson, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or health care policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and U.S. regulatory, policy and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. PMID:21884133

  7. The Economic Impact of Subsidized Child Care: An Economic Analysis of Valley Child Care from November 1976 to June 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freis, Ruth; Miller, Miriam

    This study examines the specific economic impact on the cost to government of subsidized child care and development services. Data were collected from all 295 families who used Valley Child Care services for more than six months, over a period of two and a half years. The data and results indicated significant economic effects of providing…

  8. Molecular analysis of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency with hepatocardiomuscular expression

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnefont, J.P.; Cepanec, C.; Leroux, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II deficiency, an inherited disorder of mitochondrial long-chain fatty-acid (LCFA) oxidation, results in two distinct clinical act phenotypes, namely, an adult (muscular) form and an infantile (hepatocardiomuscular) form. The rationale of this phenotypic heterogeneity is poorly understood. The adult form of the disease is commonly ascribed to the Ser-113-Leu substitution in CPT II. Only few data are available regarding the molecular basis of the infantile form of the disease. We report herein a homozygous A-2399-C transversion predicting a Tyr-628-Ser substitution in a CPT II-deficient infant. In vitro expression of mutant cDNA in COS-1 cells demonstrated the responsibility of this mutation for the disease. Metabolic consequences of the Ser-113-Leu and Tyr-628-Ser substitutions were studied in fibroblasts. The Tyr-628-Ser substitution (infantile form) resulted in a 10% CPT II residual activity, markedly impairing LCFA oxidation, whereas the Ser-113-Leu substitution (adult form) resulted in a 20% CPT II residual activity, without consequence on LCFA oxidation. These data show that CPT II activity has to be reduced below a critical threshold in order for LCFA oxidation in fibroblasts to be impaired. The hypothesis that this critical threshold differs among tissues could provide a basis to explain phenotypic heterogeneity of CPT II deficiency. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Economic analysis of animal disease outbreaks--BSE and Bluetongue disease as examples.

    PubMed

    Gethmann, Jörn; Probst, Carolina; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of research on animal disease control, economic evaluation of control measures is rather limited in veterinary medicine. This may, on the one hand, be due to the different types of costs and refunds and the different people and organizations bearing them, such as animal holders, county, region, state or European Union, but it may also be due to the fact that economic analyses are both complex and time consuming. Only recently attention has turned towards economic analysis in animal disease control. Examples include situations, when decisions between different control measures must be taken, especially if alternatives to culling or compulsory vaccination are under discussion. To determine an optimal combination of control measures (strategy), a cost-benefit analysis should be performed. It is not necessary to take decisions only based on the financial impact, but it becomes possible to take economic aspects into account. To this end, the costs caused by the animal disease and the adopted control measures must be assessed. This article presents a brief overview of the methodological approaches used to retrospectively analyse the economic impact of two particular relevant diseases in Germany in the last few years: Blue-tongue disease (BT) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

  10. SHYFEA/PRESHY (Small Hydroelectric Financial/Economic Analysis/PREprocessor to SHYfea): user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    To provide a complete, rapid approach to the financial/economic analysis of small hydroelectric rehabilitation, the computerized SHYFEA (Small Hydroelectric Financial/Economic Analysis) program was developed. This program provides five output modules: (1) Depreciation Schedule; (2) Facility Cash Flow; (3) Investor Cash Flow; (4) Economic Analysis Summary; and (5) a Developers Financial Analysis. An important additional option available to the user is the determination of those debt and equity values which will maximize the return to the investor over a user specified number of years and allowable values of negative facility cash flow. Studies of this optimization process have indicated that it is not necessarily true that it is to the investor's advantage to attempt maximum debt values to obtain interest leverage for tax sheltering income purposes. This manual describes both the SHYFEA and PRESHY programs, documents their basis and describes the user input and output results. Preshy is a terminal based, interaction preprocessor for the rapid creation of SHYFEA input data files; particularly for the case of multiple economic runs using the same reference depreciation schedule.

  11. ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGIES TO TREAT MERCURY AND DISPOSE IN A MONOFILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    If all of the chlor alkali plants in the world shut down, it is estimated that 25-30,000 metric tons of mercury would be available worldwide. This presentation is intended to describe the economic and environmental analysis of a number of technologies for the long term management...

  12. Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed Title: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions Topic (must choose one item from a drop-down list): Community Indicators Learning Objectives (must list 2): • What are the benefits and l...

  13. Economic Conditions and the Divorce Rate: A Time-Series Analysis of the Postwar United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Scott J.

    1985-01-01

    Challenges the belief that the divorce rate rises during prosperity and falls during economic recessions. Time-series regression analysis of postwar United States reveals small but positive effects of unemployment on divorce rate. Stronger influences on divorce rates are changes in age structure and labor-force participation rate of women.…

  14. [An information system for the analysis of economic indices of the activity of a medical institution].

    PubMed

    Bukharbaeva, L Ia

    2003-01-01

    An information technology for analyzing the economic parameters of a medical institution is suggested in the article within the framework of the information system already functioning in the Republican foundation of compulsory medical insurance (Bashkortostan). The analysis of financing the therapeutic-and-prophylactic facilities is based on the graphic-and-analytic method and on extensive real statistics.

  15. 78 FR 66929 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis AGENCY: Policy and Planning Division, Export-Import Bank of... Export-Import Bank of the United States is withdrawing a previous Federal Register notice informing the...

  16. Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed Title: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions Topic (must choose one item from a drop-down list): Community Indicators Learning Objectives (must list 2): • What are the benefits and l...

  17. ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGIES TO TREAT MERCURY AND DISPOSE IN A MONOFILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    If all of the chlor alkali plants in the world shut down, it is estimated that 25-30,000 metric tons of mercury would be available worldwide. This presentation is intended to describe the economic and environmental analysis of a number of technologies for the long term management...

  18. Techno-economic analysis for the evaluation of three UCG synthesis gas end use approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Krawczyk, Piotr; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) enables the utilization of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable because of complex geological boundary conditions. In the present study we investigate UCG as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a synthesis gas and its application within three different utilization options. Related to geological boundary conditions and the chosen gasification agent, UCG synthesis gas composes of varying methane, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide amounts. In accordance to its calorific value, the processed UCG synthesis gas can be utilized in different manners, as for electricity generation in a combined cycle power plant or for feedstock production making use of its various chemical components. In the present study we analyze UCG synthesis gas utilization economics in the context of clean electricity generation with an integrated carbon capture and storage process (CCS) as well as synthetic fuel and fertilizer production (Kempka et al., 2010) based on a gas composition achieved during an in situ UCG trial in the Wieczorek Mine. Hereby, we also consider chemical feedstock production in order to mitigate CO2 emissions. Within a sensitivity analysis of UCG synthesis gas calorific value variations, we produce a range of capital and operational expenditure bandwidths that allow for an economic assessment of different synthesis gas end use approaches. To carry out the integrated techno-economic assessment of the coupled systems and the sensitivity analysis, we adapted the techno-economic UCG-CCS model developed by Nakaten et al. (2014). Our techno-economic modeling results demonstrate that the calorific value has a high impact on the economics of UCG synthesis gas utilization. In the underlying study, the synthesis gas is not suitable for an economic competitive electricity generation, due to the relatively low calorific value of 4.5 MJ/Nm³. To be a profitable option for electricity

  19. Quantitative analysis of peptide-MHC class II interaction.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, B; Jung, G; Wiesmüller, K H

    1999-12-01

    The tremendous progress in the field of basic immunology and immunochemistry made in the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of antigen processing and presentation by MHC class I and II proteins. In this review different techniques to study peptide interaction with MHC class II molecules are summarized and their impact on the elucidation of quantitative parameters, like affinities or kinetic data, is discussed. A recently introduced method based on synthetic combinatorial peptide libraries allows to quantify the binding contribution of each amino acid residue in a class II ligand and is presented in more detail. As this knowledge is fundamental for current investigations in modern medicine, e.g. for novel immune system based therapy concepts, further aspects like the design of new high affinity MHC class II ligands and the prediction of peptide antigens are discussed.

  20. Breeding goals for the Kenya dual purpose goat. II. Estimation of economic values for production and functional traits.

    PubMed

    Bett, R C; Kosgey, I S; Bebe, B O; Kahi, A K

    2007-10-01

    Economic values for production traits (milk yield, MY, kg; 12-month sale weight, LW, kg; consumable meat percentage, CMP) and functional traits (doe live weight, DoWT, kg; number of kids weaned, NKW; kidding frequency, KF; kidding rate, KR, %; doe weaning rate, DoWR, %; doe survival rate, DoSR, %; post-weaning survival rate, PoSR, %; pre-weaning survival rate, PrSR, % and; residual feed intake of yearlings, RFIgamma, kg and does RFId, kg) were estimated for the Kenya Dual Purpose goat (KDPG) for systems under two bases of evaluation. The production systems included smallholder low-potential (SLP), smallholder medium-potential (SMP) and smallholder high-potential (SHP), while the bases of evaluation considered were fixed flock-size and fixed feed resource. Under both bases of evaluation, economic values were highest in SMP apart from the economic values for feed intake-related traits (RFIy and RFId). In SMP, the economic values under fixed flock-size scenario were KSh 71.61 (LW), 20.90 (MY), 45.20 (CMP), 13.68 (NKW), 3.61 (KF), 6.52 (KR), 12.39 (DoWR), 22.96 (DoSR), 22.87 (PoSR), 13.18 (PrSR), -2.76 (RFIy) and -3.00 (RFId). The corresponding economic values under fixed feed resources scenario were KSh 73.28, 29.39, 45.20, 16.91, 4.76, 9.45, 13.84, 25.67, 25.15, 16.19, -2.76 and -3.00. Generally in all production systems, economic values for most traits were higher under fixed feed resource than under fixed flock-size scenario. In all systems, the economic values for most of the traits were sensitive to changes in prices of feed, milk and meat. The positive economic values for most traits under fixed flock-size scenario and fixed feed resource indicates that a unit increase in genetic merit for the traits would have a positive effect on the profitability of the systems.