Science.gov

Sample records for ii economic analysis

  1. Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  2. Conversion of paper sludge to ethanol, II: process design and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhiliang; Lynd, Lee R

    2007-01-01

    Process design and economics are considered for conversion of paper sludge to ethanol. A particular site, a bleached kraft mill operated in Gorham, NH by Fraser Papers (15 tons dry sludge processed per day), is considered. In addition, profitability is examined for a larger plant (50 dry tons per day) and sensitivity analysis is carried out with respect to capacity, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Conversion based on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with intermittent feeding is examined, with ethanol recovery provided by distillation and molecular sieve adsorption. It was found that the Fraser plant achieves positive cash flow with or without xylose conversion and mineral recovery. Sensitivity analysis indicates economics are very sensitive to ethanol selling price and scale; significant but less sensitive to the tipping fee, and rather insensitive to the prices of cellulase and power. Internal rates of return exceeding 15% are projected for larger plants at most combinations of scale, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Our analysis lends support to the proposition that paper sludge is a leading point-of-entry and proving ground for emergent industrial processes featuring enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass.

  3. Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands II: comparison of control strategies.

    PubMed

    Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    A combined epidemiological-economic modelling approach was used to analyse strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) control for the Netherlands. The modelling framework used was InterSpread Plus (ISP), a spatially based, stochastic and dynamic simulation model. A total of eight control strategies were analysed, including pre-emptive depopulation and vaccination strategies. The analysis was carried out for three different regions in the Netherlands: high-, medium- and low-density areas (HDA, MDA and LDA, respectively). The analysis included the veterinary impact (e.g. number of infected premises and duration), but was particularly focused on the impact on direct costs (DC) and direct consequential costs. The efficient set of control strategies for HDA and MDA included strategies based on either pre-emptive depopulation only or combined vaccination and pre-emptive depopulation: D2 (pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 2 km), RV3 + D1 (ring vaccination within a radius of 3 km and additional pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km) and PV + D1 (preventive vaccination in non-affected HDAs and pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km in the affected HDA). Although control solely based on depopulation in most cases showed to be effective for LDA, pre-emptive depopulation showed to have an additional advantage in these areas, that is, prevention of 'virus jumps' to other areas. The pros and cons of the efficient control strategies were discussed, for example, public perception and risk of export restrictions. It was concluded that for the Netherlands control of HPAI preferably should be carried out using strategies including pre-emptive depopulation with or without vaccination. Particularly, the short- and long-term implications on export, that is, indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs of these strategies, should be analysed further.

  4. Economic analysis handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This edition of the handbook provides revised guidance on the treatment of inflation in economic analysis, increased emphasis on the use of sensitivity analysis, additional guidance on the treatment of risk, and updates specific guidance for Navy programs. Especially those related to energy conservation. The purpose of this Economic Analysis Handbook is to provide offical NAVFAC guidance for the preparation of economic analyses for: (1) Proposed programs, projects and activities. (2) Program evaluation of ongoing activities. The methodologies demonstrated herein should be applied in comprehensive and continuous management reviews of the cost and effectiveness of both proposed and ongoing projects.

  5. Economic Analysis. Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

    A multimedia course in economic analysis was prepared for the United States Naval Academy. (ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 are the final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This report presents enrichment segments for selected core segments in concept areas one and two, covering a spectrum of economic systems, the influence of…

  6. DOE/NETL's phase II mercury control technology field testing program: preliminary economic analysis of activated carbon injection.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew P; Hoffmann, Jeffrey W; Smith, Dennis N; Feeley, Thomas J; Murphy, James T

    2007-02-15

    Based on results of field testing conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), this article provides preliminary costs for mercury control via conventional activated carbon injection (ACI), brominated ACI, and conventional ACI coupled with the application of a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) to coal prior to combustion. The economic analyses are reported on a plant-specific basis in terms of the cost required to achieve low (50%), mid (70%), and high (90%) levels of mercury removal "above and beyond" the baseline mercury removal achieved by existing emission control equipment. In other words, the levels of mercury control are directly attributable to ACI. Mercury control costs via ACI have been amortized on a current dollar basis. Using a 20-year book life, levelized costs for the incremental increase in cost of electricity (COE), expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour (mills/kWh), and the incremental cost of mercury control, expressed in dollars per pound of mercury removed ($/lb Hg removed), have been calculated for each level of ACI mercury control. For this analysis, the increase in COE varied from 0.14 mills/kWh to 3.92 mills/kWh. Meanwhile, the incremental cost of mercury control ranged from $3810/lb Hg removed to $166000/lb Hg removed.

  7. DOE/NETL's phase II mercury control technology field testing program: preliminary economic analysis of activated carbon injection.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew P; Hoffmann, Jeffrey W; Smith, Dennis N; Feeley, Thomas J; Murphy, James T

    2007-02-15

    Based on results of field testing conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), this article provides preliminary costs for mercury control via conventional activated carbon injection (ACI), brominated ACI, and conventional ACI coupled with the application of a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) to coal prior to combustion. The economic analyses are reported on a plant-specific basis in terms of the cost required to achieve low (50%), mid (70%), and high (90%) levels of mercury removal "above and beyond" the baseline mercury removal achieved by existing emission control equipment. In other words, the levels of mercury control are directly attributable to ACI. Mercury control costs via ACI have been amortized on a current dollar basis. Using a 20-year book life, levelized costs for the incremental increase in cost of electricity (COE), expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour (mills/kWh), and the incremental cost of mercury control, expressed in dollars per pound of mercury removed ($/lb Hg removed), have been calculated for each level of ACI mercury control. For this analysis, the increase in COE varied from 0.14 mills/kWh to 3.92 mills/kWh. Meanwhile, the incremental cost of mercury control ranged from $3810/lb Hg removed to $166000/lb Hg removed. PMID:17593743

  8. Advanced Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Marc W.; Laing, William

    2013-01-01

    An Economic Analysis (EA) is a systematic approach to the problem of choosing the best method of allocating scarce resources to achieve a given objective. An EA helps guide decisions on the "worth" of pursuing an action that departs from status quo ... an EA is the crux of decision-support.

  9. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  10. Syntactical Analysis of Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, George K.

    An analysis of the syntax of economics textbooks was undertaken to (1) provide real-language examples of the difficult grammatical structures being taught in an advanced economics reading course, and (2) construct a factual database of the nature of economics textbooks. Five texts representative of those typically used in introductory economics…

  11. Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands I: epidemiological modelling to support economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    Economic analysis of control strategies for contagious diseases is a necessity in the development of contingency plans. Economic impacts arising from epidemics such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) consist of direct costs (DC), direct consequential costs (DCC), indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs (AC). Epidemiological models to support economic analysis need to provide adequate outputs for these critical economic parameters. Of particular importance for DCC, ICC and AC is the spatial production structure of a region. Spatial simulation models are therefore particularly suited for economic analysis; however, they often require a large number of parameters. The aims of this study are (i) to provide an economic rationale of epidemiological modelling in general, (ii) to provide a transparent description of the parameterization of a spatially based epidemiological model for the analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands and (iii) to discuss the validity and usefulness of this model for subsequent economic analysis. In the model, HPAI virus transmission occurs via local spread and animal movements. Control mechanisms include surveillance and tracing, movement restrictions and depopulation. Sensitivity analysis of key parameters indicated that the epidemiological outputs with the largest influence on the economic impacts (i.e. epidemic duration and number of farms in the movement restriction zone) were more robust than less influential indicators (i.e. number of infected farms). Economically relevant outputs for strategy comparison were most sensitive to the relative role of the different transmission parameters. The default simulation and results of the sensitivity analysis were consistent with the general outcomes of known HPAI models. Comparison was, however, limited due to the absence of some economically relevant outputs. It was concluded that the model creates economically relevant, adequate and credible output for subsequent use in

  12. Home Economics II. Basic Core. Tenth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ann

    Seven home economics curriculum areas for grade 10 are presented in this guide, with each area consisting of one or more instructional units as follows: (1) Career Exploration (obtaining a job, progress on the job, business etiquette); (2) Child Development (guiding the preschool child, middle childhood); (3) Clothing and Textiles (labeling,…

  13. Economic analysis and pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Rovira, J

    1995-10-01

    Economic evaluation, a comparative analysis of alternative actions in terms of costs and consequences, allows rational decisions to be made concerning the deployment of resources (people, time, equipment, facilities and knowledge). Pharmaceutical policy reflects the various objectives of the many social groups, some of which are conflicting. While new methodologies for evaluation of health care programmes still need to gain wider acceptance, resource limitations for both care providers and decision makers make economic analysis an increasingly important tool.

  14. Marital dissolution: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hunter, K A

    1984-01-01

    A longitudinal analysis of factors affecting marital dissolution in the United States is presented using data from the Coleman-Rossi Retrospective Life History. Factors considered include labor force participation of both spouses, wage growth, size of family unit, age at marriage, and educational status. The study is based on the economic analysis approach developed by Gary S. Becker and others.

  15. Home Economics. Sample Test Items. Levels I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Educational Testing.

    A sample of behavioral objectives and related test items that could be developed for content modules in Home Economics levels I and II, this book is intended to enable teachers to construct more valid and reliable test materials. Forty-eight one-page modules are presented, and opposite each module are listed two to seven specific behavioral…

  16. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A

    2008-07-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities.

  17. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  18. Economic Analysis. Computer Simulation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

    A multimedia course in economic analysis was developed and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This volume of the text discusses the simulation of behavioral relationships among variable elements in an economy and presents…

  19. Spatial assessment of the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice on radioactively contaminated land in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. II. Monte Carlo analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Der Perk, Marcel; Burema, Jiske; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Goor, François; Timofeyev, Sergei

    2004-09-01

    A Monte Carlo analysis of two sequential GIS-embedded submodels, which evaluate the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice (SRC) production and energy conversion in areas contaminated by Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs, was performed to allow for variability of environmental conditions that was not contained in the spatial model inputs. The results from this analysis were compared to the results from the deterministic model presented in part I of this paper. It was concluded that, although the variability in the model results due to within-gridcell variability of the model inputs was considerable, the prediction of the areas where SRC and energy conversion is potentially profitable was robust. If the additional variability in the model input that is not contained in the input maps is also taken into account, the SRC production and energy conversion appears to be potentially profitable at more locations for both the small scale and large scale production scenarios than the model predicted using the deterministic model.

  20. Energy-Systems Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, J.; Slonski, M. L.; Borden, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Energy Systems Economic Analysis (ESEA) program is flexible analytical tool for rank ordering of alternative energy systems. Basic ESEA approach derives an estimate of those costs incurred as result of purchasing, installing and operating an energy system. These costs, suitably aggregated into yearly costs over lifetime of system, are divided by expected yearly energy output to determine busbar energy costs. ESEA, developed in 1979, is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  1. Behavioral economics and regulatory analysis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lisa A; Hammitt, James K

    2011-09-01

    Behavioral economics has captured the interest of scholars and the general public by demonstrating ways in which individuals make decisions that appear irrational. While increasing attention is being focused on the implications of this research for the design of risk-reducing policies, less attention has been paid to how it affects the economic valuation of policy consequences. This article considers the latter issue, reviewing the behavioral economics literature and discussing its implications for the conduct of benefit-cost analysis, particularly in the context of environmental, health, and safety regulations. We explore three concerns: using estimates of willingness to pay or willingness to accept compensation for valuation, considering the psychological aspects of risk when valuing mortality-risk reductions, and discounting future consequences. In each case, we take the perspective that analysts should avoid making judgments about whether values are "rational" or "irrational." Instead, they should make every effort to rely on well-designed studies, using ranges, sensitivity analysis, or probabilistic modeling to reflect uncertainty. More generally, behavioral research has led some to argue for a more paternalistic approach to policy analysis. We argue instead for continued focus on describing the preferences of those affected, while working to ensure that these preferences are based on knowledge and careful reflection.

  2. Tests of Behavioral-Economic Assessments of Relative Reinforcer Efficacy II: Economic Complements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Gregory J.; Smethells, John R.; Ewan, Eric E.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test the predictions of two behavioral-economic approaches to quantifying relative reinforcer efficacy. The normalized demand analysis suggests that characteristics of averaged normalized demand curves may be used to predict progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak responding. By contrast, the demand analysis holds…

  3. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 2: Tug concepts analysis. Part 2: Economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of space tug operations is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) cost uncertainties, (2) scenario analysis, (3) economic sensitivities, (4) mixed integer programming formulation of the space tug problem, and (5) critical parameters in the evaluation of a public expenditure.

  4. Health economic analysis of screening

    PubMed Central

    Krauth, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In this article health economic implications of screening are analysed. First, requirements screening programmes should fulfil are derived, and methodical standards of health economic evaluation are outlined. Using the example of newborn hearing screening, it is then examined if empirical studies meet the methodical requirements of health economic evaluation. Some deficits are realised: Health economic studies of newborn hearing screening are not randomised, most studies are even not controlled. Therefore, most studies do not present incremental, but only average cost-effectiveness ratios (i.e. cost per case identified). Furthermore, evidence on long-term outcomes of screening and early interventions is insufficient. In conclusion, there is a need for controlled trials to examine differences in identified cases, but particularly to examine long-term effects. PMID:22073088

  5. Economic Analysis of Transnational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the effects of a branch campus on the individual college education decision and the economic welfare of a developing country. There are a single domestic college and a single branch campus established by a foreign university. A graduate from the branch campus has an opportunity to emigrate and work abroad, earning a higher…

  6. Economic analysis of same-sex marriage.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Christopher J

    2004-01-01

    This article applies the neoclassical microeconomic analysis of marriage as developed by Nobel laureate economist Gary Becker to same-sex marriage. The objective is to demonstrate that the economic analysis of marriage supports allowing same-sex marriage, and that same-sex marriages would strengthen the incentive to marry, increase the efficiency of marriage markets, provide for more children to be raised in two-parent optimum environments, and benefit states economically overall. The article concludes with an overview of the economic impact of same-sex marriages on states based on the analysis, data and fiscal information currently available from researchers and economists in the field.

  7. Economic analysis of same-sex marriage.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Christopher J

    2004-01-01

    This article applies the neoclassical microeconomic analysis of marriage as developed by Nobel laureate economist Gary Becker to same-sex marriage. The objective is to demonstrate that the economic analysis of marriage supports allowing same-sex marriage, and that same-sex marriages would strengthen the incentive to marry, increase the efficiency of marriage markets, provide for more children to be raised in two-parent optimum environments, and benefit states economically overall. The article concludes with an overview of the economic impact of same-sex marriages on states based on the analysis, data and fiscal information currently available from researchers and economists in the field. PMID:15189788

  8. Community Economic Analysis: A How to Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustedde, Ron; And Others

    Designed to assist individuals who need to bring information to citizen groups or decision makers concerned with community economic development, this manual uses a question-answer format to cover topics that might occur to someone just starting to build an understanding of community economic analysis. Among topics covered are: strategies for…

  9. Handbook of natural resources and energy economics, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Kneese, A.V.; Sweeney, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains six chapters. Some of the titles are: Economics of Water Resources: A Survey; Multiple Use Management of Public Forestlands; Land Resources and Land Markets; and The Economics of Outdoor Recreation.

  10. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for providing an objective economic perspective to understand and evaluate the economic dimension of...

  11. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

    2006-12-01

    A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

  12. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  13. Global foot-and-mouth disease reearch update and gap analysis: 2 - epidemiology, wildlife and economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research ings in the fields of (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of foot-and- economics. Although the three sections, epidemiology, wildlife and economics are presented as separate entities, the fields are ...

  14. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, a prototype Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) modeling system. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (...

  15. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, a prototype Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) modeling system. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (...

  16. The Economic Analysis of University Participation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallis, George

    2015-01-01

    Over the postwar period in most developed countries, the university participation rate has risen steadily to well over 30 percent, although there remain differences between countries. Students from lower income families have lower participation rates than those from higher income families. The article provides an economic analysis of these…

  17. Consumer Economics, Book I [and] Book II. DECIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Ruth E.; And Others

    This module, Consumer Economics, is one of five from Project DECIDE, which was created to design, develop, write, and implement materials to provide adult basic education administrators, instructors, para-professionals, and other personnel with curriculum to accompany the Indiana Adult Basic Education Curriculum Guide, "Learning for Everyday…

  18. 76 FR 59111 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee...), we are announcing a meeting of the Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee. The meeting...

  19. 77 FR 60965 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee...), we are announcing a meeting of the Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee. The meeting...

  20. 77 FR 21081 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee...), we are announcing a meeting of the Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee. The meeting...

  1. 75 FR 8922 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee...), we are announcing a meeting of the Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee. The meeting...

  2. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for... Commission's regulatory oversight. It performs economic analyses of proposed rule changes, current...

  3. 78 FR 10599 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory...-153), we are announcing a meeting of the Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee. The...

  4. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for... Commission's regulatory oversight. It performs economic analyses of proposed rule changes, current...

  5. 76 FR 9743 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory...-153), we are announcing a meeting of the Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee. The...

  6. [HEALTH ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND FAIR DECISION MAKING].

    PubMed

    Jeantet, Marine; Lopez, Alain

    2015-09-01

    Health technology assessment consists in evaluating the incremental cost-benefit ratio of a medicine, a medical device, a vaccine, a health strategy, in comparison to alternative health technologies. This form of socio-eoonomic evaluation aims at optimizing resource allocation within the health system. By setting the terms of valid alternatives, it is useful to highlight public choices, but it cannot in itself make the decision as regards the public funding of patient's access to the considered technology. The decision to include such technology in the basket of health goods and sercices covered, the levels and conditions of the coverage, also result from budget constraints, from economic situation and from a political vision about health policy, social protection and public expenditure. Accordingly, health economic analysis must be implemented on specific and targeted topics. The decision making process, with its health, economic and ethical stakes, calls for a public procedure and debate, based on shared information and argument. Otherwise, health system regulation, confronted with radical and costly innovations in the coming years, will become harder to handle. This requires the development of health economic research teams able to contribute to this assessment exercise. PMID:26619723

  7. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  8. Project analysis and integration economic analyses summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macomber, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    An economic-analysis summary was presented for the manufacture of crystalline-silicon modules involving silicon ingot/sheet, growth, slicing, cell manufacture, and module assembly. Economic analyses provided: useful quantitative aspects for complex decision-making to the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project; yardsticks for design and performance to industry; and demonstration of how to evaluate and understand the worth of research and development both to JPL and other government agencies and programs. It was concluded that future research and development funds for photovoltaics must be provided by the Federal Government because the solar industry today does not reap enough profits from its present-day sales of photovoltaic equipment.

  9. Task Analysis Inventories. Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Carl E.

    This second in a series of task analysis inventories contains checklists of work performed in twenty-two occupations. Each inventory is a comprehensive list of work activities, responsibilities, educational courses, machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used and the products produced or services rendered in a designated occupational area. The…

  10. Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortin, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

  11. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan

    2014-08-27

    This report is the third annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market. It includes the following major sections: Section 1: key data on developments in the offshore wind technology sector and the global development of offshore wind projects, with a particular focus on progress in the United States; Section 2: analysis of policy developments at the federal and state levels that have been effective in advancing offshore wind deployment in the United States; Section 3: analysis of actual and projected economic impact, including regional development and job creation; Section 4: analysis of developments in relevant sectors of the economy with the potential to affect offshore wind deployment in the United States

  12. Economic analysis of recycling contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen, A.; Ayers, K.W.; Boren, J.K.; Parker, F.L.

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning activities in the DOE complex generate large volumes of radioactively contaminated and uncontaminated concrete. Currently, this concrete is usually decontaminated, the contaminated waste is disposed of in a LLW facility and the decontaminated concrete is placed in C&D landfills. A number of alternatives to this practice are available including recycling of the concrete. Cost estimates for six alternatives were developed using a spreadsheet model. The results of this analysis show that recycling alternatives are at least as economical as current practice.

  13. Summary of CPAS Gen II Parachute Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Moore, James W.; Olson, Leah M.; Ray, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft is currently under development by NASA and Lockheed Martin. Like Apollo, Orion will use a series of parachutes to slow its descent and splashdown safely. The Orion parachute system, known as the CEV Parachute Assembly System (CPAS), is being designed by NASA, the Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG), and Airborne Systems. The first generation (Gen I) of CPAS testing consisted of thirteen tests and was executed in the 2007-2008 timeframe. The Gen I tests provided an initial understanding of the CPAS parachutes. Knowledge gained from Gen I testing was used to plan the second generation of testing (Gen II). Gen II consisted of six tests: three singleparachute tests, designated as Main Development Tests, and three Cluster Development Tests. Gen II required a more thorough investigation into parachute performance than Gen I. Higher fidelity instrumentation, enhanced analysis methods and tools, and advanced test techniques were developed. The results of the Gen II test series are being incorporated into the CPAS design. Further testing and refinement of the design and model of parachute performance will occur during the upcoming third generation of testing (Gen III). This paper will provide an overview of the developments in CPAS analysis following the end of Gen I, including descriptions of new tools and techniques as well as overviews of the Gen II tests.

  14. Economic analysis of the space shuttle system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of the space shuttle system is presented. The analysis is based on economic benefits, recurring costs, non-recurring costs, and ecomomic tradeoff functions. The most economic space shuttle configuration is determined on the basis of: (1) objectives of reusable space transportation system, (2) various space transportation systems considered and (3) alternative space shuttle systems.

  15. Law and Technology Theory: Bringing in Some Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosow, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The author argues economic analysis needs to be explicitly included in an overall theory of law and technology. Differing approaches to the economics of information are considered, and the copyright policy environment of the 1990s is taken as an example of how the lack of substantive economic analysis resulted in poor policy-making.

  16. EMERGY ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our mission at USEPA is to protect human health and safeguard the natural environment. We aim to base our environmental regulations and policies on sound scientific and, where appropriate, economic analyses. Although EPA has conducted analysis of the impact of regulations on ...

  17. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  18. The Potential Economic Impact of Electricity Restructuring in the State of Oklahoma: Phase II Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, SW

    2001-10-30

    Because of the recent experiences of several states undergoing restructuring (e.g., higher prices, greater volatility, lower reliability), concerns have been raised in states currently considering restructuring as to whether their systems are equally vulnerable. Factors such as local generation costs, transmission constraints, market concentration, and market design can all play a role in the success or failure of the market. These factors along with the mix of generation capacity supplying the state will influence the relative prices paid by consumers. The purpose of this project is to provide a model and process to evaluate the potential price and economic impacts of restructuring the Oklahoma electric industry. The Phase I report concentrated on providing an analysis of the Oklahoma system in the near-term, using only present generation resources and customer demands. This Phase II study analyzed the Oklahoma power market in 2010, incorporating the potential of new generation resources and customer responses. Five key findings of this Phase II were made: (1) Projected expansion in generating capacity exceeds by over 3,000 MW the demands within the state plus the amount that could be exported with the current transmission system. (2) Even with reduced new plant construction, most new plants could lose money (although residential consumers would see lower rates) unless they have sufficient market power to raise their prices without losing significant market share (Figure S-1). (3) If new plants can raise prices to stay profitable, existing low-cost coal and hydro plants will have very high profits. Average prices to customers could be 5% to 25% higher than regulated rates (Figure S-1). If the coal and hydro plants are priced at cost-based rates (through long-term contracts or continued regulation) while all other plants use market-based rates then prices are lower. (4) Customer response to real-time prices can lower the peak capacity requirements by around 9

  19. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  20. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  1. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe.

    PubMed

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P; Winter, Joachim K

    2014-03-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure-experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  2. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe.

    PubMed

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P; Winter, Joachim K

    2014-03-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure-experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages.

  3. Busted Butte Phase II Excavation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Keifer

    2000-11-29

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an engineering excavation and ground support design for the Busted Butte phase II mine back. The analysis will apply engineering practices and previous proven design methods for pillar design and ground support in accordance with applicable Integrated Safety Management principles and functions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Busted Butte Test Facility. The intended use of this analysis is to provide testing excavation boundaries, ground support and pillar design input to drawing(s) to support test operations implementation. This design activity has been prepared under ''Technical Work Plan For Test Facilities Design FY01 Work Activities'' (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2000b). No deviations from the TWP have been necessary for this analysis.

  4. Advancing school-based interventions through economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Tina M; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis within school-based prevention remains cursory. Largely, economic analyses of school-based prevention efforts are undertaken as secondary research. This limits these efforts to data that have been collected previously as part of epidemiological and outcomes research. Therefore, economic analyses suffer from gaps in the knowledge generated by these studies. This chapter addresses the importance of economic analysis for the future of school-based substance abuse prevention programs and highlights the role of prevention research in the development of knowledge that can be used for economic analysis. PMID:24753283

  5. Advancing school-based interventions through economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Tina M; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis within school-based prevention remains cursory. Largely, economic analyses of school-based prevention efforts are undertaken as secondary research. This limits these efforts to data that have been collected previously as part of epidemiological and outcomes research. Therefore, economic analyses suffer from gaps in the knowledge generated by these studies. This chapter addresses the importance of economic analysis for the future of school-based substance abuse prevention programs and highlights the role of prevention research in the development of knowledge that can be used for economic analysis.

  6. WASTES II: Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation. Version II. User's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, M.R.; Buxbaum, M.E.

    1986-02-01

    The WASTES II model was developed to provide detailed analyses beyond the capabilities of other available models. WASTES uses discrete event simulation techniques to model the generation of commercial spent nuclear fuel, the buildup of spent fuel inventories within the system, and the transportation requirements for the movement of radioactive waste throughout the system. The model is written in FORTRAN 77 as an extension to the SLAM commercial simulation language package. In addition to the pool storage and dry storage located at the reactors, the WASTES model provides a choice of up to ten other storage facilities of four different types. The simulation performed by WASTES may be controlled by a combination of source- and/or destination-controlled transfers that are requested by the code user. The user supplies shipping cask characteristics for truck or rail shipment casks. As part of the facility description, the user specifies which casks the facility can use. Shipments within the system can be user specified to occur optimally, or proximally. Optimized shipping can be used when exactly two destination facilities of the same facility type are open for receipt of fuel. Optimized shipping selects source/destination pairs so that the total shipping distance or total shipping costs in a given year are minimized when both facilities are fully utilized. Proximity shipping sequentially fills the closest facility to the source according to the shipment priorities without regard for the total annual shipments. This results in sub-optimal routing of waste material but can be used to approximate an optimal shipping strategy when more than two facilities of the same type are available to receive waste. WASTES is currently able to analyze each of the commercial spent fuel logistics scenarios specified in the 1985 DOE Mission Plan.

  7. Advancing School-Based Interventions through Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Tina M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis…

  8. An Economic Analysis of the Language Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Burton A.

    1983-01-01

    Examples of linguistic deficiencies in the economics language system are identified, and several changes in present institutional arrangements are considered as possible Pareto efficient moves. (Author/RM)

  9. Welfare Triangles and Economic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the concepts of consumer's surplus and producer's surplus can be related to basic welfare economics. Provides illustrations of the ways in which these concepts can be applied in introductory economics courses. Examines the social cost of monopoly, the tax burden, free trade, tariffs, and the English Channel Tunnel. (KO)

  10. Economic analysis of aeronautical research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gellman, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The appropriateness of government intervention in the civilian market for aeronautics research and technology (R&T) is examined. The economic rationale for government intervention is examined. The conclusion is that the institutional role played by NASA in civilian aeronautics R&T markets is economically justified.

  11. Business Conditions and Economic Analysis: An Experiential Learning Program for Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Robert C.; Stevens, Jerry L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the Business Conditions and Economic Analysis (BCEA) program developed at the University of Richmond. The BCEA program is an experiential learning format for economics students built on the success of student-managed investment funds (SMIF) in finance. In its initial implementation, the BCEA group conducts domestic and global…

  12. LCLS-II Undulator Tolerance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nuhn, H.-D.; Marks, S.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

    2012-06-06

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is building a new FEL user facility, LCLS-II, as a major upgrade to the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The upgrade will include two new Free Electron Lasers (FELs), to generate soft (SXR) and hard x-ray (HXR) SASE FEL radiation, based on planar, variable gap hybrid undulators with two different undulator periods (SXU: 55 mm, HXU: 32 mm). An algebraic FEL tolerance analysis for the undulator lines, including tuning, alignment, and phase correction tolerances has been performed. The methods and results are presented in this paper.

  13. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlock, J.; Overton, R.

    1980-09-01

    A residential solar water heater, cost and performance information, and monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the payback period for any nontypical solar water heater are described. This calculated payback period is shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the purchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system can provide.

  14. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-23

    A typical residential solar water heater, and typical cost and performance information are described briefly. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the Payback Period for any non-typical solar water heater are described. This calculated Payback Period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the puchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. (MHR)

  15. Economic concepts for the analysis of behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, Steven R.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the relationship between schedule of reinforcement, response rate, and choice suggests that certain unifying concepts from economics can contribute to a more complete science of behavior. Four points are made: 1) a behavioral experiment is an economic system and its characteristics—open or closed—can strongly determine the results; 2) reinforcers can be distinguished by a functional property called elasticity; 3) reinforcers may interact as complements as well as substitutes; 4) no simple choice rule, such as strict matching, can account for all choice behavior. PMID:16812188

  16. Analysis of photosystem II biogenesis in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Steffen; Liauw, Pasqual; Nickelsen, Jörg; Nowaczyk, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Photosystem II (PSII), a large multisubunit membrane protein complex found in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria, algae and plants, catalyzes light-driven oxygen evolution from water and reduction of plastoquinone. Biogenesis of PSII requires coordinated assembly of at least 20 protein subunits, as well as incorporation of various organic and inorganic cofactors. The stepwise assembly process is facilitated by numerous protein factors that have been identified in recent years. Further analysis of this process requires the development or refinement of specific methods for the identification of novel assembly factors and, in particular, elucidation of the unique role of each. Here we summarize current knowledge of PSII biogenesis in cyanobacteria, focusing primarily on the impact of methodological advances and innovations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Conrad Mullineaux.

  17. Economic Analysis of World Bank Education Projects and Project Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vawda, Ayesha Yaqub; Moock, Peter; Gittinger, J. Price; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that World Bank education projects have a higher likelihood of being successful if at the time of appraisal, they underwent good quality economic analysis. Analysis shows a strong relationship between the quality of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis and the quality of project outcomes. Economic…

  18. Resources and energy: an economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Two long core chapters on oil and on nonfuel minerals, along with an exposition of the econometrics of primary commodities, give the reader a basic insight into the economic techniques and their uses. There are also chapters on coal, gas, and uranium, which include an overview of the Soviet energy sector and the Australian coal industry. The book introduces oil refining, petrochemicals, futures markets, inventories, capital costs, tin, stock-flow models, and other topics not usually handled in most economics text and reference books. There is also a short survey of iron and steel. The book concludes with the note that attempts to check inflation by monetary means in the presence of the kind of consumer and corporate debt that exists today is begging for catastrophe. Monetarism, like champagne, is good for pleasure, but very bad for business. 210 references, 47 figures, 41 tables.

  19. Treatment of Periprosthetic Infections: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Vaquero, Daniel; Fernández-Fairen, Mariano; Torres, Ana; Menzie, Ann M.; Fernández-Carreira, José Manuel; Murcia-Mazon, Antonio; Merzthal, Luis

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the existing economic literature, assesses the value of current data, and presents procedures that are the less costly and more effective options for the treatment of periprosthetic infections of knee and hip. Optimizing antibiotic use in the prevention and treatment of periprosthetic infection, combined with systemic and behavioral changes in the operating room, the detection and treatment of high-risk patient groups, as well as the rational management of the existing infection by using the different procedures according to each particular case, could allow for improved outcomes and lead to the highest quality of life for patients and the lowest economic impact. Nevertheless, the costeffectiveness of different interventions to treat periprosthetic infections remains unclear. PMID:23781163

  20. Economic analysis of new space transportation systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An economic analysis of alternative space transportation systems is presented. Results indicate that the expendable systems represent modest investments, but the recurring costs of operation would remain high. The space shuttle and tug system requires a substantial investment, but would substantially reduce the recurring costs of operation. Economic benefits and costs of the different systems are also analyzed. Findings are summarized.

  1. Economic Analysis. Volume I. Course Segments 4-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

    The first volume of the United States Naval Academy's individualized instruction course in economic analysis covers segments 4-15 of the course. Topics in this introduction include the nature and methods of economics, production possibilities, demand, supply and equilibrium, and the concept of the circular flow. Other segments of the course, the…

  2. The sensitivity analysis of the economic and economic statistical designs of the synthetic X¯ chart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeong, Wai Chung; Khoo, Michael Boon Chong; Chong, Jia Kit; Lim, Shun Jinn; Teoh, Wei Lin

    2014-12-01

    The economic and economic statistical designs allow the practitioner to implement the control chart in an economically optimal manner. For the economic design, the optimal chart parameters are obtained to minimize the cost, while for the economic statistical design, additional constraints in terms of the average run length is imposed. However, these designs involve the estimation of quite a number of input parameters. Some of these input parameters are difficult to estimate accurately. Thus, a sensitivity analysis is required in order to identify which parameters need to be estimated accurately, and which requires just a rough estimation. This study focuses on the significance of 11 input parameters toward the optimal cost and average run lengths of the synthetic ¯X chart. The significant input parameters are identified through a two-level fractional factorial design, which allows interaction effects to be identified. An analysis of variance is performed to obtain the P-values by using the Minitab software. The significant input parameters and interactions on the optimal cost and average run lengths are identified based on a 5% significance level. The results of this study show that the input parameters which are significant towards the economic design may not be significant for the economic statistical design, and vice versa. This study also shows that there are quite a number of significant interaction effects, which may mask the significance of the main effects.

  3. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics: United States History (Secondary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, James B.

    This guide contains 13 concept-based lessons in economics for use in secondary U.S. history courses. One component of a two part publication, the guide demonstrates how the conceptual structure of the economics discipline presented in the first publication (ED 148 648) can be used to help students develop basic economic concepts. Each lesson is…

  4. American Airlines Propeller STOL Transport Economic Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, B.

    1972-01-01

    A Monte Carlo risk analysis on the economics of STOL transports in air passenger traffic established the probability of making the expected internal rate of financial return, or better, in a hypothetical regular Washington/New York intercity operation.

  5. The different modes of hydro-economic analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harou, J. J.; Binions, O.; Erfani, T.

    2013-12-01

    In the face of growing water demands, climate change and spatial and temporal water access variability, accurately assessing the economic impacts of proposed water resource management changes is useful. The objective of this project funded by UK Water Industry Research was to present and demonstrate a framework for identifying and using the ';value of water' to enable water utilities and their regulators to make better decisions. A hydro-economic model can help evaluate water management options in terms of their hydrological and economic impact at different locations throughout a catchment over time. In this talk we discuss three modes in which hydro-economic models can be implemented: evaluative, behavioral and prescriptive. In evaluation mode economic water demand and benefit functions are used to post-process water resource management model results to assess the economic impacts (over space and time) of a policy under consideration. In behavioral hydro-economic models users are represented as agents and the economics is used to help predict their actions. In prescriptive mode optimization is used to find the most economically efficient management actions such as allocation patterns or source selection. These three types of hydro-economic analysis are demonstrated on a UK watershed (Great River Ouse) that includes 97 different water abstractors from amongst the public water supply, agriculture, industry and energy plant cooling sectors. The following issues under dry and normal historical conditions were investigated: Supply/demand investment planning, societal cost of environmental flows, water market prices, and scarcity-sensitive charges for water rights. The talk discusses which hydro-economic modeling mode is used to study each of these issues and why; example results are shown and discussed. The topic of how hydro-economic models can be built and deployed effectively is covered along with how existing water utility operational and planning tools can be

  6. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  7. An economic analysis of migration in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J; Ladman, J R

    1978-07-01

    This paper analyzes internal migration in Mexico over the 1960-70 period. A model of the determinants of migration is specified and estimated for aggregated interstate migration flows. Results show that distance serves as a significant deterrent to migration, that higher destination earning levels are attractive to migrants, and that regions with high unemployment rates experience lower rates of inmigration. An unanticipated finding is that regions with higher earning levels have greater rates of outmigration. The data are disaggregated to examine separate migration relationships for each state. The results are that distance is a lesser deterrent for those migrants with more accessible alternatives, that higher earning levels reduce the deterring effects of distance, and that regions with higher earning levels have lower associated elasticities of migration. It is concluded that economic factors have played a crucial role in internal migration and thus in the changing occupational and geographic structure of the Mexican labor force. PMID:12265626

  8. Economical analysis of saturation mutagenesis experiments.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G; Reetz, Manfred T; Nov, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Saturation mutagenesis is a powerful technique for engineering proteins, metabolic pathways and genomes. In spite of its numerous applications, creating high-quality saturation mutagenesis libraries remains a challenge, as various experimental parameters influence in a complex manner the resulting diversity. We explore from the economical perspective various aspects of saturation mutagenesis library preparation: We introduce a cheaper and faster control for assessing library quality based on liquid media; analyze the role of primer purity and supplier in libraries with and without redundancy; compare library quality, yield, randomization efficiency, and annealing bias using traditional and emergent randomization schemes based on mixtures of mutagenic primers; and establish a methodology for choosing the most cost-effective randomization scheme given the screening costs and other experimental parameters. We show that by carefully considering these parameters, laboratory expenses can be significantly reduced. PMID:26190439

  9. Economic analysis of solar building components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, K. E.

    The problem of the economic choice of building materials and air conditioning equipment, solar and conventional, is dealt with. The formulation is particularly suitable for buildings with combined passive and positive indoor temperature control. The heat fluxes through the various components of the building are the thermal criteria used. The various costs are analyzed and separated into fixed (or capital) costs, and operating costs which constitute the total annual cost. This latter cost is the objective function to be minimized to give the optimum design. The problem is formulated in a most general dimensionless form. It is simplified by neglecting the effect on the total annual cost of the difference between the peak and average heat fluxes, which is negligible in most cases. The simplified relation is solved in closed form to optimize a single layer or two layers of a composite building component. An example of the results is presented graphically.

  10. An economic analysis of migration in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J; Ladman, J R

    1978-07-01

    This paper analyzes internal migration in Mexico over the 1960-70 period. A model of the determinants of migration is specified and estimated for aggregated interstate migration flows. Results show that distance serves as a significant deterrent to migration, that higher destination earning levels are attractive to migrants, and that regions with high unemployment rates experience lower rates of inmigration. An unanticipated finding is that regions with higher earning levels have greater rates of outmigration. The data are disaggregated to examine separate migration relationships for each state. The results are that distance is a lesser deterrent for those migrants with more accessible alternatives, that higher earning levels reduce the deterring effects of distance, and that regions with higher earning levels have lower associated elasticities of migration. It is concluded that economic factors have played a crucial role in internal migration and thus in the changing occupational and geographic structure of the Mexican labor force.

  11. Economical analysis of saturation mutagenesis experiments

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G.; Reetz, Manfred T.; Nov, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Saturation mutagenesis is a powerful technique for engineering proteins, metabolic pathways and genomes. In spite of its numerous applications, creating high-quality saturation mutagenesis libraries remains a challenge, as various experimental parameters influence in a complex manner the resulting diversity. We explore from the economical perspective various aspects of saturation mutagenesis library preparation: We introduce a cheaper and faster control for assessing library quality based on liquid media; analyze the role of primer purity and supplier in libraries with and without redundancy; compare library quality, yield, randomization efficiency, and annealing bias using traditional and emergent randomization schemes based on mixtures of mutagenic primers; and establish a methodology for choosing the most cost-effective randomization scheme given the screening costs and other experimental parameters. We show that by carefully considering these parameters, laboratory expenses can be significantly reduced. PMID:26190439

  12. Heavy oil mining technical and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, T.J.; Piper, E.M.; Riddell, A.W.

    1984-04-01

    U.S. Department of Energy studies have indicated that the United States has produced only about one-third of its estimated reserves of heavy oil, primarily because this oil is unrecoverable by conventional production methods. One technology that shows promise for recovering these reserves is oil mining. Of three fundamental mining methods, surface extractive mining, underground extractive mining and underground mining for access, the surface extractive mining and underground mining for access methods appear to be technically feasible for oil recovery. Two heavy oil reservoirs are used as the basis for an economic evaluation of the two technically feasible mining methods. These two reservoirs were selected from an extensive list of heavy oil reservoirs in the United States based on a favorable combination of physical characteristics including depth, net pay thickness, oil saturation in barrels per acre, reservoir area, and total estimated reserves.

  13. Quantitative analysis of the economically recoverable resource

    SciTech Connect

    Pulle, C.V.; Seskus, A.P.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain estimates of the economically recoverable gas in the Appalachian Basin. The estimates were obtained in terms of a probability distribution, which quantifies the inherent uncertainty associated with estimates where geologic and production uncertainties prevail. It is established that well productivity on a county and regional basis is lognormally distributed, and the total recoverable gas is Normally distributed. The expected (mean), total economically recoverable gas is 20.2 trillion cubic feet (TCF) with a standard deviation of 1.6 TCF, conditional on the use of shooting technology on 160-acre well-spacing. From properties of the Normal distribution, it is seen that a 95 percent probability exists for the total recoverable gas to lie between 17.06 and 23.34 TCF. The estimates are sensitive to well spacings and the technology applied to a particular geologic environment. It is observed that with smaller well spacings - for example, at 80 acres - the estimate is substantially increased, and that advanced technology, such as foam fracturing, has the potential of significantly increasing gas recovery. However, the threshold and optimum conditions governing advanced exploitation technology, based on well spacing and other parameters, were not analyzed in this study. Their technological impact on gas recovery is mentioned in the text where relevant; and on the basis of a rough projection an additional 10 TCF could be expected with the use of foam fracturing on wells with initial open flows lower than 300 MCFD. From the exploration point of view, the lognormal distribution of well productivity suggests that even in smaller areas, such as a county basis, intense exploration might be appropriate. This is evident from the small tail probabilities of the lognormal distribution, which represent the small number of wells with relatively very high productivity.

  14. Run II data analysis on the grid

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Mandrichenko, Igor Terekhov and Frank Wurthwein

    2002-12-02

    In this document, we begin the technical design for the distributed RunII computing for CDF and D0. The present paper defines the three components of the data handling area of Run II computing, namely the Data Handling System, the Storage System and the Application. We outline their functionality and interaction between them. We identify necessary and desirable elements of the interfaces.

  15. Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module II, Your Economic Decisions and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

    Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students function effectively within the rapidly changing…

  16. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia.

  17. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia. PMID:23021947

  18. Economic Modeling and Analysis of Educational Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epple, Dennis; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of educational vouchers has evolved from market-based analogies to models that incorporate distinctive features of the educational environment. These distinctive features include peer effects, scope for private school pricing and admissions based on student characteristics, the linkage of household residential and school choices in…

  19. An Economic Analysis of College Scholarship Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, John D.

    A national scholarship policy based on a cost-benefit analysis of the social value of education is proposed as one method for improving current patterns of allocating US college scholarships and tuition funds. A central college subsidy agency, operating on a limited budget, would be required to allocate funds according to the maximum overall…

  20. Chaotic time series analysis in economics: Balance and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Faggini, Marisa

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the paper is not to review the large body of work concerning nonlinear time series analysis in economics, about which much has been written, but rather to focus on the new techniques developed to detect chaotic behaviours in economic data. More specifically, our attention will be devoted to reviewing some of these techniques and their application to economic and financial data in order to understand why chaos theory, after a period of growing interest, appears now not to be such an interesting and promising research area.

  1. Satellite power system: Engineering and economic analysis summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A system engineering and economic analysis was conducted to establish typical reference baselines for the photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear satellite power systems. Tentative conclusions indicate that feasibility and economic viability are characteristic of the Satellite Power System. Anticipated technology related to manufacturing, construction, and maintenance operations is described. Fuel consumption, environmental effects, and orbital transfer are investigated. Space shuttles, local space transportation, and the heavy lift launch vehicle required are also discussed.

  2. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, thermal analysis and electrical conductivity studies of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) vitamin B2 complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Moussa, Mohamed A. A.; Mohamed, Soha F.

    2011-05-01

    Riboflavin (RF) complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) were successfully synthesized. Structures of metal complexes obtained were confirmed and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, and infrared spectra. DC electrical conductivity measurements indicated that the alkaline earth metal (II) complexes of RF ligand are non-electrolytes. Elemental analysis of chelates suggest that the metal(II) ligand ratio is 1:2 with structure formula as [M(RF) 2( X) 2]· nH 2O. Infrared assignments clearly show that RF ligand coordinated as a bidentate feature through azomethine nitrogen of pyrazine ring and C dbnd O of pyrimidine-2,4-dione. Thermal analyses of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) complexes were investigated using (TG/DSC) under atmospheric nitrogen between 30 and 800 °C. The surface morphology of the complexes was studied by SEM. The electrical conductivities of RF and its metal complexes were also measured with DC electrical conductivity in the temperature range from room to 483 K.

  4. Assessing Climate Information Use in Agribusiness. Part II: Decision Experiments to Estimate Economic Value.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonka, Steven T.; Changnon, Stanley A.; Hofing, Steven

    1988-08-01

    Difficulty in evaluating the economic effectiveness of climate information is a significant impediment to expanding the use of that information. An innovative approach, combining a decision experiment and an empirical economic analysis was implemented in this paper as a mans to conduct such an economic evaluation. The decision setting was that of planning the distribution of varieties and amounts of seed corn for a major seed corn producing firm in the midwestern United States. Actual managers, accustomed to making this decision, wore provided forecasts of July and August temperature and precipitation. Their responses to that information were evaluated in terms of cost savings for the firm. Across the range of relevant parameter values tested, savings from the use of perfect forecast information were estimated to be 2% to 5% of production costs. Interestingly, imperfect forecasts of relatively adverse conditions were shown to have considerable value. For example, forecasts of adverse condition accurate only 50% of the time, wore shown to have about two-thirds of the value of perfect forecast information.

  5. Economic effectiveness of disease management programs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Krause, David S

    2005-04-01

    The economic effectiveness of disease management programs, which are designed to improve the clinical and economic outcomes for chronically ill individuals, has been evaluated extensively. A literature search was performed with MEDLINE and other published sources for the period covering January 1995 to September 2003. The search was limited to empirical articles that measured the direct economic outcomes for asthma, diabetes, and heart disease management programs. Of the 360 articles and presentations evaluated, only 67 met the selection criteria for meta-analysis, which included 32,041 subjects. Although some studies contained multiple measurements of direct economic outcomes, only one average effect size per study was included in the meta-analysis. Based on the studies included in the research, a meta-analysis provided a statistically significant answer to the question of whether disease management programs are economically effective. The magnitude of the observed average effect size for equally weighted studies was 0.311 (95% CI = 0.272-0.350). Statistically significant differences of effect sizes by study design, disease type and intensity of disease management program interventions were not found after a moderating variable, disease severity, was taken into consideration. The results suggest that disease management programs are more effective economically with severely ill enrollees and that chronic disease program interventions are most effective when coordinated with the overall level of disease severity. The findings can be generalized, which may assist health care policy makers and practitioners in addressing the issue of providing economically effective care for the growing number of individuals with chronic illness.

  6. GLORIA II Sonograph Mosaic of the Western U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacchione, D. A.; Drake, D. E.; Edwards, B.; Field, M.; Gardner, J.; Hampton, M.; Karl, H.; McCulloch, D.; Kenyon, N.; Masson, D.

    In 1983 the United States declared sovereign rights and jurisdiction over living and nonliving resources in an area extending 200 nautical miles (370 km) seaward from its shores. In response to the establishment of this Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has implemented a program, called EEZ-Scan, to systematically map the EEZ, using the Geological Long- Range Inclined ASDIC (GLORIA) II longrange side scan sonar system developed by the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (IOS) of Great Britain [Somers et al, 1978]. The first part of the EEZ-Scan field program was completed in the summer of 1984, when USGS and IOS scientists surveyed the EEZ off the western conterminous United States aboard the British research vessel Farnella (Figure 1). The west coast survey, requiring 96 days of ship time and four separate legs, has resulted in virtually total sonograph coverage of the sea floor from the continental shelf break to the 200-nautical mile limit between the Mexican and Canadian borders, an area of about 850,000 km2 . Other data collected on the cruises included two-channel digital seismic reflection and 3.5-kHz highresolution and 10-kHz bathymetric profiles, as well as towed magnetometer data along approximately 20,000 km of trackline spaced nominally at 30-km intervals.

  7. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  8. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  9. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:27620113

  10. Development of economic consequence methodology for process risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Zadakbar, Omid; Khan, Faisal; Imtiaz, Syed

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive methodology for economic consequence analysis with appropriate models for risk analysis of process systems is proposed. This methodology uses loss functions to relate process deviations in a given scenario to economic losses. It consists of four steps: definition of a scenario, identification of losses, quantification of losses, and integration of losses. In this methodology, the process deviations that contribute to a given accident scenario are identified and mapped to assess potential consequences. Losses are assessed with an appropriate loss function (revised Taguchi, modified inverted normal) for each type of loss. The total loss is quantified by integrating different loss functions. The proposed methodology has been examined on two industrial case studies. Implementation of this new economic consequence methodology in quantitative risk assessment will provide better understanding and quantification of risk. This will improve design, decision making, and risk management strategies.

  11. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., social and environmental effects of Commission actions. It analyzes the potential effects of CPSC actions... in the analysis of CPSC priorities, policies, actions, and rules. It plans and carries out economic..., The National Environmental Policy Act, the Regulatory Flexibility Act and other Acts, and by...

  12. 78 FR 59648 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... at the Bureau of Economic Analysis at 1441 L St. NW., Washington, DC. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT.... Because of security procedures, anyone planning to attend the meeting must contact Gianna Marrone of BEA.... Requests for foreign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids should be directed to Gianna...

  13. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE - VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  14. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  15. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  16. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  17. An Economic Analysis of a Change in an Excise Tax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, John M.; Blanchard, Kelly Hunt; Umbeck, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an example of the effect a change in the excise tax can have on retail gasoline prices. The findings provide support for standard economic theory, as well as provide a vehicle for illustrating some of the subtleties of the analysis, including the implicit assumptions regarding the implications for the buying and selling prices…

  18. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  19. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  20. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  1. [Emergy analysis of ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Qing; Li, Xiu-Juan; Song, Yang; Li, Guang-Jun

    2008-03-01

    By the methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the emergy flow in the ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province in 1990-2005, and the relationships between the environmental stress caused by resources' input, output and consumption and the sustainable development of the Province. The results showed that in Liaoning Province, the non-renewable resources occupied over 74% of the total consumed emergy, and the realistic population in 2005 was 3.26 times higher than the supportable population. In 1990-2005, the emergy yield ratio decreased from 65.40 to 10.13, emergy loading ratio increased from 2.72 to 7.18, and emergy sustainable index decreased from 24.03 to 1.41. The rapid economic growth in Liaoning Province was chiefly supported by the consumption of vast non-renewable resources, which caused the pressure of economic development on ecosystem getting more and more intense, the economic development increasingly depending on exogenous resources, and the sustainable development of Liaoning ecological-economic system having a continuing decrease. To realize the sustainable development in Liaoning Province, the principles of reduction, reutilization and recycling should be taken as the guidelines for promoting the reuse of wastes and the closed fine circulation of resources to minimize the discharge of wastes. PMID:18533536

  2. Southern New Mexico low temperature geothermal resource economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, C.L.; Whittier, J.; Witcher, J.C.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents an overview of geothermal resource development for three-low temperature (i.e, <200{degree}F) sites in southern New Mexico: the Lower Animas Valley, the Las Cruces East Mesa, and Truth or Consequences. This report is intended to provide potential geothermal developers with detailed information on each site for planning and decision making purposes. Included in the overview for each site is both a full site characterization and an economic analysis of development costs associated with the construction and operation of both geothermal and fresh water systems at each of the three locations. The economic analysis focuses on providing utility services to a commercial greenhouse because greenhouse operations are among the most likely candidates for use of the resource base. 9 tabs., 8 figs.

  3. Economic analysis in medical education: definition of essential terms.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2014-10-01

    Medical education is expensive. There is a growing interest in the subject of cost and value in medical education. However, in the medical education literature, terms are sometimes used loosely - and so there is a need for basic grounding in the meaning of commonly used and important terms in medical education economics. The purpose of this article is to define some terms that are frequently used in economic analysis in medical education. In this article, terms are described, and the descriptions are followed by a worked example of how the terms might be used in practice. The following terms are described: opportunity cost, total cost of ownership, sensitivity analysis, viewpoint, activity-based costing, efficiency, technical efficiency, allocative efficiency, price and transaction costs. PMID:25072235

  4. Economic analysis in medical education: definition of essential terms.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2014-10-01

    Medical education is expensive. There is a growing interest in the subject of cost and value in medical education. However, in the medical education literature, terms are sometimes used loosely - and so there is a need for basic grounding in the meaning of commonly used and important terms in medical education economics. The purpose of this article is to define some terms that are frequently used in economic analysis in medical education. In this article, terms are described, and the descriptions are followed by a worked example of how the terms might be used in practice. The following terms are described: opportunity cost, total cost of ownership, sensitivity analysis, viewpoint, activity-based costing, efficiency, technical efficiency, allocative efficiency, price and transaction costs.

  5. Preparation and Spectrophotometric Analysis of Hexaamminenickel(II) Chloride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an experiment developed at Brooklyn College (New York) in which the preparation and ammonia analysis of an amminenickel(II) chloride is extended to include a spectrophotometric analysis for nickel. Discusses the materials needed and the procedure for the experiment which takes nine hours of laboratory work. (TW)

  6. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of space tug operations is presented. The space tug is defined as any liquid propulsion stage under 100,000 pounds propellant loading that is flown from the space shuttle cargo bay. Two classes of vehicles are the orbit injection stages and reusable space tugs. The vehicle configurations, propellant combinations, and operating modes used for the study are reported. The summary contains data on the study approach, results, conclusions, and recommendations.

  7. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  8. Understanding Your Local Economy: Economic Base Analysis and Local Development Strategies. Community Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Bruce A.; And Others

    Community decision makers selecting an economic development strategy most appropriate for their local community must begin with an understanding of how their local economy functions, what its economic base is, and how changes in that base may affect local economic structure and performance. The economic base approach emphasizes the roles of…

  9. Orbit Response Matrix Analysis Applied at PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Steier, C.; Wolski, A.; Ecklund, S.; Safranek, J.A.; Tenenbaum, P.; Terebilo, A.; Turner, J.L.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC

    2005-05-17

    The analysis of orbit response matrices has been used very successfully to measure and correct the gradient and skew gradient distribution in many accelerators. It allows determination of an accurately calibrated model of the coupled machine lattice, which then can be used to calculate the corrections necessary to improve coupling, dynamic aperture and ultimately luminosity. At PEP-II, the Matlab version of LOCO has been used to analyze coupled response matrices for both the LER and the HER. The large number of elements in PEP-II and the very complicated interaction region present unique challenges to the data analysis. All necessary tools to make the analysis method useable at PEP-II have been implemented and LOCO can now be used as a routine tool for lattice diagnostic.

  10. Thermo-economic analysis of a trigeneration HCPVT power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selviaridis, Angelos; Burg, Brian R.; Wallerand, Anna Sophia; Maréchal, François; Michel, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    The increasing need for electricity and heat in a growing global economy must be combined with CO2 emissions reduction, in order to limit the human influence on the environment. This calls for energy-efficient and cost-competitive renewable energy systems that are able to satisfy both pressing needs. A High-Concentration Photovoltaic Thermal (HCPVT) system is a cogeneration concept that shows promising potential in delivering electricity and heat in an efficient and cost-competitive manner. This study investigates the transient behavior of the HCPVT system and presents a thermo-economic analysis of a MW-scale trigeneration (electricity, heating and cooling) power plant. Transient simulations show a fast dynamic response of the system which results in short heat-up intervals, maximizing heat recuperation throughout the day. Despite suboptimal coupling between demand and supply, partial heat utilization throughout the year and low COP of commercially available devices for the conversion of heat into cooling, the thermo-economic analysis shows promising economic behavior, with a levelized cost of electricity close to current retail prices.

  11. Economic analysis of PV hybrid power system: Pinnacles National Monument

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.; Durand, S.; Thomas, M.; Post, H.

    1997-11-01

    PV hybrid electric power systems can offer an economically competitive alternative to engine generator (genset) systems in many off-grid applications. Besides the obvious `green` advantages of producing less noise and emissions, the PV hybrid can, in some cases, offer a lower life-cycle cost (LCC) then the genset. This paper evaluates the LCC of the 9.6 kWp PV hybrid power system installed by the National Park Services (NPS) at Pinnacles National Monument, CA. NPS motivation for installation of this hybrid was not based on economics, but rather the need to replace two aging diesel gensets with an alternative that would be quieter, fuel efficient, and more in keeping with new NPS emphasis on sustainable design and operations. In fact, economic analysis shows a lower 20-year LCC for the installed PV hybrid than for simple replacement of the two gensets. The analysis projects are net savings by the PV hybrid system of $83,561 and over 162,000 gallons of propane when compared with the genset-only system. This net savings is independent of the costs associated with environmental emissions. The effects of including emissions costs, according to NPS guidelines, is also discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Techno-economic analysis of biofuel production considering logistic configurations.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Hu, Guiping

    2016-04-01

    In the study, a techno-economic analysis method considering logistic configurations is proposed. The economic feasibility of a low temperature biomass gasification pathway and an integrated pathway with fast pyrolysis and bio-oil gasification are evaluated and compared with the proposed method in Iowa. The results show that both pathways are profitable, biomass gasification pathway could achieve an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 10.00% by building a single biorefinery and integrated bio-oil gasification pathway could achieve an IRR of 3.32% by applying decentralized supply chain structure. A Monte-Carlo simulation considering interactions among parameters is also proposed and conducted, which indicates that both pathways are at high risk currently. PMID:26859327

  13. An economics systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite systems is considered. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as a function of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/sq km) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price/demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  14. Solar-photovoltaic power for broadcasting stations: an economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, B.E.; Katzman, M.T.

    1982-08-01

    An economic analysis of the profitability for broadcasting stations of replacing conventional electricity with on-site solar photovoltaic power systems has been undertaken. Technological characteristics of these power systems are presented along with the economic assumptions necessary for their evaluation. Time of initial profitability, time of optimal investment, optimum system capacity, and impact of tax incentivs on profitability are analyzed for several locations in the country representative of the range of insolation conditions. The analyses indicate that photovoltaic power systems are expected, if cost predictions are met, to prove profitable for the broadcasting market in the Southwest by the early 1980s, in the South by the mid-1980s and in the Northeast by the late 1980s. The study was performed in 1979 and was used o help design an experimental PV power system for a radio station in Ohio, which was installed in that year and has operated successfully ever since.

  15. An economic analysis of fertility determinants in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ananta, A

    1986-06-01

    The determinants of fertility in Indonesia are explored using a synthesis approach to economic modeling developed by Easterlin and others, which reconciles and uses both the supply and demand factors affecting fertility. The developments suggested include the use of a statistical approach called the Linear Structural Relationships (LISREL), which permits the author to deal with unobservable variables, provides greater specificity for the analysis of natural fertility, and facilitates the development of a sequential interpretation of fertility. The method is applied to data from the 1976 Indonesian World Fertility Survey. The author concludes that the method successfully explains how an increase in contraceptive usage can be consistent with a rise in fertility, particularly if economic development occurs at a rapid pace and creates a climate encouraging people to have more children PMID:12268200

  16. Synthesis, characterization and anti-microbial evaluation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Pt(II) and Pd(II) sulfonylhydrazone complexes; 2D-QSAR analysis of Ni(II) complexes of sulfonylhydrazone derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özbek, Neslihan; Alyar, Saliha; Alyar, Hamit; Şahin, Ertan; Karacan, Nurcan

    2013-05-01

    Copper(II), nickel(II), platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde-N-methylpropanesulfonylhydrazone (nafpsmh) derived from propanesulfonic acid-1-methylhydrazide (psmh) were synthesized, their structure were identified, and antimicrobial activity of the compounds was screened against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. The results of antimicrobial studies indicate that Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes showed the most activity against all bacteria. The crystal structure of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde-N-methylpropanesulfonylhydrazone (nafpsmh) was also investigated by X-ray analysis. A series of Ni(II) sulfonyl hydrazone complexes (1-33) was synthesized and tested in vitro against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Their antimicrobial activities were used in the QSAR analysis. Four-parameter QSAR models revealed that nucleophilic reaction index for Ni and O atoms, and HOMO-LUMO energy gap play key roles in the antimicrobial activity.

  17. Multiwell experiment: reservoir modeling analysis, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, A.I.

    1985-05-01

    This report updates an ongoing analysis by reservoir modelers at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of well test data from the Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment (MWX). Results of previous efforts were presented in a recent METC Technical Note (Horton 1985). Results included in this report pertain to the poststimulation well tests of Zones 3 and 4 of the Paludal Sandstone Interval and the prestimulation well tests of the Red and Yellow Zones of the Coastal Sandstone Interval. The following results were obtained by using a reservoir model and history matching procedures: (1) Post-minifracture analysis indicated that the minifracture stimulation of the Paludal Interval did not produce an induced fracture, and extreme formation damage did occur, since a 65% permeability reduction around the wellbore was estimated. The design for this minifracture was from 200 to 300 feet on each side of the wellbore; (2) Post full-scale stimulation analysis for the Paludal Interval also showed that extreme formation damage occurred during the stimulation as indicated by a 75% permeability reduction 20 feet on each side of the induced fracture. Also, an induced fracture half-length of 100 feet was determined to have occurred, as compared to a designed fracture half-length of 500 to 600 feet; and (3) Analysis of prestimulation well test data from the Coastal Interval agreed with previous well-to-well interference tests that showed extreme permeability anisotropy was not a factor for this zone. This lack of permeability anisotropy was also verified by a nitrogen injection test performed on the Coastal Red and Yellow Zones. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Clinical laboratory as an economic model for business performance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buljanović, Vikica; Patajac, Hrvoje; Petrovečki, Mladen

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a clinical laboratory as an economic model that may be used to improve business performance of laboratories by removing weaknesses, minimizing threats, and using external opportunities and internal strengths. Methods Impact of possible threats to and weaknesses of the Clinical Laboratory at Našice General County Hospital business performance and use of strengths and opportunities to improve operating profit were simulated using models created on the basis of SWOT analysis results. The operating profit as a measure of profitability of the clinical laboratory was defined as total revenue minus total expenses and presented using a profit and loss account. Changes in the input parameters in the profit and loss account for 2008 were determined using opportunities and potential threats, and economic sensitivity analysis was made by using changes in the key parameters. The profit and loss account and economic sensitivity analysis were tools for quantifying the impact of changes in the revenues and expenses on the business operations of clinical laboratory. Results Results of simulation models showed that operational profit of €470 723 in 2008 could be reduced to only €21 542 if all possible threats became a reality and current weaknesses remained the same. Also, operational gain could be increased to €535 804 if laboratory strengths and opportunities were utilized. If both the opportunities and threats became a reality, the operational profit would decrease by €384 465. Conclusion The operational profit of the clinical laboratory could be significantly reduced if all threats became a reality and the current weaknesses remained the same. The operational profit could be increased by utilizing strengths and opportunities as much as possible. This type of modeling may be used to monitor business operations of any clinical laboratory and improve its financial situation by

  19. Regression Analysis Of Zernike Polynomials Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Louis D.

    1989-01-01

    In an earlier paper entitled "Regression Analysis of Zernike Polynomials, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 18, pp. 392-398, the least squares fitting process of Zernike polynomials was examined from the point of view of linear statistical regression theory. Among the topics discussed were measures for determining how good the fit was, tests for the underlying assumptions of normality and constant variance, the treatment of outliers, the analysis of residuals and the computation of confidence intervals for the coefficients. The present paper is a continuation of the earlier paper and concerns applications of relatively new advances in certain areas of statistical theory made possible by the advent of the high speed computer. Among these are: 1. Jackknife - A technique for improving the accuracy of any statistical estimate. 2. Bootstrap - Increasing the accuracy of an estimate by generating new samples of data from some given set. 3. Cross-validation - The division of a data set into two halves, the first half of which is used to fit the model and the second half to see how well the fitted model predicts the data. The exposition is mainly by examples.

  20. HLA class II genes: typing by DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, J L; Bidwell, E A; Bradley, B A

    1990-04-01

    A detailed understanding of the structure and function of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has ensued from studies by molecular biologist during the last decade. Virtually all of the HLA genes have now been cloned, and the nucleotide sequences of their different allelic forms have been determined. Typing for these HLA alleles is a fundamental prerequisite for tissue matching in allogeneic organ transplantation. Until very recently, typing procedures have been dominated by serological and cellular methods. The availability of cloned DNA from HLA genes has now permitted the technique of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to be applied, with remarkable success and advantage, to phenotyping of both HLA Class I and Class II determinants. For the HLA Class II genes DR and DQ, a simple two-stage RFLP analysis permits the accurate identification of all specificities defined by serology, and of many which are defined by cellular typing. At the present time, however, RFLP typing of HLA Class I genes is not as practicable or as informative as that for HLA Class II genes. The present clinical applications of HLA-DR and DQ RFLP typing are predominantly in phenotyping of living donors, including selection of HLA-matched volunteer bone marrow donors, in allograft survival studies, and in studies of HLA Class II-associated diseases. However, the time taken to perform RFLP analysis precludes its use for the typing of cadaveric kidney donors. Nucleotide sequence data for the alleles of HLA Class II genes have now permitted the development of allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) typing, a second category of DNA analysis. This has been greatly facilitated by the ability to amplify specific HLA Class II DNA 'target' sequences using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The accuracy of DNA typing techniques should ensure that this methodology will eventually replace conventional HLA phenotyping.

  1. On intracluster Faraday rotation. II - Statistical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawler, J. M.; Dennison, B.

    1982-01-01

    The comparison of a reliable sample of radio source Faraday rotation measurements seen through rich clusters of galaxies, with sources seen through the outer parts of clusters and therefore having little intracluster Faraday rotation, indicates that the distribution of rotation in the former population is broadened, but only at the 80% level of statistical confidence. Employing a physical model for the intracluster medium in which the square root of magnetic field strength/turbulent cell per gas core radius number ratio equals approximately 0.07 microgauss, a Monte Carlo simulation is able to reproduce the observed broadening. An upper-limit analysis figure of less than 0.20 microgauss for the field strength/turbulent cell ratio, combined with lower limits on field strength imposed by limitations on the Compton-scattered flux, shows that intracluster magnetic fields must be tangled on scales greater than about 20 kpc.

  2. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biofuels Production Based on Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, R. M.; Platon, A.; Satrio, J. A.; Brown, R. C.; Hsu, D. D.

    2010-11-01

    This study compares capital and production costs of two biomass-to-liquid production plants based on gasification. The first biorefinery scenario is an oxygen-fed, low-temperature (870?C), non-slagging, fluidized bed gasifier. The second scenario is an oxygen-fed, high-temperature (1,300?C), slagging, entrained flow gasifier. Both are followed by catalytic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and hydroprocessing to naphtha-range (gasoline blend stock) and distillate-range (diesel blend stock) liquid fractions. Process modeling software (Aspen Plus) is utilized to organize the mass and energy streams and cost estimation software is used to generate equipment costs. Economic analysis is performed to estimate the capital investment and operating costs. Results show that the total capital investment required for nth plant scenarios is $610 million and $500 million for high-temperature and low-temperature scenarios, respectively. Product value (PV) for the high-temperature and low-temperature scenarios is estimated to be $4.30 and $4.80 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE), respectively, based on a feedstock cost of $75 per dry short ton. Sensitivity analysis is also performed on process and economic parameters. This analysis shows that total capital investment and feedstock cost are among the most influential parameters affecting the PV.

  3. The MATHEMATICA economic analysis of the Space Shuttle System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiss, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed economic analysis shows the Thrust Assisted Orbiter Space Shuttle System (TAOS) to be the most economic Space Shuttle configuration among the systems studied. The development of a TAOS Shuttle system is economically justified within a level of space activities between 300 and 360 Shuttle flights in the 1979-1990 period, or about 25 to 30 flights per year, well within the U.S. Space Program including NASA and DoD missions. If the NASA and DoD models are taken at face value (624 flights), the benefits of the Shuttle system are estimated to be $13.9 billion with a standard deviation of plus or minus $1.45 billion in 1970 dollars (at a 10% social rate of discount). If the expected program is modified to 514 flights (in the 1979-1990 period), the estimated benefits of the Shuttle system are $10.2 billion, with a standard deviation of $940 million (at a 10% social rate of discount).

  4. Folic acid fortification of grain: an economic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Romano, P S; Waitzman, N J; Scheffler, R M; Pi, R D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to compare the economic costs and benefits of fortifying grain with folic acid to prevent neural tube defects. METHODS. A cost-benefit analysis based on the US population, using the human capital approach to estimate the costs associated with preventable neural tube defects, was conducted. RESULTS. Under a range of assumptions about discount rates, baseline folate intake, the effectiveness of folate in preventing neural tube defects, the threshold dose that minimizes risk, and the cost of surveillance, fortification would likely yield a net economic benefit. The best estimate of this benefit is $94 million with low-level (140 micrograms [mcg] per 100 g grain) fortification and $252 million with high-level (350 mcg/100 g) fortification. The benefit-to-cost ratio is estimated at 4.3:1 for low-level and 6.1:1 for high-level fortification. CONCLUSIONS. By averting costly birth defects, folic acid fortification of grain in the United States may yield a substantial economic benefit. We may have underestimated net benefits because of unmeasured costs of neural tube defects and unmeasured benefits of higher folate intake. We may have overestimated net benefits if the cost of neurologic sequelae related to delayed diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds our projection. PMID:7733427

  5. Thermal-economic analysis of organic Rankine combined cycle cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-12-01

    An evaluation of organic rankine cycles (ORC) as combined with topping incorporating gas turbines or diesel engines, and with subsequent waste heat utilization is presented. It is found that the potential benefit of the proposed organic Rankine combined cycle cogeneration of useful heat and electricity is more flexible in meeting demands for the two products, by varying the mode of operation of the system. A thermal-economic analysis is developed and illustrated with cost and performance data for commercially available equipment, and with general economic parameters reflecting current regulations and market conditions. The performance of the ORC and of the entire combined cycle is described. Equations to evaluate the various thermodynamic and economic parameter, and the resultant case flows are presented. Criteria are developed to assess the addition of an ORC to a cogeneration system without ORC is viable based on rate of return on incremental investment. It is indicated that the proposed system is potentially viable, however, it is not viable under conditions prevailing in Chicago for the selected case studies.

  6. Decomposition of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate: A Sequential Gravimetric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Arlo D.; Kalbus, Lee H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an improved experiment of the thermal dehydration of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate. The improvements described here are control of the temperature environment and a quantitative study of the decomposition reaction to a thermally stable oxide. Data will suffice to show sequential gravimetric analysis. (Author/SA)

  7. An Analysis of Economic Learning among Undergraduates in Introductory Economics Courses in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happ, Roland; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Schmidt, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the findings of a pretest-posttest measurement of the economic knowledge of students in introductory economics courses in undergraduate study programs in Germany. The responses of 403 students to 14 items selected from the "Test of Economic Literacy" (Soper and Walstad 1987) were analyzed to identify…

  8. Breeding objectives for pigs in Kenya. II: economic values incorporating risks in different smallholder production systems.

    PubMed

    Mbuthia, Jackson Mwenda; Rewe, Thomas Odiwuor; Kahi, Alexander Kigunzu

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated economic values for production traits (dressing percentage (DP), %; live weight for growers (LWg), kg; live weight for sows (LWs), kg) and functional traits (feed intake for growers (FEEDg), feed intake for sow (FEEDs), preweaning survival rate (PrSR), %; postweaning survival (PoSR), %; sow survival rate (SoSR), %, total number of piglets born (TNB) and farrowing interval (FI), days) under different smallholder pig production systems in Kenya. Economic values were estimated considering two production circumstances: fixed-herd and fixed-feed. Under the fixed-herd scenario, economic values were estimated assuming a situation where the herd cannot be increased due to other constraints apart from feed resources. The fixed-feed input scenario assumed that the herd size is restricted by limitation of feed resources available. In addition to the tradition profit model, a risk-rated bio-economic model was used to derive risk-rated economic values. This model accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and variance of input and output prices. Positive economic values obtained for traits DP, LWg, LWs, PoSR, PrSR, SoSR and TNB indicate that targeting them in improvement would positively impact profitability in pig breeding programmes. Under the fixed-feed basis, the risk-rated economic values for DP, LWg, LWs and SoSR were similar to those obtained under the fixed-herd situation. Accounting for risks in the EVs did not yield errors greater than ±50 % in all the production systems and basis of evaluation meaning there would be relatively little effect on the real genetic gain of a selection index. Therefore, both traditional and risk-rated models can be satisfactorily used to predict profitability in pig breeding programmes.

  9. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis of algae biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Sanjay; Chou, Siaw Kiang; Cao, Shenyan; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Algae biodiesel is a promising but expensive alternative fuel to petro-diesel. To overcome cost barriers, detailed cost analyses are needed. A decade-old cost analysis by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicated that the costs of algae biodiesel were in the range of $0.53-0.85/L (2012 USD values). However, the cost of land and transesterification were just roughly estimated. In this study, an updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis was conducted with optimized processes and improved cost estimations. Latest process improvement, quotes from vendors, government databases, and other relevant data sources were used to calculate the updated algal biodiesel costs, and the final costs of biodiesel are in the range of $0.42-0.97/L. Additional improvements on cost-effective biodiesel production around the globe to cultivate algae was also recommended. Overall, the calculated costs seem promising, suggesting that a single step biodiesel production process is close to commercial reality.

  10. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions.

  11. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions. PMID:26514312

  12. An Economic Analysis of the Iowa Rural Renewal Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Economic trends in the 1960's in the Iowa rural renewal area, Appanoose and Monroe counties, show that the level of economic activity increased in the area but was clearly below the level for the state. Economic trends suggest that to provide economic opportunities in the area, by 1980, comparable to those available on the average to all residents…

  13. Medical store management: an integrated economic analysis of a tertiary care hospital in central India.

    PubMed

    Mahatme, Ms; Dakhale, Gn; Hiware, Sk; Shinde, At; Salve, Am

    2012-04-01

    Economic analysis plays a pivotal role in the management of medical store. The main objectives of this study were to consider always better control-vital, essential and desirable (ABC-VED) analysis with economic order quantity (EOQ), comparison of indexed cost and the actual cost, and to assess the expenditure for the forthcoming years. Based on cost and criticality, a matrix of nine groups by combining ABC and VED analysis was formulated. Drug categories were narrowed down for prioritization to direct supervisory monitoring. The subgroups AE and AV of the categories category I and II should be ordered based on EOQ. The difference between the actual annual drug expenditure (ADE) and the derived indexed cost using the cost inflation index (CII) was calculated. Linear regression was used to assess the expenditure for the forth coming years. The total ADE for the financial year of 2010-2011 was Rs. 1,91,44,253 which was only 7.68% of annual hospital expenditure. Using the inflation index, the indexed cost of acquisition of ADE for year 2010-2011 was Rs. 1,95,10,387. The difference between the two was estimated to be 2.11%. Thus, the CII justifies the demand of increased budget for next year and prompts us for cautious use of drugs. By taking into consideration the ADE of last 10 years, we have forecasted the budget for forthcoming years which will help significantly for making policies according to the available budget. PMID:22754264

  14. Medical store management: an integrated economic analysis of a tertiary care hospital in central India.

    PubMed

    Mahatme, Ms; Dakhale, Gn; Hiware, Sk; Shinde, At; Salve, Am

    2012-04-01

    Economic analysis plays a pivotal role in the management of medical store. The main objectives of this study were to consider always better control-vital, essential and desirable (ABC-VED) analysis with economic order quantity (EOQ), comparison of indexed cost and the actual cost, and to assess the expenditure for the forthcoming years. Based on cost and criticality, a matrix of nine groups by combining ABC and VED analysis was formulated. Drug categories were narrowed down for prioritization to direct supervisory monitoring. The subgroups AE and AV of the categories category I and II should be ordered based on EOQ. The difference between the actual annual drug expenditure (ADE) and the derived indexed cost using the cost inflation index (CII) was calculated. Linear regression was used to assess the expenditure for the forth coming years. The total ADE for the financial year of 2010-2011 was Rs. 1,91,44,253 which was only 7.68% of annual hospital expenditure. Using the inflation index, the indexed cost of acquisition of ADE for year 2010-2011 was Rs. 1,95,10,387. The difference between the two was estimated to be 2.11%. Thus, the CII justifies the demand of increased budget for next year and prompts us for cautious use of drugs. By taking into consideration the ADE of last 10 years, we have forecasted the budget for forthcoming years which will help significantly for making policies according to the available budget.

  15. Medical Store Management: An Integrated Economic Analysis of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Mahatme, MS; Dakhale, GN; Hiware, SK; Shinde, AT; Salve, AM

    2012-01-01

    Economic analysis plays a pivotal role in the management of medical store. The main objectives of this study were to consider always better control-vital, essential and desirable (ABC-VED) analysis with economic order quantity (EOQ), comparison of indexed cost and the actual cost, and to assess the expenditure for the forthcoming years. Based on cost and criticality, a matrix of nine groups by combining ABC and VED analysis was formulated. Drug categories were narrowed down for prioritization to direct supervisory monitoring. The subgroups AE and AV of the categories category I and II should be ordered based on EOQ. The difference between the actual annual drug expenditure (ADE) and the derived indexed cost using the cost inflation index (CII) was calculated. Linear regression was used to assess the expenditure for the forth coming years. The total ADE for the financial year of 2010–2011 was Rs. 1,91,44,253 which was only 7.68% of annual hospital expenditure. Using the inflation index, the indexed cost of acquisition of ADE for year 2010–2011 was Rs. 1,95,10,387. The difference between the two was estimated to be 2.11%. Thus, the CII justifies the demand of increased budget for next year and prompts us for cautious use of drugs. By taking into consideration the ADE of last 10 years, we have forecasted the budget for forthcoming years which will help significantly for making policies according to the available budget. PMID:22754264

  16. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bryony A.; Rich, Karl M.; Mariner, Jeffrey C.; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R.; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia. PMID:26900944

  17. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Mariner, Jeffrey C; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia.

  18. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Mariner, Jeffrey C; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia. PMID:26900944

  19. Promoting Economic Growth in the U.S. Grade Twelve. [Resource Unit II.] Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This is the second unit of seven resource units for a twelfth grade course on value conflicts and policy decisions. The topic for this unit is promoting economic growth in the United States. The objectives are listed as to generalizations, skills, and values. The double-page format relates objectives to pertinent content, teaching procedures, and…

  20. Energy and Economics for the Middle Grades. Unit II. Lessons and Activities for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backler, Alan

    Working knowledge of basic economics concepts can assist in developing the necessary understanding and decision-making skills inherent in dealing with changing energy situations. The eight basic and four advanced lessons included in this guide have been designed to help students in becoming more aware of the energy choices that they must make in…

  1. Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power: A Comparative Analysis of Impacts within the Western Governors' Association States; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2007-06-01

    This paper uses NREL's newest Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI II) model to assess economic impacts from alternative power technologies, with a focus on wind energy, for a variety of states.

  2. Employing SWOT Analysis in Coursework on the Geographies of Regional Economic Development and Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Sonnichsen, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The use of SWOT analysis is a means through which geography students can investigate key concepts in economic geography and essential topics in regional economic development. This article discusses the results of a course project where economic geography students employed SWOT analysis to explore medium-sized metropolitan areas across the southern…

  3. A behavioral economic analysis of fat appetite in rats.

    PubMed

    Freed, D E; Green, L

    1998-12-01

    A behavioral economic analysis of rats' consumption of various fat and sweet solutions was conducted in order to assess whether rats' fat appetite is readily modifiable. According to economic demand theory, changes in the price of a reinforcer will produce substantial changes in its consumption under conditions in which a substitutable reinforcer is available. Results from income-compensated price changes revealed that sucrose, mineral oil and saccharin solutions substituted for a corn oil solution: increases in the price of the corn oil led to large decreases in its consumption and sizable increases in consumption of these alternatives. On the other hand, plain water did not substitute for the corn oil solution: increasing the price of the corn oil did not result in nearly as marked a change in its consumption nor in consumption of the water. Neither the strength of preference for the corn oil under baseline conditions nor the caloric content of the alternative solution predicted whether the alternative reinforcer substituted for the corn oil. Rather, palatability appeared to be a dimension along which substitution was based. These results suggest that fat appetite is modified when palatable alternatives are available, independent of how strongly the fat is preferred.

  4. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T.; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors. PMID:26280804

  5. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors. PMID:26280804

  6. Economic Analysis of Vaccination Strategies for PRRS Control

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) is a swine-specific pathogen that causes significant increases in production costs. When a breeding herd becomes infected, in an attempt to hasten control and elimination of PRRSv, some veterinarians have adopted a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introductions into the herd for several weeks (herd closure) and exposing the whole herd to a replicating PRRSv to boost herd immunity. Either modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine or live field-virus inoculation (FVI) is used. This study consisted of partial budget analyses to compare MLV to FVI as the exposure method of load-close-expose program to control and eliminate PRRSv from infected breeding herds, and secondly to estimate benefit / cost of vaccinating sow herds preventatively. Under the assumptions used in this study, MLV held economic advantage over FVI. However, sensitivity analysis revealed that decreasing margin over variable costs below $ 47.32, or increasing PRRSv-attributed cost above $18.89 or achieving time-to-stability before 25 weeks resulted in advantage of FVI over MLV. Preventive vaccination of sow herds was beneficial when the frequency of PRRSv infection was at least every 2.1 years. The economics of preventative vaccination was minimally affected by cost attributed to field-type PRRSv infection on growing pigs or by the breeding herd productivity level. The models developed and described in this paper provide valuable tools to assist veterinarians in their efforts to control PRRSv. PMID:26673898

  7. Production of butyl solvents from lignocellulose: An economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J D; Daling, R; Sandel, R L; Fitzpatrick, S W

    1986-11-01

    A process is described that produces butyl solvents, butanol, isopropanol, and ethanol from wood or other lignocellulosic feedstock. Two new elements of technology introduced are the processing batch reactor developed at SERI that produces high yields of fermentable sugars (hexoses and pentoses) at the appropriate concentration for the butyl solvents fermentation and a novel method of separating products using liquid-liquid extraction, which reduces the separation energy required to about 30% of energy required in the conventional batch method. Economic analysis suggests that the project is attractive at a feedstock capacity of 400,000 dry MTA or larger (178 million lb/yr solvents). There are, however, uncertainties associated with the project because of the relatively early stage of development of the key elements of the process technology and the sensitivity of the DCFIROR to estimated capital cost. A further conclusion is that the process economics would benefit greatly from reduced capital cost of the fermentation section. This could perhaps be accomplished by developing a continuous fermentation process. Such fermentation technology has been demonstrated on laboratory scale, but as far as is known, has not been developed to pilot scale. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Efficient ecologic and economic operational rules for dammed systems by means of nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niayifar, A.; Perona, P.

    2015-12-01

    River impoundment by dams is known to strongly affect the natural flow regime and in turn the river attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Making hydropower sustainable implies to seek for innovative operational policies able to generate dynamic environmental flows while maintaining economic efficiency. For dammed systems, we build the ecological and economical efficiency plot for non-proportional flow redistribution operational rules compared to minimal flow operational. As for the case of small hydropower plants (e.g., see the companion paper by Gorla et al., this session), we use a four parameters Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution to mathematically formulate non-proportional redistribution rules. These rules allocate a fraction of water to the riverine environment depending on current reservoir inflows and storage. Riverine ecological benefits associated to dynamic environmental flows are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, we apply nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) to an ensemble of non-proportional and minimal flow redistribution rules in order to generate the Pareto frontier showing the system performances in the ecologic and economic space. This fast and elitist multiobjective optimization method is eventually applied to a case study. It is found that non-proportional dynamic flow releases ensure maximal power production on the one hand, while conciliating ecological sustainability on the other hand. Much of the improvement in the environmental indicator is seen to arise from a better use of the reservoir storage dynamics, which allows to capture, and laminate flood events while recovering part of them for energy production. In conclusion, adopting such new operational policies would unravel a spectrum of globally-efficient performances of the dammed system when compared with those resulting from policies based on constant minimum flow releases.

  9. Proline as chiral auxiliary for the economical asymmetric synthesis of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chen; Wenzel, Marianne; Treutlein, Elisabeth; Harms, Klaus; Meggers, Eric

    2012-09-17

    A straightforward method for the synthesis of virtually enantiomerically pure ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(pp)(pp')(pp")](PF(6))(2), pp = bidentate polypyridyl has been developed. The synthesis draws from the readily available racemic starting material cis-[Ru(pp)(pp')Cl(2)] and the natural amino acids l- or d-proline and relies on a dynamic asymmetric transformation under thermodynamic control.

  10. Top-Off Safety Analysis for NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Li,Y.; Casey, B.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.; Job, O.; Krinsky, S.; Parker, B.; Shaftan, T.; Sharma, S.

    2009-05-04

    Top-off injection will be adopted in NSLS-II. To ensure no injected beam can pass into experimental beamlines with open photon shutters during top-off injection, simulation studies for possible machine fault scenarios are required. We compare two available simulation methods, backward (H. Nishimura-LBL) and forward tracking (A. Terebilo-SLAC). We also discuss the tracking settings, fault scenarios, apertures and interlocks considered in the analysis.

  11. Superbugs II: how should economic evaluation be conducted for interventions which aim to contain antimicrobial resistance?

    PubMed

    Coast, Joanna; Smith, Richard; Karcher, Anne-Marie; Wilton, Paula; Millar, Michael

    2002-10-01

    To date, there has been little examination of the problems associated with conducting economic evaluation for interventions designed to contain antimicrobial resistance. There are two quite different types of intervention aimed at containing antimicrobial resistance: interventions which are designed to avoid the emergence of resistant organisms; and interventions that are designed to avoid the transmission of resistance organisms. Four aspects of economic evaluation where the ease of assessment might be expected to differ across evaluations for these different types of intervention are examined: problems associated with the identification of diffuse impacts, problems associated with comparing current and future impacts, problems associated with uncertainty, and problems associated with difficulties in measurement and valuation. The paper suggests that it may be much easier to conduct rigorous economic evaluations for interventions designed to avoid transmission of resistance, than for those intended to avoid emergence. Unfortunately, the transmission policies, which are likely to be the easiest to evaluate, are not likely to produce an optimal long-term outcome given the apparent irreversibility of much resistance and the potentially severe harms which could be imposed as a result. Given the desirability of avoiding a scenario where, in the evidence-based medicine culture, the most rigorously evaluated policies are followed even though they may be less important, there is the need to consider carefully what, and how, economic evaluation should be conducted in the area of antimicrobial resistance. It is suggested that research should focus on the use of modelling as a means of evaluating optimal policy responses and on trying to resolve some of the difficulties associated with measurement and valuation.

  12. An approach for economic analysis of intermodal transportation.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Bahri; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  13. The October 1973 NASA mission model analysis and economic assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the 1973 NASA Mission Model Analysis. The purpose was to obtain an economic assessment of using the Shuttle to accommodate the payloads and requirements as identified by the NASA Program Offices and the DoD. The 1973 Payload Model represents a baseline candidate set of future payloads which can be used as a reference base for planning purposes. The cost of implementing these payload programs utilizing the capabilities of the shuttle system is analyzed and compared with the cost of conducting the same payload effort using expendable launch vehicles. There is a net benefit of 14.1 billion dollars as a result of using the shuttle during the 12-year period as compared to using an expendable launch vehicle fleet.

  14. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode. PMID:25152919

  15. End-of-Life Care Interventions: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pham, B; Krahn, M

    2014-01-01

    Background The annual cost of providing care for patients in their last year of life is estimated to account for approximately 9% of the Ontario health care budget. Access to integrated, comprehensive support and pain/symptom management appears to be inadequate and inequitable. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of end-of-life (EoL) care interventions included in the EoL care mega-analysis. Data Sources Multiple sources were used, including systematic reviews, linked health administration databases, survey data, planning documents, expert input, and additional literature searches. Review Methods We conducted a literature review of cost-effectiveness studies to inform the primary economic analysis. We conducted the primary economic analysis and budget impact analysis for an Ontario cohort of decedents and their families and included interventions pertaining to team-based models of care, patient care planning discussions, educational interventions for patients and caregivers, and supportive interventions for informal caregivers. The time horizon was the last year of life. Costs were in 2013 Canadian dollars. Effectiveness measures included days at home, percentage dying at home, and quality-adjusted life-days. We developed a Markov model; model inputs were obtained from a cohort of Ontario decedents assembled from Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences databases and published literature. Results In-home palliative team care was cost-effective; it increased the chance of dying at home by 10%, increased the average number of days at home (6 days) and quality-adjusted life-days (0.5 days), and it reduced costs by approximately $4,400 per patient. Expanding in-home palliative team care to those currently not receiving such services (approximately 45,000 per year, at an annual cost of $76–108 million) is likely to improve quality of life, reduce the use of acute care resources, and save $191–$385 million in health care costs. Results for the other

  16. A guide to economic evaluation: methods for cost-effectiveness analysis of person-level data.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Jeffrey S; Smith, Mark W

    2006-12-01

    The authors introduce economic evaluation with particular attention to cost-effectiveness analysis. They begin by establishing why health care decisions should be guided by economics. They then explore different types of economic evaluations. To illustrate how to conduct and evaluate a cost-effectiveness analysis, a hypothetical study about the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder with psychotherapy versus pharmacotherapy is considered. The authors conclude with recommendations for increasing the strength and relevance of economic evaluations.

  17. Economic Ethics and Industrial Policy: The Analysis of Ethical Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnal, Juliette

    2008-01-01

    Beyond the presupposed cleavage between economics and ethics, the institutional dimension of economic ethics needs to be emphasized. The firm can use a large scope of instruments in order to formalize economic ethics. The asset of ethical standards is that they represent a specific way of coordination. They engender positive effects such as the…

  18. An Analysis of Contributions and Contributors in Economic Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlin, James W., Jr.; Durden, Garey C.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of 25 years of the content and contributors in economic education research. Finds that economic education has become a legitimate subfield within economics and has grown from mostly descriptive research to sophisticated mathematical and econometric models. (CFR)

  19. Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis: A Foundation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Neoclassical economics has shaped our understanding of human behavior for several decades. While still an important starting point for economic studies, neoclassical frameworks have generally imposed strong assumptions, for example regarding utility maximization, information, and foresight, while treating consumer preferences as given or external to the framework. In real life, however, such strong assumptions tend to be less than fully valid. Behavioral economics refers to the study and formalizing of theories regarding deviations from traditionally-modeled economic decision-making in the behavior of individuals. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has an interest in behavioral economics as one influence on energy demand.

  20. Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM

    SciTech Connect

    DiOrio, Nicholas; Dobos, Aron; Janzou, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Interest in energy storage has continued to increase as states like California have introduced mandates and subsidies to spur adoption. This energy storage includes customer sited behind-the-meter storage coupled with photovoltaics (PV). This paper presents case study results from California and Tennessee, which were performed to assess the economic benefit of customer-installed systems. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued.

  1. Economics of lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-11-01

    Interest in alternatives to fossil fuels has risen significantly during the current decade. Although a variety of different alternative technologies have experienced rapid growth, biofuels have emerged as the main alternative transportation fuel. Energy policies in several countries envision blending biofuels with fossil fuels as the main mechanism to increase energy independence and energy security. Climate change policies in several regions are also riding on the same hope for reducing emissions from transportation. The main advantage of biofuels is that they are technically mature, cheaper to produce and more convenient to use relative to other alternative fuels. However, the impact of current biofuels on the environment and on economic welfare, is controversial. In my dissertation I focus on three topics relevant to future energy and climate policies. The first is the economics of lifecycle analysis and its application to the assessment of environmental impact of biofuel policies. The potential of biofuel for reducing greenhouse gas emissions was brought to the fore by research that relied on the methodology called lifecycle analysis (LCA). Subsequent research however showed that the traditional LCA fails to account for market-mediated effects that will arise when biofuel technologies are scaled up. These effects can increase or decrease emissions at each stage of the lifecycle. I discuss how the LCA will differ depending on the scale, a single firm versus a region and why LCA of the future should be distinguished from LCA of the past. I describe some approaches for extending the LCA methodology so that it can be applied under these different situations. The second topic is the economic impact of biofuels. Biofuels reduce the demand for oil and increase the demand for agricultural goods. To high income countries which tend to be both large importers of oil and large exporters of agricultural goods, this implies two major benefits. One of the one hand it reduces

  2. The REFLEX II galaxy cluster survey: power spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguera-Antolínez, A.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Böhringer, H.; Collins, C.; Guzzo, L.; Phleps, S.

    2011-05-01

    We present the power spectrum of galaxy clusters measured from the new ROSAT-ESO Flux-Limited X-Ray (REFLEX II) galaxy cluster catalogue. This new sample extends the flux limit of the original REFLEX catalogue to 1.8 × 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2, yielding a total of 911 clusters with ≥94 per cent completeness in redshift follow-up. The analysis of the data is improved by creating a set of 100 REFLEX II-catalogue-like mock galaxy cluster catalogues built from a suite of large-volume Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) N-body simulations (L-BASICC II). The measured power spectrum is in agreement with the predictions from a ΛCDM cosmological model. The measurements show the expected increase in the amplitude of the power spectrum with increasing X-ray luminosity. On large scales, we show that the shape of the measured power spectrum is compatible with a scale-independent bias and provide a model for the amplitude that allows us to connect our measurements with a cosmological model. By implementing a luminosity-dependent power-spectrum estimator, we observe that the power spectrum measured from the REFLEX II sample is weakly affected by flux-selection effects. The shape of the measured power spectrum is compatible with a featureless power spectrum on scales k > 0.01 h Mpc-1 and hence no statistically significant signal of baryonic acoustic oscillations can be detected. We show that the measured REFLEX II power spectrum displays signatures of non-linear evolution.

  3. Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES). Volume II. Detailed results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The energy effectiveness and the economic viability of the ACES concept are examined. ACES is studied in a variety of different applications and compared to a number of conventional systems. The different applications are studied in two groups: the class of building into which the ACES is incorporated and the climatic region in which the ACES is located. Buildings investigated include single-family and multi-family residences and a commercial office building. The application of ACES to each of these building types is studied in Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. The economic evaluation of the ACES is based on a comparison of the present worth of the ACES to the present worth of conventional systems; namely, electric resistance heating, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; air-to-air heat pump and electric domestic water heating; oil-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; and gas-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and gas domestic water heating.

  4. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Systems and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Peretz, Fred J; Qualls, A L

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a large-output [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The AHTR's large thermal output enables direct comparison of its performance and requirements with other high output reactor concepts. As high-temperature plants, FHRs can support either high-efficiency electricity generation or industrial process heat production. The AHTR analysis presented in this report is limited to the electricity generation mission. FHRs, in principle, have the potential to be low-cost electricity producers while maintaining full passive safety. However, no FHR has been built, and no FHR design has reached the stage of maturity where realistic economic analysis can be performed. The system design effort described in this report represents early steps along the design path toward being able to predict the cost and performance characteristics of the AHTR as well as toward being able to identify the technology developments necessary to build an FHR power plant. While FHRs represent a distinct reactor class, they inherit desirable attributes from other thermal power plants whose characteristics can be studied to provide general guidance on plant configuration, anticipated performance, and costs. Molten salt reactors provide experience on the materials, procedures, and components necessary to use liquid fluoride salts. Liquid metal reactors provide design experience on using low-pressure liquid coolants, passive decay heat removal, and hot refueling. High temperature gas-cooled reactors provide experience with coated particle fuel and graphite components. Light water reactors (LWRs) show the potentials of transparent, high-heat capacity coolants with low chemical reactivity. Modern coal-fired power plants provide design experience with

  5. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    PubMed

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology.

  6. Some observations on the economic framework for fertility analysis.

    PubMed

    Namboodiri, N K

    1972-07-01

    Abstract The economic framework for fertility analysis, first expounded in detail by Gary S. Becker(1), has attracted considerable attention among demographers. While some writers have enthusiastically endorsed the model, others have rejected it outright(3). A few attempts have also recently been made by some writers to modify or refine some of the concepts employed, and/or to change the modes of treatment of some of the factors in the original model. Unfortunately, several major objections levelled against the model still remain. It also remains to be examined whether the criticisms can be met without violating the principles and strategies espoused by economists. I believe (1) that most of the objections advanced against the model can be met by suitably modifying it, and (2) that the required modifications can be effected by employing strategies and conceptual schemes similar to those used in the demand analysis of consumer behaviour. The objective of this paper is to expound this belief. There is a strong possibility that after modification a healthy new theory will emerge which may prove useful in guiding research, as well as help to bring together different empirical findings in the literature, or to serve as a 'binder' for the theoretical speculations advanced by many research workers.

  7. Texture Analysis for Classification of Risat-Ii Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, D.; Thakur, S.; Jeyaram, A.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2012-08-01

    RISAT-II or Radar Imaging satellite - II is a microwave-imaging satellite lunched by ISRO to take images of the earth during day and night as well as all weather condition. This satellite enhances the ISRO's capability for disaster management application together with forestry, agricultural, urban and oceanographic applications. The conventional pixel based classification technique cannot classify these type of images since it do not take into account the texture information of the image. This paper presents a method to classify the high-resolution RISAT-II microwave images based on texture analysis. It suppress the speckle noise from the microwave image before analysis the texture of the image since speckle is essentially a form of noise, which degrades the quality of an image; make interpretation (visual or digital) more difficult. A local adaptive median filter is developed that uses local statistics to detect the speckle noise of microwave image and to replace it with a local median value. Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator is proposed to measure the texture around each pixel of the speckle suppressed microwave image. It considers a series of circles (2D) centered on the pixel with incremental radius values and the intersected pixels on the perimeter of the circles of radius r (where r = 1, 3 and 5) are used for measuring the LBP of the center pixel. The significance of LBP is that it measure the texture around each pixel of the image and computationally simple. ISODATA method is used to cluster the transformed LBP image. The proposed method adequately classifies RISAT-II X band microwave images without human intervention.

  8. Parametric sensitivity analysis of an agro-economic model of management of irrigation water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ouadi, Ihssan; Ouazar, Driss; El Menyari, Younesse

    2015-04-01

    The current work aims to build an analysis and decision support tool for policy options concerning the optimal allocation of water resources, while allowing a better reflection on the issue of valuation of water by the agricultural sector in particular. Thus, a model disaggregated by farm type was developed for the rural town of Ait Ben Yacoub located in the east Morocco. This model integrates economic, agronomic and hydraulic data and simulates agricultural gross margin across in this area taking into consideration changes in public policy and climatic conditions, taking into account the competition for collective resources. To identify the model input parameters that influence over the results of the model, a parametric sensitivity analysis is performed by the "One-Factor-At-A-Time" approach within the "Screening Designs" method. Preliminary results of this analysis show that among the 10 parameters analyzed, 6 parameters affect significantly the objective function of the model, it is in order of influence: i) Coefficient of crop yield response to water, ii) Average daily gain in weight of livestock, iii) Exchange of livestock reproduction, iv) maximum yield of crops, v) Supply of irrigation water and vi) precipitation. These 6 parameters register sensitivity indexes ranging between 0.22 and 1.28. Those results show high uncertainties on these parameters that can dramatically skew the results of the model or the need to pay particular attention to their estimates. Keywords: water, agriculture, modeling, optimal allocation, parametric sensitivity analysis, Screening Designs, One-Factor-At-A-Time, agricultural policy, climate change.

  9. Economics: An Analysis of Unintended Consequences. Volume 2: Introduction to Macroeconomics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, Robert E.

    This curriculum guide emphasizes that economics is a method of thought or analysis and highlights the teaching of macroeconomic concepts. Definitions of economics, economic actions and their results, individual and group relationships, and supply and demand principles are reviewed. Macroeconomic concepts that are introduced include: (1) economic…

  10. Paradigmatic Drift: A Bibliographic Review of the Spread of Economic Analysis in the Literature of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kurt M.; Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the presentation of economic arguments in 351 articles (from 1965 to 1988) that focused on some economic aspect of communication in three core journals in communications. Uses citation analysis to identify core referents for these articles. Finds that communications scholars cite other communication journals more than economic journals.…

  11. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... on consumers and on industries, including effects on competitive structure and commercial practices. The Directorate acquires, compiles, and maintains economic data on movements and trends in the...

  12. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume II. Introduction and technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of a study subcontracted by PNL to the United Technologies Research Center on the engineering feasibility and economics of a CAES concept which uses a coal fired, fluidized bed combustor (FBC) to heat the air being returned from storage during the power production cycle. By burning coal instead of fuel oil, the CAES/FBC concept can completely eliminate the dependence of compressed air energy storage on petroleum fuels. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume II presents a discussion of program background and an in-depth coverage of both fluid bed combustion and turbomachinery technology pertinent to their application in a CAES power plant system. The CAES/FBC concept appears technically feasible and economically competitive with conventional CAES. However, significant advancement is required in FBC technology before serious commercial commitment to CAES/FBC can be realized. At present, other elements of DOE, industrial groups, and other countries are performing the required R and D for advancement of FBC technology. The CAES/FBC will be reevaluated at a later date when FBC technology has matured and many of the concerns now plaguing FBC are resolved. (LCL)

  13. The Economic Contributions of Canada's Colleges and Institutes: An Analysis of Investment Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Volume 1: Main Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, M. Henry; Christophersen, Kjell A.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis of the economic impacts generated by Canada's Colleges and Institutes is based on a sample of 61 colleges in 9 provinces, representing roughly two-fifths of the some 150 Colleges and Institutes in the country. The findings from the sample were used to generate results by inference for all colleges in Canada. Two major analyses are…

  14. A socio-economic evaluation of the lunar environment and resources. II. Energy for the selenosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehricke, Krafft A.

    In this second part of a series on lunar industrialization and settlement the economically most promising energy technology is assessed as basis for subsequent energy discussions. The consumer sectors are habitats, transportation and production; the sources are nuclear and solar energy, used in variously processed forms. Habitats permit a relatively continuous growth in power level from small crew sizes of tens of persons (p) at about 2 kWe/p to hundreds and more with selenic agriculture at ˜ 10 kWe/p. Power requirements for transportation are affected, for a given transportation level, by evolution in the direction of minimal gas release into the lunar environment (to protect the industrially valuable high vacuum and for economic reasons) and by demands for suborbital transportation. The propellant ( O2/H2 propulsion) expended for ascent can be captured as steam in enclosed launch tracks and, unless used as water, the hydrogen extracted by electrolysis to minimize costly supply from Earth. For an annual delivery of 10,000 metric ton (t) net payload to circumlunar orbit (60 km) at 35 t during 286 24-hr periods, at least 2.6 t H 2 per 24-hr needs to be extracted, requiring a continuous output of at least 5 MWe (laser-powered H 2-drive in enclosed launch track would not require extraction of H 2, but laser power levels in the order of hundreds of MWe are required, because the energy must be transferred in minutes). Power levels in the production sector depend on product and particular operating conditions. For, 10,000 t of beneficiated raw material or solar cells produced in 286 24-hr production periods/year, the nominally continuous power level may range from at least 2 MWe for the extraction of iron to some 55 MWe for the manufacturing of solar cells from lunar sand. The principal differences influencing the assessment of energy sources on the Moon and in orbit are the long lunar night, mitigating against solar power, and the abundance of natural shielding

  15. THE SPECTRUM AND TERM ANALYSIS OF V II

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, A. P.; Pickering, J. C.; Semeniuk, J. I.

    2013-07-15

    The spectrum and extended term analysis of V II are presented. Fourier transform spectrometry was used to record high resolution spectra of singly ionized vanadium in the region 1492-5800 A (67020-17260 cm{sup -1}) with vanadium-neon and vanadium-argon hollow cathode lamps as sources. The wavenumber uncertainty for the center of gravity of the strongest lines is typically 0.002 cm{sup -1}, an improvement of an order of magnitude over previous measurements. Most of the lines exhibit partly resolved hyperfine structure. The V II energy levels in the 1985 compilation of Sugar and Corliss have been confirmed and revised, with the exception of the high-lying 4f levels and eight of the lower levels. Thirty-nine of the additional eighty-five high levels published by Iglesias et al. have also been confirmed and revised, and three of their missing levels have been found. The energy uncertainty of the revised levels has been reduced by about an order of magnitude. In total, 176 even levels and 233 odd levels are presented. Wavenumbers and classifications are given for 1242 V II lines.

  16. Economic impact analysis for global warming: Sensitivity analysis for cost and benefit estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Ierland, E.C. van; Derksen, L.

    1994-12-31

    Proper policies for the prevention or mitigation of the effects of global warming require profound analysis of the costs and benefits of alternative policy strategies. Given the uncertainty about the scientific aspects of the process of global warming, in this paper a sensitivity analysis for the impact of various estimates of costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reduction strategies is carried out to analyze the potential social and economic impacts of climate change.

  17. Biobank Finances: A Socio-Economic Analysis and Review.

    PubMed

    Gee, Sally; Oliver, Rob; Corfield, Julie; Georghiou, Luke; Yuille, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This socio-economic study is based on the widely held view that there is an inadequate supply of human biological samples that is hampering biomedical research development and innovation (RDI). The potential value of samples and the associated data are thus not being realized. We aimed to examine whether the financing of biobanks contributes to this problem and then to propose a national solution. We combined three methods: a qualitative case study; literature analysis; and informal consultations with experts. The case study enabled an examination of the complex institutional arrangements for biobanks, with a particular focus on cost models. For the purposes of comparison, a typology for biobanks was developed using the three methods. We found that it is not possible to apply a standard cost model across the diversity of biobanks, and there is a deficit in coordination and sustainability and an excess of complexity. We propose that coordination across this diversity requires dedicated resources for a national biobanking distributed research infrastructure. A coordination center would establish and improve standards and support a national portal for access. This should be financed centrally by public funds, possibly supplemented by industrial funding. We propose that: a) sample acquisition continues to be costed into projects and project proposals to ensure biobanking is driven by research needs; b) core biobanking activities and facilities be supported by central public funds distributed directly to host public institutions; and c) marginal costs for access be paid for by the user. PMID:26697914

  18. Biobank Finances: A Socio-Economic Analysis and Review.

    PubMed

    Gee, Sally; Oliver, Rob; Corfield, Julie; Georghiou, Luke; Yuille, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This socio-economic study is based on the widely held view that there is an inadequate supply of human biological samples that is hampering biomedical research development and innovation (RDI). The potential value of samples and the associated data are thus not being realized. We aimed to examine whether the financing of biobanks contributes to this problem and then to propose a national solution. We combined three methods: a qualitative case study; literature analysis; and informal consultations with experts. The case study enabled an examination of the complex institutional arrangements for biobanks, with a particular focus on cost models. For the purposes of comparison, a typology for biobanks was developed using the three methods. We found that it is not possible to apply a standard cost model across the diversity of biobanks, and there is a deficit in coordination and sustainability and an excess of complexity. We propose that coordination across this diversity requires dedicated resources for a national biobanking distributed research infrastructure. A coordination center would establish and improve standards and support a national portal for access. This should be financed centrally by public funds, possibly supplemented by industrial funding. We propose that: a) sample acquisition continues to be costed into projects and project proposals to ensure biobanking is driven by research needs; b) core biobanking activities and facilities be supported by central public funds distributed directly to host public institutions; and c) marginal costs for access be paid for by the user.

  19. Economic analysis of open space box model utilization in spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    It is a known fact that the amount of data about space that is stored is getting larger on an everyday basis. However, the utilization of Big Data and related tools to perform ETL (Extract, Transform and Load) applications will soon be pervasive in the space sciences. We have entered in a crucial time where using Big Data can be the difference (for terrestrial applications) between organizations underperforming and outperforming their peers. The same is true for NASA and other space agencies, as well as for individual missions and the highly-competitive process of mission data analysis and publication. In most industries, conventional opponents and new candidates alike will influence data-driven approaches to revolutionize and capture the value of Big Data archives. The Open Space Box Model is poised to take the proverbial "giant leap", as it provides autonomic data processing and communications for spacecraft. We can find economic value generated from such use of data processing in our earthly organizations in every sector, such as healthcare, retail. We also can easily find retailers, performing research on Big Data, by utilizing sensors driven embedded data in products within their stores and warehouses to determine how these products are actually used in the real world.

  20. Heat exchanger analysis on a Microvax II/GPX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haught, Alan F.

    1988-12-01

    The finite element code FIDAP was used to examine the fluid flow path within a flat plate tube/fin heat exchanger and the resulting heat transfer from the fins and tube walls. The mathematical formulation, mesh development and analysis procedure are presented, and the results obtained are compared with experimental observations of the fluid flow and measurements of the fluid heating. This problem illustrates the capabilities of finite element techniques for analyzing complex three-dimensional convection-dominated heat transfer, and demonstrates the scope of problems which can be addressed on a Micro VAX II/GPX workstation.

  1. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. An Economic Analysis of USDA Erosion Control Programs: A New Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 560.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Roger, Ed.

    A study analyzed the total (public and private) economic costs and benefits of three U.S. Department of Agriculture erosion control programs. These were the Conservation Technical Assistance Program, Great Plains Conservation Program, and Agricultural Conservation Program. Significant efforts at funding for current programs were directed to…

  3. Economic and Political Factors Affecting Deinstitutionalization: One State's Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirpoli, Thomas J.; Wieck, Colleen

    1989-01-01

    The economic and political factors maintaining the large numbers of residents with developmental disabilities in public institutions are reviewed from the perspective of Minnesota. Alternatives are presented to lessen the economical and political impact of institutional closures, in order to advance the process of deinstitutionalization.…

  4. The Music Industry as a Vehicle for Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Issues arising in the music industry in response to the availability of digital music files provide an opportunity for exposing undergraduate students to economic analyses rarely covered in the undergraduate economics curriculum. Three of these analyses are covered here: the optimal copyright term, the effect of piracy or illegal file sharing, and…

  5. Gender Differences in Economic Knowledge: An Extension of the Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results on gender differences in economic knowledge. Addresses the question of whether gender gaps in economic understanding widen as students progress through college. Reports that no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that significant and consistent gender differences exist in college students' performances on economic…

  6. An Economic Analysis of Alternative Programs to Finance Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematica, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    The Federal government operates several programs that provide money, either as loans or as a combination of grants and loans, to students. This paper attempts to clarify the economic and budgetary implications associated with continuing these existing programs, and discusses the differing economic consequences that would follow if some alternative…

  7. The Analysis of the Relation between Education and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteils, Marielle

    2004-01-01

    The debate concerning the various determinants of economic growth has attracted considerable attention. The argument according to which endogenous growth models explain long-term economic growth is often put forward. Particularly, it is held that the production of knowledge by education induces self-sustained growth. In spite of numerous…

  8. Water transfers, agriculture, and groundwater management: a dynamic economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Keith C; Weinberg, Marca; Howitt, Richard; Posnikoff, Judith F

    2003-04-01

    Water transfers from agricultural to urban and environmental uses will likely become increasingly common worldwide. Many agricultural areas rely heavily on underlying groundwater aquifers. Out-of-basin surface water transfers will increase aquifer withdrawals while reducing recharge, thereby altering the evolution of the agricultural production/groundwater aquifer system over time. An empirical analysis is conducted for a representative region in California. Transfers via involuntary surface water cutbacks tilt the extraction schedule and lower water table levels and net benefits over time. The effects are large for the water table but more modest for the other variables. Break-even prices are calculated for voluntary quantity contract transfers at the district level. These prices differ considerably from what might be calculated under a static analysis which ignores water table dynamics. Canal-lining implies that districts may gain in the short-run but lose over time if all the reduction in conveyance losses is transferred outside the district. Water markets imply an evolving quantity of exported flows over time and a reduction in basin net benefits under common property usage. Most aquifers underlying major agricultural regions are currently unregulated. Out-of-basin surface water transfers increase stress on the aquifer and management benefits can increase substantially in percentage terms but overall continue to remain small. Conversely, we find that economically efficient management can mitigate some of the adverse consequences of transfers, but not in many circumstances or by much. Management significantly reduced the water table impacts of cutbacks but not annual net benefit impacts. Neither the break-even prices nor the canal-lining impacts were altered by much. The most significant difference is that regional water users gain from water markets under efficient management.

  9. Assessment of secondary residues. Engineering and economic analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leuschner, A.P.; West, C.E.; Ashare, E.

    1981-08-01

    Secondary agricultural residues are defined as those residues resulting from biomass processing to produce primary products; e.g., whey from cheese processing, vegetable processing wastes, and residues from pulp and paper processing. The analyses consist of specific case studies investigating the costs of converting liquid and/or solid residue streams to methane and/or ethanol. Several economically feasible examples were found: methane production from potato processing liquid residues, ethanol from potato processing solid residues, methane from cheese processing wastes, and methane from poultry processing liquid wastes. In facilities which operate year round, energy recovery is often feasible, whereas in seasonal operations, economic feasibility is not possible. Economic feasibility of energy production from secondary residues is strongly dependent on the current use of the solid and liquid residue. If the solid residue is sold as an animal feed, energy production is usually not economical. High solid and liquid residue disposal costs often make energy conversion economically feasible.

  10. Multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations. [economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.; Vaughan, J. C., III

    1979-01-01

    A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits. Air cushion landing gear configurations are identified as an option for avoiding runway constraints on airport requirements and/or operational constraints are noted.

  11. Final Safety Analysis Addenda to Hazards Summary Report, Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II): upgrading of plant protection system. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, N. L.; Keeton, J. M.; Sackett, J. I.

    1980-06-01

    This report is the second in a series of compilations of the formal Final Safety Analysis Addenda (FSAA`s) to the EBR-II Hazard Summary Report and Addendum. Sections 2 and 3 are edited versions of the original FSAA`s prepared in support of certain modifications to the reactor-shutdown-system portion of the EBR-II plant-protection system. Section 4 is an edited version of the original FSAA prepared in support of certain modifications to a system classified as an engineered safety feature. These sections describe the pre- and postmodification system, the rationale for the modification, and required supporting safety analysis. Section 5 provides an updated description and analysis of the EBR-II emergency power system. Section 6 summarizes all significant modifications to the EBR-II plant-protection system to date.

  12. Agriculture sector resource and environmental policy analysis: an economic and biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    House, R; McDowell, H; Peters, M; Heimlich, R

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural pollution of the environment is jointly determined by economic decisions driving land use, production practices, and stochastic biophysical processes associated with agricultural production, land and climate characteristics. It follows that environmental and economic statistics, traditionally collected independently of each other, offer little insight into non-point pollutant loadings. We argue that effective policy development would be facilitated by integrating environmental and economic data gathering, combined with simulation modelling linking economic and biophysical components. Integrated data collection links economics, land use, production methods and environmental loadings. An integrated economic/biophysical modelling framework facilitates policy analysis because monetary incentives to reduce pollution can be evaluated in the context of market costs and returns that influence land use and production activity. This allows prediction of environmental and economic outcomes from alternative policies to solve environmental problems. We highlight steps taken to merge economic and biophysical modelling for policy analysis within the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. An example analysis of a policy to reduce agricultural nitrogen pollution is presented, with the economic and environmental results illustrating the value of linked economic and biophysical analysis. PMID:10231835

  13. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  14. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  15. Influence of different mineral and Organic pesticide treatments on Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) contents determined by derivative potentiometric stripping analysis in Italian white and red wines.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Francesco; La Pera, Lara; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Nicotina, Mariano; Dugo, Giacomo

    2003-02-12

    This paper deals with the use of derivative potentiometric stripping analysis (dPSA) as a rapid and precise method to determine Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels in red and white wine samples from Sicily, Campania, and Tuscany and to investigate the possible connection between the content of these metals and the pesticide treatments used in vine-growing to control plant diseases and pests. dPSA allowed direct quantitation of heavy metals in acidified wines without any sample pretreatment. Mean recoveries of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) ranged from 95.5 to 99.2% for white wine samples and from 96.1 to 100.0% for red wine samples. The obtained results showed that Cd(II) was not found in any sample and that Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels were always lower than the toxicity limits in both fungicide- and water-treated wines. Nevertheless, the contents of metals were increased in samples from organic and inorganic pesticides treatment with respect to the water-treated samples. In particular, quinoxyfen, dinocap-penconazole, and dinocap applications considerably increased Cu(II) and Zn(II) contents in white and red wines. The levels of lead were significantly raised by azoxystrobin and sulfur treatments.

  16. Aerothermal Analysis of the Project Fire II Afterbody Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael J.; Loomis, Mark; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the wake flow and afterbody heating of the Project Fire II ballistic reentry to Earth at 11.4 km/sec. Laminar results are obtained over a portion of the trajectory between the initial heat pulse and peak afterbody heating. Although non-catalytic forebody convective heating results are in excellent agreement with previous computations, initial predictions of afterbody heating were about a factor of two below the experimental values. Further analysis suggests that significant catalysis may be occurring on the afterbody heat shield. Computations including finite-rate catalysis on the afterbody surface are in good agreement with the data over the early portion of the trajectory, but are conservative near the peak afterbody heating point, especially on the rear portion of the conical frustum. Further analysis of the flight data from Fire II shows that peak afterbody heating occurs before peak forebody heating, a result that contradicts computations and flight data from other entry vehicles. This result suggests that another mechanism, possibly pyrolysis, may be occurring during the later portion of the trajectory, resulting in less total heat transfer than the current predictions.

  17. SLR precision analysis for LAGEOS I and II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilsu, Gaye; Sahin, Muhammed

    2000-10-01

    This paper deals with the problem of properly weighting satellite observations which are non-uniform in quality. The technique, the variance component estimation method developed by Helmert, was first applied to the 1987 LAGEOS I SLR data by Sahin et al. (1992). This paper investigates the performance of the globally distributed SLR stations using the Helmert type variance component estimation. As well as LAGEOS I data, LAGEOS II data were analysed, in order to compare with the previously analysed 1987 LAGEOS I data. The LAGEOS I and II data used in this research were obtained from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS), which archives data acquired from stations operated by NASA and by other U.S. and international organizations. The data covers the years 1994, 1995 and 1996. The analysis is based on "full-rate" laser observations, which consist of hundreds to thousands of ranges per satellite pass. The software used is based on the SATAN package (SATellite ANalysis) developed at the Royal Greenwich Observatory in the UK.

  18. SHEFEX II Flight Instrumentation And Preparation Of Post Flight Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, Thomas; Siebe, Frank; Gulhan, Ali

    2011-05-01

    A main disadvantage of modern TPS systems for re- entry vehicles is the expensive manufacturing and maintenance process due to the complex geometry of these blunt nose configurations. To reduce the costs and to improve the aerodynamic performance the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is following a different approach using TPS structures consisting of flat ceramic tiles. To test these new sharp edged TPS structures the SHEFEX I flight experiment was designed and successfully performed by DLR in 2005. To further improve the reliability of the sharp edged TPS design at even higher Mach numbers, a second flight experiment SHEFEX II will be performed in September 2011. In comparison to SHEFEX I the second flight experiment has a fully symmetrical shape and will reach a maximum Mach number of about 11. Furthermore the vehicle has an active steering system using four canards to control the flight attitude during re-entry, e.g. roll angle, angle of attack and sideslip. After a successful flight the evaluation of the flight data will be performed using a combination of numerical and experimental tools. The data will be used for the improvement of the present numerical analysis tools and to get a better understanding of the aerothermal behaviour of sharp TPS structures. This paper presents the flight instrumentation of the SHEFEX II TPS. In addition the concept of the post flight analysis is presented.

  19. Economic analysis of vertical wells for coalbed methane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Previous economic studies of the recovery and utilization of methane from coalbeds using vertical wells were based on drainage in advance of mining where a single seam is drained with well spacing designed for rapid predrainage. This study extends the earlier work and shows that methane recovery costs can be reduced significantly by increasing well spacing and draining multiple coalbeds. A favorable return on investment can be realized in many geologic settings using this method. Sensitivity of recovery economics to certain development costs and parametric variations are also examined as are the economics of three methane utilization options.

  20. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., social and environmental effects of Commission actions. It analyzes the potential effects of CPSC actions.... The Directorate acquires, compiles, and maintains economic data on movements and trends in the...

  1. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 1, Rev. 14

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The condensed version of the TRUPACT-II Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) contains essential material required by TRUPACT-II users, plus additional contents (payload) information previously submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All or part of the following sections, which are not required by users of the TRUPACT-II, are deleted from the condensed version: (i) structural analysis, (ii) thermal analysis, (iii) containment analysis, (iv) criticality analysis, (v) shielding analysis, and (vi) hypothetical accident test results.

  2. FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (UNIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Predictions of fatigue crack growth behavior can be made with the Fatigue Crack Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN II) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to a selected crack configuration with an initial crack size, FASTRAN II predicts crack growth as a function of cyclic load history until either a desired crack size is reached or failure occurs. FASTRAN II is based on plasticity-induced crack-closure behavior of cracks in metallic materials and accounts for load-interaction effects, such as retardation and acceleration, under variable-amplitude loading. The closure model is based on the Dugdale model with modifications to allow plastically deformed material to be left along the crack surfaces as the crack grows. Plane stress and plane strain conditions, as well as conditions between these two, can be simulated in FASTRAN II by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack front to approximately account for three-dimensional stress states. FASTRAN II contains seventeen predefined crack configurations (standard laboratory fatigue crack growth rate specimens and many common crack configurations found in structures); and the user can define one additional crack configuration. The baseline crack growth rate properties (effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate) may be given in either equation or tabular form. For three-dimensional crack configurations, such as surface cracks or corner cracks at holes or notches, the fatigue crack growth rate properties may be different in the crack depth and crack length directions. Final failure of the cracked structure can be modelled with fracture toughness properties using either linear-elastic fracture mechanics (brittle materials), a two-parameter fracture criterion (brittle to ductile materials), or plastic collapse (extremely ductile materials). The crack configurations in FASTRAN II can be subjected to either constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude or spectrum loading. The applied

  3. FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Predictions of fatigue crack growth behavior can be made with the Fatigue Crack Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN II) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to a selected crack configuration with an initial crack size, FASTRAN II predicts crack growth as a function of cyclic load history until either a desired crack size is reached or failure occurs. FASTRAN II is based on plasticity-induced crack-closure behavior of cracks in metallic materials and accounts for load-interaction effects, such as retardation and acceleration, under variable-amplitude loading. The closure model is based on the Dugdale model with modifications to allow plastically deformed material to be left along the crack surfaces as the crack grows. Plane stress and plane strain conditions, as well as conditions between these two, can be simulated in FASTRAN II by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack front to approximately account for three-dimensional stress states. FASTRAN II contains seventeen predefined crack configurations (standard laboratory fatigue crack growth rate specimens and many common crack configurations found in structures); and the user can define one additional crack configuration. The baseline crack growth rate properties (effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate) may be given in either equation or tabular form. For three-dimensional crack configurations, such as surface cracks or corner cracks at holes or notches, the fatigue crack growth rate properties may be different in the crack depth and crack length directions. Final failure of the cracked structure can be modelled with fracture toughness properties using either linear-elastic fracture mechanics (brittle materials), a two-parameter fracture criterion (brittle to ductile materials), or plastic collapse (extremely ductile materials). The crack configurations in FASTRAN II can be subjected to either constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude or spectrum loading. The applied

  4. Internal migration in India in the seventies: a demo-economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Nair, P S

    1986-01-01

    "This paper is aimed to address mainly the following three aspects of spatial mobility within India during the last inter-censal decade of 1971-1981: (i) Levels of inmigration, outmigration and net migration in the major states (ii) estimates of state-to-state migration flows and (iii) some insights on the socio-economic determinants of internal migration."

  5. Application of Economic Analysis to School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blonigen, Bruce A.; Harbaugh, William T.; Singell, Larry D.; Horner, Robert H.; Irvin, Larry K.; Smolkowski, Keith S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss how to use economic techniques to evaluate educational programs and show how to apply basic cost analysis to implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS). A description of cost analysis concepts used for economic program evaluation is provided, emphasizing the suitability of these concepts for evaluating…

  6. Homemaking--Family Living. Curriculum Planning Guidelines. Level I-II. Middle School, Grades 5-8. Reprint 1978. Home Economics Education, [No. 1].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This curriculum guide for Levels I and II home economics teachers in New York State provides guidelines for developing instructional program content for grades 5-8. An introductory section describes the design of the homemaking-family living curriculum; presents procedures for utilizing modules in planning instruction with an example of plans for…

  7. Economical Analysis on Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Periprosthetic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fairen, Mariano; Torres, Ana; Menzie, Ann; Hernandez-Vaquero, Daniel; Fernandez-Carreira, José Manuel; Murcia-Mazon, Antonio; Guerado, Enrique; Merzthal, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The economic burden of periprosthetic infections is enormous, but the number of economic studies dealing with this issue is very scarce. This review tries to know the economic literature existing, assess the value of current data, and recognize the less costly and more effective procedures for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of periprosthetic infections. Forty five studies meeting the inclusion criteria and adhering to the quality criteria used were carefully analyzed to extract the economic data of relevance in evaluating the magnitude of problem and the more cost-effective solutions. However, because the heterogeneity and the low-quality of most of these studies meta-analytical technique has not been possible. Instead, the studies have been reviewed descriptively. Optimizing the antibiotic use in the prevention and treatment of periprosthetic infection, combined with systemic and behavioral changes in the operating room; detecting and treating the high-risk groups; a quick, simple, reliable, safe, and cost-effective diagnosis, and the rationale management of the instituted infection, specifically using the different procedures according to each particular case, could allow to improve outcomes and produce the highest quality of life for patients and the lowest economic impact. Nevertheless, the cost effectiveness of different interventions to prevent and to treat the periprosthetic infection remains unclear. PMID:24082966

  8. Analysis of world economic variables using multidimensional scaling.

    PubMed

    Machado, J A Tenreiro; Mata, Maria Eugénia

    2015-01-01

    Waves of globalization reflect the historical technical progress and modern economic growth. The dynamics of this process are here approached using the multidimensional scaling (MDS) methodology to analyze the evolution of GDP per capita, international trade openness, life expectancy, and education tertiary enrollment in 14 countries. MDS provides the appropriate theoretical concepts and the exact mathematical tools to describe the joint evolution of these indicators of economic growth, globalization, welfare and human development of the world economy from 1977 up to 2012. The polarization dance of countries enlightens the convergence paths, potential warfare and present-day rivalries in the global geopolitical scene.

  9. Analysis of world economic variables using multidimensional scaling.

    PubMed

    Machado, J A Tenreiro; Mata, Maria Eugénia

    2015-01-01

    Waves of globalization reflect the historical technical progress and modern economic growth. The dynamics of this process are here approached using the multidimensional scaling (MDS) methodology to analyze the evolution of GDP per capita, international trade openness, life expectancy, and education tertiary enrollment in 14 countries. MDS provides the appropriate theoretical concepts and the exact mathematical tools to describe the joint evolution of these indicators of economic growth, globalization, welfare and human development of the world economy from 1977 up to 2012. The polarization dance of countries enlightens the convergence paths, potential warfare and present-day rivalries in the global geopolitical scene. PMID:25811177

  10. Perspectives on the economic analysis of ethanol production from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Prebluda, H.J.; Williams, R.

    1981-01-01

    The potential and economics of ethanol production from biomass is examined. Among the topics covered are: the Brazilian gasohol program; the effect of large scale conversion of grain to alcohol on U.S. food and animal feed prices; the Ex-Ferm process for fermenting sugar cane; the effect on cane sugar markets of the large-scale development in the U.S. of high fructose corn syrup; and better utilization of by-products. Significant breakthroughs which have recently taken place and which will improve the economic picture for making alcohol from solid waste are reviewed. (Refs. 26).

  11. Analysis of World Economic Variables Using Multidimensional Scaling

    PubMed Central

    Machado, J.A. Tenreiro; Mata, Maria Eugénia

    2015-01-01

    Waves of globalization reflect the historical technical progress and modern economic growth. The dynamics of this process are here approached using the multidimensional scaling (MDS) methodology to analyze the evolution of GDP per capita, international trade openness, life expectancy, and education tertiary enrollment in 14 countries. MDS provides the appropriate theoretical concepts and the exact mathematical tools to describe the joint evolution of these indicators of economic growth, globalization, welfare and human development of the world economy from 1977 up to 2012. The polarization dance of countries enlightens the convergence paths, potential warfare and present-day rivalries in the global geopolitical scene. PMID:25811177

  12. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics. Primary Level (Grades 1-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Council on Economic Education, New York, NY.

    This guide contains concept-based activities in economics for use with students in grades one through three. One component of a two-part publication, the guide demonstrates how the conceptual structure of the economics discipline presented in the first publication (ED 148 648) can be used to help students at the primary grade level make more…

  13. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics. Intermediate Level (Grades 4-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Council on Economic Education, New York, NY.

    This guide contains concept based lessons and activities in economics for use with students in grades 4-6. One component of a two-part publication, the guide demonstrates how the conceptual structure of the economics discipline presented in the first publication (ED 148 648) can be used to help students at the intermediate grade level make more…

  14. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics: Basic Business and Consumer Education (Secondary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niss, James F.; And Others

    Part of the Master Curriculum Guide Project, the document presents strategies for teaching economic concepts as related to basic business and consumer education in secondary schools. The objective is to provide detailed classroom lessons illustrating ways economic ideas can be taught at differing levels of difficulty. The 18 lessons are…

  15. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics: Junior High School Level (Grades 7-9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaszak, Ronald A.; Clawson, Elmer U.

    This guide contains concept-based lessons and activities in economics for use with students in grades 7-9. One component of a two-part publication, the guide demonstrates how the conceptual structure of the economics discipline presented in the first publication (ED 148 648) can be used to help students at the junior high school level make more…

  16. Exergo-Economic Analysis of an Experimental Aircraft Turboprop Engine Under Low Torque Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atilgan, Ramazan; Turan, Onder; Aydin, Hakan

    Exergo-economic analysis is an unique combination of exergy analysis and cost analysis conducted at the component level. In exergo-economic analysis, cost of each exergy stream is determined. Inlet and outlet exergy streams of the each component are associated to a monetary cost. This is essential to detect cost-ineffective processes and identify technical options which could improve the cost effectiveness of the overall energy system. In this study, exergo-economic analysis is applied to an aircraft turboprop engine. Analysis is based on experimental values at low torque condition (240 N m). Main components of investigated turboprop engine are the compressor, the combustor, the gas generator turbine, the free power turbine and the exhaust. Cost balance equations have been formed for all components individually and exergo-economic parameters including cost rates and unit exergy costs have been calculated for each component.

  17. An Economic Analysis of Solar Water & Space Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Solar system designs for 13 cities were optimized so as to minimize the life cycle cost over the assumed 20-year lifetime of the solar energy systems. A number of major assumptions were made regarding the solar system, type and use of building, financial considerations, and economic environment used in the design optimization. Seven optimum…

  18. The Influx of Women into Legal Professions: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joe G.

    2002-01-01

    Data from the 1993 National Survey of College Graduates show that women are increasingly attracted to the field of law, possibly because of its favorable economic factors, such as relatively high earnings early in the career and ease of reentry after periods of nonparticipation in the labor force. (Contains 30 references.) (JOW)

  19. Economic analysis of small-scale fuel alcohol plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, J.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    To plan Department of Energy support programs, it is essential to understand the fundamental economics of both the large industrial size plants and the small on-farm size alcohol plants. EG and G Idaho, Inc., has designed a 25 gallon per hour anhydrous ethanol plant for the Department of Energy's Alcohol Fuels Office. This is a state-of-the-art reference plant, which will demonstrate the cost and performance of currently available equipment. The objective of this report is to examine the economics of the EG and G small-scale alcohol plant design and to determine the conditions under which a farm plant is a financially sound investment. The reference EG and G Small-Scale Plant is estimated to cost $400,000. Given the baseline conditions defined in this report, it is calculated that this plant will provide an annual after-tax of return on equity of 15%, with alcohol selling at $1.62 per gallon. It is concluded that this plant is an excellent investment in today's market, where 200 proof ethanol sells for between $1.80 and $2.00 per gallon. The baseline conditions which have a significant effect on the economics include plant design parameters, cost estimates, financial assumptions and economic forecasts. Uncertainty associated with operational variables will be eliminated when EG and G's reference plant begins operation in the fall of 1980. Plant operation will verify alcohol yield per bushel of corn, labor costs, maintenance costs, plant availability and by-product value.

  20. An Analysis of the College's Economic Impact, 1997-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Fred H.

    This is the 15th annual study of the 5-year (1997-2002) economic impact of Pellissippi State Technical Community College, Tennessee, on the Knox and Blount County area. The study measures the direct impact of the college on the community in terms of business volume, employment, and individual income. The study does not include data pertaining to…

  1. Behavioral Economic Analysis of Cue-elicited Craving for Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    MacKillop, James; O’Hagen, Sean; Lisman, Stephen A.; Murphy, James G.; Ray, Lara A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Craving as a motivational determinant of drug use remains controversial because of ambiguous empirical findings. A behavioral economic approach may clarify the nature of craving, theorizing that subjective craving functionally reflects an acute increase in a drug’s value. The current study tested this hypothesis via a multidimensional assessment of alcohol demand over the course of an alcohol cue reactivity procedure. Method Heavy drinkers (n = 92) underwent exposures to neutral (water) cues followed by personalized alcohol cues. Participants were assessed for craving, alcohol demand, affect, and salivation following each exposure. Findings Alcohol versus neutral cues significantly increased craving and multiple behavioral economic measures of the relative value of alcohol, including alcohol consumption under conditions of zero cost (intensity), maximum expenditure on alcohol (Omax), persistence in drinking to higher prices (breakpoint) and proportionate price insensitivity (normalized Pmax). Craving was significantly correlated with demand measures at levels ranging from .21 – .43. Conclusions These findings support the potential utility of a behavioral economic approach to understanding the role of environmental stimuli in alcohol-related decision making. Specifically, they suggest that the behavioral economic indices of demand may provide complementary motivational information that is related to though not entirely redundant with measures of subjective craving. PMID:20626376

  2. AN ENERGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    There is a strong linear dependence of economic activity as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) on both the fossil fuel energy and the total emergy consumed by nations. Conceptual models of global and regional environmental systems were developed to examine the factors c...

  3. Economic impact analysis of transit investments: Guidebook for practitioners. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cervero, R.; Aschauer, D.

    1998-12-01

    This report, Economic Impact Analysis of Transit Investments: Guidebook for Practitioners, will be of interest to transportation economists and other analysts to assist them in selecting methods to conduct economic impact analyses of transit investments. Although the primary goal of public transportation investments is to improve mobility, economic benefits are also important to transit investment decisions. Consequently, it is important that reliable and defensible analytic methods are used to support decisionmaking.

  4. Economic analysis of model validation for a challenge problem

    DOE PAGES

    Paez, Paul J.; Paez, Thomas L.; Hasselman, Timothy K.

    2016-02-19

    It is now commonplace for engineers to build mathematical models of the systems they are designing, building, or testing. And, it is nearly universally accepted that phenomenological models of physical systems must be validated prior to use for prediction in consequential scenarios. Yet, there are certain situations in which testing only or no testing and no modeling may be economically viable alternatives to modeling and its associated testing. This paper develops an economic framework within which benefit–cost can be evaluated for modeling and model validation relative to other options. The development is presented in terms of a challenge problem. Asmore » a result, we provide a numerical example that quantifies when modeling, calibration, and validation yield higher benefit–cost than a testing only or no modeling and no testing option.« less

  5. Southern New Mexico low temperature geothermal resource economic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Carol L.; Whittier, Jack; Witcher, James C.; Schoenmackers, Rudi

    1990-08-01

    An economic evaluation of three low-temperature geothermal sites in New Mexico were performed. A hypothetical geothermal system was designed to supply sufficient energy to satisfy thermal loads for one, four, ten, and fifteen acre commercial greenhouses. Geothermal sites were evaluated to identify the important infrastructure requirements. Capital and operating costs were estimated. Annual levelized costs were calculated for the provision of hot water and fresh water for each site. Geothermal costs were compared with annual levelized costs for a natural gas system to supply the equivalent thermal load. Calculated results indicate that geothermal systems may be competitive with natural gas for larger installations. It is not economically attractive to develop a small geothermal system because the initial capital costs are not recovered with reduced operating costs, relative to natural gas.

  6. Techno-economic analysis of decentralized biomass processing depots.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S; Tumuluru, Jaya S; Jacobson, Jacob J; Cafferty, Kara G; Hansen, Jason K; Kenney, Kevin; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Bals, Bryan

    2015-10-01

    Decentralized biomass processing facilities, known as biomass depots, may be necessary to achieve feedstock cost, quantity, and quality required to grow the future U.S. bioeconomy. In this paper, we assess three distinct depot configurations for technical difference and economic performance. The depot designs were chosen to compare and contrast a suite of capabilities that a depot could perform ranging from conventional pelleting to sophisticated pretreatment technologies. Our economic analyses indicate that depot processing costs are likely to range from ∼US$30 to US$63 per dry metric tonne (Mg), depending upon the specific technology implemented and the energy consumption for processing equipment such as grinders and dryers. We conclude that the benefits of integrating depots into the overall biomass feedstock supply chain will outweigh depot processing costs and that incorporation of this technology should be aggressively pursued. PMID:26196421

  7. Energy/economic model analysis. Livermore energy policy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. B.

    1980-06-01

    The results of a study done by the Energy and Resources Planning Group of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) for the Gas Research Institute (GRI) using the LLL Economic Modeling System (EMS) are described. The purpose was to allow GRl to evaluate the appropriateness of their continued use of an energy model and, at the same time, for them to gain a better understanding of the consequences of current or proposed GRI supported research and development.

  8. Commentary on Crowley et al.'s research priorities for economic analysis of prevention.

    PubMed

    Caulkins, Jonathan P

    2014-12-01

    Economic theory provides a textbook ideal for how to conduct efficiency analysis that determines optimal resource allocation. The real world is not, however, an ideal place. This article suggests that common sense should be allowed to temper zealous commitment to textbook ideals. The spirit and the process of economic evaluation may be as important as the "final answer" expressed as a summary statistic.

  9. Why Economic Analysis of Health System Improvement Interventions Matters

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Edward Ivor; Marquez, Lani

    2016-01-01

    There is little evidence to direct health systems toward providing efficient interventions to address medical errors, defined as an unintended act of omission or commission or one not executed as intended that may or may not cause harm to the patient but does not achieve its intended outcome. We believe that lack of guidance on what is the most efficient way to reduce medical errors and improve the quality of health-care limits the scale-up of health system improvement interventions. Challenges to economic evaluation of these interventions include defining and implementing improvement interventions in different settings with high fidelity, capturing all of the positive and negative effects of the intervention, using process measures of effectiveness rather than health outcomes, and determining the full cost of the intervention and all economic consequences of its effects. However, health system improvement interventions should be treated similarly to individual medical interventions and undergo rigorous economic evaluation to provide actionable evidence to guide policy-makers in decisions of resource allocation for improvement activities among other competing demands for health-care resources. PMID:27781204

  10. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved

  11. Economic analysis of nutrition interventions for chronic disease prevention: methods, research, and policy.

    PubMed

    Wong, John B; Coates, Paul M; Russell, Robert M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Schuttinga, James A; Bowman, Barbara A; Peterson, Sarah A

    2011-09-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about the economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or healthcare policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and US regulatory, policy, and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development.

  12. Energy Storage Technical and Economic Analysis Program. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    The DOE Energy Storage program over the last several years has evaluated a large number of energy storage technologies, developed promising technologies, and successfully transferred new technologies to the private sector. In FY 1985 specific tasks involved in this area included: Battery Systems Requirements Analysis, Statistical Analysis of Battery Failures, and Research Needs for Corrosion Control and Prevention in Energy Conservation Systems. Battery cost analysis, R and D planning, and technology transfer/market analysis are also reported.

  13. Status Report on Modeling and Analysis of Small Modular Reactor Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J; Hale, Richard Edward; Moses, Rebecca J

    2013-04-01

    This report describes the work performed to generate the model for SMR economic analysis. The model is based on the G4-ECONS calculation tool developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF).

  14. Initial Economic Analysis of Utility-Scale Wind Integration in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes an analysis, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in May 2010, of the economic characteristics of a particular utility-scale wind configuration project that has been referred to as the 'Big Wind' project.

  15. The economics of project analysis: Optimal investment criteria and methods of study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scriven, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Insight is provided toward the development of an optimal program for investment analysis of project proposals offering commercial potential and its components. This involves a critique of economic investment criteria viewed in relation to requirements of engineering economy analysis. An outline for a systems approach to project analysis is given Application of the Leontief input-output methodology to analysis of projects involving multiple processes and products is investigated. Effective application of elements of neoclassical economic theory to investment analysis of project components is demonstrated. Patterns of both static and dynamic activity levels are incorporated.

  16. A Time-Trend Economic Analysis of Cancer Drug Trials

    PubMed Central

    Browman, George P.; Hoch, Jeffrey S.; Kovacic, Laurel; Peacock, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Scientific advances have led to the discovery of novel treatments with high prices. The cost to publicly fund high-cost drugs may threaten the sustainability of drug budgets in different health care systems. In oncology, there are concerns that health-benefit gains are diminishing over time and that the economic evidence to support funding decisions is too limited. Methods. To assess the additional costs and benefits gained from oncology drugs over time, we used treatment protocols and efficacy results from U.S. Food and Drug Administration records to calculate cost-effectiveness ratios for drugs approved to treat first- and second-line metastatic or advanced breast, colorectal, and non-small cell lung cancer during the years 1994–2013. We assessed reimbursement recommendations reached by health technology assessment agencies in the U.K., Australia, and Canada. Results. Cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated for 50 drugs approved by the U.S. regulator. The more recent approvals were often based on surrogate efficacy outcomes and had extremely high costs, often triple the costs of drugs approved in previous years. Over time, the effectiveness gains have increased for some cancer indications; however, for other indications (non-small cell lung and second-line colorectal cancer), the magnitude of gains in effectiveness decreased. Reimbursement recommendations for drugs with the highest cost-effectiveness ratios were the most inconsistent. Conclusion. Evaluation of the clinical benefits that oncology drugs offer as a function of their cost has become highly complex, and for some clinical indications, health benefits are diminishing over time. There is an urgent need for better economic evidence from oncology drug trials and systematic processes to inform funding decisions. Implications for Practice: High-cost oncology drugs may threaten the ability of health care systems to provide access to promising new drugs for patients. In order to make better

  17. Economic analysis of wind-powered crop drying. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in crop drying. Drying of corn, soybeans, rice, peanuts, tobacco, and dehydrated alfalfa were addressed.

  18. Techno-economic analysis of lignocellulosic ethanol: A review.

    PubMed

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Dauriat, Arnaud

    2010-07-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol is expected to be commercialised during the next decade as renewable energy for transport. Competiveness with first generation bioethanol and with gasoline is commonly considered in techno-economic analyses for commercial stage. Several existing reviews conclude about the high spread of current and projected production costs of lignocellulosic ethanol due to the significant differences in assumptions concerning the following factors: composition and cost of feedstock, process design, conversion efficiency, valorisation of co-products, and energy conservation. Focusing on the studies in the United States of America and in Europe, the present review investigates the different natures of the techno-economic evaluations during the development process of the supply chain i.e., standard costing with respect to Value Engineering, and Target Costing based on the projected market price. The paper highlights the significant contribution of feedstock to the lignocellulosic ethanol production cost and the need to consider competition between different uses for resources. It is recommended the use of a value-based approach that considers sustainability characteristics and potential competition for resources complementarily to Target Costing and Value Engineering.

  19. [Comparison Analysis of Economic and Engineering Control of Industrial VOCs].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-fei; Liu, Chang-xin; Cheng, Jie; Hao, Zheng-ping; Wang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollutant has become China's major air pollutant in key urban areas like sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. It is mainly produced from industry sectors, and engineering control is one of the most important reduction measures. During the 12th Five-Year Plan, China decides to invest 40 billion RMB to build pollution control projects in key industry sectors with annual emission reduction of 605 000 t x a(-1). It shows that China attaches a great importance to emission reduction by engineering projects and highlights the awareness of engineering reduction technologies. In this paper, a macroeconomic model, namely computable general equilibrium model, (CGE model) was employed to simulate engineering control and economic control (imposing environmental tax). We aim to compare the pros and cons of the two reduction policies. Considering the economic loss of the whole country, the environmental tax has more impacts on the economy system than engineering reduction measures. We suggest that the central government provides 7 500 RMB x t(-1) as subsidy for enterprises in industry sectors to encourage engineering reduction.

  20. Systemic Risk Analysis on Reconstructed Economic and Financial Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimini, Giulio; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Gabrielli, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We address a fundamental problem that is systematically encountered when modeling real-world complex systems of societal relevance: the limitedness of the information available. In the case of economic and financial networks, privacy issues severely limit the information that can be accessed and, as a consequence, the possibility of correctly estimating the resilience of these systems to events such as financial shocks, crises and cascade failures. Here we present an innovative method to reconstruct the structure of such partially-accessible systems, based on the knowledge of intrinsic node-specific properties and of the number of connections of only a limited subset of nodes. This information is used to calibrate an inference procedure based on fundamental concepts derived from statistical physics, which allows to generate ensembles of directed weighted networks intended to represent the real system—so that the real network properties can be estimated as their average values within the ensemble. We test the method both on synthetic and empirical networks, focusing on the properties that are commonly used to measure systemic risk. Indeed, the method shows a remarkable robustness with respect to the limitedness of the information available, thus representing a valuable tool for gaining insights on privacy-protected economic and financial systems.

  1. Systemic Risk Analysis on Reconstructed Economic and Financial Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cimini, Giulio; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Gabrielli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We address a fundamental problem that is systematically encountered when modeling real-world complex systems of societal relevance: the limitedness of the information available. In the case of economic and financial networks, privacy issues severely limit the information that can be accessed and, as a consequence, the possibility of correctly estimating the resilience of these systems to events such as financial shocks, crises and cascade failures. Here we present an innovative method to reconstruct the structure of such partially-accessible systems, based on the knowledge of intrinsic node-specific properties and of the number of connections of only a limited subset of nodes. This information is used to calibrate an inference procedure based on fundamental concepts derived from statistical physics, which allows to generate ensembles of directed weighted networks intended to represent the real system—so that the real network properties can be estimated as their average values within the ensemble. We test the method both on synthetic and empirical networks, focusing on the properties that are commonly used to measure systemic risk. Indeed, the method shows a remarkable robustness with respect to the limitedness of the information available, thus representing a valuable tool for gaining insights on privacy-protected economic and financial systems. PMID:26507849

  2. Energy generation from cotton gin trash: an economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lacewell, R.D.; Taylor, C.R.; Hiler, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    This study consists of economic analyses of electric power generation and low-Btu (British thermal unit) gas generation from cotton gin trash. Both analyses consider the use of a large gin, sized at 40,000 bales per year. A fluidized-bed combustor is used to produce the low Btu gas and in conjunction with a boiler and turbine to produce electricity. For this case study, the consideration of economic feasibility involves the saving of the cost of energy not purchased, the sale of surplus electricity, and the saving of the cost of gin trash disposal eliminated; all are results of on-site energy generation. Electricity requirements will be satisfied, and waste heat will be used for cotton drying. The savings that would result from these two measures total about $126,000 (based on a 300,000 Btu per bale requirement for cotton drying with natural gas priced at $2.50 per thousand cubic feet and electricity priced at 4 cents per kWh). (MCW)

  3. Highly stereoselective generation of complex oxy-bicyclic scaffolds via an atom-economic Pd(II)-catalyzed hydroalkynylation, isomerization and Diels-Alder cycloaddition sequence.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ruwei; Chen, Ke; Deng, Qiulin; Yang, Jianjun; Zhang, Lixiong

    2014-02-21

    An atom-economic tandem Pd(II)-catalyzed hydroalkynylation, alkyne-allene isomerization, and Diels-Alder cycloaddition is reported. The reaction employs readily available starting substrates, proceeds in a highly ordered fashion, features high regio- and stereoselectivity, and tolerates a wide range of functionality and structural motifs, thus offering an attractive strategy for producing new molecular complexity and diversity from easily available starting materials. A mechanistic study with density functional theoretical calculations was conducted to rationalize the observed stereoselectivity.

  4. Solar Electric Generating System II finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dohner, J.L.; Anderson, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    On June 2, 1992, Landers` earthquake struck the Solar Electric Generating System II, located in Daggett, California. The 30 megawatt power station, operated by the Daggett Leasing Corporation (DLC), suffered substantial damage due to structural failures in the solar farm. These failures consisted of the separation of sliding joints supporting a distribution of parabolic glass mirrors. At separation, the mirrors fell to the ground and broke. It was the desire of the DLC and the Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and to redesign these joints so that, in the event of future quakes, costly breakage will be avoided. To accomplish this task, drawings of collector components were developed by the STDAC, from which a detailed finite element computer model of a solar collector was produced. This nonlinear dynamic model, which consisted of over 8,560 degrees of freedom, underwent model reduction to form a low order nonlinear dynamic model containing only 40 degrees of freedom. This model was then used as a design tool to estimate joint dynamics. Using this design tool, joint configurations were modified, and an acceptable joint redesign determined. The results of this analysis showed that the implementation of metal stops welded to support shafts for the purpose of preventing joint separation is a suitable joint redesign. Moreover, it was found that, for quakes of Landers` magnitude, mirror breakage due to enhanced vibration in the trough assembly is unlikely.

  5. Economic Analysis of a Postulated space Tourism Transportation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Allan S.

    2002-01-01

    Design concepts and associated costs were defined for a family of launch vehicles supporting a space tourism endeavor requiring the weekly transport of space tourists to and from an Earth- orbiting facility. The stated business goal for the Space Tourist Transportation System (STTS) element of the proposed commercial space venture was to transport and return ~50 passengers a week to LEO at a cost of roughly 50 K per seat commencing in 2005. This paper summarizes the economic analyses conducted within a broader Systems Engineering study of the postulated concept. Parametric costs were derived using TransCostSystems' (TCS) Cost Engineering Handbook, version 7. Costs were developed as a function of critical system characteristics and selected business scenarios. Various economic strategies directed toward achieving a cost of ~50 K per seat were identified and examined. The study indicated that with a `nominal' business scenario, the initial cost for developing and producing a fully reusable, 2-stage STTS element for a baseline of 46-passengers was about 15.5 B assuming a plausible `commercialization factor' of 0.333. The associated per-seat ticket cost was ~890 K, more than an order of magnitude higher than desired. If the system is enlarged to 104 passengers for better efficiency, the STTS initial cost for the nominal business scenario is increased to about 19.8 B and the per-seat ticket cost is reduced to ~530 K. It was concluded that achieving the desired ticket cost of 50 K per seat is not feasible unless the size of the STTS, and therefore of the entire system, is substantially increased. However, for the specified operational characteristics, it was shown that a system capacity of thousands of passengers per week is required. This implies an extremely high total system development cost, which is not very realistic as a commercial venture, especially in the proposed time frame. These results suggested that ambitious commercial space ventures may have to rely on

  6. User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Coal, Natural Gas, and Wind: The Expanded Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model (JEDI II); Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we examine the impacts of building new coal, gas, or wind plants in three states: Colorado, Michigan, and Virginia. Our findings indicate that local/state economic impacts are directly related to the availability and utilization of local industries and services to build and operate the power plant. For gas and coal plants, the economic benefit depends significantly on whether the fuel is obtained from within the state, out of state, or some combination. We also find that the taxes generated by power plants can have a significant impact on local economies via increased expenditures on public goods.

  7. Economic solvency in the context of violence against women: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, Heidi; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this concept analysis is to define economic solvency in the context of violence against women. Poverty, or lack of resources, is often discussed as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. The concept of economic solvency, which may be a protective factor for women, is less often discussed and not well defined. Databases searched for the analysis included EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed and Gender Watch. The Rodgers evolutionary method was used to perform the concept analysis. A total of 134 articles were retrieved, using the specified search terms 'economic solvency and women', 'economic self-reliance and women' and 'economic self-sufficiency and women'. Articles were included if they were peer reviewed, contained the keywords with sufficient context to determine the author's intended meaning, and focused on women only or contrasted men to women. Thirty-five articles were used in the concept analysis. The definition of economic solvency drawn from the concept analysis is: a long-term state that occurs when there is societal structure that supports gender equity and external resources are available and can be used by a woman who has necessary human capital, sustainable employment and independence. Just as poverty and violence are cyclical, so are economic solvency and empowerment of women. To decrease women's risk of intimate partner violence around the world and further improve the status of women, we recommend continued research on economic solvency, including the individual, family, community and societal resources required to obtain economic solvency and the human capital characteristics needed for sustainability.

  8. Uncertainty analysis and global sensitivity analysis of techno-economic assessments for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhang-Chun; Zhenzhou, Lu; Zhiwen, Liu; Ningcong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    There are various uncertain parameters in the techno-economic assessments (TEAs) of biodiesel production, including capital cost, interest rate, feedstock price, maintenance rate, biodiesel conversion efficiency, glycerol price and operating cost. However, fewer studies focus on the influence of these parameters on TEAs. This paper investigated the effects of these parameters on the life cycle cost (LCC) and the unit cost (UC) in the TEAs of biodiesel production. The results show that LCC and UC exhibit variations when involving uncertain parameters. Based on the uncertainty analysis, three global sensitivity analysis (GSA) methods are utilized to quantify the contribution of an individual uncertain parameter to LCC and UC. The GSA results reveal that the feedstock price and the interest rate produce considerable effects on the TEAs. These results can provide a useful guide for entrepreneurs when they plan plants.

  9. Uncertainty analysis and global sensitivity analysis of techno-economic assessments for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhang-Chun; Zhenzhou, Lu; Zhiwen, Liu; Ningcong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    There are various uncertain parameters in the techno-economic assessments (TEAs) of biodiesel production, including capital cost, interest rate, feedstock price, maintenance rate, biodiesel conversion efficiency, glycerol price and operating cost. However, fewer studies focus on the influence of these parameters on TEAs. This paper investigated the effects of these parameters on the life cycle cost (LCC) and the unit cost (UC) in the TEAs of biodiesel production. The results show that LCC and UC exhibit variations when involving uncertain parameters. Based on the uncertainty analysis, three global sensitivity analysis (GSA) methods are utilized to quantify the contribution of an individual uncertain parameter to LCC and UC. The GSA results reveal that the feedstock price and the interest rate produce considerable effects on the TEAs. These results can provide a useful guide for entrepreneurs when they plan plants. PMID:25459861

  10. Ecosystems, ecological restoration, and economics: does habitat or resource equivalency analysis mean other economic valuation methods are not needed?

    PubMed

    Shaw, W Douglass; Wlodarz, Marta

    2013-09-01

    Coastal and other area resources such as tidal wetlands, seagrasses, coral reefs, wetlands, and other ecosystems are often harmed by environmental damage that might be inflicted by human actions, or could occur from natural hazards such as hurricanes. Society may wish to restore resources to offset the harm, or receive compensation if this is not possible, but faces difficult choices among potential compensation projects. The optimal amount of restoration efforts can be determined by non-market valuation methods, service-to-service, or resource-to-resource approaches such as habitat equivalency analysis (HEA). HEA scales injured resources and lost services on a one-to-one trade-off basis. Here, we present the main differences between the HEA approach and other non-market valuation approaches. Particular focus is on the role of the social discount rate, which appears in the HEA equation and underlies calculations of the present value of future damages. We argue that while HEA involves elements of economic analysis, the assumption of a one-to-one trade-off between lost and restored services sometimes does not hold, and then other non-market economic valuation approaches may help in restoration scaling or in damage determination.

  11. Behavioral economic analysis of demand for fuel in North America.

    PubMed

    Reed, Derek D; Partington, Scott W; Kaplan, Brent A; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research clearly indicates that human behavior is contributing to climate change, notably, the use of fossil fuels as a form of energy for everyday behaviors. This dependence on oil in North America has led to assertions that the current level of demand is the social equivalent to an "addiction." The purpose of this study was to apply behavioral economic demand curves-a broadly applicable method of evaluating relative reinforcer efficacy in behavioral models of addiction-to North American oil consumption to examine whether such claims of oil addiction are warranted. Toward this end, we examined government data from the United States and Canada on per capita energy consumption for transportation and oil prices between 1995 and 2008. Our findings indicate that consumption either persisted or simultaneously increased despite sharp increases in oil price per barrel over the past decade.

  12. Impact of climate on energy sector in economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, H.E.; LeDuc, S.K.

    1981-12-01

    Assessments of economic conditions by region or sector attempt to include relevant climatic variability through residual adjustment techniques. There is no direct consideration of climatic fluctuations. Three recent severe winters combined with the increasing price of energy have intensified the need to quantify the interaction of climate with the energy sector of the economy. This paper presents examples of the uses of climatic data by utilities, public service commissions and the NOAA Center for Environmental Assessment Services to determine econoclimatic energy relationships at the local, state, regional and national levels. A technique based on the linear relationships between heating degree days and natural gas consumption for space heating is used to quantify the interaction of climate and prices on gas consumption. This provides regional estimates of the response of gas consumption to degree days and price.

  13. Rankine engine solar power generation. I - Performance and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gossler, A. A.; Orrock, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a computer simulation of the performance of a solar flat plate collector powered electrical generation system are presented. The simulation was configured to include locations in New Mexico, North Dakota, Tennessee, and Massachusetts, and considered a water-based heat-transfer fluid collector system with storage. The collectors also powered a Rankine-cycle boiler filled with a low temperature working fluid. The generator was considered to be run only when excess solar heat and full storage would otherwise require heat purging through the collectors. All power was directed into the utility grid. The solar powered generator unit addition was found to be dependent on site location and collector area, and reduced the effective solar cost with collector areas greater than 400-670 sq m. The sites were economically ranked, best to worst: New Mexico, North Dakota, Massachusetts, and Tennessee.

  14. An economic analysis on optical Ethernet in the access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Hwi; Nam, Dohyun; Yoo, Gunil; Kim, WoonHa

    2004-04-01

    Nowadays, Broadband service subscribers have increased exponentially and have almost saturated in Korea. Several types of solutions for broadband service applied to the field. Among several types of broadband services, most of subscribers provided xDSL service like ADSL or VDSL. Usually, they who live in an apartment provided Internet service by Ntopia network as FTTC structure that is a dormant network in economical view at KT. Under competitive telecom environment for new services like video, we faced with needing to expand or rebuild portions of our access networks, are looking for ways to provide any service that competitors might offer presently or in the near future. In order to look for new business model like FTTH service, we consider deploying optical access network. In spite of numerous benefits of PON until now, we cannot believe that PON is the best solution in Korea. Because we already deployed optical access network of ring type feeder cable and have densely population of subscribers that mainly distributed inside 6km from central office. So we try to utilize an existing Ntopia network for FTTH service under optical access environment. Despite of such situations, we try to deploy PON solution in the field as FTTC or FTTH architecture. Therefore we analyze PON structure in comparison with AON structure in order to look for optimized structure in Korea. At first, we describe the existing optical access networks and network architecture briefly. Secondly we investigate the cost of building optical access networks by modeling cost functions on AON and PON structure which based on Ethernet protocol, and analyze two different network architectures according to different deployment scenarios: Urban, small town, rural. Finally we suggest the economic and best solution with PON structure to optimize to optical access environment of KT.

  15. Subfield profitability analysis reveals an economic case for cropland diversification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, E.; McNunn, G. S.; Schulte, L. A.; Bonner, I. J.; Muth, D. J.; Babcock, B. A.; Sharma, B.; Heaton, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Public agencies and private enterprises increasingly desire to achieve ecosystem service outcomes in agricultural systems, but are limited by perceived conflicts between economic and ecosystem service goals and a lack of tools enabling effective operational management. Here we use Iowa—an agriculturally homogeneous state representative of the Maize Belt—to demonstrate an economic rationale for cropland diversification at the subfield scale. We used a novel computational framework that integrates disparate but publicly available data to map ˜3.3 million unique potential management polygons (9.3 Mha) and reveal subfield opportunities to increase overall field profitability. We analyzed subfield profitability for maize/soybean fields during 2010-2013—four of the most profitable years in recent history—and projected results for 2015. While cropland operating at a loss of US 250 ha-1 or more was negligible between 2010 and 2013 at 18 000-190 000 ha (<2% of row-crop land), the extent of highly unprofitable land increased to 2.5 Mha, or 27% of row-crop land, in the 2015 projection. Aggregation of these areas to the township level revealed ‘hotspots’ for potential management change in Western, Central, and Northeast Iowa. In these least profitable areas, incorporating conservation management that breaks even (e.g., planting low-input perennials), into low-yielding portions of fields could increase overall cropland profitability by 80%. This approach is applicable to the broader region and differs substantially from the status quo of ‘top-down’ land management for conservation by harnessing private interest to align profitability with the production of ecosystem services.

  16. Economic Analysis of Nitrate Source Reductions in California Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Howitt, R.; Rosenstock, T.; Harter, T.; Pettygrove, S. G.; Dzurella, K.; Lund, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    We present an analytical approach to assess the economic impact of improving nitrogen management practices in California agriculture. We employ positive mathematical programming to calibrate crop production to base input information. The production function representation is a nested constant elasticity of substitution with two nests: one for applied water and one for applied nitrogen. The first nest accounts for the tradeoffs between irrigation efficiency and capital investments in irrigation technology. The second nest represents the tradeoffs between nitrogen application efficiency and the marginal costs of improving nitrogen efficiency. In the production function nest, low elasticities of substitution and water and nitrogen stress constraints keep agricultural crop yields constant despite changes in nitrogen management practices. We use the Tulare Basin, and the Salinas Valley in California's Central Valley and Central Coast respectively as our case studies. Preliminary results show that initial reductions of 25% in nitrogen loads to groundwater may not impose large costs to agricultural crop production as substitution of management inputs results in only small declines in net revenue from farming and total land use. Larger reductions in the nitrogen load to groundwater of 50% imposes larger marginal costs for better nitrogen management inputs and reductions in the area of lower valued crops grown in the study areas. Despite the shortage of data on quantitative effects of improved nitrogen efficiency; our results demonstrate the potential of combining economic and agronomic data into a model that can reflect differences in cost and substitutabilty in nitrogen application methods, that can be used to reduce the quantity of nitrogen leaching into groundwater.

  17. Hestian Hermeneutics: A Lens of Analysis for Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia J.

    Feminist and women scholars in all disciplines have challenged the traditional masculist "lens of analysis" and have sought to bring into focus the "missing text" of female experience. This paper proposes an alternative to gender-bound lens of analysis because either or both masculist and feminist lenses are too limited to focus adequately on the…

  18. The Potential for Human Resources and Economic Growth in a Declining Local Community, A Socio-Economic Study of the Johnstown, Pennsylvania Economy, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Louis; And Others

    The data provided in the second volume of this two-volume report are interpreted within the context of the social and economic problems identified in the first volume. With its lack of diversified industry, Johnstown, Pennsylvania was found to have the revenue problems typical of a depressed economy, accentuated by a decline in markets for its…

  19. Market and economic analysis of residential photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabors, R. D.

    1982-06-01

    The overall structure of a project to evaluate the U.S. residential photovoltaic market or markets is reviewed and experience obtained before cuts in federal funding for the project were reduced is summarized. Topics covered include residential worth analysis, (including retrofit applications); evaluation of presently available regional, econometric models which could be used to project housing stocks; and the analysis of retrofit potential for residential photovoltaic power systems given available roof area.

  20. The FT-IR spectrometric analysis of the changes of polyphenol oxidase II secondary structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chunhua; Dai, Ya; Liu, Qingliang; Xie, Yongshu; Xu, Xiaolong

    2003-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase II is a novel protein purified from tobacco, which acts as a key role in plant defense system. From the analysis of FT-IR spectrums, Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD) spectrums and second-derivative spectrums of PPO II at different pH and peroxide PPO II adduct, the secondary structure fractions are analyzed. PPO II at low pH (pH=3.0) and peroxide PPO II adduct almost keep the same secondary structure of native PPO II. The percentages of β-turn and random coil increase rapidly and the percentages of α-helix and anti-parallel β-sheet decrease rapidly at high pH (pH=10.0) comparing with that of native PPO II. All these conclusions are proved by the secondary structure calculations of circular dichroism spectrums in different states.

  1. An economic analysis of unilateral refusals to license intellectual  property

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Richard J.; Shapiro, Carl

    1996-01-01

    The intellectual property laws in the United States provide the owners of intellectual property with discretion to license the right to use that property or to make or sell products that embody the intellectual property. However, the antitrust laws constrain the use of property, including intellectual property, by a firm with market power and may place limitations on the licensing of intellectual property. This paper focuses on one aspect of antitrust law, the so-called “essential facilities doctrine,” which may impose a duty upon firms controlling an “essential facility” to make that facility available to their rivals. In the intellectual property context, an obligation to make property available is equivalent to a requirement for compulsory licensing. Compulsory licensing may embrace the requirement that the owner of software permit access to the underlying code so that others can develop compatible application programs. Compulsory licensing may undermine incentives for research and development by reducing the value of an innovation to the inventor. This paper shows that compulsory licensing also may reduce economic efficiency in the short run by facilitating the entry of inefficient producers and by promoting licensing arrangements that result in higher prices. PMID:8917489

  2. Milk production systems in Central Uganda: a farm economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Garcia, Otto; Balikowa, David; Kiconco, Doris; Hemme, Torsten; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2008-05-01

    The Ugandan dairy sector is developing rapidly over recent years and is dominated by small-scale farmers owning more than 90 percent of the national cattle population. Due to market forces and higher competition for production factors, milk production systems are intensifying, necessitating proper understanding of the new production tendencies. Three intensive and four extensive production systems were identified and analysed, using TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculations model). The results show that the production systems are very different in many respects but share similar development trends. Whereas intensive systems use graded animals and invest heavily into feeding, buildings and machinery, extensive systems use local breeds and invest minimally. Total cost of milk production falls with increasing herd size, while dairy returns vary among farms from 18 to 35 USD/100 Kg of milk. All systems make an economic profit, except the intensive one-cow farm, which heavily employs family resources in dairying. Due to better management of resources and access to inputs and markets, dairy farming closer to urban areas and using improved breeds is highly profitable, especially with larger herd sizes. Stakeholders should favour such practices as well as others which can improve productivity, especially in African countries where traditional systems dominate dairying.

  3. Analysis of xylosyltransferase II binding to the anticoagulant heparin

    SciTech Connect

    Casanova, Javier Carrera; Ambrosius, Michael; Kuhn, Joachim; Kleesiek, Knut; Goetting, Christian

    2009-05-22

    The key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of glycosaminoglycan production are represented by the human xylosyltransferase I and its isoform II (XylT-I and XylT-II). The glycosaminoglycan heparin interacts with a variety of proteins, thereby regulating their activities, also those of xylosyltransferases. The identification of unknown amino acids responsible for heparin-binding of XylT-II was addressed in this study. Thus, six XylT-II fragments were designed as fusion proteins with MBP and we received soluble and purified MBP/XylT-II from Escherichia coli. Heparin-binding studies showed that all fragments bound with low affinity to heparin. Prolonging of XylT-II fragments did not account for a cooperative effect of multiple heparin-binding motifs and in turn for a stronger heparin-binding. Sequence alignment and surface polarity plot led to the identification of two highly positively charged Cardin-Weintraub motifs with surface accessibility, resulting in combination with short clusters of basic amino acids for strong heparin-binding of native xylosyltransferases.

  4. Full-scale phosphorus recovery from digested wastewater sludge in Belgium - part II: economic opportunities and risks.

    PubMed

    Geerts, Sam; Marchi, Adrien; Weemaes, Marjoleine

    2015-01-01

    One of the options to recycle phosphorus (P) in the wastewater sector is to recover it as struvite crystals from digested sludge. Measurements on a full-scale demonstration plant in Leuven, Belgium, yielded a first indication of the profitability of struvite recovery, in function of different variables such as incoming PO(4)(3-) concentration, MgCl₂dosing, improved dewaterability, etc. An uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was carried out. Although possible improvement in sludge dewaterability when recovering struvite from digested sludge has a positive economic amortization effect, it is at the same time the largest source of financial risk. A theoretical exercise showed that for struvite recovery from centrate, uncertainty would be lower, and the largest sensitivity would be attributed to ingoing PO(4)(3-) concentration. Although struvite recovery from digested sludge is riskier, it is an investment with potentially a higher return than investment in struvite recovery from centrate. The article provides information for possible financial incentive schemes to support P-recovery.

  5. Economic Analysis of the Leveled Cost of Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Gustavo; Ramirez, J. Ramon; Palacios, Javier C.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear option is currently a cost competitive option due to among other things the high natural gas prices volatility. Currently, the overnight cost for a new nuclear power plant is estimated between 1200 and 1600 USD/kW with an output power between 1100 and 1600 MWe, construction time, from first concrete to commercial operation, is about five years as it has been demonstrated in the last reactors built in Asia (e.g. Japan and China). In this paper a leveled electricity cost analysis is performed to compared different scenarios of electricity generation using combined cycles by using natural gas and nuclear power stations. A nuclear reactor leveled cost analysis for several overnight costs is performed. Also a sensitivity analysis for construction time and capacity factors is offered. The scenarios considered comprise three different discount rates, 5%, 8% and 10%. (authors)

  6. Sensitivity analysis for handling uncertainty in an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Limwattananon, Supon

    2014-05-01

    To meet updated international standards, this paper revises the previous Thai guidelines for conducting sensitivity analyses as part of the decision analysis model for health technology assessment. It recommends both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to handle uncertainty of the model parameters, which are best represented graphically. Two new methodological issues are introduced-a threshold analysis of medicines' unit prices for fulfilling the National Lists of Essential Medicines' requirements and the expected value of information for delaying decision-making in contexts where there are high levels of uncertainty. Further research is recommended where parameter uncertainty is significant and where the cost of conducting the research is not prohibitive. PMID:24964700

  7. Economics definitions, methods, models, and analysis procedures for Homeland Security applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Loose, Verne William; Vargas, Vanessa N.; Smith, Braeton J.; Warren, Drake E.; Downes, Paula Sue; Eidson, Eric D.; Mackey, Greg Edward

    2010-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the types of economic methodologies and models used by Sandia economists in their consequence analysis work for the National Infrastructure Simulation & Analysis Center and other DHS programs. It describes the three primary resolutions at which analysis is conducted (microeconomic, mesoeconomic, and macroeconomic), the tools used at these three levels (from data analysis to internally developed and publicly available tools), and how they are used individually and in concert with each other and other infrastructure tools.

  8. Military construction program economic analysis manual: Text and appendixes: Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This manual enables the US Air Force to comprehensively and systematically analyze alternative approaches to meeting its military construction requirements. The manual includes step-by-step procedures for completing economic analyses for military construction projects, beginning with determining if an analysis is necessary. Instructions and a checklist of the tasks involved for each step are provided; and examples of calculations and illustrations of completed forms are included. The manual explains the major tasks of an economic analysis, including identifying the problem, selecting realistic alternatives for solving it, formulating appropriate assumptions, determining the costs and benefits of the alternatives, comparing the alternatives, testing the sensitivity of major uncertainties, and ranking the alternatives. Appendixes are included that contain data, indexes, and worksheets to aid in performing the economic analyses. For reference, Volume 2 contains sample economic analyses that illustrate how each form is filled out and that include a complete example of the documentation required. 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Economic analysis of residential and commercial solar heating and hot water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Two distinct methods of analysis were used to evaluate both taxable and nontaxable applications of solar heating and hot water systems in residential and commercial buildings. The case flow analyses provide insight into the short and long term effects of a solar investment on the budget of the solar energy system purchaser while the return on investment analyses provide an appropriate method of measuring the attractiveness of a solar investment in comparison to alternative long term investments. The sensitivity of the results on the numerous variables in the economic analyses is shown. Maps provide a graphic display of the results of the economic analysis of typical systems using Federal and state tax credits and average state conventional fuel costs for each system type. Conclusions based on the economic analyses performed and a discussion of the present status of the data required for the complete economic evaluation of solar energy systems are summarized.

  10. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  11. Conducting On-Farm Animal Research: Procedures & Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Pervaiz; Knipscheer, Hendrik C.

    This book is intended to give animal scientists elementary tools to perform on-farm livestock analysis and to provide crop-oriented farming systems researchers with methods for conducting animal research. Chapter 1 describes farming systems research as a systems approach to on-farm animal research. Chapter 2 outlines some important…

  12. Economic Risk Analysis: Using Analytical and Monte Carlo Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Brendan R.; Hickner, Michael A.; Barna, Bruce A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and instructional use of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet template that facilitates analytical and Monte Carlo risk analysis of investment decisions. Discusses a variety of risk assessment methods followed by applications of the analytical and Monte Carlo methods. Uses a case study to illustrate use of the spreadsheet tool…

  13. An Economic Analysis of Occupational Licensure. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayack, Elton

    To examine the hypothesis that occupational licensure is primarily a restrictive device to protect those licensed from competition, analysis focused on the licensure of non-professional occupations in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, covering 36 licenses issued by the three states for 12 occupations (e.g. electricians, barbers,…

  14. An Economical Method for Static Headspace Enrichment for Arson Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen, Bjorn

    2010-01-01

    Static headspace analysis of accelerants from suspected arsons is accomplished by placing an arson sample in a sealed container with a carbon strip suspended above the sample. The sample is heated, cooled to room temperature, and then the organic components are extracted from the carbon strip with carbon disulfide followed by gas chromatography…

  15. Mekong malaria. II. Update of malaria, multi-drug resistance and economic development in the Mekong region of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Socheat, Doung; Denis, Mey Bouth; Fandeur, Thierry; Zhang, Zaixing; Yang, Henglin; Xu, Jianwei; Zhou, Xingwu; Phompida, Samlane; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaxay; Lwin, Saw; Lin, Khin; Win, Than; Than, Soe Win; Htut, Ye; Prajakwong, Somsak; Rojanawatsirivet, Chaiporn; Tipmontree, Rungrawee; Vijaykadga, Saowanit; Konchom, Supawadee; Cong, Le Dinh; Thien, Nong Thi; Thuan, Le Khanh; Ringwald, Pascal; Schapira, Allan; Christophel, Eva; Palmer, Kevin; Arbani, P R; Prasittisuk, Chusak; Rastogi, R; Monti, Feliciano; Urbani, Carlo; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Hoyer, Stefan; Otega, Leonard; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Songcharoen, Sakda; Meert, Jean-Pierre; Gay, Frederick; Crissman, Lawrence; Cho-Min-Naing; Chansuda, Wongsrichanalai; Darasri, Dowreang; Indaratna, Kaemthong; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Chuprapawan, Sirichai; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Supavej, Suvanee; Kidson, Chev; Baimai, Visut; Yimsamran, Surapon; Buchachart, Kasinee

    2003-01-01

    In an expansion of the first Mekong Malaria monograph published in 1999, this second monograph updates the malaria database in the countries comprising the Mekong region of Southeast Asia. The update adds another 3 years' information to cover cumulative data from the 6 Mekong countries (Cambodia, China/Yunnan, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam) for the six-year period 1999-2001. The objective is to generate a more comprehensive regional perspective in what is a global epicenter of drug resistant falciparum malaria, in order to improve malaria control on a regional basis in the context of social and economic change. The further application of geographical information systems (GIS) to the analysis has underscored the overall asymmetry of disease patterns in the region, with increased emphasis on population mobility in disease spread. Of great importance is the continuing expansion of resistance of P. falciparum to antimalarial drugs in common use and the increasing employment of differing drug combinations as a result. The variation in drug policy among the 6 countries still represents a major obstacle to the institution of region-wide restrictions on drug misuse. An important step forward has been the establishment of 36 sentinel sites throughout the 6 countries, with the objective of standardizing the drug monitoring process; while not all sentinel sites are fully operational yet, the initial implementation has already given encouraging results in relation to disease monitoring. Some decreases in malaria mortality have been recorded. The disease patterns delineated by GIS are particularly instructive when focused on inter-country distribution, which is where more local collaborative effort can be made to rationalize resource utilization and policy development. Placing disease data in the context of socio-economic trends within and between countries serves to further identify the needs and the potential for placing emphasis on resource rationalization on a

  16. What is the value of graduate education? An economic analysis of Army Medical Department Graduate Programs.

    PubMed

    Bewley, Lee W; Broom, Kevin D; Bonica, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Current and forward-looking resource constraints within the federal health system and general health market are generating questions of fiscal or economic viability of a number of programs including graduate education. This article establishes a framework for assessing economic value among graduate health-related programs within the Army Medical Department. The findings of this analysis indicated that the programs evaluated in the study generate positive economic value based on a market-based valuation of extrinsic benefits compared to extrinsic costs for conducting graduate education within each of the programs. Suggestions for future research and policy application are also discussed. PMID:24488866

  17. Water, energy, and economic development towards an integrated regional policy analysis system: Selected background essays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, R. W.

    1980-12-01

    Background essays for the project: water, energy, and economic development towards an integrated regional policy analysis system are reported. A write up for a preliminary systems dynamic model is included. The following topics are addressed: (1) planning theory; (2) institutional impacts of energy systems (the problem of scale); (3) regional incidence of investment and welfare; (4) innovation in the public sector; and (5) description of a preliminary model for the study of interactions among water, energy, and economic development.

  18. Analysis of the effectiveness of industrial R and D. [costs and impact on economic growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, W. H.; Kleiman, H. S.; Moore, J. L.; Triplett, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    The criteria used by private industry in evaluating and selecting proposed research and development projects for implementation, and also in determining which R and D facilities are to be acquired were investigated. Conceptual and practical issues inherent in any quantitative analysis of the contribution of R and D to economic growth were identified in order to assist NASA in developing approaches for analzying the economic implication of its own R and D efforts.

  19. ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGIES TO TREAT MERCURY AND DISPOSE IN A WASTE CONTAINMENT FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is intended to describe an economic and environmental analysis of a number of technologies for the treatment and disposal of elemental mercury. The analysis considers three treatment technologies that convert elemental mercury into a stable form of mercury. The techno...

  20. An Economic Wellbeing Index for the Spanish Provinces: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murias, Pilar; Martinez, Fidel; De Miguel, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the estimation of a synthetic economic wellbeing index using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The DEA is a multidimensional technique that has its origins in efficiency analysis, but its usage within the social indicators context is particularly appropriate. It allows the researcher to take advantage of the inherent…

  1. Economic-Analysis Program for a Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    Prices and profits of alternative designs compared. Objective of Land Mobile Satellite Service Finance Report (LMSS) program is to provide means for comparing alternative designs of LMSS systems. Program is Multiplan worksheet program. Labels used in worksheet chosen for satellite-based cellular communication service, but analysis not restricted to such cases. LMSS written for interactive execution with Multiplan (version 1.2) and implemented on IBM PC series computer operating under DOS (version 2.11).

  2. Theoretical analysis of BLM system for HLS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Kai; Li, Yu-Xiong; Li, Wei-Min; He, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Hefei Light Source (HLS) is being upgraded to HLS II. Its emittance will be much lower than before, therefore the Touschek scattering will increase significantly and become the dominant factor of beam loss. So it is necessary to build a new beam loss monitoring (BLM) system that, in contrast to the old one, is able to obtain the quantity and position information of lost electrons. This information is useful in the commissioning, troubleshooting, and beam lifetime studying for HLS II. This paper analyzes the distribution features of different kinds of lost electrons, introduces the operation parameters of the new machine and discusses how to choose proper monitoring positions. Based on these comprehensive analyses, a new BLM system for HLS II is proposed.

  3. PIV Analysis of Cavitation Flow Characteristics of He II

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, K.; Murakami, M.

    2006-04-27

    In the present experimental study cavitation phenomena in both He I and He II flows were investigated through the application of the PIV technique and visual observation under the saturated vapor pressure condition. The cavitation flow was generated in the downstream regions of a Venturi channel and a converging jet nozzle driven by a contracting metal bellows. It is seen that cavitation inception is a kind of stochastic process and has definite temperature dependence. The spatial distribution of the cavitation bubble velocity is measured by using the PIV technique. Some differences in the cavitating flow pattern and the void fraction are found between He II and He I cavitating flows. The PIV result indicates that the void fraction for He II flow is larger than that for He I flow.

  4. An ICF-CY-Based Content Analysis of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Kara; Coster, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and its version for children and youth (ICF-CY), has been increasingly adopted as a system to describe function and disability. A content analysis of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II) was conducted to examine congruence with the functioning…

  5. Ex post power economic analysis of record of decision operational restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam.

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-07-31

    On October 9, 1996, Bruce Babbitt, then-Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed the Record of Decision (ROD) on operating criteria for the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD). Criteria selected were based on the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) Alternative as described in the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Arizona, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (Reclamation 1995). These restrictions reduced the operating flexibility of the hydroelectric power plant and therefore its economic value. The EIS provided impact information to support the ROD, including an analysis of operating criteria alternatives on power system economics. This ex post study reevaluates ROD power economic impacts and compares these results to the economic analysis performed prior (ex ante) to the ROD for the MLFF Alternative. On the basis of the methodology used in the ex ante analysis, anticipated annual economic impacts of the ROD were estimated to range from approximately $15.1 million to $44.2 million in terms of 1991 dollars ($1991). This ex post analysis incorporates historical events that took place between 1997 and 2005, including the evolution of power markets in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council as reflected in market prices for capacity and energy. Prompted by ROD operational restrictions, this analysis also incorporates a decision made by the Western Area Power Administration to modify commitments that it made to its customers. Simulated operations of GCD were based on the premise that hourly production patterns would maximize the economic value of the hydropower resource. On the basis of this assumption, it was estimated that economic impacts were on average $26.3 million in $1991, or $39 million in $2009.

  6. An Economic Analysis of Generation IV Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J S; Lamont, A D; Rothwell, G S; Smith, C F; Greenspan, E; Brown, N; Barak, A

    2002-03-01

    This report examines some conditions necessary for Generation IV Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) to be competitive in the world energy market. The key areas that make nuclear reactors an attractive choice for investors are reviewed, and a cost model based on the ideal conditions is developed. Recommendations are then made based on the output of the cost model and on conditions and tactics that have proven successful in other industries. The Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS), a specific SMR design concept, is used to develop the cost model and complete the analysis because information about the ENHS design is readily available from the University of California at Berkeley Nuclear Engineering Department. However, the cost model can be used to analyze any of the current SMR designs being considered. On the basis of our analysis, we determined that the nuclear power industry can benefit from and SMRs can become competitive in the world energy market if a combination of standardization and simplification of orders, configuration, and production are implemented. This would require wholesale changes in the way SMRs are produced, manufactured and regulated, but nothing that other industries have not implemented and proven successful.

  7. Sorption selectivity of birnessite particle edges: a d-PDF analysis of Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) sorption by δ-MnO2 and ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    van Genuchten, Case M; Peña, Jasquelin

    2016-08-10

    Birnessite minerals (layer-type MnO2), which bear both internal (cation vacancies) and external (particle edges) metal sorption sites, are important sinks of contaminants in soils and sediments. Although the particle edges of birnessite minerals often dominate the total reactive surface area, especially in the case of nanoscale crystallites, the metal sorption reactivity of birnessite particle edges remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the sorption selectivity of birnessite particle edges by combining Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) adsorption isotherms at pH 5.5 with surface structural characterization by differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) analysis. We compared the sorption reactivity of δ-MnO2 to that of the nanomineral, 2-line ferrihydrite, which exhibits only external surface sites. Our results show that, whereas Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) both bind to birnessite layer vacancies, only Pb(ii) binds extensively to birnessite particle edges. For ferrihydrite, significant Pb(ii) adsorption to external sites was observed (roughly 20 mol%), whereas Cd(ii) sorption was negligible. These results are supported by bond valence calculations that show comparable degrees of saturation of oxygen atoms on birnessite and ferrihydrite particle edges. Therefore, we propose that the sorption selectivity of birnessite edges follows the same order of that reported previously for ferrihydrite: Ca(ii) < Cd(ii) < Ni(ii) < Zn(ii) < Cu(ii) < Pb(ii). PMID:27183472

  8. ENGINEERING ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A PROGRAM FOR ARTIFICIAL GROUNDWATER RECHARGE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric G.; Bredehoeft, John D.

    1984-01-01

    This study describes and demonstrates two alternate methods for evaluating the relative costs and benefits of artificial groundwater recharge using percolation ponds. The first analysis considers the benefits to be the reduction of pumping lifts and land subsidence; the second considers benefits as the alternative costs of a comparable surface delivery system. Example computations are carried out for an existing artificial recharge program in Santa Clara Valley in California. A computer groundwater model is used to estimate both the average long term and the drought period effects of artificial recharge in the study area. Results indicate that the costs of artificial recharge are considerably smaller than the alternative costs of an equivalent surface system. Refs.

  9. California-Wyoming Grid Integration Study: Phase 1 -- Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Schwabe, P.; Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.; Brinkman, G.; Paduru, A.; Diakov, V.; Hand, M.

    2014-03-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of two different renewable energy options for the California energy market between 2017 and 2020: 12,000 GWh per year from new California in-state renewable energy resources; and 12,000 GWh per year from Wyoming wind delivered to the California marketplace. Either option would add to the California resources already existing or under construction, theoretically providing the last measure of power needed to meet (or to slightly exceed) the state's 33% renewable portfolio standard. Both options have discretely measurable differences in transmission costs, capital costs (due to the enabling of different generation portfolios), capacity values, and production costs. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the two different options to provide additional insight for future planning.

  10. High-throughput engineering and analysis of peptide binding to class II MHC.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Boder, Eric T

    2010-07-27

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) proteins govern stimulation of adaptive immunity by presenting antigenic peptides to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Many allelic variants of MHC-II exist with implications in peptide presentation and immunity; thus, high-throughput experimental tools for rapid and quantitative analysis of peptide binding to MHC-II are needed. Here, we present an expression system wherein peptide and MHC-II are codisplayed on the surface of yeast in an intracellular association-dependent manner and assayed by flow cytometry. Accordingly, the relative binding of different peptides and/or MHC-II variants can be assayed by genetically manipulating either partner, enabling the application of directed evolution approaches for high-throughput characterization or engineering. We demonstrate the application of this tool to map the side-chain preference for peptides binding to HLA-DR1 and to evolve novel HLA-DR1 mutants with altered peptide-binding specificity.

  11. Neural network-assisted ("NNA") analysis of cervical smears: pooled effectiveness results and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mango; Radensky

    1998-07-01

    Objective: To determine the sensitivity of cervical cancer smear screening with neural network-assisted ("NNA") rescreening.Methods: The Papnet system of NNA analysis of cervical smears has been in clinical use worldwide for over 3 years and has been the subject of over 22 published manuscripts reporting on data from over 202,000 smears. This investigation reviewed the results of these studies and classified each study according to study design using a systematic protocol based on reference validation, diagnostic threshold for abnormal, and outcome metric. This classification taxonomy allowed for weighted (based on number of cases in each study) pooling of studies for each study design class. The pooled effectiveness metrics were used to derive the sensitivity of cervical cancer screening with NNA rescreening, using a baseline unassisted screening sensitivity of 85%. Other effectiveness metrics determined by this analysis include NNA's sensitivity as a primary screener, comparisons with primary unassisted screening, and comparisons of NNA rescreening and unassisted rescreening.Results: Analyses of the weighted, pooled mean estimates for each of the principal outcome metrics indicate the sensitivity of cervical cancer screening with NNA ranges from 90% to 99%; most pooled estimates fall in the range of 97-99%. An economic analysis using the APL-based "Cervical Cancer Screen" computer model developed by Eddy (Eddy DM. Screening for cervical cancer. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:214-26) and these effectiveness estimates as inputs showed that NNA analysis involves an accepted level of resource expenditure (approximately $40,000 per life year saved) when added to unassisted screening on a triennial basis.Conclusion: The sensitivity of cervical cancer screening with NNA rescreening using the Papnet system yields sensitivities in excess of 90% and approaching 99%.

  12. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 2: Tug concepts analysis. Part 1: Overall approach and data generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of space tug operations is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) data base for orbit injection stages, (2) data base for reusable space tug, (3) performance equations, (4) data integration and interpretation, (5) tug performance and mission model accomodation, (6) total program cost, (7) payload analysis, (8) computer software, and (9) comparison of tug concepts.

  13. Improving SFR Economics through Innovations from Thermal Design and Analysis Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Per F. Peterson

    2008-06-01

    Achieving economic competitiveness as compared to LWRs and other Generation IV (Gen-IV) reactors is one of the major requirements for large-scale investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants. Advances in R&D for advanced SFR fuel and structural materials provide key long-term opportunities to improve SFR economics. In addition, other new opportunities are emerging to further improve SFR economics. This paper provides an overview on potential ideas from the perspective of thermal hydraulics to improve SFR economics. These include a new hybrid loop-pool reactor design to further optimize economics, safety, and reliability of SFRs with more flexibility, a multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle to improve plant thermal efficiency and reduce safety related overnight and operation costs, and modern multi-physics thermal analysis methods to reduce analysis uncertainties and associated requirements for over-conservatism in reactor design. This paper reviews advances in all three of these areas and their potential beneficial impacts on SFR economics.

  14. Modeling imbalanced economic recovery following a natural disaster using input-output analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Syddall, Mark; Guan, Dabo

    2013-10-01

    Input-output analysis is frequently used in studies of large-scale weather-related (e.g., Hurricanes and flooding) disruption of a regional economy. The economy after a sudden catastrophe shows a multitude of imbalances with respect to demand and production and may take months or years to recover. However, there is no consensus about how the economy recovers. This article presents a theoretical route map for imbalanced economic recovery called dynamic inequalities. Subsequently, it is applied to a hypothetical postdisaster economic scenario of flooding in London around the year 2020 to assess the influence of future shocks to a regional economy and suggest adaptation measures. Economic projections are produced by a macro econometric model and used as baseline conditions. The results suggest that London's economy would recover over approximately 70 months by applying a proportional rationing scheme under the assumption of initial 50% labor loss (with full recovery in six months), 40% initial loss to service sectors, and 10-30% initial loss to other sectors. The results also suggest that imbalance will be the norm during the postdisaster period of economic recovery even though balance may occur temporarily. Model sensitivity analysis suggests that a proportional rationing scheme may be an effective strategy to apply during postdisaster economic reconstruction, and that policies in transportation recovery and in health care are essential for effective postdisaster economic recovery.

  15. Choosing among alternative recycling systems: An economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stedge, G.D. . Dept. of Agricultural and Applied Economics); Halstead, J.M. . Dept. of Resource Economics and Development)

    1994-03-01

    Due to the increasing concern over the disposal of municipal solid waste, municipalities have begun searching for ways to recycle a larger percentage to their waste stream at a reasonable cost. This report examines bag-based recycling. This system, due to its efficient collection and separation method, and its convenience, should be able to capture a larger share of the waste stream at a lower cost per metric ton than conventional recycling programs. Using a case study approach, a bag-based program is compared with a curbside-sort program and a drop-off program. Using time/motion analysis, a garbage composition study, a household survey, and the recording of set-out rates of a sample of dwelling units, the efficiency of the three programs was defined and estimated. The efficiency of the bag-based system was also estimated for three areas with distinct household densities. Although the curbside-sort program was found to divert a larger percentage of the residential waste stream than the bag-based system, the cost per metric ton of the bag-based system is so much lower that it clearly is the most efficient of the three programs. The drop-off program had a very low cost per metric ton; however, if failed to divert the minimum acceptable level of the waste stream. The bag-based system proved to be more efficient in areas with higher household densities.

  16. Financing prevention: opportunities for economic analysis across the translational research cycle.

    PubMed

    Crowley, D Max; Jones, Damon

    2016-03-01

    Prevention advocates often make the case that preventive intervention not only improves public health and welfare but also can save public resources. Increasingly, evidence-based policy efforts considering prevention are focusing on how programs can save taxpayer resources from reduced burden on health, criminal justice, and social service systems. Evidence of prevention's return has begun to draw substantial investments from the public and private sector. Yet, translating prevention effectiveness into economic impact requires specific economic analyses to be employed across the stages of translational research. This work discusses the role of economic analysis in prevention science and presents key translational research opportunities to meet growing demand for estimates of prevention's economic and fiscal impact.

  17. Techno-economic and Monte Carlo probabilistic analysis of microalgae biofuel production system.

    PubMed

    Batan, Liaw Y; Graff, Gregory D; Bradley, Thomas H

    2016-11-01

    This study focuses on the characterization of the technical and economic feasibility of an enclosed photobioreactor microalgae system with annual production of 37.85 million liters (10 million gallons) of biofuel. The analysis characterizes and breaks down the capital investment and operating costs and the production cost of unit of algal diesel. The economic modelling shows total cost of production of algal raw oil and diesel of $3.46 and $3.69 per liter, respectively. Additionally, the effects of co-products' credit and their impact in the economic performance of algal-to-biofuel system are discussed. The Monte Carlo methodology is used to address price and cost projections and to simulate scenarios with probabilities of financial performance and profits of the analyzed model. Different markets for allocation of co-products have shown significant shifts for economic viability of algal biofuel system.

  18. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  19. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  20. Techno-economic and Monte Carlo probabilistic analysis of microalgae biofuel production system.

    PubMed

    Batan, Liaw Y; Graff, Gregory D; Bradley, Thomas H

    2016-11-01

    This study focuses on the characterization of the technical and economic feasibility of an enclosed photobioreactor microalgae system with annual production of 37.85 million liters (10 million gallons) of biofuel. The analysis characterizes and breaks down the capital investment and operating costs and the production cost of unit of algal diesel. The economic modelling shows total cost of production of algal raw oil and diesel of $3.46 and $3.69 per liter, respectively. Additionally, the effects of co-products' credit and their impact in the economic performance of algal-to-biofuel system are discussed. The Monte Carlo methodology is used to address price and cost projections and to simulate scenarios with probabilities of financial performance and profits of the analyzed model. Different markets for allocation of co-products have shown significant shifts for economic viability of algal biofuel system. PMID:27475330

  1. Financing prevention: opportunities for economic analysis across the translational research cycle.

    PubMed

    Crowley, D Max; Jones, Damon

    2016-03-01

    Prevention advocates often make the case that preventive intervention not only improves public health and welfare but also can save public resources. Increasingly, evidence-based policy efforts considering prevention are focusing on how programs can save taxpayer resources from reduced burden on health, criminal justice, and social service systems. Evidence of prevention's return has begun to draw substantial investments from the public and private sector. Yet, translating prevention effectiveness into economic impact requires specific economic analyses to be employed across the stages of translational research. This work discusses the role of economic analysis in prevention science and presents key translational research opportunities to meet growing demand for estimates of prevention's economic and fiscal impact. PMID:27012262

  2. Economic analysis and assessment of syngas production using a modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hakkwan; Parajuli, Prem B.; Yu, Fei; Columbus, Eugene P.

    2011-08-10

    Economic analysis and modeling are essential and important issues for the development of current feedstock and process technology for bio-gasification. The objective of this study was to develop an economic model and apply to predict the unit cost of syngas production from a micro-scale bio-gasification facility. An economic model was programmed in C++ computer programming language and developed using a parametric cost approach, which included processes to calculate the total capital costs and the total operating costs. The model used measured economic data from the bio-gasification facility at Mississippi State University. The modeling results showed that the unit cost of syngas production was $1.217 for a 60 Nm-3 h-1 capacity bio-gasifier. The operating cost was the major part of the total production cost. The equipment purchase cost and the labor cost were the largest part of the total capital cost and the total operating cost, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that labor costs rank the top as followed by equipment cost, loan life, feedstock cost, interest rate, utility cost, and waste treatment cost. The unit cost of syngas production increased with the increase of all parameters with exception of loan life. The annual cost regarding equipment, labor, feedstock, waste treatment, and utility cost showed a linear relationship with percent changes, while loan life and annual interest rate showed a non-linear relationship. This study provides the useful information for economic analysis and assessment of the syngas production using a modeling approach.

  3. An analysis of the coma of comet Bennett 1970 II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheimer, M.

    1978-01-01

    Brightness profiles for emission features of H2O(+) in comet Bennett 1970 II are analyzed, taking into account the role of chemical reactions in the coma. By comparing the rates of transport processes derived from the brightness profile with known chemical rate constants, upper limits on the abundances and production rates of H2O, CH4, NH3, and other possible coma constituents are found. The derived upper limit on the H2O production rate inside 10 to the 4th power km is less than the observed OH production rate averaged over the coma of this comet. It is concluded that the brightness profiles of H2O(+) and OH in comet Bennett 1970 II which are presently available are inconsistent with production of OH primarily by photodissociation of H2O molecules sublimating from the nucleus. The existence of an extended source of H2O is not ruled out.

  4. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biochemical Scenarios for Production of Cellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kazi, F. K.; Fortman, J.; Anex, R.; Kothandaraman, G.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Dutta, A.

    2010-06-01

    A techno-economic analysis on the production of cellulosic ethanol by fermentation was conducted to understand the viability of liquid biofuel production processes within the next 5-8 years. Initially, 35 technologies were reviewed, then a two-step down selection was performed to choose scenarios to be evaluated in a more detailed economic analysis. The lignocellulosic ethanol process was selected because it is well studied and portions of the process have been tested at pilot scales. Seven process variations were selected and examined in detail. Process designs were constrained to public data published in 2007 or earlier, without projecting for future process improvements. Economic analysis was performed for an 'nth plant' (mature technology) to obtain total investment and product value (PV). Sensitivity analysis was performed on PV to assess the impact of variations in process and economic parameters. Results show that the modeled dilute acid pretreatment process without any downstream process variation had the lowest PV of $3.40/gal of ethanol ($5.15/gallon of gasoline equivalent) in 2007 dollars. Sensitivity analysis shows that PV is most sensitive to feedstock and enzyme costs.

  5. Some reciprocal roles between behavior analysis and institutional economics in post-darwinian science

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Sigrid S.

    1985-01-01

    Behavior analysis and institutional economics are viewed as having common origins in the early 20th century effort to benefit from the conceptual revolution spurred by Darwin's synthesis. Institutional economics, initiated by Thorstein Veblen, appears to have failed to develop a progressive scientific technology, while behavior analysis has done so. It is suggested that institutional economics has been held back by lack of a synthesizing scientific mechanism that elucidates the relation between technological and ceremonial processes, the two cultural forces described by Veblen. The theory of institutional economist C. E. Ayres, built on Veblen's distinction, is used to clarify the concepts of technological and ceremonial processes for the reader. An analysis of the behavioral processes that might underlie the cultural processes described by Veblen/Ayres suggests that the experimental analysis of behavior has provided concepts that might function as a synthesizing mechanism for the social sciences and, in particular, institutional economics. The Veblen/Ayres dichotomy, now seen in terms of underlying behavioral processes, is used to examine the field of behavior analysis in terms of its origins, its relation to psychology and its current state. The paper concludes with a few practical suggestions as to how behavior analysts might work to enhance survival. PMID:22478617

  6. Economic analysis of U.S. ethanol expansion issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Malika

    The dependency of the U.S. economy on crude oil imported from politically unstable countries, escalating energy demand world wide, growing nationwide environmental consciousness, and the Renewable Fuels Standards (RFS) government mandates are some of the primary factors that have provided a favorable environment for the growth and development of the U.S. ethanol industry. The first essay derives decision rules for a discrete-time dynamic hedging model in a multiple commodity framework under expected utility maximization and basis risk. It compares hedging performance of three types of hedging models, namely constant hedging, time-varying static hedging model and the new dynamic hedging rule derived in this study. Findings show that natural gas futures contracts were effective instruments for hedging ethanol spot price risk before March, 2005, when ethanol futures trading was initiated on the CBOT. However, post-March, 2005, corn and ethanol futures contracts proved to be efficient hedging instruments. Results also indicate that ethanol producers may effectively decrease variance of cumulative cash flows by hedging using ethanol, natural gas and corn futures prices using the traditional techniques. The study concludes that using the new dynamic hedge model in a three period and two commodity set up, producers can effectively reduce variance of cumulative cash flow by 13.2% as compared to the 'no hedge' scenario. In my second essay, I use choice based, conjoint analysis methods to estimate consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for alternative transportation fuels in the U.S. In this study, I consider unleaded gasoline and ethanol, which may be derived from corn or three different sources of cellulosic biomass as alternative transportation fuels. Results suggest that age and household income are some of the socioeconomic variables that significantly influence consumer's choice behavior. Results indicate considerable consumer preference heterogeneity. Welfare effects are

  7. Aerothermodynamic Analysis of the Project FIRE II Afterbody Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Micheal J.; Loomis, Mark; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    35 years later, the Project FIRE II ballistic reentry to Earth at a nominal velocity of 11.4 km/s remains one of the best sources of heating data for the design of sample return capsules. The data from this flight experiment encompass both the thermochemical non-equilibrium and equilibrium flow regimes and include measurements of both radiative and total heating on the forebody and afterbody. Because of this, a number of researchers have performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the forebody of the FIRE II entry vehicle, with generally good results. In particular, Olynick et. al. coupled a Navier-Stokes solver (GIANTS) with a radiation code (NOVAR) and showed excellent agreement in surface heat transfer over the FIRE II trajectory between 1634 and 1651 seconds (77 km to 37 km). However, in most cases the primary motivation of the previous work was to understand and model the coupling between shock layer radiation and aerothermodynamics, and thus the simulations concentrated on the forebody flow only. To our knowledge there have been no prior published attempts to reproduce the afterbody heating data. However, an understanding of this data is critical to our efforts to design the next generation of Earth and planetary entry vehicles and to assess our need for additional flight data.

  8. Economic inequality and economic crisis: a challenge for social workers.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-07-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The article identifies interrelated changes in ideology, the market economy, and government policies since the mid-1970s; contrasts the political economy of this period with the preceding post-World War II decades when the trend was toward a "shared prosperity"; and shows how increased economic inequality and political consequences that undermined democracy itself contributed to the economic meltdown. The analysis has implications for the direction of social reform and for broadening the constituency of social movements in pursuit of the social work mission of social justice. How social workers can contribute to such movements and to a reduction of economic and political inequality is explored.

  9. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee. Final report and appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  10. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  11. Techno-economic analysis of advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping

    2015-09-01

    This paper evaluates the economic feasibility of an integrated production pathway combining fast pyrolysis and bio-oil gasification. The conversion process is simulated with Aspen Plus® for a 2000 metric ton per day facility. Techno-economic analysis of this integrated pathway has been conducted. A total capital investment of $510 million has been estimated and the minimum fuel selling price (MSP) is $5.59 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis shows that the MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return, fuel yield, biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital investment. Monte-Carlo simulation shows that MSP for bio-oil gasification would be more than $6/gal with a probability of 0.24, which indicates this pathway is still at high risk with current economic and technical situation.

  12. Techno-economic analysis of advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping

    2015-09-01

    This paper evaluates the economic feasibility of an integrated production pathway combining fast pyrolysis and bio-oil gasification. The conversion process is simulated with Aspen Plus® for a 2000 metric ton per day facility. Techno-economic analysis of this integrated pathway has been conducted. A total capital investment of $510 million has been estimated and the minimum fuel selling price (MSP) is $5.59 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis shows that the MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return, fuel yield, biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital investment. Monte-Carlo simulation shows that MSP for bio-oil gasification would be more than $6/gal with a probability of 0.24, which indicates this pathway is still at high risk with current economic and technical situation. PMID:25983227

  13. Breeding goals for the Kenya dual purpose goat. II. Estimation of economic values for production and functional traits.

    PubMed

    Bett, R C; Kosgey, I S; Bebe, B O; Kahi, A K

    2007-10-01

    Economic values for production traits (milk yield, MY, kg; 12-month sale weight, LW, kg; consumable meat percentage, CMP) and functional traits (doe live weight, DoWT, kg; number of kids weaned, NKW; kidding frequency, KF; kidding rate, KR, %; doe weaning rate, DoWR, %; doe survival rate, DoSR, %; post-weaning survival rate, PoSR, %; pre-weaning survival rate, PrSR, % and; residual feed intake of yearlings, RFIgamma, kg and does RFId, kg) were estimated for the Kenya Dual Purpose goat (KDPG) for systems under two bases of evaluation. The production systems included smallholder low-potential (SLP), smallholder medium-potential (SMP) and smallholder high-potential (SHP), while the bases of evaluation considered were fixed flock-size and fixed feed resource. Under both bases of evaluation, economic values were highest in SMP apart from the economic values for feed intake-related traits (RFIy and RFId). In SMP, the economic values under fixed flock-size scenario were KSh 71.61 (LW), 20.90 (MY), 45.20 (CMP), 13.68 (NKW), 3.61 (KF), 6.52 (KR), 12.39 (DoWR), 22.96 (DoSR), 22.87 (PoSR), 13.18 (PrSR), -2.76 (RFIy) and -3.00 (RFId). The corresponding economic values under fixed feed resources scenario were KSh 73.28, 29.39, 45.20, 16.91, 4.76, 9.45, 13.84, 25.67, 25.15, 16.19, -2.76 and -3.00. Generally in all production systems, economic values for most traits were higher under fixed feed resource than under fixed flock-size scenario. In all systems, the economic values for most of the traits were sensitive to changes in prices of feed, milk and meat. The positive economic values for most traits under fixed flock-size scenario and fixed feed resource indicates that a unit increase in genetic merit for the traits would have a positive effect on the profitability of the systems.

  14. Use of Data Envelopment Analysis in an Evaluation of the Efficiency of the DEEP Program for Economic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Arthur M., Jr.; Medewitz, Jeanette N.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes data from the National Assessment of Economic Education Survey using data envelopment analysis. Determines whether high school economics classes in the Developmental Economic Education Program (DEEP) produce higher achievement levels than non-DEEP classes. Calculates technical efficiency of DEEP and non-DEEP classes. Reports results…

  15. Five Thousand American Families -- Patterns of Economic Progress. Volume II: Special Studies of the First Five Year's of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, James N., Ed.

    Volume II of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics presents special studies from the matrix of data which allowed further policy relevant analysis. The ten special studies, each corresponding to a chapter in the volume, are as follows: Housing and Homeownership; Residential Mobility and Family Housing Adjustments; Modes of Travel to Work; The…

  16. Phenotype characterization and DSPP mutational analysis of three Brazilian dentinogenesis imperfecta type II families.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, A C; Santos, L J S; Paula, L M; Dong, J; MacDougall, M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform phenotype analysis and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) mutational analysis on 3 Brazilian families diagnosed with dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI-II) attending the Dental Anomalies Clinic in Brasilia, Brazil. Physical and oral examinations, as well as radiographic and histopathological analyses, were performed on 28 affected and unaffected individuals. Clinical, radiographic and histopathological analyses confirmed the diagnosis of DGI-II in 19 individuals. Pulp stones were observed in ground sections of several teeth in 2 families, suggesting that obliteration of pulp chambers and root canals results from the growth of these nodular structures. Mutational DSPP gene analysis of representative affected family members revealed 7 various non-disease-causing alterations in exons 1-4 within the dentin sialoprotein domain. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to elucidate the progression of pulpal obliteration in the DGI-II patients studied as well as the molecular basis of their disease.

  17. Economic Analysis of Nutrition Interventions for Chronic Disease Prevention: Methods, Research, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, John B.; Coates, Paul M.; Russell, Robert M.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Schuttinga, James A.; Bowman, Barbara A.; Peterson, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or health care policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and U.S. regulatory, policy and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. PMID:21884133

  18. ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGIES TO TREAT MERCURY AND DISPOSE IN A MONOFILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    If all of the chlor alkali plants in the world shut down, it is estimated that 25-30,000 metric tons of mercury would be available worldwide. This presentation is intended to describe the economic and environmental analysis of a number of technologies for the long term management...

  19. 78 FR 47317 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a loan guarantee...

  20. Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed Title: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions Topic (must choose one item from a drop-down list): Community Indicators Learning Objectives (must list 2): • What are the benefits and l...

  1. Economic Conditions and the Divorce Rate: A Time-Series Analysis of the Postwar United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Scott J.

    1985-01-01

    Challenges the belief that the divorce rate rises during prosperity and falls during economic recessions. Time-series regression analysis of postwar United States reveals small but positive effects of unemployment on divorce rate. Stronger influences on divorce rates are changes in age structure and labor-force participation rate of women.…

  2. Economic analysis of animal disease outbreaks--BSE and Bluetongue disease as examples.

    PubMed

    Gethmann, Jörn; Probst, Carolina; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of research on animal disease control, economic evaluation of control measures is rather limited in veterinary medicine. This may, on the one hand, be due to the different types of costs and refunds and the different people and organizations bearing them, such as animal holders, county, region, state or European Union, but it may also be due to the fact that economic analyses are both complex and time consuming. Only recently attention has turned towards economic analysis in animal disease control. Examples include situations, when decisions between different control measures must be taken, especially if alternatives to culling or compulsory vaccination are under discussion. To determine an optimal combination of control measures (strategy), a cost-benefit analysis should be performed. It is not necessary to take decisions only based on the financial impact, but it becomes possible to take economic aspects into account. To this end, the costs caused by the animal disease and the adopted control measures must be assessed. This article presents a brief overview of the methodological approaches used to retrospectively analyse the economic impact of two particular relevant diseases in Germany in the last few years: Blue-tongue disease (BT) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). PMID:26697715

  3. Economic analysis of animal disease outbreaks--BSE and Bluetongue disease as examples.

    PubMed

    Gethmann, Jörn; Probst, Carolina; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of research on animal disease control, economic evaluation of control measures is rather limited in veterinary medicine. This may, on the one hand, be due to the different types of costs and refunds and the different people and organizations bearing them, such as animal holders, county, region, state or European Union, but it may also be due to the fact that economic analyses are both complex and time consuming. Only recently attention has turned towards economic analysis in animal disease control. Examples include situations, when decisions between different control measures must be taken, especially if alternatives to culling or compulsory vaccination are under discussion. To determine an optimal combination of control measures (strategy), a cost-benefit analysis should be performed. It is not necessary to take decisions only based on the financial impact, but it becomes possible to take economic aspects into account. To this end, the costs caused by the animal disease and the adopted control measures must be assessed. This article presents a brief overview of the methodological approaches used to retrospectively analyse the economic impact of two particular relevant diseases in Germany in the last few years: Blue-tongue disease (BT) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

  4. Techno-economic analysis for the evaluation of three UCG synthesis gas end use approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Krawczyk, Piotr; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) enables the utilization of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable because of complex geological boundary conditions. In the present study we investigate UCG as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a synthesis gas and its application within three different utilization options. Related to geological boundary conditions and the chosen gasification agent, UCG synthesis gas composes of varying methane, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide amounts. In accordance to its calorific value, the processed UCG synthesis gas can be utilized in different manners, as for electricity generation in a combined cycle power plant or for feedstock production making use of its various chemical components. In the present study we analyze UCG synthesis gas utilization economics in the context of clean electricity generation with an integrated carbon capture and storage process (CCS) as well as synthetic fuel and fertilizer production (Kempka et al., 2010) based on a gas composition achieved during an in situ UCG trial in the Wieczorek Mine. Hereby, we also consider chemical feedstock production in order to mitigate CO2 emissions. Within a sensitivity analysis of UCG synthesis gas calorific value variations, we produce a range of capital and operational expenditure bandwidths that allow for an economic assessment of different synthesis gas end use approaches. To carry out the integrated techno-economic assessment of the coupled systems and the sensitivity analysis, we adapted the techno-economic UCG-CCS model developed by Nakaten et al. (2014). Our techno-economic modeling results demonstrate that the calorific value has a high impact on the economics of UCG synthesis gas utilization. In the underlying study, the synthesis gas is not suitable for an economic competitive electricity generation, due to the relatively low calorific value of 4.5 MJ/Nm³. To be a profitable option for electricity

  5. Spatial Analysis on Future Housing Markets: Economic Development and Housing Implications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Lizhe

    2014-01-01

    A coupled projection method combining formal modelling and other statistical techniques was developed to delineate the relationship between economic and social drivers for net new housing allocations. Using the example of employment growth in Tyne and Wear, UK, until 2016, the empirical analysis yields housing projections at the macro- and microspatial levels (e.g., region to subregion to elected ward levels). The results have important implications for the strategic planning of locations for housing and employment, demonstrating both intuitively and quantitatively how local economic developments affect housing demand. PMID:24892097

  6. Spatial analysis on future housing markets: economic development and housing implications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Lizhe

    2014-01-01

    A coupled projection method combining formal modelling and other statistical techniques was developed to delineate the relationship between economic and social drivers for net new housing allocations. Using the example of employment growth in Tyne and Wear, UK, until 2016, the empirical analysis yields housing projections at the macro- and microspatial levels (e.g., region to subregion to elected ward levels). The results have important implications for the strategic planning of locations for housing and employment, demonstrating both intuitively and quantitatively how local economic developments affect housing demand.

  7. Engineering: Economic analysis of improved heat pump performance for minimum standards development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, S. R.; Barnes, K. A.; Kelly, G. E.

    1981-07-01

    A methodology and seasonal performance data are given that could be used in the development of a reference basis for minimum efficiency standards for heat pumps that are economically justified on a life cycle basis. Criteria for economic optimization are outlined. The methodology used to computer seasonal heating and cooling performance ratings and the annual energy savings resulting from efficiency improvements, by climate region, is detailed. The interdependence between efficiency ratings in the heating and cooling modes is explored using statistical analysis. An example of the procedure for determining maximum cost effective efficiency levels is demonstrated for a 36,000 Btu/h heat pump.

  8. SAFIRE: A systems analysis code for ICF (inertial confinement fusion) reactor economics

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T.J.; Meier, W.R.; Carson, C.F.; Glasgow, B.B.

    1987-01-12

    The SAFIRE (Systems Analysis for ICF Reactor Economics) code incorporates analytical models for scaling the cost and performance of several inertial confinement fusion reactor concepts for electric power. The code allows us to vary design parameters (e.g., driver energy, chamber pulse rate, net electric power) and evaluate the resulting change in capital cost of power plant and the busbar cost of electricity. The SAFIRE code can be used to identify the most attractive operating space and to identify those design parameters with the greatest leverage for improving the economics of inertial confinement fusion electric power plants.

  9. Substance misuse prevention and economic analysis: Challenges and opportunities regarding international utility

    PubMed Central

    Guyll, Max; Spoth, Richard; Cornish, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Economic analyses of substance misuse prevention assess the intervention cost necessary to achieve a particular outcome, and thereby provide an additional dimension for evaluating prevention programming. This paper reviews several types of economic analysis, considers how they can be applied to substance misuse prevention, and discusses challenges to enhancing their international relevance, particularly their usefulness for informing policy decisions. Important first steps taken to address these challenges are presented, including the disease burden concept and the development of generalized cost-effectiveness, advances that facilitate international policy discussions by providing a common framework for evaluating health care needs and program effects. PMID:22676560

  10. Soviet Jews in the United States: an analysis of their linguistic and economic adjustment.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, B R

    1993-01-01

    "This article reviews the literature and analyzes 1980 Census data to study English language fluency and earnings among Soviet Jews [in the United States]. The literature review reveals: 1) the importance of employment and attaining premigration occupational status for self-esteem; 2) the difficulty of adjusting to the wide range of choices in the United States; 3) the greater difficulty and economic importance of learning English; and 4) the rapid linguistic and economic mobility. The multivariate analysis supports the latter two points. Soviet Jews have a difficult initial adjustment, but after five years in the United States they achieve parity in English fluency and earnings with other European immigrants, ceteris paribus."

  11. "An Economic Process for Coal Liquefaction to Liquid Fuels" SBIR Phase II -- Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguli, Partha Sarathi

    2009-02-19

    The current commercial processes for direct coal liquefaction utilize expensive backmix-flow reactor system and conventional catalysts resulting in incomplete and retrogressive reactions that produce low distillate liquid yield and high gas yield, with high hydrogen consumption. The new process we have developed, which uses a less expensive reactor system and highly active special catalysts, resulted in high distillate liquid yield, low gas yield and low hydrogen consumption. The new reactor system using the special catalyst can be operated smoothly for direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Due to high hydrogenation and hydrocracking activities of the special catalysts, moderate temperatures and high residence time in each stage of the reactor system resulted in high distillate yield in the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F range with no 650{degrees}F{sup +} product formed except for the remaining unconverted coal residue. The C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F distillate is more valuable than the light petroleum crude. Since there is no 650{degrees}F{sup +} liquid product, simple reforming and hydrotreating of the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F product will produce the commercial grade light liquid fuels. There is no need for further refinement using catalytic cracking process that is currently used in petroleum refining. The special catalysts prepared and used in the experimental runs had surface area between 40-155 m{sup 2}/gm. The liquid distillate yield in the new process is >20 w% higher than that in the current commercial process. Coal conversion in the experimental runs was moderate, in the range of 88 - 94 w% maf-coal. Though coal conversion can be increased by adjustment in operating conditions, the purpose of limiting coal conversion to moderate amounts in the process was to use the remaining unconverted coal for hydrogen production by steam reforming. Hydrogen consumption was in the range of 4.0 - 6.0 w% maf-coal. A preliminary economic analysis of the new coal liquefaction process was

  12. Propagation of economic shocks in input-output networks: A cross-country analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Martha G. Alatriste; Fagiolo, Giorgio

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates how economic shocks propagate and amplify through the input-output network connecting industrial sectors in developed economies. We study alternative models of diffusion on networks and we calibrate them using input-output data on real-world inter-sectoral dependencies for several European countries before the Great Depression. We show that the impact of economic shocks strongly depends on the nature of the shock and country size. Shocks that impact on final demand without changing production and the technological relationships between sectors have on average a large but very homogeneous impact on the economy. Conversely, when shocks change also the magnitudes of input-output across-sector interdependencies (and possibly sector production), the economy is subject to predominantly large but more heterogeneous avalanche sizes. In this case, we also find that (i) the more a sector is globally central in the country network, the larger its impact; (ii) the largest European countries, such as those constituting the core of the European Union's economy, typically experience the largest avalanches, signaling their intrinsic higher vulnerability to economic shocks.

  13. Propagation of economic shocks in input-output networks: a cross-country analysis.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Martha G Alatriste; Fagiolo, Giorgio

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates how economic shocks propagate and amplify through the input-output network connecting industrial sectors in developed economies. We study alternative models of diffusion on networks and we calibrate them using input-output data on real-world inter-sectoral dependencies for several European countries before the Great Depression. We show that the impact of economic shocks strongly depends on the nature of the shock and country size. Shocks that impact on final demand without changing production and the technological relationships between sectors have on average a large but very homogeneous impact on the economy. Conversely, when shocks change also the magnitudes of input-output across-sector interdependencies (and possibly sector production), the economy is subject to predominantly large but more heterogeneous avalanche sizes. In this case, we also find that (i) the more a sector is globally central in the country network, the larger its impact; (ii) the largest European countries, such as those constituting the core of the European Union's economy, typically experience the largest avalanches, signaling their intrinsic higher vulnerability to economic shocks. PMID:25615153

  14. Propagation of economic shocks in input-output networks: a cross-country analysis.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Martha G Alatriste; Fagiolo, Giorgio

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates how economic shocks propagate and amplify through the input-output network connecting industrial sectors in developed economies. We study alternative models of diffusion on networks and we calibrate them using input-output data on real-world inter-sectoral dependencies for several European countries before the Great Depression. We show that the impact of economic shocks strongly depends on the nature of the shock and country size. Shocks that impact on final demand without changing production and the technological relationships between sectors have on average a large but very homogeneous impact on the economy. Conversely, when shocks change also the magnitudes of input-output across-sector interdependencies (and possibly sector production), the economy is subject to predominantly large but more heterogeneous avalanche sizes. In this case, we also find that (i) the more a sector is globally central in the country network, the larger its impact; (ii) the largest European countries, such as those constituting the core of the European Union's economy, typically experience the largest avalanches, signaling their intrinsic higher vulnerability to economic shocks.

  15. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part II: design and development of place-based monitoring strategies.

    PubMed

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the United States. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Part II: Several factors affect the performance of monitoring strategies, including: measurable objectives, required precision in estimates, acceptable confidence levels of such estimates, available budget for sampling. In this paper, we develop place-based monitoring strategies based on extensive analysis of available historical water quality data (1960-1994) of 19 Iowa community water systems. These systems supply potable water to over 350,000 people. In the context of drinking water, the objective is to protect public health by utilizing monitoring resources to characterize contaminants that are detectable, and are close to exceeding health standards. A place-based monitoring strategy was developed in which contaminants were selected based on their historical occurrence, rather than their appearance on the SDWA contaminant list. In a subset of the water systems, the temporal frequency of monitoring for one ubiquitous contaminant, nitrate, was tailored to patterns in its historical occurrence and concentration. Three sampling allocation models (linear, quadratic, and cubic) based on historic patterns in peak occurrence were developed and

  16. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part II: design and development of place-based monitoring strategies.

    PubMed

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the United States. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Part II: Several factors affect the performance of monitoring strategies, including: measurable objectives, required precision in estimates, acceptable confidence levels of such estimates, available budget for sampling. In this paper, we develop place-based monitoring strategies based on extensive analysis of available historical water quality data (1960-1994) of 19 Iowa community water systems. These systems supply potable water to over 350,000 people. In the context of drinking water, the objective is to protect public health by utilizing monitoring resources to characterize contaminants that are detectable, and are close to exceeding health standards. A place-based monitoring strategy was developed in which contaminants were selected based on their historical occurrence, rather than their appearance on the SDWA contaminant list. In a subset of the water systems, the temporal frequency of monitoring for one ubiquitous contaminant, nitrate, was tailored to patterns in its historical occurrence and concentration. Three sampling allocation models (linear, quadratic, and cubic) based on historic patterns in peak occurrence were developed and

  17. Conceptualising the technical relationship of animal disease surveillance to intervention and mitigation as a basis for economic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Surveillance and intervention are resource-using activities of strategies to mitigate the unwanted effects of disease. Resources are scarce, and allocating them to disease mitigation instead of other uses necessarily involves the loss of alternative sources of benefit to people. For society to obtain the maximum benefits from using resources, the gains from disease mitigation must be compared to the resource costs, guiding decisions made with the objective of achieving the optimal net outcome. Discussion Economics provides criteria to guide decisions aimed at optimising the net benefits from the use of scarce resources. Assessing the benefits of disease mitigation is no exception. However, the technical complexity of mitigation means that economic evaluation is not straightforward because of the technical relationship of surveillance to intervention. We argue that analysis of the magnitudes and distribution of benefits and costs for any given strategy, and hence the outcome in net terms, requires that mitigation is considered in three conceptually distinct stages. In Stage I, 'sustainment', the mitigation objective is to sustain a free or acceptable status by preventing an increase of a pathogen or eliminating it when it occurs. The role of surveillance is to document that the pathogen remains below a defined threshold, giving early warning of an increase in incidence or other significant changes in risk, and enabling early response. If a pathogen is not contained, the situation needs to be assessed as Stage II, 'investigation'. Here, surveillance obtains critical epidemiological information to decide on the appropriate intervention strategy to reduce or eradicate a disease in Stage III, 'implementation'. Stage III surveillance informs the choice, timing, and scale of interventions and documents the progress of interventions directed at prevalence reduction in the population. Summary This article originates from a research project to develop a conceptual

  18. Molecular cloning, expression, and evolution analysis of type II CHI gene from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiangshan; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Guan, Hongshan; Hou, Lei; Li, Changsheng; Xia, Han; Wang, Xingjun

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) plays critical roles in plant secondary metabolism, which is important for the interaction between plants and the environment. CHI genes are widely studied in various higher plants. However, little information about CHI genes is available in peanut. Based on conservation of CHI gene family, we cloned the peanut type II CHI gene (AhCHI II) cDNA and genome sequence. The amino acid sequence of peanut CHI II was highly homologous to type II CHI from other plant species. qRT-PCR results showed that peanut CHI II is mainly expressed in roots; however, peanut CHI I is mainly expressed in tissues with high content of anthocyanin. Gene duplication and gene cluster analysis indicated that CHI II was derived from CHI I 65 million years ago approximately. Our gene structure analysis results are not in agreement with the previous hypothesis that CHI II was derived from CHI I by the insertion of an intron into the first exon. Moreover, no positive selection pressure was found in CHIs, while, 32.1 % of sites were under neutral selection, which may lead to mutation accumulation and fixation during great changes of environment.

  19. Impedance analysis of the PEP-II vacuum chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.K.; Weiland, T.

    1995-05-01

    The PEP-II high energy ring (HER) vacuum chamber consists of a copper tube with periodically spaced pumping slots. The impedance of the vacuum chamber due to the slots is analyzed. Both narrow-band and broadband impedances are considered as well as longitudinal and transverse components thereof. It is found that although the broad-band impedance is tolerable, the narrow-band impedance may exceed the instability limit given by the natural damping with no feedback system on. Traveling wave modes in the chamber are the major source of this high value narrow-band impedance. We also study the dependences of the impedance on the slot length and the geometrical cross section.

  20. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic residues in Colombia: a process simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Julián A; Moncada, Jonathan; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-07-01

    In this study a techno-economic analysis of the production of bioethanol from four lignocellusic (Sugarcane bagasse, Coffee cut-stems, Rice Husk, and Empty Fruit Bunches) residues is presented for the Colombian case. The ethanol production was evaluated using Aspen Plus and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer carrying out the simulation and the economic evaluation, respectively. Simulations included the composition of lignocellulosic residues, which was determined experimentally. It was found that empty fruit bunches presents the highest ethanol yield from a dry basis point of view (313.83 L/t), while rice husk produced less ethanol (250.56 L/t). The ethanol production cost was assessed for the standalone ethanol plant and the ethanol plant coupled with a cogeneration system. Moreover, ethanol production cost using EFB was the lowest with (0.49 US$/L) and without (0.58 US$/L) cogeneration scheme.

  1. Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  2. Techno-economic analysis of corn stover fungal fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Pimphan; Tews, Iva J.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-11-01

    This techno-economic analysis assesses the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock by fungi in order to identify promising opportunities and the research needed to achieve them. Based on literature derived data, four different ethanologen strains are considered in this study: native and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the natural pentose-fermenting yeast, Pichia stipitis and the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Organism performance and technology readiness are split into three groups: near-term (<5 years), mid-term (5-10 years) and long-term (>10 years) process deployment. Processes classified as near-term could reasonably be developed in this shorter time frame, as suggested by recent literature. Mid-term technology process models are based on lab-scale experimental data, and yields near the theoretical limit are used to estimate long-term technology goals. Further research and economic evaluation on the integrated production of chemicals and fuels in biorefineries are recommended.

  3. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic residues in Colombia: a process simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Julián A; Moncada, Jonathan; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-07-01

    In this study a techno-economic analysis of the production of bioethanol from four lignocellusic (Sugarcane bagasse, Coffee cut-stems, Rice Husk, and Empty Fruit Bunches) residues is presented for the Colombian case. The ethanol production was evaluated using Aspen Plus and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer carrying out the simulation and the economic evaluation, respectively. Simulations included the composition of lignocellulosic residues, which was determined experimentally. It was found that empty fruit bunches presents the highest ethanol yield from a dry basis point of view (313.83 L/t), while rice husk produced less ethanol (250.56 L/t). The ethanol production cost was assessed for the standalone ethanol plant and the ethanol plant coupled with a cogeneration system. Moreover, ethanol production cost using EFB was the lowest with (0.49 US$/L) and without (0.58 US$/L) cogeneration scheme. PMID:23665691

  4. Mental health, places and people: a multilevel analysis of economic inactivity and social deprivation.

    PubMed

    Fone, David L; Dunstan, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Using data on 24,975 respondents to the Welsh Health Survey 1998 aged 17-74 years, we investigated associations between individual mental health status measured using the SF-36 instrument, social class, economic inactivity and the electoral division Townsend deprivation score. In a multilevel modelling analysis, we found mental health was significantly associated with the Townsend score after adjusting for composition, and this effect was strongest in respondents who were economically inactive. Further contextual effects were shown by significant random variability in the slopes of the relation between mental health and economic inactivity at the electoral division level. Our results suggest that the places in which people live affect their mental health, supporting NHS policy that multi-agency planning to reduce inequalities in mental health status should address the wider determinants of health, as well as services for individual patients. PMID:16546698

  5. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  6. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  7. Mental health, places and people: a multilevel analysis of economic inactivity and social deprivation.

    PubMed

    Fone, David L; Dunstan, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Using data on 24,975 respondents to the Welsh Health Survey 1998 aged 17-74 years, we investigated associations between individual mental health status measured using the SF-36 instrument, social class, economic inactivity and the electoral division Townsend deprivation score. In a multilevel modelling analysis, we found mental health was significantly associated with the Townsend score after adjusting for composition, and this effect was strongest in respondents who were economically inactive. Further contextual effects were shown by significant random variability in the slopes of the relation between mental health and economic inactivity at the electoral division level. Our results suggest that the places in which people live affect their mental health, supporting NHS policy that multi-agency planning to reduce inequalities in mental health status should address the wider determinants of health, as well as services for individual patients.

  8. An economic analysis of a multi-commodity fruit and vegetable irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.D.; Eakin, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Tingey, G.L.

    1987-07-01

    Although irradiation of foods has been studied since the late 1940's and irradiation of grains and potatoes has been approved for years, only recently has the Food and Drug Administration approved irradiation of pork, fresh fruits and vegetables at doses up to 100 krad for commercial sale. A key element in commercializing irradiation technology by the food processing industry is economic viability. This paper presents an economic analysis for a multi-commodity fruit and vegetable irradiator processing apples, cherries, pears, asparagus, onions, and potatoes. Dose, throughput, and the schedule were examined. Design information and capital and operating costs for various sizes of irradiators are presented. The economics look promising, with typical costs in larger facilities in the range of a few cents per pound of product. 12 refs., 7 tabs.

  9. An economic analysis of a multi-commodity fruit and vegetable irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.D.; Eakin, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Tingey, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Although irradiation of foods has been studied since the late 1940's and irradiation of grains and potatoes has been approved for years, only recently has the Food and Drug Administration approved irradiation of pork, fresh fruits and vegetables at doses up to 100 krad for commercial sale. A key element in commercializing irradiation technology by the food processing industry is economic viability. This paper presents an economic analysis for a multi-commodity fruit and vegetable irradiator processing apples, cherries, pears, asparagus, onions, and potatoes. Dose, throughput, and the schedule were examined. Design information and capital and operating costs for various sizes of irradiators are presented. The economics look promising, with typical costs in larger facilities in the range of a few cents per pound of product.

  10. An empirical analysis of the effects of consanguineous marriages on economic development.

    PubMed

    Bildirici, Melike; Kökdener, Meltem; Ersin, Oezgür ömer

    2010-01-01

    In this study, development experiences toward economic development are investigated to provide an alternative analysis of economic development, human capital, and genetic inheritance in the light of consanguineous marriages. The countries analyzed in the study are discussed in accordance with consanguineous marriage practices and classified by their per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth. A broad range of countries are analyzed in the study. Arab countries that experienced high rates of growth in their gross national income during the twentieth century but failed to fulfill adequate development measures as reflected in the growth in national income, countries undergoing transition from tight government regulation to free market democracy, and African nations that have experienced complications in the process of development show important differences in the process of economic development. It is shown that the countries that have reached high average development within the context of per capita GDP have overcome problems integral to consanguineous marriage.

  11. Structural vibration passive control and economic analysis of a high-rise building in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongqi; Cao, Tiezhu; Ma, Liangzhe; Luo, Chaoying

    2009-12-01

    Performance analysis of the Pangu Plaza under earthquake and wind loads is described in this paper. The plaza is a 39-story steel high-rise building, 191 m high, located in Beijing close to the 2008 Olympic main stadium. It has both fluid viscous dampers (FVDs) and buckling restrained braces or unbonded brace (BRB or UBB) installed. A repeated iteration procedure in its design and analysis was adopted for optimization. Results from the seismic response analysis in the horizontal and vertical directions show that the FVDs are highly effective in reducing the response of both the main structure and the secondary system. A comparative analysis of structural seismic performance and economic impact was conducted using traditional methods, i.e., increased size of steel columns and beams and/or use of an increased number of seismic braces versus using FVD. Both the structural response and economic analysis show that using FVD to absorb seismic energy not only satisfies the Chinese seismic design code for a “rare” earthquake, but is also the most economical way to improve seismic performance both for one-time direct investment and long term maintenance.

  12. Economic analysis of complementary, alternative, and integrative medicine: considerations raised by an expert panel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An international panel of experts was convened to examine the challenges faced in conducting economic analyses of Complementary, Alternative and Integrative Medicine (CAIM). Methods A one and a half-day panel of experts was convened in early 2011 to discuss what was needed to bring about robust economic analysis of CAIM. The goals of the expert panel were to review the current state of the science of economic evaluations in health, and to discuss the issues involved in applying these methods to CAIM, recognizing its unique characteristics. The panel proceedings were audiotaped and a thematic analysis was conducted independently by two researchers. The results were then discussed and differences resolved. This manuscript summarizes the discussions held by the panel members on each theme. Results The panel identified seven major themes regarding economic evaluation that are particularly salient to determining the economics of CAIM: standardization (in order to compare CAIM with conventional therapies, the same basic economic evaluation methods and framework must be used); identifying the question being asked, the audience targeted for the results and whose perspective is being used (e.g., the patient perspective is especially relevant to CAIM because of the high level of self-referral and out-of-pocket payment); the analytic methods to be used (e.g., the importance of treatment description and fidelity); the outcomes to be measured (e.g., it is important to consider a broad range of outcomes, particularly for CAIM therapies, which often treat the whole person rather than a specific symptom or disease); costs (e.g., again because of treating the whole person, the impact of CAIM on overall healthcare costs, rather than only disease-specific costs, should be measured); implementation (e.g., highlighting studies where CAIM allows cost savings may help offset its image as an “add on” cost); and generalizability (e.g., proper reporting can enable study

  13. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  14. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report X. Economic analysis and financial plan

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The economic evaluation presented in this volume is based upon the cost estimates developed in the Phase Zero effort and an evaluation of product market values developed by the PACE Company Engineers and Consultants, Inc. All costs and revenues have been adjusted to reflect the impact of inflation, consistent with the forecast shown in Table 2.1, Page 2-19. Tax treatment reflects expert interpretation of the tax law in effect January 1981. The Marketing Analysis section is an abstract of a detailed report prepared by the PACE Company for the Breckinridge Project. It provides the reader with an understanding of the methodology used to establish product values, and identifies and interprets the effects of key variables that impact market prices. The base case economic scenario, considered the most likely to occur, anticipates that the world economic growth, as well as that of the United States, will be substantially less than that experienced during the previous twenty years. Under the scenario, major disruptions in crude oil supply will not occur. Therefore, prices in real terms at the end of this century are projected to be slightly higher than the peak price of 1981. Domestic natural gas supplies are expected to expand as a result of deregulation and increased importation of LNG. Two alternate economic scenarios are also considered. Sensitivity analysis of both alternate economic scenarios and key project variables clearly point to the market price of crude oil as the dominant economic factor determining this project's soundness. The base case forecast is considered to be not only the most likely case but one not likely to be proven optimistic. The Financial Plan section outlines provisions and presents a plan for financial management of the project.

  15. Educational Cost Analysis in Action: Case Studies for Planners -- II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Philip H.; Hallak, Jacques

    This document is the second in a series of three documents, which together contain 27 case studies on the uses of cost analysis in educational planning. The case studies are presented to help planners and administrators see how cost analysis can be used to improve the efficiency of their educational systems, or to get the best value existing…

  16. Techno-economic analysis for brewer's spent grains use on a biorefinery concept: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Mussatto, Solange I; Moncada, Jonathan; Roberto, Inês C; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-11-01

    A techno-economic analysis for use of brewer's spent grains (BSG) on a biorefinery concept for the Brazilian case is presented. Four scenarios based on different levels of heat and mass integration for the production of xylitol, lactic acid, activated carbon and phenolic acids are shown. A simulation procedure using the software Aspen Plus and experimental yields was used. Such procedure served as basis for the techno-economic and environmental assessment according to the Brazilian conditions. Full mass integration on water and full energy integration was the configuration with the best economic and environmental performance. For this case, the obtained economic margin was 62.25%, the potential environmental impact was 0.012 PEI/kg products, and the carbon footprint of the processing stage represented 0.96 kg CO2-e/kg of BSG. This result served as basis to draw recommendations on the technological, economic and environmental feasibility for implementation of such type of biorefinery in Brazil.

  17. Spectroscopic, Elemental and Thermal Analysis, and Positron Annihilation Studies on Ca(II), Sr(II), Ba(II), Pb(II), and Fe(III) Penicillin G Potassium Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, M. S.; Sharshara, T.

    2015-11-01

    The [Pb(Pin)2] · 3H2O, [M(Pin)(H2O)2(Cl)] · nH2O (M = SrII, CaII or BaII; n = 0-1), and [Fe(Pin)2(Cl)(H2O)] · H2O penicillin G potassium (Pin) complexes were synthesized and characterized using elemental analyses, molar conductivity, thermal analysis and electronic spectroscopy techniques. The positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) and Doppler broadening (DB) techniques have been employed to probe the defects and structural changes of Pin ligand and its complexes. The PAL and DB line-shape parameters were discussed in terms of the structure, molecular weight, ligand-metal molar ratio, and other properties of the Pin complexes.

  18. Executive summary of the economic analysis: technical support document for the proposed energy performance standards for consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    How the general legislative requirements were transformed into a coherent economic impact analysis is outlined. The models used in conducting the analysis are described briefly. The major impacts associated with standards are summarized, and policy assessment is discussed.

  19. Economic photoprotection in photosystem II that retains a complete light-harvesting system with slow energy traps.

    PubMed

    Belgio, Erica; Kapitonova, Ekaterina; Chmeliov, Jevgenij; Duffy, Christopher D P; Ungerer, Petra; Valkunas, Leonas; Ruban, Alexander V

    2014-07-11

    The light-harvesting antenna of higher plant photosystem II has an intrinsic capability for self-defence against intense sunlight. The thermal dissipation of excess energy can be measured as the non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. It has recently been proposed that the transition between the light-harvesting and self-defensive modes is associated with a reorganization of light-harvesting complexes. Here we show that despite structural changes, the photosystem II cross-section does not decrease. Our study reveals that the efficiency of energy trapping by the non-photochemical quencher(s) is lower than the efficiency of energy capture by the reaction centres. Consequently, the photoprotective mechanism works effectively for closed rather than open centres. This type of defence preserves the exceptional efficiency of electron transport in a broad range of light intensities, simultaneously ensuring high photosynthetic productivity and, under hazardous light conditions, sufficient photoprotection for both the reaction centre and the light-harvesting pigments of the antenna.

  20. JAEA Fatigue Analysis of EBR-II Duplex Tubing

    SciTech Connect

    J. H. Jackson; D. L. Porter; W. R. Lloyd; N. Kisohara

    2011-03-01

    Small, notched three-point bend specimens machined from duplex tubes, which were extracted from an EBR-II superheater, were fatigued through the nickel interlayer to determine propensity for crack arrest within this interlayer. Several of these specimens were fatigued in the near threshold, and steady state regimes of Paris Law behavior. Additionally, two specimens were fatigued to the edge of the nickel interlayer and then monotonically loaded. Micro-hardness profiles of the nickel interlayer were also measured. Fatigue behavior was found to be similar to previous studies in that arrest was only noted in the near threshold Paris regime (attributed to the presence of voids) and in the steady state regime exhibited an acceleration of crack growth rate through the nickel interlayer followed by a slight retardation. Monotonic loading resulted in crack branching or delamination along the interlayer. Although archival material was not available for this study, the hardness of the nickel interlayer was determined to have been lowered slightly during service by comparison to the expected hardness of a similar nickel braze prepared as specified for fabrication of these tubes.

  1. Local structure analysis of some Cu(II) theophylline complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, L.; Cozar, O.; Forizs, E.; Cr ăciun, C.; Ristoiu, D.; B ălan, C.

    1999-10-01

    The CuT 2L 2·2H 2O complexes [T=Theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine); L=NH 3, n-propylamine (npa), 2-aminoethanol (ae)] were prepared and investigated by ESR spectroscopy. Powder ESR spectrum of CuT 2(NH 3) 2·2H 2O is axial ( g||=2.255, g⊥=2.059). ESR spectrum of CuT 2(npa) 2·2H 2O with ( g||=2.299, g⊥=2.081) is a superposition of one axial ( g||=2.299, g⊥=2.073) and one isotropic component ( g0≈2.089), in the same amount. The axial spectra of the former complexes are due to a static Jahn-Teller effect ( EJT≈2880 cm -1). ESR spectrum of CuT 2(ae) 2·2H 2O is orthorhombic ( g1c=2.199, g2c=2.095, g3c=2.037). The local symmetries around the Cu(II) ions remain unchanged by DMF solvating, by adsorbing these solutions on NaY zeolite or by lowering the temperature.

  2. Can Economic Analysis Contribute to Disease Elimination and Eradication? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sicuri, Elisa; Evans, David B.; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases elimination and eradication have become important areas of focus for global health and countries. Due to the substantial up-front investments required to eliminate and eradicate, and the overall shortage of resources for health, economic analysis can inform decision making on whether elimination/eradication makes economic sense and on the costs and benefits of alternative strategies. In order to draw lessons for current and future initiatives, we review the economic literature that has addressed questions related to the elimination and eradication of infectious diseases focusing on: why, how and for whom? Methods A systematic review was performed by searching economic literature (cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and economic impact analyses) on elimination/eradication of infectious diseases published from 1980 to 2013 from three large bibliographic databases: one general (SCOPUS), one bio-medical (MEDLINE/PUBMED) and one economic (IDEAS/REPEC). Results A total of 690 non-duplicate papers were identified from which only 43 met the inclusion criteria. In addition, only one paper focusing on equity issues, the “for whom?” question, was found. The literature relating to “why?” is the largest, much of it focusing on how much it would cost. A more limited literature estimates the benefits in terms of impact on economic growth with mixed results. The question of how to eradicate or eliminate was informed by an economic literature highlighting that there will be opportunities for individuals and countries to free-ride and that forms of incentives and/or disincentives will be needed. This requires government involvement at country level and global coordination. While there is little doubt that eliminating infectious diseases will eventually improve equity, it will only happen if active steps to promote equity are followed on the path to elimination and eradication. Conclusion The largest part of the literature has focused on costs and

  3. Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume II. Industry profiles

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-22

    Econoimc profiles of the industries most affected by the construction, deployment, and operation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) powerplants are presented. Six industries which will contribute materials and/or components to the construction of OTEC plants have been identified and are profiled here. These industries are: steel industry, concrete industry, titanium metal industry, fabricated structural metals industry, fiber glass-reinforced plastics industry, and electrical transmission cable industry. The economic profiles for these industries detail the industry's history, its financial and economic characteristics, its technological and production traits, resource constraints that might impede its operation, and its relation to OTEC. Some of the historical data collected and described in the profile include output, value of shipments, number of firms, prices, employment, imports and exports, and supply-demand forecasts. For most of the profiled industries, data from 1958 through 1980 were examined. In addition, profiles are included on the sectors of the economy which will actualy construct, deploy, and supply the OTEC platforms.

  4. Long-term stability of Class II, Division 1, nonextraction cervical face-bow therapy: II. Cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Elms, T N; Buschang, P H; Alexander, R G

    1996-04-01

    The long-term stability of Class II, Division 1 nonextraction therapy, using cervical face-bows with full fixed orthodontic appliances was evaluated for 42 randomly selected patients. Part 1, a study model analysis, was published in the March 1996 issue of the JOURNAL. Each patient was treated by the same practitioner, with the same techniques, and the treatment goals had been attained for all patients. Pretreatment records were taken at a mean age of 11.5 years; the posttreatment and postretention records were taken 3.0 and 11.6 years later, respectively. The results showed that the ANB angle decreased 2 degrees during treatment, most of which was due to the 1.6 degree decrease of the SNA angle. The mandibular plane angle was not changed significantly during treatment. Although upper incisor inclination was maintained during treatment, the lower incisor was proclined 2.3 degrees and the lower molar was tipped back 4 degrees. Of the 22 cephalometric measures evaluated, only four indicated relapse related with the treatment change. Three of the four measures pertain to lower incisor retroclination subsequent to excessive proclination. The ratio of treatment proclination of incisors to posttreatment retroclination is approximately 5:1. Similarly, for every 3 degrees of molar tip back, there was approximately 1 degree of relapse. It is concluded that nonextraction therapy for Class II malocclusion can be largely stable when the orthodontist ensures proper patient selection and compliance and attains treatment objectives.

  5. Quantitative analysis of topoisomerase II{alpha} to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Masashi; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Kano, Hideyuki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro; Katsuki, Takahisa; Shirahata, Mitsuaki; Ono, Makoto; Yamana, Norikazu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Takahashi, Jun A. . E-mail: jat@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-06-17

    Immunohistochemical cell proliferation analyses have come into wide use for evaluation of tumor malignancy. Topoisomerase II{alpha} (topo II{alpha}), an essential nuclear enzyme, has been known to have cell cycle coupled expression. We here show the usefulness of quantitative analysis of topo II{alpha} mRNA to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors. A protocol to quantify topo II{alpha} mRNA was developed with a real-time RT-PCR. It took only 3 h to quantify from a specimen. A total of 28 brain tumors were analyzed, and the level of topo II{alpha} mRNA was significantly correlated with its immuno-staining index (p < 0.0001, r = 0.9077). Furthermore, it sharply detected that topo II{alpha} mRNA decreased in growth-inhibited glioma cell. These results support that topo II{alpha} mRNA may be a good and rapid indicator to evaluate cell proliferate potential in brain tumors.

  6. Techno-economic analysis of corn stover fungal fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Pimphan A.; Tews, Iva J.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-11-01

    This techno-economic analysis assesses the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock by fungi to identify promising opportunities, and the research needed to achieve them. Based on literature derived data, four different ethanologen strains are considered in this study: native and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the natural pentose-fermenting yeast, Pichia stipitis and the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, filamentous fungi are applied in multi-organism and consolidated process configurations. Organism performance and technology readiness are categorized as near-term (<5 years), mid-term (5-10 years), and long-term (>10 years) process deployment. The results of the analysis suggest that the opportunity for fungal fermentation exists for lignocellulosic ethanol production.

  7. Comprehensive techno-economic analysis of wastewater-based algal biofuel production: A case study.

    PubMed

    Xin, Chunhua; Addy, Min M; Zhao, Jinyu; Cheng, Yanling; Cheng, Sibo; Mu, Dongyan; Liu, Yuhuan; Ding, Rijia; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Combining algae cultivation and wastewater treatment for biofuel production is considered the feasible way for resource utilization. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis method that integrates resources availability into techno-economic analysis was employed to evaluate the wastewater-based algal biofuel production with the consideration of wastewater treatment improvement, greenhouse gases emissions, biofuel production costs, and coproduct utilization. An innovative approach consisting of microalgae cultivation on centrate wastewater, microalgae harvest through flocculation, solar drying of biomass, pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil, and utilization of co-products, was analyzed and shown to yield profound positive results in comparison with others. The estimated break even selling price of biofuel ($2.23/gallon) is very close to the acceptable level. The approach would have better overall benefits and the internal rate of return would increase up to 18.7% if three critical components, namely cultivation, harvest, and downstream conversion could achieve breakthroughs.

  8. Comprehensive techno-economic analysis of wastewater-based algal biofuel production: A case study.

    PubMed

    Xin, Chunhua; Addy, Min M; Zhao, Jinyu; Cheng, Yanling; Cheng, Sibo; Mu, Dongyan; Liu, Yuhuan; Ding, Rijia; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Combining algae cultivation and wastewater treatment for biofuel production is considered the feasible way for resource utilization. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis method that integrates resources availability into techno-economic analysis was employed to evaluate the wastewater-based algal biofuel production with the consideration of wastewater treatment improvement, greenhouse gases emissions, biofuel production costs, and coproduct utilization. An innovative approach consisting of microalgae cultivation on centrate wastewater, microalgae harvest through flocculation, solar drying of biomass, pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil, and utilization of co-products, was analyzed and shown to yield profound positive results in comparison with others. The estimated break even selling price of biofuel ($2.23/gallon) is very close to the acceptable level. The approach would have better overall benefits and the internal rate of return would increase up to 18.7% if three critical components, namely cultivation, harvest, and downstream conversion could achieve breakthroughs. PMID:27039331

  9. Economic valuation through cost-benefit analysis--possibilities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Hansjürgens, Bernd

    2004-12-15

    The economic approach used to evaluate effects on human health and the environment centres around cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Thus, for most economists, economic valuation and CBA are one and the same. However, the question of the possibilities and limitations of cost-benefit analysis is one of the most controversial aspects of environmental research. In this paper, the possibilities and limitations of CBA are analysed. This is done not only by explaining the central elements of CBA, but also by commenting on criticism of it. What becomes clear is that CBA is not only a mere mechanism of monetarisation, but a heuristic model for the whole process of valuation. It can serve as a guideline for collecting the necessary data in a systematic way. The limits of CBA can be mainly seen in the non-substitutability of essential goods, irreversibility, long-term effects and inter-generational fairness.

  10. Economic Analysis of Ilumex, A Project to Promote Energy-Efficient Residential Lighting in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Friedmann, R.; Meyers, S.; de Buen, O.; Gadgil, A.J.; Vargas, E.; Saucedo, R.

    1993-11-01

    A higher penetration of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) for household lighting can reduce growth in peak electricity demand, reduce sales of subsidized electricity, and lessen environmental impacts. This paper describes an economic analysis of a project designed to promote high penetration rates of CFLs in two cities in Mexico. Our analysis indicates that the project will bring substantial net economic benefits to Mexico, the utility, and the average customer. In the absence of any subsidy to CFLs, most customers will see a payback period longer than two years. By sharing some of the anticipated net benefit, CFE, the utility company, can reduce the payback period to a maximum of two years for all customers. CFE's role is thus crucial to the successful implementation of the project. Expanding the Ilumex project to a Mexico-wide program would make a significant contribution towards meeting the planned addition of generation capacity by the year 2000.

  11. Final Report: Posttest Analysis of Omega II Optical Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Newlander, C D; Fisher, J H

    2007-01-30

    Preliminary posttest analyses have been completed on optical specimens exposed during the Omega II test series conducted on 14 July 2006. The Omega Facility, located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester was used to produce X-ray environments through the interaction of intense pulsed laser radiation upon germanium-loaded silica aerogels. The optical specimen testing was supported by GH Systems through experiment design, pre- and post-test analyses, specimen acquisition, and overall technical experience. The test specimens were fabricated and characterized by Surface Optics Corporation (SOC), San Diego, CA and were simple protected gold coatings on silica substrates. Six test specimens were exposed, five filtered with thin beryllium foil filters, and one unfiltered which was exposed directly to the raw environment. The experimental objectives were: (1) demonstrate that tests of optical specimens could be performed at the Omega facility; (2) evaluate the use and survivability of beryllium foil filters as a function of thickness; (3) obtain damage data on optical specimens which ranged from no damage to damage; (4) correlate existing thermal response models with the damage data; (5) evaluate the use of the direct raw environment upon the specimen response and the ability/desirability to conduct sensitive optical specimen tests using the raw environment; and (6) initiate the development of a protocol for performing optical coatings/mirror tests. This report documents the activities performed by GH Systems in evaluating and using the environments provided by LLNL, the PUFFTFT analyses performed using those environments, and the calculated results compared to the observed and measured posttest data.

  12. OPTICAL AND INFRARED ANALYSIS OF TYPE II SN 2006bc

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Joseph S.; Sugerman, B. E. K.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Andrews, J. E.; Clem, J. E-mail: ben.sugerman@goucher.edu E-mail: jandrews@phys.lsu.edu; and others

    2012-07-10

    We present nebular phase optical imaging and spectroscopy and near/mid-IR imaging of the Type II SN 2006bc. Observations reveal the central wavelength of the symmetric H{alpha} line profile to be redshifted with respect to the host galaxy H{alpha} emission by day 325. Such a phenomenon has been argued to result from an asymmetric explosion in the iron-peak elements resulting in a larger mass of {sup 56}Ni and higher excitation of hydrogen on the far side of the supernova (SN) explosion. We also observe a gradual blueshifting of this H{alpha} peak which is indicative of dust formation in the ejecta. Although showing a normal peak brightness, V {approx} -17.2, for a core-collapse SN, 2006bc fades by {approx}6 mag during the first 400 days suggesting either a relatively low {sup 56}Ni yield, an increase in extinction due to new dust, or both. A short-duration flattening of the light curve is observed from day 416 to day 541 suggesting an optical light echo. Based on the narrow time window of this echo, we discuss implications on the location and geometry of the reflecting interstellar medium. With our radiative transfer models, we find an upper limit of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} of dust around SN 2006bc. In the event that all of this dust were formed during the SN explosion, this quantity of dust is still several orders of magnitude lower than that needed to explain the large quantities of dust observed in the early universe.

  13. Economic analysis of the use of wind power for electrical generation on midwestern dairy farms

    SciTech Connect

    Reinemann, D.J.; Koegel, R.G.; Straub, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    The optimum size WECS for dairy farm electrical production, and return on investment thereof depend greatly on utility regulations, load management techniques, and the future of the economy. Seasonal and daily fluctuations in available wind power and electric demand together with existing or expected rate schedules must be considered in choosing an appropriate load management system. An economic analysis is done investigating optimal system size and use strategies for the use of wind generated electrical power on midwestern dairy farms.

  14. Techno-economic analysis of fuel cell auxiliary power units as alternative to idling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Semant; Chen, Hsieh-Yeh; Schwank, Johannes

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APUs), with emphasis on applications in the trucking industry and the military. The APU system is intended to reduce the need for discretionary idling of diesel engines or gas turbines. The analysis considers the options for on-board fuel processing of diesel and compares the two leading fuel cell contenders for automotive APU applications: proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell. As options for on-board diesel reforming, partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming are considered. Finally, using estimated and projected efficiency data, fuel consumption patterns, capital investment, and operating costs of fuel-cell APUs, an economic evaluation of diesel-based APUs is presented, with emphasis on break-even periods as a function of fuel cost, investment cost, idling time, and idling efficiency. The analysis shows that within the range of parameters studied, there are many conditions where deployment of an SOFC-based APU is economically viable. Our analysis indicates that at an APU system cost of 100 kW -1, the economic break-even period is within 1 year for almost the entire range of conditions. At 500 kW -1 investment cost, a 2-year break-even period is possible except for the lowest end of the fuel consumption range considered. However, if the APU investment cost is 3000 kW -1, break-even would only be possible at the highest fuel consumption scenarios. For Abram tanks, even at typical land delivered fuel costs, a 2-year break-even period is possible for APU investment costs as high as 1100 kW -1.

  15. Low-Cost Propellant Launch to LEO from a Tethered Balloon - Economic and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Schneider, Evan G.; Vaughan, David A.; Hall, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides new analysis of the economics of low-cost propellant launch coupled with dry hardware re-use, and of the thermal control of the liquid hydrogen once on-orbit. One conclusion is that this approach enables an overall reduction in the cost-permission by as much as a factor of five as compared to current approaches for human exploration of the moon, Mars, and near-Earth asteroids.

  16. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  17. Spinoza II: Conceptual Case-Based Natural Language Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schank, Roger C.; And Others

    This paper presents the theoretical changes that have developed in Conceptual Dependency Theory and their ramifications in computer analysis of natural language. The major items of concern are: the elimination of reliance on "grammar rules" for parsing with the emphasis given to conceptual rule based parsing; the development of a conceptual case…

  18. Orbital analysis of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II laser ranged satellites: relativistic effects and geophysical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Peron, Roberto

    2005-03-16

    We present here the results of a recent analysis of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II laser range data. The higher accuracy in determining the orbits of these satellites makes it possible to see very tiny relativistic effects like frame-dragging and a wide variety of other phenomena at work. In particular, it is apparent the need of better understanding some effects of non-gravitational origin. The importance of these orbital fits as a geophysical probe is also stressed with a particular example. The analysis is carried out with GEODYN II Software, whose broad structure and use is described.

  19. Orbital analysis of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II laser ranged satellites: relativistic effects and geophysical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peron, Roberto

    2005-03-01

    We present here the results of a recent analysis of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II laser range data. The higher accuracy in determining the orbits of these satellites makes it possible to see very tiny relativistic effects like frame-dragging and a wide variety of other phenomena at work. In particular, it is apparent the need of better understanding some effects of non-gravitational origin. The importance of these orbital fits as a geophysical probe is also stressed with a particular example. The analysis is carried out with GEODYN II Software, whose broad structure and use is described.

  20. Economic analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This economic analysis (EA) examines compliance costs and economic impacts resulting from the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry Point Source Category. It also investigates the costs and impacts associated with an air rule requiring Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) to control air emissions, both separately and together with the Final Pharmaceutical Industry Effluent Guidelines. The EA estimates the economic effects of compliance with both final rules in terms of total aggregate annualized costs of compliance, facility closures, impacts on firms (likelihood of bankruptcy and effects on profit margins), and impacts on new sources. The EA also investigates secondary impacts on employment and communities, foreign trade, specific demographic groups, and environmental justice. This report includes a Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (FRFA) detailing the impacts on small businesses within the pharmaceutical industry to meet the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA), as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA). Finally, the EA presents a cost-benefit analysis to meet the requirements of Executive Order 12866 and the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.

  1. Maximum Likelihood Analysis of Low Energy CDMS II Germanium Data

    SciTech Connect

    Agnese, R.

    2015-03-30

    We report on the results of a search for a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) signal in low-energy data of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment using a maximum likelihood analysis. A background model is constructed using GEANT4 to simulate the surface-event background from Pb210decay-chain events, while using independent calibration data to model the gamma background. Fitting this background model to the data results in no statistically significant WIMP component. In addition, we also perform fits using an analytic ad hoc background model proposed by Collar and Fields, who claimed to find a large excess of signal-like events in our data. Finally, we confirm the strong preference for a signal hypothesis in their analysis under these assumptions, but excesses are observed in both single- and multiple-scatter events, which implies the signal is not caused by WIMPs, but rather reflects the inadequacy of their background model.

  2. Maximum likelihood analysis of low energy CDMS II germanium data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fritts, M.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Graham, M.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nelson, R. H.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Rogers, H. E.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.; SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    We report on the results of a search for a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) signal in low-energy data of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment using a maximum likelihood analysis. A background model is constructed using geant4 to simulate the surface-event background from 210Pb decay-chain events, while using independent calibration data to model the gamma background. Fitting this background model to the data results in no statistically significant WIMP component. In addition, we perform fits using an analytic ad hoc background model proposed by Collar and Fields, who claimed to find a large excess of signal-like events in our data. We confirm the strong preference for a signal hypothesis in their analysis under these assumptions, but excesses are observed in both single- and multiple-scatter events, which implies the signal is not caused by WIMPs, but rather reflects the inadequacy of their background model.

  3. Variance analysis. Part II, The use of computers.

    PubMed

    Finkler, S A

    1991-09-01

    This is the second in a two-part series on variance analysis. In the first article (JONA, July/August 1991), the author discussed flexible budgeting, including the calculation of price, quantity, volume, and acuity variances. In this second article, the author focuses on the use of computers by nurse managers to aid in the process of calculating, understanding, and justifying variances. PMID:1919788

  4. Technical, economic and environmental analysis of a MSW kerbside separate collection system applied to small communities.

    PubMed

    De Feo, G; Malvano, C

    2012-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the costs and environmental impacts induced by a fixed model of MSW kerbside separate collection system for communities up to 10,000 inhabitants, in order to evaluate the convenience for the smaller municipalities to unite and form more economically and environmentally sound systems. This topic is important not only due to the large number of small municipalities (e.g. in Italy 72% of the municipalities has less than 5000 inhabitants) but also to the fact that separate collection systems are typically designed to take into account only the technical and economic aspects, which is a practice but not acceptable in the light of the sustainable development paradigm. In economic terms, between 1000 and 4000 inhabitants, the annual per capita cost for vehicles and personnel decreased, with a maximum at approximately 180€/inhabitants/year; while, from 5000 up to 10,000 inhabitants, the annual per capita cost was practically constant and equal to about 80€/inhabitants/year. For the municipalities of less than 5000 inhabitants, from an economic point of view the aggregation is always advantageous. The environmental impacts were calculated by means of the Life Cycle Assessment tool SimaPro 7.1, while the economic-environmental convenience was evaluated by combining in a simple multicriteria analysis, the annual total per capita cost (€/inhabitants/year) and the annual total per capita environmental impact (kEco-indicator point/inhabitants/year), giving the same importance to each criteria. The analysis was performed by means of the Paired Comparison Technique using the Simple Additive Weighting method. The economic and environmental convenience of the aggregation diminishes with the size of the municipalities: for less than 4000 inhabitants, the aggregation was almost always advantageous (91.7%); while, for more than or equal to 5000 inhabitants, the aggregation was convenient only in 33.3% of the cases. On the whole, out of

  5. Random vibration analysis of the Topaz-II nuclear reactor power system. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.E.

    1995-06-01

    The TOPAZ-II Ya-21U is one of six Russian made space nuclear power systems which is based on theomionic power conversion. The U.S. is presently analyzing TOPAZ-II to determine the reliability and feasibility of using this system. A structural analysis test was conducted on the TOPAZ unit in May 1993 to provide data from which modal parameters could be identified. This test showed the fundamental frequency to be 10.5 Hz, yet the test results that the Russians conducted identified a fundamental frequency of 5 Hz. Another finite element model was created incorporating new developments in TOPAZ-II and modifications to the finite element model to better simulate the mass properties of the TOPAZ-II2. A second structural analysis test was conducted on the TOPAZ unit 06-09 September 1994. This thesis focuses on the random vibration analysis of the TOPAZ-II Ya-2lU utilizing the most recent test results and the Master Series (updated version) I-DEAS software. The modal respose of the model and simulated random vibration tests were within 8.33%. This model is a feasible tool which can be used to analyze the TOPAZ unit without testing the unit to fatigue.

  6. Ecological Network Analysis for Economic Systems: Growth and Development and Implications for Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input–output (I-O) tables for 1985–2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985–2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects. PMID:24979465

  7. Ecological network analysis for economic systems: growth and development and implications for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input-output (I-O) tables for 1985-2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985-2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects.

  8. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioconversion of Methane into Biofuel and Biochemical (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Q.; Tao, L.; Pienkos, P .T.; Guarnieri, M.; Palou-Rivera, I.

    2014-10-01

    In light of the relatively low price of natural gas and increasing demands of liquid transportation fuels and high-value chemicals, attention has begun to turn to novel biocatalyst for conversion of methane (CH4) into biofuels and biochemicals [1]. A techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed for an integrated biorefinery process using biological conversion of methane, such as carbon yield, process efficiency, productivity (both lipid and acid), natural gas and other raw material prices, etc. This analysis is aimed to identify research challenges as well provide guidance for technology development.

  9. Economic analysis of bedside ultrasonography (US) implementation in an Internal Medicine department.

    PubMed

    Testa, Americo; Francesconi, Andrea; Giannuzzi, Rosangela; Berardi, Silvia; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    The economic crisis, the growing healthcare demand, and Defensive Medicine wastefulness, strongly recommend the restructuring of the entire medical network. New health technology, such as bedside ultrasonography, might successfully integrate the clinical approach optimizing the use of limited resources, especially in a person-oriented vision of medicine. Bedside ultrasonography is a safe and reliable technique, with worldwide expanding employment in various clinical settings, being considered as "the stethoscope of the 21st century". However, at present, bedside ultrasonography lacks economic analysis. We performed a Cost-Benefit Analysis "ex ante", with a break-even point computing, of bedside ultrasonography implementation in an Internal Medicine department in the mid-term. Number and kind estimation of bedside ultrasonographic studies were obtained by a retrospective study, whose data results were applied to the next 3-year period (foresight study). All 1980 foreseen bedside examinations, with prevailing multiorgan ultrasonographic studies, were considered to calculate direct and indirect costs, while specific and generic revenues were considered only after the first semester. Physician professional training, equipment purchase and working time represented the main fixed and variable cost items. DRG increase/appropriateness, hospitalization stay shortening and reduction of traditional ultrasonography examination requests mainly impacted on calculated revenues. The break-even point, i.e. the volume of activity at which revenues exactly equal total incurred costs, was calculated to be 734 US examinations, corresponding to € 81,998 and the time considered necessary to reach it resulting 406 days. Our economic analysis clearly shows that bedside ultrasonography implementation in clinical daily management of an Internal Medicine department can produce consistent savings, or economic profit according to managerial choices (i.e., considering public or private targets

  10. Pricing strategy for aesthetic surgery: economic analysis of a resident clinic's change in fees.

    PubMed

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    1999-02-01

    The laws of microeconomics explain how prices affect consumer purchasing decisions and thus overall revenues and profits. These principles can easily be applied to the behavior aesthetic plastic surgery patients. The UCLA Division of Plastic Surgery resident aesthetics clinic recently offered a radical price change for its services. The effects of this change on demand for services and revenue were tracked. Economic analysis was applied to see if this price change resulted in the maximization of total revenues, or if additional price changes could further optimize them. Economic analysis of pricing involves several steps. The first step is to assess demand. The number of procedures performed by a given practice at different price levels can be plotted to create a demand curve. From this curve, price sensitivities of consumers can be calculated (price elasticity of demand). This information can then be used to determine the pricing level that creates demand for the exact number of procedures that yield optimal revenues. In economic parlance, revenues are maximized by pricing services such that elasticity is equal to 1 (the point of unit elasticity). At the UCLA resident clinic, average total fees per procedure were reduced by 40 percent. This resulted in a 250-percent increase in procedures performed for representative 4-month periods before and after the price change. Net revenues increased by 52 percent. Economic analysis showed that the price elasticity of demand before the price change was 6.2. After the price change it was 1. We conclude that the magnitude of the price change resulted in a fee schedule that yielded the highest possible revenues from the resident clinic. These results show that changes in price do affect total revenue and that the nature of these effects can be understood, predicted, and maximized using the tools of microeconomics. PMID:9950562

  11. Maximum Likelihood Analysis of Low Energy CDMS II Germanium Data

    DOE PAGES

    Agnese, R.

    2015-03-30

    We report on the results of a search for a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) signal in low-energy data of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment using a maximum likelihood analysis. A background model is constructed using GEANT4 to simulate the surface-event background from Pb210decay-chain events, while using independent calibration data to model the gamma background. Fitting this background model to the data results in no statistically significant WIMP component. In addition, we also perform fits using an analytic ad hoc background model proposed by Collar and Fields, who claimed to find a large excess of signal-like events in ourmore » data. Finally, we confirm the strong preference for a signal hypothesis in their analysis under these assumptions, but excesses are observed in both single- and multiple-scatter events, which implies the signal is not caused by WIMPs, but rather reflects the inadequacy of their background model.« less

  12. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 2: Tug concepts analysis. Appendix: Tug design and performance data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The tug design and performance data base for the economic analysis of space tug operation are presented. A compendium of the detailed design and performance information from the data base is developed. The design data are parametric across a range of reusable space tug sizes. The performance curves are generated for selected point designs of expendable orbit injection stages and reusable tugs. Data are presented in the form of graphs for various modes of operation.

  13. Exergy & economic analysis of biogas fueled solid oxide fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefert, Nicholas S.; Litster, Shawn

    2014-12-01

    We present an exergy and an economic analysis of a power plant that uses biogas produced from a thermophilic anaerobic digester (AD) to fuel a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). We performed a 4-variable parametric analysis of the AD-SOFC system in order to determine the optimal design operation conditions, depending on the objective function of interest. We present results on the exergy efficiency (%), power normalized capital cost ( kW-1), and the internal rate of return on investment, IRR, (% yr-1) as a function of the current density, the stack pressure, the fuel utilization, and the total air stoichiometric ratio. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first AD-SOFC paper to include the cost of the AD when conducting economic optimization of the AD-SOFC plant. Our calculations show that adding a new AD-SOFC system to an existing waste water treatment (WWT) plant could yield positives values of IRR at today's average electricity prices and could significantly out-compete other options for using biogas to generate electricity. AD-SOFC systems could likely convert WWT plants into net generators of electricity rather than net consumers of electricity while generating economically viable rates of return on investment if the costs of SOFC systems are within a factor of two of the DOE/SECA cost targets.

  14. Economic Analysis of a Pine Plantation Receiving Repeated Applications of Biosolids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailong; Kimberley, Mark O.; Wilks, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Treated biosolids have been applied to 750-ha of a Pinus radiata forest plantation on Rabbit Island near Nelson City in New Zealand since 1996. A long-term research trial was established in 1997 to investigate the effects of the biosolids applications on the receiving environment and tree growth. An analysis of the likely economic impact of biosolids application shows that biosolids application has been beneficial. Stem volume of the high treatment (biosolids applied at 600 kg N ha-1 every three years) was 36% greater than the control treatment (no biosolids applied), and stem volume of the standard treatment (300 kg N ha-1) was 27% greater than the control treatment at age 18 years of age. Biosolids treatments have effectively transformed a low productivity forest site to a medium productivity site. Although this increased productivity has been accompanied by some negative influences on wood quality attributes with reduced wood stiffness, wood density, and larger branches, an economic analysis shows that the increased stem volume and greater average log diameter in the biosolids treatments outweighs these negative effects. The high and standard biosolids treatments are predicted to increase the net stumpage value of logs by 24% and 14% respectively at harvesting, providing a large positive impact on the forest owner’s economic return. PMID:23451262

  15. High-throughput engineering and analysis of peptide binding to class II MHC

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Boder, Eric T.

    2010-01-01

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) proteins govern stimulation of adaptive immunity by presenting antigenic peptides to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Many allelic variants of MHC-II exist with implications in peptide presentation and immunity; thus, high-throughput experimental tools for rapid and quantitative analysis of peptide binding to MHC-II are needed. Here, we present an expression system wherein peptide and MHC-II are codisplayed on the surface of yeast in an intracellular association-dependent manner and assayed by flow cytometry. Accordingly, the relative binding of different peptides and/or MHC-II variants can be assayed by genetically manipulating either partner, enabling the application of directed evolution approaches for high-throughput characterization or engineering. We demonstrate the application of this tool to map the side-chain preference for peptides binding to HLA-DR1 and to evolve novel HLA-DR1 mutants with altered peptide-binding specificity. PMID:20622157

  16. Difference Image Analysis of Galactic Microlensing. II. Microlensing Events

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D.; Axelrod, T. S.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A. J.; Freeman, K. C.; Griest, K.

    1999-09-01

    The MACHO collaboration has been carrying out difference image analysis (DIA) since 1996 with the aim of increasing the sensitivity to the detection of gravitational microlensing. This is a preliminary report on the application of DIA to galactic bulge images in one field. We show how the DIA technique significantly increases the number of detected lensing events, by removing the positional dependence of traditional photometry schemes and lowering the microlensing event detection threshold. This technique, unlike PSF photometry, gives the unblended colors and positions of the microlensing source stars. We present a set of criteria for selecting microlensing events from objects discovered with this technique. The 16 pixel and classical microlensing events discovered with the DIA technique are presented. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society.

  17. Analysis of a model for the dynamics of prions II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engler, Hans; Pruss, Jan; Webb, Glenn F.

    2006-12-01

    A new mathematical model for the dynamics of prion proliferation involving an ordinary differential equation coupled with a partial integro-differential equation is analyzed, continuing the work in [J. Pruss, L. Pujo-Menjouet, G.F. Webb, R. Zacher, Analysis of a model for the dynamics of prions, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. 6 (2006) 225-235]. We show the well-posedness of this problem in its natural phase space , i.e., there is a unique global semiflow on Z+ associated to the problem. A theorem of threshold type is derived for this model which is typical for mathematical epidemics. If a certain combination of kinetic parameters is below or at the threshold, there is a unique steady state, the disease-free equilibrium, which is globally asymptotically stable in Z+; above the threshold it is unstable, and there is another unique steady state, the disease equilibrium, which inherits that property.

  18. An economic analysis of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources in the state of Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Juan S.

    Anaerobic digestion is a process that is a common part of organic waste management systems and is used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The process produces biogas, which contains methane, and it can be burned to generate electricity. Previous reports have indicated that based on the availability of feedstocks there is a large potential for biogas production and use for electricity generation in the state of Indiana. However, these reports varied in their consideration of important factors that affect the technical and economic feasibility of being able to develop the resources available. The goal of this thesis is to make a more targeted assessment of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills in Indiana. A capital budgeting model is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of biogas electricity projects at facilities that are identified as technically suitable. A statewide estimate of the potential generation capacity is made by estimating the number of facilities that could profitably undertake a biogas electricity project. In addition this thesis explored the impact that different incentive policies would have on the economic viability of these projects. The results indicated that the electricity generation potential is much smaller when technical and economic factors are taken into account in addition to feedstock availability. In particular it was found that projects at hog farms are unlikely to be economically feasible in the present even when financial incentives are considered. In total, 47.94 MW of potential generating capacity is estimated from biogas production at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills. Though results indicated that 37.10 MW of capacity are economically feasible under current operating conditions, sensitivity analysis reveals that these projects are very sensitive to capital cost assumptions

  19. The effect of increased consumer demand on fees for aesthetic surgery: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    1999-12-01

    Economic theory dictates that changes in consumer demand have predictable effects on prices. Demographics represents an important component of demand for aesthetic surgery. Between the years of 1997 and 2010, the U.S. population is projected to increase by 12 percent. The population increase will be skewed such that those groups undergoing the most aesthetic surgery will see the largest increase. Accounting for the age-specific frequencies of aesthetic surgery and the population increase yields an estimate that the overall market for aesthetic surgery will increase by 19 percent. Barring unforeseen changes in general economic conditions or consumer tastes, demand should increase by an analogous amount. An economic demonstration shows the effects of increasing demand for aesthetic surgery on its fees. Between the years of 1992 and 1997, there was an increase in demand for breast augmentation as fears of associated autoimmune disorders subsided. Similarly, there was increased male acceptance of aesthetic surgery. The number of breast augmentations and procedures to treat male pattern baldness, plastic surgeons, and fees for the procedures were tracked. During the study period, the supply of surgeons and consumer demand increased for both of these procedures. Volume of breast augmentation increased by 275 percent, whereas real fees remained stable. Volume of treatment for male pattern baldness increased by 107 percent, and the fees increased by 29 percent. Ordinarily, an increase in supply leads to a decrease in prices. This did not occur during the study period. Economic analysis demonstrates that the increased supply of surgeons performing breast augmentation was offset by increased consumer demand for the procedure. For this reason, fees were not lowered. Similarly, increased demand for treatment of male pattern baldness more than offset the increased supply of surgeons performing it. The result was higher fees. Emphasis should be placed on using these economic

  20. The effect of increased consumer demand on fees for aesthetic surgery: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    1999-12-01

    Economic theory dictates that changes in consumer demand have predictable effects on prices. Demographics represents an important component of demand for aesthetic surgery. Between the years of 1997 and 2010, the U.S. population is projected to increase by 12 percent. The population increase will be skewed such that those groups undergoing the most aesthetic surgery will see the largest increase. Accounting for the age-specific frequencies of aesthetic surgery and the population increase yields an estimate that the overall market for aesthetic surgery will increase by 19 percent. Barring unforeseen changes in general economic conditions or consumer tastes, demand should increase by an analogous amount. An economic demonstration shows the effects of increasing demand for aesthetic surgery on its fees. Between the years of 1992 and 1997, there was an increase in demand for breast augmentation as fears of associated autoimmune disorders subsided. Similarly, there was increased male acceptance of aesthetic surgery. The number of breast augmentations and procedures to treat male pattern baldness, plastic surgeons, and fees for the procedures were tracked. During the study period, the supply of surgeons and consumer demand increased for both of these procedures. Volume of breast augmentation increased by 275 percent, whereas real fees remained stable. Volume of treatment for male pattern baldness increased by 107 percent, and the fees increased by 29 percent. Ordinarily, an increase in supply leads to a decrease in prices. This did not occur during the study period. Economic analysis demonstrates that the increased supply of surgeons performing breast augmentation was offset by increased consumer demand for the procedure. For this reason, fees were not lowered. Similarly, increased demand for treatment of male pattern baldness more than offset the increased supply of surgeons performing it. The result was higher fees. Emphasis should be placed on using these economic

  1. The mineral sector and economic development in Ghana: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addy, Samuel N.

    A computable general equilibrium model (CGE) model is formulated for conducting mineral policy analysis in the context of national economic development for Ghana. The model, called GHANAMIN, places strong emphasis on production, trade, and investment. It can be used to examine both micro and macro economic impacts of policies associated with mineral investment, taxation, and terms of trade changes, as well as mineral sector performance impacts due to technological change or the discovery of new deposits. Its economywide structure enables the study of broader development policy with a focus on individual or multiple sectors, simultaneously. After going through a period of contraction for about two decades, mining in Ghana has rebounded significantly and is currently the main foreign exchange earner. Gold alone contributed 44.7 percent of 1994 total export earnings. GHANAMIN is used to investigate the economywide impacts of mineral tax policies, world market mineral prices changes, mining investment, and increased mineral exports. It is also used for identifying key sectors for economic development. Various simulations were undertaken with the following results: Recently implemented mineral tax policies are welfare increasing, but have an accompanying decrease in the output of other export sectors. World mineral price rises stimulate an increase in real GDP; however, this increase is less than real GDP decreases associated with price declines. Investment in the non-gold mining sector increases real GDP more than investment in gold mining, because of the former's stronger linkages to the rest of the economy. Increased mineral exports are very beneficial to the overall economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining increases welfare more so than domestic capital, which is very limited. Mining investment and the increased mineral exports since 1986 have contributed significantly to the country's economic recovery, with gold mining accounting for 95 percent of the

  2. EXAFS analysis of cadmium(II) adsorption to kaolinite

    SciTech Connect

    Vasconcelos, Igor F.; Haack, Elizabeth A.; Maurice, Patricia A.; Bunker, Bruce A.

    2008-06-06

    The local molecular structure of Cd sorbed to kaolinite was examined with X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) over a range of pH and initial Cd solution concentrations, ([Cd{sub aq}]{sub in}). Quantitative analysis of kaolinite samples with [Cd{sub aq}]{sub in} of 100 {mu}M and pH 7, shows a single hydration sphere around Cd, consistent with an outer-sphere adsorption complex. At pH 9, a Cd-M coordination (where M stands for Si or Al) at second shell distance indicates the formation of inner-sphere adsorption complex(es) on edge sites. Although adsorption to Al edge sites is probably preferred, the similarity in atomic numbers between Al and Si and the small difference in bond lengths prevents us from distinguishing complexation to Si- versus Al-edge sites based on the XAFS data. The possibility of precipitation of Cd solid phases was ruled out due to similar local environment around Cd in samples prepared under air (where carbonate species would be present) and N{sub 2} atmospheres, and the absence of a Cd-Cd coordination characterizing a Cd-bearing solid phase. Finally, analysis of kaolinite samples with [Cd{sub aq}]{sub in} of 3 {mu}M, 10 {mu}M, and 100 {mu}M at pH 9 shows a consistent change in Cd-M distance and Debye-Waller factor as a function of [Cd{sub aq}]{sub in}, suggesting a change in the type of inner-sphere complex being formed as a function of loading. Whether this means that there is a change in the relative importance of Al versus Si edge sites with loading, or whether adsorption of Cd to edge sites alters binding to other nearby sites, or some other factor, has not been determined at this time.

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the KABC-II in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kimberly E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; McIntosh, David E.; Hunt, Madeline S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) in relation to the synthesized Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence with a preschool sample. Participants were 200 preschool children between four and five years of age. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted, and different…

  4. The Vineland-II in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Item Content Category Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balboni, Giulia; Tasso, Alessandra; Muratori, Filippo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We investigated which item subsets of the Vineland-II can discriminate low-functioning preschoolers with ASD from matched peers with other neurodevelopmental disorders, using a regression analysis derived from a normative sample to account for cognitive and linguistic competencies. At variance with the typical profile, a pattern with Communication…

  5. A Policy Analysis: Successful Type II Alternative High Schools for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nienhuis, Victoria A.; Tendai, Jeanette L.

    2009-01-01

    This policy analysis project is designed at uncovering specific standards that can be utilized by a school district in developing and evaluating their Type II Alternative Schools to ensure high levels of student success within their programs. While there is a substantive body of research in alternative education, there are no universally accepted…

  6. Movement Analysis Applied to the Basketball Jump Shot--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Thomas P.

    1981-01-01

    The jump shot is one of the most important shots in the game of basketball. The movement analysis of the jump shot designates four phases: (1) preparatory position; (2) movement phase I (crouch); (3) movement phase II (jump); and (4) follow-through. (JN)

  7. Educational assortative mating and economic inequality: a comparative analysis of three Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Torche, Florencia

    2010-05-01

    Educational assortative mating and economic inequality are likely to be endogenously determined, but very little research exists on their empirical association. Using census data and log-linear and log-multiplicative methods, I compare the patterns of educational assortative mating in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, and explore the association between marital sorting and earnings inequality across countries. The analysis finds substantial variation in the strength of specific barriers to educational intermarriage between countries, and a close association between these barriers and the earnings gaps across educational categories within countries. This finding suggests an isomorphism between assortative mating and economic inequality. Furthermore, educational marital sorting is remarkably symmetric across gender in spite of the different resources that men and women bring to the union. This study highlights the limitations of using single aggregate measures of spousal educational resemblance (such as the correlation coefficient between spouses' schooling) to capture variation in assortative mating and its relationship with socioeconomic inequality.

  8. Economic Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Seltzer

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the economic analysis is to prepare a budgetary estimate of capital and operating costs of the O{sub 2}-fired PC power plant as well as for the equivalent conventional PC-fired power plant. Capital and operating costs of conventional steam generation, steam heating, and power generation equipment are estimated based on Foster Wheeler's extensive experience and database. Capital and operating costs of equipment, such as oxygen separation and CO{sub 2} liquefaction, are based on vendor supplied data and FW process plant experience. The levelized cost of electricity is determined for both the air-fired and O{sub 2}-fired power plants as well as the CO{sub 2} mitigation cost. An economic comparison between the O{sub 2}-fired PC and other alternate technologies is presented.

  9. Comparative analysis of economic models in selected solar energy computer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. W.; Barnes, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    The economic evaluation models in five computer programs widely used for analyzing solar energy systems (F-CHART 3.0, F-CHART 4.0, SOLCOST, BLAST, and DOE-2) are compared. Differences in analysis techniques and assumptions among the programs are assessed from the point of view of consistency with the Federal requirements for life cycle costing (10 CFR Part 436), effect on predicted economic performance, and optimal system size, case of use, and general applicability to diverse systems types and building types. The FEDSOL program developed by the National Bureau of Standards specifically to meet the Federal life cycle cost requirements serves as a basis for the comparison. Results of the study are illustrated in test cases of two different types of Federally owned buildings: a single family residence and a low rise office building.

  10. Economic cost analysis of West Nile virus outbreak, Sacramento County, California, USA, 2005.

    PubMed

    Barber, Loren M; Schleier, Jerome J; Peterson, Robert K D

    2010-03-01

    In 2005, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease occurred in Sacramento County, California; 163 human cases were reported. In response to WNV surveillance indicating increased WNV activity, the Sacramento-Yolo Mosquito and Vector Control District conducted an emergency aerial spray. We determined the economic impact of the outbreak, including the vector control event and the medical cost to treat WNV disease. WNV disease in Sacramento County cost approximately $2.28 million for medical treatment and patients' productivity loss for both West Nile fever and West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Vector control cost approximately $701,790, including spray procedures and overtime hours. The total economic impact of WNV was $2.98 million. A cost-benefit analysis indicated that only 15 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease would need to be prevented to make the emergency spray cost-effective. PMID:20202424

  11. Economic cost analysis of West Nile virus outbreak, Sacramento County, California, USA, 2005.

    PubMed

    Barber, Loren M; Schleier, Jerome J; Peterson, Robert K D

    2010-03-01

    In 2005, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease occurred in Sacramento County, California; 163 human cases were reported. In response to WNV surveillance indicating increased WNV activity, the Sacramento-Yolo Mosquito and Vector Control District conducted an emergency aerial spray. We determined the economic impact of the outbreak, including the vector control event and the medical cost to treat WNV disease. WNV disease in Sacramento County cost approximately $2.28 million for medical treatment and patients' productivity loss for both West Nile fever and West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Vector control cost approximately $701,790, including spray procedures and overtime hours. The total economic impact of WNV was $2.98 million. A cost-benefit analysis indicated that only 15 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease would need to be prevented to make the emergency spray cost-effective.

  12. Access to Care for Multiple Sclerosis in Times of Economic Crisis in Greece – the HOPE II Study

    PubMed Central

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Alexopoulou, Elena; Papageorgiou, Manto; Politi, Anastasia; Litsa, Panagiota; Contiades, Xenophon

    2016-01-01

    Background: While there is currently no cure for multiple sclerosis (MS), treatment with biologic disease-modifying drugs (bDMDs) can reduce the impact of the condition on the lives of patients. In Greece, the regulatory change in the distribution system of bDMDs, limited their administration through the designated pharmacies of the National Organization for Healthcare Services Provision (EOPYY) or the National Health System (ESY) hospitals, thus potentially impacting access to MS treatment. In this context, the aim of this paper was to assess the barriers to bDMDs, by recording MS patients’ experiences. Methods: A survey research was conducted between January and February 2014 in Athens and 5 other major Greek cities with the methods of personal and telephone interview. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit socio-economic and medical information, information related to obstacles in accessing bDMDs and medical treatment, from MS patients that visited EOPYY pharmacies during the study period. Results: During the last year 69% of 179 participants reported that the distribution system of bDMDs has improved. Thirteen percent of participants encountered problems in accessing their medication, and 16.9% of participants in accessing their physician, with the obstacles being more pronounced for non-Athens residents. Frequent obstacles to bDMDs were the distance from EOPYY pharmacies and difficulties in obtaining a diagnosis from an EOPYY/ESY physician, while obstacles to medical care were delays in appointment booking and travel difficulties. Conclusion: Even though the major weaknesses of the distribution system of bDMDs have improved, further amelioration of the system could be achieved through the home delivery of medicines to patients living in remote areas, and through the development of a national MS registry. PMID:26927393

  13. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression analysis of cDNA encoding metalloprotein II (MP II) induced by single and combined metals (Cu(II), Cd(II)) in polychaeta Perinereis aibuhitensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dazuo; Zhou, Yibing; Zhao, Huan; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Sun, Na; Wang, Bin; Yuan, Xiutang

    2012-11-01

    We amplified and analyzed the complete cDNA of metalloprotein II (MP II) from the somatic muscle of the polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis, the full length cDNA is 904 bp encoding 119 amino acids. The MP II cDNA sequence was subjected to BLAST searching in NCBI and was found to share high homology with hemerythrin of other worms. MP II expression of P. aibuhitensis exposed to single and combined metals (Cu(II), Cd(II)) was analyzed using real time-PCR. MP II mRNA expression increased at the start of Cu(II) exposure, then decreased and finally return to the normal level. Expression pattern of MP II under Cd(II) exposure was time- and dose-dependent. MP II expression induced by a combination of Cd(II) and Cu(II) was similar to that induced by Cd(II) alone.

  14. Regional economic analysis of current and proposed management alternatives for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie; Donovan, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan must describe the desired future conditions of a refuge and provide long-range guidance and management direction to achieve refuge purposes. The Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge (refuge) is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the refuge must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed refuge management strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess the regional economic implications associated with draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan management strategies. Special interest groups and local residents often criticize a change in refuge management, especially if there is a perceived negative impact to the local economy. Having objective data on economic impacts may show that these fears are overstated. Quite often, the extent of economic benefits a refuge provides to a local community is not fully recognized, yet at the same time the effects of negative changes is overstated. Spending associated with refuge recreational activities, such as wildlife viewing and hunting, can generate considerable tourist activity for surrounding communities. Additionally, refuge personnel typically spend considerable amounts of money purchasing supplies in local stores, repairing equipment and purchasing fuel at the local service stations, and reside and spend their salaries in the local community. For refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan planning, a regional economic assessment provides a means of estimating how current management (no action alternative) and proposed management activities (alternatives) could affect the local economy. This type of analysis provides two critical pieces of

  15. Bio-physical vs. Economic Uncertainty in the Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on World Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, T. W.; Lobell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that agricultural production could be greatly affected by climate change, but there remains little quantitative understanding of how these agricultural impacts would affect economic livelihoods in poor countries. The recent paper by Hertel, Burke and Lobell (GEC, 2010) considers three scenarios of agricultural impacts of climate change, corresponding to the fifth, fiftieth, and ninety fifth percentiles of projected yield distributions for the world’s crops in 2030. They evaluate the resulting changes in global commodity prices, national economic welfare, and the incidence of poverty in a set of 15 developing countries. Although the small price changes under the medium scenario are consistent with previous findings, their low productivity scenario reveals the potential for much larger food price changes than reported in recent studies which have hitherto focused on the most likely outcomes. The poverty impacts of price changes under the extremely adverse scenario are quite heterogeneous and very significant in some population strata. They conclude that it is critical to look beyond central case climate shocks and beyond a simple focus on yields and highly aggregated poverty impacts. In this paper, we conduct a more formal, systematic sensitivity analysis (SSA) with respect to uncertainty in the biophysical impacts of climate change on agriculture, by explicitly specifying joint distributions for global yield changes - this time focusing on 2050. This permits us to place confidence intervals on the resulting price impacts and poverty results which reflect the uncertainty inherited from the biophysical side of the analysis. We contrast this with the economic uncertainty inherited from the global general equilibrium model (GTAP), by undertaking SSA with respect to the behavioral parameters in that model. This permits us to assess which type of uncertainty is more important for regional price and poverty outcomes. Finally, we undertake a

  16. Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

    2010-06-01

    A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

  17. THE CARNEGIE-IRVINE GALAXY SURVEY. II. ISOPHOTAL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhaoyu; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.; Peng, Chien Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey (CGS) is a comprehensive investigation of the physical properties of a complete, representative sample of 605 bright (B{sub T} {<=} 12.9 mag) galaxies in the southern hemisphere. This contribution describes the isophotal analysis of the broadband (BVRI) optical imaging component of the project. We pay close attention to sky subtraction, which is particularly challenging for some of the large galaxies in our sample. Extensive crosschecks with internal and external data confirm that our calibration and sky subtraction techniques are robust with respect to the quoted measurement uncertainties. We present a uniform catalog of one-dimensional radial profiles of surface brightness and geometric parameters, as well as integrated colors and color gradients. Composite profiles highlight the tremendous diversity of brightness distributions found in disk galaxies and their dependence on Hubble type. A significant fraction of S0 and spiral galaxies exhibit non-exponential profiles in their outer regions. We perform Fourier decomposition of the isophotes to quantify non-axisymmetric deviations in the light distribution. We use the geometric parameters, in conjunction with the amplitude and phase of the m = 2 Fourier mode, to identify bars and quantify their size and strength. Spiral arm strengths are characterized using the m = 2 Fourier profiles and structure maps. Finally, we utilize the information encoded in the m = 1 Fourier profiles to measure disk lopsidedness. The databases assembled here and in Paper I lay the foundation for forthcoming scientific applications of CGS.

  18. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  19. Spherical harmonic analysis of steady photospheric flows. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the spherical harmonic functions to analyze the nearly steady flows in the solar photosphere is extended to situations in which B(0) the latitude at disk center, is nonzero and spurious velocities are present. The procedures for extracting the rotation profile and meridional circulation are altered to account for the seasonal tilt of the sun's rotation axis toward and away from the observer. A more robust and accurate method for separating the limb shift and meridional circulation signals is described. The analysis procedures include the ability to mask out areas containing spurious velocities (velocity-like signals that do not represent true flow velocities in the photosphere). The procedures are shown to work well in extracting the various flow components from realistic artificial data with a broad, continuous spectrum for the supergranulation. The presence of this supergranulation signal introduces errors of a few m/s in the measurements of the rotation profile, meridional circulation, and limb shift from a single Doppler image.

  20. An Economic Impact Analysis of the Proposed Yakima/Klickitat Fishery Enhancement Project; Preliminary Design Report, Appendix D.

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Richard S.; Cocheba, Donald J.; Green, Daniel; Hedrick, David W.

    1989-12-27

    The objective of this study is to estimate the economic impact of the proposed Yakima/Klickitat Production Project on the local economies of the Yakima and Klickitat subbasins. The project, when operating at planned maximum production, will augment the total number of salmon and steelhead returning to the subbasins by 77,600 and will increase the sustainable terminal harvest by 55,160. These estimates do not include fish harvested in the ocean or in the mainstem Columbia. In addition to evaluating the impacts of the construction, operations and maintenance, experimentation and monitoring, and harvest activities described in the Draft Environmental Assessment (Bonneville Power Administration, 1989), our analysis also evaluates some passageway improvements and Phase II screening of irrigation structures. Both of these augmentations are required In order for the project to reach maximum planned harvest levels. The study area includes the Yakima Subbasin economy (Yakima and Kittitas counties), the mid-Columbia Basin/Klickitat Subbasin economies (Klickitat, Hood River, and Wasco counties), and the Tri-Cities economy (Benton and Franklin counties). The study period extends from 1990 through 2015: from preconstruction planning activities through reaching maximum production.

  1. Socio-economic analysis for the authorisation of chemicals under REACH: a case of very high concern?

    PubMed

    Gabbert, Silke; Scheringer, Martin; Ng, Carla A; Stolzenberg, Hans-Christian

    2014-11-01

    Under the European chemicals' legislation, REACH, substances that are identified to be of "very high concern" will de facto be removed from the market unless the European Commission grants authorisations permitting specific uses. Companies who apply for an authorisation without demonstrating "adequate control" of the risks have to show by means of a socio-economic analysis (SEA) that positive impacts of use outweigh negative impacts for human health and ecosystems. This paper identifies core challenges where further in-depth guidance is urgently required in order to ensure that a SEA can deliver meaningful results and that it can effectively support decision-making on authorisation. In particular, we emphasise the need (i) to better guide the selection of tools for impact assessment, (ii) to explicitly account for stock pollution effects in impact assessments for persistent and very persistent chemicals, (iii) to define suitable impact indicators for PBT/vPvB chemicals given the lack of reliable information about safe concentration levels, (iv) to guide how impacts can be transformed into values for decision-making, and (v) to provide a well-balanced discussion of discounting of long-term impacts of chemicals. PMID:25220186

  2. Project on restaurant energy performance: end-use monitoring and analysis. Appendixes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Claar, C.N.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Heidell, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    This is the second volume of the report, ''The Porject on Restaurant Energy Performance - End-Use Monitoring and Analysis''. The first volume (PNL-5462) contains a summary and analysis of the metered energy performance data collected by the Project on Restaurant Energy Performance (PREP). Appendix I, presented here, contains monitoring site descriptions, measurement plans, and data summaries for the seven restaurants metered for PREP. Appendix II, also in this volume, is a description of the PREP computer system.

  3. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging.

    PubMed

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC--splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD--splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis. PMID:24972360

  4. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC-splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD-splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

  5. Control of pT181 replication II. Mutational analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Carleton, S; Projan, S J; Highlander, S K; Moghazeh, S M; Novick, R P

    1984-01-01

    We describe the isolation and analysis of mutations affecting the regulation of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pT181 replication. Previous results suggested that regulation is achieved by control of the synthesis of RepC, a plasmid-coded replication protein and that the primary negative control element is CopA RNA, which consists of two transcripts that are complementary to the 5' region of the repC mRNA leader. CopA inhibition probably involves a base pairing interaction with the complementary region of the RepC mRNA leader which would facilitate the formation of a downstream stem-loop in the leader that occludes the repC ribosome binding site. RepC is freely diffusible so that regulation of pT181 replication is indirect. Both CopA RNA-sensitive (recessive) and -insensitive (dominant) mutants were isolated. The recessives have defects in CopA RNA structure or activity, the dominants have defects in the site of action (target) of the inhibitor. Some dominants were located within the copA coding sequence. These therefore affect the structure of CopA RNA as well as that of its target. Other dominant mutations mapped outside of the copA gene and therefore produced wild-type CopA RNA. In contrast to directly regulated plasmids, pT181 copy mutants producing wild-type inhibitor could be co-maintained with the wild-type plasmid and mutational changes in inhibitor-target specificity did not change incompatibility specificity. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. PMID:6437809

  6. TRINITY II: A post-processing program for two-dimensional finite element analysis data

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, J.H.; Gartling, D.K.

    1988-05-01

    TRINITY II is a program for post-processing data from two-dimensional finite element analyses. The program provides graphical display of mesh and solution data as well as data manipulation, file editing and selective printing of data. TRINITY II accepts data from any analysis code that employs the EXODUS file format; post-processing can be done interactively or in batch mode using any graphics device supported by the Sandia Virtual Device Interface. The capabilities and use of the program are described. 4 refs.

  7. Erythrocyte membrane analysis for type II diabetes detection using Raman spectroscopy in high-wavenumber region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinyong; Zeng, Yongyi; Lin, Juqiang; Wang, Jing; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2014-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy was employed to detect lipid variation occurring in type II diabetic erythrocyte membrane (EM) without using exogenous reagents. In high-wavenumber (HW) region, significant Raman spectral differences between diabetic and normal EM are observed at 2850, 2873, 2885, 2935, and 2965 cm-1, which are mainly related to lipid in EM. Based on principal component analysis, the diagnostic accuracy of HW region for diabetes detection is 98.8%, which is much higher than that of low-wavenumber region (82.9%). The results suggest that EM HW Raman region has great promise for the reagent-free and non-invasive detection of type II diabetes.

  8. [Dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province: a structural decomposition analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Long; Chen, Xing-Peng; Yang, Jing; Xue, Bing; Li, Yong-Jin

    2010-02-01

    Based on the ideology of macro environmental economics, a function of environmental pressure represented by pollutant emission was built, and the relative importance of the driving factors in the dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province in 1990 - 2005 was analyzed by using structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model combining with 'refined Laspeyres' method. In the study period, the environmental pressure in the Province was mainly caused by the emission of waste gases and solids in the process of economic growth, and showed a rapid increasing trend at the late stage of the period. Population factor had less impact on the increase of this environmental pressure, while economic growth factor had obvious impact on it. Technological progress did mitigate, but could not offset the impact of economic growth factor, and the impacts of economic growth and technological factors on the environmental pressure differed with the kinds of pollutants. PMID:20462016

  9. [Dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province: a structural decomposition analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Long; Chen, Xing-Peng; Yang, Jing; Xue, Bing; Li, Yong-Jin

    2010-02-01

    Based on the ideology of macro environmental economics, a function of environmental pressure represented by pollutant emission was built, and the relative importance of the driving factors in the dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province in 1990 - 2005 was analyzed by using structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model combining with 'refined Laspeyres' method. In the study period, the environmental pressure in the Province was mainly caused by the emission of waste gases and solids in the process of economic growth, and showed a rapid increasing trend at the late stage of the period. Population factor had less impact on the increase of this environmental pressure, while economic growth factor had obvious impact on it. Technological progress did mitigate, but could not offset the impact of economic growth factor, and the impacts of economic growth and technological factors on the environmental pressure differed with the kinds of pollutants.

  10. Bioinformatic Analysis of Plasma Apolipoproteins A-I and A-II Revealed Unique Features of A-I/A-II HDL Particles in Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Kido, Toshimi; Kurata, Hideaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Itakura, Hiroshige; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Urata, Takeyoshi; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Plasma concentration of apoA-I, apoA-II and apoA-II-unassociated apoA-I was analyzed in 314 Japanese subjects (177 males and 137 females), including one (male) homozygote and 37 (20 males and 17 females) heterozygotes of genetic CETP deficiency. ApoA-I unassociated with apoA-II markedly and linearly increased with HDL-cholesterol, while apoA-II increased only very slightly and the ratio of apoA-II-associated apoA-I to apoA-II stayed constant at 2 in molar ratio throughout the increase of HDL-cholesterol, among the wild type and heterozygous CETP deficiency. Thus, overall HDL concentration almost exclusively depends on HDL with apoA-I without apoA-II (LpAI) while concentration of HDL containing apoA-I and apoA-II (LpAI:AII) is constant having a fixed molar ratio of 2 : 1 regardless of total HDL and apoA-I concentration. Distribution of apoA-I between LpAI and LpAI:AII is consistent with a model of statistical partitioning regardless of sex and CETP genotype. The analysis also indicated that LpA-I accommodates on average 4 apoA-I molecules and has a clearance rate indistinguishable from LpAI:AII. Independent evidence indicated LpAI:A-II has a diameter 20% smaller than LpAI, consistent with a model having two apoA-I and one apoA-II. The functional contribution of these particles is to be investigated. PMID:27526664

  11. Bioinformatic Analysis of Plasma Apolipoproteins A-I and A-II Revealed Unique Features of A-I/A-II HDL Particles in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Toshimi; Kurata, Hideaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Itakura, Hiroshige; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Urata, Takeyoshi; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Plasma concentration of apoA-I, apoA-II and apoA-II-unassociated apoA-I was analyzed in 314 Japanese subjects (177 males and 137 females), including one (male) homozygote and 37 (20 males and 17 females) heterozygotes of genetic CETP deficiency. ApoA-I unassociated with apoA-II markedly and linearly increased with HDL-cholesterol, while apoA-II increased only very slightly and the ratio of apoA-II-associated apoA-I to apoA-II stayed constant at 2 in molar ratio throughout the increase of HDL-cholesterol, among the wild type and heterozygous CETP deficiency. Thus, overall HDL concentration almost exclusively depends on HDL with apoA-I without apoA-II (LpAI) while concentration of HDL containing apoA-I and apoA-II (LpAI:AII) is constant having a fixed molar ratio of 2 : 1 regardless of total HDL and apoA-I concentration. Distribution of apoA-I between LpAI and LpAI:AII is consistent with a model of statistical partitioning regardless of sex and CETP genotype. The analysis also indicated that LpA-I accommodates on average 4 apoA-I molecules and has a clearance rate indistinguishable from LpAI:AII. Independent evidence indicated LpAI:A-II has a diameter 20% smaller than LpAI, consistent with a model having two apoA-I and one apoA-II. The functional contribution of these particles is to be investigated. PMID:27526664

  12. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 1: Summary and conclusions. [management analysis of the economic benefits of the SEASAT program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A summary is presented of the economic benefits that can be derived from using the SEASAT Satellite System. A statement of the major findings of case studies of the practical applications of the SEASAT program to the following areas is given: (1) offshore oil and natural gas industry, (2) ocean mining, (3) coastal zones, (4) oil exploration in Arctic regions, (5) ocean fishing, and (6) ports and harbors. Also given is a description of the SEASAT System and its performance. A computer program, used to optimize SEASAT System's costs and operational requirements, is also considered.

  13. A politico-economic analysis of decision making in funding health service organisations.

    PubMed

    Jan, Stephen; Dommers, Eric; Mooney, Gavin

    2003-08-01

    From a normative perspective, conventional economic analysis is often used to establish a framework in which social objectives can be built into the decision-making process. The health economics literature, however, tends to overlook the positive analysis of decision making--often assuming particular social objectives that may or may not correspond with reality. This perhaps explains why exercises in health economics priority setting on occasions break down. This study is a positive analysis of group decision making. It examines the process of deliberating upon proposed changes to funding arrangements across Divisions of General Practice in Queensland, Australia. Existing levels of funding had, for a number of years, largely been determined by an allocation formula. The motivation for this study was a perceived inequity created by the long-term under-funding of smaller (resource poor or 'marginal') Divisions. The challenge in this project was that any change in funding arrangements required the support of all the Divisions but also would potentially create 'winners' and 'losers'. Decision making within such an institutional context was rendered a zero sum game. This paper documents a consultative process whereby the relevant stakeholders, with clear interests in any decision, were asked to participate in deliberations as to how such a problem should be tackled. The objective was, in the face of adverse incentives, to derive recommendations for addressing existing shortfalls experienced by some of these Divisions. The process involved encouraging relevant players to take into consideration the global allocation issues and to move beyond their localised interests. The results indicate that such a process can be effective in not only generating the necessary goodwill to enable such group decision making, but also in establishing a more realistic set of policy recommendations. PMID:12791486

  14. RO concentrate minimization by electrodialysis: techno-economic analysis and environmental concerns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Ghyselbrecht, Karel; Vanherpe, Ruben; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Pinoy, Luc; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2012-09-30

    This paper presents a systematic techno-economical analysis and an environmental impact evaluation of a reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate treatment process using electrodialysis (ED) in view of environmental management of brine discharges. The concentrate originates from a secondary effluent treated by RO. Without any treatment, the concentrate would have to be discharged; this is compared in this study to the costs and benefits of an effective treatment method in a pilot scale ED plant. A technical analysis was done both on lab scale and pilot scale for the determination of operational and maintenance costs for the ED installation at the required conditions of process performance and safety. Subsequently, an economical analysis was done to calculate the cost of the different parts of the ED system. It was shown that an operational cost of 0.19 EUR m(-3) can be achieved, assuming that the ED concentrate is to decarbonated at pH 6.0 to prevent membrane scaling. Finally, environmental impact issues were calculated and discussed for the overall system. Results imply that if renewable energy is applied for the ED power source, CO(2) emission from membrane processes can be much less than from the conventional treatment methods. PMID:22579771

  15. Techno-economic analysis of monosaccharide production via fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanan; Brown, Tristan R; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    The economic feasibility of a facility producing monosaccharides, hydrogen and transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis and upgrading pathway was evaluated by modeling a 2000 dry metric ton biomass/day facility using Aspen Plus®. Equipment sizing and cost were based on Aspen Economic Evaluation® software. The results indicate that monosaccharide production capacity could reach 338 metric tons/day. Co-product yields of hydrogen and gasoline were 23.4 and 141 metric tons/day, respectively. The total installed equipment and total capital costs were estimated to be $210 million and $326 million, respectively. A facility internal rate of return (IRR) of 11.4% based on market prices of $3.33/kg hydrogen, $2.92/gal gasoline and diesel, $0.64/kg monosaccharide was calculated. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that fixed capital cost, feedstock cost, product yields, and product credits have the greatest impacts on facility IRR. Further research is needed to optimize yield of sugar via the proposed process to improve economic feasibility.

  16. [Assessment of eco-economic system sustainable development of Liaoning province based on emergy analysis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Cheng, Quan-Guo; Li, Ye; Fu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    By constructing an evaluation system based on emergy analysis which included emergy flow, source of emergy index, social subsystem evaluation index, economic subsystem evaluation index, natural subsystem evaluation index and composite index, the development and sustainability of the eco-economic system of Liaoning Province between 2000 and 2010 were evaluated. The result showed that from 2000 to 2010, the total used emergy increased from 3440.12 x 10(20) sej to 7636.33 x 10(20) sej, among which the proportion of the nonrenewable emergy in 2010 occupied the most in the total by 68.6% , and the emergy per capita increased from 8.32 x 10(15) sej to 17.96 x 10(15) sej. The emergy self-support ratio in the system was generally higher, while it dropped from 91.1% in 2000 to 79.9% in 2010. The emergy loading ratio increased from 3.22 to 7.80, the emergy sustainable index dropped from 3.47 to 0.64, and the emergy index for sustainable development decreased from 6.73 to 1.56. It suggested the eco-economic system of Liaoning Province presented an unsustainable development trend. The development level of Liaoning in 2010 merely equaled to the level of Japan and America in the 1980s.

  17. Design, Operation and Economic Analysis of Autonomous Hybrid PV-Diesel Power Systems Including Battery Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Demetrios P.; Maltas, Eleftherios Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic techno-economic analysis of autonomous PV-Diesel energy system with battery storage. This hybrid type power system was developed and installed on the roof of the Electrical Engineering Laboratory building in the city of Xanthi, Greece, where a weather station is also installed providing necessary meteorological data since 2002. Such system can be generally used to supply electrical loads of isolated remote areas. The actual design of such a system is based on: a pre-defined load pattern to be supplied; the pertinent weather data; the relevant market prices; and the applicable recent economic rates (eg June 2009 for the Greek case). The system is operated on a predictive manner using a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) which controls the main system parameters for safe and continuous power supply to meet reliably the desired load demand. Three distinct systems of this type and of equal capacity, which combine energy sources and battery storage have been proposed and assessed technically and economically.

  18. Economic analysis of solar assisted absorption chiller for a commercial building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonyraj, Gnananesan

    Dwindling fossil fuels coupled with changes in global climate intensified the drive to make use of renewable energy resources that have negligible impact on the environment. In this attempt, the industrial community produced various devices and systems to make use of solar energy for heating and cooling of building space as well as generate electric power. The most common components employed for collection of solar energy are the flat plate and evacuated tube collectors that produce hot water that can be employed for heating the building space. In order to cool the building, the absorption chiller is commonly employed that requires hot water at high temperatures for its operation. This thesis deals with economic analysis of solar collector and absorption cooling system to meet the building loads of a commercial building located in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Computer simulations are employed to predict the hourly building loads and performance of the flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors using the hourly weather data. The key variables affecting the economic evaluation of such system are identified and the influence of these parameters is presented. The results of this investigation show that the flat plate solar collectors yield lower payback period compared to the evacuated tube collectors and economic incentives offered by the local and federal agencies play a major role in lowering the payback period.

  19. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Joshua

    2015-07-30

    This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.

  20. [Assessment of eco-economic system sustainable development of Liaoning province based on emergy analysis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Cheng, Quan-Guo; Li, Ye; Fu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    By constructing an evaluation system based on emergy analysis which included emergy flow, source of emergy index, social subsystem evaluation index, economic subsystem evaluation index, natural subsystem evaluation index and composite index, the development and sustainability of the eco-economic system of Liaoning Province between 2000 and 2010 were evaluated. The result showed that from 2000 to 2010, the total used emergy increased from 3440.12 x 10(20) sej to 7636.33 x 10(20) sej, among which the proportion of the nonrenewable emergy in 2010 occupied the most in the total by 68.6% , and the emergy per capita increased from 8.32 x 10(15) sej to 17.96 x 10(15) sej. The emergy self-support ratio in the system was generally higher, while it dropped from 91.1% in 2000 to 79.9% in 2010. The emergy loading ratio increased from 3.22 to 7.80, the emergy sustainable index dropped from 3.47 to 0.64, and the emergy index for sustainable development decreased from 6.73 to 1.56. It suggested the eco-economic system of Liaoning Province presented an unsustainable development trend. The development level of Liaoning in 2010 merely equaled to the level of Japan and America in the 1980s. PMID:24765860

  1. Analysis of the formation, expression, and economic impacts of risk perceptions associated with nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, T.; Hunter, S.; Calzonetti, F.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report investigates how communities hosting nuclear facilities form and express perceptions of risk and how these risk perceptions affect local economic development. Information was collected from site visits and interviews with plant personnel, officials of local and state agencies, and community activists in the hosting communities. Six commercial nuclear fuel production facilities and five nuclear facilities operated for the US Department of Energy by private contractors were chosen for analysis. The results presented in the report indicate that the nature of risk perceptions depends on a number of factors. These factors are (1) level of communication by plant officials within the local community, (2) track record of the facility. operator, (3) process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, (4) level of economic links each plant has with the local community, and (15) physical characteristics of the facility itself. This report finds that in the communities studied, adverse ask perceptions have not affected business location decisions, employment levels in the local community, tourism, or agricultural development. On the basis of case-study findings, this report recommends that nuclear facility siting programs take the following observations into account when addressing perceptions of risk. First, the quality of a facility`s participation with community activists, interest groups, and state agencies helps to determine the level of perceived risk within a community. Second, the development of strong economic links between nuclear facilities and their host communities will produce a higher level of acceptance of the nuclear facilities.

  2. Analytical Problems and Suggestions in the Analysis of Behavioral Economic Demand Curves.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral economic demand curves (Hursh, Raslear, Shurtleff, Bauman, & Simmons, 1988) are innovative approaches to characterize the relationships between consumption of a substance and its price. In this article, we investigate common analytical issues in the use of behavioral economic demand curves, which can cause inconsistent interpretations of demand curves, and then we provide methodological suggestions to address those analytical issues. We first demonstrate that log transformation with different added values for handling zeros changes model parameter estimates dramatically. Second, demand curves are often analyzed using an overparameterized model that results in an inefficient use of the available data and a lack of assessment of the variability among individuals. To address these issues, we apply a nonlinear mixed effects model based on multivariate error structures that has not been used previously to analyze behavioral economic demand curves in the literature. We also propose analytical formulas for the relevant standard errors of derived values such as P max, O max, and elasticity. The proposed model stabilizes the derived values regardless of using different added increments and provides substantially smaller standard errors. We illustrate the data analysis procedure using data from a relative reinforcement efficacy study of simulated marijuana purchasing. PMID:26741176

  3. An economic analysis of the limits of market based reforms in the English NHS

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past three decades, a limited range of market like mechanisms have been introduced into the hierarchically structured English National Health Service (‘NHS’), which is a nationally tax funded, budget limited healthcare system, with access to care for all, producing structures known as a quasi market. Recently, the Health and Social Care Act 2012 (‘HSCA’) has been enacted, introducing further market elements. The paper examines the theory and effects of these market mechanisms. Methods Using neo-classical economics as a primary theoretical framework, as well as new institutional economics and socio-legal theory, the paper first examines the fundamental elements of markets, comparing these with the operation of authority and resource allocation employed in hierarchical structures. Second, the paper examines the application of market concepts to the delivery of healthcare, drawing out the problems which economic and socio-legal theories predict are likely to be encountered. Third, the paper discusses the research evidence concerning the operation of the quasi market in the English NHS. This evidence is provided by research conducted in the UK which uses economic and socio-legal logic to investigate the operation of the economic aspects of the NHS quasi market. Fourth, the paper provides an analysis of the salient elements of the quasi market regime amended by the HSCA 2012. Results It is not possible to construct a market conforming to classical economic principles in respect of healthcare. Moreover, it is not desirable to do so, as goals which markets cannot deliver (such as fairness of access) are crucial in England. Most of the evidence shows that the quasi market mechanisms used in the English NHS do not appear to be effective either. This finding should be seen in the light of the fact that the operation of these mechanisms has been significantly affected by the national political (i.e. continuingly hierarchical) and budgetary context

  4. Analysis of the economic impacts from ethanol production in three New York State regions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, J.C.; Boisvert, R.N.; Kalter, R.J.

    1982-11-01

    This report describes the potential local economic impact of ethanol production industries for three multi-county regions of New York State. The study's input-output analysis suggests that investment in a small cheese whey-ethanol plant would generate far more local employment, per gallon of annual capacity, than a large corn-based plant which would rely more heavily on feedstocks from the outside region. In addition, a cheese whey ethanol plant's impact on dairies in the region would have a greater effect on the local economy than the ethanol plant itself.

  5. Magnetic Nanofluid Rare Earth Element Extraction Process Report, Techno Economic Analysis, and Results for Geothermal Fluids

    DOE Data Explorer

    Pete McGrail

    2016-03-14

    This GDR submission is an interim technical report and raw data files from the first year of testing on functionalized nanoparticles for rare earth element extraction from geothermal fluids. The report contains Rare Earth Element uptake results (percent removal, mg Rare Earth Element/gram of sorbent, distribution coefficient) for the elements of Neodymium, Europium, Yttrium, Dysprosium, and Cesium. A detailed techno economic analysis is also presented in the report for a scaled up geothermal rare earth element extraction process. All rare earth element uptake testing was done on simulated geothermal brines with one rare earth element in each brine. The rare earth element uptake testing was conducted at room temperature.

  6. Performance testing and economic analysis of a photovoltaic flywheel energy storage and conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, R. D.; Millner, A. R.; Jarvinen, P. O.

    1980-01-01

    A subscale prototype of a flywheel energy storage and conversion system for use with photovoltaic power systems of residential and intermediate load-center size has been designed, built and tested by MIT Lincoln Laboratory. System design, including details of such key components as magnetic bearings, motor generator, and power conditioning electronics, is described. Performance results of prototype testing are given and indicate that this system is the equal of or superior to battery-inverter systems for the same application. Results of cost and user-worth analysis show that residential systems are economically feasible in stand-alone and in some utility-interactive applications.

  7. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 2 - Epidemiology, Wildlife and Economics.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research, and in this study, we consider (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) economics. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. During 2011-2015, modelling studies were dominant in the broad field of epidemiology; however, continued efforts are required to develop robust models for use during outbreaks in FMD-free countries, linking epidemiologic and economics models. More guidance is needed for both the evaluation and the setting of targets for vaccine coverage, population immunity and vaccine field efficacy. Similarly, methods for seroprevalence studies need to be improved to obtain more meaningful outputs that allow comparison across studies. To inform control programmes in endemic countries, field trials assessing the effectiveness of vaccination in extensive smallholder systems should be performed to determine whether FMD can be controlled with quality vaccines in settings where implementing effective biosecurity is challenging. Studies need to go beyond measuring only vaccine effects and should extend our knowledge of the impact of FMD and increase our understanding of how to maximize farmer participation in disease control. Where wildlife reservoirs of virus exist, particularly African Buffalo, we need to better understand when and under what circumstances transmission to domestic animals occurs in order to manage this risk appropriately, considering the impact of control measures on livelihoods and wildlife. For settings where FMD eradication is unfeasible, further ground testing of commodity-based trade is recommended. A thorough review of global FMD control programmes, covering successes and failures, would be extremely valuable and could be used to guide other control programmes. PMID:27320163

  8. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 2 - Epidemiology, Wildlife and Economics.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research, and in this study, we consider (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) economics. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. During 2011-2015, modelling studies were dominant in the broad field of epidemiology; however, continued efforts are required to develop robust models for use during outbreaks in FMD-free countries, linking epidemiologic and economics models. More guidance is needed for both the evaluation and the setting of targets for vaccine coverage, population immunity and vaccine field efficacy. Similarly, methods for seroprevalence studies need to be improved to obtain more meaningful outputs that allow comparison across studies. To inform control programmes in endemic countries, field trials assessing the effectiveness of vaccination in extensive smallholder systems should be performed to determine whether FMD can be controlled with quality vaccines in settings where implementing effective biosecurity is challenging. Studies need to go beyond measuring only vaccine effects and should extend our knowledge of the impact of FMD and increase our understanding of how to maximize farmer participation in disease control. Where wildlife reservoirs of virus exist, particularly African Buffalo, we need to better understand when and under what circumstances transmission to domestic animals occurs in order to manage this risk appropriately, considering the impact of control measures on livelihoods and wildlife. For settings where FMD eradication is unfeasible, further ground testing of commodity-based trade is recommended. A thorough review of global FMD control programmes, covering successes and failures, would be extremely valuable and could be used to guide other control programmes.

  9. Neo-liberal economic practices and population health: a cross-national analysis, 1980-2004.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Melissa; Kruk, Margaret E; Harper, Christine; Galea, Sandro

    2010-04-01

    Although there has been substantial debate and research concerning the economic impact of neo-liberal practices, there is a paucity of research about the potential relation between neo-liberal economic practices and population health. We assessed the extent to which neo-liberal policies and practices are associated with population health at the national level. We collected data on 119 countries between 1980 and 2004. We measured neo-liberalism using the Fraser Institute's Economic Freedom of the World (EFW) Index, which gives an overall score as well as a score for each of five different aspects of neo-liberal economic practices: (1) size of government, (2) legal structure and security of property rights, (3) access to sound money, (4) freedom to exchange with foreigners and (5) regulation of credit, labor and business. Our measure of population health was under-five mortality. We controlled for potential mediators (income distribution, social capital and openness of political institutions) and confounders (female literacy, total population, rural population, fertility, gross domestic product per capita and time period). In longitudinal multivariable analyses, we found that the EFW index did not have an effect on child mortality but that two of its components: improved security of property rights and access to sound money were associated with lower under-five mortality (p = 0.017 and p = 0.024, respectively). When stratifying the countries by level of income, less regulation of credit, labor and business was associated with lower under-five mortality in high-income countries (p = 0.001). None of the EFW components were significantly associated with under-five mortality in low-income countries. This analysis suggests that the concept of 'neo-liberalism' is not a monolithic entity in its relation to health and that some 'neo-liberal' policies are consistent with improved population health. Further work is needed to corroborate or refute these findings. PMID:19723354

  10. Techno-economic analysis of renewable energy source options for a district heating project

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2009-09-01

    With the increased interest in exploiting renewable energy sources for district heating applications, the economic comparison of viable options has been considered as an important step in making a sound decision. In this paper, the economic performance of several energy options for a district heating system in Vancouver, British Columbia, is studied. The considered district heating system includes a 10 MW peaking/ backup natural gas boiler to provide about 40% of the annual energy requirement and a 2.5 MW base-load system. The energy options for the base-load system include: wood pellet, sewer heat, and geothermal heat. Present values of initial and operating costs of each system were calculated over 25-year service life of the systems, considering depreciation and salvage as a negative cost item. It was shown that the wood pellet heat producing technologies provided less expensive energy followed by the sewer heat recovery, geothermal and natural gas systems. Among wood pellet technologies, the grate burner was a less expensive option than powder and gasifier technologies. It was found that using natural gas as a fuel source for the peaking/backup system accounted for more than 40% of the heat production cost for the considered district heating center. This is mainly due to the high natural gas prices which cause high operating costs over the service life of the district heating system. Variations in several economic inputs did not change the ranking of the technology options in the sensitivity analysis. However, it was found that the results were more sensitive to changes in operating costs of the system than changes in initial investment. It is economical to utilize wood pellet boilers to provide the base-load energy requirement of district heating systems Moreover, the current business approach to use natural gas systems for peaking and backup in district heating systems could increase the cost of heat production significantly.

  11. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: economics and marketing-finance.

    PubMed

    Kalogeras, N; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Pennings, J M E; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    All market participants (e.g., investors, producers, consumers) accept a certain level of risk as necessary to achieve certain benefits. There are many types of risk including price, production, financial, institutional, and individual human risks. All these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption and/or catastrophic economic consequences for the food industry. The identification, analysis, determination, and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in the food markets may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well-informed and effective corporate investment strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. In this paper, we discuss the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of market-participants, who are engaged in the upstream and downstream stages of the food supply chain. In addition, we review the most common approaches (expected utility model and psychometrics) for measuring benefit-risk trade-offs in the economics and marketing-finance literature, and different factors that may affect the economic behaviour in the light of benefit-risk analyses. Building on the findings of our review, we introduce a conceptual framework to study the benefit-risk behaviour of market participants. Specifically, we suggest the decoupling of benefits and risks into the separate components of utilitarian benefits, hedonic benefits, and risk attitude and risk perception, respectively. Predicting and explaining how market participants in the food industry form their overall attitude in light of benefit-risk trade-offs may be critical for policy-makers and managers who need to understand the drivers of the economic behaviour of market participants with respect to production, marketing and consumption of food products. PMID:21871522

  12. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: economics and marketing-finance.

    PubMed

    Kalogeras, N; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Pennings, J M E; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    All market participants (e.g., investors, producers, consumers) accept a certain level of risk as necessary to achieve certain benefits. There are many types of risk including price, production, financial, institutional, and individual human risks. All these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption and/or catastrophic economic consequences for the food industry. The identification, analysis, determination, and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in the food markets may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well-informed and effective corporate investment strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. In this paper, we discuss the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of market-participants, who are engaged in the upstream and downstream stages of the food supply chain. In addition, we review the most common approaches (expected utility model and psychometrics) for measuring benefit-risk trade-offs in the economics and marketing-finance literature, and different factors that may affect the economic behaviour in the light of benefit-risk analyses. Building on the findings of our review, we introduce a conceptual framework to study the benefit-risk behaviour of market participants. Specifically, we suggest the decoupling of benefits and risks into the separate components of utilitarian benefits, hedonic benefits, and risk attitude and risk perception, respectively. Predicting and explaining how market participants in the food industry form their overall attitude in light of benefit-risk trade-offs may be critical for policy-makers and managers who need to understand the drivers of the economic behaviour of market participants with respect to production, marketing and consumption of food products.

  13. Constituting fully integrated visual analysis system for Cu(II) on TiO₂/cellulose paper.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Xing; Lin, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Feng-Ying; Liang, Wenjie; Zhong, Yanxue; Cai, Jiabai

    2014-07-15

    As a cheap and abundant porous material, cellulose filter paper was used to immobilize nano-TiO2 and denoted as TiO2/cellulose paper (TCP). With high adsorption capacity for Cu(II) (more than 1.65 mg), TCP was used as an adsorbent, photocatalyst, and colorimetric sensor at the same time. Under the optimum adsorption conditions, i.e., pH 6.5 and 25 °C, the adsorption ratio of Cu(II) was higher than 96.1%. Humic substances from the matrix could be enriched onto TCP but the interference of their colors on colorimetric detection could be eliminated by the photodegradation. In the presence of hydroxylamine, neocuproine, as a selective indicator, was added onto TCP, and a visual color change from white to orange was generated. The concentration of Cu(II) was quantified by the color intensity images using image processing software. This fully integrated visual analysis system was successfully applied for the detection of Cu(II) in 10.0 L of drinking water and seawater with a preconcentration factor of 10(4). The log-linear calibration curve for Cu(II) was in the range of 0.5-50.0 μg L(-1) with a determination coefficient (R(2)) of 0.985 and its detection limit was 0.073 μg L(-1).

  14. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) gonadotrophin-I and -II subunits.

    PubMed

    Hassin, S; Elizur, A; Zohar, Y

    1995-08-01

    Two types of cDNA, each encoding a different beta-subunit of striped bass (Morone saxatilis, Teleostei) gonadotrophins (GTH-I beta and GTH-II beta), as well as the glycoprotein alpha-subunit, were cloned by screening a striped bass pituitary cDNA library. The probes used for screening the library were cloned cDNA fragments, generated by PCR amplification of reverse-transcribed mRNA obtained from two pituitaries. The nucleotide sequences of the alpha-subunit, GTH-I beta and GTH-II beta are 626, 524 and 580 bases long, encoding peptides of 117, 120 and 147 amino acids respectively. Striped bass GTH-I beta and GTH-II beta share a sequence identity of 48% at the nucleic acid level, and 30% at the amino acid level. A cluster analysis of vertebrate pituitary glycoprotein beta-subunits suggests that teleost GTH-II beta is more closely related to tetrapod LH than to FSH. Administration of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue ([D-Ala6,Pro9Net]-LHRH) to juvenile striped resulted in ten-, two- and fivefold increases in the expression of the alpha-subunit, GTH-I beta and GTH-II beta respectively. These results suggest that each of the GTH subunits is differentially regulated, and further corroborate the functional duality of teleost gonadotrophins.

  15. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the §1603 Treasury Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Daniel; Porro, Gian; Goldberg, Marshall

    2012-04-09

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the §1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the §1603 grant program.

  16. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the §1603Treasury Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Daniel; Porro, Gian; Goldberg, Marshall

    2012-04-01

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the §1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the §1603 grant program.

  17. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the ..Section..1603 Treasury Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, D.; Porro, G.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-04-01

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the Section 1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the Section 1603 grant program.

  18. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs.

  19. Analysis of cobalt(II) in 2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)pentaammine cobalt(III) perchlorate

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.J.; Brown, N.E.; Deutsch, E.A.

    1985-10-30

    A new method of analysis is described for cobalt(II) complexes in 2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)pentaammine cobalt(III) perchlorate. The color reagent is 2,2'-dipyridyl-2-pyridyl hydrazone (DPPH), which complexes with the Co(II) and is oxidized to a substitution inert Co(III) (DPPH)/sub 2/ complex. Interferences from other ions is not a problem because the complex is stable at pH 2 - where complexes formed between DPPH and other ions are not stable. The usual air oxidant in this type of analysis has been replaced with ammonium peroxydisulfate improving both the precision and accuracy. The Sandell sensitivity is 0.0015 ..mu..g Co(II)/cm/sup 2/. The system obeys Beer's Law up to 4 ..mu..g in Co(II)mL of solution and has a molar absorptivity of 3.9 x 10/sup 4/ L/mole cm at 514 nm. The procedure was used to determine the degree of decomposition in samples that had undergone partial thermal decomposition. 11 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Analysis of thermophilic fungal populations during phase II of composting for the cultivation of Agaricus subrufescens.

    PubMed

    Souza, Thiago Pereira; Marques, Simone Cristina; da Silveira e Santos, Débora Marques; Dias, Eustáquio Souza

    2014-09-01

    The composition and genetic diversity of fungal populations during phase II of compost production for the cultivation of Agaricus subrufescens was determined using culture-dependent and -independent methods on days 3, 6, 10, 12, and 14 of phase II composting. The isolates were morphologically characterized and subsequently analyzed using repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences (rep-PCR), and the intergenic region was sequenced to genetically identify the isolates. Changes on in the filamentous fungi population were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the resulting bands were sequenced. The population did not significantly change from day 3 to 10 (2.55 x 10(5) -6 x 10(5) CFU g(-1)), and maximum counts on day 14 of phase II composting (6.92 log CFU g(-1)). In the morphological characterization, Scytalidium thermophilum, Thermomyces lanuginosus, and Thermomyces ibadanensis were the most abundant identified species. The 26 most abundant isolates identified by morphological analysis were characterized using rep-PCR. A significant amount of genetic diversity was detected among the isolates of all three studied species. Based on the DGGE analysis, the diversity of the fungi was reduced during phase II composting, and S. thermophilum was the predominant species identified throughout the entire process. Thus, this study presents the first report of the involvement of T. ibadanensis in the production of compost for Agaricus mushroom cultivation.

  1. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume II - Potentiometric Data Document Package

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Volume II of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the potentiometric data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  2. Integration of Socio-Economic Measures in Benefit-Cost Analysis for Groundwater Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaqadan, A. A.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.; Khalil, Y. H.

    2006-12-01

    Groundwater quality is a major concern since sources of contamination are common and degraded water quality has severe economic and health impacts to the society. Management of contaminated groundwater resources has been a challenge due to limited resources committed to monitor and remediate a large number of contaminated sites. Therefore, there is a prominent question on the optimal allocation of resources for additional data collection and actual remedial measures. In this work, we extended the risk assessment methodology under subsurface heterogeneity and population variability proposed by others to estimate individuals' willingness-to-pay(WTP) for a proposed risk reduction by adding socio-economic measures. We introduced one of the early applications of welfare measures namely, health state, utility, and WTP concepts to study the benefits and costs of collecting additional data to reduce uncertainty for groundwater remediation. The proposed framework considered uncertainty due to subsurface heterogeneity and public health risk through a utility theory based approach that can be used in decision-making. Our framework replaced costly contingent valuation approaches and used a meta analysis which considered a theoretical structure on population age, income, and health state and used empirical estimates from previous contingent valuation methods. We also performed sensitivity analysis on important variables such as WTP and utility levels. Our findings showed that health state and age have vital impacts on WTP. The predictions of WTP trends are consistent with patterns expected in economic theory. We illustrated the proposed framework by evaluating two scenarios of gathering additional information to better describe subsurface heterogeneity. In this example we considered a small addition of data at a correlation scale of 112 m versus a large addition of data at a correlation scale of 22 m. The results showed the two scenarios have annual individuals' WTP of 258 and

  3. Techno-economic analysis of wastewater sludge gasification: a decentralized urban perspective.

    PubMed

    Lumley, Nicholas P G; Ramey, Dotti F; Prieto, Ana L; Braun, Robert J; Cath, Tzahi Y; Porter, Jason M

    2014-06-01

    The successful management of wastewater sludge for small-scale, urban wastewater treatment plants, (WWTPs), faces several financial and environmental challenges. Common management strategies stabilize sludge for land disposal by microbial processes or heat. Such approaches require large footprint processing facilities or high energy costs. A new approach considers converting sludge to fuel which can be used to produce electricity on-site. This work evaluated several thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies from the perspective of small urban WWTPs. Among TCC technologies, air-blown gasification was found to be the most suitable approach. A gasification-based generating system was designed and simulated in ASPEN Plus® to determine net electrical and thermal outputs. A technical analysis determined that such a system can be built using currently available technologies. Air-blown gasification was found to convert sludge to electricity with an efficiency greater than 17%, about triple the efficiency of electricity generation using anaerobic digester gas. This level of electricity production can offset up to 1/3 of the electrical demands of a typical WWTP. Finally, an economic analysis concluded that a gasification-based power system can be economically feasible for WWTPs with raw sewage flows above 0.093m(3)/s (2.1 million gallons per day), providing a profit of up to $3.5 million over an alternative, thermal drying and landfill disposal. PMID:24727699

  4. Economic Analysis of a Brackish Water Photovoltaic-Operated (BWRO-PV) Desalination System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Karaghouli, A.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    2010-10-01

    The photovoltaic (PV)-powered reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination system is considered one of the most promising technologies in producing fresh water from both brackish and sea water, especially for small systems located in remote areas. We analyze the economic viability of a small PV-operated RO system with a capacity of 5 m3/day used to desalinate brackish water of 4000 ppm total dissolve solids, which is proposed to be installed in a remote area of the Babylon governorate in the middle of Iraq; this area possesses excellent insolation throughout the year. Our analysis predicts very good economic and environmental benefits of using this system. The lowest cost of fresh water achieved from using this system is US $3.98/ m3, which is very reasonable compared with the water cost reported by small-sized desalination plants installed in rural areas in other parts of the world. Our analysis shows that using this small system will prevent the release annually of 8,170 kg of CO2, 20.2 kg of CO, 2.23 kg of CH, 1.52 kg of particulate matter, 16.41 kg of SO2, and 180 kg of NOx.

  5. A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

    2009-05-01

    Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

  6. Techno-economic analysis of wastewater sludge gasification: a decentralized urban perspective.

    PubMed

    Lumley, Nicholas P G; Ramey, Dotti F; Prieto, Ana L; Braun, Robert J; Cath, Tzahi Y; Porter, Jason M

    2014-06-01

    The successful management of wastewater sludge for small-scale, urban wastewater treatment plants, (WWTPs), faces several financial and environmental challenges. Common management strategies stabilize sludge for land disposal by microbial processes or heat. Such approaches require large footprint processing facilities or high energy costs. A new approach considers converting sludge to fuel which can be used to produce electricity on-site. This work evaluated several thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies from the perspective of small urban WWTPs. Among TCC technologies, air-blown gasification was found to be the most suitable approach. A gasification-based generating system was designed and simulated in ASPEN Plus® to determine net electrical and thermal outputs. A technical analysis determined that such a system can be built using currently available technologies. Air-blown gasification was found to convert sludge to electricity with an efficiency greater than 17%, about triple the efficiency of electricity generation using anaerobic digester gas. This level of electricity production can offset up to 1/3 of the electrical demands of a typical WWTP. Finally, an economic analysis concluded that a gasification-based power system can be economically feasible for WWTPs with raw sewage flows above 0.093m(3)/s (2.1 million gallons per day), providing a profit of up to $3.5 million over an alternative, thermal drying and landfill disposal.

  7. Economic evaluation of aclidinium bromide in the management of moderate to severe COPD: an analysis over 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Karabis, Andreas; Mocarski, Michelle; Eijgelshoven, Indra; Bergman, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Aclidinium bromide is a long-acting muscarinic antagonistic used in maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A model-based health economic study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of aclidinium 400 μg bid as an alternative to tiotropium 18 μg od for this indication in the US. Patients and methods Patient characteristics in this model reflect those in the aclidinium clinical studies: age >40 years, stable moderate-to-severe COPD, current or ex-smokers (>10 pack-years), post-salbutamol forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) ≥30% and <80% of predicted normal value, and FEV1/forced vital capacity <70%. The model consists of five main health states indicating severity of COPD and the level of utility, resource use, and costs. Treatment efficacy over 5 years was modeled using FEV1% predicted; a network meta-analysis comparing aclidinium and tiotropium was used to estimate disease progression during the first 24 weeks, and results from the UPLIFT trial were used for time points after 24 weeks. Quality of life was assessed using utility scores in US patients from the UPLIFT trial. Cost-effectiveness was assessed as the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Results Over 5 years, QALYs were 3.50 for aclidinium versus 3.49 for tiotropium; life years accumulated were 4.52 for both. In this economic model, aclidinium versus tiotropium showed marginally fewer exacerbations (3.364 versus 3.390, respectively) and mean total health care costs (US$126,274 versus US$128,591, respectively). In all scenario analyses performed (discount factors of 0% and 6% for benefits and costs; time horizon of 1 year; mapping St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire to European Quality of Life–5 Dimensions; excluding pharmacy costs, COPD-related cost only; cost of exacerbations; including ACCORD II trial in the network meta-analysis), aclidinium was associated with lower costs and marginally greater QALYs versus tiotropium

  8. Economic analysis of the design and fabrication of a space qualified power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruselowski, G.

    1980-01-01

    An economic analysis was performed to determine the cost of the design and fabrication of a low Earth orbit, 2 kW photovoltaic/battery, space qualified power system. A commercially available computer program called PRICE (programmed review of information for costing and evaluation) was used to conduct the analysis. The sensitivity of the various cost factors to the assumptions used is discussed. Total cost of the power system was found to be $2.46 million with the solar array accounting for 70.5%. Using the assumption that the prototype becomes the flight system, 77.3% of the total cost is associated with manufacturing. Results will be used to establish whether the cost of space qualified hardware can be reduced by the incorporation of commercial design, fabrication, and quality assurance methods.

  9. Economic Analysis of a Laser-Powered, Global Small Aerospacecraft Transportation System (G-SATS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, David; List, George; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2005-04-01

    A first-order economic analysis is performed for a revolutionary transport technology intended for hypersonic world travel — powered by laser energy beamed from satellite solar power stations, with relay mirrors in low Earth orbit. A fleet of 1-person to 5-person, `tractor-beam' lightcraft will enable direct port-to-port (no refueling) trips, half-way around the globe in under an hour — riding suborbital boost-glide trajectories through space. Estimates are presented of vehicle size, ridership, revenues, fleet size, capital, operating and maintenance costs, and expected profitability for a lightcraft-based global transportation system called G-SATS. On a net present value basis, over a 20-year time span, G-SATS should have a profit margin of over 20% — implying not only the ability to be profitable, but also a potential market penetrability that goes well beyond the conservative assumptions made in this analysis.

  10. Economic impact analysis of effluent limitations and standards for plastics molding and forming industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued effluent limitations and standards in December, 1984, for the Plastics Molding and Forming Industry. The report estimates the economic impacts associated with pollution control costs. Plant-specific treatment costs for 20 percent of the impacted plants are compared to estimated pre-tax plant income to assess the impact of treatment costs on plant liquidity. Then a closure analysis is performed, comparing the current salvage value of the plant's assets with the present value of the plant's cash flow plus the terminal value of its assets. The results are extrapolated to the 558 plants which, as direct dischargers, would be impacted. The results of this plant-level analysis are used to assess the indirect impacts of the regulation, e.g., price changes, unemployment and shifts, in the balance of foreign trade.

  11. Economic Analysis in the Pacific Northwest Land Resources Project: Theoretical Considerations and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, D. R. A.; Sahlberg, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project i s an a ttempt to combine a whole spectrum of heterogeneous geographic, institutional and applications elements in a synergistic approach to the evaluation of remote sensing techniques. This diversity is the prime motivating factor behind a theoretical investigation of alternative economic analysis procedures. For a multitude of reasons--simplicity, ease of understanding, financial constraints and credibility, among others--cost-effectiveness emerges as the most practical tool for conducting such evaluation determinatIons in the Pacific Northwest. Preliminary findings in two water resource application areas suggest, in conformity with most published studies, that Lands at-aided data collection methods enjoy substantial cost advantages over alternative techniques. The pntential for sensitivity analysis based on cost/accuracy tradeoffs is considered on a theoretical plane in the absence of current accuracy figures concerning the Landsat-aided approach.

  12. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments.

  13. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. PMID:26141885

  14. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

  15. VECTAN II: A computer program for the spatial analysis of the vectorcardiogram.

    PubMed

    Golden, D P; Hoffler, G W; Wolthuis, R A; Johnson, R L

    1975-07-01

    This paper presents the operation of a digital computer program, VECTAN II, for the spatial analysis of the vectorcardiogram (VCG). The program incorporates a unique waveform recognition algorithm based on the spatial vector length which has been shown to perform better than previous algorithms. The waveform analysis employed by the program considers the vectorcardiogram as a three dimensional entity rather than as scalar or planar representations. VECTAN II is designed chiefly to measure and quantify the VCG response of normal subjects to a controlled stress by analyzing one VCG complex every five seconds throughout a long experiment. The program has been used to analyzeom the NASA Johnson Space Center Cardiovascular Laboratory, from the pre- and postflight medical examinations of the Apollo 15, 16 and 17 crewmen, and from onboard Skylab experiments. PMID:1099164

  16. Serum albumin analysis for type II diabetes detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinyong; Cao, Gang; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nenrong; Liao, Fadian; Ruan, Qiuyong; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Zufang; Li, Ling; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy combined with membrane electrophoresis (ME) was firstly employed to detect albumin variation in type II diabetic development. Albumin was first purified from human serum by ME and then mixed with silver nanoparticles to perform SERS spectral analysis. SERS spectra were obtained from blood albumin samples of 20 diabetic patients and 19 healthy volunteers. Subtle but discernible changes in the acquired mean spectra of the two groups were observed. Tentative assignment of albumin SERS bands indicated specific structural changes of albumin molecule with diabetic development. Meanwhile, PCA-LDA diagnostic algorithms were employed to classify the two kinds of albumin SERS spectra, yielding the diagnostic sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94.7%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that the EM-SERS method in combination with multivariate statistical analysis has great potential for the label-free detection of albumin variation for improving type II diabetes screening.

  17. VECTAN II - A computer program for the spatial analysis of the vectorcardiogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. P., Jr.; Hoffler, G. W.; Johnson, R. L.; Wolthuis, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents the operation of a digital computer program, VECTAN II, for the spatial analysis of the vectorcardiogram (VCG). The program incorporates a unique waveform recognition algorithm based on the spatial vector length which has been shown to perform better than previous algorithms. The waveform analysis employed by the program considers the vectorcardiogram as a three dimensional entity rather than as scalar or planar representations. VECTAN II is designed chiefly to measure and quantify the VCG response of normal subjects to a controlled stress by analyzing one VCG complex every five seconds throughout a long experiment. The program has been used to analyze data from the NASA Johnson Space Center Cardiovascular Laboratory, from the pre- and postflight medical examinations of the Apollo 15, 16 and 17 crewmen, and from onboard Skylab experiments.

  18. Analysis of the Wakefield Effects in the PEP-II SLAC B-FACTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC

    2009-07-06

    We present the history and analysis of different wake field effects throughout the operational life of the PEP-II SLAC B-factory. Although the impedance of the high and low energy rings is small, the intense high current beams generated a lot of power. The effects from these wake fields are: heating and damage of vacuum beam chamber elements like RF seals, vacuum valves , shielded bellows, BPM buttons and ceramic tiles; vacuum spikes, vacuum instabilities and high detector background; beam longitudinal and transverse instabilities. We also discuss the methods used to eliminate these effects. Results of this analysis and the PEP-II experience may be very useful in the design of new storage rings and light sources.

  19. VECTAN II: A computer program for the spatial analysis of the vectorcardiogram.

    PubMed

    Golden, D P; Hoffler, G W; Wolthuis, R A; Johnson, R L

    1975-07-01

    This paper presents the operation of a digital computer program, VECTAN II, for the spatial analysis of the vectorcardiogram (VCG). The program incorporates a unique waveform recognition algorithm based on the spatial vector length which has been shown to perform better than previous algorithms. The waveform analysis employed by the program considers the vectorcardiogram as a three dimensional entity rather than as scalar or planar representations. VECTAN II is designed chiefly to measure and quantify the VCG response of normal subjects to a controlled stress by analyzing one VCG complex every five seconds throughout a long experiment. The program has been used to analyzeom the NASA Johnson Space Center Cardiovascular Laboratory, from the pre- and postflight medical examinations of the Apollo 15, 16 and 17 crewmen, and from onboard Skylab experiments.

  20. The use of MAVIS II to integrate the modeling and analysis of explosive valve interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, R.; Kwon, D.M.

    1998-12-31

    The MAVIS II computer program provides for the modeling and analysis of explosive valve interactions. This report describes the individual components of the program and how MAVIS II is used with other available tools to integrate the design and understanding of explosive valves. The rationale and model used for each valve interaction is described. Comparisons of the calculated results with available data have demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of using MAVIS II for analytical studies of explosive valve interactions. The model used for the explosive or pyrotechnic used as the driving force in explosive valves is the most critical to be understood and modeled. MAVIS II is an advanced version that incorporates a plastic, as well as elastic, modeling of the deformations experienced when plungers are forced into a bore. The inclusion of a plastic model has greatly expanded the use of MAVIS for all categories (opening, closure, or combined) of valves, especially for the closure valves in which the sealing operation requires the plastic deformation of either a plunger or bore over a relatively large area. In order to increase its effectiveness, the use of MAVIS II should be integrated with the results from available experimental hardware. Test hardware such as the Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) and Velocity Generator test provide experimental data for accurate comparison of the actual valve functions. Variable Explosive Chamber (VEC) and Constant Explosive Volume (CEV) tests are used to provide the proper explosive equation-of-state for the MAVIS calculations of the explosive driving forces. The rationale and logistics of this integration is demonstrated through an example. A recent valve design is used to demonstrate how MAVIS II can be integrated with experimental tools to provide an understanding of the interactions in this valve.