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Sample records for ii economic analysis

  1. Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  2. Conversion of paper sludge to ethanol, II: process design and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhiliang; Lynd, Lee R

    2007-01-01

    Process design and economics are considered for conversion of paper sludge to ethanol. A particular site, a bleached kraft mill operated in Gorham, NH by Fraser Papers (15 tons dry sludge processed per day), is considered. In addition, profitability is examined for a larger plant (50 dry tons per day) and sensitivity analysis is carried out with respect to capacity, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Conversion based on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with intermittent feeding is examined, with ethanol recovery provided by distillation and molecular sieve adsorption. It was found that the Fraser plant achieves positive cash flow with or without xylose conversion and mineral recovery. Sensitivity analysis indicates economics are very sensitive to ethanol selling price and scale; significant but less sensitive to the tipping fee, and rather insensitive to the prices of cellulase and power. Internal rates of return exceeding 15% are projected for larger plants at most combinations of scale, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Our analysis lends support to the proposition that paper sludge is a leading point-of-entry and proving ground for emergent industrial processes featuring enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass.

  3. Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands II: comparison of control strategies.

    PubMed

    Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    A combined epidemiological-economic modelling approach was used to analyse strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) control for the Netherlands. The modelling framework used was InterSpread Plus (ISP), a spatially based, stochastic and dynamic simulation model. A total of eight control strategies were analysed, including pre-emptive depopulation and vaccination strategies. The analysis was carried out for three different regions in the Netherlands: high-, medium- and low-density areas (HDA, MDA and LDA, respectively). The analysis included the veterinary impact (e.g. number of infected premises and duration), but was particularly focused on the impact on direct costs (DC) and direct consequential costs. The efficient set of control strategies for HDA and MDA included strategies based on either pre-emptive depopulation only or combined vaccination and pre-emptive depopulation: D2 (pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 2 km), RV3 + D1 (ring vaccination within a radius of 3 km and additional pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km) and PV + D1 (preventive vaccination in non-affected HDAs and pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km in the affected HDA). Although control solely based on depopulation in most cases showed to be effective for LDA, pre-emptive depopulation showed to have an additional advantage in these areas, that is, prevention of 'virus jumps' to other areas. The pros and cons of the efficient control strategies were discussed, for example, public perception and risk of export restrictions. It was concluded that for the Netherlands control of HPAI preferably should be carried out using strategies including pre-emptive depopulation with or without vaccination. Particularly, the short- and long-term implications on export, that is, indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs of these strategies, should be analysed further.

  4. Economic Analysis Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Fn p(l + i) n . (111-3) The behavorial significance of equation (111-3) outweighs its mathematical signifbcance. In the money market , with a...1 .. 2 411 44 I ii- I *’-.. • 12 .. S 10 ...1671 • •2 FIGURE III-11 .:. This strategy extends both alternatives to a common point in time (the 24th...pondering whether to buy a 7 oz. bottle of shampoo for $.91 or an 11 oz. bottle (same brand ) for $1.46, the rational economic choice would be dictated

  5. Advanced Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Marc W.; Laing, William

    2013-01-01

    An Economic Analysis (EA) is a systematic approach to the problem of choosing the best method of allocating scarce resources to achieve a given objective. An EA helps guide decisions on the "worth" of pursuing an action that departs from status quo ... an EA is the crux of decision-support.

  6. DOE/NETL's phase II mercury control technology field testing program: preliminary economic analysis of activated carbon injection.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew P; Hoffmann, Jeffrey W; Smith, Dennis N; Feeley, Thomas J; Murphy, James T

    2007-02-15

    Based on results of field testing conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), this article provides preliminary costs for mercury control via conventional activated carbon injection (ACI), brominated ACI, and conventional ACI coupled with the application of a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) to coal prior to combustion. The economic analyses are reported on a plant-specific basis in terms of the cost required to achieve low (50%), mid (70%), and high (90%) levels of mercury removal "above and beyond" the baseline mercury removal achieved by existing emission control equipment. In other words, the levels of mercury control are directly attributable to ACI. Mercury control costs via ACI have been amortized on a current dollar basis. Using a 20-year book life, levelized costs for the incremental increase in cost of electricity (COE), expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour (mills/kWh), and the incremental cost of mercury control, expressed in dollars per pound of mercury removed ($/lb Hg removed), have been calculated for each level of ACI mercury control. For this analysis, the increase in COE varied from 0.14 mills/kWh to 3.92 mills/kWh. Meanwhile, the incremental cost of mercury control ranged from $3810/lb Hg removed to $166000/lb Hg removed.

  7. ALMR deployment economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Hudson, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    This analysis seeks to model and evaluate the economics of the use of Advanced Liquid Metal Reactors (ALMR) as a component of this country`s future electricity generation mix. The ALMR concept has the ability to utilize as fuel the fissile material contained in previously irradiated nuclear fuel (i.e., spent fuel). While not a requirement for the successful deployment of ALMR power plant technology, the reprocessing of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWR) is necessary for any rapid introduction of ALMR power plants. In addition, the reprocessing of LWR spent fuel may reduce the number of high level waste repositories needed in the future by burning the long-lived actinides produced in the fission process. With this study, the relative economics of a number of potential scenarios related to these issues are evaluated. While not encompassing the full range of all possibilities, the cases reported here provide an indication of the potential costs, timings, and relative economic attractiveness of ALMR deployment.

  8. [Nervous syndrome in sheep on the Ivory Coast. II. Economic impact, trials and cost-benefit analysis of preventive plans].

    PubMed

    Domenech, J; Formenty, P

    1993-01-01

    The clinical and epidemiological aspects of the ovine nervous syndrome in Côte-d'Ivoire were presented in the first part of this paper and the disease was considered to be similar to the cerebrocortical necrosis as related to vitamin B1 deficiency. The economic losses by this disease being 1,500 to 2,000 F CFA (30-40 FF) per animal and per year, it seemed to be very important to consider its prophylaxis. A programme involving a daily injection of 100 mg of thiamine chlorhydrate throughout the dry season proved to be very efficient. In addition, if excluding the cost of the injection, this programme appeared to be beneficial to the farmer. When including only the price of the product, the profit to cost ratio of the programme was 4.8 (thiamine at 400 F CFA) to 30.6 (thiamine at 66 F CFA). The other profit earning criteria, i.e. the differential actualized net value and the induced gains, showed the same positive effect of this prophylaxis programme. However, it should be emphasized that the nervous syndrome in sheep mainly remains an accident due to a poor flock management. Hence, to prevent this disease the farmer should correctly adapt the rearing methods to the intensification of the production. Nevertheless, as the accurate etiopathogenesis of the syndrome remains to be elucidated and as the daily injection of the product to all animals of the flock represents an important constraint, research should be pursued to solve a problem which seems to affect the whole region.

  9. Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands I: epidemiological modelling to support economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    Economic analysis of control strategies for contagious diseases is a necessity in the development of contingency plans. Economic impacts arising from epidemics such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) consist of direct costs (DC), direct consequential costs (DCC), indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs (AC). Epidemiological models to support economic analysis need to provide adequate outputs for these critical economic parameters. Of particular importance for DCC, ICC and AC is the spatial production structure of a region. Spatial simulation models are therefore particularly suited for economic analysis; however, they often require a large number of parameters. The aims of this study are (i) to provide an economic rationale of epidemiological modelling in general, (ii) to provide a transparent description of the parameterization of a spatially based epidemiological model for the analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands and (iii) to discuss the validity and usefulness of this model for subsequent economic analysis. In the model, HPAI virus transmission occurs via local spread and animal movements. Control mechanisms include surveillance and tracing, movement restrictions and depopulation. Sensitivity analysis of key parameters indicated that the epidemiological outputs with the largest influence on the economic impacts (i.e. epidemic duration and number of farms in the movement restriction zone) were more robust than less influential indicators (i.e. number of infected farms). Economically relevant outputs for strategy comparison were most sensitive to the relative role of the different transmission parameters. The default simulation and results of the sensitivity analysis were consistent with the general outcomes of known HPAI models. Comparison was, however, limited due to the absence of some economically relevant outputs. It was concluded that the model creates economically relevant, adequate and credible output for subsequent use in

  10. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  11. Home Economics II. Basic Core. Tenth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ann

    Seven home economics curriculum areas for grade 10 are presented in this guide, with each area consisting of one or more instructional units as follows: (1) Career Exploration (obtaining a job, progress on the job, business etiquette); (2) Child Development (guiding the preschool child, middle childhood); (3) Clothing and Textiles (labeling,…

  12. Home Economics. Sample Test Items. Levels I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Educational Testing.

    A sample of behavioral objectives and related test items that could be developed for content modules in Home Economics levels I and II, this book is intended to enable teachers to construct more valid and reliable test materials. Forty-eight one-page modules are presented, and opposite each module are listed two to seven specific behavioral…

  13. Media Economics: Terms of Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomery, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    Lays out a framework for economic analysis of the mass media in American culture. Argues for its utility for understanding the workings of the television, motion picture, newspaper, and radio industries, as well as for evaluating appropriate public policy responses and considering historical trends. (MS)

  14. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  15. Energy-Systems Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, J.; Slonski, M. L.; Borden, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Energy Systems Economic Analysis (ESEA) program is flexible analytical tool for rank ordering of alternative energy systems. Basic ESEA approach derives an estimate of those costs incurred as result of purchasing, installing and operating an energy system. These costs, suitably aggregated into yearly costs over lifetime of system, are divided by expected yearly energy output to determine busbar energy costs. ESEA, developed in 1979, is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  16. Behavioral economics and regulatory analysis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lisa A; Hammitt, James K

    2011-09-01

    Behavioral economics has captured the interest of scholars and the general public by demonstrating ways in which individuals make decisions that appear irrational. While increasing attention is being focused on the implications of this research for the design of risk-reducing policies, less attention has been paid to how it affects the economic valuation of policy consequences. This article considers the latter issue, reviewing the behavioral economics literature and discussing its implications for the conduct of benefit-cost analysis, particularly in the context of environmental, health, and safety regulations. We explore three concerns: using estimates of willingness to pay or willingness to accept compensation for valuation, considering the psychological aspects of risk when valuing mortality-risk reductions, and discounting future consequences. In each case, we take the perspective that analysts should avoid making judgments about whether values are "rational" or "irrational." Instead, they should make every effort to rely on well-designed studies, using ranges, sensitivity analysis, or probabilistic modeling to reflect uncertainty. More generally, behavioral research has led some to argue for a more paternalistic approach to policy analysis. We argue instead for continued focus on describing the preferences of those affected, while working to ensure that these preferences are based on knowledge and careful reflection.

  17. Graduates of Higher Education in the Food and Agricultural Sciences: An Analysis of Supply/Demand Relationship. Volume II--Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Kyle Jane; Stanton, Marge

    Information on the supply of new college graduates seeking home economics-related positions, home economics job openings, and projected levels of employment is presented. Based on a Department of Agriculture manpower assessment project, supply and demand relationships through 1990 were analyzed, and supply data were aggregated by 11 educational…

  18. Tests of Behavioral-Economic Assessments of Relative Reinforcer Efficacy II: Economic Complements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Gregory J.; Smethells, John R.; Ewan, Eric E.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test the predictions of two behavioral-economic approaches to quantifying relative reinforcer efficacy. The normalized demand analysis suggests that characteristics of averaged normalized demand curves may be used to predict progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak responding. By contrast, the demand analysis holds…

  19. Economic Analysis: An Approach to Provide Basic Guidance for Conducting and Reviewing Economic Analysis within the Venezuelan Navy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    analysis, including the following. By its nature , the economic analysis process forces a clear statement of objectives, which aids in defining the intent of...The Information needed will depend to some extent on the nature of the problem Mie analyst mnust 39 ’II determine what data are needed and provide for...having both benefits and cost of equal nature . Preference in these cases would then be determined by noneconomic factors. The comparison of alternatives

  20. Economic analysis of same-sex marriage.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Christopher J

    2004-01-01

    This article applies the neoclassical microeconomic analysis of marriage as developed by Nobel laureate economist Gary Becker to same-sex marriage. The objective is to demonstrate that the economic analysis of marriage supports allowing same-sex marriage, and that same-sex marriages would strengthen the incentive to marry, increase the efficiency of marriage markets, provide for more children to be raised in two-parent optimum environments, and benefit states economically overall. The article concludes with an overview of the economic impact of same-sex marriages on states based on the analysis, data and fiscal information currently available from researchers and economists in the field.

  1. Economic Analysis of Cyber Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    calculated and require a good deal of guesswork ( Lemos , 2002). 2.2.3 Mi2g The British firm Mi2g has published numerous economic impact estimates...policy, has fallen out of favor. Users who are forced to periodically change their password are more likely to write it down or reuse a password used...Post. Lemos , Robert. January 21, 2002. “Data on Internet Threats Still Out Cold.” Available at <http://news.com.com/Data+on+Internet+threats+still

  2. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.28 Directorate for Economic Analysis. The Directorate for Economic Analysis, which is managed by the Associate Executive Director for Economic Analysis, is responsible for...

  3. Computer Based Economic Analysis Techniques to Support Functional Economic Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    is one of the most frequently used tools to uncover and explore profit potential. B. CALCULATION OF BREAK EVER ANALYSIS Haga and Lang (1992) state...BENEFITS For benfits that are quantifiable, Haga and Lang (1992) express BCR in the following notation. BCR=QOM Equation 9-1UAC (Where QOM is a...emulation. In addition to the software requirements, FEAM has the following hardware criteria: 68 * A mouse "* 2MB of RAM "* 20MB of Hard Disk space "* EGA

  4. Economic analysis in health care research.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Diaa E E

    2008-04-01

    There is contemporary widespread acceptance in the medical community of the need to address economic perspective of healthcare, specifically whether the benefits of a proposed or existing medical intervention are sufficient to justify that particular use of scarce health resources. The use of any scarce resources whether manpower, buildings or equipment has an opportunity cost in terms of the benefits foregone by denying those resources to other competing claims. Health economics emphasizes the need to assess formally the implications of choices over the deployment of resources. A number of economic evaluation techniques such as cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis have thus been developed to aid this formal assessment and to help identify the most efficient allocation of resources. The methodological quality and principles of economic analyses studies recently published in the biomedical literature, however, can be further improved. The most common limitations are in the methodology or presentation of cost, incremental analyses, sensitivity analysis and discounting. The ten methodological principles that should be incorporated in studies addressing economic analyses are highlighted. Understanding the methodology of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis is critical for biomedical researchers, editors, reviewers and readers from developing countries to accurately interpret the results of the growing body of these articles.

  5. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for providing an objective economic perspective to understand and evaluate the economic dimension of...

  6. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for providing an objective economic perspective to understand and evaluate the economic dimension of...

  7. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for providing an objective economic perspective to understand and evaluate the economic dimension of...

  8. 75 FR 8922 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of... economic analysis and recent statistical developments in national accounting. DATES: Friday, May 7,...

  9. 77 FR 60965 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of... economic analysis and recent statistical developments in national accounting. DATES: Friday, November...

  10. 77 FR 21081 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of... economic analysis and recent statistical developments in national accounting. DATES: Friday, May 11,...

  11. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

    2006-12-01

    A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

  12. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Directorate for Economic Analysis. 1000.28... AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.28 Directorate for Economic Analysis. The Directorate for Economic Analysis, which is managed by the Associate Executive Director for Economic Analysis, is responsible for...

  13. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Directorate for Economic Analysis. 1000.28... AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.28 Directorate for Economic Analysis. The Directorate for Economic Analysis, which is managed by the Associate Executive Director for Economic Analysis, is responsible for...

  14. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Directorate for Economic Analysis. 1000.28... AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.28 Directorate for Economic Analysis. The Directorate for Economic Analysis, which is managed by the Associate Executive Director for Economic Analysis, is responsible for...

  15. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 2 - epidemiology, wildlife and economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research ings in the fields of (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of foot-and- economics. Although the three sections, epidemiology, wildlife and economics are presented as separate entities, the fields are ...

  16. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, a prototype Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) modeling system. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (...

  17. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, a prototype Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) modeling system. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (...

  18. The Economic Analysis of University Participation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallis, George

    2015-01-01

    Over the postwar period in most developed countries, the university participation rate has risen steadily to well over 30 percent, although there remain differences between countries. Students from lower income families have lower participation rates than those from higher income families. The article provides an economic analysis of these…

  19. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  20. 78 FR 59648 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... economic analysis and recent statistical developments in national accounting. DATES: Friday, November 8... national, regional, industry, and international economic accounts, especially in areas of new and...

  1. Consumer Economics, Book I [and] Book II. DECIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Ruth E.; And Others

    This module, Consumer Economics, is one of five from Project DECIDE, which was created to design, develop, write, and implement materials to provide adult basic education administrators, instructors, para-professionals, and other personnel with curriculum to accompany the Indiana Adult Basic Education Curriculum Guide, "Learning for Everyday…

  2. 76 FR 9743 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory...-153), we are announcing a meeting of the Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee. The...

  3. 76 FR 59111 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee...), we are announcing a meeting of the Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee. The meeting...

  4. 78 FR 10599 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory...-153), we are announcing a meeting of the Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee. The...

  5. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for... Commission's regulatory oversight. It performs economic analyses of proposed rule changes, current...

  6. Economic analysis of age at first marriage.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, K

    1989-09-01

    A subject of great interest to demographers is to relate the timing of demographic events to individual characteristics and environmental variables. Static models of marriage tend to give corner solutions, the choice of marriage, or remaining single. This article develops an economic model of marriage which gives interior solutions to the optimum age at 1st marriage and which does not include an explicit argument about the age at marriage in the utility function. In theoretical analysis, the life cycle model is modified to capture different aspects of the decision of when to get married. Results from empirical analysis support implications derived from the theoretical analysis.

  7. Project analysis and integration economic analyses summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macomber, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    An economic-analysis summary was presented for the manufacture of crystalline-silicon modules involving silicon ingot/sheet, growth, slicing, cell manufacture, and module assembly. Economic analyses provided: useful quantitative aspects for complex decision-making to the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project; yardsticks for design and performance to industry; and demonstration of how to evaluate and understand the worth of research and development both to JPL and other government agencies and programs. It was concluded that future research and development funds for photovoltaics must be provided by the Federal Government because the solar industry today does not reap enough profits from its present-day sales of photovoltaic equipment.

  8. [[Economic analysis of marriage: survey and reconsideration

    PubMed

    Matsushita, K

    1986-10-01

    This article is concerned with the economic analysis of marriage and is based on a review of the relevant literature. A basic household production function model is described that defines the partial equilibrium condition of a couple and a single person. The existence of public goods, or joint consumption goods, and changes in the shadow price of commodities are shown to explain the difference between being married or single. The theory of bargaining is used to compare individuals and households. Consideration is also given to the theory of job search to examine marriage timing, the theory of general equilibrium, and the theory of optimal assignments. The author concludes that the existing economic literature does not adequately deal with either the timing of marriage or future uncertainty concerning marriage.

  9. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  10. Adding Economic Analysis to Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-07

    Adding Economic Analysis to Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield” Clay D. Murray, Jr. Second Lieutenant, Military Intelligence US Army...Reserve 07 March 2008 Today, more than ever, economic analysis must be accounted for in Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB). Army...in all of our fights around the world; economics. Throughout history, economic factors have been the tinder that feeds the flames of war. Economics

  11. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan

    2014-08-27

    This report is the third annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market. It includes the following major sections: Section 1: key data on developments in the offshore wind technology sector and the global development of offshore wind projects, with a particular focus on progress in the United States; Section 2: analysis of policy developments at the federal and state levels that have been effective in advancing offshore wind deployment in the United States; Section 3: analysis of actual and projected economic impact, including regional development and job creation; Section 4: analysis of developments in relevant sectors of the economy with the potential to affect offshore wind deployment in the United States

  12. Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortin, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

  13. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis. 200.23a Section 200.23a Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible...

  14. Economic analysis of recycling contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen, A.; Ayers, K.W.; Boren, J.K.; Parker, F.L.

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning activities in the DOE complex generate large volumes of radioactively contaminated and uncontaminated concrete. Currently, this concrete is usually decontaminated, the contaminated waste is disposed of in a LLW facility and the decontaminated concrete is placed in C&D landfills. A number of alternatives to this practice are available including recycling of the concrete. Cost estimates for six alternatives were developed using a spreadsheet model. The results of this analysis show that recycling alternatives are at least as economical as current practice.

  15. Economic Aspects of Higher Education Taken Under the World War II Bill of Rights. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggertsson, Thrainn

    The aim of this thesis is to bring to bear the concepts, tools, and theories of human capital and human resources economics to evaluate the Federal Government's massive involvement in higher education under the World War II GI Bill of Rights. The major findings include estimates of total human capital formation by education, both during and after…

  16. Economic analysis of the health impacts of housing improvement studies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Elisabeth; Macdonald, Catriona; Thomson, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the difficulties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. Methods Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had reported costs and economic analysis (n=29/45). The reported data were assessed for their suitability to economic evaluation. Where an economic analysis was reported the analysis was described according to pre-set definitions of various types of economic analysis used in the field of health economics. Results 25 studies reported cost data on the intervention and/or benefits to the recipients. Of these, 11 studies reported data which was considered amenable to economic evaluation. A further four studies reported conducting an economic evaluation. Three of these studies presented a hybrid ‘balance sheet’ approach and indicated a net economic benefit associated with the intervention. One cost-effectiveness evaluation was identified but the data were unclearly reported; the cost-effectiveness plane suggested that the intervention was more costly and less effective than the status quo. Conclusions Future studies planning an economic evaluation need to (i) make best use of available data and (ii) ensure that all relevant data are collected. To facilitate this, economic evaluations should be planned alongside the intervention with input from health economists from the outset of the study. When undertaken appropriately, economic evaluation provides the potential to make significant contributions to housing policy. PMID:23929616

  17. Economic analysis of the space shuttle system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of the space shuttle system is presented. The analysis is based on economic benefits, recurring costs, non-recurring costs, and ecomomic tradeoff functions. The most economic space shuttle configuration is determined on the basis of: (1) objectives of reusable space transportation system, (2) various space transportation systems considered and (3) alternative space shuttle systems.

  18. Law and Technology Theory: Bringing in Some Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosow, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The author argues economic analysis needs to be explicitly included in an overall theory of law and technology. Differing approaches to the economics of information are considered, and the copyright policy environment of the 1990s is taken as an example of how the lack of substantive economic analysis resulted in poor policy-making.

  19. EMERGY ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our mission at USEPA is to protect human health and safeguard the natural environment. We aim to base our environmental regulations and policies on sound scientific and, where appropriate, economic analyses. Although EPA has conducted analysis of the impact of regulations on ...

  20. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  1. The Potential Economic Impact of Electricity Restructuring in the State of Oklahoma: Phase II Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, SW

    2001-10-30

    Because of the recent experiences of several states undergoing restructuring (e.g., higher prices, greater volatility, lower reliability), concerns have been raised in states currently considering restructuring as to whether their systems are equally vulnerable. Factors such as local generation costs, transmission constraints, market concentration, and market design can all play a role in the success or failure of the market. These factors along with the mix of generation capacity supplying the state will influence the relative prices paid by consumers. The purpose of this project is to provide a model and process to evaluate the potential price and economic impacts of restructuring the Oklahoma electric industry. The Phase I report concentrated on providing an analysis of the Oklahoma system in the near-term, using only present generation resources and customer demands. This Phase II study analyzed the Oklahoma power market in 2010, incorporating the potential of new generation resources and customer responses. Five key findings of this Phase II were made: (1) Projected expansion in generating capacity exceeds by over 3,000 MW the demands within the state plus the amount that could be exported with the current transmission system. (2) Even with reduced new plant construction, most new plants could lose money (although residential consumers would see lower rates) unless they have sufficient market power to raise their prices without losing significant market share (Figure S-1). (3) If new plants can raise prices to stay profitable, existing low-cost coal and hydro plants will have very high profits. Average prices to customers could be 5% to 25% higher than regulated rates (Figure S-1). If the coal and hydro plants are priced at cost-based rates (through long-term contracts or continued regulation) while all other plants use market-based rates then prices are lower. (4) Customer response to real-time prices can lower the peak capacity requirements by around 9

  2. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  3. Advancing school-based interventions through economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Tina M; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis within school-based prevention remains cursory. Largely, economic analyses of school-based prevention efforts are undertaken as secondary research. This limits these efforts to data that have been collected previously as part of epidemiological and outcomes research. Therefore, economic analyses suffer from gaps in the knowledge generated by these studies. This chapter addresses the importance of economic analysis for the future of school-based substance abuse prevention programs and highlights the role of prevention research in the development of knowledge that can be used for economic analysis.

  4. Advancing School-Based Interventions through Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Tina M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis…

  5. Task Analysis Inventories. Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Carl E.

    This second in a series of task analysis inventories contains checklists of work performed in twenty-two occupations. Each inventory is a comprehensive list of work activities, responsibilities, educational courses, machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used and the products produced or services rendered in a designated occupational area. The…

  6. Economic analysis of aeronautical research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gellman, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The appropriateness of government intervention in the civilian market for aeronautics research and technology (R&T) is examined. The economic rationale for government intervention is examined. The conclusion is that the institutional role played by NASA in civilian aeronautics R&T markets is economically justified.

  7. Welfare Triangles and Economic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the concepts of consumer's surplus and producer's surplus can be related to basic welfare economics. Provides illustrations of the ways in which these concepts can be applied in introductory economics courses. Examines the social cost of monopoly, the tax burden, free trade, tariffs, and the English Channel Tunnel. (KO)

  8. Economic Analysis and Assumptions in Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven L.

    Economic educators recognize the importance of a global perspective, at least in part because the international sector has become more important over the past few decades. The application of economic principles calls into question some assumptions that appear to be common among members of the global education movement. That these assumptions might…

  9. Business Conditions and Economic Analysis: An Experiential Learning Program for Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Robert C.; Stevens, Jerry L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the Business Conditions and Economic Analysis (BCEA) program developed at the University of Richmond. The BCEA program is an experiential learning format for economics students built on the success of student-managed investment funds (SMIF) in finance. In its initial implementation, the BCEA group conducts domestic and global…

  10. Summary of CPAS Gen II Parachute Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Moore, James W.; Olson, Leah M.; Ray, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft is currently under development by NASA and Lockheed Martin. Like Apollo, Orion will use a series of parachutes to slow its descent and splashdown safely. The Orion parachute system, known as the CEV Parachute Assembly System (CPAS), is being designed by NASA, the Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG), and Airborne Systems. The first generation (Gen I) of CPAS testing consisted of thirteen tests and was executed in the 2007-2008 timeframe. The Gen I tests provided an initial understanding of the CPAS parachutes. Knowledge gained from Gen I testing was used to plan the second generation of testing (Gen II). Gen II consisted of six tests: three singleparachute tests, designated as Main Development Tests, and three Cluster Development Tests. Gen II required a more thorough investigation into parachute performance than Gen I. Higher fidelity instrumentation, enhanced analysis methods and tools, and advanced test techniques were developed. The results of the Gen II test series are being incorporated into the CPAS design. Further testing and refinement of the design and model of parachute performance will occur during the upcoming third generation of testing (Gen III). This paper will provide an overview of the developments in CPAS analysis following the end of Gen I, including descriptions of new tools and techniques as well as overviews of the Gen II tests.

  11. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  12. [The population and economic issues in West Asia after WW II].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y

    1985-05-29

    Using statistical data, this report analyzes population and economic issues in West Asia after World War II. The high rate of development as witnessed in West Asian countries after their gaining of political independence following World War II was accompained by an accelerated population growth. This population growth spead unevenly among different areas. Based on surveys of 17 countries in West Asia, the socioeconomic development and rapid rate of population growth have largely affected the population age, sex, urban and rural residential, and economic sector employment structures. With the help of indicators and mathematical methods to plot population development, these countries can be divided into 3 categories based on population development features. The semiindustrial countries demonstrate a gradually slowing population growth rate, most of these countries having experienced a peak period in the growth rate during the time of population transition. The agricultural countries show a natural population growth rate which is generally considered low. The 3rd category, the oil-producing countries, are currently experiencing a peak in population growth. In general, the popuation growth rate has dramatically accelerated in West Asia since World War II. Between 1950-1960 this rate was 2.58%; between 1960-1970, 2.75%; and between 1970-1980, 2.92%. This rate shows an increase of 6.6% between 1950-1960 and 6.2% between 1960-1970. It surpasses the average world population growth rate and most of the developing country growth rates. It has been augmented by post-World War II economic and social developments.

  13. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-23

    A typical residential solar water heater, and typical cost and performance information are described briefly. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the Payback Period for any non-typical solar water heater are described. This calculated Payback Period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the puchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. (MHR)

  14. Economic Stimulus Proposals for 2008: An Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    provide broader support for the economy than monetary policy actions alone.” Quoted in Ben Bernanke , “The Economic Outlook,” testimony before the House...limit for mortgages from $417,000 up to $729,750 in high-cost areas. The need for fiscal stimulus depends, by definition, on the state of the economy ...While the economy is not officially in a recession at present, there are signs that economic activity may be slowing. Some economists are predicting

  15. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  16. Busted Butte Phase II Excavation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Keifer

    2000-11-29

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an engineering excavation and ground support design for the Busted Butte phase II mine back. The analysis will apply engineering practices and previous proven design methods for pillar design and ground support in accordance with applicable Integrated Safety Management principles and functions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Busted Butte Test Facility. The intended use of this analysis is to provide testing excavation boundaries, ground support and pillar design input to drawing(s) to support test operations implementation. This design activity has been prepared under ''Technical Work Plan For Test Facilities Design FY01 Work Activities'' (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2000b). No deviations from the TWP have been necessary for this analysis.

  17. Online Courses, Instructional Quality, and Economics: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Craig H.; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the development of online courses in higher education in terms of the in- structional quality and economic costs. In our conceptual analysis, we point out problems in developing online courses with sufficient quality due to limited funds being made available for online course development. Moreover, economic costs exist…

  18. Economic analysis of new space transportation systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An economic analysis of alternative space transportation systems is presented. Results indicate that the expendable systems represent modest investments, but the recurring costs of operation would remain high. The space shuttle and tug system requires a substantial investment, but would substantially reduce the recurring costs of operation. Economic benefits and costs of the different systems are also analyzed. Findings are summarized.

  19. Economic Analysis of World Bank Education Projects and Project Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vawda, Ayesha Yaqub; Moock, Peter; Gittinger, J. Price; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that World Bank education projects have a higher likelihood of being successful if at the time of appraisal, they underwent good quality economic analysis. Analysis shows a strong relationship between the quality of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis and the quality of project outcomes. Economic…

  20. Treatment of Periprosthetic Infections: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Vaquero, Daniel; Fernández-Fairen, Mariano; Torres, Ana; Menzie, Ann M.; Fernández-Carreira, José Manuel; Murcia-Mazon, Antonio; Merzthal, Luis

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the existing economic literature, assesses the value of current data, and presents procedures that are the less costly and more effective options for the treatment of periprosthetic infections of knee and hip. Optimizing antibiotic use in the prevention and treatment of periprosthetic infection, combined with systemic and behavioral changes in the operating room, the detection and treatment of high-risk patient groups, as well as the rational management of the existing infection by using the different procedures according to each particular case, could allow for improved outcomes and lead to the highest quality of life for patients and the lowest economic impact. Nevertheless, the costeffectiveness of different interventions to treat periprosthetic infections remains unclear. PMID:23781163

  1. Water Ingress Failure Analysis of Whistler II Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Water Ingress Failure Analysis of Whistler II Unit by Andrew J Bayba ARL-TN-0623 August 2014...Failure Analysis of Whistler II Unit Andrew J Bayba Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...Ingress Failure Analysis of Whistler II Unit 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrew J Bayba

  2. American Airlines Propeller STOL Transport Economic Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, B.

    1972-01-01

    A Monte Carlo risk analysis on the economics of STOL transports in air passenger traffic established the probability of making the expected internal rate of financial return, or better, in a hypothetical regular Washington/New York intercity operation.

  3. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  4. The different modes of hydro-economic analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harou, J. J.; Binions, O.; Erfani, T.

    2013-12-01

    In the face of growing water demands, climate change and spatial and temporal water access variability, accurately assessing the economic impacts of proposed water resource management changes is useful. The objective of this project funded by UK Water Industry Research was to present and demonstrate a framework for identifying and using the ';value of water' to enable water utilities and their regulators to make better decisions. A hydro-economic model can help evaluate water management options in terms of their hydrological and economic impact at different locations throughout a catchment over time. In this talk we discuss three modes in which hydro-economic models can be implemented: evaluative, behavioral and prescriptive. In evaluation mode economic water demand and benefit functions are used to post-process water resource management model results to assess the economic impacts (over space and time) of a policy under consideration. In behavioral hydro-economic models users are represented as agents and the economics is used to help predict their actions. In prescriptive mode optimization is used to find the most economically efficient management actions such as allocation patterns or source selection. These three types of hydro-economic analysis are demonstrated on a UK watershed (Great River Ouse) that includes 97 different water abstractors from amongst the public water supply, agriculture, industry and energy plant cooling sectors. The following issues under dry and normal historical conditions were investigated: Supply/demand investment planning, societal cost of environmental flows, water market prices, and scarcity-sensitive charges for water rights. The talk discusses which hydro-economic modeling mode is used to study each of these issues and why; example results are shown and discussed. The topic of how hydro-economic models can be built and deployed effectively is covered along with how existing water utility operational and planning tools can be

  5. The science of ecological economics: a content analysis of Ecological Economics, 1989-2004.

    PubMed

    Luzadis, Valerie A; Castello, Leandro; Choi, Jaewon; Greenfield, Eric; Kim, Sung-kyun; Munsell, John; Nordman, Erik; Franco, Carol; Olowabi, Flavien

    2010-01-01

    The Ecological Economics journal is a primary source for inquiry on ecological economics and sustainability. To explore the scholarly pursuit of ecological economics, we conducted a content analysis of 200 randomly sampled research, survey, and methodological articles published in Ecological Economics during the 15-year period of 1989-2004. Results of the analysis were used to investigate facets of transdisciplinarity within the journal. A robust qualitative approach was used to gather and examine data to identify themes representing substantive content found within the span of sampled journal papers. The extent to which each theme was represented was counted as well as additional data, such as author discipline, year published, etc. Four main categories were revealed: (1) foundations (self-reflexive themes stemming from direct discussions about ecological economics); (2) human systems, represented by the themes of values, social indicators of well-being, intergenerational distribution, and equity; (3) biophysical systems, including themes, such as carrying capacity and scarcity, energy, and resource use, relating directly to the biophysical aspects of systems; and (4) policy and management encompassing themes of development, growth, trade, accounting, and valuation, as well as institutional structures and management. The results provide empirical evidence for discussing the future direction of ecological economic efforts.

  6. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE LONGTERM 2 ENHANCED ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents an analysis of the projected costs and benefits of new drinking water regulation that will reduce exposure to disease-causing microorganisms in drinking water. Cost and benefit analysis LT2ESWTR

  7. An economic analysis of migration in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J; Ladman, J R

    1978-07-01

    This paper analyzes internal migration in Mexico over the 1960-70 period. A model of the determinants of migration is specified and estimated for aggregated interstate migration flows. Results show that distance serves as a significant deterrent to migration, that higher destination earning levels are attractive to migrants, and that regions with high unemployment rates experience lower rates of inmigration. An unanticipated finding is that regions with higher earning levels have greater rates of outmigration. The data are disaggregated to examine separate migration relationships for each state. The results are that distance is a lesser deterrent for those migrants with more accessible alternatives, that higher earning levels reduce the deterring effects of distance, and that regions with higher earning levels have lower associated elasticities of migration. It is concluded that economic factors have played a crucial role in internal migration and thus in the changing occupational and geographic structure of the Mexican labor force.

  8. Economic analysis of large solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaiss, Helmut; Nitsch, Joachim; Geyer, Michael

    1987-11-01

    The current status and future potential of solar-tower, parabolic-reflector/Stirling-engine, channel-collector, and photovoltaic solar power plants of capacity 10 MWe or more are discussed. Consideration is given to the geographic and technological limitations, initial investment and operating costs, presently operating facilities, market openings, and critical technological challenges controlling future expansion. Numerical data are presented in tables and graphs, and it is concluded that solar power production will soon become economically competitive. It is suggested that the channel collector, at present the most mature and cost-efficient technology, has the least potential for further improvement, and that parabolic/Stirling and photovoltaic systems are probably better suited to smaller applications than to large-scale commercial power production.

  9. Energy, entropy, and economic analysis: some new directions

    SciTech Connect

    Huettner, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    A review of the literature on economic modeling of exhaustible resources notes the debate over how energy analysis, entropy analysis, and economic analysis are related since they all yield different results. The choice of analysis among decision makers shows them dividing into three camps on the basis of the value they give to particular energy sources, the environment, technological change, and other factors. The solution will be a method which combines a realistic treatment of human activity and sees energy as one of several constraints. Future modeling efforts should continue to explore intergenerational equity under uncertainty as well as efficiency. 31 references, 2 figures. (DCK)

  10. Overcoming barriers to integrating economic analysis into risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sandra

    2011-09-01

    Regulatory risk analysis is designed to provide decisionmakers with a clearer understanding of how policies are likely to affect risk. The systems that produce risk are biological, physical, and social and economic. As a result, risk analysis is an inherently interdisciplinary task. Yet in practice, risk analysis has been interdisciplinary in only limited ways. Risk analysis could provide more accurate assessments of risk if there were better integration of economics and other social sciences into risk assessment itself. This essay examines how discussions about risk analysis policy have influenced the roles of various disciplines in risk analysis. It explores ways in which integrated bio/physical-economic modeling could contribute to more accurate assessments of risk. It reviews examples of the kind of integrated economics-bio/physical modeling that could be used to enhance risk assessment. The essay ends with a discussion of institutional barriers to greater integration of economic modeling into risk assessment and provides suggestions on how these might be overcome.

  11. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia.

  12. Chaotic time series analysis in economics: Balance and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Faggini, Marisa

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the paper is not to review the large body of work concerning nonlinear time series analysis in economics, about which much has been written, but rather to focus on the new techniques developed to detect chaotic behaviours in economic data. More specifically, our attention will be devoted to reviewing some of these techniques and their application to economic and financial data in order to understand why chaos theory, after a period of growing interest, appears now not to be such an interesting and promising research area.

  13. Satellite power system: Engineering and economic analysis summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A system engineering and economic analysis was conducted to establish typical reference baselines for the photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear satellite power systems. Tentative conclusions indicate that feasibility and economic viability are characteristic of the Satellite Power System. Anticipated technology related to manufacturing, construction, and maintenance operations is described. Fuel consumption, environmental effects, and orbital transfer are investigated. Space shuttles, local space transportation, and the heavy lift launch vehicle required are also discussed.

  14. Economic Modeling and Analysis of Educational Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epple, Dennis; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of educational vouchers has evolved from market-based analogies to models that incorporate distinctive features of the educational environment. These distinctive features include peer effects, scope for private school pricing and admissions based on student characteristics, the linkage of household residential and school choices in…

  15. Compendium of Operations Research and Economic Analysis Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    applications. 86-23. Economic Analysis Railway Operacions at the Defense Construction Supply Center (DCSC) (June 1986) The objective of this analysis was...from four DSCs and their totals. First, with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), correlation matrices were developed to determine

  16. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  17. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  18. Pilot Economic Analysis of Library Circulation Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF INFORMATION PROCESSING; A * / STRUCTURED APPROACH FOR SIMPLIFYING SYSTEMS DESIGN, Grayce M. Booth , 1973 215. FUNDAMENTALS OF COBOL...IN COMMAND, Hubert Essame, 1974 / * * 404. PEBBLES AS A HOBBY, Janet Barber, 1972 - 405. PEOPLE-ORIENTED COMPUTER SYSTEMS; THE COMPUTER IN / * CRISIS...L, . .. . - m i " I ... ". . LIBRARY DUPLICATION Title, Author, Date : 4C < I 1 i I I Z : I 482. SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS, Cecil I

  19. Economic Analysis of Hazardous Waste Minimization Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    OF REPORT OF THIS PP,,E OF ABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassilied Unclassified SAR NSN 7540 01-280 5500 SuxVl form t (Rev 2- R ]I Pe•nbed or ANSi Srd 2r39...Consulting Associates, Inc.. 15 June 1987). Chapter 7. T . Page, R . Harris, and J. Bruser, Removal of Carcinogens from Drinking Water: A Cost-Benefit Analysis...Pretreatment of Hazardous Waste, EPA/600/D-87/047 (EPA, January 1987), pp 58-70. Page, T ., R . Harris, and J. Bruser. Removal of Carcinogens from Drinking Water

  20. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  1. Economic effectiveness of disease management programs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Krause, David S

    2005-04-01

    The economic effectiveness of disease management programs, which are designed to improve the clinical and economic outcomes for chronically ill individuals, has been evaluated extensively. A literature search was performed with MEDLINE and other published sources for the period covering January 1995 to September 2003. The search was limited to empirical articles that measured the direct economic outcomes for asthma, diabetes, and heart disease management programs. Of the 360 articles and presentations evaluated, only 67 met the selection criteria for meta-analysis, which included 32,041 subjects. Although some studies contained multiple measurements of direct economic outcomes, only one average effect size per study was included in the meta-analysis. Based on the studies included in the research, a meta-analysis provided a statistically significant answer to the question of whether disease management programs are economically effective. The magnitude of the observed average effect size for equally weighted studies was 0.311 (95% CI = 0.272-0.350). Statistically significant differences of effect sizes by study design, disease type and intensity of disease management program interventions were not found after a moderating variable, disease severity, was taken into consideration. The results suggest that disease management programs are more effective economically with severely ill enrollees and that chronic disease program interventions are most effective when coordinated with the overall level of disease severity. The findings can be generalized, which may assist health care policy makers and practitioners in addressing the issue of providing economically effective care for the growing number of individuals with chronic illness.

  2. Assessing Climate Information Use in Agribusiness. Part II: Decision Experiments to Estimate Economic Value.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonka, Steven T.; Changnon, Stanley A.; Hofing, Steven

    1988-08-01

    Difficulty in evaluating the economic effectiveness of climate information is a significant impediment to expanding the use of that information. An innovative approach, combining a decision experiment and an empirical economic analysis was implemented in this paper as a mans to conduct such an economic evaluation. The decision setting was that of planning the distribution of varieties and amounts of seed corn for a major seed corn producing firm in the midwestern United States. Actual managers, accustomed to making this decision, wore provided forecasts of July and August temperature and precipitation. Their responses to that information were evaluated in terms of cost savings for the firm. Across the range of relevant parameter values tested, savings from the use of perfect forecast information were estimated to be 2% to 5% of production costs. Interestingly, imperfect forecasts of relatively adverse conditions were shown to have considerable value. For example, forecasts of adverse condition accurate only 50% of the time, wore shown to have about two-thirds of the value of perfect forecast information.

  3. Demonstrating the Environmental & Economic Cost-Benefits of Reusing DoD’s Pre-World War II Buildings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Criteria .................................................... I-1 Table II-1: ASHRAE Climate Zone Information...Engineering ASHRAE American Society of Heating Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers BEES Building for Environmental and Economic...building energy consumption reduction below ASHRAE standard 90.1-2004, which would earn a new construction building seven out of ten possible points under

  4. Development of economic consequence methodology for process risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Zadakbar, Omid; Khan, Faisal; Imtiaz, Syed

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive methodology for economic consequence analysis with appropriate models for risk analysis of process systems is proposed. This methodology uses loss functions to relate process deviations in a given scenario to economic losses. It consists of four steps: definition of a scenario, identification of losses, quantification of losses, and integration of losses. In this methodology, the process deviations that contribute to a given accident scenario are identified and mapped to assess potential consequences. Losses are assessed with an appropriate loss function (revised Taguchi, modified inverted normal) for each type of loss. The total loss is quantified by integrating different loss functions. The proposed methodology has been examined on two industrial case studies. Implementation of this new economic consequence methodology in quantitative risk assessment will provide better understanding and quantification of risk. This will improve design, decision making, and risk management strategies.

  5. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE - VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  6. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  7. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  8. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  9. Analysis of recent Council on Economic Priorities newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferson, R M; Luna, R E; McClure, J D; Wilmot, E L

    1982-06-01

    Questions relating to the safety of spent fuel shipments were raised by a recent Council on Economic Priorities Newsletter. Specific quotes from the newsletter were grouped into major issue questions and evaluated to determine consistency with available experimental data and analysis.

  10. An Economic Analysis of a Change in an Excise Tax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, John M.; Blanchard, Kelly Hunt; Umbeck, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an example of the effect a change in the excise tax can have on retail gasoline prices. The findings provide support for standard economic theory, as well as provide a vehicle for illustrating some of the subtleties of the analysis, including the implicit assumptions regarding the implications for the buying and selling prices…

  11. Economic Analysis of Family Housing at Fort Lewis, Washington.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    of the Military Authorization Act of 1984 were followed in the analysis. b. MCA housing would involve Government construction, maintenance, and... Government Costs For Economic Analysis 3 1-2 Additional Decision Criteria 4 2-1 Total Housing Supply 9 2-2 Build to Lease Assumptions 12 2-3 Matrix...developer must plan to either demolish the housing and return the land to its .’- natural state or to sell the development to the Government at the end of

  12. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  13. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Rodger

    This course presents basic economic concepts and explores issues such as how goods and services are produced and distributed, what affects costs and profits, and how wealth is spread around or concentrated. The course is designed to be used with students enrolled in an adult high school diploma program; course content is appropriate to meet social…

  14. Run II data analysis on the grid

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Mandrichenko, Igor Terekhov and Frank Wurthwein

    2002-12-02

    In this document, we begin the technical design for the distributed RunII computing for CDF and D0. The present paper defines the three components of the data handling area of Run II computing, namely the Data Handling System, the Storage System and the Application. We outline their functionality and interaction between them. We identify necessary and desirable elements of the interfaces.

  15. Ex-ante economic analysis of animal disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Tambi, E N; Maina, O W; Mariner, J C

    2004-12-01

    This paper provides an ex-ante economic analysis comparing four alternative intervention strategies for the control and eradication of rinderpest against a scenario of no intervention in a cattle population similar in size to that of Ethiopia. The interventions were three different coverage levels of mass vaccination and one surveillance-based programme where vaccination targeted infected sub-populations. For each scenario, the disease impact was estimated using an open-population, state-transition SEIR ('susceptible', 'exposed', 'infectious', 'recovered') disease transmission model with parameter estimates developed for lineage 1 rinderpest virus. Projected economic surplus gains and costs estimated from the rinderpest eradication programme in Ethiopia were analysed using benefit-cost methods. Social net present values (NPVs) and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) were calculated. Although the economic model found that BCRs were greater than one for all interventions examined, the scenarios of intensive mass vaccination (75% vaccination coverage) and surveillance with targeted vaccination were economically preferable. The BCRs for these strategies were 5.08 and 3.68, respectively. Sensitivity analysis revealed that an increase in market prices for beef and milk increased the value of economic loss, the economic surplus and returns to investments in terms of NPVs and BCRs. An increase in demand and supply elasticities for beef and milk decreased the value of economic losses. This also had a negative effect on economic surplus and NPVs. The effect of an increase in the discount rate reduced returns to investments, with lower NPVs and BCRs. The authors note that 75% mass vaccination coverage was attempted in Ethiopia in the early 1990s, but failed to eradicate rinderpest because the approach was logistically too difficult to implement in practice. Subsequently, an effective surveillance and epidemiologically targeted vaccination programme was developed and has apparently

  16. [Emergy analysis of ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Qing; Li, Xiu-Juan; Song, Yang; Li, Guang-Jun

    2008-03-01

    By the methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the emergy flow in the ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province in 1990-2005, and the relationships between the environmental stress caused by resources' input, output and consumption and the sustainable development of the Province. The results showed that in Liaoning Province, the non-renewable resources occupied over 74% of the total consumed emergy, and the realistic population in 2005 was 3.26 times higher than the supportable population. In 1990-2005, the emergy yield ratio decreased from 65.40 to 10.13, emergy loading ratio increased from 2.72 to 7.18, and emergy sustainable index decreased from 24.03 to 1.41. The rapid economic growth in Liaoning Province was chiefly supported by the consumption of vast non-renewable resources, which caused the pressure of economic development on ecosystem getting more and more intense, the economic development increasingly depending on exogenous resources, and the sustainable development of Liaoning ecological-economic system having a continuing decrease. To realize the sustainable development in Liaoning Province, the principles of reduction, reutilization and recycling should be taken as the guidelines for promoting the reuse of wastes and the closed fine circulation of resources to minimize the discharge of wastes.

  17. Turning for Ulcer Reduction (TURN) Study: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paulden, Mike; Bergstrom, Nancy; Horn, Susan D.; Rapp, Mary; Stern, Anita; Barrett, Ryan; Watkiss, Michael; Krahn, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Background The Turning for Ulcer Reduction (TURN) study was a multisite, randomized controlled trial that aimed to determine the optimal frequency of turning nursing facility residents with mobility limitations who are at moderate and high risk for pressure ulcer (PrU) development. Here we present data from the economic analysis. Objectives This economic analysis aims to estimate the economic consequences for Ontario of switching from a repositioning schedule of 2-hour intervals to a schedule of 3-hour or 4-hour intervals. Data Sources Costs considered in the analysis included those associated with nursing staff time spent repositioning residents and with incontinent care supplies, which included briefs, barrier cream, and washcloths. Results The total economic benefit of switching to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning is estimated to be $11.05 or $16.74 per day, respectively, for every resident at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs. For a typical facility with 123 residents, 41 (33%) of whom are at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs, the total economic benefit is estimated to be $453 daily for 3-hour or $686 daily for 4-hour repositioning. For Ontario as a whole, assuming that there are 77,933 residents at 634 LTC facilities, 25,927 (33%) of whom are at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs, the total economic benefits of switching to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning are estimated to be $286,420 or $433,913 daily, respectively, equivalent to $104.5 million or $158.4 million per year. Limitations We did not consider the savings the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care might incur should less frequent repositioning reduce the incidence of work-related injury among nursing staff, so our findings are potentially conservative. Conclusions A switch to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning appears likely to yield substantial economic benefits to Ontario without placing residents at greater risk of developing PrUs. PMID:26330894

  18. Southern New Mexico low temperature geothermal resource economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, C.L.; Whittier, J.; Witcher, J.C.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents an overview of geothermal resource development for three-low temperature (i.e, <200{degree}F) sites in southern New Mexico: the Lower Animas Valley, the Las Cruces East Mesa, and Truth or Consequences. This report is intended to provide potential geothermal developers with detailed information on each site for planning and decision making purposes. Included in the overview for each site is both a full site characterization and an economic analysis of development costs associated with the construction and operation of both geothermal and fresh water systems at each of the three locations. The economic analysis focuses on providing utility services to a commercial greenhouse because greenhouse operations are among the most likely candidates for use of the resource base. 9 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. Economic analysis in medical education: definition of essential terms.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2014-10-01

    Medical education is expensive. There is a growing interest in the subject of cost and value in medical education. However, in the medical education literature, terms are sometimes used loosely - and so there is a need for basic grounding in the meaning of commonly used and important terms in medical education economics. The purpose of this article is to define some terms that are frequently used in economic analysis in medical education. In this article, terms are described, and the descriptions are followed by a worked example of how the terms might be used in practice. The following terms are described: opportunity cost, total cost of ownership, sensitivity analysis, viewpoint, activity-based costing, efficiency, technical efficiency, allocative efficiency, price and transaction costs.

  20. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of space tug operations is presented. The space tug is defined as any liquid propulsion stage under 100,000 pounds propellant loading that is flown from the space shuttle cargo bay. Two classes of vehicles are the orbit injection stages and reusable space tugs. The vehicle configurations, propellant combinations, and operating modes used for the study are reported. The summary contains data on the study approach, results, conclusions, and recommendations.

  1. Hemophilia home treatment. Economic analysis and implications for health policy.

    PubMed

    Ross-Degnan, D; Soumerai, S B; Avorn, J; Bohn, R L; Bright, R; Aledort, L M

    1995-01-01

    This analysis describes the development of technology for home self-infusion of factor VII in the treatment of hemophilia and its clinical, economic, and social consequences, and uses the case study of such home care treatment to illustrate the potentials and pitfalls of formal economic analyses of programs to treat chronically ill children. A comprehensive review of all original data on hemophilia programs, their related costs, and outcomes, conducted from 1966 through 1993, examined the economic outcomes for two hypothetical cohorts, one aged 0-4 years and the other aged 30-34 years. Including the measurement of treatment effects on the productivity of parental caregivers substantially increases the benefit-cost relationship of an intervention directed at chronically ill children. Increased economic productivity and societal return resulting from such a program for young adults exceeds those for a cohort of children, primarily due to assumptions related to discounting. However, estimation of quality-adjusted life years favors the younger age cohort, since children survive for a longer period of time and with each year survived comes a higher quality of life. Unlike simpler instances in which economic benefits can be shown to outweigh resource costs, policy decisions concerning services for chronically ill children raise an additional set of complex analytic issues. Inclusion of the benefits in productivity experienced by family caregivers provides an important added dimension to such analyses. The development of cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness analyses of these programs illustrates the importance of careful measurement of outcomes and explicit statements of underlying assumptions. Such an analysis of home care for children with hemophilia therefore demonstrates both the strengths and the limitations of this approach.

  2. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  3. MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis of Mg(II), Ca(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pt(II) adducts with monomethoxypolyethylene glycol 5000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwelase, S. R.; Bariyanga, J.

    2002-05-01

    We have prepared and isolated complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pt(II) with monomethoxypolyethylene glycol 5000 in a pH 7 buffer at 40 °C in order to study the interaction of this polymer carrier with the ions likely to be found in the human body. Their characterization was done by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, thermogravimetry and elemental analysis. The mass spectra allowed us to determine not only the molecular weights but also the nature of the complexes and the findings were in agreement with the elementary analysis data. The calcium ion was found not directly linked to polyethylene glycol but through water molecules. The overall results indicated strong bonding for Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes and weak interactions for Mg(II), Ca(II) and Pt(II).

  4. Economic analysis of PV hybrid power system: Pinnacles National Monument

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.; Durand, S.; Thomas, M.; Post, H.

    1997-11-01

    PV hybrid electric power systems can offer an economically competitive alternative to engine generator (genset) systems in many off-grid applications. Besides the obvious `green` advantages of producing less noise and emissions, the PV hybrid can, in some cases, offer a lower life-cycle cost (LCC) then the genset. This paper evaluates the LCC of the 9.6 kWp PV hybrid power system installed by the National Park Services (NPS) at Pinnacles National Monument, CA. NPS motivation for installation of this hybrid was not based on economics, but rather the need to replace two aging diesel gensets with an alternative that would be quieter, fuel efficient, and more in keeping with new NPS emphasis on sustainable design and operations. In fact, economic analysis shows a lower 20-year LCC for the installed PV hybrid than for simple replacement of the two gensets. The analysis projects are net savings by the PV hybrid system of $83,561 and over 162,000 gallons of propane when compared with the genset-only system. This net savings is independent of the costs associated with environmental emissions. The effects of including emissions costs, according to NPS guidelines, is also discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Thermo-economic analysis of a trigeneration HCPVT power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selviaridis, Angelos; Burg, Brian R.; Wallerand, Anna Sophia; Maréchal, François; Michel, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    The increasing need for electricity and heat in a growing global economy must be combined with CO2 emissions reduction, in order to limit the human influence on the environment. This calls for energy-efficient and cost-competitive renewable energy systems that are able to satisfy both pressing needs. A High-Concentration Photovoltaic Thermal (HCPVT) system is a cogeneration concept that shows promising potential in delivering electricity and heat in an efficient and cost-competitive manner. This study investigates the transient behavior of the HCPVT system and presents a thermo-economic analysis of a MW-scale trigeneration (electricity, heating and cooling) power plant. Transient simulations show a fast dynamic response of the system which results in short heat-up intervals, maximizing heat recuperation throughout the day. Despite suboptimal coupling between demand and supply, partial heat utilization throughout the year and low COP of commercially available devices for the conversion of heat into cooling, the thermo-economic analysis shows promising economic behavior, with a levelized cost of electricity close to current retail prices.

  6. [Ecological economic analysis of a rice-crab model].

    PubMed

    Chen, Feixing; Zhang, Zengjie

    2002-03-01

    Based on field investigation and experimental data analysis, ecological economic principles were applied to study the structure and function, the characteristics of material and energy flows, and the economic and ecological benefits of a rice-crab model. The results show that rice-crab model had a higher integral benefit than rice model, and its net income, cost-benefit ratio, and labor productivity were increased by 382%, 67.7% and 295%, respectively. In view of the ecological benefits produced, the total nitrogen, alkaline-hydrolyzal nitrogen, total phosphorus, rapidly available phosphorus, rapidly available potassium, and organic matter in the soil after 1-year carb breeding were increased by 10.6%, 3.3%, 5.8%, 11.7%, 3.5% and 10.5%, respectively. Moreover, 6.375 kg N.hm-2 of non-point source pollution load could be cut down annually.

  7. An economics systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite systems is considered. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as a function of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/sq km) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price/demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  8. An economic systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite land-mobile radio service systems. The cellular, trunked and satellite land-mobile systems are described. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as functions of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/km squared) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  9. An Analysis of Economic Learning among Undergraduates in Introductory Economics Courses in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happ, Roland; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Schmidt, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the findings of a pretest-posttest measurement of the economic knowledge of students in introductory economics courses in undergraduate study programs in Germany. The responses of 403 students to 14 items selected from the "Test of Economic Literacy" (Soper and Walstad 1987) were analyzed to identify…

  10. The MATHEMATICA economic analysis of the Space Shuttle System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiss, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed economic analysis shows the Thrust Assisted Orbiter Space Shuttle System (TAOS) to be the most economic Space Shuttle configuration among the systems studied. The development of a TAOS Shuttle system is economically justified within a level of space activities between 300 and 360 Shuttle flights in the 1979-1990 period, or about 25 to 30 flights per year, well within the U.S. Space Program including NASA and DoD missions. If the NASA and DoD models are taken at face value (624 flights), the benefits of the Shuttle system are estimated to be $13.9 billion with a standard deviation of plus or minus $1.45 billion in 1970 dollars (at a 10% social rate of discount). If the expected program is modified to 514 flights (in the 1979-1990 period), the estimated benefits of the Shuttle system are $10.2 billion, with a standard deviation of $940 million (at a 10% social rate of discount).

  11. Folic acid fortification of grain: an economic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Romano, P S; Waitzman, N J; Scheffler, R M; Pi, R D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to compare the economic costs and benefits of fortifying grain with folic acid to prevent neural tube defects. METHODS. A cost-benefit analysis based on the US population, using the human capital approach to estimate the costs associated with preventable neural tube defects, was conducted. RESULTS. Under a range of assumptions about discount rates, baseline folate intake, the effectiveness of folate in preventing neural tube defects, the threshold dose that minimizes risk, and the cost of surveillance, fortification would likely yield a net economic benefit. The best estimate of this benefit is $94 million with low-level (140 micrograms [mcg] per 100 g grain) fortification and $252 million with high-level (350 mcg/100 g) fortification. The benefit-to-cost ratio is estimated at 4.3:1 for low-level and 6.1:1 for high-level fortification. CONCLUSIONS. By averting costly birth defects, folic acid fortification of grain in the United States may yield a substantial economic benefit. We may have underestimated net benefits because of unmeasured costs of neural tube defects and unmeasured benefits of higher folate intake. We may have overestimated net benefits if the cost of neurologic sequelae related to delayed diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds our projection. PMID:7733427

  12. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biofuels Production Based on Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, R. M.; Platon, A.; Satrio, J. A.; Brown, R. C.; Hsu, D. D.

    2010-11-01

    This study compares capital and production costs of two biomass-to-liquid production plants based on gasification. The first biorefinery scenario is an oxygen-fed, low-temperature (870?C), non-slagging, fluidized bed gasifier. The second scenario is an oxygen-fed, high-temperature (1,300?C), slagging, entrained flow gasifier. Both are followed by catalytic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and hydroprocessing to naphtha-range (gasoline blend stock) and distillate-range (diesel blend stock) liquid fractions. Process modeling software (Aspen Plus) is utilized to organize the mass and energy streams and cost estimation software is used to generate equipment costs. Economic analysis is performed to estimate the capital investment and operating costs. Results show that the total capital investment required for nth plant scenarios is $610 million and $500 million for high-temperature and low-temperature scenarios, respectively. Product value (PV) for the high-temperature and low-temperature scenarios is estimated to be $4.30 and $4.80 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE), respectively, based on a feedstock cost of $75 per dry short ton. Sensitivity analysis is also performed on process and economic parameters. This analysis shows that total capital investment and feedstock cost are among the most influential parameters affecting the PV.

  13. The Global Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance: Insights from Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Karen; Zhang, Ruifang; Zeckhauser, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR) limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement other methods of tracing the evolution of AR internationally. We also discuss integrating antimicrobial stewardship into global health governance. PMID:20948953

  14. The Use of Programmable Calculators in the Teaching of Economics, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addis, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the use of programmable calculators to perform classroom controlled experiments on economic models. The complete program for exploring the dynamics of the Harrod-Domar equation is given. Some difficulties encountered and statistical uses are mentioned. (BC)

  15. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions.

  16. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis of algae biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Sanjay; Chou, Siaw Kiang; Cao, Shenyan; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Algae biodiesel is a promising but expensive alternative fuel to petro-diesel. To overcome cost barriers, detailed cost analyses are needed. A decade-old cost analysis by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicated that the costs of algae biodiesel were in the range of $0.53-0.85/L (2012 USD values). However, the cost of land and transesterification were just roughly estimated. In this study, an updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis was conducted with optimized processes and improved cost estimations. Latest process improvement, quotes from vendors, government databases, and other relevant data sources were used to calculate the updated algal biodiesel costs, and the final costs of biodiesel are in the range of $0.42-0.97/L. Additional improvements on cost-effective biodiesel production around the globe to cultivate algae was also recommended. Overall, the calculated costs seem promising, suggesting that a single step biodiesel production process is close to commercial reality.

  17. Breeding objectives for pigs in Kenya. II: economic values incorporating risks in different smallholder production systems.

    PubMed

    Mbuthia, Jackson Mwenda; Rewe, Thomas Odiwuor; Kahi, Alexander Kigunzu

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated economic values for production traits (dressing percentage (DP), %; live weight for growers (LWg), kg; live weight for sows (LWs), kg) and functional traits (feed intake for growers (FEEDg), feed intake for sow (FEEDs), preweaning survival rate (PrSR), %; postweaning survival (PoSR), %; sow survival rate (SoSR), %, total number of piglets born (TNB) and farrowing interval (FI), days) under different smallholder pig production systems in Kenya. Economic values were estimated considering two production circumstances: fixed-herd and fixed-feed. Under the fixed-herd scenario, economic values were estimated assuming a situation where the herd cannot be increased due to other constraints apart from feed resources. The fixed-feed input scenario assumed that the herd size is restricted by limitation of feed resources available. In addition to the tradition profit model, a risk-rated bio-economic model was used to derive risk-rated economic values. This model accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and variance of input and output prices. Positive economic values obtained for traits DP, LWg, LWs, PoSR, PrSR, SoSR and TNB indicate that targeting them in improvement would positively impact profitability in pig breeding programmes. Under the fixed-feed basis, the risk-rated economic values for DP, LWg, LWs and SoSR were similar to those obtained under the fixed-herd situation. Accounting for risks in the EVs did not yield errors greater than ±50 % in all the production systems and basis of evaluation meaning there would be relatively little effect on the real genetic gain of a selection index. Therefore, both traditional and risk-rated models can be satisfactorily used to predict profitability in pig breeding programmes.

  18. Preparation and Spectrophotometric Analysis of Hexaamminenickel(II) Chloride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an experiment developed at Brooklyn College (New York) in which the preparation and ammonia analysis of an amminenickel(II) chloride is extended to include a spectrophotometric analysis for nickel. Discusses the materials needed and the procedure for the experiment which takes nine hours of laboratory work. (TW)

  19. An economic analysis of the processing technologies in CDW recycling platforms.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Neto, Raul; Gastineau, Pascal; Cazacliu, Bogdan Grigore; Le Guen, Lauredan; Paranhos, Régis Sebben; Petter, Carlos Otávio

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes an economic analysis of three different types of processing in CDW (construction and demolition waste) recycling platforms, according to the sophistication of the processing technologies (current advanced, advanced and advanced sorting). The methodology that is adopted is in the economic evaluation concept of projects and is classified with a scoping study phase. In these contexts, three levels of CDW processing capabilities for recycling platforms are analyzed (100, 300 and 600 thousand tons per year). This article considers databases obtained from similar projects that have been published in the specialized literature; the data sources are primarily from the European continent. The paper shows that current advanced process has better economic performance, in terms of IRR, related to the other two processes. The IRR associated with advanced and advanced sorting processes could be raised by, (i) higher price of secondary primary material, and/or (ii) higher capacity of platforms, and/or (iii) higher sharing of secondary primary material in the total production. The first two points depend on the market conditions (prices and total quantity of CDW available) and (potential) fiscal or incentive policies. The last one depends on technological progress.

  20. Employing SWOT Analysis in Coursework on the Geographies of Regional Economic Development and Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Sonnichsen, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The use of SWOT analysis is a means through which geography students can investigate key concepts in economic geography and essential topics in regional economic development. This article discusses the results of a course project where economic geography students employed SWOT analysis to explore medium-sized metropolitan areas across the southern…

  1. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bryony A.; Rich, Karl M.; Mariner, Jeffrey C.; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R.; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia. PMID:26900944

  2. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Mariner, Jeffrey C; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia.

  3. A behavioral economic analysis of fat appetite in rats.

    PubMed

    Freed, D E; Green, L

    1998-12-01

    A behavioral economic analysis of rats' consumption of various fat and sweet solutions was conducted in order to assess whether rats' fat appetite is readily modifiable. According to economic demand theory, changes in the price of a reinforcer will produce substantial changes in its consumption under conditions in which a substitutable reinforcer is available. Results from income-compensated price changes revealed that sucrose, mineral oil and saccharin solutions substituted for a corn oil solution: increases in the price of the corn oil led to large decreases in its consumption and sizable increases in consumption of these alternatives. On the other hand, plain water did not substitute for the corn oil solution: increasing the price of the corn oil did not result in nearly as marked a change in its consumption nor in consumption of the water. Neither the strength of preference for the corn oil under baseline conditions nor the caloric content of the alternative solution predicted whether the alternative reinforcer substituted for the corn oil. Rather, palatability appeared to be a dimension along which substitution was based. These results suggest that fat appetite is modified when palatable alternatives are available, independent of how strongly the fat is preferred.

  4. Production of butyl solvents from lignocellulose: An economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J D; Daling, R; Sandel, R L; Fitzpatrick, S W

    1986-11-01

    A process is described that produces butyl solvents, butanol, isopropanol, and ethanol from wood or other lignocellulosic feedstock. Two new elements of technology introduced are the processing batch reactor developed at SERI that produces high yields of fermentable sugars (hexoses and pentoses) at the appropriate concentration for the butyl solvents fermentation and a novel method of separating products using liquid-liquid extraction, which reduces the separation energy required to about 30% of energy required in the conventional batch method. Economic analysis suggests that the project is attractive at a feedstock capacity of 400,000 dry MTA or larger (178 million lb/yr solvents). There are, however, uncertainties associated with the project because of the relatively early stage of development of the key elements of the process technology and the sensitivity of the DCFIROR to estimated capital cost. A further conclusion is that the process economics would benefit greatly from reduced capital cost of the fermentation section. This could perhaps be accomplished by developing a continuous fermentation process. Such fermentation technology has been demonstrated on laboratory scale, but as far as is known, has not been developed to pilot scale. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T.; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors. PMID:26280804

  6. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors.

  7. Economic Analysis of Immunization Strategies for PRRS Control [corrected].

    PubMed

    Linhares, Daniel C L; Johnson, Clayton; Morrison, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) is a swine-specific pathogen that causes significant increases in production costs. When a breeding herd becomes infected, in an attempt to hasten control and elimination of PRRSv, some veterinarians have adopted a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introductions into the herd for several weeks (herd closure) and exposing the whole herd to a replicating PRRSv to boost herd immunity. Either modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine or live field-virus inoculation (FVI) is used. This study consisted of partial budget analyses to compare MLV to FVI as the exposure method of load-close-expose program to control and eliminate PRRSv from infected breeding herds, and secondly to estimate benefit / cost of vaccinating sow herds preventatively. Under the assumptions used in this study, MLV held economic advantage over FVI. However, sensitivity analysis revealed that decreasing margin over variable costs below $ 47.32, or increasing PRRSv-attributed cost above $18.89 or achieving time-to-stability before 25 weeks resulted in advantage of FVI over MLV. Preventive vaccination of sow herds was beneficial when the frequency of PRRSv infection was at least every 1 year and 9 months [corrected]. The economics of preventative vaccination was minimally affected by cost attributed to field-type PRRSv infection on growing pigs or by the breeding herd productivity level. The models developed and described in this paper provide valuable tools to assist veterinarians in their efforts to control PRRSv.

  8. The Army’s Local Economic Effects: Appendix B, Volume II: Mississippi Through Wyoming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Office asked the RAND Arroyo Center to provide an empirical understanding of how Army spending affects communities and states. This report presents...findings from RAND Arroyo Center research on the economic activity supported by Army spending at the local level.

  9. An approach for economic analysis of intermodal transportation.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Bahri; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  10. Weight-loss dieting behavior: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Odelia

    2012-07-01

    In light of the widespread phenomena of diet failure and excessive dieting, this paper presents a theoretical economic analysis of the decision-making process of weight-loss dieting. The paper incorporates behavioral elements involved in the process of dieting: effort exerted in dieting, influence of social norms concerning body weight, time-inconsistent present biased preferences, and a distinction between naiveté and sophistication. The model explains cyclic dieting and provides interesting insights on the extent of weight-loss dieting. The extent of dieting is an increasing function of initial body weight and a decreasing function of the effort exerted in dieting and the strength of social norms concerning ideal weight. Income and diet strictness have an ambiguous effect. In addition, greater dieting efforts are not necessarily balanced against a slowdown in body metabolism or a higher initial body weight.

  11. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode. PMID:25152919

  12. A citation-analysis of economic research institutes.

    PubMed

    Ketzler, Rolf; Zimmermann, Klaus F

    2013-06-01

    The citation analysis of the research output of the German economic research institutes presented here is based on publications in peer-reviewed journals listed in the Social Science Citation Index for the 2000-2009 period. The novel feature of the paper is that a count data model quantifies the determinants of citation success and simulates their citation potential. Among the determinants of the number of cites the quality of the publication outlet exhibits a strong positive effect. The same effect has the number of the published pages, but journals with size limits also yield more cites. Field journals get less citations in comparison to general journals. Controlling for journal quality, the number of co-authors of a paper has no effect, but it is positive when co-authors are located outside the own institution. We find that the potential citations predicted by our best model lead to different rankings across the institutes than current citations indicating structural change.

  13. End-of-Life Care Interventions: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pham, B; Krahn, M

    2014-01-01

    Background The annual cost of providing care for patients in their last year of life is estimated to account for approximately 9% of the Ontario health care budget. Access to integrated, comprehensive support and pain/symptom management appears to be inadequate and inequitable. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of end-of-life (EoL) care interventions included in the EoL care mega-analysis. Data Sources Multiple sources were used, including systematic reviews, linked health administration databases, survey data, planning documents, expert input, and additional literature searches. Review Methods We conducted a literature review of cost-effectiveness studies to inform the primary economic analysis. We conducted the primary economic analysis and budget impact analysis for an Ontario cohort of decedents and their families and included interventions pertaining to team-based models of care, patient care planning discussions, educational interventions for patients and caregivers, and supportive interventions for informal caregivers. The time horizon was the last year of life. Costs were in 2013 Canadian dollars. Effectiveness measures included days at home, percentage dying at home, and quality-adjusted life-days. We developed a Markov model; model inputs were obtained from a cohort of Ontario decedents assembled from Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences databases and published literature. Results In-home palliative team care was cost-effective; it increased the chance of dying at home by 10%, increased the average number of days at home (6 days) and quality-adjusted life-days (0.5 days), and it reduced costs by approximately $4,400 per patient. Expanding in-home palliative team care to those currently not receiving such services (approximately 45,000 per year, at an annual cost of $76–108 million) is likely to improve quality of life, reduce the use of acute care resources, and save $191–$385 million in health care costs. Results for the other

  14. An Analysis of the College's Economic Impact, 1996-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Fred

    This economic impact study examines the ways in which Pellissippi State Technical Community College (Tennessee) is a major contributor to the economic base of Knox and Blount Counties. The report is based on a standard model of economic impact modified for community colleges, and it uses conservative income and employment modifiers to determine…

  15. Economic Ethics and Industrial Policy: The Analysis of Ethical Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnal, Juliette

    2008-01-01

    Beyond the presupposed cleavage between economics and ethics, the institutional dimension of economic ethics needs to be emphasized. The firm can use a large scope of instruments in order to formalize economic ethics. The asset of ethical standards is that they represent a specific way of coordination. They engender positive effects such as the…

  16. Multiwell experiment: reservoir modeling analysis, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, A.I.

    1985-05-01

    This report updates an ongoing analysis by reservoir modelers at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of well test data from the Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment (MWX). Results of previous efforts were presented in a recent METC Technical Note (Horton 1985). Results included in this report pertain to the poststimulation well tests of Zones 3 and 4 of the Paludal Sandstone Interval and the prestimulation well tests of the Red and Yellow Zones of the Coastal Sandstone Interval. The following results were obtained by using a reservoir model and history matching procedures: (1) Post-minifracture analysis indicated that the minifracture stimulation of the Paludal Interval did not produce an induced fracture, and extreme formation damage did occur, since a 65% permeability reduction around the wellbore was estimated. The design for this minifracture was from 200 to 300 feet on each side of the wellbore; (2) Post full-scale stimulation analysis for the Paludal Interval also showed that extreme formation damage occurred during the stimulation as indicated by a 75% permeability reduction 20 feet on each side of the induced fracture. Also, an induced fracture half-length of 100 feet was determined to have occurred, as compared to a designed fracture half-length of 500 to 600 feet; and (3) Analysis of prestimulation well test data from the Coastal Interval agreed with previous well-to-well interference tests that showed extreme permeability anisotropy was not a factor for this zone. This lack of permeability anisotropy was also verified by a nitrogen injection test performed on the Coastal Red and Yellow Zones. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory Economic Analysis Capability Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Boero, Riccardo; Edwards, Brian Keith; Pasqualini, Donatella; Rivera, Michael Kelly

    2016-04-19

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed two types of models to compute the economic impact of infrastructure disruptions. FastEcon is a fast running model that estimates first-­order economic impacts of large scale events such as hurricanes and floods and can be used to identify the amount of economic activity that occurs in a specific area. LANL’s Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model estimates more comprehensive static and dynamic economic impacts of a broader array of events and captures the interactions between sectors and industries when estimating economic impacts.

  18. Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis: A Foundation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Neoclassical economics has shaped our understanding of human behavior for several decades. While still an important starting point for economic studies, neoclassical frameworks have generally imposed strong assumptions, for example regarding utility maximization, information, and foresight, while treating consumer preferences as given or external to the framework. In real life, however, such strong assumptions tend to be less than fully valid. Behavioral economics refers to the study and formalizing of theories regarding deviations from traditionally-modeled economic decision-making in the behavior of individuals. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has an interest in behavioral economics as one influence on energy demand.

  19. LABCEDE and COCHISE Analysis II. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    C-0O69 UNCLASSIFIED PSI-TR-207A NL. 11368 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART AFGL -TR-80 -0063(I) LABCEDE AND COCHISE ANALYSIS H Volume I r( W. T...uniformly across the test chamber (i.e., helium is not cryogenically pumped by the walls). The added reactant gases, N2 , 02, etc. are still adsorbed by...infrared (IR) mirror flange is directed through the reaction cell, reflected from a plane MgF2 - coated mirror mounted on the IR lens baffle, and viewed by

  20. Economics of lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-11-01

    Interest in alternatives to fossil fuels has risen significantly during the current decade. Although a variety of different alternative technologies have experienced rapid growth, biofuels have emerged as the main alternative transportation fuel. Energy policies in several countries envision blending biofuels with fossil fuels as the main mechanism to increase energy independence and energy security. Climate change policies in several regions are also riding on the same hope for reducing emissions from transportation. The main advantage of biofuels is that they are technically mature, cheaper to produce and more convenient to use relative to other alternative fuels. However, the impact of current biofuels on the environment and on economic welfare, is controversial. In my dissertation I focus on three topics relevant to future energy and climate policies. The first is the economics of lifecycle analysis and its application to the assessment of environmental impact of biofuel policies. The potential of biofuel for reducing greenhouse gas emissions was brought to the fore by research that relied on the methodology called lifecycle analysis (LCA). Subsequent research however showed that the traditional LCA fails to account for market-mediated effects that will arise when biofuel technologies are scaled up. These effects can increase or decrease emissions at each stage of the lifecycle. I discuss how the LCA will differ depending on the scale, a single firm versus a region and why LCA of the future should be distinguished from LCA of the past. I describe some approaches for extending the LCA methodology so that it can be applied under these different situations. The second topic is the economic impact of biofuels. Biofuels reduce the demand for oil and increase the demand for agricultural goods. To high income countries which tend to be both large importers of oil and large exporters of agricultural goods, this implies two major benefits. One of the one hand it reduces

  1. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    PubMed

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology.

  2. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Systems and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Peretz, Fred J; Qualls, A L

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a large-output [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The AHTR's large thermal output enables direct comparison of its performance and requirements with other high output reactor concepts. As high-temperature plants, FHRs can support either high-efficiency electricity generation or industrial process heat production. The AHTR analysis presented in this report is limited to the electricity generation mission. FHRs, in principle, have the potential to be low-cost electricity producers while maintaining full passive safety. However, no FHR has been built, and no FHR design has reached the stage of maturity where realistic economic analysis can be performed. The system design effort described in this report represents early steps along the design path toward being able to predict the cost and performance characteristics of the AHTR as well as toward being able to identify the technology developments necessary to build an FHR power plant. While FHRs represent a distinct reactor class, they inherit desirable attributes from other thermal power plants whose characteristics can be studied to provide general guidance on plant configuration, anticipated performance, and costs. Molten salt reactors provide experience on the materials, procedures, and components necessary to use liquid fluoride salts. Liquid metal reactors provide design experience on using low-pressure liquid coolants, passive decay heat removal, and hot refueling. High temperature gas-cooled reactors provide experience with coated particle fuel and graphite components. Light water reactors (LWRs) show the potentials of transparent, high-heat capacity coolants with low chemical reactivity. Modern coal-fired power plants provide design experience with

  3. Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM

    SciTech Connect

    DiOrio, Nicholas; Dobos, Aron; Janzou, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Interest in energy storage has continued to increase as states like California have introduced mandates and subsidies to spur adoption. This energy storage includes customer sited behind-the-meter storage coupled with photovoltaics (PV). This paper presents case study results from California and Tennessee, which were performed to assess the economic benefit of customer-installed systems. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued.

  4. Decomposition of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate: A Sequential Gravimetric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Arlo D.; Kalbus, Lee H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an improved experiment of the thermal dehydration of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate. The improvements described here are control of the temperature environment and a quantitative study of the decomposition reaction to a thermally stable oxide. Data will suffice to show sequential gravimetric analysis. (Author/SA)

  5. A Comprehensive Economical Analysis Concerning Biomass Gasification Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowaki, Kiyoshi; Mori, Shunsuke; Fukushima, Chihiro; Asai, Noriyasu

    This paper describes on a comprehensive economic analysis concerning biomass gasification systems. In Japan, promoting biomass energy systems in domestic area comes to be expected recently. However, there are some problems in achieving this project. The costs for plant building are very expensive comparing with conventional ones. Accordingly, the unit costs of electricity increase up to as high as other environmental energy systems. In this paper, biomass energy systems using woody biomass are proposed from the viewpoints of successful environmental business. The biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant by Independent Power Producer and biomass gasification co-generation (BGCGS) plant in the sawmill or the asphalt-concrete production factory will have opportunities to be implemented in the near future. Our analysis concludes that the systems proposed in this paper provide the following outcomes with subsidies: (1) the generating cost in BIGCC becomes from 15.1 to 36.6 yen/kWh, (2) the generating cost in BGCGS becomes from 2.6 to 32.2 yen/kWh, (3) the cost reduction of products in BGCGS in asphalt factory comes to about 60 million yen per year.

  6. Economics: An Analysis of Unintended Consequences. Volume 2: Introduction to Macroeconomics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, Robert E.

    This curriculum guide emphasizes that economics is a method of thought or analysis and highlights the teaching of macroeconomic concepts. Definitions of economics, economic actions and their results, individual and group relationships, and supply and demand principles are reviewed. Macroeconomic concepts that are introduced include: (1) economic…

  7. Dental indications for the instrumental functional analysis in additional consideration of health-economic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Tinnemann, Peter; Stöber, Yvonne; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N.; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Background Besides clinical and radiological examination instrumental functional analyses are performed as diagnostic procedures for craniomandibular dysfunctions. Instrumental functional analyses cause substantial costs and shows a considerable variability between individual dentist practices. Objectives On the basis of published scientific evidence the validity of the instrumental functional analysis for the diagnosis of craniomandibular dysfunctions compared to clinical diagnostic procedures; the difference of the various forms of the instrumental functional analysis; the existence of a dependency on additional other factors and the need for further research are determined in this report. In addition, the cost effectiveness of the instrumental functional analysis is analysed in a health-policy context, and social, legal and ethical aspects are considered. Methods A literature search is performed in over 27 databases and by hand. Relevant companies and institutions are contacted concerning unpublished studies. The inclusion criteria for publications are (i) diagnostic studies with the indication “craniomandibular malfunction”, (ii) a comparison between clinical and instrumental functional analysis, (iii) publications since 1990, (iv) publications in English or German. The identified literature is evaluated by two scientists regarding the relevance of content and methodical quality. Results The systematic database search resulted in 962 hits. 187 medical and economic complete publications are evaluated. Since the evaluated studies are not relevant enough to answer the medical or health economic questions no study is included. Discussion The inconsistent terminology concerning craniomandibular dysfunctions and instrumental functional analyses results in a broad literature search in databases and an extensive search by hand. Since no relevant results concerning the validity of the instrumental functional analysis in comparison to the clinical functional analysis

  8. Integrated data analysis at TJ-II: The density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Milligen, B. Ph. van; Estrada, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Tafalla, D.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Fraguas, A. Lopez; Jimenez, J. A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Dinklage, A.; Fischer, R.

    2011-07-15

    An integrated data analysis system based on Bayesian inference has been developed for the TJ-II stellarator. It reconstructs the electron density profile at a single time point, using data from interferometry, reflectometry, Thomson scattering, and the Helium beam, while providing a detailed error analysis. In this work, we present a novel analysis of the ambiguity inherent in profile reconstruction from reflectometry and show how the integrated data analysis approach elegantly resolves it. Several examples of the application of the technique are provided, in both low-density discharges with and without electrode biasing, and in high-density discharges with an (L-H) confinement transition.

  9. [Economic studies and decision analysis as tools for decision making].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pimentel, Leticia; Silva-Romo, Rodolfo; Wacher-Rodarte, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Management implies decision-making and economics deals with efficiency which means to obtain the best possible results with the available resources, and to compare such results with those that were foreseen. The economic evaluation comprises a set of techniques aimed at comparing resource allocation on alternate courses of action and its consequences. In health care, these results are the overall well-being of the society. This paper summarizes the techniques that are customarily used in economic evaluation, and intends to serve as an introductory text to increasing the ability of the readers to grasp original articles in the field of health economics.

  10. The Economic Contributions of Canada's Colleges and Institutes: An Analysis of Investment Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Volume 1: Main Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, M. Henry; Christophersen, Kjell A.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis of the economic impacts generated by Canada's Colleges and Institutes is based on a sample of 61 colleges in 9 provinces, representing roughly two-fifths of the some 150 Colleges and Institutes in the country. The findings from the sample were used to generate results by inference for all colleges in Canada. Two major analyses are…

  11. An Economic Analysis of USDA Erosion Control Programs: A New Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 560.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Roger, Ed.

    A study analyzed the total (public and private) economic costs and benefits of three U.S. Department of Agriculture erosion control programs. These were the Conservation Technical Assistance Program, Great Plains Conservation Program, and Agricultural Conservation Program. Significant efforts at funding for current programs were directed to…

  12. Phase II final report and second update of the energy economic data base (EEDB) program. Volume 1 of 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    The Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) Program deals with the development of cost data for nuclear and comparison electric power generating stations. The objective of the USDOE EEDB Program is to provide periodic updates of technical and cost (capital, fuel and operating and maintenance) information of significance to the US Department of Energy. This information is intended to be used by USDOE in evaluating and monitoring US Civilian nuclear power programs, and to provide them with a consistent means of evaluating the nuclear option against alternatives. This report presents the Second Update of the EEDB for a cost and regulation date of January 1, 1979, prepared during Phase II of the EEDB Program. The Second Update is the first of a series of periodic updates marking the beginning of the next step in meeting the objective of the EEDB Program.

  13. Parametric sensitivity analysis of an agro-economic model of management of irrigation water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ouadi, Ihssan; Ouazar, Driss; El Menyari, Younesse

    2015-04-01

    The current work aims to build an analysis and decision support tool for policy options concerning the optimal allocation of water resources, while allowing a better reflection on the issue of valuation of water by the agricultural sector in particular. Thus, a model disaggregated by farm type was developed for the rural town of Ait Ben Yacoub located in the east Morocco. This model integrates economic, agronomic and hydraulic data and simulates agricultural gross margin across in this area taking into consideration changes in public policy and climatic conditions, taking into account the competition for collective resources. To identify the model input parameters that influence over the results of the model, a parametric sensitivity analysis is performed by the "One-Factor-At-A-Time" approach within the "Screening Designs" method. Preliminary results of this analysis show that among the 10 parameters analyzed, 6 parameters affect significantly the objective function of the model, it is in order of influence: i) Coefficient of crop yield response to water, ii) Average daily gain in weight of livestock, iii) Exchange of livestock reproduction, iv) maximum yield of crops, v) Supply of irrigation water and vi) precipitation. These 6 parameters register sensitivity indexes ranging between 0.22 and 1.28. Those results show high uncertainties on these parameters that can dramatically skew the results of the model or the need to pay particular attention to their estimates. Keywords: water, agriculture, modeling, optimal allocation, parametric sensitivity analysis, Screening Designs, One-Factor-At-A-Time, agricultural policy, climate change.

  14. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., social and environmental effects of Commission actions. It analyzes the potential effects of CPSC actions.... The Directorate acquires, compiles, and maintains economic data on movements and trends in the general... economic, societal, and environmental impact of product safety rules and standards. It performs...

  15. The Music Industry as a Vehicle for Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Issues arising in the music industry in response to the availability of digital music files provide an opportunity for exposing undergraduate students to economic analyses rarely covered in the undergraduate economics curriculum. Three of these analyses are covered here: the optimal copyright term, the effect of piracy or illegal file sharing, and…

  16. An Analysis of the College's Economic Impact, 1995-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Fred

    This report measures the five-year (1995-2000) economic impact of Pellissippi State Technical Community College (PSTCC) on Knox and Blount counties in Tennessee. Results are based on a standard model of economic impact modified for community colleges. The model uses conservative income and employment multipliers to determine PSTCC's economic…

  17. The Analysis of the Relation between Education and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteils, Marielle

    2004-01-01

    The debate concerning the various determinants of economic growth has attracted considerable attention. The argument according to which endogenous growth models explain long-term economic growth is often put forward. Particularly, it is held that the production of knowledge by education induces self-sustained growth. In spite of numerous…

  18. [Methodological aspects of a political-economic analysis of population].

    PubMed

    Lisina, N V; Ruzavina, E I

    1988-01-01

    The authors examine the role of political and economic factors in the study of population issues, with a focus on the relationship between demographic factors and the standard of living of a society. Attention is paid to the division of the population into the economically active and the inactive.

  19. Economic analysis of open space box model utilization in spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    It is a known fact that the amount of data about space that is stored is getting larger on an everyday basis. However, the utilization of Big Data and related tools to perform ETL (Extract, Transform and Load) applications will soon be pervasive in the space sciences. We have entered in a crucial time where using Big Data can be the difference (for terrestrial applications) between organizations underperforming and outperforming their peers. The same is true for NASA and other space agencies, as well as for individual missions and the highly-competitive process of mission data analysis and publication. In most industries, conventional opponents and new candidates alike will influence data-driven approaches to revolutionize and capture the value of Big Data archives. The Open Space Box Model is poised to take the proverbial "giant leap", as it provides autonomic data processing and communications for spacecraft. We can find economic value generated from such use of data processing in our earthly organizations in every sector, such as healthcare, retail. We also can easily find retailers, performing research on Big Data, by utilizing sensors driven embedded data in products within their stores and warehouses to determine how these products are actually used in the real world.

  20. Multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations. [economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.; Vaughan, J. C., III

    1979-01-01

    A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits. Air cushion landing gear configurations are identified as an option for avoiding runway constraints on airport requirements and/or operational constraints are noted.

  1. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume II. Introduction and technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of a study subcontracted by PNL to the United Technologies Research Center on the engineering feasibility and economics of a CAES concept which uses a coal fired, fluidized bed combustor (FBC) to heat the air being returned from storage during the power production cycle. By burning coal instead of fuel oil, the CAES/FBC concept can completely eliminate the dependence of compressed air energy storage on petroleum fuels. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume II presents a discussion of program background and an in-depth coverage of both fluid bed combustion and turbomachinery technology pertinent to their application in a CAES power plant system. The CAES/FBC concept appears technically feasible and economically competitive with conventional CAES. However, significant advancement is required in FBC technology before serious commercial commitment to CAES/FBC can be realized. At present, other elements of DOE, industrial groups, and other countries are performing the required R and D for advancement of FBC technology. The CAES/FBC will be reevaluated at a later date when FBC technology has matured and many of the concerns now plaguing FBC are resolved. (LCL)

  2. Economic analysis of selected water policy options for the Pacific northwest. Agriculture economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Schaible, G.D.; Gollehon, N.R.; Kramer, M.S.; Aillery, M.P.; Moore, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    Agriculture in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) could use significantly less water with minimal impact on agricultural economic returns. Less water use by agriculture makes more water available for municipal, industrial, and recreational uses; for improved water quality and wildlife habitat; and for Native American water rights claims. Net water savings up to 18.5 percent of current levels of field-crop use can be realized by such actions as reducing Bureau of Reclamation (BoR) surface-water diversion, improving water-use efficiency, and raising the cost of water. Effects on agricultural economic returns for PNW field crops range from a decline of $22 million (1.7 percent) to an increase of $171 million (13.1 percent). Combining different approaches spreads the conservation burden among farmers, water suppliers, and production regions.

  3. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  4. Economic analysis of vertical wells for coalbed methane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Previous economic studies of the recovery and utilization of methane from coalbeds using vertical wells were based on drainage in advance of mining where a single seam is drained with well spacing designed for rapid predrainage. This study extends the earlier work and shows that methane recovery costs can be reduced significantly by increasing well spacing and draining multiple coalbeds. A favorable return on investment can be realized in many geologic settings using this method. Sensitivity of recovery economics to certain development costs and parametric variations are also examined as are the economics of three methane utilization options.

  5. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. 78 FR 66929 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis AGENCY: Policy and Planning Division, Export-Import Bank of... public of its intent to conduct a detailed economic impact analysis regarding a loan guarantee to support... does not meet the substantial injury threshold and is therefore not subject to a detailed...

  7. Application of Economic Analysis to School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blonigen, Bruce A.; Harbaugh, William T.; Singell, Larry D.; Horner, Robert H.; Irvin, Larry K.; Smolkowski, Keith S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss how to use economic techniques to evaluate educational programs and show how to apply basic cost analysis to implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS). A description of cost analysis concepts used for economic program evaluation is provided, emphasizing the suitability of these concepts for evaluating…

  8. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  9. Internal migration in India in the seventies: a demo-economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Nair, P S

    1986-01-01

    "This paper is aimed to address mainly the following three aspects of spatial mobility within India during the last inter-censal decade of 1971-1981: (i) Levels of inmigration, outmigration and net migration in the major states (ii) estimates of state-to-state migration flows and (iii) some insights on the socio-economic determinants of internal migration."

  10. Economic viability of phytoremediation of a cadmium contaminated agricultural area using energy maize. Part II: economics of anaerobic digestion of metal contaminated maize in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Thewys, T; Witters, N; Meers, E; Vangronsveld, J

    2010-09-01

    This paper deals with remediation of the Campine soil, an agricultural area diffusely contaminated with metals where most farmers raise dairy cattle and grow fodder maize. In a previous study, we calculated the effect of switching from fodder to energy maize on the farmer's income. Selling this energy maize as feedstock for anaerobic digestion to produce renewable energy could lead to a significant increase in his income. This paper explores the economic opportunities for the farmer of digesting the harvested contaminated biomass himself, by performing a Net Present Value (NPV) analysis on the digestion activity and by calculating the probability of a positive NPV of income resulting from the digestion installation. We investigate the trade off between the maximum price for energy maize that can be paid by the digestion activity and the minimum price that the farming activity needs to compensate for covering its production costs. Integrating the previous study in the current analysis results in an increase of total extra income for the farmer (i.e., from both growing energy maize and performing digestion).

  11. Economical Analysis on Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Periprosthetic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fairen, Mariano; Torres, Ana; Menzie, Ann; Hernandez-Vaquero, Daniel; Fernandez-Carreira, José Manuel; Murcia-Mazon, Antonio; Guerado, Enrique; Merzthal, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The economic burden of periprosthetic infections is enormous, but the number of economic studies dealing with this issue is very scarce. This review tries to know the economic literature existing, assess the value of current data, and recognize the less costly and more effective procedures for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of periprosthetic infections. Forty five studies meeting the inclusion criteria and adhering to the quality criteria used were carefully analyzed to extract the economic data of relevance in evaluating the magnitude of problem and the more cost-effective solutions. However, because the heterogeneity and the low-quality of most of these studies meta-analytical technique has not been possible. Instead, the studies have been reviewed descriptively. Optimizing the antibiotic use in the prevention and treatment of periprosthetic infection, combined with systemic and behavioral changes in the operating room; detecting and treating the high-risk groups; a quick, simple, reliable, safe, and cost-effective diagnosis, and the rationale management of the instituted infection, specifically using the different procedures according to each particular case, could allow to improve outcomes and produce the highest quality of life for patients and the lowest economic impact. Nevertheless, the cost effectiveness of different interventions to prevent and to treat the periprosthetic infection remains unclear. PMID:24082966

  12. The REFLEX II galaxy cluster survey: power spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguera-Antolínez, A.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Böhringer, H.; Collins, C.; Guzzo, L.; Phleps, S.

    2011-05-01

    We present the power spectrum of galaxy clusters measured from the new ROSAT-ESO Flux-Limited X-Ray (REFLEX II) galaxy cluster catalogue. This new sample extends the flux limit of the original REFLEX catalogue to 1.8 × 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2, yielding a total of 911 clusters with ≥94 per cent completeness in redshift follow-up. The analysis of the data is improved by creating a set of 100 REFLEX II-catalogue-like mock galaxy cluster catalogues built from a suite of large-volume Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) N-body simulations (L-BASICC II). The measured power spectrum is in agreement with the predictions from a ΛCDM cosmological model. The measurements show the expected increase in the amplitude of the power spectrum with increasing X-ray luminosity. On large scales, we show that the shape of the measured power spectrum is compatible with a scale-independent bias and provide a model for the amplitude that allows us to connect our measurements with a cosmological model. By implementing a luminosity-dependent power-spectrum estimator, we observe that the power spectrum measured from the REFLEX II sample is weakly affected by flux-selection effects. The shape of the measured power spectrum is compatible with a featureless power spectrum on scales k > 0.01 h Mpc-1 and hence no statistically significant signal of baryonic acoustic oscillations can be detected. We show that the measured REFLEX II power spectrum displays signatures of non-linear evolution.

  13. Dietary balanced protein in broiler chickens. 2. An economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Eits, R M; Giesen, G W J; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Den Hartog, L A

    2005-06-01

    An economic model was developed that calculates economic optimal dietary balanced protein (DBP) contents for broiler chickens, based on performance input and prices of meat and feed. Input on broiler responses to DBP content (growth rate, feed conversion, carcase yield and breast meat yield) was obtained from the model described by Eits et al. (2005). Changes in broiler age, price of protein-rich raw materials and large changes (40%) in meat prices resulted in economic relevant differences in DBP content for maximum profit. Effects of changes in sex or feed price on DBP content for maximum profit were negligible. Formulating diets for maximum profit instead of maximum broiler performance can strongly increase the profitability of a broiler production enterprise. DBP content for maximum profitability depends on how the broilers are marketed; as whole birds, carcase or portions.

  14. Critical analysis of economic tools and economic measurement applied to rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Her, Minyoung; Kavanaugh, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is chronic, progressive systemic inflammatory disease that if uncontrolled may lead to significant joint damage, dysfunction, work disability and other sequelae that result in large economic losses. A rich literature estimating the economic burden of RA, has been intensified recently, driven by costly biologic agents that have had a notable effect improving the outcomes of patients with RA. In order to optimally assess the value of therapies, it is best to take a comprehensive approach, considering all related costs of illness. This includes direct costs (e.g. the costs of the medications themselves and the monitoring required), indirect costs (e.g. loss of productivity, such as employment due to uncontrolled disease) and intangible cost (e.g. effects on pain and quality of life). Indirect costs constitute a substantial part of total cost in the patient with RA. In order to help assess the impact of RA on productivity, various tools for measuring productive loss like absenteeism and presenteeism have been introduced. No single tool reflects the entire spectrum of the productive loss clearly, as other factors such as use of a human capital approach or friction cost approach affect the valuation of productive loss monetarily. Although favourable outcomes are achieved with the use of biologic agents, their higher acquisition costs, as compared to traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) remain a barrier to their use. Assessments of the cost effectiveness of novel therapies are critically important, but published results have been contradictory, in some measure due to the heterogeneity of instruments utilised. While the various instruments appear to be valid and reliable, correlations between instruments has been modest, driven by factors such as differences in recall times, attribution and other confounders.

  15. Analysis of world economic variables using multidimensional scaling.

    PubMed

    Machado, J A Tenreiro; Mata, Maria Eugénia

    2015-01-01

    Waves of globalization reflect the historical technical progress and modern economic growth. The dynamics of this process are here approached using the multidimensional scaling (MDS) methodology to analyze the evolution of GDP per capita, international trade openness, life expectancy, and education tertiary enrollment in 14 countries. MDS provides the appropriate theoretical concepts and the exact mathematical tools to describe the joint evolution of these indicators of economic growth, globalization, welfare and human development of the world economy from 1977 up to 2012. The polarization dance of countries enlightens the convergence paths, potential warfare and present-day rivalries in the global geopolitical scene.

  16. Bayesian analysis of the dynamic structure in China's economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyo, Koki; Noda, Hideo

    2008-11-01

    To analyze the dynamic structure in China's economic growth during the period 1952-1998, we introduce a model of the aggregate production function for the Chinese economy that considers total factor productivity (TFP) and output elasticities as time-varying parameters. Specifically, this paper is concerned with the relationship between the rate of economic growth in China and the trend in TFP. Here, we consider the time-varying parameters as random variables and introduce smoothness priors to construct a set of Bayesian linear models for parameter estimation. The results of the estimation are in agreement with the movements in China's social economy, thus illustrating the validity of the proposed methods.

  17. Analysis of World Economic Variables Using Multidimensional Scaling

    PubMed Central

    Machado, J.A. Tenreiro; Mata, Maria Eugénia

    2015-01-01

    Waves of globalization reflect the historical technical progress and modern economic growth. The dynamics of this process are here approached using the multidimensional scaling (MDS) methodology to analyze the evolution of GDP per capita, international trade openness, life expectancy, and education tertiary enrollment in 14 countries. MDS provides the appropriate theoretical concepts and the exact mathematical tools to describe the joint evolution of these indicators of economic growth, globalization, welfare and human development of the world economy from 1977 up to 2012. The polarization dance of countries enlightens the convergence paths, potential warfare and present-day rivalries in the global geopolitical scene. PMID:25811177

  18. Exergo-Economic Analysis of an Experimental Aircraft Turboprop Engine Under Low Torque Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atilgan, Ramazan; Turan, Onder; Aydin, Hakan

    Exergo-economic analysis is an unique combination of exergy analysis and cost analysis conducted at the component level. In exergo-economic analysis, cost of each exergy stream is determined. Inlet and outlet exergy streams of the each component are associated to a monetary cost. This is essential to detect cost-ineffective processes and identify technical options which could improve the cost effectiveness of the overall energy system. In this study, exergo-economic analysis is applied to an aircraft turboprop engine. Analysis is based on experimental values at low torque condition (240 N m). Main components of investigated turboprop engine are the compressor, the combustor, the gas generator turbine, the free power turbine and the exhaust. Cost balance equations have been formed for all components individually and exergo-economic parameters including cost rates and unit exergy costs have been calculated for each component.

  19. Simplified preliminary economic analysis for passive solar heating. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Baldetti, P.J.; Lockard, M.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report establishes economic feasibility criteria for considering the use of passive solar design. In light of the growing cost of supplying the energy demands of the Air Force, a method is needed to simplify the adaptation of passive solar heating and cooling in future building construction.

  20. Job Attitudes among Different Occupational Status Groups. An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronen, Simcha; Sadan, Simcha

    1984-01-01

    An economic model is applied to employee attitudinal variables to compare the contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic factors to job satisfaction for skilled workers and managers in an electronics manufacturing organization. Intrinsic rewards are found to increase in importance as employment level increases, suggesting different frames of…

  1. An Economic Analysis of Solar Water & Space Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Solar system designs for 13 cities were optimized so as to minimize the life cycle cost over the assumed 20-year lifetime of the solar energy systems. A number of major assumptions were made regarding the solar system, type and use of building, financial considerations, and economic environment used in the design optimization. Seven optimum…

  2. Preliminary Economic Analysis of the Ozark Gateway District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Thirty-nine tables on the economic and social trends from 1950-67 in the Ozark Gateway District are presented in this report. This four-county area in Southwest Missouri was dormant for over 10 years, with limited population growth, low levels of productivity, and low incomes. It was operating below its potential level of general business activity…

  3. Recruitment of Rural Teachers in Developing Countries: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Monetary and nonmonetary incentives for rural teacher recruitment are common in developing-country education systems. This paper interprets incentive policies within the framework of the economic theory of compensating differentials, clarifying implicit assumptions of incentive policies and aids in organizing further empirical work on their…

  4. An Analysis of the College's Economic Impact, 1997-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Fred H.

    This is the 15th annual study of the 5-year (1997-2002) economic impact of Pellissippi State Technical Community College, Tennessee, on the Knox and Blount County area. The study measures the direct impact of the college on the community in terms of business volume, employment, and individual income. The study does not include data pertaining to…

  5. An Economic Analysis of the California Art Royalty Statute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Ben W.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The probable economic impact on the art market, museums, and the artist of California's "droit de suite" legislation, designed to yield to artists a portion of the resale value of their works, is examined. It is argued that only a few living artists will benefit. The statute, California Civil Code 986, is appended. (JMD)

  6. Economic Analysis of National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Modernization Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    ecological systems, political systems, and economic systems. The model is implemented using a software package called STELLA, distributed by isee systems. 3 ...detailed and probably better at their specific tasks than the corresponding module of the Enterprise Model. 3 Go to the isee systems Web site...30 3 . Assembly/Disassembly Facilities ................................................................... 33 vi 4

  7. Educational Stock and Economic Output: A Quantitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuxiang

    A series of multiple linear regressions analyses was used to investigate the relationship between educational stock and economic output. The gross state product (GSP) per capita was used as the dependent variable. Used as independent variables were percentages of: (1) state residents with a high school diploma and above; (2) state residents with…

  8. AN ENERGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    There is a strong linear dependence of economic activity as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) on both the fossil fuel energy and the total emergy consumed by nations. Conceptual models of global and regional environmental systems were developed to examine the factors c...

  9. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics: Basic Business and Consumer Education (Secondary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niss, James F.; And Others

    Part of the Master Curriculum Guide Project, the document presents strategies for teaching economic concepts as related to basic business and consumer education in secondary schools. The objective is to provide detailed classroom lessons illustrating ways economic ideas can be taught at differing levels of difficulty. The 18 lessons are…

  10. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics. Intermediate Level (Grades 4-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Council on Economic Education, New York, NY.

    This guide contains concept based lessons and activities in economics for use with students in grades 4-6. One component of a two-part publication, the guide demonstrates how the conceptual structure of the economics discipline presented in the first publication (ED 148 648) can be used to help students at the intermediate grade level make more…

  11. THE SPECTRUM AND TERM ANALYSIS OF V II

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, A. P.; Pickering, J. C.; Semeniuk, J. I.

    2013-07-15

    The spectrum and extended term analysis of V II are presented. Fourier transform spectrometry was used to record high resolution spectra of singly ionized vanadium in the region 1492-5800 A (67020-17260 cm{sup -1}) with vanadium-neon and vanadium-argon hollow cathode lamps as sources. The wavenumber uncertainty for the center of gravity of the strongest lines is typically 0.002 cm{sup -1}, an improvement of an order of magnitude over previous measurements. Most of the lines exhibit partly resolved hyperfine structure. The V II energy levels in the 1985 compilation of Sugar and Corliss have been confirmed and revised, with the exception of the high-lying 4f levels and eight of the lower levels. Thirty-nine of the additional eighty-five high levels published by Iglesias et al. have also been confirmed and revised, and three of their missing levels have been found. The energy uncertainty of the revised levels has been reduced by about an order of magnitude. In total, 176 even levels and 233 odd levels are presented. Wavenumbers and classifications are given for 1242 V II lines.

  12. 78 FR 69669 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import... comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

  13. Tuition Rate Setting for Organized Camps: An Economic Analysis. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Robert E.; Levine, Frank M.

    1979-01-01

    An economic analysis of setting tuition rates for organized camps addresses four topics of general interest: (1) measuring the economic value (revenues and expenses) of a camp; (2) measuring the true costs (fixed holding costs, fixed costs, and variable operating costs) of operation; (3) establishing a demand curve for measuring camp revenue; and…

  14. Socio-economic Value Analysis in Geospatial and Earth Observation: A methodology review (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coote, A. M.; Bernknopf, R.; Smart, A.

    2013-12-01

    Many industries have long since realised that applying macro-economic analysis methodologies to assess the socio-economic value of a programme is a critical step to convincing decision makers to authorise investment. The geospatial and earth observation industry has however been slow to embrace economic analysis. There are however a growing number of studies, published in the last few years, that have applied economic principles to this domain. They have adopted a variety of different approaches, including: - Computable General Equilibrium Modelling (CGE) - Revealed preference, stated preference (Willingness to Pay surveys) - Partial Analysis - Simulations - Cost-benefit analysis (with and without risk analysis) This paper will critically review these approaches and assess their applicability to different situations and to meet multiple objectives.

  15. Economic analysis of model validation for a challenge problem

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, Paul J.; Paez, Thomas L.; Hasselman, Timothy K.

    2016-02-19

    It is now commonplace for engineers to build mathematical models of the systems they are designing, building, or testing. And, it is nearly universally accepted that phenomenological models of physical systems must be validated prior to use for prediction in consequential scenarios. Yet, there are certain situations in which testing only or no testing and no modeling may be economically viable alternatives to modeling and its associated testing. This paper develops an economic framework within which benefit–cost can be evaluated for modeling and model validation relative to other options. The development is presented in terms of a challenge problem. As a result, we provide a numerical example that quantifies when modeling, calibration, and validation yield higher benefit–cost than a testing only or no modeling and no testing option.

  16. Techno-economic analysis of decentralized biomass processing depots.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S; Tumuluru, Jaya S; Jacobson, Jacob J; Cafferty, Kara G; Hansen, Jason K; Kenney, Kevin; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Bals, Bryan

    2015-10-01

    Decentralized biomass processing facilities, known as biomass depots, may be necessary to achieve feedstock cost, quantity, and quality required to grow the future U.S. bioeconomy. In this paper, we assess three distinct depot configurations for technical difference and economic performance. The depot designs were chosen to compare and contrast a suite of capabilities that a depot could perform ranging from conventional pelleting to sophisticated pretreatment technologies. Our economic analyses indicate that depot processing costs are likely to range from ∼US$30 to US$63 per dry metric tonne (Mg), depending upon the specific technology implemented and the energy consumption for processing equipment such as grinders and dryers. We conclude that the benefits of integrating depots into the overall biomass feedstock supply chain will outweigh depot processing costs and that incorporation of this technology should be aggressively pursued.

  17. Plant design and economic analysis for solar coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Aiman, W.R.; Thorsness, C.B.; Gregg, D.W.

    1981-04-09

    The advantage of the solar coal gasification (SCG) method, compared to a similar Lurgi plant, is conservation of coal; 40% more product can be produced from a given amount of coal. The primary detriment of SCG is an 8 h/day operation; which leads to a higher plant investment for a given annual production. This higher plant investment is twice as important as the cost of the heliostat field. Providing excess heliostat capacity to maximize the output of the processing units probably is economically justified. Operating costs are lower for SCG, but capital costs are higher. In the future, as coal costs increase relative to investment costs, the SCG plant will become more economical than the Lurgi plant.

  18. Economic analysis of model validation for a challenge problem

    DOE PAGES

    Paez, Paul J.; Paez, Thomas L.; Hasselman, Timothy K.

    2016-02-19

    It is now commonplace for engineers to build mathematical models of the systems they are designing, building, or testing. And, it is nearly universally accepted that phenomenological models of physical systems must be validated prior to use for prediction in consequential scenarios. Yet, there are certain situations in which testing only or no testing and no modeling may be economically viable alternatives to modeling and its associated testing. This paper develops an economic framework within which benefit–cost can be evaluated for modeling and model validation relative to other options. The development is presented in terms of a challenge problem. Asmore » a result, we provide a numerical example that quantifies when modeling, calibration, and validation yield higher benefit–cost than a testing only or no modeling and no testing option.« less

  19. PAX ECONOPACK Economic Analysis Package. User’s Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    QUARTERS IN EACH BLDC (CR) >APPLY VINYL SIDING TO EXTERIORS (CR) >(CR) NOTES: None. COMPUTER’S RESPONSE: ENTER THE ECONOMIC LIFE OF ALTERNATIVE 2...8217JAN 1986’ PROJECT ’PUBLICATION FACILITY MODERNIZATION ’ OBJECTIVE ’PROVIDE LEAST COST DOCUMENTATION PROCESSING’ r It is a good idea to include a comment...modification, modernization , etc., required for continued operation of the alternative. M. NEW [Optional; if NEW (proposed primary): used, follow with

  20. Why Economic Analysis of Health System Improvement Interventions Matters.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Edward Ivor; Marquez, Lani

    2016-01-01

    There is little evidence to direct health systems toward providing efficient interventions to address medical errors, defined as an unintended act of omission or commission or one not executed as intended that may or may not cause harm to the patient but does not achieve its intended outcome. We believe that lack of guidance on what is the most efficient way to reduce medical errors and improve the quality of health-care limits the scale-up of health system improvement interventions. Challenges to economic evaluation of these interventions include defining and implementing improvement interventions in different settings with high fidelity, capturing all of the positive and negative effects of the intervention, using process measures of effectiveness rather than health outcomes, and determining the full cost of the intervention and all economic consequences of its effects. However, health system improvement interventions should be treated similarly to individual medical interventions and undergo rigorous economic evaluation to provide actionable evidence to guide policy-makers in decisions of resource allocation for improvement activities among other competing demands for health-care resources.

  1. Final Safety Analysis Addenda to Hazards Summary Report, Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II): upgrading of plant protection system. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, N. L.; Keeton, J. M.; Sackett, J. I.

    1980-06-01

    This report is the second in a series of compilations of the formal Final Safety Analysis Addenda (FSAA`s) to the EBR-II Hazard Summary Report and Addendum. Sections 2 and 3 are edited versions of the original FSAA`s prepared in support of certain modifications to the reactor-shutdown-system portion of the EBR-II plant-protection system. Section 4 is an edited version of the original FSAA prepared in support of certain modifications to a system classified as an engineered safety feature. These sections describe the pre- and postmodification system, the rationale for the modification, and required supporting safety analysis. Section 5 provides an updated description and analysis of the EBR-II emergency power system. Section 6 summarizes all significant modifications to the EBR-II plant-protection system to date.

  2. Influence of different mineral and Organic pesticide treatments on Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) contents determined by derivative potentiometric stripping analysis in Italian white and red wines.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Francesco; La Pera, Lara; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Nicotina, Mariano; Dugo, Giacomo

    2003-02-12

    This paper deals with the use of derivative potentiometric stripping analysis (dPSA) as a rapid and precise method to determine Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels in red and white wine samples from Sicily, Campania, and Tuscany and to investigate the possible connection between the content of these metals and the pesticide treatments used in vine-growing to control plant diseases and pests. dPSA allowed direct quantitation of heavy metals in acidified wines without any sample pretreatment. Mean recoveries of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) ranged from 95.5 to 99.2% for white wine samples and from 96.1 to 100.0% for red wine samples. The obtained results showed that Cd(II) was not found in any sample and that Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels were always lower than the toxicity limits in both fungicide- and water-treated wines. Nevertheless, the contents of metals were increased in samples from organic and inorganic pesticides treatment with respect to the water-treated samples. In particular, quinoxyfen, dinocap-penconazole, and dinocap applications considerably increased Cu(II) and Zn(II) contents in white and red wines. The levels of lead were significantly raised by azoxystrobin and sulfur treatments.

  3. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved

  4. SLR precision analysis for LAGEOS I and II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilsu, Gaye; Sahin, Muhammed

    2000-10-01

    This paper deals with the problem of properly weighting satellite observations which are non-uniform in quality. The technique, the variance component estimation method developed by Helmert, was first applied to the 1987 LAGEOS I SLR data by Sahin et al. (1992). This paper investigates the performance of the globally distributed SLR stations using the Helmert type variance component estimation. As well as LAGEOS I data, LAGEOS II data were analysed, in order to compare with the previously analysed 1987 LAGEOS I data. The LAGEOS I and II data used in this research were obtained from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS), which archives data acquired from stations operated by NASA and by other U.S. and international organizations. The data covers the years 1994, 1995 and 1996. The analysis is based on "full-rate" laser observations, which consist of hundreds to thousands of ranges per satellite pass. The software used is based on the SATAN package (SATellite ANalysis) developed at the Royal Greenwich Observatory in the UK.

  5. SHEFEX II Flight Instrumentation And Preparation Of Post Flight Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, Thomas; Siebe, Frank; Gulhan, Ali

    2011-05-01

    A main disadvantage of modern TPS systems for re- entry vehicles is the expensive manufacturing and maintenance process due to the complex geometry of these blunt nose configurations. To reduce the costs and to improve the aerodynamic performance the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is following a different approach using TPS structures consisting of flat ceramic tiles. To test these new sharp edged TPS structures the SHEFEX I flight experiment was designed and successfully performed by DLR in 2005. To further improve the reliability of the sharp edged TPS design at even higher Mach numbers, a second flight experiment SHEFEX II will be performed in September 2011. In comparison to SHEFEX I the second flight experiment has a fully symmetrical shape and will reach a maximum Mach number of about 11. Furthermore the vehicle has an active steering system using four canards to control the flight attitude during re-entry, e.g. roll angle, angle of attack and sideslip. After a successful flight the evaluation of the flight data will be performed using a combination of numerical and experimental tools. The data will be used for the improvement of the present numerical analysis tools and to get a better understanding of the aerothermal behaviour of sharp TPS structures. This paper presents the flight instrumentation of the SHEFEX II TPS. In addition the concept of the post flight analysis is presented.

  6. Aerothermal Analysis of the Project Fire II Afterbody Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael J.; Loomis, Mark; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the wake flow and afterbody heating of the Project Fire II ballistic reentry to Earth at 11.4 km/sec. Laminar results are obtained over a portion of the trajectory between the initial heat pulse and peak afterbody heating. Although non-catalytic forebody convective heating results are in excellent agreement with previous computations, initial predictions of afterbody heating were about a factor of two below the experimental values. Further analysis suggests that significant catalysis may be occurring on the afterbody heat shield. Computations including finite-rate catalysis on the afterbody surface are in good agreement with the data over the early portion of the trajectory, but are conservative near the peak afterbody heating point, especially on the rear portion of the conical frustum. Further analysis of the flight data from Fire II shows that peak afterbody heating occurs before peak forebody heating, a result that contradicts computations and flight data from other entry vehicles. This result suggests that another mechanism, possibly pyrolysis, may be occurring during the later portion of the trajectory, resulting in less total heat transfer than the current predictions.

  7. Economic Analysis of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Electronic Reporting Final Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Economic Analysis (EA) quantifies the costs and savings of the proposed NPDES Electronic Reporting Rule, while acknowledging many of the qualitative benefits that will result from its implementation.

  8. Status Report on Modeling and Analysis of Small Modular Reactor Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J; Hale, Richard Edward; Moses, Rebecca J

    2013-04-01

    This report describes the work performed to generate the model for SMR economic analysis. The model is based on the G4-ECONS calculation tool developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF).

  9. Initial Economic Analysis of Utility-Scale Wind Integration in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes an analysis, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in May 2010, of the economic characteristics of a particular utility-scale wind configuration project that has been referred to as the 'Big Wind' project.

  10. Voltammetric analysis of Cu (II), Cd (II) and Zn (II) complexes and their cyclic voltammetry with several cephalosporin antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Maali, N; Osman, A H; Aly, A A M; Al-Hazmi, G A A

    2005-02-01

    Both osteryoung square wave voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry have been utilized to elucidate and confirm the possible complexation reaction that occur between the various cephalosporin antibiotics and either the toxic, non-essential metal ion, viz. Cd (II), or the essential but toxic (when their concentration exceeds certain level in serum) metal ions, viz. Cu (II) and Zn (II). Voltammetric measurements indicated the existence of 1:1 metal-to-ligand ratio (as in cephalexin and cephapirin complexes), 1:2 ratio (such as in cefamandole, cefuroxime and cefotaxime complexes) and 2:1 ratio in case of ceftazidime complexes. Adsorption behavior was evidenced for Cu (II)-cefuroxime or ceftazidime complexes as well as for those for Zn (II)-cephalexin or cephapirin. This phenomenon could be used for the determination of either the antibiotic or the metal ion using adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Detection limits down to 7x10(-10) M have been easily achieved.

  11. Economic Analysis of Pandemic Influenza Vaccination Strategies in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vernon J.; Tok, Mei Yin; Chow, Vincent T.; Phua, Kai Hong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Tambyah, Paul A.; Chen, Mark I.

    2009-01-01

    Background All influenza pandemic plans advocate pandemic vaccination. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. This paper compares the economic outcomes of vaccination compared with treatment with antiviral agents alone, in Singapore. Methodology We analyzed the economic outcomes of pandemic vaccination (immediate vaccination and vaccine stockpiling) compared with treatment-only in Singapore using a decision-based model to perform cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. We also explored the annual insurance premium (willingness to pay) depending on the perceived risk of the next pandemic occurring. Principal Findings The treatment-only strategy resulted in 690 deaths, 13,950 hospitalization days, and economic cost of USD$497 million. For immediate vaccination, at vaccine effectiveness of >55%, vaccination was cost-beneficial over treatment-only. Vaccine stockpiling is not cost-effective in most scenarios even with 100% vaccine effectiveness. The annual insurance premium was highest with immediate vaccination, and was lower with increased duration to the next pandemic. The premium was also higher with higher vaccine effectiveness, attack rates, and case-fatality rates. Stockpiling with case-fatality rates of 0.4–0.6% would be cost-beneficial if vaccine effectiveness was >80%; while at case-fatality of >5% stockpiling would be cost-beneficial even if vaccine effectiveness was 20%. High-risk sub-groups warrant higher premiums than low-risk sub-groups. Conclusions The actual pandemic vaccine effectiveness and lead time is unknown. Vaccine strategy should be based on perception of severity. Immediate vaccination is most cost-effective, but requires vaccines to be available when required. Vaccine stockpiling as insurance against worst-case scenarios is also cost-effective. Research and development is therefore critical to develop and stockpile cheap, readily available effective vaccines. PMID:19771173

  12. Economic analysis of wind-powered crop drying. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in crop drying. Drying of corn, soybeans, rice, peanuts, tobacco, and dehydrated alfalfa were addressed.

  13. The economics of project analysis: Optimal investment criteria and methods of study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scriven, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Insight is provided toward the development of an optimal program for investment analysis of project proposals offering commercial potential and its components. This involves a critique of economic investment criteria viewed in relation to requirements of engineering economy analysis. An outline for a systems approach to project analysis is given Application of the Leontief input-output methodology to analysis of projects involving multiple processes and products is investigated. Effective application of elements of neoclassical economic theory to investment analysis of project components is demonstrated. Patterns of both static and dynamic activity levels are incorporated.

  14. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 1, Rev. 14

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The condensed version of the TRUPACT-II Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) contains essential material required by TRUPACT-II users, plus additional contents (payload) information previously submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All or part of the following sections, which are not required by users of the TRUPACT-II, are deleted from the condensed version: (i) structural analysis, (ii) thermal analysis, (iii) containment analysis, (iv) criticality analysis, (v) shielding analysis, and (vi) hypothetical accident test results.

  15. FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (UNIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Predictions of fatigue crack growth behavior can be made with the Fatigue Crack Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN II) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to a selected crack configuration with an initial crack size, FASTRAN II predicts crack growth as a function of cyclic load history until either a desired crack size is reached or failure occurs. FASTRAN II is based on plasticity-induced crack-closure behavior of cracks in metallic materials and accounts for load-interaction effects, such as retardation and acceleration, under variable-amplitude loading. The closure model is based on the Dugdale model with modifications to allow plastically deformed material to be left along the crack surfaces as the crack grows. Plane stress and plane strain conditions, as well as conditions between these two, can be simulated in FASTRAN II by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack front to approximately account for three-dimensional stress states. FASTRAN II contains seventeen predefined crack configurations (standard laboratory fatigue crack growth rate specimens and many common crack configurations found in structures); and the user can define one additional crack configuration. The baseline crack growth rate properties (effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate) may be given in either equation or tabular form. For three-dimensional crack configurations, such as surface cracks or corner cracks at holes or notches, the fatigue crack growth rate properties may be different in the crack depth and crack length directions. Final failure of the cracked structure can be modelled with fracture toughness properties using either linear-elastic fracture mechanics (brittle materials), a two-parameter fracture criterion (brittle to ductile materials), or plastic collapse (extremely ductile materials). The crack configurations in FASTRAN II can be subjected to either constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude or spectrum loading. The applied

  16. FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Predictions of fatigue crack growth behavior can be made with the Fatigue Crack Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN II) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to a selected crack configuration with an initial crack size, FASTRAN II predicts crack growth as a function of cyclic load history until either a desired crack size is reached or failure occurs. FASTRAN II is based on plasticity-induced crack-closure behavior of cracks in metallic materials and accounts for load-interaction effects, such as retardation and acceleration, under variable-amplitude loading. The closure model is based on the Dugdale model with modifications to allow plastically deformed material to be left along the crack surfaces as the crack grows. Plane stress and plane strain conditions, as well as conditions between these two, can be simulated in FASTRAN II by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack front to approximately account for three-dimensional stress states. FASTRAN II contains seventeen predefined crack configurations (standard laboratory fatigue crack growth rate specimens and many common crack configurations found in structures); and the user can define one additional crack configuration. The baseline crack growth rate properties (effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate) may be given in either equation or tabular form. For three-dimensional crack configurations, such as surface cracks or corner cracks at holes or notches, the fatigue crack growth rate properties may be different in the crack depth and crack length directions. Final failure of the cracked structure can be modelled with fracture toughness properties using either linear-elastic fracture mechanics (brittle materials), a two-parameter fracture criterion (brittle to ductile materials), or plastic collapse (extremely ductile materials). The crack configurations in FASTRAN II can be subjected to either constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude or spectrum loading. The applied

  17. The Use of Computer Simulation Methods to Reach Data for Economic Analysis of Automated Logistic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neradilová, Hana; Fedorko, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    Automated logistic systems are becoming more widely used within enterprise logistics processes. Their main advantage is that they allow increasing the efficiency and reliability of logistics processes. In terms of evaluating their effectiveness, it is necessary to take into account the economic aspect of the entire process. However, many users ignore and underestimate this area,which is not correct. One of the reasons why the economic aspect is overlooked is the fact that obtaining information for such an analysis is not easy. The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of computer simulation methods for obtaining data for full-scale economic analysis implementation.

  18. Systemic Risk Analysis on Reconstructed Economic and Financial Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimini, Giulio; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Gabrielli, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We address a fundamental problem that is systematically encountered when modeling real-world complex systems of societal relevance: the limitedness of the information available. In the case of economic and financial networks, privacy issues severely limit the information that can be accessed and, as a consequence, the possibility of correctly estimating the resilience of these systems to events such as financial shocks, crises and cascade failures. Here we present an innovative method to reconstruct the structure of such partially-accessible systems, based on the knowledge of intrinsic node-specific properties and of the number of connections of only a limited subset of nodes. This information is used to calibrate an inference procedure based on fundamental concepts derived from statistical physics, which allows to generate ensembles of directed weighted networks intended to represent the real system—so that the real network properties can be estimated as their average values within the ensemble. We test the method both on synthetic and empirical networks, focusing on the properties that are commonly used to measure systemic risk. Indeed, the method shows a remarkable robustness with respect to the limitedness of the information available, thus representing a valuable tool for gaining insights on privacy-protected economic and financial systems.

  19. [Comparison Analysis of Economic and Engineering Control of Industrial VOCs].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-fei; Liu, Chang-xin; Cheng, Jie; Hao, Zheng-ping; Wang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollutant has become China's major air pollutant in key urban areas like sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. It is mainly produced from industry sectors, and engineering control is one of the most important reduction measures. During the 12th Five-Year Plan, China decides to invest 40 billion RMB to build pollution control projects in key industry sectors with annual emission reduction of 605 000 t x a(-1). It shows that China attaches a great importance to emission reduction by engineering projects and highlights the awareness of engineering reduction technologies. In this paper, a macroeconomic model, namely computable general equilibrium model, (CGE model) was employed to simulate engineering control and economic control (imposing environmental tax). We aim to compare the pros and cons of the two reduction policies. Considering the economic loss of the whole country, the environmental tax has more impacts on the economy system than engineering reduction measures. We suggest that the central government provides 7 500 RMB x t(-1) as subsidy for enterprises in industry sectors to encourage engineering reduction.

  20. Techno-economic analysis of lignocellulosic ethanol: A review.

    PubMed

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Dauriat, Arnaud

    2010-07-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol is expected to be commercialised during the next decade as renewable energy for transport. Competiveness with first generation bioethanol and with gasoline is commonly considered in techno-economic analyses for commercial stage. Several existing reviews conclude about the high spread of current and projected production costs of lignocellulosic ethanol due to the significant differences in assumptions concerning the following factors: composition and cost of feedstock, process design, conversion efficiency, valorisation of co-products, and energy conservation. Focusing on the studies in the United States of America and in Europe, the present review investigates the different natures of the techno-economic evaluations during the development process of the supply chain i.e., standard costing with respect to Value Engineering, and Target Costing based on the projected market price. The paper highlights the significant contribution of feedstock to the lignocellulosic ethanol production cost and the need to consider competition between different uses for resources. It is recommended the use of a value-based approach that considers sustainability characteristics and potential competition for resources complementarily to Target Costing and Value Engineering.

  1. Systemic Risk Analysis on Reconstructed Economic and Financial Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cimini, Giulio; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Gabrielli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We address a fundamental problem that is systematically encountered when modeling real-world complex systems of societal relevance: the limitedness of the information available. In the case of economic and financial networks, privacy issues severely limit the information that can be accessed and, as a consequence, the possibility of correctly estimating the resilience of these systems to events such as financial shocks, crises and cascade failures. Here we present an innovative method to reconstruct the structure of such partially-accessible systems, based on the knowledge of intrinsic node-specific properties and of the number of connections of only a limited subset of nodes. This information is used to calibrate an inference procedure based on fundamental concepts derived from statistical physics, which allows to generate ensembles of directed weighted networks intended to represent the real system—so that the real network properties can be estimated as their average values within the ensemble. We test the method both on synthetic and empirical networks, focusing on the properties that are commonly used to measure systemic risk. Indeed, the method shows a remarkable robustness with respect to the limitedness of the information available, thus representing a valuable tool for gaining insights on privacy-protected economic and financial systems. PMID:26507849

  2. Economic solvency in the context of violence against women: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, Heidi; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this concept analysis is to define economic solvency in the context of violence against women. Poverty, or lack of resources, is often discussed as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. The concept of economic solvency, which may be a protective factor for women, is less often discussed and not well defined. Databases searched for the analysis included EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed and Gender Watch. The Rodgers evolutionary method was used to perform the concept analysis. A total of 134 articles were retrieved, using the specified search terms 'economic solvency and women', 'economic self-reliance and women' and 'economic self-sufficiency and women'. Articles were included if they were peer reviewed, contained the keywords with sufficient context to determine the author's intended meaning, and focused on women only or contrasted men to women. Thirty-five articles were used in the concept analysis. The definition of economic solvency drawn from the concept analysis is: a long-term state that occurs when there is societal structure that supports gender equity and external resources are available and can be used by a woman who has necessary human capital, sustainable employment and independence. Just as poverty and violence are cyclical, so are economic solvency and empowerment of women. To decrease women's risk of intimate partner violence around the world and further improve the status of women, we recommend continued research on economic solvency, including the individual, family, community and societal resources required to obtain economic solvency and the human capital characteristics needed for sustainability.

  3. Ecosystems, ecological restoration, and economics: does habitat or resource equivalency analysis mean other economic valuation methods are not needed?

    PubMed

    Shaw, W Douglass; Wlodarz, Marta

    2013-09-01

    Coastal and other area resources such as tidal wetlands, seagrasses, coral reefs, wetlands, and other ecosystems are often harmed by environmental damage that might be inflicted by human actions, or could occur from natural hazards such as hurricanes. Society may wish to restore resources to offset the harm, or receive compensation if this is not possible, but faces difficult choices among potential compensation projects. The optimal amount of restoration efforts can be determined by non-market valuation methods, service-to-service, or resource-to-resource approaches such as habitat equivalency analysis (HEA). HEA scales injured resources and lost services on a one-to-one trade-off basis. Here, we present the main differences between the HEA approach and other non-market valuation approaches. Particular focus is on the role of the social discount rate, which appears in the HEA equation and underlies calculations of the present value of future damages. We argue that while HEA involves elements of economic analysis, the assumption of a one-to-one trade-off between lost and restored services sometimes does not hold, and then other non-market economic valuation approaches may help in restoration scaling or in damage determination.

  4. Economic Analysis of a Postulated space Tourism Transportation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Allan S.

    2002-01-01

    Design concepts and associated costs were defined for a family of launch vehicles supporting a space tourism endeavor requiring the weekly transport of space tourists to and from an Earth- orbiting facility. The stated business goal for the Space Tourist Transportation System (STTS) element of the proposed commercial space venture was to transport and return ~50 passengers a week to LEO at a cost of roughly 50 K per seat commencing in 2005. This paper summarizes the economic analyses conducted within a broader Systems Engineering study of the postulated concept. Parametric costs were derived using TransCostSystems' (TCS) Cost Engineering Handbook, version 7. Costs were developed as a function of critical system characteristics and selected business scenarios. Various economic strategies directed toward achieving a cost of ~50 K per seat were identified and examined. The study indicated that with a `nominal' business scenario, the initial cost for developing and producing a fully reusable, 2-stage STTS element for a baseline of 46-passengers was about 15.5 B assuming a plausible `commercialization factor' of 0.333. The associated per-seat ticket cost was ~890 K, more than an order of magnitude higher than desired. If the system is enlarged to 104 passengers for better efficiency, the STTS initial cost for the nominal business scenario is increased to about 19.8 B and the per-seat ticket cost is reduced to ~530 K. It was concluded that achieving the desired ticket cost of 50 K per seat is not feasible unless the size of the STTS, and therefore of the entire system, is substantially increased. However, for the specified operational characteristics, it was shown that a system capacity of thousands of passengers per week is required. This implies an extremely high total system development cost, which is not very realistic as a commercial venture, especially in the proposed time frame. These results suggested that ambitious commercial space ventures may have to rely on

  5. Economic growth analysis system (E-GAS) for EPA region 1 - northeast area (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The E - Gas modeling system is a forecast model used to predict National and regional economic activity in order to estimate attainment of ozone and photochemical air quality standards. Since growth in source emissions largely depends on the amount of economic activity growth in an area, a consistent set of growth factors requires forecasts using consistent Gross National Product (GNP) forecasts and a consistent methodology for estimating economic activity in Urban Airshed Model (UAM) and Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) modeling regions. The need for consistent economic growth facts, however, must be satisfied in a way that allows States to use their own estimates of National and regional economic activity. The Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) is an economic and activity forecast model which satisfies both of these standards. The E-GAS modeling system contains three tiers. The first tier includes available national economic forecasts which are used to drive the regional economic models. The second tier includes regional economic models for the UAM modeling areas, as well as the States in the ROM modeling regions. The third tier estimates fuel consumption, physical output, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) based on the second tier`s regional economic forecasts. The tiers must be sequentially executed, since data are created by and passed from early tiers for transfers to later tiers. The three-tiered structure of E-GAS allows users flexibility in modeling. Although a tier must be run before preceding to later tiers, the system allows the models to be rerun at the user`s discretion. For example, users may run the National model using either BLS or WEFA forecasts before performing regional modeling on the last national model run. E-GAS is designed such that growth factor projection scenarios for each nonattainment area and attainment portion of States can be made using a common assumption about future U.S. economic activity.

  6. Entropy analysis in foreign exchange markets and economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jin-Gi; Yim, Kyubin; Kim, Seunghwan; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in 11 foreign exchange markets by using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity algorithm and several entropy values such as the Shannon entropy, the approximate entropy, and the sample entropy. With daily data in 11 foreign exchange markets from Jan. 2000 to Sep. 2011, we observe that mature markets have higher LZ complexities and entropy values than emerging markets. Furthermore, with sliding time windows, we also investigate the temporal evolutions of those entropies from Jan. 1994 to Sep. 2011, and we find that, after an economic crisis, the approximate entropy and the sample entropy of mature markets such as Japan, Europe and the United Kingdom suddenly become lower.

  7. Rankine engine solar power generation. I - Performance and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gossler, A. A.; Orrock, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a computer simulation of the performance of a solar flat plate collector powered electrical generation system are presented. The simulation was configured to include locations in New Mexico, North Dakota, Tennessee, and Massachusetts, and considered a water-based heat-transfer fluid collector system with storage. The collectors also powered a Rankine-cycle boiler filled with a low temperature working fluid. The generator was considered to be run only when excess solar heat and full storage would otherwise require heat purging through the collectors. All power was directed into the utility grid. The solar powered generator unit addition was found to be dependent on site location and collector area, and reduced the effective solar cost with collector areas greater than 400-670 sq m. The sites were economically ranked, best to worst: New Mexico, North Dakota, Massachusetts, and Tennessee.

  8. Economic analysis of gradual "social exhaustion" of waste management capacity.

    PubMed

    Koide, Hideo; Nakayama, Hirofumi

    2013-12-01

    This article proposes to analyze the quantitative effects of a gradual physical and "social" exhaustion of a landfill site on an equilibrium waste management service. A gradual social exhaustion of a landfill is defined here as an upward shift of a "subjective factor" associated with the amount of waste, based on the plausible hypothesis that an individual will not accept excessive presence of landfilled waste. Physical exhaustion occurs when the absolute capacity of a landfill site decreases. The paper shows some numerical examples using specific functions and parameters, and proposes appropriate directions for three policy objectives: to decrease the equilibrium waste disposal, to increase the economic surplus of the individual and/or the waste management firm, and to lower the equilibrium collection fee.

  9. Behavioral economic analysis of demand for fuel in North America.

    PubMed

    Reed, Derek D; Partington, Scott W; Kaplan, Brent A; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research clearly indicates that human behavior is contributing to climate change, notably, the use of fossil fuels as a form of energy for everyday behaviors. This dependence on oil in North America has led to assertions that the current level of demand is the social equivalent to an "addiction." The purpose of this study was to apply behavioral economic demand curves-a broadly applicable method of evaluating relative reinforcer efficacy in behavioral models of addiction-to North American oil consumption to examine whether such claims of oil addiction are warranted. Toward this end, we examined government data from the United States and Canada on per capita energy consumption for transportation and oil prices between 1995 and 2008. Our findings indicate that consumption either persisted or simultaneously increased despite sharp increases in oil price per barrel over the past decade.

  10. Impact of climate on energy sector in economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, H.E.; LeDuc, S.K.

    1981-12-01

    Assessments of economic conditions by region or sector attempt to include relevant climatic variability through residual adjustment techniques. There is no direct consideration of climatic fluctuations. Three recent severe winters combined with the increasing price of energy have intensified the need to quantify the interaction of climate with the energy sector of the economy. This paper presents examples of the uses of climatic data by utilities, public service commissions and the NOAA Center for Environmental Assessment Services to determine econoclimatic energy relationships at the local, state, regional and national levels. A technique based on the linear relationships between heating degree days and natural gas consumption for space heating is used to quantify the interaction of climate and prices on gas consumption. This provides regional estimates of the response of gas consumption to degree days and price.

  11. Subfield profitability analysis reveals an economic case for cropland diversification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, E.; McNunn, G. S.; Schulte, L. A.; Bonner, I. J.; Muth, D. J.; Babcock, B. A.; Sharma, B.; Heaton, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Public agencies and private enterprises increasingly desire to achieve ecosystem service outcomes in agricultural systems, but are limited by perceived conflicts between economic and ecosystem service goals and a lack of tools enabling effective operational management. Here we use Iowa—an agriculturally homogeneous state representative of the Maize Belt—to demonstrate an economic rationale for cropland diversification at the subfield scale. We used a novel computational framework that integrates disparate but publicly available data to map ˜3.3 million unique potential management polygons (9.3 Mha) and reveal subfield opportunities to increase overall field profitability. We analyzed subfield profitability for maize/soybean fields during 2010-2013—four of the most profitable years in recent history—and projected results for 2015. While cropland operating at a loss of US 250 ha-1 or more was negligible between 2010 and 2013 at 18 000-190 000 ha (<2% of row-crop land), the extent of highly unprofitable land increased to 2.5 Mha, or 27% of row-crop land, in the 2015 projection. Aggregation of these areas to the township level revealed ‘hotspots’ for potential management change in Western, Central, and Northeast Iowa. In these least profitable areas, incorporating conservation management that breaks even (e.g., planting low-input perennials), into low-yielding portions of fields could increase overall cropland profitability by 80%. This approach is applicable to the broader region and differs substantially from the status quo of ‘top-down’ land management for conservation by harnessing private interest to align profitability with the production of ecosystem services.

  12. An economic analysis on optical Ethernet in the access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Hwi; Nam, Dohyun; Yoo, Gunil; Kim, WoonHa

    2004-04-01

    Nowadays, Broadband service subscribers have increased exponentially and have almost saturated in Korea. Several types of solutions for broadband service applied to the field. Among several types of broadband services, most of subscribers provided xDSL service like ADSL or VDSL. Usually, they who live in an apartment provided Internet service by Ntopia network as FTTC structure that is a dormant network in economical view at KT. Under competitive telecom environment for new services like video, we faced with needing to expand or rebuild portions of our access networks, are looking for ways to provide any service that competitors might offer presently or in the near future. In order to look for new business model like FTTH service, we consider deploying optical access network. In spite of numerous benefits of PON until now, we cannot believe that PON is the best solution in Korea. Because we already deployed optical access network of ring type feeder cable and have densely population of subscribers that mainly distributed inside 6km from central office. So we try to utilize an existing Ntopia network for FTTH service under optical access environment. Despite of such situations, we try to deploy PON solution in the field as FTTC or FTTH architecture. Therefore we analyze PON structure in comparison with AON structure in order to look for optimized structure in Korea. At first, we describe the existing optical access networks and network architecture briefly. Secondly we investigate the cost of building optical access networks by modeling cost functions on AON and PON structure which based on Ethernet protocol, and analyze two different network architectures according to different deployment scenarios: Urban, small town, rural. Finally we suggest the economic and best solution with PON structure to optimize to optical access environment of KT.

  13. Randomizing world trade. II. A weighted network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Fagiolo, Giorgio; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2011-10-01

    Based on the misleading expectation that weighted network properties always offer a more complete description than purely topological ones, current economic models of the International Trade Network (ITN) generally aim at explaining local weighted properties, not local binary ones. Here we complement our analysis of the binary projections of the ITN by considering its weighted representations. We show that, unlike the binary case, all possible weighted representations of the ITN (directed and undirected, aggregated and disaggregated) cannot be traced back to local country-specific properties, which are therefore of limited informativeness. Our two papers show that traditional macroeconomic approaches systematically fail to capture the key properties of the ITN. In the binary case, they do not focus on the degree sequence and hence cannot characterize or replicate higher-order properties. In the weighted case, they generally focus on the strength sequence, but the knowledge of the latter is not enough in order to understand or reproduce indirect effects.

  14. Hestian Hermeneutics: A Lens of Analysis for Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia J.

    Feminist and women scholars in all disciplines have challenged the traditional masculist "lens of analysis" and have sought to bring into focus the "missing text" of female experience. This paper proposes an alternative to gender-bound lens of analysis because either or both masculist and feminist lenses are too limited to…

  15. Uncertainty analysis and global sensitivity analysis of techno-economic assessments for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhang-Chun; Zhenzhou, Lu; Zhiwen, Liu; Ningcong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    There are various uncertain parameters in the techno-economic assessments (TEAs) of biodiesel production, including capital cost, interest rate, feedstock price, maintenance rate, biodiesel conversion efficiency, glycerol price and operating cost. However, fewer studies focus on the influence of these parameters on TEAs. This paper investigated the effects of these parameters on the life cycle cost (LCC) and the unit cost (UC) in the TEAs of biodiesel production. The results show that LCC and UC exhibit variations when involving uncertain parameters. Based on the uncertainty analysis, three global sensitivity analysis (GSA) methods are utilized to quantify the contribution of an individual uncertain parameter to LCC and UC. The GSA results reveal that the feedstock price and the interest rate produce considerable effects on the TEAs. These results can provide a useful guide for entrepreneurs when they plan plants.

  16. Market and economic analysis of residential photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabors, R. D.

    1982-06-01

    The overall structure of a project to evaluate the U.S. residential photovoltaic market or markets is reviewed and experience obtained before cuts in federal funding for the project were reduced is summarized. Topics covered include residential worth analysis, (including retrofit applications); evaluation of presently available regional, econometric models which could be used to project housing stocks; and the analysis of retrofit potential for residential photovoltaic power systems given available roof area.

  17. An economic analysis of unilateral refusals to license intellectual  property

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Richard J.; Shapiro, Carl

    1996-01-01

    The intellectual property laws in the United States provide the owners of intellectual property with discretion to license the right to use that property or to make or sell products that embody the intellectual property. However, the antitrust laws constrain the use of property, including intellectual property, by a firm with market power and may place limitations on the licensing of intellectual property. This paper focuses on one aspect of antitrust law, the so-called “essential facilities doctrine,” which may impose a duty upon firms controlling an “essential facility” to make that facility available to their rivals. In the intellectual property context, an obligation to make property available is equivalent to a requirement for compulsory licensing. Compulsory licensing may embrace the requirement that the owner of software permit access to the underlying code so that others can develop compatible application programs. Compulsory licensing may undermine incentives for research and development by reducing the value of an innovation to the inventor. This paper shows that compulsory licensing also may reduce economic efficiency in the short run by facilitating the entry of inefficient producers and by promoting licensing arrangements that result in higher prices. PMID:8917489

  18. Economic analysis of residential and commercial solar heating and hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-23

    The economic evaluation of residential and commercial solar heating and hot water systems is presented. Commercial systems are further categorized as taxable and non-taxable applications in recognition of the effect of Federal and state tax incentives and disincentives for solar energy systems. The economic evaluation of each system type is performed utilizing two distinct methods of analysis. The economic analyses follow a brief description of each method. The Cash Flow Analyses provide insight into the short and long term effects of a solar investment on the budget of the solar energy system purchaser while the Return-On-Investment Analyses provide an appropriate method of measuring the attractiveness of a solar investment in comparison to alternative long term investments. Utilizing a typical system for each system type and application the Cash Flow and Return-On-Investment Analyses are presented. The sensitivity of the results on the numerous variables in the economic analyses is shown. Maps provide a graphic display of the results of the economic analysis of typical systems using Federal and state tax credits and average state conventional fuel costs for each system type. Conclusions based on the economic analyses performed and a thorough discussion of the present status of the data required for the complete economic evaluation of solar energy systems are summarized. The current availability and limitations of data and requirements for further work in this area are discussed.

  19. Military construction program economic analysis manual: Text and appendixes: Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This manual enables the US Air Force to comprehensively and systematically analyze alternative approaches to meeting its military construction requirements. The manual includes step-by-step procedures for completing economic analyses for military construction projects, beginning with determining if an analysis is necessary. Instructions and a checklist of the tasks involved for each step are provided; and examples of calculations and illustrations of completed forms are included. The manual explains the major tasks of an economic analysis, including identifying the problem, selecting realistic alternatives for solving it, formulating appropriate assumptions, determining the costs and benefits of the alternatives, comparing the alternatives, testing the sensitivity of major uncertainties, and ranking the alternatives. Appendixes are included that contain data, indexes, and worksheets to aid in performing the economic analyses. For reference, Volume 2 contains sample economic analyses that illustrate how each form is filled out and that include a complete example of the documentation required. 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  1. Assessment of DOE radioactive scrap metal disposition options: Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.R.; Kasper, K.M.; Bossert, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    The analysis defines a baseline management approach for the estimated 1.2 million tons of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) expected to be generated from DOE deactivation and decommissioning activities, and compares two options using a net cost model. The baseline and competing options are described here. Baseline: Packaging and land disposal of RSM using standard DOE procedures, and procurement of a virgin-metal waste container (for comparative analysis with competing options). Option 1: RSM recycling by melting and fabrication into limited reuse products, generally waste containers. The analysis considers different types of waste container products. Option 2: RSM recycling by decontamination and release of scrap metal into commercial markets, and procurement of a comparable virgin-metal waste container. The analysis concludes that, for standard waste container products, the net cost of recycling RSM under Option 2 is lower than the net cost of recycling RSM under Option 1, considering the projected costs of melting RSM and fabricating drums and boxes. The analysis also suggests that the preferred products for recycling under Option 1 are specialized waste containers fabricated with high-value metals (e.g. stainless steel Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters). Other factors favoring each of the recycling options, are also identified.

  2. What is the value of graduate education? An economic analysis of Army Medical Department Graduate Programs.

    PubMed

    Bewley, Lee W; Broom, Kevin D; Bonica, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Current and forward-looking resource constraints within the federal health system and general health market are generating questions of fiscal or economic viability of a number of programs including graduate education. This article establishes a framework for assessing economic value among graduate health-related programs within the Army Medical Department. The findings of this analysis indicated that the programs evaluated in the study generate positive economic value based on a market-based valuation of extrinsic benefits compared to extrinsic costs for conducting graduate education within each of the programs. Suggestions for future research and policy application are also discussed.

  3. Environmental NGOs in Ecuador: an economic analysis of institutional change.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C A

    1993-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Latin America have grown more rapidly than has our understanding of the economic and political implications of this major institutional change. In Ecuador, between 1984 and late 1992, at least 24 new environmental NGOs emerged. An economist does a case study of them, especially Fundacion Natura (FN) in Ecuador, to understand their role and behavior which are a large part of environmental politics in Latin America. NGOs are successful because the public sector cannot meet the countries' needs and donors want to help NGOs, thereby providing the demand. For example, FN has received funding from USAID, World Wildlife Fund, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, and other groups. FN charges donors 15% to cover administrative costs while many other NGOs do not receive international funding for administrative costs. FN is well connected with the public sector which is supportive and beneficial. FN activities complement the public sector's efforts in the environment. Further, it is well connected with private industry from whom it receives financial support. It has been criticized for supporting industry on some environmental issues, however. In fact, its Cuenca chapter split from FN in 1984 to form Tierra Viva, because FN sided with industry when industry wanted to build on agricultural land in Cuenca. FN's relationship with USAID is strained. FN is successful because it employs quality personnel who are committed to FN objectives. Yet FN and other NGOs do not have the monetary incentives for efficient production. Most other NGOs are financially strapped and depend on volunteers. The more radical environmental NGOs do not accept donations from the private sector and do not want to work with government. Despite the influence donors have on NGOs, the NGOs' powerful presence and their environmental education programs have consequences beyond donor control (e.g., FN and USAID).

  4. Analysis of the effectiveness of industrial R and D. [costs and impact on economic growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, W. H.; Kleiman, H. S.; Moore, J. L.; Triplett, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    The criteria used by private industry in evaluating and selecting proposed research and development projects for implementation, and also in determining which R and D facilities are to be acquired were investigated. Conceptual and practical issues inherent in any quantitative analysis of the contribution of R and D to economic growth were identified in order to assist NASA in developing approaches for analzying the economic implication of its own R and D efforts.

  5. Economics definitions, methods, models, and analysis procedures for Homeland Security applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Loose, Verne William; Vargas, Vanessa N.; Smith, Braeton J.; Warren, Drake E.; Downes, Paula Sue; Eidson, Eric D.; Mackey, Greg Edward

    2010-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the types of economic methodologies and models used by Sandia economists in their consequence analysis work for the National Infrastructure Simulation & Analysis Center and other DHS programs. It describes the three primary resolutions at which analysis is conducted (microeconomic, mesoeconomic, and macroeconomic), the tools used at these three levels (from data analysis to internally developed and publicly available tools), and how they are used individually and in concert with each other and other infrastructure tools.

  6. Economic Risk Analysis: Using Analytical and Monte Carlo Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Brendan R.; Hickner, Michael A.; Barna, Bruce A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and instructional use of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet template that facilitates analytical and Monte Carlo risk analysis of investment decisions. Discusses a variety of risk assessment methods followed by applications of the analytical and Monte Carlo methods. Uses a case study to illustrate use of the spreadsheet tool…

  7. An Economical Method for Static Headspace Enrichment for Arson Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen, Bjorn

    2010-01-01

    Static headspace analysis of accelerants from suspected arsons is accomplished by placing an arson sample in a sealed container with a carbon strip suspended above the sample. The sample is heated, cooled to room temperature, and then the organic components are extracted from the carbon strip with carbon disulfide followed by gas chromatography…

  8. An Economic Analysis of Occupational Licensure. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayack, Elton

    To examine the hypothesis that occupational licensure is primarily a restrictive device to protect those licensed from competition, analysis focused on the licensure of non-professional occupations in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, covering 36 licenses issued by the three states for 12 occupations (e.g. electricians, barbers,…

  9. Conducting On-Farm Animal Research: Procedures & Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Pervaiz; Knipscheer, Hendrik C.

    This book is intended to give animal scientists elementary tools to perform on-farm livestock analysis and to provide crop-oriented farming systems researchers with methods for conducting animal research. Chapter 1 describes farming systems research as a systems approach to on-farm animal research. Chapter 2 outlines some important…

  10. An Economic Analysis of Military Family Housing: Should the Government Continue to Privatize?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING : SHOULD THE GOVERNMENT CONTINUE TO PRIVATIZE? THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of...ANALYSIS OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING : SHOULD THE GOVERNMENT CONTINUE TO PRIVATIZE? Chad A. Woods, B.S. Captain, USAF...Providing military family housing has always been a difficult task for the United States government . To solve the latest housing short fall

  11. An Economic Wellbeing Index for the Spanish Provinces: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murias, Pilar; Martinez, Fidel; De Miguel, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the estimation of a synthetic economic wellbeing index using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The DEA is a multidimensional technique that has its origins in efficiency analysis, but its usage within the social indicators context is particularly appropriate. It allows the researcher to take advantage of the inherent…

  12. ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGIES TO TREAT MERCURY AND DISPOSE IN A WASTE CONTAINMENT FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is intended to describe an economic and environmental analysis of a number of technologies for the treatment and disposal of elemental mercury. The analysis considers three treatment technologies that convert elemental mercury into a stable form of mercury. The techno...

  13. Full-scale phosphorus recovery from digested wastewater sludge in Belgium - part II: economic opportunities and risks.

    PubMed

    Geerts, Sam; Marchi, Adrien; Weemaes, Marjoleine

    2015-01-01

    One of the options to recycle phosphorus (P) in the wastewater sector is to recover it as struvite crystals from digested sludge. Measurements on a full-scale demonstration plant in Leuven, Belgium, yielded a first indication of the profitability of struvite recovery, in function of different variables such as incoming PO(4)(3-) concentration, MgCl₂dosing, improved dewaterability, etc. An uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was carried out. Although possible improvement in sludge dewaterability when recovering struvite from digested sludge has a positive economic amortization effect, it is at the same time the largest source of financial risk. A theoretical exercise showed that for struvite recovery from centrate, uncertainty would be lower, and the largest sensitivity would be attributed to ingoing PO(4)(3-) concentration. Although struvite recovery from digested sludge is riskier, it is an investment with potentially a higher return than investment in struvite recovery from centrate. The article provides information for possible financial incentive schemes to support P-recovery.

  14. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Vargas, Vanessa N; Jones, Shannon M; Dealy, Bern Caudill; Shaneyfelt, Calvin; Smith, Braeton James; Moreland, Barbara Denise

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  15. Ex post power economic analysis of record of decision operational restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam.

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-07-31

    On October 9, 1996, Bruce Babbitt, then-Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed the Record of Decision (ROD) on operating criteria for the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD). Criteria selected were based on the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) Alternative as described in the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Arizona, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (Reclamation 1995). These restrictions reduced the operating flexibility of the hydroelectric power plant and therefore its economic value. The EIS provided impact information to support the ROD, including an analysis of operating criteria alternatives on power system economics. This ex post study reevaluates ROD power economic impacts and compares these results to the economic analysis performed prior (ex ante) to the ROD for the MLFF Alternative. On the basis of the methodology used in the ex ante analysis, anticipated annual economic impacts of the ROD were estimated to range from approximately $15.1 million to $44.2 million in terms of 1991 dollars ($1991). This ex post analysis incorporates historical events that took place between 1997 and 2005, including the evolution of power markets in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council as reflected in market prices for capacity and energy. Prompted by ROD operational restrictions, this analysis also incorporates a decision made by the Western Area Power Administration to modify commitments that it made to its customers. Simulated operations of GCD were based on the premise that hourly production patterns would maximize the economic value of the hydropower resource. On the basis of this assumption, it was estimated that economic impacts were on average $26.3 million in $1991, or $39 million in $2009.

  16. Compendium of Operations Research and Economic Analysis Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    whipping cream, half and half, sour cream and yogurt . Analysis shows that the Minnesota-Wisconsin (M-W) Manufacturing Grade Price Series provide a good...continues. In logistics parlance, parts obsolescence is known as a Diminishing Manufacturing Source ([MS) problem. Continued supply of an obsolete [143 item... manufacture the processed products. The report provides the recommended EPA factors for each product. I ISC-91-PIO001. Final Report an Axsiticn

  17. Economic-Analysis Program for a Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    Prices and profits of alternative designs compared. Objective of Land Mobile Satellite Service Finance Report (LMSS) program is to provide means for comparing alternative designs of LMSS systems. Program is Multiplan worksheet program. Labels used in worksheet chosen for satellite-based cellular communication service, but analysis not restricted to such cases. LMSS written for interactive execution with Multiplan (version 1.2) and implemented on IBM PC series computer operating under DOS (version 2.11).

  18. Economic Evaluation in Global Perspective: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Catherine; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara

    2016-02-01

    We present a bibliometric analysis of recently published full economic evaluations of health interventions and reflect critically on the implications of our findings for this growing field. We created a database drawing on 14 health, economic, and/or general literature databases for articles published between 1 January 2012 and 3 May 2014 and identified 2844 economic evaluations meeting our criteria. We present findings regarding the sensitivity, specificity, and added value of searches in the different databases. We examine the distribution of publications between countries, regions, and health areas studied and compare the relative volume of research with disease burden. We analyse authors' country and institutional affiliations, journals and journal type, language, and type of economic evaluation conducted. More than 1200 economic evaluations were published annually, of which 4% addressed low-income countries, 4% lower-middle-income countries, 14% upper-middle-income countries, and 83% high-income countries. Across country income levels, 53, 54, 86, and 100% of articles, respectively, included an author based in a country within the income level studied. Biomedical journals published 74% of economic evaluations. The volume of research across health areas correlates more closely with disease burden in high-income than in low-income and middle-income countries. Our findings provide an empirical basis for further study on methods, research prioritization, and capacity development in health economic evaluation.

  19. An Economic Analysis of Generation IV Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J S; Lamont, A D; Rothwell, G S; Smith, C F; Greenspan, E; Brown, N; Barak, A

    2002-03-01

    This report examines some conditions necessary for Generation IV Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) to be competitive in the world energy market. The key areas that make nuclear reactors an attractive choice for investors are reviewed, and a cost model based on the ideal conditions is developed. Recommendations are then made based on the output of the cost model and on conditions and tactics that have proven successful in other industries. The Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS), a specific SMR design concept, is used to develop the cost model and complete the analysis because information about the ENHS design is readily available from the University of California at Berkeley Nuclear Engineering Department. However, the cost model can be used to analyze any of the current SMR designs being considered. On the basis of our analysis, we determined that the nuclear power industry can benefit from and SMRs can become competitive in the world energy market if a combination of standardization and simplification of orders, configuration, and production are implemented. This would require wholesale changes in the way SMRs are produced, manufactured and regulated, but nothing that other industries have not implemented and proven successful.

  20. Analysis of Antarctic Denitrification in 2003 Winter Observed by ILAS-II Onboard the ADEOS-II Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Saeki, K.; Sugita, T.

    2005-12-01

    Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC) play an important role in ozone destruction in both Arctic and Antarctic stratosphere in winter. They take up gas-phase nitric acid (HNO3) and grow up when temperature is below nitric acid saturation temperature (TNAT). When PSC becomes large, it starts to descend and nitric acid is removed from the air mass, resulting in denitrification. The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) successfully made measurements for the whole Antarctic winter in 2003. ILAS-II measured vertical profiles of O3, HNO3, NO2, H2O, N2O, CH4, ClONO2, N2O5, etc. in addition to the aerosol extinction coefficients at 780 nm. In this study, we analyzed denitrification from ILAS-II HNO3 and N2O data in regard to temperature history on the trajectory. The quantity of denitrification was estimated from the difference between measured HNO3 and HNO3* assumed from HNO3-- N2O correlation. In this analysis, it was found that denitrification was observed only for those airmass that experienced temperature below TICE (ice saturation temperature) in late June, 2003. In late July, it was found that most airmass inside the polar vortex was denitrified regardless of temperature history. This suggests that permanent denitrification has occurred in June-July period. The transition of relationship between denitrification and airmass temperature history was discovered from the ILAS-II data. Also, major types of PSC have found to be changed from nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in June to ice in July, from the ILAS-II data. This is considered to be due to the lack of nitric acid in the airmass due to the denitrification in July.

  1. Improving SFR Economics through Innovations from Thermal Design and Analysis Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Per F. Peterson

    2008-06-01

    Achieving economic competitiveness as compared to LWRs and other Generation IV (Gen-IV) reactors is one of the major requirements for large-scale investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants. Advances in R&D for advanced SFR fuel and structural materials provide key long-term opportunities to improve SFR economics. In addition, other new opportunities are emerging to further improve SFR economics. This paper provides an overview on potential ideas from the perspective of thermal hydraulics to improve SFR economics. These include a new hybrid loop-pool reactor design to further optimize economics, safety, and reliability of SFRs with more flexibility, a multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle to improve plant thermal efficiency and reduce safety related overnight and operation costs, and modern multi-physics thermal analysis methods to reduce analysis uncertainties and associated requirements for over-conservatism in reactor design. This paper reviews advances in all three of these areas and their potential beneficial impacts on SFR economics.

  2. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial "socially" performs in comparison with its alternatives. "Industrial economics" methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a "pragmatic regulatory impact analysis", that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is "pragmatic" in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess "what happens" with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  3. ENGINEERING ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A PROGRAM FOR ARTIFICIAL GROUNDWATER RECHARGE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric G.; Bredehoeft, John D.

    1984-01-01

    This study describes and demonstrates two alternate methods for evaluating the relative costs and benefits of artificial groundwater recharge using percolation ponds. The first analysis considers the benefits to be the reduction of pumping lifts and land subsidence; the second considers benefits as the alternative costs of a comparable surface delivery system. Example computations are carried out for an existing artificial recharge program in Santa Clara Valley in California. A computer groundwater model is used to estimate both the average long term and the drought period effects of artificial recharge in the study area. Results indicate that the costs of artificial recharge are considerably smaller than the alternative costs of an equivalent surface system. Refs.

  4. California-Wyoming Grid Integration Study: Phase 1 -- Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Schwabe, P.; Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.; Brinkman, G.; Paduru, A.; Diakov, V.; Hand, M.

    2014-03-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of two different renewable energy options for the California energy market between 2017 and 2020: 12,000 GWh per year from new California in-state renewable energy resources; and 12,000 GWh per year from Wyoming wind delivered to the California marketplace. Either option would add to the California resources already existing or under construction, theoretically providing the last measure of power needed to meet (or to slightly exceed) the state's 33% renewable portfolio standard. Both options have discretely measurable differences in transmission costs, capital costs (due to the enabling of different generation portfolios), capacity values, and production costs. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the two different options to provide additional insight for future planning.

  5. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  6. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  7. Techno-economic and Monte Carlo probabilistic analysis of microalgae biofuel production system.

    PubMed

    Batan, Liaw Y; Graff, Gregory D; Bradley, Thomas H

    2016-11-01

    This study focuses on the characterization of the technical and economic feasibility of an enclosed photobioreactor microalgae system with annual production of 37.85 million liters (10 million gallons) of biofuel. The analysis characterizes and breaks down the capital investment and operating costs and the production cost of unit of algal diesel. The economic modelling shows total cost of production of algal raw oil and diesel of $3.46 and $3.69 per liter, respectively. Additionally, the effects of co-products' credit and their impact in the economic performance of algal-to-biofuel system are discussed. The Monte Carlo methodology is used to address price and cost projections and to simulate scenarios with probabilities of financial performance and profits of the analyzed model. Different markets for allocation of co-products have shown significant shifts for economic viability of algal biofuel system.

  8. Economic inequality and economic crisis: a challenge for social workers.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-07-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The article identifies interrelated changes in ideology, the market economy, and government policies since the mid-1970s; contrasts the political economy of this period with the preceding post-World War II decades when the trend was toward a "shared prosperity"; and shows how increased economic inequality and political consequences that undermined democracy itself contributed to the economic meltdown. The analysis has implications for the direction of social reform and for broadening the constituency of social movements in pursuit of the social work mission of social justice. How social workers can contribute to such movements and to a reduction of economic and political inequality is explored.

  9. Analysis of the economics of typical business applications of solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    An economic analysis is provided of flat plate collector systems in industrial, commercial, and agricultural business applications in a variety of locations. A key element of the analysis is the federal solar investment tax credit. The SOLCOST Solar Energy Design Program is used for the study. The differences between industrial/agricultural and commercial applications are considered, as are finance and tax data and fuel data. The rate of return and payback are the criteria used to compare the economic viability of systems. Market penetration estimates for process steam were derived for seven southwestern states where direct solar radiation is highest. (LEW)

  10. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 2: Tug concepts analysis. Part 1: Overall approach and data generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of space tug operations is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) data base for orbit injection stages, (2) data base for reusable space tug, (3) performance equations, (4) data integration and interpretation, (5) tug performance and mission model accomodation, (6) total program cost, (7) payload analysis, (8) computer software, and (9) comparison of tug concepts.

  11. Solar Electric Generating System II finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dohner, J.L.; Anderson, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    On June 2, 1992, Landers` earthquake struck the Solar Electric Generating System II, located in Daggett, California. The 30 megawatt power station, operated by the Daggett Leasing Corporation (DLC), suffered substantial damage due to structural failures in the solar farm. These failures consisted of the separation of sliding joints supporting a distribution of parabolic glass mirrors. At separation, the mirrors fell to the ground and broke. It was the desire of the DLC and the Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and to redesign these joints so that, in the event of future quakes, costly breakage will be avoided. To accomplish this task, drawings of collector components were developed by the STDAC, from which a detailed finite element computer model of a solar collector was produced. This nonlinear dynamic model, which consisted of over 8,560 degrees of freedom, underwent model reduction to form a low order nonlinear dynamic model containing only 40 degrees of freedom. This model was then used as a design tool to estimate joint dynamics. Using this design tool, joint configurations were modified, and an acceptable joint redesign determined. The results of this analysis showed that the implementation of metal stops welded to support shafts for the purpose of preventing joint separation is a suitable joint redesign. Moreover, it was found that, for quakes of Landers` magnitude, mirror breakage due to enhanced vibration in the trough assembly is unlikely.

  12. Analysis of Myosin II Minifilament Orientation at Epithelial Zonula Adherens

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Magdalene; Liang, Xuan; Gomez, Guillermo A.

    2017-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II (NMII) form bipolar filaments, which bind F-actin to exert cellular contractility during physiological processes (Vicente-Manzanares et al., 2009). Using a combinatorial approach to fluorescently label both N- and C-termini of the NMII heavy chain, recent works have demonstrated the ability to visualize NMII bipolar filaments at various subcellular localizations (Ebrahim et al., 2013; Beach et al., 2014). At the zonula adherens (ZA) of epithelia, NMII minifilaments bind the circumferential actin bundles in a pseudo-sarcomeric manner (Ebrahim et al., 2013), a conformation required to maintain junctional tension and tissue integrity (Ratheesh et al., 2012). By expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-NMIIA heavy chain and immunolabel it using a NMIIA C-terminus specific antibody, we were able to visualize the NMII minifilaments bound to F-actin bundles in Caco-2 cells (Michael et al., 2016), as previously reported (Ebrahim et al., 2013; Beach et al., 2014). In addition, we designed an FIJI/MATLAB analysis module to quantify the size, distance and alignment of these minifilaments with respect to junctional F-actin at the ZA. Measurements of the dispersion of minifilaments angles were proven to be a useful parameter that closely correlated to the extent of contractility at junctions (Michael et al., 2016). PMID:28251171

  13. Clinical and economic analysis of spa therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Desboeuf, Karine; Thalamas, Claire; Galitzky, Monique; Senard, Jean-Michel; Rascol, Olivier; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2003-05-01

    The effectiveness of spa therapy in the management of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) has never been evaluated. This is assessed in this pilot study. A prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled study was conducted in 31 PD patients who underwent a 20-week spa period, including spa therapy for 3 weeks, and a 20-week non-spa period. Effectiveness was assessed using quality of life scales (PDQ-39 and SF-36), motor scale (UPDRS) and psychological questionnaire (GHQ-28), at baseline and at 4 (T4) and at 20 weeks (T20). Direct medical costs (radiological and laboratory tests, physician fees, drug therapy, and ancillary care) were recorded over each 20-week period. At T4, spa therapy improved significantly several dimensions of PDQ-39 and SF-36, part IV of the UPDRS, and GHQ-28. At T20, no difference in any parameter was found. The mean direct medical cost over 20 weeks (euro;1,328 +/- 167; pound 776 +/- 97 per patient) in the spa period was slightly but significantly reduced in comparison with that of the non-spa period (euro;1380 +/- 523; pound 807 +/- 306 per patient). This cost-effectiveness analysis suggests that spa therapy is more effective and less expensive than conventional treatment alone and could be beneficial in the management of PD.

  14. Economic analysis and assessment of syngas production using a modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hakkwan; Parajuli, Prem B.; Yu, Fei; Columbus, Eugene P.

    2011-08-10

    Economic analysis and modeling are essential and important issues for the development of current feedstock and process technology for bio-gasification. The objective of this study was to develop an economic model and apply to predict the unit cost of syngas production from a micro-scale bio-gasification facility. An economic model was programmed in C++ computer programming language and developed using a parametric cost approach, which included processes to calculate the total capital costs and the total operating costs. The model used measured economic data from the bio-gasification facility at Mississippi State University. The modeling results showed that the unit cost of syngas production was $1.217 for a 60 Nm-3 h-1 capacity bio-gasifier. The operating cost was the major part of the total production cost. The equipment purchase cost and the labor cost were the largest part of the total capital cost and the total operating cost, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that labor costs rank the top as followed by equipment cost, loan life, feedstock cost, interest rate, utility cost, and waste treatment cost. The unit cost of syngas production increased with the increase of all parameters with exception of loan life. The annual cost regarding equipment, labor, feedstock, waste treatment, and utility cost showed a linear relationship with percent changes, while loan life and annual interest rate showed a non-linear relationship. This study provides the useful information for economic analysis and assessment of the syngas production using a modeling approach.

  15. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biochemical Scenarios for Production of Cellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kazi, F. K.; Fortman, J.; Anex, R.; Kothandaraman, G.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Dutta, A.

    2010-06-01

    A techno-economic analysis on the production of cellulosic ethanol by fermentation was conducted to understand the viability of liquid biofuel production processes within the next 5-8 years. Initially, 35 technologies were reviewed, then a two-step down selection was performed to choose scenarios to be evaluated in a more detailed economic analysis. The lignocellulosic ethanol process was selected because it is well studied and portions of the process have been tested at pilot scales. Seven process variations were selected and examined in detail. Process designs were constrained to public data published in 2007 or earlier, without projecting for future process improvements. Economic analysis was performed for an 'nth plant' (mature technology) to obtain total investment and product value (PV). Sensitivity analysis was performed on PV to assess the impact of variations in process and economic parameters. Results show that the modeled dilute acid pretreatment process without any downstream process variation had the lowest PV of $3.40/gal of ethanol ($5.15/gallon of gasoline equivalent) in 2007 dollars. Sensitivity analysis shows that PV is most sensitive to feedstock and enzyme costs.

  16. Some reciprocal roles between behavior analysis and institutional economics in post-darwinian science

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Sigrid S.

    1985-01-01

    Behavior analysis and institutional economics are viewed as having common origins in the early 20th century effort to benefit from the conceptual revolution spurred by Darwin's synthesis. Institutional economics, initiated by Thorstein Veblen, appears to have failed to develop a progressive scientific technology, while behavior analysis has done so. It is suggested that institutional economics has been held back by lack of a synthesizing scientific mechanism that elucidates the relation between technological and ceremonial processes, the two cultural forces described by Veblen. The theory of institutional economist C. E. Ayres, built on Veblen's distinction, is used to clarify the concepts of technological and ceremonial processes for the reader. An analysis of the behavioral processes that might underlie the cultural processes described by Veblen/Ayres suggests that the experimental analysis of behavior has provided concepts that might function as a synthesizing mechanism for the social sciences and, in particular, institutional economics. The Veblen/Ayres dichotomy, now seen in terms of underlying behavioral processes, is used to examine the field of behavior analysis in terms of its origins, its relation to psychology and its current state. The paper concludes with a few practical suggestions as to how behavior analysts might work to enhance survival. PMID:22478617

  17. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  18. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee. Final report and appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  19. Techno-economic analysis of advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping

    2015-09-01

    This paper evaluates the economic feasibility of an integrated production pathway combining fast pyrolysis and bio-oil gasification. The conversion process is simulated with Aspen Plus® for a 2000 metric ton per day facility. Techno-economic analysis of this integrated pathway has been conducted. A total capital investment of $510 million has been estimated and the minimum fuel selling price (MSP) is $5.59 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis shows that the MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return, fuel yield, biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital investment. Monte-Carlo simulation shows that MSP for bio-oil gasification would be more than $6/gal with a probability of 0.24, which indicates this pathway is still at high risk with current economic and technical situation.

  20. Economic analysis of U.S. ethanol expansion issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Malika

    The dependency of the U.S. economy on crude oil imported from politically unstable countries, escalating energy demand world wide, growing nationwide environmental consciousness, and the Renewable Fuels Standards (RFS) government mandates are some of the primary factors that have provided a favorable environment for the growth and development of the U.S. ethanol industry. The first essay derives decision rules for a discrete-time dynamic hedging model in a multiple commodity framework under expected utility maximization and basis risk. It compares hedging performance of three types of hedging models, namely constant hedging, time-varying static hedging model and the new dynamic hedging rule derived in this study. Findings show that natural gas futures contracts were effective instruments for hedging ethanol spot price risk before March, 2005, when ethanol futures trading was initiated on the CBOT. However, post-March, 2005, corn and ethanol futures contracts proved to be efficient hedging instruments. Results also indicate that ethanol producers may effectively decrease variance of cumulative cash flows by hedging using ethanol, natural gas and corn futures prices using the traditional techniques. The study concludes that using the new dynamic hedge model in a three period and two commodity set up, producers can effectively reduce variance of cumulative cash flow by 13.2% as compared to the 'no hedge' scenario. In my second essay, I use choice based, conjoint analysis methods to estimate consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for alternative transportation fuels in the U.S. In this study, I consider unleaded gasoline and ethanol, which may be derived from corn or three different sources of cellulosic biomass as alternative transportation fuels. Results suggest that age and household income are some of the socioeconomic variables that significantly influence consumer's choice behavior. Results indicate considerable consumer preference heterogeneity. Welfare effects are

  1. Molecular analysis of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency with hepatocardiomuscular expression

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnefont, J.P.; Cepanec, C.; Leroux, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II deficiency, an inherited disorder of mitochondrial long-chain fatty-acid (LCFA) oxidation, results in two distinct clinical act phenotypes, namely, an adult (muscular) form and an infantile (hepatocardiomuscular) form. The rationale of this phenotypic heterogeneity is poorly understood. The adult form of the disease is commonly ascribed to the Ser-113-Leu substitution in CPT II. Only few data are available regarding the molecular basis of the infantile form of the disease. We report herein a homozygous A-2399-C transversion predicting a Tyr-628-Ser substitution in a CPT II-deficient infant. In vitro expression of mutant cDNA in COS-1 cells demonstrated the responsibility of this mutation for the disease. Metabolic consequences of the Ser-113-Leu and Tyr-628-Ser substitutions were studied in fibroblasts. The Tyr-628-Ser substitution (infantile form) resulted in a 10% CPT II residual activity, markedly impairing LCFA oxidation, whereas the Ser-113-Leu substitution (adult form) resulted in a 20% CPT II residual activity, without consequence on LCFA oxidation. These data show that CPT II activity has to be reduced below a critical threshold in order for LCFA oxidation in fibroblasts to be impaired. The hypothesis that this critical threshold differs among tissues could provide a basis to explain phenotypic heterogeneity of CPT II deficiency. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Economic Analysis of Nutrition Interventions for Chronic Disease Prevention: Methods, Research, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, John B.; Coates, Paul M.; Russell, Robert M.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Schuttinga, James A.; Bowman, Barbara A.; Peterson, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or health care policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and U.S. regulatory, policy and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. PMID:21884133

  3. The Economic Impact of Subsidized Child Care: An Economic Analysis of Valley Child Care from November 1976 to June 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freis, Ruth; Miller, Miriam

    This study examines the specific economic impact on the cost to government of subsidized child care and development services. Data were collected from all 295 families who used Valley Child Care services for more than six months, over a period of two and a half years. The data and results indicated significant economic effects of providing…

  4. Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed Title: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions Topic (must choose one item from a drop-down list): Community Indicators Learning Objectives (must list 2): • What are the benefits and l...

  5. 78 FR 47317 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public... United States. Interested parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to...

  6. SHYFEA/PRESHY (Small Hydroelectric Financial/Economic Analysis/PREprocessor to SHYfea): user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    To provide a complete, rapid approach to the financial/economic analysis of small hydroelectric rehabilitation, the computerized SHYFEA (Small Hydroelectric Financial/Economic Analysis) program was developed. This program provides five output modules: (1) Depreciation Schedule; (2) Facility Cash Flow; (3) Investor Cash Flow; (4) Economic Analysis Summary; and (5) a Developers Financial Analysis. An important additional option available to the user is the determination of those debt and equity values which will maximize the return to the investor over a user specified number of years and allowable values of negative facility cash flow. Studies of this optimization process have indicated that it is not necessarily true that it is to the investor's advantage to attempt maximum debt values to obtain interest leverage for tax sheltering income purposes. This manual describes both the SHYFEA and PRESHY programs, documents their basis and describes the user input and output results. Preshy is a terminal based, interaction preprocessor for the rapid creation of SHYFEA input data files; particularly for the case of multiple economic runs using the same reference depreciation schedule.

  7. ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGIES TO TREAT MERCURY AND DISPOSE IN A MONOFILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    If all of the chlor alkali plants in the world shut down, it is estimated that 25-30,000 metric tons of mercury would be available worldwide. This presentation is intended to describe the economic and environmental analysis of a number of technologies for the long term management...

  8. Economic analysis of animal disease outbreaks--BSE and Bluetongue disease as examples.

    PubMed

    Gethmann, Jörn; Probst, Carolina; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of research on animal disease control, economic evaluation of control measures is rather limited in veterinary medicine. This may, on the one hand, be due to the different types of costs and refunds and the different people and organizations bearing them, such as animal holders, county, region, state or European Union, but it may also be due to the fact that economic analyses are both complex and time consuming. Only recently attention has turned towards economic analysis in animal disease control. Examples include situations, when decisions between different control measures must be taken, especially if alternatives to culling or compulsory vaccination are under discussion. To determine an optimal combination of control measures (strategy), a cost-benefit analysis should be performed. It is not necessary to take decisions only based on the financial impact, but it becomes possible to take economic aspects into account. To this end, the costs caused by the animal disease and the adopted control measures must be assessed. This article presents a brief overview of the methodological approaches used to retrospectively analyse the economic impact of two particular relevant diseases in Germany in the last few years: Blue-tongue disease (BT) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

  9. Techno-economic analysis for the evaluation of three UCG synthesis gas end use approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Krawczyk, Piotr; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) enables the utilization of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable because of complex geological boundary conditions. In the present study we investigate UCG as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a synthesis gas and its application within three different utilization options. Related to geological boundary conditions and the chosen gasification agent, UCG synthesis gas composes of varying methane, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide amounts. In accordance to its calorific value, the processed UCG synthesis gas can be utilized in different manners, as for electricity generation in a combined cycle power plant or for feedstock production making use of its various chemical components. In the present study we analyze UCG synthesis gas utilization economics in the context of clean electricity generation with an integrated carbon capture and storage process (CCS) as well as synthetic fuel and fertilizer production (Kempka et al., 2010) based on a gas composition achieved during an in situ UCG trial in the Wieczorek Mine. Hereby, we also consider chemical feedstock production in order to mitigate CO2 emissions. Within a sensitivity analysis of UCG synthesis gas calorific value variations, we produce a range of capital and operational expenditure bandwidths that allow for an economic assessment of different synthesis gas end use approaches. To carry out the integrated techno-economic assessment of the coupled systems and the sensitivity analysis, we adapted the techno-economic UCG-CCS model developed by Nakaten et al. (2014). Our techno-economic modeling results demonstrate that the calorific value has a high impact on the economics of UCG synthesis gas utilization. In the underlying study, the synthesis gas is not suitable for an economic competitive electricity generation, due to the relatively low calorific value of 4.5 MJ/Nm³. To be a profitable option for electricity

  10. Quantitative analysis of peptide-MHC class II interaction.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, B; Jung, G; Wiesmüller, K H

    1999-12-01

    The tremendous progress in the field of basic immunology and immunochemistry made in the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of antigen processing and presentation by MHC class I and II proteins. In this review different techniques to study peptide interaction with MHC class II molecules are summarized and their impact on the elucidation of quantitative parameters, like affinities or kinetic data, is discussed. A recently introduced method based on synthetic combinatorial peptide libraries allows to quantify the binding contribution of each amino acid residue in a class II ligand and is presented in more detail. As this knowledge is fundamental for current investigations in modern medicine, e.g. for novel immune system based therapy concepts, further aspects like the design of new high affinity MHC class II ligands and the prediction of peptide antigens are discussed.

  11. Breeding goals for the Kenya dual purpose goat. II. Estimation of economic values for production and functional traits.

    PubMed

    Bett, R C; Kosgey, I S; Bebe, B O; Kahi, A K

    2007-10-01

    Economic values for production traits (milk yield, MY, kg; 12-month sale weight, LW, kg; consumable meat percentage, CMP) and functional traits (doe live weight, DoWT, kg; number of kids weaned, NKW; kidding frequency, KF; kidding rate, KR, %; doe weaning rate, DoWR, %; doe survival rate, DoSR, %; post-weaning survival rate, PoSR, %; pre-weaning survival rate, PrSR, % and; residual feed intake of yearlings, RFIgamma, kg and does RFId, kg) were estimated for the Kenya Dual Purpose goat (KDPG) for systems under two bases of evaluation. The production systems included smallholder low-potential (SLP), smallholder medium-potential (SMP) and smallholder high-potential (SHP), while the bases of evaluation considered were fixed flock-size and fixed feed resource. Under both bases of evaluation, economic values were highest in SMP apart from the economic values for feed intake-related traits (RFIy and RFId). In SMP, the economic values under fixed flock-size scenario were KSh 71.61 (LW), 20.90 (MY), 45.20 (CMP), 13.68 (NKW), 3.61 (KF), 6.52 (KR), 12.39 (DoWR), 22.96 (DoSR), 22.87 (PoSR), 13.18 (PrSR), -2.76 (RFIy) and -3.00 (RFId). The corresponding economic values under fixed feed resources scenario were KSh 73.28, 29.39, 45.20, 16.91, 4.76, 9.45, 13.84, 25.67, 25.15, 16.19, -2.76 and -3.00. Generally in all production systems, economic values for most traits were higher under fixed feed resource than under fixed flock-size scenario. In all systems, the economic values for most of the traits were sensitive to changes in prices of feed, milk and meat. The positive economic values for most traits under fixed flock-size scenario and fixed feed resource indicates that a unit increase in genetic merit for the traits would have a positive effect on the profitability of the systems.

  12. The FT-IR spectrometric analysis of the changes of polyphenol oxidase II secondary structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chunhua; Dai, Ya; Liu, Qingliang; Xie, Yongshu; Xu, Xiaolong

    2003-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase II is a novel protein purified from tobacco, which acts as a key role in plant defense system. From the analysis of FT-IR spectrums, Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD) spectrums and second-derivative spectrums of PPO II at different pH and peroxide PPO II adduct, the secondary structure fractions are analyzed. PPO II at low pH (pH=3.0) and peroxide PPO II adduct almost keep the same secondary structure of native PPO II. The percentages of β-turn and random coil increase rapidly and the percentages of α-helix and anti-parallel β-sheet decrease rapidly at high pH (pH=10.0) comparing with that of native PPO II. All these conclusions are proved by the secondary structure calculations of circular dichroism spectrums in different states.

  13. Analysis of xylosyltransferase II binding to the anticoagulant heparin.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Javier Carrera; Ambrosius, Michael; Kuhn, Joachim; Kleesiek, Knut; Götting, Christian

    2009-05-22

    The key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of glycosaminoglycan production are represented by the human xylosyltransferase I and its isoform II (XylT-I and XylT-II). The glycosaminoglycan heparin interacts with a variety of proteins, thereby regulating their activities, also those of xylosyltransferases. The identification of unknown amino acids responsible for heparin-binding of XylT-II was addressed in this study. Thus, six XylT-II fragments were designed as fusion proteins with MBP and we received soluble and purified MBP/XylT-II from Escherichia coli. Heparin-binding studies showed that all fragments bound with low affinity to heparin. Prolonging of XylT-II fragments did not account for a cooperative effect of multiple heparin-binding motifs and in turn for a stronger heparin-binding. Sequence alignment and surface polarity plot led to the identification of two highly positively charged Cardin-Weintraub motifs with surface accessibility, resulting in combination with short clusters of basic amino acids for strong heparin-binding of native xylosyltransferases.

  14. Analysis of xylosyltransferase II binding to the anticoagulant heparin

    SciTech Connect

    Casanova, Javier Carrera; Ambrosius, Michael; Kuhn, Joachim; Kleesiek, Knut; Goetting, Christian

    2009-05-22

    The key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of glycosaminoglycan production are represented by the human xylosyltransferase I and its isoform II (XylT-I and XylT-II). The glycosaminoglycan heparin interacts with a variety of proteins, thereby regulating their activities, also those of xylosyltransferases. The identification of unknown amino acids responsible for heparin-binding of XylT-II was addressed in this study. Thus, six XylT-II fragments were designed as fusion proteins with MBP and we received soluble and purified MBP/XylT-II from Escherichia coli. Heparin-binding studies showed that all fragments bound with low affinity to heparin. Prolonging of XylT-II fragments did not account for a cooperative effect of multiple heparin-binding motifs and in turn for a stronger heparin-binding. Sequence alignment and surface polarity plot led to the identification of two highly positively charged Cardin-Weintraub motifs with surface accessibility, resulting in combination with short clusters of basic amino acids for strong heparin-binding of native xylosyltransferases.

  15. Economic Analysis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) IN THE GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM (GWOT) by Boon Wah, Kwan Lai Yee Irene, Tan December 2008 Thesis...REPORT DATE December 2008 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Economic Analysis of Post-traumatic Stress ...This thesis addresses the trend analysis of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) prevalence across the different branches of armed services in the

  16. A comparative model and techno-economic analysis of next generation AON ethernet and TDM PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Larsen, Claus Popp; Gavler, Anders; Lannoo, Bart; Chiaroni, Dominique; Popov, Mikhail

    2010-12-01

    A global reference model covering next generation active and passive networks has been developed for techno-economic evaluations, and an extensive techno-economic analysis with a focus on CAPEX has been performed for 10G TDM PON and 1G AON - both capable of delivering 1Gbit/s to end-users. Two major cases have been considered: urban and rural at green field deployment. The results show that AON is less expensive than PON solution in urban case while in rural case 10G TDM PON is more competitive.

  17. Spatial Analysis on Future Housing Markets: Economic Development and Housing Implications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Lizhe

    2014-01-01

    A coupled projection method combining formal modelling and other statistical techniques was developed to delineate the relationship between economic and social drivers for net new housing allocations. Using the example of employment growth in Tyne and Wear, UK, until 2016, the empirical analysis yields housing projections at the macro- and microspatial levels (e.g., region to subregion to elected ward levels). The results have important implications for the strategic planning of locations for housing and employment, demonstrating both intuitively and quantitatively how local economic developments affect housing demand. PMID:24892097

  18. F-Chart handbook. Active solar system sizing and economic analysis program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, G. W.

    1981-04-01

    The program is applicable to active solar space and service water heating systems that incorporate typical flat-plate solar collectors. The program is based on the F-Chart method of estimating annual system thermal performance. This program uses a standard life-cycle cost analysis methodology to calculate optimum solar system size and present economic performance data. The F-Chart program is designed to be used by anyone interested in, or involved with, solar heating systems. This handbook describes both information input requirements and the resultant thermal and economic analyses.

  19. Indian Economic Development: An Evaluation of EDA's Selected Indian Reservation Program. Volume II: Individual Reservation Reports, Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise Cascade Center for Community Development, ID.

    As the appendices to an evaluation of the Economic Development Administration's (EDA) Selected Indian Reservation Program, this portion of the evaluation report presents individualized evaluations of each of the 16 reservations originally selected for the program in 1967. Each reservation evaluation is presented in terms of the following format:…

  20. An economic analysis of a multi-commodity fruit and vegetable irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.D.; Eakin, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Tingey, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Although irradiation of foods has been studied since the late 1940's and irradiation of grains and potatoes has been approved for years, only recently has the Food and Drug Administration approved irradiation of pork, fresh fruits and vegetables at doses up to 100 krad for commercial sale. A key element in commercializing irradiation technology by the food processing industry is economic viability. This paper presents an economic analysis for a multi-commodity fruit and vegetable irradiator processing apples, cherries, pears, asparagus, onions, and potatoes. Dose, throughput, and the schedule were examined. Design information and capital and operating costs for various sizes of irradiators are presented. The economics look promising, with typical costs in larger facilities in the range of a few cents per pound of product.

  1. An economic analysis of a multi-commodity fruit and vegetable irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.D.; Eakin, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Tingey, G.L.

    1987-07-01

    Although irradiation of foods has been studied since the late 1940's and irradiation of grains and potatoes has been approved for years, only recently has the Food and Drug Administration approved irradiation of pork, fresh fruits and vegetables at doses up to 100 krad for commercial sale. A key element in commercializing irradiation technology by the food processing industry is economic viability. This paper presents an economic analysis for a multi-commodity fruit and vegetable irradiator processing apples, cherries, pears, asparagus, onions, and potatoes. Dose, throughput, and the schedule were examined. Design information and capital and operating costs for various sizes of irradiators are presented. The economics look promising, with typical costs in larger facilities in the range of a few cents per pound of product. 12 refs., 7 tabs.

  2. Techno-economic analysis of corn stover fungal fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Pimphan; Tews, Iva J.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-11-01

    This techno-economic analysis assesses the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock by fungi in order to identify promising opportunities and the research needed to achieve them. Based on literature derived data, four different ethanologen strains are considered in this study: native and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the natural pentose-fermenting yeast, Pichia stipitis and the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Organism performance and technology readiness are split into three groups: near-term (<5 years), mid-term (5-10 years) and long-term (>10 years) process deployment. Processes classified as near-term could reasonably be developed in this shorter time frame, as suggested by recent literature. Mid-term technology process models are based on lab-scale experimental data, and yields near the theoretical limit are used to estimate long-term technology goals. Further research and economic evaluation on the integrated production of chemicals and fuels in biorefineries are recommended.

  3. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic residues in Colombia: a process simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Julián A; Moncada, Jonathan; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-07-01

    In this study a techno-economic analysis of the production of bioethanol from four lignocellusic (Sugarcane bagasse, Coffee cut-stems, Rice Husk, and Empty Fruit Bunches) residues is presented for the Colombian case. The ethanol production was evaluated using Aspen Plus and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer carrying out the simulation and the economic evaluation, respectively. Simulations included the composition of lignocellulosic residues, which was determined experimentally. It was found that empty fruit bunches presents the highest ethanol yield from a dry basis point of view (313.83 L/t), while rice husk produced less ethanol (250.56 L/t). The ethanol production cost was assessed for the standalone ethanol plant and the ethanol plant coupled with a cogeneration system. Moreover, ethanol production cost using EFB was the lowest with (0.49 US$/L) and without (0.58 US$/L) cogeneration scheme.

  4. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  5. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  6. A Statistical Analysis of the Economic Drivers of Battery Energy Storage in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Matthew; Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Anderson, Kate

    2016-11-21

    There is significant interest in using battery energy storage systems (BESS) to reduce peak demand charges, and therefore the life cycle cost of electricity, in commercial buildings. This paper explores the drivers of economic viability of BESS in commercial buildings through statistical analysis. A sample population of buildings was generated, a techno-economic optimization model was used to size and dispatch the BESS, and the resulting optimal BESS sizes were analyzed for relevant predictor variables. Explanatory regression analyses were used to demonstrate that peak demand charges are the most significant predictor of an economically viable battery, and that the shape of the load profile is the most significant predictor of the size of the battery.

  7. An empirical analysis of the effects of consanguineous marriages on economic development.

    PubMed

    Bildirici, Melike; Kökdener, Meltem; Ersin, Oezgür ömer

    2010-01-01

    In this study, development experiences toward economic development are investigated to provide an alternative analysis of economic development, human capital, and genetic inheritance in the light of consanguineous marriages. The countries analyzed in the study are discussed in accordance with consanguineous marriage practices and classified by their per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth. A broad range of countries are analyzed in the study. Arab countries that experienced high rates of growth in their gross national income during the twentieth century but failed to fulfill adequate development measures as reflected in the growth in national income, countries undergoing transition from tight government regulation to free market democracy, and African nations that have experienced complications in the process of development show important differences in the process of economic development. It is shown that the countries that have reached high average development within the context of per capita GDP have overcome problems integral to consanguineous marriage.

  8. Analysis of the Relationship Between Intra-Urban Vegetation Change and Socio-Economic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, L. M. G.; Boggione, G. A.; Monteiro, A. M. V.; Santos, R.

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the vegetation dynamics in urban areas in both quantitative and qualitative aspects is essential to population welfare and also to economic, social and environmental development. However, it is necessary appropriate tools for monitoring and analysis of the landscape dynamic in a systematic way. Therefore, this study proposes a methodology to analyze the relationship between intra-urban vegetation and the social-economic data using the integrated techniques of remote sensing and GIS as well as data mining. This research intends to answer questions such as: Is it possible to extract the intra-urban vegetation as well as identify the intra-urban vegetation changes from medium spatial resolution images and digital image processing techniques? Is it possible to establish a relationship between the intra-urban vegetation changes and social-economic information using data mining techniques?

  9. A Statistical Analysis of the Economic Drivers of Battery Energy Storage in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Matthew; Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Anderson, Katie

    2016-11-01

    There is significant interest in using battery energy storage systems (BESS) to reduce peak demand charges, and therefore the life cycle cost of electricity, in commercial buildings. This paper explores the drivers of economic viability of BESS in commercial buildings through statistical analysis. A sample population of buildings was generated, a techno-economic optimization model was used to size and dispatch the BESS, and the resulting optimal BESS sizes were analyzed for relevant predictor variables. Explanatory regression analyses were used to demonstrate that peak demand charges are the most significant predictor of an economically viable battery, and that the shape of the load profile is the most significant predictor of the size of the battery.

  10. Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  11. Mental health, places and people: a multilevel analysis of economic inactivity and social deprivation.

    PubMed

    Fone, David L; Dunstan, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Using data on 24,975 respondents to the Welsh Health Survey 1998 aged 17-74 years, we investigated associations between individual mental health status measured using the SF-36 instrument, social class, economic inactivity and the electoral division Townsend deprivation score. In a multilevel modelling analysis, we found mental health was significantly associated with the Townsend score after adjusting for composition, and this effect was strongest in respondents who were economically inactive. Further contextual effects were shown by significant random variability in the slopes of the relation between mental health and economic inactivity at the electoral division level. Our results suggest that the places in which people live affect their mental health, supporting NHS policy that multi-agency planning to reduce inequalities in mental health status should address the wider determinants of health, as well as services for individual patients.

  12. Economic Analysis of Requests for Laboratory Tests in Primary Health Care Centers

    PubMed Central

    Zunic, Lejla

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Operation of the Primary health care center and Medical-biochemical laboratories depends on the number of performed laboratory tests. The number of unnecessary tests significantly affect the operation of health institutions. Material and methods: We analyzed the 1000 requests for laboratory tests at the Primary Health Care Centre in Gracanica from primary care units. Based on the requests for laboratory diagnostics advisable diagnoses from primary health care unit in the Primary Health Care Center (PHC) we made an economic analysis of the total required laboratory tests in the requests for laboratory diagnosis. Incorporating the economic analysis of laboratory tests in requests for laboratory diagnosis by doctors in primary health care (PHC) and the economic analysis of laboratory tests by the disease in primary health care. Results: The economic value of 5333 laboratory tests was 84 312 points (1 point is 0.80 KM). Of the total value of the index score requirements of GPs are 44, 1%, the requirement of family doctors account for 40% and requirements of other specialists make up 15, 9%.. Discussion: In the requests of the PHC units for laboratory tests are required all levels of services: urine, CBC, SE, glucose, bilirubine, ALT, AST, AF, CK, cholesterol, HDL chol., triglicerdes, creatinine, urea, uric acid, CRP, fibrinogen, calcium and phosphorus. The following requests are the most common laboratory tests: urine, CBC, blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, aminotransferases, creatinine, urea. The doctors in family practice most often requested: blood glucose, urine, CBC, SE, TGL. , Chol., ALT, AST, creatinine and urea. General practitioners were demanding more cholesterol and triglycerides, and family medicine doctors were demanding less cholesterol and triglycerides and more often CRP, fibrinogen, ALT, AST, what from the level of economic cost analysis rises the issue whether this was justified? PMID:23322950

  13. Economic analysis of complementary, alternative, and integrative medicine: considerations raised by an expert panel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An international panel of experts was convened to examine the challenges faced in conducting economic analyses of Complementary, Alternative and Integrative Medicine (CAIM). Methods A one and a half-day panel of experts was convened in early 2011 to discuss what was needed to bring about robust economic analysis of CAIM. The goals of the expert panel were to review the current state of the science of economic evaluations in health, and to discuss the issues involved in applying these methods to CAIM, recognizing its unique characteristics. The panel proceedings were audiotaped and a thematic analysis was conducted independently by two researchers. The results were then discussed and differences resolved. This manuscript summarizes the discussions held by the panel members on each theme. Results The panel identified seven major themes regarding economic evaluation that are particularly salient to determining the economics of CAIM: standardization (in order to compare CAIM with conventional therapies, the same basic economic evaluation methods and framework must be used); identifying the question being asked, the audience targeted for the results and whose perspective is being used (e.g., the patient perspective is especially relevant to CAIM because of the high level of self-referral and out-of-pocket payment); the analytic methods to be used (e.g., the importance of treatment description and fidelity); the outcomes to be measured (e.g., it is important to consider a broad range of outcomes, particularly for CAIM therapies, which often treat the whole person rather than a specific symptom or disease); costs (e.g., again because of treating the whole person, the impact of CAIM on overall healthcare costs, rather than only disease-specific costs, should be measured); implementation (e.g., highlighting studies where CAIM allows cost savings may help offset its image as an “add on” cost); and generalizability (e.g., proper reporting can enable study

  14. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  15. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report X. Economic analysis and financial plan

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The economic evaluation presented in this volume is based upon the cost estimates developed in the Phase Zero effort and an evaluation of product market values developed by the PACE Company Engineers and Consultants, Inc. All costs and revenues have been adjusted to reflect the impact of inflation, consistent with the forecast shown in Table 2.1, Page 2-19. Tax treatment reflects expert interpretation of the tax law in effect January 1981. The Marketing Analysis section is an abstract of a detailed report prepared by the PACE Company for the Breckinridge Project. It provides the reader with an understanding of the methodology used to establish product values, and identifies and interprets the effects of key variables that impact market prices. The base case economic scenario, considered the most likely to occur, anticipates that the world economic growth, as well as that of the United States, will be substantially less than that experienced during the previous twenty years. Under the scenario, major disruptions in crude oil supply will not occur. Therefore, prices in real terms at the end of this century are projected to be slightly higher than the peak price of 1981. Domestic natural gas supplies are expected to expand as a result of deregulation and increased importation of LNG. Two alternate economic scenarios are also considered. Sensitivity analysis of both alternate economic scenarios and key project variables clearly point to the market price of crude oil as the dominant economic factor determining this project's soundness. The base case forecast is considered to be not only the most likely case but one not likely to be proven optimistic. The Financial Plan section outlines provisions and presents a plan for financial management of the project.

  16. Techno-economic analysis for brewer's spent grains use on a biorefinery concept: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Mussatto, Solange I; Moncada, Jonathan; Roberto, Inês C; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-11-01

    A techno-economic analysis for use of brewer's spent grains (BSG) on a biorefinery concept for the Brazilian case is presented. Four scenarios based on different levels of heat and mass integration for the production of xylitol, lactic acid, activated carbon and phenolic acids are shown. A simulation procedure using the software Aspen Plus and experimental yields was used. Such procedure served as basis for the techno-economic and environmental assessment according to the Brazilian conditions. Full mass integration on water and full energy integration was the configuration with the best economic and environmental performance. For this case, the obtained economic margin was 62.25%, the potential environmental impact was 0.012 PEI/kg products, and the carbon footprint of the processing stage represented 0.96 kg CO2-e/kg of BSG. This result served as basis to draw recommendations on the technological, economic and environmental feasibility for implementation of such type of biorefinery in Brazil.

  17. Simultaneous determination of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) in surface waters by solid phase extraction and flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Castillo, E; Cortina, J L; Beltrán, J; Prat, M D; Granados, M

    2001-07-01

    A method for heavy metal monitoring using spectrophotometric detection is presented. Traces of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) at the low microg l(-1) level can be determined simultaneously after both selective removal of metal interferences and preconcentration using 'extraction chromatographic resins'. Lewatit TP807'84, which contains di(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid as active component, was used as solid adsorbent. Two minicolumns containing this resin were used: one at pH 3.2 for the removal of interferences, such as Zn(II) and Fe(III), and the other at pH 5.5 for the selective preconcentration of the target analytes. Spectrophotometric determination used FIA methodology with sulfarsazene as chromogenic reagent and partial least-squares multivariate calibration. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of surface waters from the Llobregat river and ground water samples from wells in the Guadiamar basin. Accuracy, expressed in terms of recoveries, was in the range 80-120% and relative standard deviations were below 10%.

  18. Theoretical analysis of BLM system for HLS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Kai; Li, Yu-Xiong; Li, Wei-Min; He, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Hefei Light Source (HLS) is being upgraded to HLS II. Its emittance will be much lower than before, therefore the Touschek scattering will increase significantly and become the dominant factor of beam loss. So it is necessary to build a new beam loss monitoring (BLM) system that, in contrast to the old one, is able to obtain the quantity and position information of lost electrons. This information is useful in the commissioning, troubleshooting, and beam lifetime studying for HLS II. This paper analyzes the distribution features of different kinds of lost electrons, introduces the operation parameters of the new machine and discusses how to choose proper monitoring positions. Based on these comprehensive analyses, a new BLM system for HLS II is proposed.

  19. PIV Analysis of Cavitation Flow Characteristics of He II

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, K.; Murakami, M.

    2006-04-27

    In the present experimental study cavitation phenomena in both He I and He II flows were investigated through the application of the PIV technique and visual observation under the saturated vapor pressure condition. The cavitation flow was generated in the downstream regions of a Venturi channel and a converging jet nozzle driven by a contracting metal bellows. It is seen that cavitation inception is a kind of stochastic process and has definite temperature dependence. The spatial distribution of the cavitation bubble velocity is measured by using the PIV technique. Some differences in the cavitating flow pattern and the void fraction are found between He II and He I cavitating flows. The PIV result indicates that the void fraction for He II flow is larger than that for He I flow.

  20. "An Economic Process for Coal Liquefaction to Liquid Fuels" SBIR Phase II -- Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguli, Partha Sarathi

    2009-02-19

    The current commercial processes for direct coal liquefaction utilize expensive backmix-flow reactor system and conventional catalysts resulting in incomplete and retrogressive reactions that produce low distillate liquid yield and high gas yield, with high hydrogen consumption. The new process we have developed, which uses a less expensive reactor system and highly active special catalysts, resulted in high distillate liquid yield, low gas yield and low hydrogen consumption. The new reactor system using the special catalyst can be operated smoothly for direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Due to high hydrogenation and hydrocracking activities of the special catalysts, moderate temperatures and high residence time in each stage of the reactor system resulted in high distillate yield in the C4-650°F range with no 650°F+ product formed except for the remaining unconverted coal residue. The C4-650°F distillate is more valuable than the light petroleum crude. Since there is no 650°F+ liquid product, simple reforming and hydrotreating of the C4-650°F product will produce the commercial grade light liquid fuels. There is no need for further refinement using catalytic cracking process that is currently used in petroleum refining. The special catalysts prepared and used in the experimental runs had surface area between 40-155 m2/gm. The liquid distillate yield in the new process is >20 w% higher than that in the current commercial process. Coal conversion in the experimental runs was moderate, in the range of 88 - 94 w% maf-coal. Though coal conversion can be increased by adjustment in operating conditions, the purpose of limiting coal conversion to moderate amounts in the process was to use the remaining unconverted coal for hydrogen production by steam reforming. Hydrogen consumption was in the range of 4.0 - 6.0 w% maf-coal. A preliminary economic analysis of the new coal liquefaction process was

  1. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part II: design and development of place-based monitoring strategies.

    PubMed

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the United States. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Part II: Several factors affect the performance of monitoring strategies, including: measurable objectives, required precision in estimates, acceptable confidence levels of such estimates, available budget for sampling. In this paper, we develop place-based monitoring strategies based on extensive analysis of available historical water quality data (1960-1994) of 19 Iowa community water systems. These systems supply potable water to over 350,000 people. In the context of drinking water, the objective is to protect public health by utilizing monitoring resources to characterize contaminants that are detectable, and are close to exceeding health standards. A place-based monitoring strategy was developed in which contaminants were selected based on their historical occurrence, rather than their appearance on the SDWA contaminant list. In a subset of the water systems, the temporal frequency of monitoring for one ubiquitous contaminant, nitrate, was tailored to patterns in its historical occurrence and concentration. Three sampling allocation models (linear, quadratic, and cubic) based on historic patterns in peak occurrence were developed and

  2. Economic Impact Analysis of the Plywood and Composite Wood Products National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This 2002 report includes the costs associated with the regulatory control options associated with the proposed NESHAP, results of the economic impact analysis, a summary of impacts on small businesses, and results of the monetized benefits analysis.

  3. Can Economic Analysis Contribute to Disease Elimination and Eradication? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sicuri, Elisa; Evans, David B.; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases elimination and eradication have become important areas of focus for global health and countries. Due to the substantial up-front investments required to eliminate and eradicate, and the overall shortage of resources for health, economic analysis can inform decision making on whether elimination/eradication makes economic sense and on the costs and benefits of alternative strategies. In order to draw lessons for current and future initiatives, we review the economic literature that has addressed questions related to the elimination and eradication of infectious diseases focusing on: why, how and for whom? Methods A systematic review was performed by searching economic literature (cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and economic impact analyses) on elimination/eradication of infectious diseases published from 1980 to 2013 from three large bibliographic databases: one general (SCOPUS), one bio-medical (MEDLINE/PUBMED) and one economic (IDEAS/REPEC). Results A total of 690 non-duplicate papers were identified from which only 43 met the inclusion criteria. In addition, only one paper focusing on equity issues, the “for whom?” question, was found. The literature relating to “why?” is the largest, much of it focusing on how much it would cost. A more limited literature estimates the benefits in terms of impact on economic growth with mixed results. The question of how to eradicate or eliminate was informed by an economic literature highlighting that there will be opportunities for individuals and countries to free-ride and that forms of incentives and/or disincentives will be needed. This requires government involvement at country level and global coordination. While there is little doubt that eliminating infectious diseases will eventually improve equity, it will only happen if active steps to promote equity are followed on the path to elimination and eradication. Conclusion The largest part of the literature has focused on costs and

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of lattice corneal dystrophies types I and II.

    PubMed Central

    Kivelä, T; Tarkkanen, A; McLean, I; Ghiso, J; Frangione, B; Haltia, M

    1993-01-01

    Corneal buttons from four patients with lattice corneal dystrophy (LD) type I, thought to be an isolated corneal amyloidosis, and from six patients with LD type II, part of systemic familial amyloidosis, Finnish type (FAF; Meretoja's syndrome), were studied by immunohistochemistry to determine the differential distribution in the amyloid deposits of amyloid P component (AP), mutated gelsolin specific for FAF, and native gelsolin. In both types of LD, antibodies to AP labelled lattice lines and a discontinuous layer of amyloid deposits under Bowman's layer. In LD type II, particularly, they also reacted with streak-like amyloid deposits between corneal almellae, especially in the limbal region. While the anti-FAF antiserum strongly labelled all amyloid deposits in LD type II, it failed to react unequivocally with them in LD type I. Both in LD type I and in two control specimens representing granular dystrophy, the monoclonal antibody (MAb) GS-2C4 to gelsolin faintly labelled some deposits, while in LD type II it reacted non-homogeneously with most amyloid deposits. In all specimens, MAb GS-2C4 labelled corneal epithelial cells and occasional stromal keratocytes and endothelial cells. The results suggest that Meretoja's syndrome, a systemic disease, can be diagnosed even retrospectively from corneal buttons subjected to histopathological study. Images PMID:8110676

  5. Analysis of Thermal Imagery Collected at Grayling II, Grayling, Michigan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-01

    Terrain features’ LWB and SWB IR signatures by time of day during Grayling II exercise (04Mar- 15Apr94) (Continued...29 7 (Concluded) ....................................................................................... 31 8 Bare soil LWB and SWB IR... LWB and SWB IR signatures and air temperature (E3 station, 2 m above ground) during Grayling H exercise

  6. Analysis of grid-assembly shielding of EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.; Franklin, F.C.; Kucera, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Differing neutron exposure rates to the EBR-II lower grid plenum assembly resulting from the historical changes in reactor configuration and shielding are analyzed to obtain the fluences and the steel displacements-per-atom values in this irreplaceable component.

  7. Economic analysis of cancer treatment costs: another tool for oncology managers.

    PubMed

    Chirikos, T N; Ruckdeschel, J C; Krischer, J P

    2001-01-01

    Oncology managers increasingly need more information about how much and why treatment costs vary across cancer patients. In response to this need, our Center is building an analytic capacity for investigating economic aspects of cancer treatment. Economic analysis is characterized by a simultaneous consideration of treatment costs and outcomes; it focuses on how treatment cost/outcome ratios vary across patient populations with similar diseases. In this paper, we present an overview of our work, with special emphasis on the measurement of outcomes and the inputs or costs of treatment, the variability of cost/outcome ratios, and the analysis of the factors that predict or explain this observed variation. We illustrate how the analysis is conducted, set out selected results relating to lung and breast cancer patients, and assess some of the advantages and disadvantages of the approach. Among other things, we conclude that economic analysis of cancer treatment costs is feasible and that it can provide useful data for managerial decision making.

  8. Economic consequences of aviation system disruptions: A reduced-form computable general equilibrium analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhenhua; Rose, Adam Z.; Prager, Fynnwin; Chatterjee, Samrat

    2017-01-01

    The state of the art approach to economic consequence analysis (ECA) is computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling. However, such models contain thousands of equations and cannot readily be incorporated into computerized systems used by policy analysts to yield estimates of economic impacts of various types of transportation system failures due to natural hazards, human related attacks or technological accidents. This paper presents a reduced-form approach to simplify the analytical content of CGE models to make them more transparent and enhance their utilization potential. The reduced-form CGE analysis is conducted by first running simulations one hundred times, varying key parameters, such as magnitude of the initial shock, duration, location, remediation, and resilience, according to a Latin Hypercube sampling procedure. Statistical analysis is then applied to the “synthetic data” results in the form of both ordinary least squares and quantile regression. The analysis yields linear equations that are incorporated into a computerized system and utilized along with Monte Carlo simulation methods for propagating uncertainties in economic consequences. Although our demonstration and discussion focuses on aviation system disruptions caused by terrorist attacks, the approach can be applied to a broad range of threat scenarios.

  9. Gold nanorods for surface Plasmon resonance detection of mercury (II) in flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Trieu, Khang; Heider, Emily C; Brooks, Scott C; Barbosa, Fernando; Campiglia, Andres D

    2014-10-01

    This article investigates the flow injection analysis of mercury (II) ions in tap water samples via surface Plasmon resonance detection. Quantitative analysis of mercury (II) is based on the chemical interaction of metallic mercury with gold nanorods immobilized on a glass substrate. A new flow cell design is presented with the ability to accommodate the detecting substrate in the sample compartment of commercial spectrometers. Two alternatives are here considered for mercury (II) detection, namely stop-flow and continuous flow injection analysis modes. The best limit of detection (2.4 ng mL(-1)) was obtained with the continuous flow injection analysis approach. The accurate determination of mercury (II) ions in samples of unknown composition is demonstrated with a fortified tap water sample.

  10. Techno-economic analysis of corn stover fungal fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Pimphan A.; Tews, Iva J.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-11-01

    This techno-economic analysis assesses the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock by fungi to identify promising opportunities, and the research needed to achieve them. Based on literature derived data, four different ethanologen strains are considered in this study: native and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the natural pentose-fermenting yeast, Pichia stipitis and the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, filamentous fungi are applied in multi-organism and consolidated process configurations. Organism performance and technology readiness are categorized as near-term (<5 years), mid-term (5-10 years), and long-term (>10 years) process deployment. The results of the analysis suggest that the opportunity for fungal fermentation exists for lignocellulosic ethanol production.

  11. Economic Analysis of Ilumex, A Project to Promote Energy-Efficient Residential Lighting in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Friedmann, R.; Meyers, S.; de Buen, O.; Gadgil, A.J.; Vargas, E.; Saucedo, R.

    1993-11-01

    A higher penetration of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) for household lighting can reduce growth in peak electricity demand, reduce sales of subsidized electricity, and lessen environmental impacts. This paper describes an economic analysis of a project designed to promote high penetration rates of CFLs in two cities in Mexico. Our analysis indicates that the project will bring substantial net economic benefits to Mexico, the utility, and the average customer. In the absence of any subsidy to CFLs, most customers will see a payback period longer than two years. By sharing some of the anticipated net benefit, CFE, the utility company, can reduce the payback period to a maximum of two years for all customers. CFE's role is thus crucial to the successful implementation of the project. Expanding the Ilumex project to a Mexico-wide program would make a significant contribution towards meeting the planned addition of generation capacity by the year 2000.

  12. Economic analysis of a combined heat and power molten carbonate fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengeveld, Derek W.; Revankar, Shripad T.

    Fuel cells can be attractive for use as stationary combined heat and power (CHP) systems. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plants are prime candidates for the utilization of fossil based fuels to generate high efficiency ultra clean power. However, fuel cells are considerably more expensive than comparable conventional technologies and therefore a careful analysis of the economics must be taken. This work presents analysis on the feasibility of installing both a FuelCell Energy DFC ® 1500MA and 300MA system for use at Adams Thermal Systems, a manufacturing facility in the U.S. Midwest. The paper examined thoroughly the economics driving the appropriateness of this measure. In addition, a parametric study was conducted to determine scenarios including variation in electric and natural gas rates along with reduced installation costs.

  13. Comprehensive techno-economic analysis of wastewater-based algal biofuel production: A case study.

    PubMed

    Xin, Chunhua; Addy, Min M; Zhao, Jinyu; Cheng, Yanling; Cheng, Sibo; Mu, Dongyan; Liu, Yuhuan; Ding, Rijia; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Combining algae cultivation and wastewater treatment for biofuel production is considered the feasible way for resource utilization. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis method that integrates resources availability into techno-economic analysis was employed to evaluate the wastewater-based algal biofuel production with the consideration of wastewater treatment improvement, greenhouse gases emissions, biofuel production costs, and coproduct utilization. An innovative approach consisting of microalgae cultivation on centrate wastewater, microalgae harvest through flocculation, solar drying of biomass, pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil, and utilization of co-products, was analyzed and shown to yield profound positive results in comparison with others. The estimated break even selling price of biofuel ($2.23/gallon) is very close to the acceptable level. The approach would have better overall benefits and the internal rate of return would increase up to 18.7% if three critical components, namely cultivation, harvest, and downstream conversion could achieve breakthroughs.

  14. Low-Cost Propellant Launch to LEO from a Tethered Balloon - Economic and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Schneider, Evan G.; Vaughan, David A.; Hall, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides new analysis of the economics of low-cost propellant launch coupled with dry hardware re-use, and of the thermal control of the liquid hydrogen once on-orbit. One conclusion is that this approach enables an overall reduction in the cost-permission by as much as a factor of five as compared to current approaches for human exploration of the moon, Mars, and near-Earth asteroids.

  15. An Exploratory Analysis of Economic Factors in the Navy Total Force Strength Model (NTFSM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    the model incorporates (in the personnel calculations) econometric effects to Losses by Expiration of Active Obligated Service , Attrition, and Length...APPENDIX D. SUMMARIES OF REMANING META- MODELS Retirement Losses Prior Service Gains Summary of Fit RSquare RSquare Adj Root Mean Square...ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC FACTORS IN THE NAVY TOTAL FORCE STRENGTH MODEL (NTFSM) by William P. DeSousa December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Thomas W

  16. Economic Analysis of the Recovery and Reuse of Explosives from Obsolete and Unserviceable Conventional Ammunition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-31

    TaskOrderNo._4 Ŝc. ADDRESS (City, State , and ZIP Code) 10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM OPROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 62720 D048...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE . . ... Report to United States Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency May 1986 oh Economic Analysis of the Recovery and Reuse of...The United States Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) directed this study. State -of-the-art recovery/reuse processes were identified

  17. Economic analysis of the use of wind power for electrical generation on midwestern dairy farms

    SciTech Connect

    Reinemann, D.J.; Koegel, R.G.; Straub, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    The optimum size WECS for dairy farm electrical production, and return on investment thereof depend greatly on utility regulations, load management techniques, and the future of the economy. Seasonal and daily fluctuations in available wind power and electric demand together with existing or expected rate schedules must be considered in choosing an appropriate load management system. An economic analysis is done investigating optimal system size and use strategies for the use of wind generated electrical power on midwestern dairy farms.

  18. Decision Models for Conducting an Economic Analysis of Alternative Fuels for the Ice Engine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    UdWieitf bV block aRmft&) Alternative Fuels Compressed Natural Gas Transportation Alcohol Motor Vehicles Electric Vehicles Economic Analysis s. A20:0 CT...alcohol, and electric vehicles (EV’s) as possible replacements for gasoline-powered vehicles . Advantages and disadvantages of vehicles powered by the...program is used to determine the mix of gasoline, CNG, and electric vehicles that satisfy mission requirements for the least total fleet life cycle cost and

  19. A Coal-Use Economics Methodology for Navy Bases. Phase II of Engineering Services for Coal Conversion Guidance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    FACILBAGHOUSE’.-’ ,"FACILITY 27,800 SCFH 0.8 % SULFUR 12,600 BTU/LB WET COAL 4.2 TPH (MOISTURE-FREE COAL 3.8 TPH PLUS MOISTURE 0A TP94)a NO. 6 OIL SUPPL O M COAL...Contract Report CR 79.012, Navy Energy *- . Guidance Study, Phases II and III, May 1979. 1-6 Flue Gas Desulfurization at Navy Bases, Bechtel National, Inc...Constructon Costs for Soda Liquor Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems that Produce Liquid Waste, for Single Decentralized Boilers A-2 A-2 Total

  20. Economic analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This economic analysis (EA) examines compliance costs and economic impacts resulting from the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry Point Source Category. It also investigates the costs and impacts associated with an air rule requiring Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) to control air emissions, both separately and together with the Final Pharmaceutical Industry Effluent Guidelines. The EA estimates the economic effects of compliance with both final rules in terms of total aggregate annualized costs of compliance, facility closures, impacts on firms (likelihood of bankruptcy and effects on profit margins), and impacts on new sources. The EA also investigates secondary impacts on employment and communities, foreign trade, specific demographic groups, and environmental justice. This report includes a Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (FRFA) detailing the impacts on small businesses within the pharmaceutical industry to meet the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA), as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA). Finally, the EA presents a cost-benefit analysis to meet the requirements of Executive Order 12866 and the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.

  1. Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume II. Industry profiles

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-22

    Econoimc profiles of the industries most affected by the construction, deployment, and operation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) powerplants are presented. Six industries which will contribute materials and/or components to the construction of OTEC plants have been identified and are profiled here. These industries are: steel industry, concrete industry, titanium metal industry, fabricated structural metals industry, fiber glass-reinforced plastics industry, and electrical transmission cable industry. The economic profiles for these industries detail the industry's history, its financial and economic characteristics, its technological and production traits, resource constraints that might impede its operation, and its relation to OTEC. Some of the historical data collected and described in the profile include output, value of shipments, number of firms, prices, employment, imports and exports, and supply-demand forecasts. For most of the profiled industries, data from 1958 through 1980 were examined. In addition, profiles are included on the sectors of the economy which will actualy construct, deploy, and supply the OTEC platforms.

  2. Analysis of data collected by the Tatyana II satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilianaa, Rivera; Oscar, Martínez; Eduardo, Mendoza-Torres; Humberto, Salazar

    2011-04-01

    The Tatyana II satellite is the second one of the University Satellite Program, which is led by the Moscow State University with the participation of the Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla. This satellite has ultraviolet, red-infrared and charged particles detectors. In this work preliminary results based on the data collected by these detectors on board the satellite over a period of ~3.5 months are presented.

  3. Young Stroke Mortality in Fiji Islands: An Economic Analysis of National Human Capital Resource Loss

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Jagdish C.; Reddy, Mahendra

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The objective of this study was to perform an economic analysis in terms of annual national human capital resource loss from young stroke mortality in Fiji. The official retirement age is 55 years in Fiji. Method. Stroke mortality data, for working-age group 15–55 years, obtained from the Ministry of Health and per capita national income figure for the same year was utilised to calculate the total output loss for the economy. The formula of output loss from the economy was used. Results. There were 273 stroke deaths of which 53.8% were of working-age group. The annual national human capital loss from stroke mortality for Fiji for the year was calculated to be F$8.85 million (US$5.31 million). The highest percentage loss from stroke mortality was from persons in their forties; that is, they still had more then 10 years to retirement. Discussion. This loss equates to one percent of national government revenue and 9.7% of Ministry of Health budget for the same year. The annual national human capital loss from stroke mortality is an important dimension in the overall economic equation of total economic burden of stroke. Conclusion. This study demonstrates a high economic burden for Fiji from stroke mortality of young adults in terms of annual national human capital loss. PMID:22778993

  4. Economic analysis of coal-fired cogeneration plants for Air Force bases

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, R.S.; Griffin, F.P.

    1990-10-01

    The Defense Appropriations Act of 1986 requires the Department of Defense to use an additional 1,600,000 tons/year of coal at their US facilities by 1995 and also states that the most economical fuel should be used at each facility. In a previous study of Air Force heating plants burning gas or oil, Oak Ridge National Laboratory found that only a small fraction of this target 1,600,000 tons/year could be achieved by converting the plants where coal is economically viable. To identify projects that would use greater amounts of coal, the economic benefits of installing coal-fired cogeneration plants at 7 candidate Air Force bases were examined in this study. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed that included two types of financing (Air Force and private) and three levels of energy escalation for a total of six economic scenarios. Hill, McGuire, and Plattsburgh Air Force Bases were identified as the facilities with the best potential for coal-fired cogeneration, but the actual cost savings will depend strongly on how the projects are financed and to a lesser extent on future energy escalation rates. 10 refs., 11 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. Ecological network analysis for economic systems: growth and development and implications for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input-output (I-O) tables for 1985-2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985-2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects.

  6. Ecological Network Analysis for Economic Systems: Growth and Development and Implications for Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input–output (I-O) tables for 1985–2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985–2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects. PMID:24979465

  7. Phenotype Characterization and DSPP Mutational Analysis of Three Brazilian Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II Families

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, A.C.; Santos, L.J.S.; Paula, L.M.; Dong, J.; MacDougall, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform phenotype analysis and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) mutational analysis on 3 Brazilian families diagnosed with dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI-II) attending the Dental Anomalies Clinic in Brasilia, Brazil. Physical and oral examinations, as well as radiographic and histopathological analyses, were performed on 28 affected and unaffected individuals. Clinical, radiographic and histopathological analyses confirmed the diagnosis of DGI-II in 19 individuals. Pulp stones were observed in ground sections of several teeth in 2 families, suggesting that obliteration of pulp chambers and root canals results from the growth of these nodular structures. Mutational DSPP gene analysis of representative affected family members revealed 7 various non-disease-causing alterations in exons 1–4 within the dentin sialoprotein domain. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to elucidate the progression of pulpal obliteration in the DGI-II patients studied as well as the molecular basis of their disease. PMID:18797159

  8. An analytical and experimental stress analysis of a practical mode II fracture-test specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chisholm, D. B.; Jones, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    A boundary collocation method has been employed to determine the Mode II stress intensity factors for a pair of through-the-thickness edge cracks in a finite isotropic plate. An elastostatic analysis has been carried out in terms of the complete Williams stress function employing both even and odd components. The results of the numerical analysis were verified by a two-step procedure whereby the symmetric and antisymmetric portions of the solution were independently compared with existing solutions. The complete solution was verified by comparison with a photoelastic analysis. A compact shear specimen (CSS) of Hysol epoxy resin was loaded in a photoelastic experiment designed to study the isochromatic fringe patterns resulting from the Mode II crack tip stress distribution. The experiment verified that a pure Mode II stress distribution existed in the neighborhood of the crack tips and confirmed the accuracy of the boundary collocation solution for the Mode II stress intensity factors.

  9. Economic analysis of bedside ultrasonography (US) implementation in an Internal Medicine department.

    PubMed

    Testa, Americo; Francesconi, Andrea; Giannuzzi, Rosangela; Berardi, Silvia; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    The economic crisis, the growing healthcare demand, and Defensive Medicine wastefulness, strongly recommend the restructuring of the entire medical network. New health technology, such as bedside ultrasonography, might successfully integrate the clinical approach optimizing the use of limited resources, especially in a person-oriented vision of medicine. Bedside ultrasonography is a safe and reliable technique, with worldwide expanding employment in various clinical settings, being considered as "the stethoscope of the 21st century". However, at present, bedside ultrasonography lacks economic analysis. We performed a Cost-Benefit Analysis "ex ante", with a break-even point computing, of bedside ultrasonography implementation in an Internal Medicine department in the mid-term. Number and kind estimation of bedside ultrasonographic studies were obtained by a retrospective study, whose data results were applied to the next 3-year period (foresight study). All 1980 foreseen bedside examinations, with prevailing multiorgan ultrasonographic studies, were considered to calculate direct and indirect costs, while specific and generic revenues were considered only after the first semester. Physician professional training, equipment purchase and working time represented the main fixed and variable cost items. DRG increase/appropriateness, hospitalization stay shortening and reduction of traditional ultrasonography examination requests mainly impacted on calculated revenues. The break-even point, i.e. the volume of activity at which revenues exactly equal total incurred costs, was calculated to be 734 US examinations, corresponding to € 81,998 and the time considered necessary to reach it resulting 406 days. Our economic analysis clearly shows that bedside ultrasonography implementation in clinical daily management of an Internal Medicine department can produce consistent savings, or economic profit according to managerial choices (i.e., considering public or private targets

  10. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioconversion of Methane into Biofuel and Biochemical (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Q.; Tao, L.; Pienkos, P .T.; Guarnieri, M.; Palou-Rivera, I.

    2014-10-01

    In light of the relatively low price of natural gas and increasing demands of liquid transportation fuels and high-value chemicals, attention has begun to turn to novel biocatalyst for conversion of methane (CH4) into biofuels and biochemicals [1]. A techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed for an integrated biorefinery process using biological conversion of methane, such as carbon yield, process efficiency, productivity (both lipid and acid), natural gas and other raw material prices, etc. This analysis is aimed to identify research challenges as well provide guidance for technology development.

  11. Estimation of Economic Impacts of Cellulosic Biofuel Production: A Comparative Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yimin; Goldberg, Marshall; Tan, Eric; Meyer, Pimphan Aye

    2016-05-01

    The development of a cellulosic biofuel industry utilizing domestic biomass resources is expected to create opportunities for economic growth resulting from the construction and operation of new biorefineries. We applied an economic input-output model to estimate potential economic impacts, particularly gross job growth, resulting from the construction and operation of biorefineries using three different technology pathways: (i) cellulosic ethanol via biochemical conversion in Iowa, (ii) renewable diesel blendstock via biological conversion in Georgia, and (iii) renewable diesel and gasoline blendstock via fast pyrolysis in Mississippi. Combining direct, indirect (revenue- and supply-chain-related), and induced effects, capital investment associated with the construction of a biorefinery processing 2000 dry metric tons of biomass per day (DMT/day) could yield between 5960 and 8470 full-time equivalent (FTE) jobs during the construction period, depending on the biofuel pathways. Fast pyrolysis biorefineries produce the most jobs on a project level thanks to the highest capital requirement among the three pathways. Normalized on the scale of $1 million of capital investment, the fast pyrolysis biorefineries are estimated to yield slighter higher numbers of jobs (12.1 jobs) than the renewable diesel (11.8 jobs) and the cellulosic ethanol (11.6 jobs) biorefineries. While operating biorefineries is not labor-intensive, the annual operation of a 2000 DMT/day biorefinery could support between 720 and 970 jobs when the direct, indirect, and induced effects are considered. The major factor, which results in the variations among the three pathways, is the type of biomass feedstock used for biofuels. Unlike construction jobs, these operation-related jobs are necessary over the entire life of the biorefineries. Our results show that indirect effects stimulated by the operation of biorefineries are the primary contributor to job growth. The agriculture/forest, services, and

  12. Estimation of economic impacts of cellulosic biofuel production: a comparative analysis of three biofuel pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yimin; Goldberg, Marshall; Tan, Eric; Meyer, Pimphan Aye

    2016-03-07

    The development of a cellulosic biofuel industry utilizing domestic biomass resources is expected to create opportunities for economic growth resulting from the construction and operation of new biorefineries. We applied an economic input-output model to estimate potential economic impacts, particularly gross job growth, resulting from the construction and operation of biorefineries using three different technology pathways: (i) cellulosic ethanol via biochemical conversion in Iowa, (ii) renewable diesel blendstock via biological conversion in Georgia, and (iii) renewable diesel and gasoline blendstock via fast pyrolysis in Mississippi. Combining direct, indirect (revenue- and supply-chain-related), and induced effects, capital investment associated with the construction of a biorefinery processing 2000 dry metric tons of biomass per day (DMT/day) could yield between 5960 and 8470 full-time equivalent (FTE) jobs during the construction period, depending on the biofuel pathways. Fast pyrolysis biorefineries produce the most jobs on a project level thanks to the highest capital requirement among the three pathways. Normalized on the scale of $1 million of capital investment, the fast pyrolysis biorefineries are estimated to yield slighter higher numbers of jobs (12.1 jobs) than the renewable diesel (11.8 jobs) and the cellulosic ethanol (11.6 jobs) biorefineries. While operating biorefineries is not labor-intensive, the annual operation of a 2000 DMT/day biorefinery could support between 720 and 970 jobs when the direct, indirect, and induced effects are considered. The major factor, which results in the variations among the three pathways, is the type of biomass feedstock used for biofuels. Unlike construction jobs, these operation-related jobs are necessary over the entire life of the biorefineries. In conclusion, our results show that indirect effects stimulated by the operation of biorefineries are the primary contributor to job growth. The agriculture

  13. Estimation of economic impacts of cellulosic biofuel production: a comparative analysis of three biofuel pathways

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yimin; Goldberg, Marshall; Tan, Eric; ...

    2016-03-07

    The development of a cellulosic biofuel industry utilizing domestic biomass resources is expected to create opportunities for economic growth resulting from the construction and operation of new biorefineries. We applied an economic input-output model to estimate potential economic impacts, particularly gross job growth, resulting from the construction and operation of biorefineries using three different technology pathways: (i) cellulosic ethanol via biochemical conversion in Iowa, (ii) renewable diesel blendstock via biological conversion in Georgia, and (iii) renewable diesel and gasoline blendstock via fast pyrolysis in Mississippi. Combining direct, indirect (revenue- and supply-chain-related), and induced effects, capital investment associated with the constructionmore » of a biorefinery processing 2000 dry metric tons of biomass per day (DMT/day) could yield between 5960 and 8470 full-time equivalent (FTE) jobs during the construction period, depending on the biofuel pathways. Fast pyrolysis biorefineries produce the most jobs on a project level thanks to the highest capital requirement among the three pathways. Normalized on the scale of $1 million of capital investment, the fast pyrolysis biorefineries are estimated to yield slighter higher numbers of jobs (12.1 jobs) than the renewable diesel (11.8 jobs) and the cellulosic ethanol (11.6 jobs) biorefineries. While operating biorefineries is not labor-intensive, the annual operation of a 2000 DMT/day biorefinery could support between 720 and 970 jobs when the direct, indirect, and induced effects are considered. The major factor, which results in the variations among the three pathways, is the type of biomass feedstock used for biofuels. Unlike construction jobs, these operation-related jobs are necessary over the entire life of the biorefineries. In conclusion, our results show that indirect effects stimulated by the operation of biorefineries are the primary contributor to job growth. The agriculture

  14. The analysis of the immobilization mechanism of Ni(II) on Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhi; Cheng, Yangjian; Pan, Danmei; Yin, Shungao; Huang, Feng; Guan, Xiong; Lin, Zhang

    2011-04-01

    This work focused on the identification of biosorption mechanism of Ni(II) by living Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) based on batch experiments and a variety of microscopic equipments. The adsorption equilibrium reached rapidly in 2 h and the maximum nickel adsorption capability of B. cereus was 17.7 mg x g(-1) (dry weight). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that the bacterial surface roughness increased from 7.9 +/- 0.5 nm to 12.6 +/- 1.6 nm during this process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation confirmed that there was Ni(II) on the bacterial surface. However, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) thin section analysis coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that Ni(II) could also be found in the inner portions of the bacteria. Inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) quantitative analysis elucidated that over 70% of the immobilized Ni(II) was binding on the surface of bacteria. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the Ni(II) collected by the bacteria was amorphous. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis indicated that amides and carboxylation functional groups might be involved in the coordination of Ni(II).

  15. The mineral sector and economic development in Ghana: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addy, Samuel N.

    A computable general equilibrium model (CGE) model is formulated for conducting mineral policy analysis in the context of national economic development for Ghana. The model, called GHANAMIN, places strong emphasis on production, trade, and investment. It can be used to examine both micro and macro economic impacts of policies associated with mineral investment, taxation, and terms of trade changes, as well as mineral sector performance impacts due to technological change or the discovery of new deposits. Its economywide structure enables the study of broader development policy with a focus on individual or multiple sectors, simultaneously. After going through a period of contraction for about two decades, mining in Ghana has rebounded significantly and is currently the main foreign exchange earner. Gold alone contributed 44.7 percent of 1994 total export earnings. GHANAMIN is used to investigate the economywide impacts of mineral tax policies, world market mineral prices changes, mining investment, and increased mineral exports. It is also used for identifying key sectors for economic development. Various simulations were undertaken with the following results: Recently implemented mineral tax policies are welfare increasing, but have an accompanying decrease in the output of other export sectors. World mineral price rises stimulate an increase in real GDP; however, this increase is less than real GDP decreases associated with price declines. Investment in the non-gold mining sector increases real GDP more than investment in gold mining, because of the former's stronger linkages to the rest of the economy. Increased mineral exports are very beneficial to the overall economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining increases welfare more so than domestic capital, which is very limited. Mining investment and the increased mineral exports since 1986 have contributed significantly to the country's economic recovery, with gold mining accounting for 95 percent of the

  16. An economic analysis of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources in the state of Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Juan S.

    Anaerobic digestion is a process that is a common part of organic waste management systems and is used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The process produces biogas, which contains methane, and it can be burned to generate electricity. Previous reports have indicated that based on the availability of feedstocks there is a large potential for biogas production and use for electricity generation in the state of Indiana. However, these reports varied in their consideration of important factors that affect the technical and economic feasibility of being able to develop the resources available. The goal of this thesis is to make a more targeted assessment of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills in Indiana. A capital budgeting model is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of biogas electricity projects at facilities that are identified as technically suitable. A statewide estimate of the potential generation capacity is made by estimating the number of facilities that could profitably undertake a biogas electricity project. In addition this thesis explored the impact that different incentive policies would have on the economic viability of these projects. The results indicated that the electricity generation potential is much smaller when technical and economic factors are taken into account in addition to feedstock availability. In particular it was found that projects at hog farms are unlikely to be economically feasible in the present even when financial incentives are considered. In total, 47.94 MW of potential generating capacity is estimated from biogas production at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills. Though results indicated that 37.10 MW of capacity are economically feasible under current operating conditions, sensitivity analysis reveals that these projects are very sensitive to capital cost assumptions

  17. The effect of increased consumer demand on fees for aesthetic surgery: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    1999-12-01

    Economic theory dictates that changes in consumer demand have predictable effects on prices. Demographics represents an important component of demand for aesthetic surgery. Between the years of 1997 and 2010, the U.S. population is projected to increase by 12 percent. The population increase will be skewed such that those groups undergoing the most aesthetic surgery will see the largest increase. Accounting for the age-specific frequencies of aesthetic surgery and the population increase yields an estimate that the overall market for aesthetic surgery will increase by 19 percent. Barring unforeseen changes in general economic conditions or consumer tastes, demand should increase by an analogous amount. An economic demonstration shows the effects of increasing demand for aesthetic surgery on its fees. Between the years of 1992 and 1997, there was an increase in demand for breast augmentation as fears of associated autoimmune disorders subsided. Similarly, there was increased male acceptance of aesthetic surgery. The number of breast augmentations and procedures to treat male pattern baldness, plastic surgeons, and fees for the procedures were tracked. During the study period, the supply of surgeons and consumer demand increased for both of these procedures. Volume of breast augmentation increased by 275 percent, whereas real fees remained stable. Volume of treatment for male pattern baldness increased by 107 percent, and the fees increased by 29 percent. Ordinarily, an increase in supply leads to a decrease in prices. This did not occur during the study period. Economic analysis demonstrates that the increased supply of surgeons performing breast augmentation was offset by increased consumer demand for the procedure. For this reason, fees were not lowered. Similarly, increased demand for treatment of male pattern baldness more than offset the increased supply of surgeons performing it. The result was higher fees. Emphasis should be placed on using these economic

  18. Social class variation in risk: a comparative analysis of the dynamics of economic vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Christopher T; Maître, Bertrand

    2008-12-01

    A joint concern with multidimensionality and dynamics is a defining feature of the pervasive use of the terminology of social exclusion in the European Union. The notion of social exclusion focuses attention on economic vulnerability in the sense of exposure to risk and uncertainty. Sociological concern with these issues has been associated with the thesis that risk and uncertainty have become more pervasive and extend substantially beyond the working class. This paper combines features of recent approaches to statistical modelling of poverty dynamics and multidimensional deprivation in order to develop our understanding of the dynamics of economic vulnerability. An analysis involving nine countries and covering the first five waves of the European Community Household Panel shows that, across nations and time, it is possible to identify an economically vulnerable class. This class is characterized by heightened risk of falling below a critical resource level, exposure to material deprivation and experience of subjective economic stress. Cross-national differentials in persistence of vulnerability are wider than in the case of income poverty and less affected by measurement error. Economic vulnerability profiles vary across welfare regimes in a manner broadly consistent with our expectations. Variation in the impact of social class within and across countries provides no support for the argument that its role in structuring such risk has become much less important. Our findings suggest that it is possible to accept the importance of the emergence of new forms of social risk and acknowledge the significance of efforts to develop welfare states policies involving a shift of opportunities and decision making on to individuals without accepting the 'death of social class' thesis.

  19. Quantitative proteome analysis of barley seeds using ruthenium(II)-tris-(bathophenanthroline-disulphonate) staining.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Katja; Surabhi, Giridara-Kumar; Jyothsnakumari, Gottimukkala; Sudhakar, Chinta; Matros, Andrea; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes the application of the recently introduced fluorescence stain Ruthenium(II)-tris-(bathophenanthroline-disulphonate) (RuBP) on a comparative proteome analysis of two phenotypically different barley lines. We carried out an analysis of protein patterns from 2-D gels of the parental lines of the Oregon Wolfe Barley mapping population DOM and REC and stained with either the conventional colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue (cCBB) or with the novel RuBP solution. We wished to experimentally verify the usefulness of such a stain in evaluating the complex pattern of a seed proteome, in comparison to the previously used cCBB staining technique. To validate the efficiency of visualization by both stains, we first compared the overall number of detected protein spots. On average, 790 spots were visible by cCBB staining and 1200 spots by RuBP staining. Then, the intensity of a set of spots was assessed, and changes in relative abundance were determined using image analysis software. As expected, staining with RuBP performed better in quantitation in terms of sensitivity and dynamic range. Furthermore, spots from a cultivar-specific region in the protein map were chosen for identification to asses the gain of biological information due to the staining procedure. From this particular region, eight spots were visualized exclusively by RuBP and identification was successful for all spots, proving the ability to identify even very low abundant proteins. Performance in MS analysis was comparable for both protein stains. Proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS peptide mass fingerprinting. This approach was not successful for all spots, due to the restricted entry number for barley in the database. Therefore, we subsequently used LC-ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS and de novo sequencing for identification. Because only an insufficient number of proteins from barley is annotated, an EST-based identification strategy was chosen for our experiment. We wished to test whether under

  20. Techno-economic, location, and carbon emission analysis of thermochemical biomass to transportation fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Mark Mba

    There are significant technological and systemic challenges faced by today's advanced biofuel industry. These challenges stem from the current state-of-technology and from the system (consumer market, infrastructure, environment...) in which this emerging industry is being developed. The state-of-technology will improve with continued efforts in technology development, but novel approaches are required to investigate the systemic challenges that limit the adoption of advanced biofuels. The motivation of this dissertation is to address the question of how to find cost-effective, sustainable, and environmentally responsible pathways for the production of biofuels. Economic competitiveness, long-term viability, and benign environmental impact are key for biofuels to be embraced by industry, government, and consumers. Techno-economic, location, and carbon emission analysis are research methodologies that help address each of these issues. The research approach presented in this dissertation is to combine these three methodologies into a holistic study of advanced biofuel technologies. The value of techno-economic, location, and carbon emission analysis is limited when conducted in isolation because of current public perception towards energy technologies. Energy technologies are evaluated based on multiple criteria with a significant emphasis on the three areas investigated in this study. There are important aspects within each of these fields that could significantly limit the value of advances in other fields of study. Therefore, it is necessary that future research in advanced biofuels always consider the systemic challenges faced by novel developments.

  1. Economic Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Seltzer

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the economic analysis is to prepare a budgetary estimate of capital and operating costs of the O{sub 2}-fired PC power plant as well as for the equivalent conventional PC-fired power plant. Capital and operating costs of conventional steam generation, steam heating, and power generation equipment are estimated based on Foster Wheeler's extensive experience and database. Capital and operating costs of equipment, such as oxygen separation and CO{sub 2} liquefaction, are based on vendor supplied data and FW process plant experience. The levelized cost of electricity is determined for both the air-fired and O{sub 2}-fired power plants as well as the CO{sub 2} mitigation cost. An economic comparison between the O{sub 2}-fired PC and other alternate technologies is presented.

  2. Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Fourth annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelrigg, Jr, G A

    1980-12-31

    The current study reported here has involved three separate tasks. The first task deals with the development of expected utility analysis techniques for economic evaluation of fusion research. A decision analytic model is developed for the incorporation of market uncertainties, as well as technological uncertainties in an economic evaluation of long-range energy research. The model is applied to the case of fusion research. The second task deals with the potential effects of long-range energy RD and D on fossil fuel prices. ECON's previous fossil fuel price model is extended to incorporate a dynamic demand function. The dynamic demand function supports price fluctuations such as those observed in the marketplace. The third task examines alternative uses of fusion technologies, specifically superconducting technologies and first wall materials to determine the potential for alternative, nonfusion use of these technologies. In both cases, numerous alternative uses are found.

  3. Educational assortative mating and economic inequality: a comparative analysis of three Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Torche, Florencia

    2010-05-01

    Educational assortative mating and economic inequality are likely to be endogenously determined, but very little research exists on their empirical association. Using census data and log-linear and log-multiplicative methods, I compare the patterns of educational assortative mating in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, and explore the association between marital sorting and earnings inequality across countries. The analysis finds substantial variation in the strength of specific barriers to educational intermarriage between countries, and a close association between these barriers and the earnings gaps across educational categories within countries. This finding suggests an isomorphism between assortative mating and economic inequality. Furthermore, educational marital sorting is remarkably symmetric across gender in spite of the different resources that men and women bring to the union. This study highlights the limitations of using single aggregate measures of spousal educational resemblance (such as the correlation coefficient between spouses' schooling) to capture variation in assortative mating and its relationship with socioeconomic inequality.

  4. Sustainability and the Spanish port system. Analysis of the relationship between economic and environmental indicators.

    PubMed

    Laxe, Fernando González; Bermúdez, Federico Martín; Palmero, Federico Martín; Novo-Corti, Isabel

    2016-12-15

    Research into the methodological development of alternative systems of sustainability measures is recent. In understanding sustainable development in a multi-dimensional sense, one of the most significant advances was the construction of Synthetic Indexes, applicable to different spatial spheres or to organisations, businesses, institutions, etc. The Spanish port system of general interest comprises 46 ports integrated in 28 Port Authorities, which in 2014 moved 482,000,000t of goods and more than 28 million passengers. This gives an idea of its importance for the Spanish economy. Using a derivation of the procedure used to calculate the Port Sustainability Synthetic Index, in this research the analysis of the relationship that exists between the findings obtained for the economic and environmental dimensions is used. This enables the existence of links between ports and economic and environmental indicators for a sample of 16 Port Authorities of Spain to be verified.

  5. Educational Assortative Mating and Economic Inequality: A Comparative Analysis of Three Latin American Countries

    PubMed Central

    TORCHE, FLORENCIA

    2010-01-01

    Educational assortative mating and economic inequality are likely to be endogenously determined, but very little research exists on their empirical association. Using census data and log-linear and log-multiplicative methods, I compare the patterns of educational assortative mating in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, and explore the association between marital sorting and earnings inequality across countries. The analysis finds substantial variation in the strength of specific barriers to educational intermarriage between countries, and a close association between these barriers and the earnings gaps across educational categories within countries. This finding suggests an isomorphism between assortative mating and economic inequality. Furthermore, educational marital sorting is remarkably symmetric across gender in spite of the different resources that men and women bring to the union. This study highlights the limitations of using single aggregate measures of spousal educational resemblance (such as the correlation coefficient between spouses’ schooling) to capture variation in assortative mating and its relationship with socioeconomic inequality. PMID:20608107

  6. Comparative analysis of economic models in selected solar energy computer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. W.; Barnes, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    The economic evaluation models in five computer programs widely used for analyzing solar energy systems (F-CHART 3.0, F-CHART 4.0, SOLCOST, BLAST, and DOE-2) are compared. Differences in analysis techniques and assumptions among the programs are assessed from the point of view of consistency with the Federal requirements for life cycle costing (10 CFR Part 436), effect on predicted economic performance, and optimal system size, case of use, and general applicability to diverse systems types and building types. The FEDSOL program developed by the National Bureau of Standards specifically to meet the Federal life cycle cost requirements serves as a basis for the comparison. Results of the study are illustrated in test cases of two different types of Federally owned buildings: a single family residence and a low rise office building.

  7. Regional economic analysis of current and proposed management alternatives for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie; Donovan, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan must describe the desired future conditions of a refuge and provide long-range guidance and management direction to achieve refuge purposes. The Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge (refuge) is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the refuge must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed refuge management strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess the regional economic implications associated with draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan management strategies. Special interest groups and local residents often criticize a change in refuge management, especially if there is a perceived negative impact to the local economy. Having objective data on economic impacts may show that these fears are overstated. Quite often, the extent of economic benefits a refuge provides to a local community is not fully recognized, yet at the same time the effects of negative changes is overstated. Spending associated with refuge recreational activities, such as wildlife viewing and hunting, can generate considerable tourist activity for surrounding communities. Additionally, refuge personnel typically spend considerable amounts of money purchasing supplies in local stores, repairing equipment and purchasing fuel at the local service stations, and reside and spend their salaries in the local community. For refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan planning, a regional economic assessment provides a means of estimating how current management (no action alternative) and proposed management activities (alternatives) could affect the local economy. This type of analysis provides two critical pieces of

  8. Planning, Programming and Budgeting Systems (PPBS) and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA): Economic Considerations for Adult Education. Occasional Paper No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux, Marvin E.

    In adult education, program planning and administrative management are important areas within which economic analysis may contribute to effective and efficient decision making. The adult education administrator is faced with a dual economic task: (1) to prove beforehand that his programs will pay for the operating budget he is demanding; and (2)…

  9. Bio-physical vs. Economic Uncertainty in the Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on World Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, T. W.; Lobell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that agricultural production could be greatly affected by climate change, but there remains little quantitative understanding of how these agricultural impacts would affect economic livelihoods in poor countries. The recent paper by Hertel, Burke and Lobell (GEC, 2010) considers three scenarios of agricultural impacts of climate change, corresponding to the fifth, fiftieth, and ninety fifth percentiles of projected yield distributions for the world’s crops in 2030. They evaluate the resulting changes in global commodity prices, national economic welfare, and the incidence of poverty in a set of 15 developing countries. Although the small price changes under the medium scenario are consistent with previous findings, their low productivity scenario reveals the potential for much larger food price changes than reported in recent studies which have hitherto focused on the most likely outcomes. The poverty impacts of price changes under the extremely adverse scenario are quite heterogeneous and very significant in some population strata. They conclude that it is critical to look beyond central case climate shocks and beyond a simple focus on yields and highly aggregated poverty impacts. In this paper, we conduct a more formal, systematic sensitivity analysis (SSA) with respect to uncertainty in the biophysical impacts of climate change on agriculture, by explicitly specifying joint distributions for global yield changes - this time focusing on 2050. This permits us to place confidence intervals on the resulting price impacts and poverty results which reflect the uncertainty inherited from the biophysical side of the analysis. We contrast this with the economic uncertainty inherited from the global general equilibrium model (GTAP), by undertaking SSA with respect to the behavioral parameters in that model. This permits us to assess which type of uncertainty is more important for regional price and poverty outcomes. Finally, we undertake a

  10. Techno-economic analysis of three different substrate removal and reuse strategies for III-V solar cells: Techno-economic analysis for III-V solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J. Scott; Remo, Timothy; Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael; Sopori, Bhushan; VanSant, Kaitlyn; Basore, Paul

    2016-05-10

    The high cost of wafers suitable for epitaxial deposition of III-V solar cells has been a primary barrier to widespread use of these cells in low-concentration and one-sun terrestrial solar applications. A possible solution is to reuse the substrate many times, thus spreading its cost across many cells. We performed a bottom-up techno-economic analysis of three different strategies for substrate reuse in high-volume manufacturing: epitaxial lift-off, spalling, and the use of a porous germanium release layer. The analysis shows that the potential cost reduction resulting from substrate reuse is limited in all three strategies--not by the number of reuse cycles achievable, but by the costs that are incurred in each cycle to prepare the substrate for another epitaxial deposition. The dominant substrate-preparation cost component is different for each of the three strategies, and the cost-ranking of these strategies is subject to change if future developments substantially reduce the cost of epitaxial deposition.

  11. Solar Energy Prospecting in Remote Alaska: An Economic Analysis of Solar Photovoltaics in the Last Frontier State

    SciTech Connect

    Schwabe, Paul

    2016-02-11

    This report provides a high-level examination of the potential economics of solar energy in rural Alaska across a geographically diverse sample of remote Alaska Native villages throughout the state. It analyzes at a high level what combination of diesel fuel prices, solar resource quality, and photovoltaic (PV) system costs could lead to an economically competitive moderate-scale PV installation at a remote village. The goal of this analysis is to provide a baseline economic assessment to highlight the possible economic opportunities for solar PV in rural Alaska for both the public and private sectors.

  12. Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

    2010-06-01

    A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

  13. Molecular cloning, expression, and evolution analysis of type II CHI gene from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiangshan; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Guan, Hongshan; Hou, Lei; Li, Changsheng; Xia, Han; Wang, Xingjun

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) plays critical roles in plant secondary metabolism, which is important for the interaction between plants and the environment. CHI genes are widely studied in various higher plants. However, little information about CHI genes is available in peanut. Based on conservation of CHI gene family, we cloned the peanut type II CHI gene (AhCHI II) cDNA and genome sequence. The amino acid sequence of peanut CHI II was highly homologous to type II CHI from other plant species. qRT-PCR results showed that peanut CHI II is mainly expressed in roots; however, peanut CHI I is mainly expressed in tissues with high content of anthocyanin. Gene duplication and gene cluster analysis indicated that CHI II was derived from CHI I 65 million years ago approximately. Our gene structure analysis results are not in agreement with the previous hypothesis that CHI II was derived from CHI I by the insertion of an intron into the first exon. Moreover, no positive selection pressure was found in CHIs, while, 32.1 % of sites were under neutral selection, which may lead to mutation accumulation and fixation during great changes of environment.

  14. Flow injection analysis of mercury(II) in pharmaceuticals based on enzyme inhibition and biosensor detection.

    PubMed

    Bertocchi, P; Ciranni, E; Compagnone, D; Magearu, V; Palleschi, G; Pirvutoiu, S; Valvo, L

    1999-06-01

    An enzymatic amperometric procedure for measurement of mercury(II) in pharmaceuticals, based on the inhibition of invertase and on a glucose electrode was studied. Analytical parameters for measurements in batch and flow injection analysis (FIA) have been optimised. Mercury(II) was detected in the 10-60 ppb range with RSD < or =2%. A sample throughput of 6 h(-1) for batch and 15 h(-1) for FIA was obtained. The total mercury(II) from thimerosal (thiomersal, sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate) in eye-drop samples was measured with the amperometric procedure after oxidative cleavage treatment. Results for both batch and FIA procedures correlated well with atomic absorbtion spectroscopy (AAS) data.

  15. [Dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province: a structural decomposition analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Long; Chen, Xing-Peng; Yang, Jing; Xue, Bing; Li, Yong-Jin

    2010-02-01

    Based on the ideology of macro environmental economics, a function of environmental pressure represented by pollutant emission was built, and the relative importance of the driving factors in the dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province in 1990 - 2005 was analyzed by using structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model combining with 'refined Laspeyres' method. In the study period, the environmental pressure in the Province was mainly caused by the emission of waste gases and solids in the process of economic growth, and showed a rapid increasing trend at the late stage of the period. Population factor had less impact on the increase of this environmental pressure, while economic growth factor had obvious impact on it. Technological progress did mitigate, but could not offset the impact of economic growth factor, and the impacts of economic growth and technological factors on the environmental pressure differed with the kinds of pollutants.

  16. An Economic Impact Analysis of the Proposed Yakima/Klickitat Fishery Enhancement Project; Preliminary Design Report, Appendix D.

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Richard S.; Cocheba, Donald J.; Green, Daniel; Hedrick, David W.

    1989-12-27

    The objective of this study is to estimate the economic impact of the proposed Yakima/Klickitat Production Project on the local economies of the Yakima and Klickitat subbasins. The project, when operating at planned maximum production, will augment the total number of salmon and steelhead returning to the subbasins by 77,600 and will increase the sustainable terminal harvest by 55,160. These estimates do not include fish harvested in the ocean or in the mainstem Columbia. In addition to evaluating the impacts of the construction, operations and maintenance, experimentation and monitoring, and harvest activities described in the Draft Environmental Assessment (Bonneville Power Administration, 1989), our analysis also evaluates some passageway improvements and Phase II screening of irrigation structures. Both of these augmentations are required In order for the project to reach maximum planned harvest levels. The study area includes the Yakima Subbasin economy (Yakima and Kittitas counties), the mid-Columbia Basin/Klickitat Subbasin economies (Klickitat, Hood River, and Wasco counties), and the Tri-Cities economy (Benton and Franklin counties). The study period extends from 1990 through 2015: from preconstruction planning activities through reaching maximum production.

  17. Socio-economic analysis for the authorisation of chemicals under REACH: a case of very high concern?

    PubMed

    Gabbert, Silke; Scheringer, Martin; Ng, Carla A; Stolzenberg, Hans-Christian

    2014-11-01

    Under the European chemicals' legislation, REACH, substances that are identified to be of "very high concern" will de facto be removed from the market unless the European Commission grants authorisations permitting specific uses. Companies who apply for an authorisation without demonstrating "adequate control" of the risks have to show by means of a socio-economic analysis (SEA) that positive impacts of use outweigh negative impacts for human health and ecosystems. This paper identifies core challenges where further in-depth guidance is urgently required in order to ensure that a SEA can deliver meaningful results and that it can effectively support decision-making on authorisation. In particular, we emphasise the need (i) to better guide the selection of tools for impact assessment, (ii) to explicitly account for stock pollution effects in impact assessments for persistent and very persistent chemicals, (iii) to define suitable impact indicators for PBT/vPvB chemicals given the lack of reliable information about safe concentration levels, (iv) to guide how impacts can be transformed into values for decision-making, and (v) to provide a well-balanced discussion of discounting of long-term impacts of chemicals.

  18. Estimation of economic impacts of cellulosic biofuel production: a comparative analysis of three biofuel pathways: Economic impacts of biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yimin; Goldberg, Marshall; Tan, Eric; Meyer, Pimphan Aye

    2016-03-07

    The development of a cellulosic biofuel industry utilizing domestic biomass resources is expected to create opportunities for economic growth resulting from the construction and operation of new biorefineries. We applied an economic input-output model to estimate potential economic impacts, particularly gross job growth, resulting from the construction and operation of biorefineries using three different technology pathways: 1) cellulosic ethanol via biochemical conversion in Iowa, 2) renewable diesel blendstock via biological conversion in Georgia, and 3) renewable diesel and gasoline blendstock via fast pyrolysis in Mississippi. Combining direct, indirect, and induced effects, capital investment associated with the construction of a biorefinery processing 2,000 dry metric tons of biomass per day (DMT/day) could yield between 5,960 and 8,470 full-time equivalent (FTE) jobs during the construction period. Fast pyrolysis biorefineries produce the most jobs on a project level thanks to the highest capital requirement among the three pathways. Normalized for one million dollars of capital investment, the fast pyrolysis biorefineries are estimated to yield slighter more jobs (12.1 jobs) than the renewable diesel (11.8 jobs) and the cellulosic ethanol (11.6 jobs) biorefineries. While operating biorefineries is not labor-intensive, the annual operation of a 2,000 DMT/day biorefinery could support between 720 and 970 jobs when the direct, indirect, and induced effects are considered. The major factor, which results in the variations among the three pathways, is the type of biomass feedstock used for biofuels. The agriculture/forest, services, and trade industries are the primary sectors that will benefit from the ongoing operation of biorefineries.

  19. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 1: Summary and conclusions. [management analysis of the economic benefits of the SEASAT program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A summary is presented of the economic benefits that can be derived from using the SEASAT Satellite System. A statement of the major findings of case studies of the practical applications of the SEASAT program to the following areas is given: (1) offshore oil and natural gas industry, (2) ocean mining, (3) coastal zones, (4) oil exploration in Arctic regions, (5) ocean fishing, and (6) ports and harbors. Also given is a description of the SEASAT System and its performance. A computer program, used to optimize SEASAT System's costs and operational requirements, is also considered.

  20. Educational Cost Analysis in Action: Case Studies for Planners -- II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Philip H.; Hallak, Jacques

    This document is the second in a series of three documents, which together contain 27 case studies on the uses of cost analysis in educational planning. The case studies are presented to help planners and administrators see how cost analysis can be used to improve the efficiency of their educational systems, or to get the best value existing…

  1. Access to Care for Multiple Sclerosis in Times of Economic Crisis in Greece – the HOPE II Study

    PubMed Central

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Alexopoulou, Elena; Papageorgiou, Manto; Politi, Anastasia; Litsa, Panagiota; Contiades, Xenophon

    2016-01-01

    Background: While there is currently no cure for multiple sclerosis (MS), treatment with biologic disease-modifying drugs (bDMDs) can reduce the impact of the condition on the lives of patients. In Greece, the regulatory change in the distribution system of bDMDs, limited their administration through the designated pharmacies of the National Organization for Healthcare Services Provision (EOPYY) or the National Health System (ESY) hospitals, thus potentially impacting access to MS treatment. In this context, the aim of this paper was to assess the barriers to bDMDs, by recording MS patients’ experiences. Methods: A survey research was conducted between January and February 2014 in Athens and 5 other major Greek cities with the methods of personal and telephone interview. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit socio-economic and medical information, information related to obstacles in accessing bDMDs and medical treatment, from MS patients that visited EOPYY pharmacies during the study period. Results: During the last year 69% of 179 participants reported that the distribution system of bDMDs has improved. Thirteen percent of participants encountered problems in accessing their medication, and 16.9% of participants in accessing their physician, with the obstacles being more pronounced for non-Athens residents. Frequent obstacles to bDMDs were the distance from EOPYY pharmacies and difficulties in obtaining a diagnosis from an EOPYY/ESY physician, while obstacles to medical care were delays in appointment booking and travel difficulties. Conclusion: Even though the major weaknesses of the distribution system of bDMDs have improved, further amelioration of the system could be achieved through the home delivery of medicines to patients living in remote areas, and through the development of a national MS registry. PMID:26927393

  2. Spectroscopic, Elemental and Thermal Analysis, and Positron Annihilation Studies on Ca(II), Sr(II), Ba(II), Pb(II), and Fe(III) Penicillin G Potassium Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, M. S.; Sharshara, T.

    2015-11-01

    The [Pb(Pin)2] · 3H2O, [M(Pin)(H2O)2(Cl)] · nH2O (M = SrII, CaII or BaII; n = 0-1), and [Fe(Pin)2(Cl)(H2O)] · H2O penicillin G potassium (Pin) complexes were synthesized and characterized using elemental analyses, molar conductivity, thermal analysis and electronic spectroscopy techniques. The positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) and Doppler broadening (DB) techniques have been employed to probe the defects and structural changes of Pin ligand and its complexes. The PAL and DB line-shape parameters were discussed in terms of the structure, molecular weight, ligand-metal molar ratio, and other properties of the Pin complexes.

  3. An economic analysis of the limits of market based reforms in the English NHS

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past three decades, a limited range of market like mechanisms have been introduced into the hierarchically structured English National Health Service (‘NHS’), which is a nationally tax funded, budget limited healthcare system, with access to care for all, producing structures known as a quasi market. Recently, the Health and Social Care Act 2012 (‘HSCA’) has been enacted, introducing further market elements. The paper examines the theory and effects of these market mechanisms. Methods Using neo-classical economics as a primary theoretical framework, as well as new institutional economics and socio-legal theory, the paper first examines the fundamental elements of markets, comparing these with the operation of authority and resource allocation employed in hierarchical structures. Second, the paper examines the application of market concepts to the delivery of healthcare, drawing out the problems which economic and socio-legal theories predict are likely to be encountered. Third, the paper discusses the research evidence concerning the operation of the quasi market in the English NHS. This evidence is provided by research conducted in the UK which uses economic and socio-legal logic to investigate the operation of the economic aspects of the NHS quasi market. Fourth, the paper provides an analysis of the salient elements of the quasi market regime amended by the HSCA 2012. Results It is not possible to construct a market conforming to classical economic principles in respect of healthcare. Moreover, it is not desirable to do so, as goals which markets cannot deliver (such as fairness of access) are crucial in England. Most of the evidence shows that the quasi market mechanisms used in the English NHS do not appear to be effective either. This finding should be seen in the light of the fact that the operation of these mechanisms has been significantly affected by the national political (i.e. continuingly hierarchical) and budgetary context

  4. A Techno-Economic Analysis of Emission Controls on Hydrocarbon Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, Arpit; Zhang, Yimin; Davis, Ryan; Eberle, Annika; Heath, Garvin

    2016-06-23

    Biofuels have the potential to reduce our dependency on petroleum-derived transportation fuels and decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Although the overall GHG emissions from biofuels are expected to be lower when compared to those of petroleum fuels, the process of converting biomass feedstocks into biofuels emits various air pollutants, which may be subject to federal air quality regulation or emission limits. While prior research has evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of biofuel technologies, gaps still exist in understanding the regulatory issues associated with the biorefineries and their economic implications on biofuel production costs (referred to as minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) in this study). The aim of our research is to evaluate the economic impact of implementing emission reduction technologies at biorefineries and estimate the cost effectiveness of two primary control technologies that may be required for air permitting purposes. We analyze a lignocellulosic sugars-to-hydrocarbon biofuel production pathway developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and implement air emission controls in Aspen Plus to evaluate how they affect the MFSP. Results from this analysis can help inform decisions about biorefinery siting and sizing, as well as mitigate the risks associated with air permitting.

  5. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Joshua

    2015-07-30

    This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.

  6. Design, Operation and Economic Analysis of Autonomous Hybrid PV-Diesel Power Systems Including Battery Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Demetrios P.; Maltas, Eleftherios Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic techno-economic analysis of autonomous PV-Diesel energy system with battery storage. This hybrid type power system was developed and installed on the roof of the Electrical Engineering Laboratory building in the city of Xanthi, Greece, where a weather station is also installed providing necessary meteorological data since 2002. Such system can be generally used to supply electrical loads of isolated remote areas. The actual design of such a system is based on: a pre-defined load pattern to be supplied; the pertinent weather data; the relevant market prices; and the applicable recent economic rates (eg June 2009 for the Greek case). The system is operated on a predictive manner using a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) which controls the main system parameters for safe and continuous power supply to meet reliably the desired load demand. Three distinct systems of this type and of equal capacity, which combine energy sources and battery storage have been proposed and assessed technically and economically.

  7. Analysis of the formation, expression, and economic impacts of risk perceptions associated with nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, T.; Hunter, S.; Calzonetti, F.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report investigates how communities hosting nuclear facilities form and express perceptions of risk and how these risk perceptions affect local economic development. Information was collected from site visits and interviews with plant personnel, officials of local and state agencies, and community activists in the hosting communities. Six commercial nuclear fuel production facilities and five nuclear facilities operated for the US Department of Energy by private contractors were chosen for analysis. The results presented in the report indicate that the nature of risk perceptions depends on a number of factors. These factors are (1) level of communication by plant officials within the local community, (2) track record of the facility. operator, (3) process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, (4) level of economic links each plant has with the local community, and (15) physical characteristics of the facility itself. This report finds that in the communities studied, adverse ask perceptions have not affected business location decisions, employment levels in the local community, tourism, or agricultural development. On the basis of case-study findings, this report recommends that nuclear facility siting programs take the following observations into account when addressing perceptions of risk. First, the quality of a facility`s participation with community activists, interest groups, and state agencies helps to determine the level of perceived risk within a community. Second, the development of strong economic links between nuclear facilities and their host communities will produce a higher level of acceptance of the nuclear facilities.

  8. Economic Analysis and Optimal Sizing for behind-the-meter Battery Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Di; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Yang, Tao; Balducci, Patrick J.

    2016-07-18

    This paper proposes methods to estimate the potential benefits and determine the optimal energy and power capacity for behind-the-meter BSS. In the proposed method, a linear programming is first formulated only using typical load profiles, energy/demand charge rates, and a set of battery parameters to determine the maximum saving in electric energy cost. The optimization formulation is then adapted to include battery cost as a function of its power and energy capacity in order to capture the trade-off between benefits and cost, and therefore to determine the most economic battery size. Using the proposed methods, economic analysis and optimal sizing have been performed for a few commercial buildings and utility rate structures that are representative of those found in the various regions of the Continental United States. The key factors that affect the economic benefits and optimal size have been identified. The proposed methods and case study results cannot only help commercial and industrial customers or battery vendors to evaluate and size the storage system for behind-the-meter application, but can also assist utilities and policy makers to design electricity rate or subsidies to promote the development of energy storage.

  9. Economic analysis of solar assisted absorption chiller for a commercial building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonyraj, Gnananesan

    Dwindling fossil fuels coupled with changes in global climate intensified the drive to make use of renewable energy resources that have negligible impact on the environment. In this attempt, the industrial community produced various devices and systems to make use of solar energy for heating and cooling of building space as well as generate electric power. The most common components employed for collection of solar energy are the flat plate and evacuated tube collectors that produce hot water that can be employed for heating the building space. In order to cool the building, the absorption chiller is commonly employed that requires hot water at high temperatures for its operation. This thesis deals with economic analysis of solar collector and absorption cooling system to meet the building loads of a commercial building located in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Computer simulations are employed to predict the hourly building loads and performance of the flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors using the hourly weather data. The key variables affecting the economic evaluation of such system are identified and the influence of these parameters is presented. The results of this investigation show that the flat plate solar collectors yield lower payback period compared to the evacuated tube collectors and economic incentives offered by the local and federal agencies play a major role in lowering the payback period.

  10. Techno-economic analysis of monosaccharide production via fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanan; Brown, Tristan R; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    The economic feasibility of a facility producing monosaccharides, hydrogen and transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis and upgrading pathway was evaluated by modeling a 2000 dry metric ton biomass/day facility using Aspen Plus®. Equipment sizing and cost were based on Aspen Economic Evaluation® software. The results indicate that monosaccharide production capacity could reach 338 metric tons/day. Co-product yields of hydrogen and gasoline were 23.4 and 141 metric tons/day, respectively. The total installed equipment and total capital costs were estimated to be $210 million and $326 million, respectively. A facility internal rate of return (IRR) of 11.4% based on market prices of $3.33/kg hydrogen, $2.92/gal gasoline and diesel, $0.64/kg monosaccharide was calculated. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that fixed capital cost, feedstock cost, product yields, and product credits have the greatest impacts on facility IRR. Further research is needed to optimize yield of sugar via the proposed process to improve economic feasibility.

  11. RO concentrate minimization by electrodialysis: techno-economic analysis and environmental concerns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Ghyselbrecht, Karel; Vanherpe, Ruben; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Pinoy, Luc; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2012-09-30

    This paper presents a systematic techno-economical analysis and an environmental impact evaluation of a reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate treatment process using electrodialysis (ED) in view of environmental management of brine discharges. The concentrate originates from a secondary effluent treated by RO. Without any treatment, the concentrate would have to be discharged; this is compared in this study to the costs and benefits of an effective treatment method in a pilot scale ED plant. A technical analysis was done both on lab scale and pilot scale for the determination of operational and maintenance costs for the ED installation at the required conditions of process performance and safety. Subsequently, an economical analysis was done to calculate the cost of the different parts of the ED system. It was shown that an operational cost of 0.19 EUR m(-3) can be achieved, assuming that the ED concentrate is to decarbonated at pH 6.0 to prevent membrane scaling. Finally, environmental impact issues were calculated and discussed for the overall system. Results imply that if renewable energy is applied for the ED power source, CO(2) emission from membrane processes can be much less than from the conventional treatment methods.

  12. Economic Analysis for an F-22 Organic vs. Contractor Aircraft Battle Damage Repair Ownership Decision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    USAF Weighted Inflation Indices page instructs users to use raw indices for Pay and POL [petroleum, oils, and lubricants] inflation (’USAF Raw", 1997... author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. AFIT/GLM/LAL/97S-5 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR...finally, I would like to especially thank my wife for being self-confident enough to know that I really do care for her more than my research. Her

  13. Magnetic Nanofluid Rare Earth Element Extraction Process Report, Techno Economic Analysis, and Results for Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Pete McGrail

    2016-03-14

    This GDR submission is an interim technical report and raw data files from the first year of testing on functionalized nanoparticles for rare earth element extraction from geothermal fluids. The report contains Rare Earth Element uptake results (percent removal, mg Rare Earth Element/gram of sorbent, distribution coefficient) for the elements of Neodymium, Europium, Yttrium, Dysprosium, and Cesium. A detailed techno economic analysis is also presented in the report for a scaled up geothermal rare earth element extraction process. All rare earth element uptake testing was done on simulated geothermal brines with one rare earth element in each brine. The rare earth element uptake testing was conducted at room temperature.

  14. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: economics and marketing-finance.

    PubMed

    Kalogeras, N; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Pennings, J M E; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    All market participants (e.g., investors, producers, consumers) accept a certain level of risk as necessary to achieve certain benefits. There are many types of risk including price, production, financial, institutional, and individual human risks. All these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption and/or catastrophic economic consequences for the food industry. The identification, analysis, determination, and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in the food markets may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well-informed and effective corporate investment strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. In this paper, we discuss the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of market-participants, who are engaged in the upstream and downstream stages of the food supply chain. In addition, we review the most common approaches (expected utility model and psychometrics) for measuring benefit-risk trade-offs in the economics and marketing-finance literature, and different factors that may affect the economic behaviour in the light of benefit-risk analyses. Building on the findings of our review, we introduce a conceptual framework to study the benefit-risk behaviour of market participants. Specifically, we suggest the decoupling of benefits and risks into the separate components of utilitarian benefits, hedonic benefits, and risk attitude and risk perception, respectively. Predicting and explaining how market participants in the food industry form their overall attitude in light of benefit-risk trade-offs may be critical for policy-makers and managers who need to understand the drivers of the economic behaviour of market participants with respect to production, marketing and consumption of food products.

  15. Neo-liberal economic practices and population health: a cross-national analysis, 1980-2004.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Melissa; Kruk, Margaret E; Harper, Christine; Galea, Sandro

    2010-04-01

    Although there has been substantial debate and research concerning the economic impact of neo-liberal practices, there is a paucity of research about the potential relation between neo-liberal economic practices and population health. We assessed the extent to which neo-liberal policies and practices are associated with population health at the national level. We collected data on 119 countries between 1980 and 2004. We measured neo-liberalism using the Fraser Institute's Economic Freedom of the World (EFW) Index, which gives an overall score as well as a score for each of five different aspects of neo-liberal economic practices: (1) size of government, (2) legal structure and security of property rights, (3) access to sound money, (4) freedom to exchange with foreigners and (5) regulation of credit, labor and business. Our measure of population health was under-five mortality. We controlled for potential mediators (income distribution, social capital and openness of political institutions) and confounders (female literacy, total population, rural population, fertility, gross domestic product per capita and time period). In longitudinal multivariable analyses, we found that the EFW index did not have an effect on child mortality but that two of its components: improved security of property rights and access to sound money were associated with lower under-five mortality (p = 0.017 and p = 0.024, respectively). When stratifying the countries by level of income, less regulation of credit, labor and business was associated with lower under-five mortality in high-income countries (p = 0.001). None of the EFW components were significantly associated with under-five mortality in low-income countries. This analysis suggests that the concept of 'neo-liberalism' is not a monolithic entity in its relation to health and that some 'neo-liberal' policies are consistent with improved population health. Further work is needed to corroborate or refute these findings.

  16. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the ..Section..1603 Treasury Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, D.; Porro, G.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-04-01

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the Section 1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the Section 1603 grant program.

  17. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the §1603Treasury Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Daniel; Porro, Gian; Goldberg, Marshall

    2012-04-01

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the §1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the §1603 grant program.

  18. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the §1603 Treasury Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Daniel; Porro, Gian; Goldberg, Marshall

    2012-04-09

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the §1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the §1603 grant program.

  19. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs.

  20. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 2 - Epidemiology, Wildlife and Economics.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research, and in this study, we consider (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) economics. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. During 2011-2015, modelling studies were dominant in the broad field of epidemiology; however, continued efforts are required to develop robust models for use during outbreaks in FMD-free countries, linking epidemiologic and economics models. More guidance is needed for both the evaluation and the setting of targets for vaccine coverage, population immunity and vaccine field efficacy. Similarly, methods for seroprevalence studies need to be improved to obtain more meaningful outputs that allow comparison across studies. To inform control programmes in endemic countries, field trials assessing the effectiveness of vaccination in extensive smallholder systems should be performed to determine whether FMD can be controlled with quality vaccines in settings where implementing effective biosecurity is challenging. Studies need to go beyond measuring only vaccine effects and should extend our knowledge of the impact of FMD and increase our understanding of how to maximize farmer participation in disease control. Where wildlife reservoirs of virus exist, particularly African Buffalo, we need to better understand when and under what circumstances transmission to domestic animals occurs in order to manage this risk appropriately, considering the impact of control measures on livelihoods and wildlife. For settings where FMD eradication is unfeasible, further ground testing of commodity-based trade is recommended. A thorough review of global FMD control programmes, covering successes and failures, would be extremely valuable and could be used to guide other control programmes.

  1. Quantitative analysis of topoisomerase II{alpha} to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Masashi; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Kano, Hideyuki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro; Katsuki, Takahisa; Shirahata, Mitsuaki; Ono, Makoto; Yamana, Norikazu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Takahashi, Jun A. . E-mail: jat@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-06-17

    Immunohistochemical cell proliferation analyses have come into wide use for evaluation of tumor malignancy. Topoisomerase II{alpha} (topo II{alpha}), an essential nuclear enzyme, has been known to have cell cycle coupled expression. We here show the usefulness of quantitative analysis of topo II{alpha} mRNA to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors. A protocol to quantify topo II{alpha} mRNA was developed with a real-time RT-PCR. It took only 3 h to quantify from a specimen. A total of 28 brain tumors were analyzed, and the level of topo II{alpha} mRNA was significantly correlated with its immuno-staining index (p < 0.0001, r = 0.9077). Furthermore, it sharply detected that topo II{alpha} mRNA decreased in growth-inhibited glioma cell. These results support that topo II{alpha} mRNA may be a good and rapid indicator to evaluate cell proliferate potential in brain tumors.

  2. Forensic discrimination of dyed hair color: II. Multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Julie A; Siegel, Jay A; Goodpaster, John V

    2011-01-01

    This research is intended to assess the ability of UV-visible microspectrophotometry to successfully discriminate the color of dyed hair. Fifty-five red hair dyes were analyzed and evaluated using multivariate statistical techniques including agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA). The spectra were grouped into three classes, which were visually consistent with different shades of red. A two-dimensional PCA observations plot was constructed, describing 78.6% of the overall variance. The wavelength regions associated with the absorbance of hair and dye were highly correlated. Principal components were selected to represent 95% of the overall variance for analysis with DA. A classification accuracy of 89% was observed for the comprehensive dye set, while external validation using 20 of the dyes resulted in a prediction accuracy of 75%. Significant color loss from successive washing of hair samples was estimated to occur within 3 weeks of dye application.

  3. An analysis of the allocation of Yakima River water in terms of sustainability and economic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Brett; Douglas, Ellen M; Terkla, David

    2012-07-30

    Decades of agricultural growth has led to the over appropriation of Yakima water and the ecological integrity of the Basin has been compromised. We evaluate the impact of current water allocation on the natural flow regime of the Yakima River using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration/Range of Variability Analysis and by quantifying indicators of ecosurplus and ecodeficit. We analyze the sustainability of the current water allocation scheme based on a range of sustainability criteria, from weak to strong to environmentally sustainable. Economic efficiency is assessed by describing the current allocation framework and suggesting ways to make it more efficient. Our IHA/RVA analysis suggests that the allocation of water in the Yakima River has resulted in a highly altered flow regime. Ecodeficit is far in excess of ecosurplus. We conclude that this allocation scheme is weakly sustainable, if sustainable at all, in its current framework. The allocation of water is also not economically efficient and we suggest that a reallocation of water rights may be necessary in order to achieve this objective. The creation of water markets to stimulate voluntary water rights transactions is the best way to approach economic efficiency. The first step would be to extend beneficial use requirements to include instream flows, which would essentially allow individuals to convert offstream rights into instream rights. The Washington trust water rights program was implemented as a means of creating a water market, which has contributed to the protection of instream flows, however more needs to be done to create an ideal water rights market so that rights migrate to higher valued uses, many of which are met instream. However, water markets will likely not solve the Yakima's water allocation problems alone; some degree of regulation may still be necessary.

  4. Economic and Nonproliferation Analysis Framework for Assessing Reliable Nuclear Fuel Service Arrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Jon R.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Short, Steven M.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2010-04-14

    Nuclear power is now broadly recognized as an essential technology in national strategies to provide energy security while meeting carbon management goals. Yet a long standing conundrum remains: how to enable rapid growth in the global nuclear power infrastructure while controlling the spread of sensitive enrichment and reprocessing technologies that lie at the heart of nuclear fuel supply and nuclear weapons programs. Reducing the latent proliferation risk posed by a broader horizontal spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology has been a primary goal of national nuclear supplier policies since the beginning of the nuclear power age. Attempts to control the spread of sensitive nuclear technology have been the subject of numerous initiatives in the intervening decades sometimes taking the form of calls to develop fuel supply and service assurances to reduce market pull to increase the number of states with fuel cycle capabilities. A clear understanding of what characteristics of specific reliable nuclear fuel service (RNFS) and supply arrangements qualify them as 'attractive offers' is critical to the success of current and future efforts. At a minimum, RNFS arrangements should provide economic value to all participants and help reduce latent proliferation risks posed by the global expansion of nuclear power. In order to inform the technical debate and the development of policy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been developing an analytical framework to evaluate the economics and nonproliferation merits of alternative approaches to RNFS arrangements. This paper provides a brief overview of the economic analysis framework developed and applied to a model problem of current interest: full-service nuclear fuel leasing arrangements. Furthermore, this paper presents an extended outline of a proposed analysis approach to evaluate the non-proliferation merits of various RNFS alternatives.

  5. Integration of Socio-Economic Measures in Benefit-Cost Analysis for Groundwater Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaqadan, A. A.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.; Khalil, Y. H.

    2006-12-01

    Groundwater quality is a major concern since sources of contamination are common and degraded water quality has severe economic and health impacts to the society. Management of contaminated groundwater resources has been a challenge due to limited resources committed to monitor and remediate a large number of contaminated sites. Therefore, there is a prominent question on the optimal allocation of resources for additional data collection and actual remedial measures. In this work, we extended the risk assessment methodology under subsurface heterogeneity and population variability proposed by others to estimate individuals' willingness-to-pay(WTP) for a proposed risk reduction by adding socio-economic measures. We introduced one of the early applications of welfare measures namely, health state, utility, and WTP concepts to study the benefits and costs of collecting additional data to reduce uncertainty for groundwater remediation. The proposed framework considered uncertainty due to subsurface heterogeneity and public health risk through a utility theory based approach that can be used in decision-making. Our framework replaced costly contingent valuation approaches and used a meta analysis which considered a theoretical structure on population age, income, and health state and used empirical estimates from previous contingent valuation methods. We also performed sensitivity analysis on important variables such as WTP and utility levels. Our findings showed that health state and age have vital impacts on WTP. The predictions of WTP trends are consistent with patterns expected in economic theory. We illustrated the proposed framework by evaluating two scenarios of gathering additional information to better describe subsurface heterogeneity. In this example we considered a small addition of data at a correlation scale of 112 m versus a large addition of data at a correlation scale of 22 m. The results showed the two scenarios have annual individuals' WTP of 258 and

  6. Economic growth analysis system (E-GAS) for EPA regions 2 and 3 - mid atlantic (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The E - Gas modeling system is a forecast model used to predict National and regional economic activity in order to estimate attainment of ozone and photochemical air quality standards. Since growth in source emissions largely depends on the amount of economic activity growth in an area, a consistent set of growth factors requires forecasts using consistent Gross National Product (GNP) forecasts and a consistent methodology for estimating economic activity in Urban Airshed Model (UAM) and Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) modeling regions. The need for consistent economic growth facts, however, must be satisfied in a way that allows States to use their own estimates of National and regional economic activity. The Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) is an economic and activity forecast model which satisfies both of these standards. The E-GAS modeling system contains three tiers. The first tier includes available national economic forecasts which are used to drive the regional economic models. The second tier includes regional economic models for the UAM modeling areas, as well as the States in the ROM modeling regions. The third tier estimates fuel consumption, physical output, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) based on the second tier`s regional economic forecasts. The tiers must be sequentially executed, since data are created by and passed from early tiers for transfers to later tiers. The three-tiered structure of E-GAS allows users flexibility in modeling. Although a tier must be run before preceding to later tiers, the system allows the models to be rerun at the user`s discretion. For example, users may run the National model using either BLS or WEFA forecasts before performing regional modeling on the last national model run. E-GAS is designed such that growth factor projection scenarios for each nonattainment area and attainment portion of States can be made using a common assumption about future U.S. economic activity.

  7. Economic growth analysis system (E-GAS) for all EPA regions (1 through 10) (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The E - Gas modeling system is a forecast model used to predict National and regional economic activity in order to estimate attainment of ozone and photochemical air quality standards. Since growth in source emissions largely depends on the amount of economic activity growth in an area, a consistent set of growth factors requires forecasts using consistent Gross National Product (GNP) forecasts and a consistent methodology for estimating economic activity in Urban Airshed Model (UAM) and Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) modeling regions. The need for consistent economic growth facts, however, must be satisfied in a way that allows States to use their own estimates of National and regional economic activity. The Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) is an economic and activity forecast model which satisfies both of these standards. The E-GAS modeling system contains three tiers. The first tier includes available national economic forecasts which are used to drive the regional economic models. The second tier includes regional economic models for the UAM modeling areas, as well as the States in the ROM modeling regions. The third tier estimates fuel consumption, physical output, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) based on the second tier`s regional economic forecasts. The tiers must be sequentially executed, since data are created by and passed from early tiers for transfers to later tiers. The three-tiered structure of E-GAS allows users flexibility in modeling. Although a tier must be run before preceding to later tiers, the system allows the models to be rerun at the user`s discretion. For example, users may run the National model using either BLS or WEFA forecasts before performing regional modeling on the last national model run. E-GAS is designed such that growth factor projection scenarios for each nonattainment area and attainment portion of States can be made using a common assumption about future U.S. economic activity.

  8. Final Report: Posttest Analysis of Omega II Optical Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Newlander, C D; Fisher, J H

    2007-01-30

    Preliminary posttest analyses have been completed on optical specimens exposed during the Omega II test series conducted on 14 July 2006. The Omega Facility, located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester was used to produce X-ray environments through the interaction of intense pulsed laser radiation upon germanium-loaded silica aerogels. The optical specimen testing was supported by GH Systems through experiment design, pre- and post-test analyses, specimen acquisition, and overall technical experience. The test specimens were fabricated and characterized by Surface Optics Corporation (SOC), San Diego, CA and were simple protected gold coatings on silica substrates. Six test specimens were exposed, five filtered with thin beryllium foil filters, and one unfiltered which was exposed directly to the raw environment. The experimental objectives were: (1) demonstrate that tests of optical specimens could be performed at the Omega facility; (2) evaluate the use and survivability of beryllium foil filters as a function of thickness; (3) obtain damage data on optical specimens which ranged from no damage to damage; (4) correlate existing thermal response models with the damage data; (5) evaluate the use of the direct raw environment upon the specimen response and the ability/desirability to conduct sensitive optical specimen tests using the raw environment; and (6) initiate the development of a protocol for performing optical coatings/mirror tests. This report documents the activities performed by GH Systems in evaluating and using the environments provided by LLNL, the PUFFTFT analyses performed using those environments, and the calculated results compared to the observed and measured posttest data.

  9. Impact of model, methodological, and parameter uncertainty in the economic analysis of vaccination programs.

    PubMed

    Brisson, M; Edmunds, W J

    2006-01-01

    Guidelines for economic evaluations insist that the sensitivity of model results to alternative parameter values should be thoroughly explored. However, differences in model construction and analytical choices (such as the choice of a cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit framework) also introduce uncertainty in results, though these are rarely subjected to a thorough sensitivity analysis. In this article, the authors quantify the effect of model, methodological, and parameter uncertainty, taking varicella vaccination as an example. They used 3 different models (a static model, a dynamic model that only looks at the effect of vaccination on varicella, and a dynamic model that also assesses the implications of vaccination for zoster epidemiology) and 2 forms of analysis (cost-benefit and cost-utility). They also varied the discount rate and time frame of analysis. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to estimate the impact of parameter uncertainty. In their example, model and methodological choice had a profound effect on estimated cost-effectiveness, but parameter uncertainty played a relatively minor role. Under cost-utility analysis, the probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that there was a near certainty that vaccination dominates no vaccination, or the other way around, depending on model choice and perspective. Under cost-benefit analysis, vaccination always appeared to be attractive. Thus, the authors clearly show that model and methodological assumptions can have greater impact on results than parameter estimates, although sensitivity analyses are rarely performed on these sources of uncertainty.

  10. Machine-Scored Testing, Part II: Creativity and Item Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuba, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Explains how multiple choice test items can be devised to measure higher-order learning, including engineering problem solving. Discusses the value and information provided in item analysis procedures with machine-scored tests. Suggests elements to consider in test design. (ML)

  11. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  12. Using quantum erasure to exorcise Maxwell's demon: II. Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostovtsev, Yuri; Sariyanni, Zoe-Elizabeth; Suhail Zubairy, M.; O. Scully, Marlan

    2005-10-01

    We present an analysis of the single atom negentropy quantum heat engine to determine the fundamental limits of its operation. The engine has an internal reservoir of negentropy which allows one to extract work from a single thermal reservoir. The process is attended by constantly increasing entropy and does not violate the second law of thermodynamics.

  13. A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

    2009-05-01

    Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination among Libyan children using a simple economic model

    PubMed Central

    Alkoshi, Salem; Maimaiti, Namaitijiang; Dahlui, Maznah

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotavirus infection is a major cause of childhood diarrhea in Libya. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in that country. Methods We used a published decision tree model that has been adapted to the Libyan situation to analyze a birth cohort of 160,000 children. The evaluation of diarrhea events in three public hospitals helped to estimate the rotavirus burden. The economic analysis was done from two perspectives: health care provider and societal. Univariate sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty in some values of the variables selected. Results The three hospitals received 545 diarrhea patients aged≤5 with 311 (57%) rotavirus positive test results during a 9-month period. The societal cost for treatment of a case of rotavirus diarrhea was estimated at US$ 661/event. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio with a vaccine price of US$ 27 per course was US$ 8,972 per quality-adjusted life year gained from the health care perspective. From a societal perspective, the analysis shows cost savings of around US$ 16 per child. Conclusion The model shows that rotavirus vaccination could be economically a very attractive intervention in Libya. PMID:25499622

  15. Economic Analysis of a Brackish Water Photovoltaic-Operated (BWRO-PV) Desalination System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Karaghouli, A.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    2010-10-01

    The photovoltaic (PV)-powered reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination system is considered one of the most promising technologies in producing fresh water from both brackish and sea water, especially for small systems located in remote areas. We analyze the economic viability of a small PV-operated RO system with a capacity of 5 m3/day used to desalinate brackish water of 4000 ppm total dissolve solids, which is proposed to be installed in a remote area of the Babylon governorate in the middle of Iraq; this area possesses excellent insolation throughout the year. Our analysis predicts very good economic and environmental benefits of using this system. The lowest cost of fresh water achieved from using this system is US $3.98/ m3, which is very reasonable compared with the water cost reported by small-sized desalination plants installed in rural areas in other parts of the world. Our analysis shows that using this small system will prevent the release annually of 8,170 kg of CO2, 20.2 kg of CO, 2.23 kg of CH, 1.52 kg of particulate matter, 16.41 kg of SO2, and 180 kg of NOx.

  16. Analysis of the economic structure of the eating-out sector: The case of Spain.

    PubMed

    Cabiedes-Miragaya, Laura

    2017-01-19

    The objective of this article is to analyse the structure of the Spanish eating-out sector from an economic point of view, and more specifically, from the supply perspective. This aspect has been studied less than the demand side, almost certainly due to the gaps which exist in available official statistics in Spain, and which have been filled basically with consumer surveys. For this reason, focus is also placed on the economic relevance of the sector and attention is drawn to the serious shortcomings regarding official statistics in this domain, in contrast to the priority that hotel industry statistics have traditionally received in Spain. Based on official statistics, a descriptive analysis was carried out, focused mainly, though not exclusively, on diverse structural aspects of the sector. Special emphasis was placed on issues such as business demography (for instance, number and types of enterprises, survival rates, size distribution, and age structure), market concentration and structure of costs. Among other conclusions, the analysis allowed us to conclude that: part of the sector is more concentrated than it may at first appear to be; the dual structure of the sector described by the literature in relation to other countries is also present in the Spanish case; and the impact of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) on the sector are, and will foreseeably continue to be, particularly relevant. The main conclusion of this study refers to the fact that consumers have gained prominence in their contribution to shaping the structure of the sector.

  17. Assessing contributory risk using economic input-output life-cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ian; Shelly, Michael; Jonmaire, Paul; Lee, Richard V; Harbison, Raymond D

    2005-04-01

    The contribution of consumer purchases of non-essential products to environmental pollution is characterized. Purchase decisions by consumers induce a complex sequence of economy-wide production interactions that influence the production and consumption of chemicals and subsequent exposure and possible public health risks. An economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) was used to link resource consumption and production by manufacturers to corresponding environmental impacts. Using the US Department of Commerce's input-output tables together with the US Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory and AIRData databases, the economy-wide air discharges resulting from purchases of household appliances, motor homes, and games and toys were quantified. The economic and environmental impacts generated from a hypothetical 10,000 US dollar purchase for selected consumer items were estimated. The analysis shows how purchases of seemingly benign consumer products increase the output of air pollutants along the supply chain and contribute to the potential risks associated with environmental chemical exposures to both consumers and non-consumers alike.

  18. Techno-economic analysis of wastewater sludge gasification: a decentralized urban perspective.

    PubMed

    Lumley, Nicholas P G; Ramey, Dotti F; Prieto, Ana L; Braun, Robert J; Cath, Tzahi Y; Porter, Jason M

    2014-06-01

    The successful management of wastewater sludge for small-scale, urban wastewater treatment plants, (WWTPs), faces several financial and environmental challenges. Common management strategies stabilize sludge for land disposal by microbial processes or heat. Such approaches require large footprint processing facilities or high energy costs. A new approach considers converting sludge to fuel which can be used to produce electricity on-site. This work evaluated several thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies from the perspective of small urban WWTPs. Among TCC technologies, air-blown gasification was found to be the most suitable approach. A gasification-based generating system was designed and simulated in ASPEN Plus® to determine net electrical and thermal outputs. A technical analysis determined that such a system can be built using currently available technologies. Air-blown gasification was found to convert sludge to electricity with an efficiency greater than 17%, about triple the efficiency of electricity generation using anaerobic digester gas. This level of electricity production can offset up to 1/3 of the electrical demands of a typical WWTP. Finally, an economic analysis concluded that a gasification-based power system can be economically feasible for WWTPs with raw sewage flows above 0.093m(3)/s (2.1 million gallons per day), providing a profit of up to $3.5 million over an alternative, thermal drying and landfill disposal.

  19. Comparative analysis of a CFo ATP synthase subunit II homologue derived from marine and fresh-water algae.

    PubMed

    Suda, Yoshito; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Okuda, Yuko; Tsunemoto, Mei; Matsuda, Yuri; Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Kazunori; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Harada, Kazuo; Bamba, Takeshi; Hirata, Kazumasa

    2009-11-01

    Comparative analysis was performed with a CFo ATP synthase subunit II homologue (CFo-II) derived from marine or fresh-water algae. The marine algae-derived CFo-II-transformed Escherichia coli grew and accumulated ATP more vigorously in NaCl or Cadmium containing medium, suggesting that this gene was useful for the development of stress-tolerant plant.

  20. Analysis of the economically optimal voluntary waiting period for first insemination.

    PubMed

    Inchaisri, C; Jorritsma, R; Vos, P L A M; van der Weijden, G C; Hogeveen, H

    2011-08-01

    The voluntary waiting period (VWP) is defined as the time between parturition and the time at which the cow is first eligible for insemination. Determining the optimal VWP from field data is difficult and unlikely to happen. Therefore, a Monte-Carlo dynamic-stochastic simulation model was created to calculate the economic effects of different VWP. The model is dynamic and uses time steps of 1 wk to simulate the reproductive cycle (ovulation, estrous detection, and conception), the occurrence of postpartum disorders, and the lactation curve. Inputs of the model were chosen to reflect the situation of Dutch dairy cows. In the model, we initially created a cow of a randomly selected breed, parity, month of calving, calf status of last calving, and expected 305-d milk yield. The randomly varied variables were based upon relevant distributions and adjusted for cow statuses. The lactation curve was modeled by Wood's function. The economic input values in the analysis included: cost of milk production (€0.07 to €0.20 per kg), calf price (€35 to €150 per calf), AI cost (€7 to €24 per AI), calving management cost (€137 to €167 per calving), and culling cost, expressed as the retention pay-off (€118 to €1,117). A partial budget approach was used to calculate the economic effect of varying the VWP from 7 to 15 wk postpartum, using a VWP of 6 wk as reference. Per iteration, the VWP with either the lowest economic loss or the maximum profit was determined as the optimal VWP. The optimal VWP of most cows (90%) was less than 10 wk. On average, every VWP longer than 6 wk gave economic losses. Longer VWP were in particular optimal for the first parity of breeds other than Holstein-Friesian, cows calving in winter with low milk production, high milk persistency, delayed peak milk yield time, a delayed time of first ovulation, or occurrence of a postpartum disorder, and while costs of milk production are low and costs for AI are high.

  1. Reasons for Persistently High Maternal and Perinatal Mortalities in Ethiopia: Part II-Socio-Economic and Cultural Factors

    PubMed Central

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2014-01-01

    Background The major causes of maternal and perinatal deaths are mostly pregnancy related. However, there are several predisposing factors for the increased risk of pregnancy related complications and deaths in developing countries. The objective of this review was to grossly estimate the effect of selected socioeconomic and cultural factors on maternal mortality, stillbirths and neonatal mortality in Ethiopia. Methods A comprehensive literature review was conducted focusing on the effect of total fertility rate (TFR), modern contraceptive use, harmful traditional practice, adult literacy rate and level of income on maternal and perinatal mortalities. For the majority of the data, regression analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient were used as a proxy indicator for the association of variables with maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality. Results Although there were variations in the methods for estimation, the TFR of women in Ethiopia declined from 5.9 to 4.8 in the last fifteen years, which was in the middle as compared with that of other African countries. The preference of injectable contraceptive method has increased by 7-fold, but the unmet contraceptive need was among the highest in Africa. About 50% reduction in female genital cutting (FGC) was reported although some women's attitude was positive towards the practice of FGC. The regression analysis demonstrated increased risk of stillbirths, neonatal and maternal mortality with increased TFR. The increased adult literacy rate was associated with increased antenatal care and skilled person attended delivery. Low adult literacy was also found to have a negative association with stillbirths and neonatal and maternal mortality. A similar trend was also observed with income. Conclusion Maternal mortality ratio, stillbirth rate and neonatal mortality rate had inverse relations with income and adult education. In Ethiopia, the high total fertility rate, low utilization of contraceptive methods, low adult

  2. Economic impact analysis of effluent limitations and standards for plastics molding and forming industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued effluent limitations and standards in December, 1984, for the Plastics Molding and Forming Industry. The report estimates the economic impacts associated with pollution control costs. Plant-specific treatment costs for 20 percent of the impacted plants are compared to estimated pre-tax plant income to assess the impact of treatment costs on plant liquidity. Then a closure analysis is performed, comparing the current salvage value of the plant's assets with the present value of the plant's cash flow plus the terminal value of its assets. The results are extrapolated to the 558 plants which, as direct dischargers, would be impacted. The results of this plant-level analysis are used to assess the indirect impacts of the regulation, e.g., price changes, unemployment and shifts, in the balance of foreign trade.

  3. Economic Analysis in the Pacific Northwest Land Resources Project: Theoretical Considerations and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, D. R. A.; Sahlberg, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project i s an a ttempt to combine a whole spectrum of heterogeneous geographic, institutional and applications elements in a synergistic approach to the evaluation of remote sensing techniques. This diversity is the prime motivating factor behind a theoretical investigation of alternative economic analysis procedures. For a multitude of reasons--simplicity, ease of understanding, financial constraints and credibility, among others--cost-effectiveness emerges as the most practical tool for conducting such evaluation determinatIons in the Pacific Northwest. Preliminary findings in two water resource application areas suggest, in conformity with most published studies, that Lands at-aided data collection methods enjoy substantial cost advantages over alternative techniques. The pntential for sensitivity analysis based on cost/accuracy tradeoffs is considered on a theoretical plane in the absence of current accuracy figures concerning the Landsat-aided approach.

  4. Economic Analysis of a Laser-Powered, Global Small Aerospacecraft Transportation System (G-SATS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, David; List, George; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2005-04-01

    A first-order economic analysis is performed for a revolutionary transport technology intended for hypersonic world travel — powered by laser energy beamed from satellite solar power stations, with relay mirrors in low Earth orbit. A fleet of 1-person to 5-person, `tractor-beam' lightcraft will enable direct port-to-port (no refueling) trips, half-way around the globe in under an hour — riding suborbital boost-glide trajectories through space. Estimates are presented of vehicle size, ridership, revenues, fleet size, capital, operating and maintenance costs, and expected profitability for a lightcraft-based global transportation system called G-SATS. On a net present value basis, over a 20-year time span, G-SATS should have a profit margin of over 20% — implying not only the ability to be profitable, but also a potential market penetrability that goes well beyond the conservative assumptions made in this analysis.

  5. Economic analysis of the design and fabrication of a space qualified power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruselowski, G.

    1980-01-01

    An economic analysis was performed to determine the cost of the design and fabrication of a low Earth orbit, 2 kW photovoltaic/battery, space qualified power system. A commercially available computer program called PRICE (programmed review of information for costing and evaluation) was used to conduct the analysis. The sensitivity of the various cost factors to the assumptions used is discussed. Total cost of the power system was found to be $2.46 million with the solar array accounting for 70.5%. Using the assumption that the prototype becomes the flight system, 77.3% of the total cost is associated with manufacturing. Results will be used to establish whether the cost of space qualified hardware can be reduced by the incorporation of commercial design, fabrication, and quality assurance methods.

  6. Normal coordinate analysis of the dithiocarbamate ligand and bis-(N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate)nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafilova, N. S.; Kellner, R.; Nikolov, G. St.

    1984-03-01

    The vibrational frequencies of H 2NCS 2- (H 2dtc), Et 2dtc -, and M(Et 2dtc) 2 (M = Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd) have been calculated by performing normal coordinate analysis using Gribov's fragmentation procedure within the generalized valence force field approximation. The force field resulting from the experimental frequencies shows a high degree of mixing between the different parts of the molecules. The fragmentation approach has allowed a detailed assignment of the observed frequencies even in the highly correlated force field.

  7. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

  8. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments.

  9. [Comparative analysis of spatial organization of myoglobins. II. Secondary structure].

    PubMed

    Korobov, V N; Nazarenko, V I; Radomskiĭ, N F; Starodub, N F

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of probability of distribution curves of alpha-helical sites and bends of polypeptide chains of myoglobins in half-water mammals (beaver, nutria, muskrat, otter) carried out in comparison with those of myoglobins of the horse and Sperm whale (X-ray diffraction analysis has revealed their tertiary structure) has revealed a coincidence of the secondary structure sites end bends of the chain in the studied respiratory hemoproteins of muscles. Despite a considerable number of amino acid substitutions the profiles of alpha-helicity and B-bends of the compared proteins are practically identical. This indicates to the "resistance" of the probability curves to amino acid substitutions and to retention of the tertiary structure of myoglobins in evolutionary remote species of the animals.

  10. Maximum Likelihood Analysis of Low Energy CDMS II Germanium Data

    SciTech Connect

    Agnese, R.

    2015-03-30

    We report on the results of a search for a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) signal in low-energy data of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment using a maximum likelihood analysis. A background model is constructed using GEANT4 to simulate the surface-event background from Pb210decay-chain events, while using independent calibration data to model the gamma background. Fitting this background model to the data results in no statistically significant WIMP component. In addition, we also perform fits using an analytic ad hoc background model proposed by Collar and Fields, who claimed to find a large excess of signal-like events in our data. Finally, we confirm the strong preference for a signal hypothesis in their analysis under these assumptions, but excesses are observed in both single- and multiple-scatter events, which implies the signal is not caused by WIMPs, but rather reflects the inadequacy of their background model.

  11. Bayesian analysis. II. Signal detection and model selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretthorst, G. Larry

    In the preceding. paper, Bayesian analysis was applied to the parameter estimation problem, given quadrature NMR data. Here Bayesian analysis is extended to the problem of selecting the model which is most probable in view of the data and all the prior information. In addition to the analytic calculation, two examples are given. The first example demonstrates how to use Bayesian probability theory to detect small signals in noise. The second example uses Bayesian probability theory to compute the probability of the number of decaying exponentials in simulated T1 data. The Bayesian answer to this question is essentially a microcosm of the scientific method and a quantitative statement of Ockham's razor: theorize about possible models, compare these to experiment, and select the simplest model that "best" fits the data.

  12. Random vibration analysis of the Topaz-II nuclear reactor power system. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.E.

    1995-06-01

    The TOPAZ-II Ya-21U is one of six Russian made space nuclear power systems which is based on theomionic power conversion. The U.S. is presently analyzing TOPAZ-II to determine the reliability and feasibility of using this system. A structural analysis test was conducted on the TOPAZ unit in May 1993 to provide data from which modal parameters could be identified. This test showed the fundamental frequency to be 10.5 Hz, yet the test results that the Russians conducted identified a fundamental frequency of 5 Hz. Another finite element model was created incorporating new developments in TOPAZ-II and modifications to the finite element model to better simulate the mass properties of the TOPAZ-II2. A second structural analysis test was conducted on the TOPAZ unit 06-09 September 1994. This thesis focuses on the random vibration analysis of the TOPAZ-II Ya-2lU utilizing the most recent test results and the Master Series (updated version) I-DEAS software. The modal respose of the model and simulated random vibration tests were within 8.33%. This model is a feasible tool which can be used to analyze the TOPAZ unit without testing the unit to fatigue.

  13. An economic analysis of mobile pyrolysis for northern New Mexico forests.

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick D.; Brown, Alexander L.; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2011-12-01

    In the interest of providing an economically sensible use for the copious small-diameter wood in Northern New Mexico, an economic study is performed focused on mobile pyrolysis. Mobile pyrolysis was selected for the study because transportation costs limit the viability of a dedicated pyrolysis plant, and the relative simplicity of pyrolysis compared to other technology solutions lends itself to mobile reactor design. A bench-scale pyrolysis system was used to study the wood pyrolysis process and to obtain performance data that was otherwise unavailable under conditions theorized to be optimal given the regional problem. Pyrolysis can convert wood to three main products: fixed gases, liquid pyrolysis oil and char. The fixed gases are useful as low-quality fuel, and may have sufficient chemical energy to power a mobile system, eliminating the need for an external power source. The majority of the energy content of the pyrolysis gas is associated with carbon monoxide, followed by light hydrocarbons. The liquids are well characterized in the historical literature, and have slightly lower heating values comparable to the feedstock. They consist of water and a mix of hundreds of hydrocarbons, and are acidic. They are also unstable, increasing in viscosity with time stored. Up to 60% of the biomass in bench-scale testing was converted to liquids. Lower ({approx}550 C) furnace temperatures are preferred because of the decreased propensity for deposits and the high liquid yields. A mobile pyrolysis system would be designed with low maintenance requirements, should be able to access wilderness areas, and should not require more than one or two people to operate the system. The techno-economic analysis assesses fixed and variable costs. It suggests that the economy of scale is an important factor, as higher throughput directly leads to improved system economic viability. Labor and capital equipment are the driving factors in the viability of the system. The break

  14. Minimal Residual Disease Evaluation in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gajic-Veljanoski, O.; Pham, B.; Pechlivanoglou, P.; Krahn, M.; Higgins, Caroline; Bielecki, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Minimal residual disease (MRD) testing by higher performance techniques such as flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to detect the proportion of remaining leukemic cells in bone marrow or peripheral blood during and after the first phases of chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The results of MRD testing are used to reclassify these patients and guide changes in treatment according to their future risk of relapse. We conducted a systematic review of the economic literature, cost-effectiveness analysis, and budget-impact analysis to ascertain the cost-effectiveness and economic impact of MRD testing by flow cytometry for management of childhood precursor B-cell ALL in Ontario. Methods A systematic literature search (1998–2014) identified studies that examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of MRD testing by either flow cytometry or PCR. We developed a lifetime state-transition (Markov) microsimulation model to quantify the cost-effectiveness of MRD testing followed by risk-directed therapy to no MRD testing and to estimate its marginal effect on health outcomes and on costs. Model input parameters were based on the literature, expert opinion, and data from the Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario Networked Information System. Using predictions from our Markov model, we estimated the 1-year cost burden of MRD testing versus no testing and forecasted its economic impact over 3 and 5 years. Results In a base-case cost-effectiveness analysis, compared with no testing, MRD testing by flow cytometry at the end of induction and consolidation was associated with an increased discounted survival of 0.0958 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and increased discounted costs of $4,180, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $43,613/QALY gained. After accounting for parameter uncertainty, incremental cost-effectiveness of MRD testing was associated with an ICER of $50,249/QALY gained. In

  15. Using GIS-based methods of multicriteria analysis to construct socio-economic deprivation indices

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nathaniel; Schuurman, Nadine; Hayes, Michael V

    2007-01-01

    Background Over the past several decades researchers have produced substantial evidence of a social gradient in a variety of health outcomes, rising from systematic differences in income, education, employment conditions, and family dynamics within the population. Social gradients in health are measured using deprivation indices, which are typically constructed from aggregated socio-economic data taken from the national census – a technique which dates back at least until the early 1970's. The primary method of index construction over the last decade has been a Principal Component Analysis. Seldom are the indices constructed from survey-based data sources due to the inherent difficulty in validating the subjectivity of the response scores. We argue that this very subjectivity can uncover spatial distributions of local health outcomes. Moreover, indication of neighbourhood socio-economic status may go underrepresented when weighted without expert opinion. In this paper we propose the use of geographic information science (GIS) for constructing the index. We employ a GIS-based Order Weighted Average (OWA) Multicriteria Analysis (MCA) as a technique to validate deprivation indices that are constructed using more qualitative data sources. Both OWA and traditional MCA are well known and used methodologies in spatial analysis but have had little application in social epidemiology. Results A survey of British Columbia's Medical Health Officers (MHOs) was used to populate the MCA-based index. Seven variables were selected and weighted based on the survey results. OWA variable weights assign both local and global weights to the index variables using a sliding scale, producing a range of variable scenarios. The local weights also provide leverage for controlling the level of uncertainty in the MHO response scores. This is distinct from traditional deprivation indices in that the weighting is simultaneously dictated by the original respondent scores and the value of the

  16. A comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators for fishery management in SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasalla, Maria A.; Rodrigues, Amanda R.; Duarte, Luis F. A.; Rashid Sumaila, U.

    2010-10-01

    One of the problems in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management is the lack of economic analyses which clearly define the performance of different fishing fleets within the system. We describe a comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators applicable for inclusion into ecosystem modeling and management. Based on a survey of different industrial fishing fleets in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, an inter-fleet comparison of economic attributes such as investment, fixed costs, effort, labour, sailing-related costs and profits, as well as a set of performance indicators, was conducted. Costs varied between fleets with fuel being the largest component on average, representing almost 37% of total costs. Similarities between fleets were driven by fuel costs, gross incomes and profits. In general, the best economic performance was associated with indicators of profitability and economic efficiency. Bottom-longliners and both surface and bottom-gillnet fleets showed the best economic performance per fishing trip due to their low percentage of variable costs. Purse-seiners and pink-shrimp trawlers had the lowest average rate of return and economic efficiency because of their high variable costs and relatively low catch values, and were considered economically net losers. However, in terms of jobs generated, purse-seiners had the greatest value creating about 49% of total jobs by all fleets. The sea-bob-shrimp fleet had the lowest crew size per vessel but generated the second highest total number of direct jobs (23%), with high economic viability as a whole. The inter-fleet cost and socio-economic performance analysis revealed that additional attention should be given to the poor profitability and overcapacity of fleets, fishing impacts, and open-access related issues, while social indicators may also be considered. This study provides information useful for evaluating different fisheries management scenarios and fleet size optimization in the South

  17. Economic impact of hospital closure on small rural counties, 1984 to 1988: demonstration of a comparative analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Probst, J C; Samuels, M E; Hussey, J R; Berry, D E; Ricketts, T C

    1999-01-01

    Hospital closure in a rural community may affect the locale's economic prospects as well as the health of its residents. Studies of economic effects have primarily relied on modeling techniques rather than observation of actual change. This study demonstrates the use of a comparative analysis approach for estimating the economic effects of hospital closure on small rural counties. The experiences of 103 small rural counties at which a hospital closed between 1984 and 1988 was compared with a matched group of counties at which no closure took place. "Comparable" counties were selected based on seven scales measuring the similarity between a closure county and potential comparisons. Three scales examined population and economic characteristics in the year before closure; two scales measured change throughout a three-year period preceding closure; and two scales measured change throughout a five-year period preceding closure. Closure effects were measured through a multivariate analysis of the post-closure economic history of closure and comparison counties. The key assumption is that similar counties should have similar experiences over time. If an event occurs within some of these counties but not others, this event should have visible effects. Comparative analysis suggested that earned income in closure counties (excluding farming and mining income) was lower than in comparison counties subsequent to closure and that labor force growth was similarly affected. A comparative analysis approach produces results that parallel those obtained from economic modeling and should be considered for further research.

  18. Maximum Likelihood Analysis of Low Energy CDMS II Germanium Data

    DOE PAGES

    Agnese, R.

    2015-03-30

    We report on the results of a search for a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) signal in low-energy data of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment using a maximum likelihood analysis. A background model is constructed using GEANT4 to simulate the surface-event background from Pb210decay-chain events, while using independent calibration data to model the gamma background. Fitting this background model to the data results in no statistically significant WIMP component. In addition, we also perform fits using an analytic ad hoc background model proposed by Collar and Fields, who claimed to find a large excess of signal-like events in ourmore » data. Finally, we confirm the strong preference for a signal hypothesis in their analysis under these assumptions, but excesses are observed in both single- and multiple-scatter events, which implies the signal is not caused by WIMPs, but rather reflects the inadequacy of their background model.« less

  19. Biophysical and Economic Uncertainty in the Analysis of Poverty Impacts of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, T. W.; Lobell, D. B.; Verma, M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper seeks to understand the main sources of uncertainty in assessing the impacts of climate change on agricultural output, international trade, and poverty. We incorporate biophysical uncertainty by sampling from a distribution of global climate model predictions for temperature and precipitation for 2050. The implications of these realizations for crop yields around the globe are estimated using the recently published statistical crop yield functions provided by Lobell, Schlenker and Costa-Roberts (2011). By comparing these yields to those predicted under current climate, we obtain the likely change in crop yields owing to climate change. The economic uncertainty in our analysis relates to the response of the global economic system to these biophysical shocks. We use a modified version of the GTAP model to elicit the impact of the biophysical shocks on global patterns of production, consumption, trade and poverty. Uncertainty in these responses is reflected in the econometrically estimated parameters governing the responsiveness of international trade, consumption, production (and hence the intensive margin of supply response), and factor supplies (which govern the extensive margin of supply response). We sample from the distributions of these parameters as specified by Hertel et al. (2007) and Keeney and Hertel (2009). We find that, even though it is difficult to predict where in the world agricultural crops will be favorably affected by climate change, the responses of economic variables, including output and exports can be far more robust (Table 1). This is due to the fact that supply and demand decisions depend on relative prices, and relative prices depend on productivity changes relative to other crops in a given region, or relative to similar crops in other parts of the world. We also find that uncertainty in poverty impacts of climate change appears to be almost entirely driven by biophysical uncertainty.

  20. Economic Analysis of Obtaining a PharmD Degree and Career as a Pharmacist.

    PubMed

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To evaluate the economic value of pharmacy education/career and the effects of the cost of private or public pharmacy school, the length of degree program, residency training, and pharmacy career path on net career earnings. Methods. This study involved an economic analysis using Markov modeling. Estimated costs of education including student loans were considered in calculating net career earnings of 4 career paths following high school graduation: (1) immediate employment; (2) employment with bachelor's degree in chemistry or biology; (3) employment as a pharmacist with no residency training; and (4) employment as a pharmacist after completing one or two years of residency training. Results. Models indicated that throughout their careers (up to age 67), PharmD graduates may accumulate net career earnings of $5.66 million to $6.29 million, roughly 3.15 times more than high school graduates and 1.57 to 1.73 times more than those with bachelor's degrees in biology or chemistry. Attending a public pharmacy school after completing 3 years of prepharmacy education generally leads to higher net career earnings. Community pharmacists have the highest net career earnings, and PGY-1 residency-trained hospital pharmacists have greater net career earnings than those who immediately started their careers in a hospital setting. Conclusion. The economic models presented are based on assumptions described herein; as conditions are subject to variability, these models should not be used to predict future earnings. Nevertheless, the findings demonstrate investment in a pharmacy education yields favorable financial return. Application of results to schools of pharmacy, students, and graduates is discussed.

  1. Can we do better? Economic analysis of human resource investment to improve home care service for the elderly in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Mihic, Marko M; Todorovic, Marija Lj; Obradovic, Vladimir Lj; Mitrovic, Zorica M

    2016-01-01

    Background Social services aimed at the elderly are facing great challenges caused by progressive aging of the global population but also by the constant pressure to spend funds in a rational manner. Purpose This paper focuses on analyzing the investments into human resources aimed at enhancing home care for the elderly since many countries have recorded progress in the area over the past years. The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of performing an economic analysis of the investment. Methods This paper combines statistical analysis methods such as correlation and regression analysis, methods of economic analysis, and scenario method. Results The economic analysis of investing in human resources for home care service in Serbia showed that the both scenarios of investing in either additional home care hours or more beneficiaries are cost-efficient. However, the optimal solution with the positive (and the highest) value of economic net present value criterion is to invest in human resources to boost the number of home care hours from 6 to 8 hours per week and increase the number of the beneficiaries to 33%. Conclusion This paper shows how the statistical and economic analysis results can be used to evaluate different scenarios and enable quality decision-making based on exact data in order to improve health and quality of life of the elderly and spend funds in a rational manner. PMID:26869778

  2. Economic analysis of Royalactin production under uncertainty: Evaluating the effect of parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Torres-Acosta, Mario A; Aguilar-Yañez, Jose M; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J

    2015-01-01

    Royalactin is a protein with several different potential uses in humans. Research, in insects and in mammalian cells, has shown that it can accelerate cell division and prevent apoptosis. The method of action is through the use of the epidermal growth factor receptor, which is present in humans. Potential use in humans could be to lower cholesterolemic levels in blood, and to elicit similar effects to those seen in bees, e.g., increased lifespan. Mass production of Royalactin has not been accomplished, though a recent article presented a Pichia pastoris fermentation and recovery by aqueous two-phase systems at laboratory scale as a possible basis for production. Economic modelling is a useful tool with which compare possible outcomes for the production of such a molecule and in particular, to locate areas where additional research is needed and optimization may be required. This study uses the BioSolve software to perform an economic analysis on the scale-up of the putative process for Royalactin. The key parameters affecting the cost of production were located via a sensitivity analysis and then evaluated by Monte Carlo analysis. Results show that if titer is not optimized the strategy to maintain a low cost of goods is process oriented. After optimization of this parameter the strategy changes to a product-oriented and the target output becomes the critical parameter determining the cost of goods. This study serves to provide a framework for the evaluation of strategies for future production of Royalactin, by analyzing the factors that influence its cost of manufacture.

  3. A news media analysis of economic sanction effects on access to medicine in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Bigdeli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the past decades economic sanctions have been used by different countries or international organizations in order to deprive target countries of some transactions. While the sanctions do not target health care systems or public health structures, they may, in fact, affect the availability of health care in target countries. In this study, we used media analysis to assess the impacts of recent sanctions imposed by the Central Bank of Iran in 2012 on access to medicines in Iran. Methods: We searched different sources of written news media including a database of nonspecialized weeklies and magazines, online news sources, web pages of daily newspapers and healthcare oriented weeklies from 2011 to 2013. We searched the sources using the general term “medicine” to reduce the chances of missing relevant items. The identified news media were read, and categorized under three groups of items announcing “shortage of medicines,” “medicines related issues” and “no shortage.” We conducted trend analyzes to see whether the news media related to access to medicines were affected by the economic sanctions. Findings: A total number of 371 relevant news media were collected. The number of news media related to medicines substantially increased in the study period: 30 (8%), 161 (43%) and 180 (49%) were published in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. While 145 (39%) of media items referred to the shortage of medicines, 97 (26%) reported no shortage or alleviating of concerns. Conclusion: Media analysis suggests a clear increase in the number of news media reporting a shortage in Iran after the sanctions. In 2013, there were accompanying increases in the number of news media reporting alleviation of the shortages of medicines. Our analysis provides evidence of negative effects of the sanctions on access to medicines in Iran. PMID:26645026

  4. Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-08-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

  5. Techno-economic analysis of CHP system supplied by waste forest biomass.

    PubMed

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, A; Klonowicz, P; Król, D; Wiśniewski, S; Zwarycz-Makles, K

    2015-08-01

    Poland, as for Europe, is a country with an average forest cover of approximately 30%. In these forests, more than 37M m3 of wood, mostly coniferous (over 80%), is harvested per year. In 2012, 4.2M m3 of sawn timber was produced (sawn timber without factory lumber). At the same time, in Poland there are over 8000 sawmills, whereas only about 700 of them saw over 90% of the harvested timber. So much fragmentation is a major cause of low sawmills innovation, particularly of those small ones. However, in recent years, a trend of development in this sector is noticeable, and it is through rationalisation of material and energy economy. One of the methods to increase the technical and economic effectiveness of enterprises involved in woodworking is to build in the combined heat and power system (CHP) plant with the ORC system into the existing infrastructure, which will be matched to the needs of the company. This article presents an analysis of the profitability of the investment based on the example of a medium-sized company sawing approximately 50,000 m3 of timber per year, and the economic analysis was performed for prices and costs valid in Poland. The analysis made for the 1650 kW(el) organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system, has resulted in a profitability index PI = 1.3, on the assumptions that the ORC system operates for 6000 h y(-1), will be purchased at the price of 4500 € kW(el)(-1) and at the price of electricity sales of 130 € MWh(-1).

  6. Economic analysis of critical habitat designation for the desert tortoise (Mojave population)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamberger, Mel; MacGillvray, Timothy J.; Draper, Dirk D.

    1993-01-01

    hot desert areas are minimal and, according to a recent U.S. General Accounting Office study (1991), local economies do not depend on the grazing of public lands for economic survival. The economic analysis describes the economy in 1990, prior to designation, and estimates the effects of designation. The report estimates those incremental effects attributable to critical habitat designation. Impacts attributable to listing the species were not considered in this analysis. Although critical habitat units have been designated in nine counties, two counties are omitted from the economic analysis because of the small proportion of critical habitat acreage they include. Three key activities (cattle grazing, mineral extraction, and off-road vehicle use) were studied in detail. Even if livestock grazing and commercial off-road racing events were eliminated in the proposed critical habitat units, the potential incremental regional economic impacts would be extremely small. The findings in the report do not include the assumption that mining would be eliminated from critical habitat units, but rather that consultation may result in added mitigation and/or relocation of features. Studies show that society will realize benefits from preservation of species and ecosystems. Survey-based studies confirm that benefits exist and are substantial in size, although these benefits often are not measured in traditional economic markets. The total benefit to society of desert tortoise preservation includes several components. Biodiversity in the Mojave and Colorado Deserts will be improved, some recreation values may increase, and gains in intrinsic value will be realized. Critical habitat designation should result in the loss of fewer than 425 total jobs in the seven counties. These include 340 direct ranching jobs and 85 indirect jobs in other industries. This estimated employment loss will not be permanent for most laborers, it is anticipated that over 85% will be reemployed within two

  7. Analysis of silicon nanocrystals in silicon-rich SiO II synthesized by CO II laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Jung; Lin, Gong-Ru; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Chou, Li-Jen

    2005-11-01

    The localized synthesis of 4.2-5.6 nm-Si nanocrystals (nc-Si) in Si-rich SiO II (SRSO) by CO 2 laser annealing at laser intensity of below ablation-threshold (6 kW/cm2) is demonstrated. Since the SRSO exhibits a high absorption coefficient of up to 0.102 cm -1 at wavelength of 10.6 μm, a direct-writing CO II laser annealing system with focusing spot size of 0.2 mm2 is used to locally anneal the SRSO and precipitate the nc-Si. A thermophysical model reveals that the surface temperature of SRSO ranging from 130 °C to 3350 °C is achieved by varying the laser power densities from 1.5 to 13.5 kW/cm2. The CO II laser-ablation-threshold power density is about 6 kW/cm2, corresponding to the optimized annealing temperature 1285 °C at the ablation threshold. The CO IIlaser annealing is capable of the precise control on power density and spot size, which benefits from the in-situ and localized annealing temperature control of SRSO film, and also prevents from the eternal damage of the other electronic devices nearby the annealing site. The nc-Si dependent photoluminescence (PL) were observed at 806 nm or longer, whereas the laser-ablation damaged SRSO film exhibits significant blue PL at 410 nm due to the oxygen-related structural defects. The refractive index of the lasertreated SRSO film is increasing from 1.57 to 2.31 as the laser intensity increases from 1.5 to 6.0 kW/cm2 which is mainly attributed to the increasing density of nc-Si embedded in SRSO. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis reveals that the average size of nc-Si embedded in SRSO film is about 5.3 nm, which correlates well with the theoretical prediction of a corresponding PL at 806 nm. The HRTEM estimated square density of the nc-Si in SRSO film under the laser intensity of 6 kW/cm2 is about 10 18 cm -3.

  8. Analysis of economic impacts of climate change on agricultural water management in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrote, Luis; Iglesias, Ana

    2016-04-01

    This contribution presents an analysis of impacts of climate change on agricultural water management in Europe. The analysis of climate change impacts on agriculture is composed of two main categories: rainfed agriculture and irrigated agriculture. Impacts on rainfed agriculture are mostly conditioned by climatic factors and were evaluated through the estimation of changes in agricultural productivity induced by climatic changes using the SARA model. At each site, process-based crop responses to climate and management are simulated by using the DSSAT crop models for cereals (wheat and rice), coarse grains (maize) and leguminous (soybeans). Changes in the rest of the crops are derived from analogies to these main crops. For each of the sites we conducted a sensitivity analysis to environmental variables (temperature, precipitation and CO2 levels) and management variables (planting date, nitrogen and irrigation applications) to obtain a database of crop responses. The resulting site output was used to define statistical models of yield response for each site which were used to obtain estimates of changes in agricultural productivity of representative production systems in European agro-climatic regions. Impacts on irrigated agriculture are mostly conditioned by water availability and were evaluated through the estimation of changes in water availability using the WAAPA model, which simulates the operation of a water resources system to maximize water availability. Basic components of WAAPA are inflows, reservoirs and demands. These components are linked to nodes of the river network. WAAPA allows the simulation of reservoir operation and the computation of supply to demands from a system of reservoirs accounting for ecological flows and evaporation losses. WAAPA model was used to estimate maximum potential water availability in the European river network applying gross volume reliability as performance criterion. Impacts on agricultural production are also dependent

  9. The Vineland-II in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Item Content Category Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balboni, Giulia; Tasso, Alessandra; Muratori, Filippo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We investigated which item subsets of the Vineland-II can discriminate low-functioning preschoolers with ASD from matched peers with other neurodevelopmental disorders, using a regression analysis derived from a normative sample to account for cognitive and linguistic competencies. At variance with the typical profile, a pattern with Communication…

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the KABC-II in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kimberly E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; McIntosh, David E.; Hunt, Madeline S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) in relation to the synthesized Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence with a preschool sample. Participants were 200 preschool children between four and five years of age. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted, and different…

  11. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from rice straw by liquid-state fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayata, M. H. M.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyahb, T. M. I.; Aditiyac, H. B.; Mahliaa, T. M. I.; Shamsuddina, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy is the latest approach of the Malaysian government in an effort to find sustainable alternative energy sources and to fulfill the ever increasing energy demand. Being a country that thrives in the service and agricultural sector, bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass presents itself as a promising option. However, the lack of technical practicality and complexity in the operation system hinder it from being economically viable. Hence, this research acquired multiple case studies in order to provide an insight on the process involved and its implication on production as well as to obtain a cost analysis of bioethanol production. The energy input and cost of three main components of the bioethanol production which are the collection, logistics, and pretreatment of rice straw were evaluated extensively. The theoretical bioethanol yield and conversion efficiency obtained were 250 L/t and 60% respectively. The findings concluded that bioethanol production from rice straw is currently not economically feasible in Malaysia’s market due to lack of efficiency in the pretreatment phase and overbearing logistics and pretreatment costs. This work could serve as a reference to future studies of biofuel commercialization in Malaysia.

  12. Process design and economic analysis of a citrus waste biorefinery with biofuels and limonene as products.

    PubMed

    Lohrasbi, Mehdi; Pourbafrani, Mohammad; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2010-10-01

    Process design and economic analysis of a biorefinery for the treatment of citrus wastes (CW) at different capacities was carried out. The CW is hydrolyzed using dilute sulfuric acid and then further processed to produce limonene, ethanol and biogas. The total cost of ethanol for base case process with 100,000 tons/year CW capacity was calculated as 0.91 USD/L, assuming 10 USD/ton handling and transportation cost of CW to the plant. However, this price is sensitive to the plant capacity. With constant price of methane and limonene, changing the plant capacity from 25,000 to 400,000 tons CW per year results in reducing ethanol costs from 2.55 to 0.46 USD/L in an economically feasible process. In addition, the ethanol production cost is sensitive to the transportation cost of CW. Increasing this cost from 10 to 30 USD/ton for the base case results in increasing the ethanol costs from 0.91 to 1.42 USD/L.

  13. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Preto, F.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  14. Techno-economic analysis of biocatalytic processes for production of alkene epoxides.

    PubMed

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Davison, Brian H

    2007-04-01

    A techno-economic analysis of two different bioprocesses was conducted, one for the conversion of propylene to propylene oxide (PO) and other for conversion of styrene to styrene epoxide (SO). The first process was a lipase-mediated chemo-enzymatic reaction, whereas the second one was a one-step enzymatic process using chloroperoxidase. The PO produced through the chemo-enzymatic process is a racemic product, whereas the latter process (based on chloroperoxidase) produces an enantio-pure product. The former process thus falls under the category of high-volume commodity chemical (PO); whereas the latter is a low-volume, high-value product (SO).A simulation of the process was conducted using the bioprocess engineering software SuperPro Designer v6.0 (Intelligen, Inc., Scotch Plains, NJ) to determine the economic feasibility of the process. The purpose of the exercise was to compare biocatalytic processes with existing chemical processes for production of alkene expoxides. The results show that further improvements are needed in improving biocatalyst stability to make these bioprocesses competitive with chemical processes.

  15. Economics of online structural health monitoring of wind turbines: Cost benefit analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Jeremy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    Operations and maintenance (O&M) costs have an average share over the lifetime of the turbine of approximately 20%-25% of the total levelized cost per kWh of electricity produced. Online structural health monitoring (OSHM) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) of wind turbine blades has the potential to reduce O&M costs and hence reduce the overall cost of wind energy. OSHM and CBM offer the potential to improve turbine blade life cycle management, limit the number of physical inspections, and reduce the potential for missed significant defects. An OSHM system would reduce the need for physical inspections, and have inspections occur only after problem detection takes place. In the economics of wind energy, failures and unplanned outages can cause significant downtime, particularly while waiting for the manufacturing and shipping of major parts. This paper will report a review and assessment of SHM technologies and a cost benefit analysis, which will examine whether the added costs associated with an OSHM system will give an adequate return on the investment. One method in which OSHM reduces costs is, in part, by converting corrective maintenance to preventative maintenance. This paper shows that under both best and worse conditions implementing an OSHM system is cost effective in more than 50% of the trials, which have been performed. Opportunities appear to exist to improve the economic justification for implementing OSHM.

  16. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M. M.; Satrio, J. A.; Brown, R. C.; Daugaard, D. E.; Hsu, D. D.

    2010-11-01

    This study develops techno-economic models for assessment of the conversion of biomass to valuable fuel products via fast pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading. The upgrading process produces a mixture of naphtha-range (gasoline blend stock) and diesel-range (diesel blend stock) products. This study analyzes the economics of two scenarios: onsite hydrogen production by reforming bio-oil, and hydrogen purchase from an outside source. The study results for an nth plant indicate that petroleum fractions in the naphtha distillation range and in the diesel distillation range are produced from corn stover at a product value of $3.09/gal ($0.82/liter) with onsite hydrogen production or $2.11/gal ($0.56/liter) with hydrogen purchase. These values correspond to a $0.83/gal ($0.21/liter) cost to produce the bio-oil. Based on these nth plant numbers, product value for a pioneer hydrogen-producing plant is about $6.55/gal ($1.73/liter) and for a pioneer hydrogen-purchasing plant is about $3.41/gal ($0.92/liter). Sensitivity analysis identifies fuel yield as a key variable for the hydrogen-production scenario. Biomass cost is important for both scenarios. Changing feedstock cost from $50-$100 per short ton changes the price of fuel in the hydrogen production scenario from $2.57-$3.62/gal ($0.68-$0.96/liter).

  17. Economic evaluation and market analysis for natural gas utilization. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.; Rezaiyan, A.J.

    1995-04-01

    During the past decade, the U.S. has experienced a surplus gas supply. Future prospects are brightening because of increased estimates of the potential size of undiscovered gas reserves. At the same time, U.S. oil reserves and production have steadily declined, while oil imports have steadily increased. Reducing volume growth of crude oil imports was a key objective of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source to liquid products derived from crude oil to help meet market demand. The purpose of this study was to (1) analyze three energy markets to determine whether greater use could be made of natural gas or its derivatives and (2) determine whether those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The following three markets were targeted for possible increases in gas use: transportation fuels, power generation, and chemical feedstock. Gas-derived products that could potentially compete in these three markets were identified, and the economics of the processes for producing those products were evaluated. The processes considered covered the range from commercial to those in early stages of process development. The analysis also evaluated the use of both high-quality natural gas and lower-quality gases containing CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} levels above normal pipeline quality standards.

  18. A technical, economic, and environmental analysis of energy production from newspaper in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J D; Power, N

    2007-01-01

    The production of newspaper corresponds to 37 kg per person per annum in Ireland. Newspaper becomes a waste product in a short period of time; only 13% of domestic waste paper is recycled (data on newspaper is not available). Four scenarios, which generate energy from newspaper, are analysed. These scenarios may be summarised as follows: lignocellulosic biomass conversion to ethanol (transport fuel); co-digestion with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and production of CH4-enriched biogas (transport fuel); co-firing with the residue of municipal solid waste in an incinerator; and gasification of newspaper as a sole fuel. Two of the scenarios involve transport fuel production; two involve the production of electricity and heat. Two of the scenarios involve newspaper as the sole ingredient; two involve co- utilisation of newspaper with another waste stream. Assuming no economic market for heat, then only the transport scenarios have the potential to be economic; indeed the biogas scenario is shown to be extremely competitive generating a potential profit of euro 227/t newspaper. A greenhouse-gas analysis indicates that the biogas scenario generated the best net greenhouse-gas savings. However when a market for heat is available, gasification was shown to be most advantageous.

  19. Persuasion and economic efficiency. The cost-benefit analysis of banning abortion.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J

    1993-10-01

    is concluded that economic arguments can be persuasive on the abortion issue only if there is agreement that cost-benefit analysis is an appropriate basis for decision making.

  20. Impact of the HERA I+II combined data on the CT14 QCD global analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulat, S.; Hou, T.-J.; Gao, J.; Guzzi, M.; Huston, J.; Nadolsky, P.; Pumplin, J.; Schmidt, C.; Stump, D.; Yuan, C.-P.

    2016-11-01

    A brief description of the impact of the recent HERA run I+II combination of inclusive deep inelastic scattering cross-section data on the CT14 global analysis of PDFs is given. The new CT14HERA2 PDFs at NLO and NNLO are illustrated. They employ the same parametrization used in the CT14 analysis, but with an additional shape parameter for describing the strange quark PDF. The HERA I+II data are reasonably well described by both CT14 and CT14HERA2 PDFs, and differences are smaller than the PDF uncertainties of the standard CT14 analysis. Both sets are acceptable when the error estimates are calculated in the CTEQ-TEA (CT) methodology and the standard CT14 PDFs are recommended to be continuously used for the analysis of LHC measurements.

  1. Economic Impact Analysis: Final Revisions to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Subpart S (MACT I and MACT III) for the Pulp and Paper Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this July 2012 economic impact analysis (EIA) is to present the results of the Agency’s evaluation of the cost, economic impacts, and benefits from compliance with the requirements of these Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT).

  2. Spherical harmonic analysis of steady photospheric flows. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the spherical harmonic functions to analyze the nearly steady flows in the solar photosphere is extended to situations in which B(0) the latitude at disk center, is nonzero and spurious velocities are present. The procedures for extracting the rotation profile and meridional circulation are altered to account for the seasonal tilt of the sun's rotation axis toward and away from the observer. A more robust and accurate method for separating the limb shift and meridional circulation signals is described. The analysis procedures include the ability to mask out areas containing spurious velocities (velocity-like signals that do not represent true flow velocities in the photosphere). The procedures are shown to work well in extracting the various flow components from realistic artificial data with a broad, continuous spectrum for the supergranulation. The presence of this supergranulation signal introduces errors of a few m/s in the measurements of the rotation profile, meridional circulation, and limb shift from a single Doppler image.

  3. THE CARNEGIE-IRVINE GALAXY SURVEY. II. ISOPHOTAL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhaoyu; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.; Peng, Chien Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey (CGS) is a comprehensive investigation of the physical properties of a complete, representative sample of 605 bright (B{sub T} {<=} 12.9 mag) galaxies in the southern hemisphere. This contribution describes the isophotal analysis of the broadband (BVRI) optical imaging component of the project. We pay close attention to sky subtraction, which is particularly challenging for some of the large galaxies in our sample. Extensive crosschecks with internal and external data confirm that our calibration and sky subtraction techniques are robust with respect to the quoted measurement uncertainties. We present a uniform catalog of one-dimensional radial profiles of surface brightness and geometric parameters, as well as integrated colors and color gradients. Composite profiles highlight the tremendous diversity of brightness distributions found in disk galaxies and their dependence on Hubble type. A significant fraction of S0 and spiral galaxies exhibit non-exponential profiles in their outer regions. We perform Fourier decomposition of the isophotes to quantify non-axisymmetric deviations in the light distribution. We use the geometric parameters, in conjunction with the amplitude and phase of the m = 2 Fourier mode, to identify bars and quantify their size and strength. Spiral arm strengths are characterized using the m = 2 Fourier profiles and structure maps. Finally, we utilize the information encoded in the m = 1 Fourier profiles to measure disk lopsidedness. The databases assembled here and in Paper I lay the foundation for forthcoming scientific applications of CGS.

  4. Space Shuttle filament wound case compressive strength study. II - Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messick, M. J.; Nuismer, R. J.; Jamison, G. T.; Graves, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    In order to explain the results of the testing conducted in Part I and relate the subscale test specimen performance to case performance during prelaunch loading, a comprehensive analysis program was conducted. Finite element models of both full-scale case and subscale test coupons were made. Validated axisymmetric models were used for the case analyses. Modeling of coupons was accomplished using a generalized plane strain finite element model in most cases, although some three-dimensional finite element modeling was used to investigate the importance of three-dimensional effects on the coupon performance. The large number of plies and complexity of the test coupons used limited the finite element grids to a through-the-thickness discretization of one element per ply. Delaminations observed in the helical ply dropoff region were modeled using frictionless sliders. Comparisons of predicted strains and displacements were made with the test data from both cases and coupons to validate the finite element models. Based on observations of the test results and finite element predictions, a failure criterion for both coupons and cases was postulated and then validated by comparing performance predictions to test results. Finally, the validated failure criterion was used to predict the performance of the first two flight cases under prelaunch loads.

  5. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  6. Incorporation of future costs in health economic analysis publications: current situation and recommendations for the future.

    PubMed

    Gros, Blanca; Soto Álvarez, Javier; Ángel Casado, Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Future costs are not usually included in economic evaluations. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of published economic analyses that incorporate future costs. A systematic review was conducted of economic analyses published from 2008 to 2013 in three general health economics journals: PharmacoEconomics, Value in Health and the European Journal of Health Economics. A total of 192 articles met the inclusion criteria, 94 of them (49.0%) incorporated future related medical costs, 9 (4.2%) also included future unrelated medical costs and none of them included future nonmedical costs. The percentage of articles including future costs increased from 2008 (30.8%) to 2013 (70.8%), and no differences were detected between the three journals. All relevant costs for the perspective considered should be included in economic evaluations, including related or unrelated, direct or indirect future costs. It is also advisable that pharmacoEconomic guidelines are adapted in this sense.

  7. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC-splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD-splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

  8. Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhingra, Sunita; Angrish, Chetna

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative organic analysis of an unknown compound is an integral part of the university chemistry laboratory curriculum. This type of training is essential as students learn to approach a problem systematically and to interpret the results logically. However, considerable quantities of waste are generated by using conventional methods of…

  9. Economic analysis of wind-powered farmhouse and farm building heating systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, R.W.; Greeb, F.J.; Smith, M.F.; Des Chenes, C.; Weaver, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The study evaluated the break-even values of wind energy for selected farmhouses and farm buildings focusing on the effects of thermal storage on the use of WECS production and value. Farmhouse structural models include three types derived from a national survey - an older, a more modern, and a passive solar structure. The eight farm building applications that were analyzed include: poultry-layers, poultry-brooding/layers, poultry-broilers, poultry-turkeys, swine-farrowing, swine-growing/finishing, dairy, and lambing. These farm buildings represent the spectrum of animal types, heating energy use, and major contributions to national agricultural economic values. All energy analyses were based on hour-by-hour computations which allowed for growth of animals, sensible and latent heat production, and ventilation requirements. Hourly or three-hourly weather data obtained from the National Climatic Center was used for the nine chosen analysis sites, located throughout the United States and corresponding to regional agricultural production centers.

  10. Techno-Economic Analysis of BEV Service Providers Offering Battery Swapping Services (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-05-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) could significantly reduce the nation's gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions rates. However, both the upfront cost and the limited range of the vehicle are perceived to be deterrents to the widespread adoption of BEVs. A service provider approach to marketing BEVs, coupled with a battery swapping infrastructure deployment could address both issues and accelerate BEV adoption. This presentation examines customer selection, service usage statistics, service plan fees and driver economics. Our results show it is unlikely that a battery swapping service plan will be more cost-effective than ownership of a conventional vehicle. A battery swapping service plan may be a more cost-effective solution than a directly owned BEV for some single-vehicle, high-mileage consumers. However, other factors not considered in this analysis could decrease the viability of such a service.

  11. An Analysis of a Finite Element Method for Convection-Diffusion Problems. Part II. A Posteriori Error Estimates and Adaptivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    AN ANALYSIS OF A FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR CONVECTION- DIFFUSION PROBLEMS PART II: A POSTERIORI ERROR ESTIMATES AND ADAPTIVITY by W. G. Szymczak Y 6a...PERIOD COVERED AN ANALYSIS OF A FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR final life of the contract CONVECTION- DIFFUSION PROBLEM S. Part II: A POSTERIORI ERROR ...Element Method for Convection- Diffusion Problems. Part II: A Posteriori Error Estimates and Adaptivity W. G. Szvmczak and I. Babu~ka# Laboratory for

  12. Erythrocyte membrane analysis for type II diabetes detection using Raman spectroscopy in high-wavenumber region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinyong; Zeng, Yongyi; Lin, Juqiang; Wang, Jing; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2014-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy was employed to detect lipid variation occurring in type II diabetic erythrocyte membrane (EM) without using exogenous reagents. In high-wavenumber (HW) region, significant Raman spectral differences between diabetic and normal EM are observed at 2850, 2873, 2885, 2935, and 2965 cm-1, which are mainly related to lipid in EM. Based on principal component analysis, the diagnostic accuracy of HW region for diabetes detection is 98.8%, which is much higher than that of low-wavenumber region (82.9%). The results suggest that EM HW Raman region has great promise for the reagent-free and non-invasive detection of type II diabetes.

  13. POINTBLANK: A Strategic and National Security Decision making Analysis of the World War II Combined Bomber Offensive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD WAR II COMBINED BOMBER OFFENSIVE DTIC :111192-07858 COLONEL GEORGE E. CROWDER 1991 ’ PROEDf PUBLIC AIR UNIVERSITY E; OISIUTIDN...Decision Making Analysis of the World War II Combined Bomber Offensive by George E. Crowder Colonel, USAF A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY IN

  14. Bioinformatic Analysis of Plasma Apolipoproteins A-I and A-II Revealed Unique Features of A-I/A-II HDL Particles in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Toshimi; Kurata, Hideaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Itakura, Hiroshige; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Urata, Takeyoshi; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Plasma concentration of apoA-I, apoA-II and apoA-II-unassociated apoA-I was analyzed in 314 Japanese subjects (177 males and 137 females), including one (male) homozygote and 37 (20 males and 17 females) heterozygotes of genetic CETP deficiency. ApoA-I unassociated with apoA-II markedly and linearly increased with HDL-cholesterol, while apoA-II increased only very slightly and the ratio of apoA-II-associated apoA-I to apoA-II stayed constant at 2 in molar ratio throughout the increase of HDL-cholesterol, among the wild type and heterozygous CETP deficiency. Thus, overall HDL concentration almost exclusively depends on HDL with apoA-I without apoA-II (LpAI) while concentration of HDL containing apoA-I and apoA-II (LpAI:AII) is constant having a fixed molar ratio of 2 : 1 regardless of total HDL and apoA-I concentration. Distribution of apoA-I between LpAI and LpAI:AII is consistent with a model of statistical partitioning regardless of sex and CETP genotype. The analysis also indicated that LpA-I accommodates on average 4 apoA-I molecules and has a clearance rate indistinguishable from LpAI:AII. Independent evidence indicated LpAI:A-II has a diameter 20% smaller than LpAI, consistent with a model having two apoA-I and one apoA-II. The functional contribution of these particles is to be investigated. PMID:27526664

  15. A risk and economic analysis of dirty bomb attacks on the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, H; von Winterfeldt, D

    2007-06-01

    This article analyzes possible terrorist attacks on the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach using a radiological dispersal device (RDD, also known as a "dirty bomb") to shut down port operations and cause substantial economic and psychological impacts. The analysis is an exploratory investigation of a combination of several risk analysis tools, including scenario generation and pruning, project risk analysis, direct consequence modeling, and indirect economic impact assessment. We examined 36 attack scenarios and reduced them to two plausible or likely scenarios using qualitative judgments. For these two scenarios, we conducted a project risk analysis to understand the tasks terrorists need to perform to carry out the attacks and to determine the likelihood of the project's success. The consequences of a successful attack are described in terms of a radiological plume model and resulting human health and economic impacts. Initial findings suggest that the chances of a successful dirty bomb attack are about 10-40% and that high radiological doses are confined to a relatively small area, limiting health effects to tens or at most hundreds of latent cancers, even with a major release. However, the economic consequences from a shutdown of the harbors due to the contamination could result in significant losses in the tens of billions of dollars, including the decontamination costs and the indirect economic impacts due to the port shutdown. The implications for countering a dirty bomb attack, including the protection of the radiological sources and intercepting an ongoing dirty bomb attack are discussed.

  16. Genome-wide Analysis of RNA Polymerase II Termination at Protein-Coding Genes.

    PubMed

    Baejen, Carlo; Andreani, Jessica; Torkler, Phillipp; Battaglia, Sofia; Schwalb, Bjoern; Lidschreiber, Michael; Maier, Kerstin C; Boltendahl, Andrea; Rus, Petra; Esslinger, Stephanie; Söding, Johannes; Cramer, Patrick

    2017-03-06

    At the end of protein-coding genes, RNA polymerase (Pol) II undergoes a concerted transition that involves 3'-processing of the pre-mRNA and transcription termination. Here, we present a genome-wide analysis of the 3'-transition in budding yeast. We find that the 3'-transition globally requires the Pol II elongation factor Spt5 and factors involved in the recognition of the polyadenylation (pA) site and in endonucleolytic RNA cleavage. Pol II release from DNA occurs in a narrow termination window downstream of the pA site and requires the "torpedo" exonuclease Rat1 (XRN2 in human). The Rat1-interacting factor Rai1 contributes to RNA degradation downstream of the pA site. Defects in the 3'-transition can result in increased transcription at downstream genes.

  17. The Physical Conditions of Intermediate-Redshift Mg II Absorbing Clouds from Voigt Profile Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, Christopher W.; Vogt, Steven S.; Charlton, Jane C.

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed and statistical analysis of the column densities and Doppler b parameters of Mg II absorbing clouds at redshifts 0.4<=z<=1.2. We draw on the HIRES/Keck data (Δv~=6.6 km s-1) and Voigt profile (VP) fitting results presented by Churchill & Vogt (Paper I). The sample comprises 175 clouds from 23 systems along 18 quasar lines of sight. In order to better understand whether the inferred physical conditions in the absorbing clouds could be ``false'' conditions, which can arise due to the nonuniqueness inherent in parameterizing complex absorption profiles, we performed extensive simulations of the VP analyses presented in this paper. In brief, we find the following: (1) The Fe II and Mg II column densities are correlated at the 9 σ level. There is a 5 σ anticorrelation between the Mg I/Mg II column density ratio and the Mg II column density. (2) Power-law fits to the column density distributions for Mg II, Fe II, and Mg I yielded power-law slopes of approximately -1.6, -1.7, and -2.0, respectively. (3) The observed peaks of the Doppler parameter distributions were ~5 km s-1 for Mg II and Fe II and ~7 km s-1 for Mg I. The clouds are consistent with being thermally broadened, with temperatures in the 30,000-40,000 K range. (4) A two-component Gaussian model to the velocity two-point correlation function yielded velocity dispersions of 54 and 166 km s-1. The narrow component has roughly twice the amplitude of the broader component. The width and amplitude of the broader component decreases as equivalent width increases. (5) From photoionization models we find that the column density ratios are most consistent with being photoionized by the ultraviolet extragalactic ionizing background, as opposed to stellar radiation. Based on the Mg I to Mg II column density ratios, it appears that at least two-phase ionization models are required to explain the data. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jichun; Ma, Yukui; Huang, Bin; Yuan, Ding; Yang, Yi; Zeng, Guojun; Xiong, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine the current evidence on risk factors for type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Materials and methods A systematic literature search was carried out for studies that evaluated the association of demographic, co-morbidity, and other patient-determined factors with the onset of type II endoleaks. Pooled prevalence of type II endoleaks after EVAR was updated. Results Among the 504 studies screened, 45 studies with a total of 36,588 participants were included in this review. The pooled prevalence of type II endoleaks after EVAR was 22% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19%–25%]. The main factors consistently associated with type II endoleaks included age [pooled odds ratio (OR), 0.37; 95% CI, 0.31–0.43; P<0.001], smoking (pooled OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55–0.92; P<0.001), patent inferior mesenteric artery (pooled OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.06–3.71; P = 0.012), maximum aneurysm diameter (pooled OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.17–0.30; P<0.001), and number of patent lumbar arteries (pooled OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.81–3.33; P<0.001). Sex, diabetes, hypertension, anticoagulants, antiplatelet, hyperlipidemia, chronic renal insufficiency, types of graft material, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) did not show any association with the onset of type II endoleaks. Conclusions Clinicians can use the identified risk factors to detect and manage patients at risk of developing type II endoleaks after EVAR. However, further studies are needed to analyze a number of potential risk factors. PMID:28182753

  19. Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge: A Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Billing, Justin M.; Hart, Todd R.; Fox, Samuel P.; Maupin, Gary D.

    2016-06-08

    A preliminary process model and techno-economic analysis (TEA) was completed for fuel produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of sludge waste from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and subsequent biocrude upgrading. The model is adapted from previous work by Jones et al. (2014) for algae HTL, using experimental data generated in fiscal year 2015 (FY15) bench-scale HTL testing of sludge waste streams. Testing was performed on sludge samples received from MetroVancouver’s Annacis Island WWTP (Vancouver, B.C.) as part of a collaborative project with the Water Environment and Reuse Foundation (WERF). The full set of sludge HTL testing data from this effort will be documented in a separate report to be issued by WERF. This analysis is based on limited testing data and therefore should be considered preliminary. Future refinements are necessary to improve the robustness of the model, including a cross-check of modeled biocrude components with the experimental GCMS data and investigation of equipment costs most appropriate at the smaller scales used here. Environmental sustainability metrics analysis is also needed to understand the broader impact of this technology pathway. The base case scenario for the analysis consists of 10 HTL plants, each processing 100 dry U.S. ton/day (92.4 ton/day on a dry, ash-free basis) of sludge waste and producing 234 barrel per stream day (BPSD) biocrude, feeding into a centralized biocrude upgrading facility that produces 2,020 barrel per standard day of final fuel. This scale was chosen based upon initial wastewater treatment plant data collected by the resource assessment team from the EPA’s Clean Watersheds Needs Survey database (EPA 2015a) and a rough estimate of what the potential sludge availability might be within a 100-mile radius. In addition, we received valuable feedback from the wastewater treatment industry as part of the WERF collaboration that helped form the basis for the selected HTL and upgrading

  20. A Topaz-II bimodal design assessment study and system analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Paramonov, Dmitry V.; Xue, Huimin; Ogloblin, Boris G.; Shumov, Dmitry P.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual design study is performed to investigate the feasibility of near-term, simple, minimum design changes to the Russian TOPAZ-II space power system to provide bimodal operation, electric power and direct thermal propulsion for future missions. To simulate the fully integrated, TOPAZ-II Bimodal system the capabilities of the Thermionic Transient Analysis Model (TITAM) are extended to take into account the proposed design modification of the Thermionic Fuel Elements (TFEs), waste heat recovery, pre-injection electric heating of the hydrogen propellant. This system model is used to characterize and identify promising design options and assess the performance parameters of the TOPAZ-II Bimodal system. Results of the study indicate that the TOPAZ-II system can be easily modified to support bimodal missions at a thrust level of 2.5 to 7.5 N and a corresponding specific impulse of 830 s to 600 s, respectively. Testing of TOPAZ-II Bimodal system can be accomplished at the Air Force Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The proposed design modification will build on the vast expertise and technology base available at the different Institutes, particularly at the Central Design Bureau of Machine Building (CDBMB) in St. Petersburg.