Science.gov

Sample records for ii high-resolution j-band

  1. J-Band Infrared Spectroscopy of a Sample of Brown Dwarfs Using NIRSPEC on Keck II.

    PubMed

    McLean; Wilcox; Becklin; Figer; Gilbert; Graham; Larkin; Levenson; Teplitz; Kirkpatrick

    2000-04-10

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of a sample of very cool, low-mass objects are presented with higher spectral resolution than in any previous studies. Six of the objects are L dwarfs, ranging in spectral class from L2 to L8/9, and the seventh is a methane or T dwarf. These new observations were obtained during commissioning of the near-infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC), the first high-resolution near-infrared cryogenic spectrograph for the Keck II 10 m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Spectra with a resolving power of R approximately 2500 from 1.135 to 1.360 µm (approximately J band) are presented for each source. At this resolution, a rich spectral structure is revealed, much of which is due to blending of unresolved molecular transitions. Strong lines due to neutral potassium (K i) and bands due to iron hydride (FeH) and steam (H2O) change significantly throughout the L sequence. Iron hydride disappears between L5 and L8, the steam bands deepen, and the K i lines gradually become weaker but wider because of pressure broadening. An unidentified feature occurs at 1.22 µm that has a temperature dependence like FeH but has no counterpart in the available FeH opacity data. Because these objects are 3-6 mag brighter in the near-infrared compared with the I band, spectral classification is efficient. One of the objects studied (2MASSW J1523+3014) is the coolest L dwarf discovered so far by the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), but its spectrum is still significantly different from the methane-dominated objects such as Gl 229B or SDSS 1624+0029. PMID:10727388

  2. J-Band Infrared Spectroscopy of a Sample of Brown Dwarfs Using NIRSPEC on Keck II.

    PubMed

    McLean; Wilcox; Becklin; Figer; Gilbert; Graham; Larkin; Levenson; Teplitz; Kirkpatrick

    2000-04-10

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of a sample of very cool, low-mass objects are presented with higher spectral resolution than in any previous studies. Six of the objects are L dwarfs, ranging in spectral class from L2 to L8/9, and the seventh is a methane or T dwarf. These new observations were obtained during commissioning of the near-infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC), the first high-resolution near-infrared cryogenic spectrograph for the Keck II 10 m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Spectra with a resolving power of R approximately 2500 from 1.135 to 1.360 µm (approximately J band) are presented for each source. At this resolution, a rich spectral structure is revealed, much of which is due to blending of unresolved molecular transitions. Strong lines due to neutral potassium (K i) and bands due to iron hydride (FeH) and steam (H2O) change significantly throughout the L sequence. Iron hydride disappears between L5 and L8, the steam bands deepen, and the K i lines gradually become weaker but wider because of pressure broadening. An unidentified feature occurs at 1.22 µm that has a temperature dependence like FeH but has no counterpart in the available FeH opacity data. Because these objects are 3-6 mag brighter in the near-infrared compared with the I band, spectral classification is efficient. One of the objects studied (2MASSW J1523+3014) is the coolest L dwarf discovered so far by the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), but its spectrum is still significantly different from the methane-dominated objects such as Gl 229B or SDSS 1624+0029.

  3. RED SUPERGIANT STARS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES. II. NLTE EFFECTS IN J-BAND SILICON LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bergemann, Maria; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Wuerl, Matthias; Plez, Bertrand; Davies, Ben; Gazak, Zach E-mail: Matthias.Wuerl@physik.uni-muenchen.de E-mail: zgazak@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: bdavies@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2013-02-20

    Medium-resolution J-band spectroscopy of individual red supergiant stars is a promising tool to investigate the chemical composition of the young stellar population in star-forming galaxies. As a continuation of recent work on iron and titanium, detailed non-LTE (NLTE) calculations are presented to investigate the influence of NLTE on the formation of silicon lines in the J-band spectra of red supergiants. Substantial effects are found resulting in significantly stronger absorption lines of neutral silicon in NLTE. As a consequence, silicon abundances determined in NLTE are significantly smaller than in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) with the NLTE abundance corrections varying smoothly between -0.4 dex and -0.1 dex for effective temperatures between 3400 K and 4400 K. The effects are largest at low metallicity. The physical reasons behind the NLTE effects and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies are discussed.

  4. A high resolution Timing Counter for the MEG II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gerone, M.; Bevilacqua, A.; Biasotti, M.; Boca, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Gatti, F.; Nishimura, M.; Ootani, W.; Pizzigoni, G.; Rossella, M.; Shibata, N.; Siccardi, F.; Simonetta, M.; Uchiyama, Y.; Yoshida, K.

    2016-07-01

    The development of a Timing Counter detector designed for the MEGII upgrade of the MEG experiment, which strives to improve the sensitivity on the μ+ →e+ γ decay of an order of magnitude, is presented. It is based on two sets of counters (sectors) arranged on a semi-cylindrical structure; each sector consists of 256 counters. Each counter consists of tile of fast scintillator with a dual-side read-out based on SiPM arrays in series connection. The high granularity has two advantages: optimized size for achieving high resolution (75 ps) for the single counter, and a signal e+ crosses several counters, so that resolution improves by averaging multiple time measurements. A prototype has been built and tested both in BTF and PSI facilities in order to prove the multi-hit scheme in MEG-like beam conditions. A 35 ps resolution with eight hits has been obtained with a e+ beam at 100 kHz. The first sector will be tested in the MEG II pre-engineering run planned at the end of 2015.

  5. OBSERVING CASCADES OF SOLAR BULLETS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. II

    SciTech Connect

    Scullion, E.; Engvold, O.; Lin, Y.; Voort, L. Rouppe van der

    2015-12-01

    High resolution observations from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope revealed bright, discrete, blob-like structures (which we refer to as solar bullets) in the Hα 656.28 nm line core that appear to propagate laterally across the solar atmosphere as clusters in active regions (ARs). These small-scale structures appear to be field aligned and many bullets become triggered simultaneously and traverse collectively as a cluster. Here, we conduct a follow-up study on these rapidly evolving structures with coincident observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. With the co-aligned data sets, we reveal (a) an evolving multithermal structure in the bullet cluster ranging from chromospheric to at least transition region temperatures, (b) evidence for cascade-like behavior and corresponding bidirectional motions in bullets within the cluster, which indicate that there is a common source of the initial instability leading to bullet formation, and (c) a direct relationship between co-incident bullet velocities observed in Hα and He ii 30.4 nm and an inverse relationship with respect to bullet intensity in these channels. We find evidence supporting that bullets are typically composed of a cooler, higher density core detectable in Hα with a less dense, hotter, and fainter co-moving outer sheath. Bullets unequivocally demonstrate the finely structured nature of the AR corona. We have no clear evidence for bullets being associated with locally heated (or cooled), fast flowing plasma. Fast MHD pulses (such as solitons) could best describe the dynamic properties of bullets whereas the presence of a multithermal structure is new.

  6. High-resolution neutron crystallographic studies of the hydration of the coenzyme cob(II)alamin

    SciTech Connect

    Jogl, Gerwald; Wang, Xiaoping; Mason, Sax A.; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Mustyakimov, Marat; Fisher, Zöe; Hoffman, Christina; Kratky, Christoph; Langan, Paul

    2011-06-01

    High-resolution crystallographic studies of the hydration of the coenzyme cob(II)alamin have provided hydrogen-bond parameters of unprecedented accuracy for a biomacromolecule. The hydration of the coenzyme cob(II)alamin has been studied using high-resolution monochromatic neutron crystallographic data collected at room temperature to a resolution of 0.92 Å on the original D19 diffractometer with a prototype 4° × 64° detector at the high-flux reactor neutron source run by the Institute Laue–Langevin. The resulting structure provides hydrogen-bonding parameters for the hydration of biomacromolecules to unprecedented accuracy. These experimental parameters will be used to define more accurate force fields for biomacromolecular structure refinement. The presence of a hydrophobic bowl motif surrounded by flexible side chains with terminal functional groups may be significant for the efficient scavenging of ligands. The feasibility of extending the resolution of this structure to ultrahigh resolution was investigated by collecting time-of-flight neutron crystallographic data during commissioning of the TOPAZ diffractometer with a prototype array of 14 modular 2° × 21° detectors at the Spallation Neutron Source run by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  7. High resolution neutron crystallographic studies of the hydration of coenzyme cob(II)alamin

    SciTech Connect

    Jogl, Gerwald; Wang, Xiaoping; Mason, Sax; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Mustyakimov, Marat; Fisher, Zoe; Hoffmann, Christina; Kratky, Christoph; Langan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The hydration of coenzyme cob(II)alamin has been studied using high resolution monochromatic neutron crystallographic data collected at room temperature to a resolution of surrounded by flexible side chains with terminal functional groups may be significant for 0.92 on the original diffractometer D19 with a prototype 4o x 64o detector at the high-flux reactor neutron source run by the Institute Laue Langevin. The resulting structure provides H bonding parameters for the hydration of biomacromolecules to unprecedented accuracy. These experimental parameters will be used to define more accurate force-fields for biomacromolecular structure refinement. The presence of a hydrophobic bowl motif efficient scavenging of ligands. The feasibility of extending the resolution of this structure to ultra high resolution was investigated by collecting time-of-flight neutron crystallographic data on diffractometer TOPAZ with a prototype array of 14 modular 21o x 21o detectors at the Spallation Neutron Source run by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  8. The Appearance of Spicules in High Resolution Observations of Ca II H and Hα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Tiago M. D.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-06-01

    Solar spicules are chromospheric fibrils that appear everywhere on the Sun, yet their origin is not understood. Using high resolution observations of spicules obtained with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope, we aim to understand how spicules appear in filtergrams and Dopplergrams, how they compare in Ca ii H and Hα filtergrams, and what can make them appear and disappear. We find that spicules display a rich and detailed spatial structure, and show a distribution of transverse velocities that, when aligned with the line of sight, can make them appear at different Hα wing positions. They become more abundant at positions closer to the line core, reflecting a distribution of Doppler shifts and widths. In Hα width maps they stand out as bright features both on disk and off limb, reflecting their large Doppler motions and possibly higher temperatures than in the typical Hα formation region. Spicule lifetimes measured from narrowband images at only a few positions will be an underestimate because Doppler shifts can make them disappear prematurely from such images; for such cases, width maps are a more robust tool. In Hα and Ca ii H filtergrams, off-limb spicules essentially have the same properties, appearance, and evolution. We find that the sudden appearance of spicules can be explained by Doppler shifts from their transverse motions, and does not require other convoluted explanations.

  9. ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. II. TRIGGERING, VISIBILITY, AND EFFECT ON UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Vissers, Gregal J. M.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Rutten, Robert J.

    2013-09-01

    We use high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to study the transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer H{alpha} line in emerging active regions that are called Ellerman bombs. Simultaneous sampling of Ca II 8542 A with the SST confirms that most Ellerman bombs also occur in the wings of this line, but with markedly different morphology. Simultaneous images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show that Ellerman bombs are also detectable in the photospheric 1700 A continuum, again with differing morphology. They are also observable in 1600 A SDO images, but with much contamination from C IV emission in transition-region features. Simultaneous SST spectropolarimetry in Fe I 6301 A shows that Ellerman bombs occur at sites of strong-field magnetic flux cancellation between small bipolar strong-field patches that rapidly move together over the solar surface. Simultaneous SDO images in He II 304 A, Fe IX 171 A, and Fe XIV 211 A show no clear effect of the Ellerman bombs on the overlying transition region and corona. These results strengthen our earlier suggestion, based on H{alpha} morphology alone, that the Ellerman bomb phenomenon is a purely photospheric reconnection phenomenon.

  10. High-resolution neutron crystallographic studies of the hydration of the coenzyme cob(II)alamin.

    PubMed

    Jogl, Gerwald; Wang, Xiaoping; Mason, Sax A; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Mustyakimov, Marat; Fisher, Zöe; Hoffman, Christina; Kratky, Christoph; Langan, Paul

    2011-06-01

    The hydration of the coenzyme cob(II)alamin has been studied using high-resolution monochromatic neutron crystallographic data collected at room temperature to a resolution of 0.92 Å on the original D19 diffractometer with a prototype 4° × 64° detector at the high-flux reactor neutron source run by the Institute Laue-Langevin. The resulting structure provides hydrogen-bonding parameters for the hydration of biomacromolecules to unprecedented accuracy. These experimental parameters will be used to define more accurate force fields for biomacromolecular structure refinement. The presence of a hydrophobic bowl motif surrounded by flexible side chains with terminal functional groups may be significant for the efficient scavenging of ligands. The feasibility of extending the resolution of this structure to ultrahigh resolution was investigated by collecting time-of-flight neutron crystallographic data during commissioning of the TOPAZ diffractometer with a prototype array of 14 modular 2° × 21° detectors at the Spallation Neutron Source run by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  11. Design of a High Resolution and High Flux Beam line for VUV Angle-Resolved Photoemission at UVSOR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Shin-ichi; Ito, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eiken; Hosaka, Masahito; Katoh, Masahiro

    2007-01-19

    A high-energy-resolution angle-resolved photoemission beamline in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region has been designed for a 750 MeV synchrotron light source UVSOR-II. The beamline equips an APPLE-II-type undulator with the horizontally/vertically linear and right/left circular polarizations, a modified Wadsworth-type monochromator and a high-resolution photoelectron analyzer. The monochromator covers the photon energy range of 6 - 40 eV. The energy resolution (hv/{delta}hv) and the photon flux on samples are expected to be 2 x 104 and 1012 photons/sec at 10 eV, 4 x 104 and 5 x 1011 photons/sec at 20 eV, and 6 x 104 and 1011 photons/sec at 40 eV, respectively. The beamline provides the high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy less than 1 meV in the whole VUV energy range.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) analysis using a miniaturized high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer "MULTUM-S II".

    PubMed

    Shimma, Shuichi; Miki, Shinichi; Toyoda, Michisato

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we conducted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) analysis using fast gas chromatography (GC)/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Mass spectrometry (MS) was performed with a miniature multi-turn time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer called "MULTUM-S II". MULTUM-S II is truly a portable high resolution mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer's high resolution capability is due to its theoretical infinite flight path utilizing perfect space and time focusing within a closed flight orbit. Mass resolution above 10 000 was easily achievable employing this portable system. This mass resolution is comparable to magnetic sector mass spectrometers, which have traditionally performed PCB analyses in the past. At a resolution of 10 000, a limit-of-detection of 1 ppb was determined using a heptachlorinated biphenyl standard sample. Using this fast GC/HRMS, 66 PCB congeners were analyzed within 5 min. In addition experiments aimed at confirming interference of PCB signal peaks and matrix peaks in diluted dielectric coolant fluids were performed. We found that the PCB signal peaks were detected without matrix interference via high mass resolution.

  13. High Resolution Triple Axis X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of II-VI Semiconductor Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, H. M.; Matyi, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research program is to develop methods of structural analysis based on high resolution triple axis X-ray diffractometry (HRTXD) and to carry out detailed studies of defect distributions in crystals grown in both microgravity and ground-based environments. HRTXD represents a modification of the widely used double axis X-ray rocking curve method for the characterization of grown-in defects in nearly perfect crystals. In a double axis rocking curve experiment, the sample is illuminated by a monochromatic X-ray beam and the diffracted intensity is recorded by a fixed, wide-open detector. The intensity diffracted by the sample is then monitored as the sample is rotated through the Bragg reflection condition. The breadth of the peak, which is often reported as the full angular width at half the maximum intensity (FWHM), is used as an indicator of the amount of defects in the sample. This work has shown that high resolution triple axis X-ray diffraction is an effective tool for characterizing the defect structure in semiconductor crystals, particularly at high defect densities. Additionally, the technique is complimentary to X-ray topography for defect characterization in crystals.

  14. Hunting the parent of the Orphan stream. II. The first high-resolution spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Andrew R.; Keller, Stefan C.; Da Costa, Gary; Maunder, Elizabeth; Frebel, Anna

    2014-03-20

    We present the first high-resolution spectroscopic study on the Orphan stream for five stream candidates, observed with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay telescope. The targets were selected from the low-resolution catalog of Casey et al.: three high-probability members, one medium, and one low-probability stream candidate were observed. Our analysis indicates that the low- and medium-probability targets are metal-rich field stars. The remaining three high-probability targets range over ∼1 dex in metallicity, and are chemically distinct compared to the other two targets and all standard stars: low [α/Fe] abundance ratios are observed, and lower limits are ascertained for [Ba/Y], which sit well above the Milky Way trend. These chemical signatures demonstrate that the undiscovered parent system is unequivocally a dwarf spheroidal galaxy, consistent with dynamical constraints inferred from the stream width and arc. As such, we firmly exclude the proposed association between NGC 2419 and the Orphan stream. A wide range in metallicities adds to the similarities between the Orphan stream and Segue 1, although the low [α/Fe] abundance ratios in the Orphan stream are in tension with the high [α/Fe] values observed in Segue 1. Open questions remain before Segue 1 could possibly be claimed as the 'parent' of the Orphan stream. The parent system could well remain undiscovered in the southern sky.

  15. Hunting the Parent of the Orphan Stream. II. The First High-resolution Spectroscopic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Andrew R.; Keller, Stefan C.; Da Costa, Gary; Frebel, Anna; Maunder, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    We present the first high-resolution spectroscopic study on the Orphan stream for five stream candidates, observed with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay telescope. The targets were selected from the low-resolution catalog of Casey et al.: three high-probability members, one medium, and one low-probability stream candidate were observed. Our analysis indicates that the low- and medium-probability targets are metal-rich field stars. The remaining three high-probability targets range over ~1 dex in metallicity, and are chemically distinct compared to the other two targets and all standard stars: low [α/Fe] abundance ratios are observed, and lower limits are ascertained for [Ba/Y], which sit well above the Milky Way trend. These chemical signatures demonstrate that the undiscovered parent system is unequivocally a dwarf spheroidal galaxy, consistent with dynamical constraints inferred from the stream width and arc. As such, we firmly exclude the proposed association between NGC 2419 and the Orphan stream. A wide range in metallicities adds to the similarities between the Orphan stream and Segue 1, although the low [α/Fe] abundance ratios in the Orphan stream are in tension with the high [α/Fe] values observed in Segue 1. Open questions remain before Segue 1 could possibly be claimed as the "parent" of the Orphan stream. The parent system could well remain undiscovered in the southern sky. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  16. High resolution far-infrared observations of the evolved H II region M16

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, B.; Fazio, G.G.; Jaffe, D.T.

    1982-03-01

    M16 is an evolved, extremely density bounded H II region, which now consists only of a series of ionization fronts at molecular cloud boundaries. The source of ionization is the OB star cluster (NGC 6611) which is about 5 x 10/sup 6/ years old. We used the CFA/UA 102 cm balloon-borne telescope to map this region and detected three far-infrared (far-IR) sources embedded in an extended ridge of emission. Source I is an unresolved far-IR source embedded in a molecular cloud near a sharp ionization front. An H/sub 2/O maser is associated with this source, but no radio continuum emission has been observed. The other two far-IR sources (II and III) are associated with ionized gas-molecular cloud interfaces, with the far-IR radiation arising from dust at the boundary heated by the OB cluster. Source II is located at the southern prominent neutral intrusion with its associated bright rims and dark ''elephant trunk'' globules that delineate the current progress of the ionization front into the neutral material, and Source III arises at the interface of the northern molecular cloud fragment.

  17. Velocity Fields in H II Regions Using High Resolution Imaging Fabry-Perot Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seema, P.

    1996-05-01

    The thesis comprises of two parts: I. Instrumentation II. Observations, results and discussion. An imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer (IFPS) is designed and constructed for the studies on kinematics of extended astronomical objects (Seema et al., 1992). IFPS comprises of a field aperture, collimating lens and a two dimensional imaging sensor called Imaging Photon Detector (IPD). It is the first time that IPD which uses a resistive anode for position determination is being used in the spectroscopic studies of astronomical objects. Observations were made on Orion and Trifid nebula covering a wide field of view using a 35cm Celestron-14 telescope (f/11 cassegrain) at Gurushikhar, Mt.Abu, India. Orion Nebula: Observations were made in [OIII] 5007A, line with a spectral resolution of 6 km/sec and spatial resolution of 4" covering a field of view of 10.5', to study (i) general velocity flow (ii) high velocity flow and (iii)random motions. Line profiles generated for about 2000 positions showed an asymmetric shape with (a)a narrow component 20 +- 3 km/sec and (b) a broad component 50 +- 3 km/sec. The two components could be interpreted in terms of the interaction of the ionized gas (from the trapezium stars) with the condensations present in the nebula, resulting in the secondary flows. The iso-velocity contour map generated for both the components showed velocity flow in agreement with the champagne flow model (Tenorio-Tagle 1982). A model emission line profile constructed assuming a champagne flow in [OIII] 5007A, line for a position 2' away from theta-1 C Ori showed a reasonably good agreement with the narrow component of the observed profile. Certain high velocity flow (~50 km/s) regions are observed to be superimposed on the main flow of the narrow component. These flows are either radiation pressure driven stellar winds or jets generated during the formation phase of Young stellar objects. The radial velocity was found to be low with no high velocity flow regions in

  18. PROBING OUR HELIOSPHERIC HISTORY. I. HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF Na I AND Ca II ALONG THE SOLAR HISTORICAL TRAJECTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, Katherine; Redfield, Seth E-mail: sredfield@wesleyan.edu

    2013-08-20

    Over the course of its motion through the Galaxy, our solar system has encountered many interstellar environments of varying characteristics. Interstellar medium (ISM) density variations spanning seven orders of magnitude are commonly seen throughout the general Galactic environment, and a sufficiently dense cloud within this range has the potential to dramatically alter the structure of the heliosphere. We present observations of the ISM environments the Sun has most recently encountered based on high-resolution optical spectra toward nearby stars in the direction of the historical solar trajectory. The data were obtained with the highest-resolution spectrographs available, including the Tull Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory and the Ultra-High-Resolution Facility on the Anglo-Australian Telescope at the Anglo-Australian Observatory. Observations were made of interstellar Na I and Ca II doublet absorption toward 43 bright stars within {approx}500 pc. No absorption is seen out to a distance of 120 pc (consistent with the outer boundary of the Local Bubble), but a complex collection of absorbers is seen in stars beyond 120 pc. While common absorbers are consistently seen in most sight lines, significant spatial variation is also detected, even between closely spaced sight lines. This pervasive evidence of small-scale structure not only speaks to the complexity of the morphology or physical properties of the gas in the ISM, but also emphasizes that dramatic structural changes to the heliosphere are common and it is important to understand the implications of such changes, such as the modulation in the cosmic ray flux, on planets.

  19. High-resolution molecular characterization of the HLA class I and class II in the Tarahumara Amerindian population.

    PubMed

    García-Ortiz, J E; Sandoval-Ramírez, L; Rangel-Villalobos, H; Maldonado-Torres, H; Cox, S; García-Sepúlveda, C A; Figuera, L E; Marsh, S G E; Little, A M; Madrigal, J A; Moscoso, J; Arnaiz-Villena, A; Argüello, J R

    2006-08-01

    We describe for the first time the high-resolution profiling of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1 in a culturally and geographically distinct Mexican ethnic group, the Tarahumaras. The alleles most frequently found by reference strand-mediated conformational analysis in this population were for class I: HLA-A*240201, *020101/09, *0206, *310102, *680102; HLA-B*4002, *1501, *510201, *3501/02/03, *4005, *4801; HLA-Cw*0304, *0801, *0102, *040101; and for class II: HLA-DRB1*080201, *1402, *040701; HLA-DQB1*0402, *0301, *0302/07; HLA-DPB1*0402, *0401, *020102. In addition, a novel allele, HLA-A*0257, was found. Based on comparison of presently known HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 allele frequencies in Amerindian groups and worldwide populations, the Tarahumaras are unexpectedly more related to the geographically and linguistically distant Aymara and Terena Amerindian groups than they are to neighbouring tribes.

  20. IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. II. DISCOVERY OF A DOUBLE INFRARED CLUSTER IN II Zw 40

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Sara; Lahad, Ohr; Turner, Jean; Lacy, John; Greathouse, Thomas

    2013-04-10

    The nearby dwarf galaxy II Zw 40 hosts an intense starburst. At the center of the starburst is a bright compact radio and infrared source, thought to be a giant dense H II region containing Almost-Equal-To 14, 000 O stars. Radio continuum images suggest that the compact source is actually a collection of several smaller emission regions. We accordingly use the kinematics of the ionized gas to probe the structure of the radio-infrared emission region. With TEXES on the NASA-IRTF we measured the 10.5 {mu}m [S IV] emission line with effective spectral resolutions, including thermal broadening, of {approx}25 and {approx}3 km s{sup -1} and spatial resolution {approx}1''. The line profile shows two distinct, spatially coextensive, emission features. The stronger feature is at galactic velocity and has FWHM 47 km s{sup -1}. The second feature is {approx}44 km s{sup -1} redward of the first and has FWHM 32 km s{sup -1}. We argue that these are two giant embedded clusters, and estimate their masses to be Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} and Almost-Equal-To 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }. The velocity shift is unexpectedly large for such a small spatial offset. We suggest that it may arise in a previously undetected kinematic feature remaining from the violent merger that formed the galaxy.

  1. Dinuclear osmium(II) probes for high-resolution visualisation of cellular DNA structure using electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wragg, Ashley; Gill, Martin R; Hill, Christopher J; Su, Xiaodi; Meijer, Anthony J H M; Smythe, Carl; Thomas, Jim A

    2014-12-01

    Two dinuclear osmium polypyridyl complexes function as convenient, easy to handle TEM contrast agents and facilitate the high-resolution visualisation of intracellular structure, particularly sub-nuclear detail.

  2. First results from the Goddard High-Resolution spectrograph - High-resolution observations of the 1942 A resonance line of HG II in the chemically peculiar B star, Chi Lupi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckrone, David S.; Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Johansson, Sveneric G.

    1991-01-01

    The Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph on the HST has been used to obtain high S/N observations of the sharp-lined, Hg- and Pt-rich B-type star, Chi Lupi, with a resolving power of 87,000. The observations reveal a level of spectroscopic detail never before observed at ultraviolet wavelengths for any star other than the sun. Concentrating on the region around the resonance line of Hg II at 1942 A, the profile and central position of this line confirm beyond doubt that the Hg isotope anomaly in Chi Lupi is real and extreme, with Hg being heavily concentrated in the form of Hg-204. The problems in atomic physics which impair the accurate analysis of spectra of this quality are emphasized.

  3. Phase I and phase II reductive metabolism simulation of nitro aromatic xenobiotics with electrochemistry coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bussy, Ugo; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Li, Ke; Li, Weiming

    2014-11-01

    Electrochemistry combined with (liquid chromatography) high resolution mass spectrometry was used to simulate the general reductive metabolism of three biologically important nitro aromatic molecules: 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), niclosamide, and nilutamide. TFM is a pesticide used in the Laurential Great Lakes while niclosamide and nilutamide are used in cancer therapy. At first, a flow-through electrochemical cell was directly connected to a high resolution mass spectrometer to evaluate the ability of electrochemistry to produce the main reduction metabolites of nitro aromatic, nitroso, hydroxylamine, and amine functional groups. Electrochemical experiments were then carried out at a constant potential of -2.5 V before analysis of the reduction products by LC-HRMS, which confirmed the presence of the nitroso, hydroxylamine, and amine species as well as dimers. Dimer identification illustrates the reactivity of the nitroso species with amine and hydroxylamine species. To investigate xenobiotic metabolism, the reactivity of nitroso species to biomolecules was also examined. Binding of the nitroso metabolite to glutathione was demonstrated by the observation of adducts by LC-ESI(+)-HRMS and the characteristics of their MSMS fragmentation. In conclusion, electrochemistry produces the main reductive metabolites of nitro aromatics and supports the observation of nitroso reactivity through dimer or glutathione adduct formation.

  4. High-resolution teleseismic body wave tomography beneath SE-Romania - II. Imaging of a slab detachment scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M.; Wenzel, F.

    2006-03-01

    Non-linear teleseismic bodywave tomography with data of the 1999 CALIXTO field experiment (Carpathian Arc Lithosphere X-Tomography) in Romania provides high-resolution imaging of the upper-mantle structure. In this paper, we present the relative P-wave velocity distribution of the lithosphere/asthenosphere system. Smearing from strong crustal velocity anomalies into the upper mantle is successfully suppressed by traveltime corrections with an a priori 3-D regional crustal velocity model (see Martin et al. 2005, herein referenced as paper 1). Our high-resolution image shows a high-velocity body beneath Vrancea and the Moesian platform with a NE-SW orientation between 70 and 200 km depth. Beneath 200 km a change in the orientation from NE-SW to N-S can be observed. The body reaches a maximum depth of about 350-370 km. The velocity perturbation is maximal between 110 and 150 km depth (5.2-5.8 per cent) and almost constant for depths beneath 200 km (3.2-3.8 per cent). As most authors of previous studies agree on Miocene subduction along the arc followed by soft continental collision we interpret the high-velocity body as the subducted, yet not fully detached slab. The NE-part of the slab appears to be mechanically coupled to the Moesian lithosphere and hosts the intermediate depth seismicity. In contrast the aseismic SW-part is interpreted as decoupled from the overlying lithosphere and torn off from the underlying lithospheric material beneath 200 km depth. Low velocity anomalies NW of the slab above 110 km depth are interpreted as a shallow asthenospheric upwelling. Further low-velocity anomalies are in agreement with a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary at 110-150 km depth below the Moesian platform and deeper than 200 km under the East European platform (EEP). The tomographic images support models proposing slab rollback during subduction/collision, followed by slab steepening and lithospheric delamination. The different degrees of mechanical coupling of the slab

  5. Electron-beam-enhanced oxidation processes in II-VI compound semiconductors observed by high-resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Thangaraj, N.; Wessels, B.W.

    1990-02-01

    Enhanced oxidation of ZnS and ZnSe semiconductor surfaces has been observed in situ during electron irradiation in a high-resolution electron microscope. The phase present at the surface region has been identified as ZnO by optical diffractogram and selected area electron diffraction techniques. For ZnS oxidation, both hexagonal ZnO having a random orientation and cubic ZnO in perfect epitaxial relationship with the bulk ZnS were observed. Enhanced oxidation of ZnSe to ZnO has also been observed under electron beam irradiation. However, only the hexagonal form was observed. The oxidation rates for both ZnS and ZnSe depended on electron flux but was independent of orientation. A model in which the oxidation process is limited by diffusion through the oxide film is proposed. By electron irradiation the diffusion rate is enhanced presumably by a nonthermal process.

  6. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbon-Sulfur Chains: II. C_5S and SC_5S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorwirth, Sven; Salomon, Thomas; Dudek, John B.

    2016-06-01

    Unbiased high-resolution infrared survey scans of the ablation products from carbon-sulfur targets in the 2100 to 2150 cm-1 regime reveal two bands previously not observed in the gas phase. On the basis of comparison against laboratory matrix-isolation work and new high-level quantum-chemical calculations these bands are attributed to the linear C_5S and SC_5S clusters. While polar C_5S was studied earlier using Fourier-transform microwave techniques, the present work marks the first gas-phase spectroscopic detection of SC_5S. H. Wang, J. Szczepanski, P. Brucat, and M. Vala 2005, Int. J. Quant. Chem. 102, 795 Y. Kasai, K. Obi, Y. Ohshima, Y. Hirahara, Y. Endo, K. Kawaguchi, and A. Murakami 1993, ApJ 410, L45 V. D. Gordon, M. C. McCarthy, A. J. Apponi, and P. Thaddeus 2001, ApJS 134, 311

  7. High resolution radio and optical observations of the central starburst in the low-metallicity dwarf galaxy II Zw 40

    SciTech Connect

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Reines, Amy E.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Walker, Lisa May E-mail: areines@nrao.edu E-mail: lisamay@virginia.edu

    2014-02-01

    The extent to which star formation varies in galaxies with low masses, low metallicities, and high star formation rate surface densities is not well constrained. To gain insight into star formation under these physical conditions, this paper estimates the ionizing photon fluxes, masses, and ages for young massive clusters in the central region of II Zw 40—the prototypical low-metallicity dwarf starburst galaxy—from radio continuum and optical observations. Discrete, cluster-sized sources only account for half the total radio continuum emission; the remainder is diffuse. The young (≲ 5 Myr) central burst has a star formation rate surface density that significantly exceeds that of the Milky Way. Three of the 13 sources have ionizing photon fluxes (and thus masses) greater than R136 in 30 Doradus. Although isolating the effects of galaxy mass and metallicity is difficult, the H II region luminosity function and the internal extinction in the center of II Zw 40 appear to be primarily driven by a merger-related starburst. The relatively flat H II region luminosity function may be the result of an increase in interstellar medium pressure during the merger and the internal extinction is similar to that generated by the clumpy and porous dust in other starburst galaxies.

  8. The Impact II, a Very High-Resolution Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Instrument (QTOF) for Deep Shotgun Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Beck, Scarlet; Michalski, Annette; Raether, Oliver; Lubeck, Markus; Kaspar, Stephanie; Goedecke, Niels; Baessmann, Carsten; Hornburg, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Paron, Igor; Kulak, Nils A; Cox, Juergen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry is one of the two major principles used in proteomics. Although based on simple fundamentals, it has over the last decades greatly evolved in terms of achievable resolution, mass accuracy, and dynamic range. The Bruker impact platform of QTOF instruments takes advantage of these developments and here we develop and evaluate the impact II for shotgun proteomics applications. Adaption of our heated liquid chromatography system achieved very narrow peptide elution peaks. The impact II is equipped with a new collision cell with both axial and radial ion ejection, more than doubling ion extraction at high tandem MS frequencies. The new reflectron and detector improve resolving power compared with the previous model up to 80%, i.e. to 40,000 at m/z 1222. We analyzed the ion current from the inlet capillary and found very high transmission (>80%) up to the collision cell. Simulation and measurement indicated 60% transfer into the flight tube. We adapted MaxQuant for QTOF data, improving absolute average mass deviations to better than 1.45 ppm. More than 4800 proteins can be identified in a single run of HeLa digest in a 90 min gradient. The workflow achieved high technical reproducibility (R2 > 0.99) and accurate fold change determination in spike-in experiments in complex mixtures. Using label-free quantification we rapidly quantified haploid against diploid yeast and characterized overall proteome differences in mouse cell lines originating from different tissues. Finally, after high pH reversed-phase fractionation we identified 9515 proteins in a triplicate measurement of HeLa peptide mixture and 11,257 proteins in single measurements of cerebellum-the highest proteome coverage reported with a QTOF instrument so far.

  9. Comprehensive and high-resolution typing of swine leukocyte antigen DQA from genomic DNA and determination of 25 new SLA class II haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Le, M T; Choi, H; Choi, M-K; Nguyen, D T; Kim, J-H; Seo, H G; Cha, S-Y; Seo, K; Chun, T; Schook, L B; Park, C

    2012-12-01

    We previously reported the development of genomic-DNA-based high-resolution genotyping methods for SLA-DQB1 and DRB1. Here, we report the successful typing of SLA-DQA using similar methodological principles. We designed a method for comprehensive genotyping of SLA-DQA using intronic sequence information of SLA-DQA exon 2 that we had obtained from 12 animals with different SLA-DQB1 genotypes. We expanded our typing to 76 selected animals with diverse DQB1 and DRB1 genotypes, 140 random animals from 7 pig breeds, and 3 wild boars. This resulted in the identification of 17 DQA alleles with 49 genotypes. Two new alleles were identified from wild boars. Combine with SLA-DQB1, and DRB1 typing results, we identified 34 SLA class II haplotypes including 25 that were previously unreported.

  10. Fabrication of high-resolution 4,8(2) -type archimedean nanolattices composed of solution processable spin cross-over Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers.

    PubMed

    Venkataramudu, Uppari; Chandrasekhar, Naisa; Basak, Supratim; Prasad, Muvva D; Chandrasekar, Rajadurai

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of two highly soluble Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers with two counter anions from a novel back-to-back coupled hybrid ligand. The spin cross-over (SCO) temperature of polymers with BF4 and ClO4 counter anions is T1/2 = 313 K and T1/2 = 326 K, respectively. By following the top-down approach, one of the polymers (with ClO4 counter anion) is successfully solution processed using a lithographically controlled wetting technique to create laser readable high-resolution Archimedean (4,8(2) ) nanolattices (consist of diamagnetic octagons and SCO squares). The thickness and top area of each SCO square are ≈75 nm and ≈2 × 2 μm(2) , respectively.

  11. Fabrication of high-resolution 4,8(2) -type archimedean nanolattices composed of solution processable spin cross-over Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers.

    PubMed

    Venkataramudu, Uppari; Chandrasekhar, Naisa; Basak, Supratim; Prasad, Muvva D; Chandrasekar, Rajadurai

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of two highly soluble Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers with two counter anions from a novel back-to-back coupled hybrid ligand. The spin cross-over (SCO) temperature of polymers with BF4 and ClO4 counter anions is T1/2 = 313 K and T1/2 = 326 K, respectively. By following the top-down approach, one of the polymers (with ClO4 counter anion) is successfully solution processed using a lithographically controlled wetting technique to create laser readable high-resolution Archimedean (4,8(2) ) nanolattices (consist of diamagnetic octagons and SCO squares). The thickness and top area of each SCO square are ≈75 nm and ≈2 × 2 μm(2) , respectively. PMID:25594848

  12. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE. II. Binary Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Wako; Suda, Takuma; Beers, Timothy C.; Honda, Satoshi

    2015-02-01

    The fraction of binary systems in various stellar populations of the Galaxy and the distribution of their orbital parameters are important but not well-determined factors in studies of star formation, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution. While observational studies have been carried out for a large sample of nearby stars, including some metal-poor Population II stars, almost no constraints on the binary nature for extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] \\lt -3.0) stars have yet been obtained. Here we investigate the fraction of double-lined spectroscopic binaries and carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, many of which could have formed as pairs of low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, to estimate the lower limit of the fraction of binary systems having short periods. The estimate is based on a sample of very metal-poor stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and observed at high spectral resolution in a previous study by Aoki et al. That survey reported 3 double-lined spectroscopic binaries and 11 CEMP stars, which we consider along with a sample of EMP stars from the literature compiled in the SAGA database. We have conducted measurements of the velocity components for stacked absorption features of different spectral lines for each double-lined spectroscopic binary. Our estimate indicates that the fraction of binary stars having orbital periods shorter than 1000 days is at least 10%, and possibly as high as 20% if the majority of CEMP stars are formed in such short-period binaries. This result suggests that the period distribution of EMP binary systems is biased toward short periods, unless the binary fraction of low-mass EMP stars is significantly higher than that of other nearby stars.

  13. High-resolution spectroscopy of extremely metal-poor stars from SDSS/Segue. II. Binary fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Wako; Suda, Takuma; Beers, Timothy C.; Honda, Satoshi E-mail: takuma.suda@nao.ac.jp E-mail: honda@nhao.jp

    2015-02-01

    The fraction of binary systems in various stellar populations of the Galaxy and the distribution of their orbital parameters are important but not well-determined factors in studies of star formation, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution. While observational studies have been carried out for a large sample of nearby stars, including some metal-poor Population II stars, almost no constraints on the binary nature for extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] <−3.0) stars have yet been obtained. Here we investigate the fraction of double-lined spectroscopic binaries and carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, many of which could have formed as pairs of low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, to estimate the lower limit of the fraction of binary systems having short periods. The estimate is based on a sample of very metal-poor stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and observed at high spectral resolution in a previous study by Aoki et al. That survey reported 3 double-lined spectroscopic binaries and 11 CEMP stars, which we consider along with a sample of EMP stars from the literature compiled in the SAGA database. We have conducted measurements of the velocity components for stacked absorption features of different spectral lines for each double-lined spectroscopic binary. Our estimate indicates that the fraction of binary stars having orbital periods shorter than 1000 days is at least 10%, and possibly as high as 20% if the majority of CEMP stars are formed in such short-period binaries. This result suggests that the period distribution of EMP binary systems is biased toward short periods, unless the binary fraction of low-mass EMP stars is significantly higher than that of other nearby stars.

  14. IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. V. [Ne ii], MULTIPLE CLUSTERS, HIGH EFFICIENCY STAR FORMATION, AND BLUE FLOWS IN HE 2–10

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Sara; Turner, Jean; Lacy, John; Greathouse, Thomas

    2015-11-20

    We measured the 12.8 μm [Ne ii] line in the dwarf starburst galaxy He 2–10 with the high-resolution spectrometer TEXES on the NASA IRTF. The data cube has a diffraction-limited spatial resolution of ∼1″ and a total velocity resolution, including thermal broadening, of ∼5 km s{sup −1}. This makes it possible to compare the kinematics of individual star-forming clumps and molecular clouds in the three dimensions of space and velocity, and allows us to determine star formation efficiencies. The kinematics of the ionized gas confirm that the starburst contains multiple dense clusters. From the M/R of the clusters and the ≃30%–40% star formation efficiencies, the clusters are likely to be bound and long lived, like globulars. Non-gravitational features in the line profiles show how the ionized gas flows through the ambient molecular material, as well as a narrow velocity feature, which we identify with the interface of the H ii region and a cold dense clump. These data offer an unprecedented view of the interaction of embedded H ii regions with their environment.

  15. Deriving the Extinction to Young Stellar Objects using [Fe II] Near-infrared Emission Lines: Prescriptions from GIANO High-resolution Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecchioli, T.; Sanna, N.; Massi, F.; Oliva, E.

    2016-07-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) emission lines of Fe+ at 1.257, 1.321, and 1.644 μm share the same upper level; their ratios can then be exploited to derive the extinction to a line emitting region once the relevant spontaneous emission coefficients are known. This is commonly done, normally from low-resolution spectra, in observations of shocked gas from jets driven by Young Stellar Objects. In this paper we review this method, provide the relevant equations, and test it by analyzing high-resolution (R ∼ 50,000) NIR spectra of two young stars, namely the Herbig Be star HD 200775 and the Be star V1478 Cyg, which exhibit intense emission lines. The spectra were obtained with the new GIANO echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Notably, the high-resolution spectra allowed checking the effects of overlapping telluric absorption lines. A set of various determinations of the Einstein coefficients are compared to show how much the available computations affect extinction derivation. The most recently obtained values are probably good enough to allow reddening determination within 1 visual mag of accuracy. Furthermore, we show that [Fe ii] line ratios from low-resolution pure emission-line spectra in general are likely to be in error due to the impossibility to properly account for telluric absorption lines. If low-resolution spectra are used for reddening determinations, we advice that the ratio 1.644/1.257, rather than 1.644/1.321, should be used, being less affected by the effects of telluric absorption lines.

  16. Quantitative spectroscopic J-band study of red supergiants in Perseus OB-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gazak, J. Zachary; Kudritzki, Rolf; Davies, Ben; Bergemann, Maria; Plez, Bertrand

    2014-06-10

    We demonstrate how the metallicities of red supergiant (RSG) stars can be measured from quantitative spectroscopy down to resolutions of ≈3000 in the J-band. We have obtained high resolution spectra on a sample of the RSG population of h and χ Persei, a double cluster in the solar neighborhood. We show that careful application of the MARCS model atmospheres returns measurements of Z consistent with solar metallicity. Using two grids of synthetic spectra–one in pure LTE and one with non-LTE (NLTE) calculations for the most important diagnostic lines–we measure Z = +0.04 ± 0.10 (LTE) and Z = –0.04 ± 0.08 (NLTE) for the sample of eleven RSGs in the cluster. We degrade the spectral resolution of our observations and find that those values remain consistent down to resolutions of less than λ/δλ of 3000. Using measurements of effective temperatures we compare our results with stellar evolution theory and find good agreement. We construct a synthetic cluster spectrum and find that analyzing this composite spectrum with single-star RSG models returns an accurate metallicity. We conclude that the RSGs make ideal targets in the near infrared for measuring the metallicities of star forming galaxies out to 7-10 Mpc and up to 10 times farther by observing the integrated light of unresolved super star clusters.

  17. The integrated calcium II triplet as a metallicity indicator: comparisons with high-resolution [Fe/H] in M31 globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakari, Charli M.; Wallerstein, George

    2016-02-01

    Medium resolution (R = 4000-9000) spectra of the near infrared Ca II lines (at 8498, 8542, and 8662 Å) in M31 globular cluster (GC) integrated light spectra are presented. In individual stars the Ca II triplet (CaT) traces stellar metallicity; this paper compares integrated CaT strengths to well determined, high-precision [Fe/H] values from high-resolution integrated light spectra. The target GCs cover a wide range in metallicity (from [Fe/H] ˜ -2.1 to -0.2). While most are older than ˜10 Gyr, some may be of intermediate age (2-6 Gyr). A handful (3-6) have detailed abundances (e.g. low [Ca/Fe]) that indicate they may have been accreted from dwarf galaxies. Using various measurements and definitions of CaT strength, it is confirmed that for GCs with [Fe/H] ≲ -0.4 and older than ˜2 Gyr the integrated CaT traces cluster [Fe/H] to within ˜0.2 dex, independent of age. CaT lines in metal-rich GCs are very sensitive to nearby atomic lines (and TiO molecular lines in the most metal-rich GCs), largely due to line blanketing in continuum regions. The [Ca/Fe] ratio has a mild effect on the integrated CaT strength in metal poor GCs. The integrated CaT can therefore be safely used to determine rough metallicities for distant, unresolved clusters, provided that attention is paid to the limits of the measurement techniques.

  18. High resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II allele typing in Mexican mestizo women with sporadic breast cancer: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The development of breast cancer is multifactorial. Hormonal, environmental factors and genetic predisposition, among others, could interact in the presentation of breast carcinoma. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles play an important role in immunity (cellular immunity) and may be important genetic traits. HLAAllele-specific interaction has not been well established. Recently, several studies had been conducted in order to do so, but the results are controversial and in some instances contradictory. Methods We designed a case-control study to quantify the association of HLA class I and II genes and breast cancer. HLA typing was performed by high resolution sequence-specific oligotyping after DNA amplification (PCR-SSOP) of 100 breast cancer Mexican mestizo patients and 99 matched healthy controls. Results HLA-A frequencies that we were able to observe that there was no difference between both groups from the statistical viewpoint. HLA-B*1501 was found three times more common in the case group (OR, 3.714; p = 0.031). HLA-Cw is not a marker neither for risk, nor protection for the disease, because we did not find significant statistical differences between the two groups. DRB1*1301, which is expressed in seven cases and in only one control, observing an risk increase of up to seven times and DRB1*1602, which behaves similarly in being present solely in the cases (OR, 16.701; 95% CI, 0.947 – 294.670). DQ*0301-allele expression, which is much more common in the control group and could be protective for the presentation of the disease (OR, 0.078; 95% CI, 0.027–0.223, p = 0.00001). Conclusion Our results reveal the role of the MHC genes in the pathophysiology of breast cancer, suggesting that in the development of breast cancer exists a disorder of immune regulation. The triggering factor seems to be restricted to certain ethnic groups and certain geographical regions since the relevant MHC alleles are highly diverse. This is the first study in Mexican

  19. A high-resolution XAS study of aqueous Cu(II) in liquid and frozen solutions: Pyramidal, polymorphic, and non-centrosymmetric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Patrick; Benfatto, Maurizio; Qayyam, Munzarin; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.

    2015-02-01

    High-resolution EXAFS (k = 18 Å-1) and MXAN XAS analyses show that axially elongated square pyramidal [Cu(H2O)5]2+ dominates the structure of Cu(II) in aqueous solution, rather than 6-coordinate JT-octahedral [Cu(H2O)6]2+. Freezing produced a shoulder at 8989.6 eV on the rising XAS edge and an altered EXAFS spectrum, while 1s → 3d transitions remained invariant in energy position and intensity. Core square pyramidal [Cu(H2O)5]2+ also dominates frozen solution. Solvation shells were found at ˜3.6 Å (EXAFS) or ˜3.8 Å (MXAN) in both liquid and frozen phases. However, MXAN analysis revealed that about half the time in liquid solution, [Cu(H2O)5]2+ associates with an axially non-bonding 2.9 Å water molecule. This distant water apparently organizes the solvation shell. When the 2.9 Å water molecule is absent, the second shell is undetectable to MXAN. The two structural arrangements may represent energetic minima of fluxional dissolved aqueous [Cu(H2O)5]2+. The 2.9 Å trans-axial water resolves an apparent conflict of the [Cu(H2O)5]2+ core model with a dissociational exchange mechanism. In frozen solution, [Cu(H2O)5]2+ is associated with either a 3.0 Å axial non-bonded water molecule or an axial ClO4- at 3.2 Å. Both structures are again of approximately equal presence. When the axial ClO4- is present, Cu(II) is ˜0.5 Å above the mean O4 plane. This study establishes [Cu(H2O)5]2+ as the dominant core structure for Cu(II) in water solution, and is the first to both empirically resolve multiple extended solution structures for fluxional [Cu(H2O)5]2+ and to provide direct evidence for second shell dynamics.

  20. A high-resolution XAS study of aqueous Cu(II) in liquid and frozen solutions: Pyramidal, polymorphic, and non-centrosymmetric

    PubMed Central

    Benfatto, Maurizio; Qayyam, Munzarin; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution EXAFS (k = 18 Å−1) and MXAN XAS analyses show that axially elongated square pyramidal [Cu(H2O)5]2+ dominates the structure of Cu(II) in aqueous solution, rather than 6-coordinate JT-octahedral [Cu(H2O)6]2+. Freezing produced a shoulder at 8989.6 eV on the rising XAS edge and an altered EXAFS spectrum, while 1s → 3d transitions remained invariant in energy position and intensity. Core square pyramidal [Cu(H2O)5]2+ also dominates frozen solution. Solvation shells were found at ∼3.6 Å (EXAFS) or ∼3.8 Å (MXAN) in both liquid and frozen phases. However, MXAN analysis revealed that about half the time in liquid solution, [Cu(H2O)5]2+ associates with an axially non-bonding 2.9 Å water molecule. This distant water apparently organizes the solvation shell. When the 2.9 Å water molecule is absent, the second shell is undetectable to MXAN. The two structural arrangements may represent energetic minima of fluxional dissolved aqueous [Cu(H2O)5]2+. The 2.9 Å trans-axial water resolves an apparent conflict of the [Cu(H2O)5]2+ core model with a dissociational exchange mechanism. In frozen solution, [Cu(H2O)5]2+ is associated with either a 3.0 Å axial non-bonded water molecule or an axial ClO4− at 3.2 Å. Both structures are again of approximately equal presence. When the axial ClO4− is present, Cu(II) is ∼0.5 Å above the mean O4 plane. This study establishes [Cu(H2O)5]2+ as the dominant core structure for Cu(II) in water solution, and is the first to both empirically resolve multiple extended solution structures for fluxional [Cu(H2O)5]2+ and to provide direct evidence for second shell dynamics. PMID:25725734

  1. High-resolution headlamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  2. A High-resolution Multiband Survey of Westerlund 2 with the Hubble Space Telescope. II. Mass Accretion in the Pre-main-sequence Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Peter; Grebel, Eva K.; Nota, Antonella; Sabbi, Elena; Pasquali, Anna; Tosi, Monica; Bonanos, Alceste Z.; Christian, Carol

    2016-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the pre-main-sequence (PMS) population of the young star cluster Westerlund 2 (Wd2), the central ionizing cluster of the H ii region RCW 49, using data from a high-resolution multiband survey with the Hubble Space Telescope. The data were acquired with the Advanced Camera for Surveys in the F555W, F814W, and F658N filters and with the Wide Field Camera 3 in the F125W, F160W, and F128N filters. We find a mean age of the region of 1.04 ± 0.72 Myr. The combination of dereddened F555W and F814W photometry in combination with F658N photometry allows us to study and identify stars with Hα excess emission. With a careful selection of 240 bona-fide PMS Hα excess emitters we were able to determine their Hα luminosity, which has a mean value L({{H}}α )=1.67× {10}-31 {{erg}} {{{s}}}-1. Using the PARSEC 1.2S isochrones to obtain the stellar parameters of the PMS stars, we determined a mean mass accretion rate {\\dot{M}}{{acc}}=4.43× {10}-8 {M}⊙ {{{yr}}}-1 per star. A careful analysis of the spatial dependence of the mass accretion rate suggests that this rate is ˜25% lower in the center of the two density peaks of Wd2 in close proximity to the luminous OB stars, compared to the Wd2 average. This rate is higher with increasing distance from the OB stars, indicating that the PMS accretion disks are being rapidly destroyed by the far-ultraviolet radiation emitted by the OB population.

  3. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  4. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  5. High-Resolution Autoradiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towe, George C; Gomberg, Henry J; Freemen, J W

    1955-01-01

    This investigation was made to adapt wet-process autoradiography to metallurgical samples to obtain high resolution of segregated radioactive elements in microstructures. Results are confined to development of the technique, which was perfected to a resolution of less than 10 microns. The radioactive samples included carbon-14 carburized iron and steel, nickel-63 electroplated samples, a powder product containing nickel-63, and tungsten-185 in N-155 alloy.

  6. Ultra high resolution tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  7. A High-Resolution Absolute-Dated Penultimate Glacial Monsoon Record From Hulu and Dongge Caves, China and Global Correlations of Events Surrounding Termination II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H.; Kelly, M. J.; Edwards, R. L.; Wang, Y.; Kong, X.; Ming, Y.; Liu, W.; Cai, Y.; An, Z.; Yuan, D.; Zhang, M.; Lin, Y.

    2004-12-01

    We have obtained the oxygen isotope record of three stalagmites from Hulu Cave (eastern China, 32° 30'N, 119° 10'E), offering a high-resolution absolute-dated record of Asian monsoon climate over much of the penultimate glacial period. Previously, stalagmites were analyzed from Dongge Cave (southern China, 25° 17'N, 108° 5'E), located approximately 1200 km to the southwest of Hulu Cave, providing a detailed account of δ 18O variations over about the same time period (Yuan et al., 2004; Kelly et al., in review). The δ 18O patterns from the Hulu and Dongge stalagmites appear to be broadly similar across the overlapping portions of the records, indicating that the stalagmites are recording a regional climate signal. Asian Monsoon climate during the penultimate glacial period follows orbitally induced insolation changes, though it is punctuated by numerous sub-orbital scale climate events. The heaviest δ 18O values during the penultimate glacial period were initiated at ˜136 ka B.P. in both records, and are largely maintained for the next ˜6 kyr until abrupt strengthening of the monsoon at Monsoon Termination II. This interval is generally characterized by less variability than seen during the earlier portions of MIS 6, with δ 18O values remaining around -5‰ . Kelly et al. (in review) have called this extended interval of time the "Weak Monsoon Interval" (WMI). The WMI, however, is punctuated by one distinct climate event, occurring at 134.5 ± 1.0 ka B.P. in the Hulu record and 133.6 ± 1.0 ka B.P. in the Dongge record. This event may correlate with warming in the Alps at 135 ± 1.2 ka B.P., as indicated by an interval of speleothem growth from Spannagel Cave (Spötl et al., 2002). We also demonstrate that the monsoon intensity correlates well with atmospheric CH4 concentrations over the last two glacial cycles. In particular, we correlate the abrupt jump in CH4 concentrations at ˜129 ka B.P. with our Monsoon Termination II. Based upon this correlation

  8. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  9. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  10. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefitted greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  11. Design and Fabrication of Two-Dimensional Semiconducting Bolometer Arrays for the High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC-II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George M.; Allen, Christine A.; Amato, Michael J.; Babu, Sachidananda R.; Bartels, Arlin E.; Benford, Dominic J.; Derro, Rebecca J.; Dowell, C. Darren; Harper, D. Al; Jhabvala, Murzy D.

    2002-01-01

    The High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC II) will use almost identical versions of an ion-implanted silicon bolometer array developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The GSFC 'Pop-up' Detectors (PUD's) use a unique folding technique to enable a 12 x 32-element close-packed array of bolometers with a filling factor greater than 95 percent. A kinematic Kevlar(trademark) suspension system isolates the 200 mK bolometers from the helium bath temperature, and GSFC - developed silicon bridge chips make electrical connection to the bolometers, while maintaining thermal isolation. The JFET preamps operate at 120 K. Providing good thermal heat sinking for these, and keeping their conduction and radiation from reaching the nearby bolometers, is one of the principal design challenges encountered. Another interesting challenge is the preparation of the silicon bolometers. They are manufactured in 32-element, planar rows using Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) semiconductor etching techniques, and then cut and folded onto a ceramic bar. Optical alignment using specialized jigs ensures their uniformity and correct placement. The rows are then stacked to create the 12 x 32-element array. Engineering results from the first light run of SHARC II at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) are presented.

  12. Development of a simultaneous high resolution typing method for three SLA class II genes, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1 and the analysis of SLA class II haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Le, MinhThong; Choi, Hojun; Choi, Min-Kyeung; Cho, Hyesun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Seo, Han Geuk; Cha, Se-Yeon; Seo, Kunho; Dadi, Hailu; Park, Chankyu

    2015-06-15

    The characterization of the genetic variations of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is essential to understand the relationship between the genetic diversity of MHC molecules and disease resistance and susceptibility in adaptive immunity. We previously reported the development of high-resolution individual locus typing methods for three of the most polymorphic swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) class II loci, namely, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1. In this study, we extensively modified our previous protocols and developed a method for the simultaneous amplification of the three SLA class II genes and subsequent analysis of individual loci using direct sequencing. The unbiased and simultaneous amplification of alleles from the all three hyper-polymorphic and pseudogene containing genes such as MHC genes is extremely challenging. However, using this method, we demonstrated the successful typing of SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1 for 31 selected individuals comprising 26 different SLA class II haplotypes which were identified from 700 animals using the single locus typing methods. The results were identical to the known genotypes from the individual locus typing. The new method has significant benefits over the individual locus typing, including lower typing cost, use of less biomaterial, less effort and fewer errors in handling large samples for multiple loci. We also extensively characterized the haplotypes of SLA class II genes and reported three new haplotypes. Our results should serve as a basis to investigate the possible association between polymorphisms of MHC class II and differences in immune responses to exogenous antigens.

  13. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brünken, S.; Schlemmer, S.

    2016-05-01

    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limitations of conventional absorption spectroscopy. Throughout this review examples demonstrating the strong interplay between laboratory and observational studies will be given.

  14. High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS spacecraft during the period 4/l/96 - 3/31/99. During this period, HRDI operation, data processing, and data analysis continued, and there was a high level of vitality in the HRDI project. The HRDI has been collecting data from the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere since instrument activation on October 1, 1991. The HRDI team has stressed three areas since operations commenced: 1) operation of the instrument in a manner which maximizes the quality and versatility of the collected data; 2) algorithm development and validation to produce a high-quality data product; and 3) scientific studies, primarily of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. There has been no significant degradation in the HRDI instrument since operations began nearly 8 years ago. HRDI operations are fairly routine, although we have continued to look for ways to improve the quality of the scientific product, either by improving existing modes, or by designing new ones. The HRDI instrument has been programmed to collect data for new scientific studies, such as measurements of fluorescence from plants, measuring cloud top heights, and lower atmosphere H2O.

  15. Design and Fabrication of Two-Dimensional Semiconducting Bolometer Arrays for the High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC-II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George M.; Allen, Christine A.; Amato, Michael J.; Babu, Sachidananda R.; Bartels, Arlin E.; Benford, Dominic J.; Derro, Rebecca J.; Dowell, C. Darren; Harper, D. Al; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Simpson, A. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC 11) will use almost identical versions of an ion-implanted silicon bolometer array developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The GSFC "Pop-Up" Detectors (PUD's) use a unique folding technique to enable a 12 x 32-element close-packed array of bolometers with a filling factor greater than 95 percent. A kinematic Kevlar(Registered Trademark) suspension system isolates the 200 mK bolometers from the helium bath temperature, and GSFC - developed silicon bridge chips make electrical connection to the bolometers, while maintaining thermal isolation. The JFET preamps operate at 120 K. Providing good thermal heat sinking for these, and keeping their conduction and radiation from reaching the nearby bolometers, is one of the principal design challenges encountered. Another interesting challenge is the preparation of the silicon bolometers. They are manufactured in 32-element, planar rows using Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) semiconductor etching techniques, and then cut and folded onto a ceramic bar. Optical alignment using specialized jigs ensures their uniformity and correct placement. The rows are then stacked to create the 12 x 32-element array. Engineering results from the first light run of SHARC II at the CalTech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) are presented.

  16. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Taro; SUGANUMA, Narufumi; HERING, Kurt G.; VEHMAS, Tapio; ITOH, Harumi; AKIRA, Masanori; TAKASHIMA, Yoshihiro; HIRANO, Harukazu; KUSAKA, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects’ occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades. PMID:25810443

  17. Application of high resolution land use and land cover data for atmospheric modeling in the Houston-Galveston Metropolitan area: Part II. Air quality simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang-Yi; Kim, Soontae; Byun, Daewon W.

    In the companion paper, we showed that MM5 simulation using a satellite-derived high resolution Texas Forest Service (TFS) land use and land cover (LULC) data set (M2), compared to the MM5 results with the default USGS-LULC (M1), improved representation of the complicated features of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL) in the Houston ship channel (HSC) area, where large industrial emission sources are concentrated. In the present paper, the study is extended to investigate these effects on air quality simulations. Two emission inputs, namely E1 and E2, are prepared with the M1 and M2 meteorology data, respectively, to reflect the differences in the point source plume rise estimates while keeping the biogenic and mobile emissions the same. Air quality simulations were performed with CMAQ using the M1E1 and M2E2 inputs. The simulation results demonstrate the importance of utilizing high resolution LULC data. In the default LULC data, the HSC area was classified as grass land cover, and MM5 predicted confined mixing, resulting in over-prediction of ozone (O 3) precursors, such as NO x (NO plus NO 2), and highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOC) species, including ethylene and propylene, over the HSC area. In the TFS data, the area was classified as the impervious "urban" land use and MM5 predicted enhanced mixing of the precursor species, leading to better agreements with measurements. The high resolution LULC also resolves the location of water body near the HSC more accurately, predicting shallower PBL heights than the default LULC during daytime. With favorable wind conditions, the O 3 precursors were transported from the HSC emission source towards the area, trapping the pollutants in a confined shallow mixing layer that occasionally led to a rapid photochemical production of O 3. The above comparison includes the changes in both meteorological and plume-rise emissions inputs. We performed two additional CMAQ simulations using the same

  18. High Resolution Formaldehyde Photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, C. T.; Bauer, D.; Hynes, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant and most important organic carbonyl compound in the atmosphere. The sources of formaldehyde are the oxidation of methane, isoprene, acetone, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); fossil fuel combustion; and biomass burning. The dominant loss mechanism for formaldehyde is photolysis which occurs via two pathways: (R1) HCHO + hv → HCO + H (R2) HCHO + hv → H2 + CO The first pathway (R1) is referred to as the radical channel, while the second pathway (R2) is referred to as the molecular channel. The products of both pathways play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. The CO that is produced in the molecular channel undergoes further oxidation to produce CO2. Under atmospheric conditions, the H atom and formyl radical that are produced in the radical channel undergo rapid reactions with O2 to produce the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) via (R3) and (R4). (R3) HCO + O2 → HO2 + CO (R4) H + O2 → HO2 Thus, for every photon absorbed, the photolysis of formaldehyde can contribute one CO2 molecule to the global greenhouse budget or two HO2 radicals to the tropospheric HOx (OH + HO2) cycle. The HO2 radicals produced during formaldehyde photolysis have also been implicated in the formation of photochemical smog. The HO2 radicals act as radical chain carriers and convert NO to NO2, which ultimately results in the catalytic production of O3. Constraining the yield of HO2 produced via HCHO photolysis is essential for improving tropospheric chemistry models. In this study, both the absorption cross section and the quantum yield of the radical channel (R1) were measured at high resolution over the tropospherically relevant wavelength range 304-330 nm. For the cross section measurements a narrow linewidth Nd:YAG pumped dye laser was used with a multi-pass cell. Partial pressures of HCHO were kept below 0.3 torr. Simultaneous measurement of OH LIF in a flame allowed absolute calibration of the wavelength scale. Pressure

  19. High-resolution, far-ultraviolet study of Beta Draconis (G2 Ib-II) - Transition region structure and energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A.; Jordan, C.; Stencel, R. E.; Linsky, J. L.; Ayres, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    High-resolution far ultraviolet spectra of the star Beta Draconis have been obtained with the IUE satellite. The observations and emission line data from the spectra are presented, the interpretation of the emission line widths and shifts is discussed, and the implications are given in terms of atmospheric properties. The emission measure distribution is derived, and density diagnostics involving both line ratios and line opacity arguments is investigated. The methods for calculating spherically symmetric models of the atmospheric structure are outlined, and several such models are presented. The extension of these models to log T(e) greater than 5.3 using the observed X-ray flux is addressed, the energy balance of an 'optimum' model is investigated, and possible models of energy transport and deposition are discussed.

  20. Spectroscopic study on deuterated benzenes. II. High-resolution laser spectroscopy and rotational structure in the S{sub 1} state

    SciTech Connect

    Kunishige, Sachi; Katori, Toshiharu; Baba, Masaaki; Hayashi, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Ohshima, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-28

    High-resolution spectra of the S{sub 1}←S{sub 0} transition in jet-cooled deuterated benzenes were observed using pulse dye amplification of single-mode laser light and mass-selective resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) detection. The vibrational and rotational structures were accurately analyzed for the vibronic levels in the S{sub 1} state. The degenerate 6{sup 1} levels of C{sub 6}H{sub 6} or C{sub 6}D{sub 6} are split into 6a{sup 1} and 6b{sup 1} in many of deuterated benzenes. The rigid-rotor rotational constants were assessed and found to be slightly different between 6a and 6b because of different mean molecular structures. Their rotational levels are significantly shifted by Coriolis interactions. It was found that the Coriolis parameter proportionally changed with the number of substituted D atoms.

  1. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  2. Synchrotron X-ray tests of an L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror for the analyzer system of the ultra-high-resolution IXS spectrometer at NSLS-II.

    PubMed

    Honnicke, Marcelo G; Keister, Jeffrey W; Conley, Raymond; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Takacs, Peter Z; Coburn, David Scott; Reffi, Leo; Cai, Yong Q

    2011-11-01

    Characterization and testing of an L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror are presented. This mirror is designed as a two-dimensional collimating optics for the analyzer system of the ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) spectrometer at National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). The characterization includes point-to-point reflectivity measurements, lattice parameter determination and mirror metrology (figure, slope error and roughness). The synchrotron X-ray test of the mirror was carried out reversely as a focusing device. The results show that the L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror is suitable to be used, with high efficiency, for the analyzer system of the IXS spectrometer at NSLS-II.

  3. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY DURING ECLIPSE OF THE YOUNG SUBSTELLAR ECLIPSING BINARY 2MASS 0535-0546. II. SECONDARY SPECTRUM: NO EVIDENCE THAT SPOTS CAUSE THE TEMPERATURE REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Stassun, Keivan G. E-mail: keivan.stassun@vanderbilt.edu

    2012-10-10

    We present high-resolution optical spectra of the young brown dwarf eclipsing binary 2M0535-05, obtained during eclipse of the higher-mass (primary) brown dwarf. Combined with our previous spectrum of the primary alone (Paper I), the new observations yield the spectrum of the secondary alone. We investigate, through a differential analysis of the two binary components, whether cool surface spots are responsible for suppressing the temperature of the primary. In Paper I, we found a significant discrepancy between the empirical surface gravity of the primary and that inferred via fine analysis of its spectrum. Here we find precisely the same discrepancy in surface gravity, both qualitatively and quantitatively. While this may again be ascribed to either cool spots or model opacity errors, it implies that cool spots cannot be responsible for preferentially lowering the temperature of the primary: if they were, spot effects on the primary spectrum should be preferentially larger, and they are not. The T{sub eff}'s we infer for the primary and secondary, from the TiO-{epsilon} bands alone, show the same reversal, in the same ratio, as is empirically observed, bolstering the validity of our analysis. In turn, this implies that if suppression of convection by magnetic fields on the primary is the fundamental cause of the T{sub eff} reversal, then it cannot be a local suppression yielding spots mainly on the primary (though both components may be equally spotted), but a global suppression in the interior of the primary. We briefly discuss current theories of how this might work.

  4. Monte Carlo Bayesian Inference on a Statistical Model of Sub-gridcolumn Moisture Variability Using High-resolution Cloud Observations . Part II; Sensitivity Tests and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Part I presented a Monte Carlo Bayesian method for constraining a complex statistical model of GCM sub-gridcolumn moisture variability using high-resolution MODIS cloud data, thereby permitting large-scale model parameter estimation and cloud data assimilation. This part performs some basic testing of this new approach, verifying that it does indeed significantly reduce mean and standard deviation biases with respect to the assimilated MODIS cloud optical depth, brightness temperature and cloud top pressure, and that it also improves the simulated rotational-Ramman scattering cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP) against independent (non-assimilated) retrievals from the OMI instrument. Of particular interest, the Monte Carlo method does show skill in the especially difficult case where the background state is clear but cloudy observations exist. In traditional linearized data assimilation methods, a subsaturated background cannot produce clouds via any infinitesimal equilibrium perturbation, but the Monte Carlo approach allows finite jumps into regions of non-zero cloud probability. In the example provided, the method is able to restore marine stratocumulus near the Californian coast where the background state has a clear swath. This paper also examines a number of algorithmic and physical sensitivities of the new method and provides guidance for its cost-effective implementation. One obvious difficulty for the method, and other cloud data assimilation methods as well, is the lack of information content in the cloud observables on cloud vertical structure, beyond cloud top pressure and optical thickness, thus necessitating strong dependence on the background vertical moisture structure. It is found that a simple flow-dependent correlation modification due to Riishojgaard (1998) provides some help in this respect, by better honoring inversion structures in the background state.

  5. HIGH-RESOLUTION CALCULATION OF THE SOLAR GLOBAL CONVECTION WITH THE REDUCED SPEED OF SOUND TECHNIQUE. II. NEAR SURFACE SHEAR LAYER WITH THE ROTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hotta, H.; Rempel, M.; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-resolution, highly stratified numerical simulation of rotating thermal convection in a spherical shell. Our aim is to study in detail the processes that can maintain a near surface shear layer (NSSL) as inferred from helioseismology. Using the reduced speed of sound technique, we can extend our global convection simulation to 0.99 R {sub ☉} and include, near the top of our domain, small-scale convection with short timescales that is only weakly influenced by rotation. We find the formation of an NSSL preferentially in high latitudes in the depth range of r = 0.95-0.975 R {sub ☉}. The maintenance mechanisms are summarized as follows. Convection under the weak influence of rotation leads to Reynolds stresses that transport angular momentum radially inward in all latitudes. This leads to the formation of a strong poleward-directed meridional flow and an NSSL, which is balanced in the meridional plane by forces resulting from the 〈v{sub r}{sup ′}v{sub θ}{sup ′}〉 correlation of turbulent velocities. The origin of the required correlations depends to some degree on latitude. In high latitudes, a positive correlation 〈v{sub r}{sup ′}v{sub θ}{sup ′}〉 is induced in the NSSL by the poleward meridional flow whose amplitude increases with the radius, while a negative correlation is generated by the Coriolis force in bulk of the convection zone. In low latitudes, a positive correlation 〈v{sub r}{sup ′}v{sub θ}{sup ′}〉 results from rotationally aligned convection cells ({sup b}anana cells{sup )}. The force caused by these Reynolds stresses is in balance with the Coriolis force in the NSSL.

  6. High-resolution Calculation of the Solar Global Convection with the Reduced Speed of Sound Technique. II. Near Surface Shear Layer with the Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, H.; Rempel, M.; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-resolution, highly stratified numerical simulation of rotating thermal convection in a spherical shell. Our aim is to study in detail the processes that can maintain a near surface shear layer (NSSL) as inferred from helioseismology. Using the reduced speed of sound technique, we can extend our global convection simulation to 0.99 R ☉ and include, near the top of our domain, small-scale convection with short timescales that is only weakly influenced by rotation. We find the formation of an NSSL preferentially in high latitudes in the depth range of r = 0.95-0.975 R ☉. The maintenance mechanisms are summarized as follows. Convection under the weak influence of rotation leads to Reynolds stresses that transport angular momentum radially inward in all latitudes. This leads to the formation of a strong poleward-directed meridional flow and an NSSL, which is balanced in the meridional plane by forces resulting from the < v\\prime r v\\prime _θ > correlation of turbulent velocities. The origin of the required correlations depends to some degree on latitude. In high latitudes, a positive correlation < v\\prime _rv\\prime _θ > is induced in the NSSL by the poleward meridional flow whose amplitude increases with the radius, while a negative correlation is generated by the Coriolis force in bulk of the convection zone. In low latitudes, a positive correlation < v\\prime _rv\\prime _θ > results from rotationally aligned convection cells ("banana cells"). The force caused by these Reynolds stresses is in balance with the Coriolis force in the NSSL.

  7. High-resolution Calculation of the Solar Global Convection with the Reduced Speed of Sound Technique. II. Near Surface Shear Layer with the Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, H.; Rempel, M.; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-resolution, highly stratified numerical simulation of rotating thermal convection in a spherical shell. Our aim is to study in detail the processes that can maintain a near surface shear layer (NSSL) as inferred from helioseismology. Using the reduced speed of sound technique, we can extend our global convection simulation to 0.99 R ⊙ and include, near the top of our domain, small-scale convection with short timescales that is only weakly influenced by rotation. We find the formation of an NSSL preferentially in high latitudes in the depth range of r = 0.95-0.975 R ⊙. The maintenance mechanisms are summarized as follows. Convection under the weak influence of rotation leads to Reynolds stresses that transport angular momentum radially inward in all latitudes. This leads to the formation of a strong poleward-directed meridional flow and an NSSL, which is balanced in the meridional plane by forces resulting from the < v\\prime r v\\prime _θ > correlation of turbulent velocities. The origin of the required correlations depends to some degree on latitude. In high latitudes, a positive correlation < v\\prime _rv\\prime _θ > is induced in the NSSL by the poleward meridional flow whose amplitude increases with the radius, while a negative correlation is generated by the Coriolis force in bulk of the convection zone. In low latitudes, a positive correlation < v\\prime _rv\\prime _θ > results from rotationally aligned convection cells ("banana cells"). The force caused by these Reynolds stresses is in balance with the Coriolis force in the NSSL.

  8. Time series of high resolution photospheric spectra in a quiet region of the Sun. II. Analysis of the variation of physical quantities of granular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschmann, K. G.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; Vázquez, M.; Bonet, J. A.; Hanslmeier, A.

    2005-10-01

    From the inversion of a time series of high resolution slit spectrograms obtained from the quiet sun, the spatial and temporal distribution of the thermodynamical quantities and the vertical flow velocity is derived as a function of optical depth (logτ) and geometrical height (z). Spatial coherence and phase shift analyses between temperature and vertical velocity depict the height variation of these physical quantities for structures of different size. An average granular cell model is presented, showing the granule-intergranular lane stratification of temperature, vertical velocity, gas pressure and density as a function of logτ and z. Studies of a specific small and a specific large granular cell complement these results. A strong decay of the temperature fluctuations with increasing height together with a less efficient penetration of smaller cells is revealed. The T-T coherence at all granular scales is broken already at logτ = -1 or z ~ 170 km. At the layers beyond, an inversion of the temperature contrast at granular scales >1.5 arcsec is revealed, both in logτ and z. At deeper layers the temperature sensitivity of the H- opacity leeds to much smaller temperature fluctuations at equal logτ than at equal z, in concordance with Stein & Nordlund (1998, ApJ, 499, 914). Vertical velocities are in phase throughout the photosphere and penetrate into the highest layers under study. Velocities at the largest granular scales (~ 4´´) are still found even at logτ ~ -2.8 or z ~ 370 km. Again a less efficient height penetration of smaller cells concerning convective velocities is revealed, although still at logτ ~ -2 or z ~ 280 km structures >1.4 arcsec are detected. A similar size distribution of velocity and temperature structures with height provides observational evidence for substantial overshoot into the photosphere. At deep photospheric layers, the behaviour of the vertical velocities reflected in simulations is for the first time qualitatively reproduced

  9. Phase I and II metabolites of speciogynine, a diastereomer of the main Kratom alkaloid mitragynine, identified in rat and human urine by liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zapp, Josef; Maurer, Hans H

    2010-11-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai), a Thai medical plant, is misused as herbal drug of abuse. Besides the most abundant alkaloids mitragynine (MG) and paynantheine (PAY), several other alkaloids were isolated from Kratom leaves, among them the third abundant alkaloid is speciogynine (SG), a diastereomer of MG. The aim of this present study was to identify the phase I and II metabolites of SG in rat urine after the administration of a rather high dose of the pure alkaloid and then to confirm these findings using human urine samples after Kratom use. The applied liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS-MS) provided detailed information on the structure in the MS(n) mode particularly with high resolution. For the analysis of the human samples, the LC separation had to be improved markedly allowing the separation of SG and its metabolites from its diastereomer MG and its metabolites. In analogy to MG, besides SG, nine phase I and eight phase II metabolites could be identified in rat urine, but only three phase I and five phase II metabolites in human urine. These differences may be caused by the lower SG dose applied by the user of Kratom preparations. SG and its metabolites could be differentiated in the human samples from the diastereomeric MG and its metabolites comparing the different retention times determined after application of the single alkaloids to rats. In addition, some differences in MS(2) and/or MS(3) spectra of the corresponding diastereomers were observed. PMID:20967737

  10. Characterization of Sulfolipids of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv by Multiple-stage Linear Ion-trap High Resolution Mass Spectrometry with Electrospray Ionization Reveals that Family of Sulfolipid II predominates

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Elizabeth R.; Streeter, Cassandra; Turk, John; Hsu, Fong-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is unique among bacterial pathogens in that it contains a wide array of complex lipids and lipoglycans on its cell wall. Among them, the sulfated glycolipid, termed sulfolipid is thought to mediate specific host pathogen interactions during infection. Sulfolipids (SLs) including sulfolipid I (SL-I) and sulfolipid II (SL-II) are 2,3,6,6'-tetraacyltrehalose 2'-sulfates. SL-I was identified as a family of homologous 2-palmitoyl(stearoyl)-3-phthioceranoyl, 6,6'-bis(hydroxyphthioceranoy1)-trehalose 2'-sulfate and was believed to be the principal sulfolipid of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. We cultured and extracted sulfolipids using various conditions including those originally described and employed high-resolution multiple-stage linear ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization to characterize the structure of the principal SL. We revealed that SL-II, a family of homologous 2-stearoyl(palmitoyl)-3,6,6'-tris(hydroxyphthioceranoy1)-trehalose2'-sulfates, rather than SL-I is the principal sulfolipid class. We identified a great number of isomers resulting from permutation of the various hydroxyphthioceranoyl substituents at 6- and 6'-position of the trehalose backbone for each of the SL-II species in the entire family. We redefined the structure of this important lipid family that was mis-assigned using the traditional methods 40 years ago. PMID:21919534

  11. J-band variability of M dwarfs in the WFCAM Transit Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulding, N. T.; Barnes, J. R.; Pinfield, D. J.; Kovács, G.; Birkby, J.; Hodgkin, S.; Catalán, S.; Sipőcz, B.; Jones, H. R. A.; Del Burgo, C.; Jeffers, S. V.; Nefs, S.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Martin, E. L.

    2012-12-01

    We present an analysis of the photometric variability of M dwarfs in the Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) Transit Survey. Although periodic light-curve variability in low mass stars is generally dominated by photospheric star spot activity, M dwarf variability in the J band has not been as thoroughly investigated as at visible wavelengths. Spectral type estimates for a sample of over 200 000 objects are made using spectral type-colour relations, and over 9600 dwarfs (J < 17) with spectral types later than K7 were found. The light curves of the late-type sample are searched for periodicity using a Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis. A total of 68 periodic variable M dwarfs are found in the sample with periods ranging from 0.16 to 90.33 d, with amplitudes in the range of ˜0.009 to ˜0.115 in the J band. We simulate active M dwarfs with a range of latitude-independent spot coverages and estimate a periodically variable fraction of 1-3 per cent for stars where spots cover more than 10 per cent of the star's surface. Our simulated spot distributions indicate that operating in the J band, where spot contrast ratios are minimized, enables variability in only the most active of stars to be detected. These findings affirm the benefits of using the J band for planetary transit searches compared to visible bands. We also serendipitously find a ΔJ > 0.2 mag flaring event from an M4V star in our sample.

  12. RED SUPERGIANT STARS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES. III. NLTE EFFECTS IN J-BAND MAGNESIUM LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bergemann, Maria; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zach; Davies, Ben; Plez, Bertrand E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: bdavies@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2015-05-10

    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) calculations for Mg i in red supergiant stellar atmospheres are presented to investigate the importance of NLTE for the formation of Mg i lines in the NIR J-band. Recent work using medium resolution spectroscopy of atomic lines in the J-band of individual red supergiant stars has demonstrated this technique is a very promising tool for investigating the chemical composition of the young stellar population in star forming galaxies. As in previous work, where NLTE effects were studied for iron, titanium, and silicon, substantial effects are found resulting in significantly stronger Mg i absorption lines. For the quantitative spectral analysis the NLTE effects lead to magnesium abundances significantly smaller than in local thermodynamic equilibrium with the NLTE abundance corrections varying smoothly between −0.4 dex and −0.1 dex for effective temperatures between 3400 and 4400 K. We discuss the physical reasons of the NLTE effects and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies using individual red supergiants in the young massive galactic double cluster h and χ Persei.

  13. Preoperative Chemotherapy in Patients With Intermediate-Risk Rectal Adenocarcinoma Selected by High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The GEMCAD 0801 Phase II Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gina; Estevan, Rafael; Salud, Antonieta; Montagut, Clara; Maurel, Joan; Safont, Maria Jose; Aparicio, Jorge; Feliu, Jaime; Vera, Ruth; Alonso, Vicente; Gallego, Javier; Martin, Marta; Pera, Miguel; Sierra, Enrique; Serra, Javier; Delgado, Salvadora; Roig, Jose V.; Santos, Jesus; Pericay, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Background. The need for preoperative chemoradiation or short-course radiation in all T3 rectal tumors is a controversial issue. A multicenter phase II trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin combined with bevacizumab in patients with intermediate-risk rectal adenocarcinoma. Methods. We recruited 46 patients with T3 rectal adenocarcinoma selected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) who were candidates for (R0) resection located in the middle third with clear mesorectal fascia and who were selected by pelvic MRI. Patients received four cycles of neoadjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin combined with bevacizumab (final cycle without bevacizumab) before total mesorectal excision (TME). In case of progression, preoperative chemoradiation was planned. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR). Results. On an intent-to-treat analysis, the ORR was 78% (n = 36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 63%–89%) and no progression was detected. Pathologic complete response was observed in nine patients (20%; 95% CI: 9–33), and T downstaging was observed in 48%. Forty-four patients proceeded to TME, and all had R0 resection. During preoperative therapy, two deaths occurred as a result of pulmonary embolism and diarrhea, respectively, and one patient died after surgery as a result of peritonitis secondary to an anastomotic leak (AL). A 13% rate of AL was higher than expected. The 24-month disease-free survival rate was 75% (95% CI: 60%–85%), and the 2-year local relapse rate was 2% (95% CI: 0%–11%). Conclusion. In this selected population, initial chemotherapy results in promising activity, but the observed toxicity does not support further investigation of this specific regimen. Nevertheless, these early results warrant further testing of this strategy in an enriched population and in randomized trials. PMID:25209376

  14. SeaDataNet II - EMODNet Bathymetry - building a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management and a digital high resolution bathymetry for European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2015-04-01

    European sea regions as part of EMODnet Phase 2, which started mid 2013. EMODnet encourages more data providers to come forward for data sharing and participating in the process of making complete overviews and homogeneous data products. The EMODnet Bathymetry project is very illustrative for the synergy between SeaDataNet and EMODnet and added value of generating public data products. The project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets. The portal provides a versatile DTM viewing service with many relevant map layers and functions for retrieving. A further refinement is taking place as part of phase 2. The presentation will highlight key achievements in SeaDataNet II and give further details and views on the new EMODNet Digital Bathymetry for European seas as to be released early 2015.

  15. ANL high-resolution injector

    SciTech Connect

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.; Liu, Z.

    1986-05-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne tandem linac accelerator system). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed.

  16. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  17. Advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer development program is considered. The program covered the design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was also developed for use on the program.

  18. Neural network cloud screening algorithm Part II: global synthetic cases using high resolution spectra in O2 and CO2 near infrared absorption bands in nadir and sun glint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Thomas E.; O'Brien, D. M.

    2010-03-01

    In Part I a set of two layer feed-forward neural networks, trained via back propagation of sensitivities, was applied to a synthetic set of radiances in micro-windows of the near-infrared to make predictions of cloud water (cw), cloud ice (ci), effective scattering heights of cloud water and ice, (pcw and pci, respectively) and the column water vapor (w). A threshold test, using 2 g/m-2 for cloud water and 10 g/m-2 for cloud ice, was applied to the retrieved values to distinguish clear from cloudy scenes. In that work the discussion was limited to the nadir viewing geometry, and was applied only to land surfaces, excluding desert and snow and ice fields. Part II describes the extension to a set of high resolution radiances, as might be measured by a grating spectrometer from space, in both nadir and sun glint viewing geometries. Furthermore, results are given for all land surface types as well as scenes over ocean. Prior to neural network training, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to the high resolution spectra, which consist of three bands centered at 0.76μm (O2 A-band), 1.61μm (weak CO2 band) and 2.06μm (strong CO2 band), each with 1016 channels. Analysis shows that the five leading EOFs together capture 99.9% of the variance in each band, reducing the data size by more than two orders of magnitude. Application of the trained neural networks to an independent data set, generated using CloudSat and Calipso cloud and aerosol profiles, as well as carbon dioxide profiles from a chemical transport model, were used to quantify the skill in the retrieval. The results vary significantly with surface type, viewing mode and cloud properties. Accuracies range from 7% to 100% (typically close to 75%), with confidence levels almost always greater than 90%.

  19. Recent experimental results from a long-pulse J-band relativistic klystron amplifier developmental effort

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, K.G.; Crouch, D.D.; Sar, D.R.; Speciale, R.A.; Carlsten, B.E.; Fazio, M.V.; Haynes, W.B.; Stringfield, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    Recent experimental results, supporting simulations, and design modeling are presented from a developmental effort to a produce a long pulse ({approximately}1{mu}s) J-band (5.85-8.2 GHz) relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) of the high current NRL genealogy. This RKA is designed to operate at approximately 6.6 GHz, with a desired RF output {approximately}700 MW. Conversion of electron beam energy to microwave energy is obtained by a mock magnetically insulated coaxial converter which, in various incarnations, can be made to be either a cavity gap extractor or an inverse cathode.

  20. High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Joseph M.; Herring, Mark; Norris, David D.

    1988-01-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS), related data system, orbit, and mission operations are described. The pushbroom instrument simultaneously images the terrestrial surface in 192 spectral bands from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. The swath width is 30 km and spatial resolution is 30 m. It is planned to be launched with the Earth Observing System aboard the Space Station Polar Platform in 1995. Array detectors allow concurrent integration of the signals at 192,000 detector elements.

  1. Gemini J-band observations of RX J0806.4-4123

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posselt, B.; Luhman, K. L.

    2016-07-01

    The detection of near-infrared (NIR) excess at the position of a star can indicate either a substellar companion or a disk around the respective star. In this work we probed whether a 2.5σ H-band flux enhancement at the position of the isolated neutron star RX J0806.4-4123 can be confirmed at another NIR wavelength. We observed RX J0806.4-4123 in the J-band with Gemini South equipped with FLAMINGOS-2. There was no significant detection of a J-band source at the neutron star position. However, similarly to the H-band we found a very faint (1.4σ) flux enhancement with a nominal magnitude of J=24.8 ± 0.5. The overall NIR-detection significance is 3.1σ. If real, this emission is too bright to come from the neutron star alone. Deeper near-infrared observations are necessary to confirm or refute the potential NIR excess. The confirmation of such NIR excess could imply that there is a substellar companion or a disk around RX J0806.4-4123. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory (Program ID: GS-2014B-Q-60) and ESO Paranal Observatory (Program ID: 74.C-0596)

  2. Metallicity determination of M dwarfs. High-resolution infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Sara; Heiter, Ulrike; Seifahrt, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Context. Several new techniques to determine the metallicity of M dwarfs with better precision have been developed over the last decades. However, most of these studies were based on empirical methods. In order to enable detailed abundance analysis, standard methods established for warmer solar-like stars, i.e. model-dependent methods using fitting of synthetic spectra, still need to be used. Aims: In this work we continue the reliability confirmation and development of metallicity determinations of M dwarfs using high-resolution infrared spectra. The reliability was confirmed through analysis of M dwarfs in four binary systems with FGK dwarf companions and by comparison with previous optical studies of the FGK dwarfs. Methods: The metallicity determination was based on spectra taken in the J band (1.1-1.4 μm) with the CRIRES spectrograph. In this part of the infrared, the density of stellar molecular lines is limited, reducing the amount of blends with atomic lines enabling an accurate continuum placement. Lines of several atomic species were used to determine the stellar metallicity. Results: All binaries show excellent agreement between the derived metallicity of the M dwarf and its binary companion. Our results are also in good agreement with values found in the literature. Furthermore, we propose an alternative way to determine the effective temperature of M dwarfs of spectral types later than M2 through synthetic spectral fitting of the FeH lines in our observed spectra. Conclusions: We have confirmed that a reliable metallicity determination of M dwarfs can be achieved using high-resolution infrared spectroscopy. We also note that metallicites obtained with photometric metallicity calibrations available for M dwarfs only partly agree with the results we obtain from high-resolution spectroscopy. Based on data obtained at ESO-VLT, Paranal Observatory, Chile, Program ID 082.D-0838(A) and 084.D-1042(A).

  3. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF YOUNG BROWN DWARFS AND VERY LOW MASS STARS INFERRED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION MODEL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Emily L.; Mclean, Ian S.; Barman, T.; Prato, L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2010-01-01

    By comparing near-infrared spectra with atmospheric models, we infer the effective temperature, surface gravity, projected rotational velocity, and radial velocity for 21 very low mass stars and brown dwarfs. The unique sample consists of two sequences in spectral type from M6-M9, one of 5-10 Myr objects and one of >1 Gyr field objects. A third sequence is comprised of only {approx}M6 objects with ages ranging from <1 Myr to >1 Gyr. Spectra were obtained in the J band at medium (R {approx} 2000) and high (R {approx} 20,000) resolutions with NIRSPEC on the Keck II telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated from atmospheric structures calculated with the PHOENIX model atmosphere code. Using multi-dimensional least-squares fitting and Monte Carlo routines we determine the best-fit model parameters for each observed spectrum and note which spectral regions provide consistent results. We identify successes in the reproduction of observed features by atmospheric models, including pressure-broadened K I lines, and investigate deficiencies in the models, particularly missing FeH opacity, that will need to be addressed in order to extend our analysis to cooler objects. The precision that can be obtained for each parameter using medium- and high-resolution near-infrared spectra is estimated and the implications for future studies of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs are discussed.

  4. Binding of an organo-osmium(II) anticancer complex to guanine and cytosine on DNA revealed by electron-based dissociations in high resolution Top-Down FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Christopher A; Sanchez-Cano, Carlos; Liu, Hong-Ke; Barrow, Mark P; Sadler, Peter J; O'Connor, Peter B

    2015-02-28

    The Os(II) arene anticancer complex [(η(6)-bip)Os(en)Cl](+) (Os1-Cl; where bip = biphenyl, and en = ethylenediamine) binds strongly to DNA. Here we investigate reactions between Os1-Cl and the self-complementary 12-mer oligonucleotide 5'-TAGTAATTACTA-3' (DNA12) using ultra high resolution Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Identification of the specific sites of DNA osmiation with {(η(6)-bip)Os(en)}(2+) was made possible by the use of Electron Detachment Dissociation (EDD) which produced a wide range of assignable osmiated MS/MS fragments. In contrast, the more commonly used CAD and IRMPD techniques produced fragments which lose the bound osmium. These studies reveal that not only is guanine G3 a strong binding site for {(η(6)-bip)Os(en)}(2+) but, unexpectedly, so too is cytosine C10. Interestingly, the G3/C10 di-osmiated adduct of DNA12 also formed readily but did not undergo such facile fragmentation by EDD, perhaps due to folding induced by van der Waal's interactions of the bound osmium arene species. These new insights into osmium arene DNA adducts should prove valuable for the design of new organometallic drugs and contribute to understanding the lack of cross resistance of this organometallic anticancer complex with cisplatin.

  5. DARPA high resolution display technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slusarczuk, Marko

    1990-11-01

    Much of the information of interest to pilots in flight is display-limited, and is undergoing substantial expansion due to improved sensor output and signal processing; attention is accordingly given to digitally-based instrument display imaging in the present evaluation of high-resolution cockpit display technologies. Also noted are the advantages of digitally transmitted sensor data in cases where the airborne reconnaissance user may be able to analyze telemetered airborne data in real time and respond with requests to the pilot for more detailed information of specific battlefield sites.

  6. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1990-01-01

    Earth resources observed in greater detail. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, undergoing development for use in NASA's Earth Observing System, measures reflectance of Earth's surface in visible and near-infrared wavelengths. From an orbit around Earth, instrument scans surface of Earth in 200 wavelength bands simultaneously. Produces images enabling identification of minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, changes in spectra associated with biochemistry of plant canopies, compositions of atmospheric aerosols, sizes of grains in snow, and contamination of snow by impurities that absorb visible light.

  7. High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna (HRSRA) for the purpose of tracking ground terminals and space craft communication applications. The present invention provides an alternative to using gimbaled parabolic dish antennas and direct radiating phased arrays. When compared to a gimbaled parabolic dish, the HRSRA offers the advantages of vibration free steering without incurring appreciable cost or prime power penalties. In addition, it offers full beam steering at a fraction of the cost of direct radiating arrays and is more efficient.

  8. SEEDS J-band Polarimetric Imagery of the AB Aur Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewski, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Grady, C.; Hashimoto, J.; Kudo, T.; Munetake, M.; Okamoto, Y.; Tamura, M.; Hodapp, K.; SEEDS Team

    2010-10-01

    The Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) is a large survey which will be observing roughly 200 protoplanetary and debris disk systems over the next five years using the HiCIAO coronagraph + AO188 system on the Subaru telescope. We present new J-band polarimetric differential imagery of the proto-type Herbig Ae star, AB Aurigae, which diagnoses scattered light from the system between 20 - 540 AU at a resolution of roughly 8 AU. We discuss the morphology we observe in the outer disk region in the context of previous observations of the system, and compare/contrast the morphology in the inner disk region with recent H-band imagery of the system made with HiCIAO(Hashimoto et al 2010).

  9. WISEP J061135.13–041024.0 AB: A J-band flux reversal binary at the L/T transition

    SciTech Connect

    Gelino, Christopher R.; Smart, R. L.; Marocco, Federico; Jones, Hugh R. A.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.; Mace, Gregory; Mendez, Rene A.; Tinney, C. G.

    2014-07-01

    We present Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics observations of the brown dwarf WISEP J061135.13–041024.0 showing it is a binary with a component separation of 0.''4. This system is one of the six known resolved binaries in which the magnitude differences between the components show a reversal in sign between the Y/J band and the H/K bands. Deconvolution of the composite spectrum results in a best-fit binary solution with L9 and T1.5 components. We also present a preliminary parallax placing the system at a distance of 21.2 ± 1.3 pc. Using the distance and resolved magnitudes we are able to place WISEP J061135.13–041024.0 AB on a color-absolute magnitude diagram, showing that this system contributes to the well-known 'J-band bump' and the components' properties appear similar to other late-type L and early-type T dwarfs. Fitting our data to a set of cloudy atmosphere models suggests the system has an age >1 Gyr with WISE 0611–0410 A having an effective temperature (T {sub eff}) of 1275-1325 K and mass of 64-65 M {sub Jup}, and WISE 0611–0410 B having T {sub eff} = 1075-1115 K and mass 40-65 M {sub Jup}.

  10. WISEP J061135.13-041024.0 AB: A J-band Flux Reversal Binary at the L/T Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelino, Christopher R.; Smart, R. L.; Marocco, Federico; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.; Mace, Gregory; Mendez, Rene A.; Tinney, C. G.; Jones, Hugh R. A.

    2014-07-01

    We present Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics observations of the brown dwarf WISEP J061135.13-041024.0 showing it is a binary with a component separation of 0.''4. This system is one of the six known resolved binaries in which the magnitude differences between the components show a reversal in sign between the Y/J band and the H/K bands. Deconvolution of the composite spectrum results in a best-fit binary solution with L9 and T1.5 components. We also present a preliminary parallax placing the system at a distance of 21.2 ± 1.3 pc. Using the distance and resolved magnitudes we are able to place WISEP J061135.13-041024.0 AB on a color-absolute magnitude diagram, showing that this system contributes to the well-known "J-band bump" and the components' properties appear similar to other late-type L and early-type T dwarfs. Fitting our data to a set of cloudy atmosphere models suggests the system has an age >1 Gyr with WISE 0611-0410 A having an effective temperature (T eff) of 1275-1325 K and mass of 64-65 M Jup, and WISE 0611-0410 B having T eff = 1075-1115 K and mass 40-65 M Jup.

  11. High resolution integral holography using Fourier ptychographic approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Xiaorui; Liu, Delian

    2014-12-29

    An innovative approach is proposed for calculating high resolution computer generated integral holograms by using the Fourier Ptychographic (FP) algorithm. The approach initializes a high resolution complex hologram with a random guess, and then stitches together low resolution multi-view images, synthesized from the elemental images captured by integral imaging (II), to recover the high resolution hologram through an iterative retrieval with FP constrains. This paper begins with an analysis of the principle of hologram synthesis from multi-projections, followed by an accurate determination of the constrains required in the Fourier ptychographic integral-holography (FPIH). Next, the procedure of the approach is described in detail. Finally, optical reconstructions are performed and the results are demonstrated. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that our proposed approach can reconstruct 3D scenes with high resolution.

  12. High Resolution Thermography In Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. P.; Goff, M. R.; Culley, J. E.

    1988-10-01

    A high resolution medical thermal imaging system using an 8 element SPRI1E detector is described. Image processing is by an Intellect 100 processor and is controlled by a DEC LSI 11/23 minicomputer. Image storage is with a 170 Mbyte winchester disc together with archival storage on 12 inch diameter optical discs having a capacity of 1 Gbyte per side. The system is currently being evaluated for use in physiology and medicine. Applications outlined include the potential of thermographic screening to identify genetic carriers in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XED), detailed vas-cular perfusion studies in health and disease and the relation-ship between cutaneous blood flow, neurological peripheral function and skin surface temperature.

  13. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 Å TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron® accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  14. High Resolution Neutral Atom Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucay, Igal; Castillo-Garza, Rodrigo; Stratis, Georgios; Raizen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a high resolution neutral atom microscope based on metastable atom electron spectroscopy (MAES). When a metastable atom of a noble gas is near a solid, a surface electron will tunnel to an empty energy level of the metastable atom, thereby ejecting the excited electron from the atom. The emitted electrons carry information regarding the local topography and electronic, magnetic, and chemical structures of most hard materials. Furthermore, using a chromatic aberration corrected magnetic hexapole lens we expect to attain a spatial resolution below 10 nm. We will use this microscope to investigate how local phenomena can give rise to macroscopic effects in materials that cannot be probed using a scanning tunneling microscope, namely insulating transition metal oxides.

  15. High resolution spectrograph. [for LST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, K.

    1975-01-01

    The high resolution spectrograph (HRS) is designed to be used with the Large Space Telescope (LST) for the study of spectra of point and extended targets in the spectral range 110 to 410 nm. It has spectral resolutions of 1,000; 30,000; and 100,000 and has a field of view as large as 10 arc sec. The spectral range and resolution are selectable using interchangeable optical components and an echelle spectrograph is used to display a cross dispersed spectrum on the photocathode of either of 2 SEC orthicon image tubes. Provisions are included for wavelength calibration, target identification and acquisition and thermal control. The system considerations of the instrument are described.

  16. High-resolution imaging ellipsometer.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Qiwen; Leger, James R

    2002-08-01

    We report on a novel imaging ellipsometer using a high-numerical-aperture (NA) objective lens capable of measuring a two-dimensional ellipsometric signal with high resolution. Two-dimensional ellipsometric imaging is made possible by spatial filtering at the pupil plane of the objective. A Richards-Wolf vectorial diffraction model and geometrical optics model are developed to simulate the system. The thickness profile of patterned polymethyl methacrylate is measured for calibration purposes. Our instrument has a sensitivity of 5 A and provides spatial resolution of approximately 0.5 microm with 632.8-nm illumination. Its capability of measuring refractive-index variations with high spatial resolution is also demonstrated.

  17. A high resolution TDC subsystem

    SciTech Connect

    Geiges, R.; Merle, K. )

    1994-02-01

    A high resolution TDC subsystem was developed at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Mainz. The TDC chip offers a time resolution of less than 300 ps and a programmable measurement range from 0 to 16 [mu]sec. The time measurement is done with a new, purely digital counting method. The chip can be operated in common start or common stop mode. In common start mode the chip is able to store up to 4 multiple hits per channel. The chip is used to build a transputer controlled subsystem for the measurement of the drift times of a vertical drift chamber. The design of the subsystem will be described and the first results from the tests of the prototype system will be presented.

  18. Mars high-resolution mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batson, R. M.; Thomas, P. K.

    1991-06-01

    A series of photomosaics of high-resolution Viking Orbiter images of Mars is being prepared and published to support the Mars 1:500,000 scale geologic mapping program. More than 100 of these photomosaics were made manually, but for the last several years they have all been made digitally. The digital mosaics are published on the Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) system, and they are also available to the appropriate principal investigators as digital files in the mosaicked digital image model (MDIM) format. The mosaics contain Viking Orbiter images with the highest available resolution: in some areas as high as 10 m/pixel. This resolution, where it exists, will support a 1:100,000 map scale. The full resolution of a mosaic is preserved in a digital file, but conventional lithographic publication of such large-scale inset maps will be done only if required by the geologic map author. When high-resolution images do not fill the neat lines of an MTM quadrangle, the medium-resolution (1/256 degrees/pixel, or 231 m/pixel) MDIM is used. The mosaics are tied by image-matching to the planetwide MDIM, in which random errors as large as 5 km (10 mm at 1:500,000 scale) are common; a few much larger, worst-case errors also occur. Because of the distribution of the errors, many large discrepancies appear along the cutlines between frames with very different resolutions. Furthermore, each block of quadrangles is compiled on its own local control system, and adjacent blocks, compiled later, are unlikely to match. Selection of areas to be mapped is based on geologic mapping proposals reviewed and recommended by the Mars 1:500,000 scale geologic mapping review panel. There is no intention to map the entire planet at this scale.

  19. HRSC: High resolution stereo camera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.; Basilevsky, A.T.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Giese, B.; Hauber, E.; Head, J. W.; Heipke, C.; Hoekzema, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Greeley, R.; Gwinner, K.; Kirk, R.; Markiewicz, W.; McCord, T.B.; Michael, G.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Murray, J.B.; Oberst, J.; Pinet, P.; Pischel, R.; Roatsch, T.; Scholten, F.; Willner, K.

    2009-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express has delivered a wealth of image data, amounting to over 2.5 TB from the start of the mapping phase in January 2004 to September 2008. In that time, more than a third of Mars was covered at a resolution of 10-20 m/pixel in stereo and colour. After five years in orbit, HRSC is still in excellent shape, and it could continue to operate for many more years. HRSC has proven its ability to close the gap between the low-resolution Viking image data and the high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera images, leading to a global picture of the geological evolution of Mars that is now much clearer than ever before. Derived highest-resolution terrain model data have closed major gaps and provided an unprecedented insight into the shape of the surface, which is paramount not only for surface analysis and geological interpretation, but also for combination with and analysis of data from other instruments, as well as in planning for future missions. This chapter presents the scientific output from data analysis and highlevel data processing, complemented by a summary of how the experiment is conducted by the HRSC team members working in geoscience, atmospheric science, photogrammetry and spectrophotometry. Many of these contributions have been or will be published in peer-reviewed journals and special issues. They form a cross-section of the scientific output, either by summarising the new geoscientific picture of Mars provided by HRSC or by detailing some of the topics of data analysis concerning photogrammetry, cartography and spectral data analysis.

  20. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  1. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  2. High resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudin, Jim; Dinyari, Rostam; Huie, Phil; Butterwick, Alex; Peumans, Peter; Palanker, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight in patients with retinal degeneration by delivering pulsed electric currents to retinal neurons via an array of microelectrodes. Most implants use inductive or optical transmission of information and power to an intraocular receiver, with decoded signals subsequently distributed to retinal electrodes through an intraocular cable. Surgical complexity could be minimized by an "integrated" prosthesis, in which both power and data are delivered directly to the stimulating array without any discrete components or cables. We present here an integrated retinal prosthesis system based on a photodiode array implant. Video frames are processed and imaged onto the retinal implant by a video goggle projection system operating at near-infrared wavelengths (~ 900 nm). Photodiodes convert light into pulsed electric current, with charge injection maximized by specially optimized series photodiode circuits. Prostheses of three different pixel densities (16 pix/mm2, 64 pix/mm2, and 256 pix/mm2) have been designed, simulated, and prototyped. Retinal tissue response to subretinal implants made of various materials has been investigated in RCS rats. The resulting prosthesis can provide sufficient charge injection for high resolution retinal stimulation without the need for implantation of any bulky discrete elements such as coils or tethers. In addition, since every pixel functions independently, pixel arrays may be placed separately in the subretinal space, providing visual stimulation to a larger field of view.

  3. High resolution imaging at Palomar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    1992-01-01

    For the last two years we have embarked on a program of understanding the ultimate limits of ground-based optical imaging. We have designed and fabricated a camera specifically for high resolution imaging. This camera has now been pressed into service at the prime focus of the Hale 5 m telescope. We have concentrated on two techniques: the Non-Redundant Masking (NRM) and Weigelt's Fully Filled Aperture (FFA) method. The former is the optical analog of radio interferometry and the latter is a higher order extension of the Labeyrie autocorrelation method. As in radio Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), both these techniques essentially measure the closure phase and, hence, true image construction is possible. We have successfully imaged binary stars and asteroids with angular resolution approaching the diffraction limit of the telescope and image quality approaching that of a typical radio VLBI map. In addition, we have carried out analytical and simulation studies to determine the ultimate limits of ground-based optical imaging, the limits of space-based interferometric imaging, and investigated the details of imaging tradeoffs of beam combination in optical interferometers.

  4. Evaluation of Advanced Bionics high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Buechner, Andreas; Frohne-Buechner, Carolin; Gaertner, Lutz; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Lenarz, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the advantages of the Advanced Bionic high resolution mode for speech perception, through a retrospective analysis. Forty-five adult subjects were selected who had a minimum experience of three months' standard mode (mean of 10 months) before switching to high resolution mode. Speech perception was tested in standard mode immediately before fitting with high resolution mode, and again after a maximum of six months high resolution mode usage (mean of two months). A significant improvement was found, between 11 and 17%, depending on the test material. The standard mode preference does not give any indication about the improvement when switching to high resolution. Users who are converted within any study achieve a higher performance improvement than those converted in the clinical routine. This analysis proves the significant benefits of high resolution mode for users, and also indicates the need for guidelines for individual optimization of parameter settings in a high resolution mode program.

  5. High-resolution slug testing.

    PubMed

    Zemansky, G M; McElwee, C D

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity (K) variation has important ramifications for ground water flow and the transport of contaminants in ground water. The delineation of the nature of that variation can be critical to complete characterization of a site and the planning of effective and efficient remedial measures. Site-specific features (such as high-conductivity zones) need to be quantified. Our alluvial field site in the Kansas River valley exhibits spatial variability, very high conductivities, and nonlinear behavior for slug tests in the sand and gravel aquifer. High-resolution, multilevel slug tests have been performed in a number of wells that are fully screened. A general nonlinear model based on the Navier-Stokes equation, nonlinear frictional loss, non-Darcian flow, acceleration effects, radius changes in the wellbore, and a Hvorslev model for the aquifer has been used to analyze the data, employing an automated processing system that runs within the Excel spreadsheet program. It is concluded that slug tests can provide the necessary data to identify the nature of both horizontal and vertical K variation in an aquifer and that improved delineation or higher resolution of K structure is possible with shorter test intervals. The gradation into zones of higher conductivity is sharper than seen previously, and the maximum conductivity observed is greater than previously measured. However, data from this project indicate that well development, the presence of fines, and the antecedent history of the well are important interrelated factors in regard to slug-test response and can prevent obtaining consistent results in some cases.

  6. High resolution magnetic spectrometer SHARAQ in RIBF

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoura, S.

    2007-05-22

    For a new spectroscopy of nuclei using intense RI beams at RIBF, we started the SHARAQ project where a high-resolution SHARAQ spectrometer is being constructed together with a high-resolution secondary beam line. Physics motivation and the specification of the spectrometer are presented.

  7. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  8. High Resolution PDF Measurements on Ag Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Tulio C. R.; Martin, Chris; Kycia, Stefan; Zanchet, Daniela

    2009-01-29

    The quantitative analysis of structural defects in Ag nanoparticles was addressed in this work. We performed atomic scale structural characterization by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Pair Distribution Function analysis (PDF) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD measurements were performed using an innovative instrumentation setup to provide high resolution PDF patterns.

  9. RED SUPERGIANT STARS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES: NLTE EFFECTS IN J-BAND IRON AND TITANIUM LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bergemann, Maria; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Lind, Karin; Plez, Bertrand; Davies, Ben; Gazak, Zach E-mail: klind@mpa-garching.mpg.de E-mail: zgazak@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: bdavies@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2012-06-01

    Detailed non-LTE (NLTE) calculations for red supergiant (RSG) stars are presented to investigate the influence of NLTE on the formation of atomic iron and titanium lines in the J band. With their enormous brightness at J band RSG stars are ideal probes of cosmic abundances. Recent LTE studies have found that metallicities accurate to 0.15 dex can be determined from medium-resolution spectroscopy of individual RSGs in galaxies as distant as 10 Mpc. The NLTE results obtained in this investigation support these findings. NLTE abundance corrections for iron are smaller than 0.05 dex for effective temperatures between 3400 K and 4200 K and 0.1 dex at 4400 K. For titanium the NLTE abundance corrections vary smoothly between -0.4 dex and +0.2 dex as a function of effective temperature. For both elements, the corrections also depend on stellar gravity and metallicity. The physical reasons behind the NLTE corrections and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies are discussed.

  10. High-resolution color images of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Color versions of the highest resolution Voyager images of Io were produced by combining the low resolution color images with the high resolution, clear filter images. High resolution versions of the orange, blue, and violet filter images are produced by: orange = high-res clear * low-res orange / low-res clear blue = high-res clear * low-res blue / low-res clear violet = high-res clear * low-res violet / low-res clear. The spectral responses of the high and low resolution clear filter images cancel, leaving the color, while the spatial frequencies of the two low resolution images cancel, leaving the high resolution.

  11. Applications of high-resolution remote sensing image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Leckie, D.; Miller, J.; Buxton, R.

    1990-01-01

    There are many situations in which the image resolution of satellite data is insufficient to provide the detail required for resource management and environmental monitoring. This paper will focus on applications of high-resolution (0.4 to 10 m) airborne multispectral and imaging spectrometer data acquired in Canada using the MEIS II multispectral line imager and the PMI imaging spectrometer. Applications discussed will include forestry, mapping, and geobotany.

  12. An advanced high resolution x-ray imager for laser-plasma interaction observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennetiere, D.; Troussel, Ph.; Courtois, C.; Wrobel, R.; Audebert, P.

    2013-11-01

    We present here the latest results obtained with our high resolution broadband X-ray microscope. These results, both spatial and spectral, were obtained in several facilities such as Berlin's synchrotron Bessy II and LULI's laser ELFIE 100TW. The results show clearly the opportunity in high resolution microscopy that offer mirror based diagnostics.

  13. NOAA's Use of High-Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hund, Erik

    2007-01-01

    NOAA's use of high-resolution imagery consists of: a) Shoreline mapping and nautical chart revision; b) Coastal land cover mapping; c) Benthic habitat mapping; d) Disaster response; and e) Imagery collection and support for coastal programs.

  14. Ripening and storage conditions of Chétoui and Arbequina olives: Part II. Effect on olive endogenous enzymes and virgin olive oil secoiridoid profile determined by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; Cortes-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Gargouri, Mohamed; Vichi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Several factors affect virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic profile. The aim of this study was to monitor olive hydrolytic (β-glucosidase) and oxidative (peroxydase, POX, and polyphenoloxydase, PPO) enzymes during olive ripening and storage and to determine their capacity to shape VOO phenolic profile. To this end, olives from the cultivars Chétoui and Arbequina were stored at 4°C or 25°C for 4weeks and their enzymatic activities and oil phenolic profiles were compared to those of ripening olives. We observed different trends in enzymes activities according to cultivar and storage temperature. Secoiridoid compounds, determined by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and their deacetoxylated, oxygenated, and deacetoxy-oxygenated derivatives were identified and their contents differed between the cultivars according to olive ripening degree and storage conditions. These differences could be due to β-glucosidase, POX and PPO activities changes during olive ripening and storage. Results also show that oxidised phenolic compounds could be a marker of VOO ''freshness".

  15. RAPID DAMAGE ASSESSMENT FROM HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan; Bright, Eddie A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2008-01-01

    Disaster impact modeling and analysis uses huge volumes of image data that are produced immediately following a natural or an anthropogenic disaster event. Rapid damage assessment is the key to time critical decision support in disaster management to better utilize available response resources and accelerate recovery and relief efforts. But exploiting huge volumes of high resolution image data for identifying damaged areas with robust consistency in near real time is a challenging task. In this paper, we present an automated image analysis technique to identify areas of structural damage from high resolution optical satellite data using features based on image content.

  16. A J-band detection of the donor star in the dwarf nova OY Carinae and an optical detection of its 'iron curtain'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copperwheat, C. M.; Marsh, T. R.; Parsons, S. G.; Hickman, R.; Steeghs, D.; Breedt, E.; Dhillon, V. S.; Littlefair, S. P.; Savoury, C.

    2012-03-01

    Purely photometric models can be used to determine the binary parameters of eclipsing cataclysmic variables (CVs) with a high degree of precision. However, the photometric method relies on a number of assumptions, and to date there have been very few independent checks of this method in the literature. We present time-resolved spectroscopy of the P= 90.9 min eclipsing CV OY Carinae obtained with X-shooter on the Very Large Telescope (VLT), in which we detect the donor star from K I lines in the J band. We measure the radial velocity amplitude of the donor star K2= 470.0 ± 2.7 km s-1, consistent with predictions based upon the photometric method (470 ± 7 km s-1). Additionally, the spectra obtained in the UVB arm of X-shooter show a series of Fe I and Fe II lines with a phase and velocity consistent with an origin in the accretion disc. This is the first unambiguous detection at optical wavelengths of the 'iron curtain' of disc material which has been previously reported to veil the white dwarf in this system. The velocities of these lines do not track the white dwarf, reflecting a distortion of the outer disc that we see also in Doppler images. This is evidence for considerable radial motion in the outer disc, at up to 90 km s-1 towards and away from the white dwarf.

  17. Warm absorbers in X-rays (WAX), a comprehensive high-resolution grating spectral study of a sample of Seyfert Galaxies - II. Warm absorber dynamics and feedback to galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Sibasish; Guainazzi, Matteo; Chakravorty, Susmita; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Kembhavi, Ajit K.

    2016-04-01

    This paper is a sequel to the extensive study of warm absorber (WA) in X-rays carried out using high-resolution grating spectral data from XMM-Newton satellite (WAX-I). Here we discuss the global dynamical properties as well as the energetics of the WA components detected in the WAX sample. The slope of WA density profile (n ∝ r-α) estimated from the linear regression slope of ionization parameter ξ and column density NH in the WAX sample is α = 1.236 ± 0.034. We find that the WA clouds possibly originate as a result of photoionized evaporation from the inner edge of the torus (torus wind). They can also originate in the cooling front of the shock generated by faster accretion disc outflows, the ultrafast outflows, impinging on to the interstellar medium or the torus. The acceleration mechanism for the WA is complex and neither radiatively driven wind nor MHD-driven wind scenario alone can describe the outflow acceleration. However, we find that radiative forces play a significant role in accelerating the WA through the soft X-ray absorption lines, and also with dust opacity. Given the large uncertainties in the distance and volume filling factor estimates of the WA, we conclude that the kinetic luminosity ĖK of WA may sometimes be large enough to yield significant feedback to the host galaxy. We find that the lowest ionization states carry the maximum mass outflow, and the sources with higher Fe M UTA absorption (15-17 Å) have more mass outflow rates.

  18. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  19. High-resolution two dimensional advective transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Larock, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a two-dimensional high-resolution scheme for advective transport that is based on a Eulerian-Lagrangian method with a flux limiter. The scheme is applied to the problem of pure-advection of a rotated Gaussian hill and shown to preserve the monotonicity property of the governing conservation law.

  20. High-resolution structure of the native histone octamer

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Christopher M.; Nicholson, James M.; Lambert, Stanley J.; Chantalat, Laurent; Reynolds, Colin D.; Baldwin, John P.

    2005-06-01

    The high-resolution (1.90 Å) model of the native histone octamer allows structural comparisons to be made with the nucleosome-core particle, along with an identification of a likely core-histone binding site. Crystals of native histone octamers (H2A–H2B)–(H4–H3)–(H3′–H4′)–(H2B′–H2A′) from chick erythrocytes in 2 M KCl, 1.35 M potassium phosphate pH 6.9 diffract X-rays to 1.90 Å resolution, yielding a structure with an R{sub work} value of 18.7% and an R{sub free} of 22.2%. The crystal space group is P6{sub 5}, the asymmetric unit of which contains one complete octamer. This high-resolution model of the histone-core octamer allows further insight into intermolecular interactions, including water molecules, that dock the histone dimers to the tetramer in the nucleosome-core particle and have relevance to nucleosome remodelling. The three key areas analysed are the H2A′–H3–H4 molecular cluster (also H2A–H3′–H4′), the H4–H2B′ interaction (also H4′–H2B) and the H2A′–H4 β-sheet interaction (also H2A–H4′). The latter of these three regions is important to nucleosome remodelling by RNA polymerase II, as it is shown to be a likely core-histone binding site, and its disruption creates an instability in the nucleosome-core particle. A majority of the water molecules in the high-resolution octamer have positions that correlate to similar positions in the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle structure, suggesting that the high-resolution octamer model can be used for comparative studies with the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle.

  1. High resolution surface plasmon microscopy for cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argoul, F.; Monier, K.; Roland, T.; Elezgaray, J.; Berguiga, L.

    2010-04-01

    We introduce a new non-labeling high resolution microscopy method for cellular imaging. This method called SSPM (Scanning Surface Plasmon Microscopy) pushes down the resolution limit of surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) to sub-micronic scales. High resolution SPRi is obtained by the surface plasmon lauching with a high numerical aperture objective lens. The advantages of SPPM compared to other high resolution SPRi's rely on three aspects; (i) the interferometric detection of the back reflected light after plasmon excitation, (ii) the twodimensional scanning of the sample for image reconstruction, (iii) the radial polarization of light, enhancing both resolution and sensitivity. This microscope can afford a lateral resolution of - 150 nm in liquid environment and - 200 nm in air. We present in this paper images of IMR90 fibroblasts obtained with SSPM in dried environment. Internal compartments such as nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, cellular and nuclear membrane can be recognized without labelling. We propose an interpretation of the ability of SSPM to reveal high index contrast zones by a local decomposition of the V (Z) function describing the response of the SSPM.

  2. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Some Very Inactive Southern Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarreal, A.; King, J. R.; Soderblom, D. R.; Henry, T. J.

    2001-12-01

    We have obtained high-resolution echelle spectra of a few dozen solar-type stars that an earlier low resolution Ca II H & K survey suggested have modest evels of chromospheric activity. We present Hα -based chromospheric activity measures, binarity information, and Li abundances of the sample. As expected, our spectra: confirm the low levels of chromospheric activity; suggest that these objects are apparently single; indicate the stars have small projected rotational velocities; and yield low photospheric abundances of Li. This work was supported by NSF grant AST-0086576 to JRK.

  3. High-resolution structure of the native histone octamer

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Christopher M.; Nicholson, James M.; Lambert, Stanley J.; Chantalat, Laurent; Reynolds, Colin D.; Baldwin, John P.

    2005-01-01

    Crystals of native histone octamers (H2A–H2B)–(H4–H3)–(H3′–H4′)–(H2B′–­H2A′) from chick erythrocytes in 2 M KCl, 1.35 M potassium phosphate pH 6.9 diffract X-rays to 1.90 Å resolution, yielding a structure with an R work value of 18.7% and an R free of 22.2%. The crystal space group is P65, the asymmetric unit of which contains one complete octamer. This high-resolution model of the histone-core octamer allows further insight into intermolecular interactions, including water molecules, that dock the histone dimers to the tetramer in the nucleosome-core particle and have relevance to nucleosome remodelling. The three key areas analysed are the H2A′–H3–H4 molecular cluster (also H2A–H3′–H4′), the H4–H2B′ interaction (also H4′–H2B) and the H2A′–H4 β-sheet interaction (also H2A–H4′). The latter of these three regions is important to nucleosome remodelling by RNA polymerase II, as it is shown to be a likely core-histone binding site, and its disruption creates an instability in the nucleosome-core particle. A majority of the water molecules in the high-resolution octamer have positions that correlate to similar positions in the high-­resolution nucleosome-core particle structure, suggesting that the high-resolution octamer model can be used for comparative studies with the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle. PMID:16511091

  4. High resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Wang, Xuben; Li, Zhirong; Li, Qiong; Li, Zhengwen

    2009-06-01

    The high resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be constrained and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.

  5. High-Resolution X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terry; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness. Programmatic issues are comparably challenging.

  6. High resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.

    1983-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme to an appropriately modified flux function. The so-derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the performance of these new schemes.

  7. High-resolution probing of local conformational changes in proteins by the use of multiple labeling: unfolding and self-assembly of human carbonic anhydrase II monitored by spin, fluorescent, and chemical reactivity probes.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, P; Owenius, R; Mårtensson, L G; Carlsson, U; Lindgren, M

    2001-06-01

    Two different spin labels, N-(1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-pyrrolidinyl)iodoacetamide (IPSL) and (1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrroline-3-methyl) methanethiosulfonate (MTSSL), and two different fluorescent labels 5-((((2-iodoacetyl)amino)-ethyl)amino)naphtalene-1-sulfonic acid (IAEDANS) and 6-bromoacetyl-2-dimetylaminonaphtalene (BADAN), were attached to the introduced C79 in human carbonic anhydrase (HCA II) to probe local structural changes upon unfolding and aggregation. HCA II unfolds in a multi-step manner with an intermediate state populated between the native and unfolded states. The spin label IPSL and the fluorescent label IAEDANS reported on a substantial change in mobility and polarity at both unfolding transitions at a distance of 7.4-11.2 A from the backbone of position 79. The shorter and less flexible labels BADAN and MTSSL revealed less pronounced spectroscopic changes in the native-to-intermediate transition, 6.6-9.0 A from the backbone. At intermediate guanidine (Gu)-HCl concentrations the occurrence of soluble but irreversibly aggregated oligomeric protein was identified from refolding experiments. At approximately 1 M Gu-HCl the aggregation was found to be essentially complete. The size and structure of the aggregates could be varied by changing the protein concentration. EPR measurements and line-shape simulations together with fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy measurements provided a picture of the self-assembled protein as a disordered protein structure with a representation of both compact as well as dynamic and polar environments at the site of the molecular labels. This suggests that a partially folded intermediate of HCA II self-assembles by both local unfolding and intermolecular docking of the intermediates vicinal to position 79. The aggregates were determined to be 40-90 A in diameter depending on the experimental conditions and spectroscopic technique used.

  8. High-Resolution Traction Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikov, Sergey V.; Sabass, Benedikt; Schwarz, Ulrich S.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton and transmitted to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through discrete, integrin-based protein assemblies, that is, focal adhesions, are critical to developmental morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis, as well as disease progression in cancer. However, quantitative mapping of these forces has been difficult since there has been no experimental technique to visualize nanonewton forces at submicrometer spatial resolution. Here, we provide detailed protocols for measuring cellular forces exerted on two-dimensional elastic substrates with a high-resolution traction force microscopy (TFM) method. We describe fabrication of polyacrylamide substrates labeled with multiple colors of fiducial markers, functionalization of the substrates with ECM proteins, setting up the experiment, and imaging procedures. In addition, we provide the theoretical background of traction reconstruction and experimental considerations important to design a high-resolution TFM experiment. We describe the implementation of a new algorithm for processing of images of fiducial markers that are taken below the surface of the substrate, which significantly improves data quality. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm and explain how to choose a regularization parameter for suppression of the measurement error. A brief discussion of different ways to visualize and analyze the results serves to illustrate possible uses of high-resolution TFM in biomedical research. PMID:24974038

  9. High-Resolution US of Rheumatologic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Gimber, Lana H; Scalcione, Luke R; Miller, Margaret D; Kwoh, C Kent; Klauser, Andrea S

    2015-01-01

    For the past 15 years, high-resolution ultrasonography (US) is being routinely and increasingly used for initial evaluation and treatment follow-up of rheumatologic diseases. This imaging technique is performed by using high-frequency linear transducers and has proved to be a powerful diagnostic tool in evaluation of articular erosions, simple and complex joint and bursal effusions, tendon sheath effusions, and synovitis, with results comparable to those of magnetic resonance imaging, excluding detection of bone marrow edema. Crystal deposition diseases including gouty arthropathy and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) have characteristic appearances at US, enabling differentiation between these two diseases and from inflammatory arthropathies. Enthesopathy, which frequently accompanies psoriatic and reactive arthritis, also has a characteristic appearance at high-resolution US, distinguishing these two entities from other inflammatory and metabolic arthropathies. The presence of Doppler signal in examined joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths indicates active synovitis. Microbubble echo contrast agents augment detection of tissue vascularity and may act in the future as a drug delivery vehicle. Frequently, joint, tendon sheath, and bursal fluid aspirations and therapeutic injections are performed under US guidance. The authors describe the high-resolution US technique including gray-scale, color or power Doppler, and contrast agent-enhanced US that is used in evaluation of rheumatologic diseases of the wrist and hand and the ankle and foot in their routine clinical practice. This article demonstrates imaging findings of normal joints, rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis, CPPD, psoriatic and reactive arthritis, and osteoarthritis.

  10. Witnessing the Birth of the Red Sequence: ALMA High-resolution Imaging of [C II] and Dust in Two Interacting Ultra-red Starbursts at z = 4.425

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oteo, I.; Ivison, R. J.; Dunne, L.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Lewis, A.; Maddox, S.; Riechers, D.; Serjeant, S.; Van der Werf, P.; Biggs, A. D.; Bremer, M.; Cigan, P.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Eales, S.; Ibar, E.; Messias, H.; Michałowski, M. J.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; van Kampen, E.

    2016-08-01

    Exploiting the sensitivity and spatial resolution of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we have studied the morphology and the physical scale of the interstellar medium—both gas and dust—in SGP 38326, an unlensed pair of interacting starbursts at z = 4.425. SGP 38326 is the most luminous star bursting system known at z > 4, with a total IR luminosity of L IR ˜ 2.5 × 1013 L ⊙ and a star formation rate of ˜ 4500 M ⊙ yr‑1. SGP 38326 also contains a molecular gas reservoir among the most massive yet found in the early universe, and it is the likely progenitor of a massive, red-and-dead elliptical galaxy at z ˜ 3. Probing scales of ˜0.″1 or ˜800 pc we find that the smooth distribution of the continuum emission from cool dust grains contrasts with the more irregular morphology of the gas, as traced by the [C ii] fine structure emission. The gas is also extended over larger physical scales than the dust. The velocity information provided by the resolved [C ii] emission reveals that the dynamics of the two interacting components of SGP 38326 are each compatible with disk-like, ordered rotation, but also reveals an ISM which is turbulent and unstable. Our observations support a scenario where at least a subset of the most distant extreme starbursts are highly dissipative mergers of gas-rich galaxies.

  11. Witnessing the Birth of the Red Sequence: ALMA High-resolution Imaging of [C II] and Dust in Two Interacting Ultra-red Starbursts at z = 4.425

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oteo, I.; Ivison, R. J.; Dunne, L.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Lewis, A.; Maddox, S.; Riechers, D.; Serjeant, S.; Van der Werf, P.; Biggs, A. D.; Bremer, M.; Cigan, P.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Eales, S.; Ibar, E.; Messias, H.; Michałowski, M. J.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; van Kampen, E.

    2016-08-01

    Exploiting the sensitivity and spatial resolution of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we have studied the morphology and the physical scale of the interstellar medium—both gas and dust—in SGP 38326, an unlensed pair of interacting starbursts at z = 4.425. SGP 38326 is the most luminous star bursting system known at z > 4, with a total IR luminosity of L IR ˜ 2.5 × 1013 L ⊙ and a star formation rate of ˜ 4500 M ⊙ yr-1. SGP 38326 also contains a molecular gas reservoir among the most massive yet found in the early universe, and it is the likely progenitor of a massive, red-and-dead elliptical galaxy at z ˜ 3. Probing scales of ˜0.″1 or ˜800 pc we find that the smooth distribution of the continuum emission from cool dust grains contrasts with the more irregular morphology of the gas, as traced by the [C ii] fine structure emission. The gas is also extended over larger physical scales than the dust. The velocity information provided by the resolved [C ii] emission reveals that the dynamics of the two interacting components of SGP 38326 are each compatible with disk-like, ordered rotation, but also reveals an ISM which is turbulent and unstable. Our observations support a scenario where at least a subset of the most distant extreme starbursts are highly dissipative mergers of gas-rich galaxies.

  12. Molecular characterization by high-resolution isoelectric focusing of the products encoded by the class II region loci of the major histocompatibility complex in humans. I. DR and DQ gene variants.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez de Cordoba, S; Nunez-Roldan, A; Winchester, R; Marshall, P; Carrier, C; Mollen, N; Walker, M; Ginsberg-Fellner, F; Rubinstein, P

    1987-09-01

    We describe a new approach to the analysis of the structural polymorphism of the DR beta, DQ alpha, and DQ beta polypeptide chains of human histocompatibility class II antigens. In comparison to conventional two-dimensional gel studies, this method provides sharper definition of the protein bands and side-by-side comparisons within the same gel, thereby permitting the detection of minor differences in the isoelectric points of the protein chains. Using this methodology we have analyzed the IEF polymorphism and the variability in the number of the DR beta chains encoded by different DR haplotypes. Twenty DR beta chain variants, which include the products of no less than two separate DR beta loci, have been thus far identified. Alleles at one of these loci are assumed to code for DR beta chains carrying the DR alloespecificities DR1, DR2, DR3, DR4, DR5, DRw6, DR7, and DR8. Alleles at a second DR beta locus encode DR beta chains that may be shared by serologically DR-different haplotypes and carry supertypic serologic specificities (i.e., DRw52 and DRw53). We also demonstrate here that the structural polymorphisms of the DQ alpha and DQ beta chains are more extensive than previously thought, report the characterization of 14 DQ beta variants, and define their relationship to the previously described DQw serologic specificities. In addition, we describe the class II haplotype associations observed for the different DR and DQ variants characterized. PMID:3679903

  13. A Portable, High Resolution, Surface Measurement Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Burns, Bradley M.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution, portable, surface measurement device has been demonstrated to provide micron-resolution topographical plots. This device was specifically developed to allow in-situ measurements of defects on the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows, but is versatile enough to be used on a wide variety of surfaces. This paper discusses the choice of an optical sensor and then the decisions required to convert a lab bench optical measurement device into an ergonomic portable system. The necessary trade-offs between performance and portability are presented along with a description of the device developed to measure Orbiter window defects.

  14. High resolution SAR applications and instrument design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dionisio, C.; Torre, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has viewed, in the last two years, a huge increment of interest from many preset and potential users. The good spatial resolution associated to the all weather capability lead to considering SAR not only a scientific instrument but a tool for verifying and controlling the daily human relationships with the Earth Environment. New missions were identified for SAR as spatial resolution became lower than three meters: disasters, pollution, ships traffic, volcanic eruptions, earthquake effect are only a few of the possible objects which can be effectively detected, controlled and monitored by SAR mounted on satellites. High resolution radar design constraints and dimensioning are discussed.

  15. High resolution millimeter-wave imaging sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Howard, R. J.; Parks, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A scanning 3-mm radiometer is described that has been built for use on a small aircraft to produce real time high resolution images of the ground when atmospheric conditions such as smoke, dust, and clouds make IR and visual sensors unusable. The sensor can be used for a variety of remote sensing applications such as measurements of snow cover and snow water equivalent, precipitation mapping, vegetation type and extent, surface moisture and temperature, and surface thermal inertia. The advantages of millimeter waves for cloud penetration and the ability to observe different physical phenomena make this system an attractive supplement to visible and IR remote sensing systems.

  16. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  17. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  18. High Resolution Image From Viking Lander 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Viking 1 took this high-resolution picture today, its third day on Mars. Distance from the camera to the nearfield (bottom) is about 4 meters (13 feet); to the horizon, about 3 kilometers (1.8 miles). The photo shows numerous angular blocks ranging in size from a few centimeters to several meters. The surface between the blocks is composed of fine-grained material. Accumulation of some fine-grained material behind blocks indicates wind deposition of dust and sand downwind of obstacles. The large block on the horizon is about 4 meters (13 feet) wide. Distance across the horizon is about 34 meters (110 feet).

  19. High Resolution Spectroscopy with Submillimeter-Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vinay; Dave, Hemant

    2003-03-01

    In order to explain the characteristic features of planetary atmosphere, detection and precise measurements of environmentally important gases such as CO, CIO, No becomes necessary. Since most of the polyatomic molecules have (ro-vibrational) transitions in submillimeter region 100 μ-1000μ), probing in this wavelength region is vital. The specific rotational and vibrational states are the result of interactions between different atoms in the molecule. Since each molecule has a unique arrangement of atoms, it has an exclusive submillimeter signature. We are developing a portable heterodyne receiver system at Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad to perform high-resolution spectroscopy in this wavelength region.

  20. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  1. High Resolution Camera for Mapping Titan Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    Titan, Saturn's largest moon, has a dense atmosphere and is the only object besides Earth to have stable liquids at its surface. The Cassini/Huygens mission has revealed the extraordinary breadth of geological processes shaping its surface. Further study requires high resolution imaging of the surface, which is restrained by light absorption by methane and scattering from aerosols. The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft has demonstrated that Titan's surface can be observed within several windows in the near infrared, allowing us to process several regions in order to create a geological map and to determine the morphology. Specular reflections monitored on the lakes of the North Pole show little scattering at 5 microns, which, combined with the present study of Titan's northern pole area, refutes the paradigm that only radar can achieve high resolution mapping of the surface. The present data allowed us to monitor the evolution of lakes, to identify additional lakes at the Northern Pole, to examine Titan's hypothesis of non-synchronous rotation and to analyze the albedo of the North Pole surface. Future missions to Titan could carry a camera with 5 micron detectors and a carbon fiber radiator for weight reduction.

  2. High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy of Rhenium Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Allan G.; Hall, Ryan M.; Linton, Colan; Tokaryk, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    The first spectroscopic study of rhenium carbide, ReC, has been performed using both low and high resolution techniques to collect rotationally resolved electronic spectra from 420 to 500nm. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and dispersed fluorescence (DF) techniques were employed. ReC was formed in our laser ablation molecular jet apparatus by ablating a rhenium target rod in the presence of 1% methane in helium. The low resolution spectrum identified four bands of an electronic system belonging to ReC, three of which have been studied so far. Extensive hyperfine structure composed of six hyperfine components was observed in the high resolution spectrum, as well as a clear distinction between the 187ReC and 185ReC isotopologues. The data seems consistent with a ^4Π - ^4Σ- transition, as was predicted before experimentation. Dispersed fluorescence spectra allowed us to determine the ground state vibrational frequency (ωe"=994.4 ± 0.3 wn), and to identify a low-lying electronically excited state at Te"=1118.4 ± 0.4 wn with a vibrational frequency of ωe"=984 ± 2 wn. Personal communication, F. Grein, University of New Brunswick

  3. Common high-resolution MMW scene generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, Annie V.; McPherson, Dwight A.; Satterfield, H. DeWayne; Sholes, William J.; Mobley, Scott B.

    2001-08-01

    The development of a modularized millimeter wave (MMW) target and background high resolution scene generator is reported. The scene generator's underlying algorithms are applicable to both digital and real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulations. The scene generator will be configurable for a variety of MMW and multi-mode sensors employing state of the art signal processing techniques. At present, digital simulations for MMW and multi-mode sensor development and testing are custom-designed by the seeker vendor and are verified, validated, and operated by both the vendor and government in simulation-based acquisition. A typical competition may involve several vendors, each requiring high resolution target and background models for proper exercise of seeker algorithms. There is a need and desire by both the government and sensor vendors to eliminate costly re-design and re-development of digital simulations. Additional efficiencies are realized by assuring commonality between digital and HWIL simulation MMW scene generators, eliminating duplication of verification and validation efforts.

  4. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  5. Comparative Very-High-Resolution VUV Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. R.; Gibson, S. T.; Baldwin, K. G. H.; Dooley, P. M.; Waring, K.

    Despite their importance to the photochemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere, and many experimental studies, previous characterization of the Schumann-Runge (SR) bands of O2, B3 Σ u- <- X3 Σ_g^- (v, 0) (1750-2050 Å) has been limited by poor experimental resolution. In addition, our understanding of the SR spectrum is incomplete, many rovibrational transitions in the perturbed region of the spectrum [B(v > 15)] remaining unassigned. We review new very-high-resolution measurements of the O2 photoabsorption cross section in the SR bands. Tunable, narrow-bandwidth background vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation for the measurements ( 7 × 105 resolving power) was generated by the two-photon-resonant difference-frequency four-wave mixing in Xe of excimer-pumped dye-laser radiation. With the aid of these cross-section measurements, rovibrational and line-shape analyses have led to new insights into the molecular structure and predissociation dynamics of O2. The current VUV laser-spectroscopic measurements are shown to compare favourably with results from two other very-high-resolution experimental techniques, namely laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and VUV Fourier-transform spectroscopy, the latter performed using a synchrotron source.

  6. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  7. High-Resolution Shadowing of Transfer RNA

    PubMed Central

    Abermann, Reinhard J.; Yoshikami, Doju

    1972-01-01

    High-resolution shadowing with metals that melt at high temperatures was used to study macromolecules. Molecules of transfer RNA shadowed with tantalum-tungsten are readily visualized in an electron microscope. Mounting procedures for tRNA were perfected that reproducibly gave uniform distributions of both monomeric and dimeric tRNA particles, and allowed a statistical assessment of their gross shapes and sizes. Monomeric tRNA yielded a fairly homogeneous population of rod-shaped particles, with axial dimensions of about 40 × 85 Å. Dimers of yeast alanine tRNA held together by hydrogen bonds and dimers constructed by covalent linkage of the amino-acid acceptor (3′-) termini of monomers both gave slightly more heterogeneous populations of particles. Yet, their structures were also basically rod shaped, with their lengths ranging to about twice that of the monomer; this result indicates an end-to-end arrangement of the monomeric units within both dimers. These results suggest that the amino-acid acceptor terminus and the anticodon region are at the ends of the rod-shaped, dehydrated tRNA monomer visible by electron microscopy, consistent with the generally accepted view of tRNA structure in solution suggested by other workers using other methods. This study demonstrates that high-resolution shadowing with tantalum-tungsten provides a means to examine the three-dimensional structures of relatively small biological macromolecules. Images PMID:4504373

  8. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2003-01-01

    Spectroscopic parameters (such as line position, intensity, broadening and shifting coefficients and their temperature dependences, line mixing coefficients etc.) for various molecular species of atmospheric interest are determined. In order to achieve these results, infrared spectra of several molecular bands are obtained using high-resolution recording instruments such as tunable diode laser spectrometer and Fourier transform spectrometers. Using sophisticated analysis routines (Multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique) these high-resolution infrared spectra are processed to determine the various spectral line parameters that are cited above. Spectra were taken using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona as well as the Bruker FTS at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at Richland, Washington. Most of the spectra are acquired not only at room temperature, but also at several different cold temperatures. This procedure is necessary to study the variation of the spectral line parameters as a function of temperature in order to simulate the Earth's and other planetary atmospheric environments. Depending upon the strength or weakness of the various bands recorded and analyzed, the length(s) of the absorption cells in which the gas samples under study are kept varied from a few centimeters up to several meters and the sample temperatures varied from approximately +30 C to -63 C. Research on several infrared bands of various molecular species and their isotopomers are undertaken. Those studies are briefly described.

  9. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This report constitutes the final report for NASA Contract NASW-5054. This project processed Clementine I high resolution images of the Moon, mosaicked these images together, and created a 22-disk set of compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) volumes. The mosaics were produced through semi-automated registration and calibration of the high resolution (HiRes) camera's data against the geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS). The HiRes mosaics were compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution nadir-looking observations. The images were spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel for sub-polar mosaics (below 80 deg. latitude) and using the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel for polar mosaics. Only images with emission angles less than approximately 50 were used. Images from non-mapping cross-track slews, which tended to have large SPICE errors, were generally omitted. The locations of the resulting image population were found to be offset from the UV/Vis basemap by up to 13 km (0.4 deg.). Geometric control was taken from the 100 m/pixel global and 150 m/pixel polar USGS Clementine Basemap Mosaics compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Radiometric calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity dominated by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap, that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The sub-polar mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 deg. of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. Polar mosaics are tiled into squares 2250 pixels on a

  10. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-04-23

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 {micro}m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  11. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-10-01

    This report constitutes the final report for NASA Contract NASW-5054. This project processed Clementine I high resolution images of the Moon, mosaicked these images together, and created a 22-disk set of compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) volumes. The mosaics were produced through semi-automated registration and calibration of the high resolution (HiRes) camera's data against the geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS). The HiRes mosaics were compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution nadir-looking observations. The images were spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel for sub-polar mosaics (below 80 deg. latitude) and using the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel for polar mosaics. Only images with emission angles less than approximately 50 were used. Images from non-mapping cross-track slews, which tended to have large SPICE errors, were generally omitted. The locations of the resulting image population were found to be offset from the UV/Vis basemap by up to 13 km (0.4 deg.). Geometric control was taken from the 100 m/pixel global and 150 m/pixel polar USGS Clementine Basemap Mosaics compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Radiometric calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity dominated by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap, that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The sub-polar mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 deg. of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. Polar mosaics are tiled into squares 2250 pixels on a

  12. High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries presented at the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video (HHV) Workshop are compiled. HHV system is intended for future use on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The Workshop was held for the dual purpose of: (1) allowing potential scientific users to assess the utility of the proposed system for monitoring microgravity science experiments; and (2) letting technical experts from industry recommend improvements to the proposed near-term HHV system. The following topics are covered: (1) State of the art in the video system performance; (2) Development plan for the HHV system; (3) Advanced technology for image gathering, coding, and processing; (4) Data compression applied to HHV; (5) Data transmission networks; and (6) Results of the users' requirements survey conducted by NASA.

  13. High-Resolution Broadband Spectral Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J

    2002-08-09

    We demonstrate solar spectra from a novel interferometric method for compact broadband high-resolution spectroscopy. The spectral interferometer (SI) is a hybrid instrument that uses a spectrometer to externally disperse the output of a fixed-delay interferometer. It also has been called an externally dispersed interferometer (EDI). The interferometer can be used with linear spectrometers for imaging spectroscopy or with echelle spectrometers for very broad-band coverage. EDI's heterodyning technique enhances the spectrometer's response to high spectral-density features, increasing the effective resolution by factors of several while retaining its bandwidth. The method is extremely robust to instrumental insults such as focal spot size or displacement. The EDI uses no moving parts, such as purely interferometric FTS spectrometers, and can cover a much wider simultaneous bandpass than other internally dispersed interferometers (e.g. HHS or SHS).

  14. High resolution wavefront measurement of aspheric optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erichsen, I.; Krey, S.; Heinisch, J.; Ruprecht, A.; Dumitrescu, E.

    2008-08-01

    With the recently emerged large volume production of miniature aspheric lenses for a wide range of applications, a new fast fully automatic high resolution wavefront measurement instrument has been developed. The Shack-Hartmann based system with reproducibility better than 0.05 waves is able to measure highly aspheric optics and allows for real time comparison with design data. Integrated advanced analysis tools such as calculation of Zernike coefficients, 2D-Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Point Spread Function (PSF), Strehl-Ratio and the measurement of effective focal length (EFL) as well as flange focal length (FFL) allow for the direct verification of lens properties and can be used in a development as well as in a production environment.

  15. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  16. High-resolution climate simulation using CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacmeister, J.; Neale, R. B.; Hannay, C.; Lauritzen, P. H.; Wehner, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the development of highly scalable dynamical cores that can exploit massively parallel computer architectures, we expect that global climate models in the next decade will run routinely at horizontal resolutions of 25 km or finer. Early results at these resolutions show clear improvements in simulating climatologically and societally-important mesoscale meteorology such as tropical cyclones. Improvements in regional circulations likely associated with topography are also obtained. Nevertheless many long-standing biases in climate simulations, e.g., the "double ITCZ" bias in precipitation, remain remarkably insensitive to increased resolution. This talk will present high-resolution global simulations using the community atmosphere model. Sensitivity of tropical cyclone climatology and precipitation statistics to model physics suites will be shown

  17. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C44H90 paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol.

  18. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOEpatents

    Paulus, Michael J.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Gleason, Shaun S.; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  19. Low noise and high resolution microchannel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shulin; Pan, Jingsheng; Deng, Guangxu; Su, Detan; Xu, Zhiqing; Zhang, Yanyun

    2008-02-01

    To improve the Figure of Merit (FOM) and reduce the Equivalent Background Input (EBI) and Fixed-Pattern-Noise (FPN) in image intensifier, NVT (North Night Vision Technology Co., Ltd) has been researching and developing a low noise and high resolution Micro Channel Plate (MCP). The density of dark current of this new MCP is less than 0.5PA/cm2 (when MCP voltage at 1000V). The FPN and scintillation noise are reduced remarkably. Channel diameter is 6 μm and open area ratio is 60%~70%. The vacuum bakeout temperature could be as high as 500°C. This new kind of MCP will be extensively used in the supper generation and the third generation image intensifiers.

  20. High resolution analysis of satellite gradiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, O. L.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite gravity gradiometry is a technique now under development which, by the middle of the next decade, may be used for the high resolution charting from space of the gravity field of the earth and, afterwards, of other planets. Some data analysis schemes are reviewed for getting detailed gravity maps from gradiometry on both a global and a local basis. It also presents estimates of the likely accuracies of such maps, in terms of normalized spherical harmonics expansions, both using gradiometry alone and in combination with data from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver carried on the same spacecraft. It compares these accuracies with those of current and future maps obtained from other data (conventional tracking, satellite-satellite tracking, etc.), and also with the spectra of various signals of geophysical interest.

  1. High-resolution MRI: in vivo histology?

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Holly; Clare, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    For centuries scientists have been fascinated with the question of how the brain works. Investigators have looked at both where different functions are localized and how the anatomical microstructure varies across the brain surface. Here we discuss how advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have allowed in vivo visualization of the fine structure of the brain that was previously only visible in post-mortem brains. We present data showing the correspondence between definitions of the primary visual cortex defined anatomically using very high-resolution MRI and functionally using functional MRI. We consider how this technology can be applied to allow the investigation of brains that differ from normal, and what this ever-evolving technology may be able to reveal about in vivo brain structure in the next few years. PMID:16553313

  2. A high resolution ultraviolet Shuttle glow spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, George R.

    1993-01-01

    The High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectrograph-B (HRSGS-B) is a small payload being developed by the Naval Research Laboratory. It is intended for study of shuttle surface glow in the 180-400 nm near- and middle-ultraviolet wavelength range, with a spectral resolution of 0.2 nm. It will search for, among other possible features, the band systems of excited NO which result from surface-catalyzed combination of N and O. It may also detect O2 Hertzberg bands and N2 Vegard-Kaplan bands resulting from surface recombination. This wavelength range also includes possible N2+ and OH emissions. The HRSGS-B will be housed in a Get Away Special canister, mounted in the shuttle orbiter payload bay, and will observe the glow on the tail of the orbiter.

  3. High-resolution reconstruction for terahertz imaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Min; Fan, Wen-Hui; Liu, Jia

    2014-11-20

    We present a high-resolution (HR) reconstruction model and algorithms for terahertz imaging, taking advantage of super-resolution methodology and algorithms. The algorithms used include projection onto a convex sets approach, iterative backprojection approach, Lucy-Richardson iteration, and 2D wavelet decomposition reconstruction. Using the first two HR reconstruction methods, we successfully obtain HR terahertz images with improved definition and lower noise from four low-resolution (LR) 22×24 terahertz images taken from our homemade THz-TDS system at the same experimental conditions with 1.0 mm pixel. Using the last two HR reconstruction methods, we transform one relatively LR terahertz image to a HR terahertz image with decreased noise. This indicates potential application of HR reconstruction methods in terahertz imaging with pulsed and continuous wave terahertz sources.

  4. HIRIS - The High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff

    1988-01-01

    The High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) is a JPL facility instrument designed for NASA's Earth Observing System (Eos).It will have 10-nm wide spectral bands from 0.4-2.5 microns at 30 m spatial resolution over a 30 km swath. The spectral resolution allows identification of many minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, spectral changes associated with plant canopy biochemistry, composition of atmospheric aerosols, and grain size of snow and its contamination by absorbing impurities. The bands wil have 12-bit quantization over a dynamic range suitable for bright targets, such as snow. For targets of low brightness, such as water bodies, image-motion compensation will allow gains up to a factor of eight to increase signal-to-noise ratios. In the 824-km orbit altitude proposed for Eos, the crosstrack pointing capability will allow 4-5 views during a 16-day revisit cycle.

  5. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Sheth, K.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-08-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  6. Computer synthesis of high resolution electron micrographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1976-01-01

    Specimen damage, spherical aberration, low contrast and noisy sensors combine to prevent direct atomic viewing in a conventional electron microscope. The paper describes two methods for obtaining ultra-high resolution in biological specimens under the electron microscope. The first method assumes the physical limits of the electron objective lens and uses a series of dark field images of biological crystals to obtain direct information on the phases of the Fourier diffraction maxima; this information is used in an appropriate computer to synthesize a large aperture lens for a 1-A resolution. The second method assumes there is sufficient amplitude scatter from images recorded in focus which can be utilized with a sensitive densitometer and computer contrast stretching to yield fine structure image details. Cancer virus characterization is discussed as an illustrative example. Numerous photographs supplement the text.

  7. High resolution detection system of capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Li Qiang; Shi, Yan; Zheng, Hua; Lu, Zu Kang

    2007-12-01

    The capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser induced fluorescence detection (LIFD) system was founded according to confocal theory. The 3-D adjustment of the exciting and collecting optical paths was realized. The photomultiplier tube (PMT) is used and the signals are processed by a software designed by ourselves. Under computer control, high voltage is applied to appropriate reservoirs and to inject and separate DNA samples respectively. Two fluorescent dyes Thiazole Orange (TO) and SYBR Green I were contrasted. With both of the dyes, high signals-to-noise images were obtained with the CE-LIFD system. The single-bases can be distinguished from the electrophoretogram and high resolution of DNA sample separation was obtained.

  8. High-resolution adaptive spiking sonar.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Fernando J; Kuc, Roman

    2009-05-01

    A new sonar system based on the conventional 6500 ranging module is presented that generates a sequence of spikes whose temporal density is related to the strength of the received echo. This system notably improves the resolution of a previous system by shortening the discharge cycle of the integrator included in the module. The operation is controlled by a PIC18F452 device, which can adapt the duration of the discharge to changing features of the echo, providing the system with a novel adaptive behavior. The performance of the new sensor is characterized and compared with that of the previous system by performing rotational scans of simple objects with different reflecting strengths. Some applications are suggested that exploit the high resolution and adaptability of this sensor.

  9. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  10. Limits of simulation based high resolution EBSD.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Jon

    2013-08-01

    High resolution electron backscattered diffraction (HREBSD) is a novel technique for a relative determination of both orientation and stress state in crystals through digital image correlation techniques. Recent works have tried to use simulated EBSD patterns as reference patterns to achieve the absolute orientation and stress state of crystals. However, a precise calibration of the pattern centre location is needed to avoid the occurrence of phantom stresses. A careful analysis of the projective transformation involved in the formation of EBSD patterns has permitted to understand these phantom stresses. This geometrical analysis has been confirmed by numerical simulations. The results indicate that certain combinations of crystal strain states and sample locations (pattern centre locations) lead to virtually identical EBSD patterns. This ambiguity makes the problem of solving the absolute stress state of a crystal unfeasible in a single-detector configuration. PMID:23676453

  11. High-Resolution Anamorphic SPECT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Durko, Heather L.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a gamma-ray imaging system that combines a high-resolution silicon detector with two sets of movable, half-keel-edged copper-tungsten blades configured as crossed slits. These apertures can be positioned independently between the object and detector, producing an anamorphic image in which the axial and transaxial magnifications are not constrained to be equal. The detector is a 60 mm × 60 mm, one-millimeter-thick, one-megapixel silicon double-sided strip detector with a strip pitch of 59 μm. The flexible nature of this system allows the application of adaptive imaging techniques. We present system details; calibration, acquisition, and reconstruction methods; and imaging results. PMID:26160983

  12. High resolution solar X-ray studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Two high resolution solar X-ray payloads and their launches on Aerobee rockets with pointing system are described. The payloads included 5 to 25A X-ray spectrometers, multiaperture X-ray cameras, and command box attitude control inflight by means of a television image radioed to ground. Spatial resolution ranged from five arc minutes to ten arc seconds and spectral resolution ranged from 500 to 3000. Several laboratory tasks were completed in order to achieve the desired resolution. These included (1) development of techniques to align grid collimators, (2) studies of the spectrometric properties of crystals, (3) measurements of the absorption coefficients of various materials used in X-ray spectrometers, (4) evaluation of the performance of multiaperture cameras, and (5) development of facilities.

  13. A simple, high efficiency, high resolution spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Samuel C.

    2012-09-01

    A simple concept is described that uses volume phase holographic gratings as polarizing dispersers for a high efficiency, high resolution spectropolarimeter. Although the idea has previously been mentioned in the literature as possible, such a concept has not been explored in detail. Performance analysis is presented for a VPHG spectropolarimeter concept that could be utilized for both solar and night-time astronomy. Instrumental peak efficiency can approach 100% with spectral dispersions permitting R~200,000 spectral resolution with diffraction limited telescopes. The instrument has 3-channels: two dispersed image planes with orthogonal polarization and an undispersed image plane. The concept has a range of versatility where it could be configured (with appropriate half-wave plates) for slit-fed spectroscopy or without slits for snapshot/hyperspectral/tomographic spectroscopic imaging. Multiplex gratings could also be used for the simultaneous recording of two separate spectral bands or multiple instruments could be daisy chained with beam splitters for further spectral coverage.

  14. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2006-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as H2O (water vapor), O3 (ozone), HCN (hydrogen cyanide), CH4 (methane), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide). The data required for the analyses were obtained from two different Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS); one of which is located at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak, Arizona and the other instrument is located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) at Richland, Washington. The data were analyzed using a modified multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm developed by Dr. D. Chris Benner of the College of William and Mary. The results from these studies made significant improvements in the line positons and intensities for these molecules. The measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced shift coefficients for hundreds of infrared transitions of HCN, CO3 CH4 and H2O were also performed during this period. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon- and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields. The research conducted during the period 2003-2006 has resulted in publications given in this paper. In addition to Journal publications, several oral and poster presentations were given at various Scientific conferences within the United States

  15. High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system.

    PubMed

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R Daniel; Patel, Ankit H; Iftimia, Nicusor; Lue, Niyom; Hammer, Daniel X

    2010-05-24

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 microm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within approximately 0.5 deg (approximately 100-150 microm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes.

  16. Ecological applications of high resolution spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, William T.

    1989-01-01

    Future directions of NASA's space program plans include a significant effort at studying the Earth as a system of interrelated ecosystems. As part of NASA's Earth Observing System (Eos) Program a series of space platforms will be launched and operated to study the Earth with a variety of active and passive instruments. Several of the Eos instruments will be capable of imaging the planet's surface reflectance on a large number of very narrow portions of the solar spectrum. After the development of appropriate algorithms, this reflectance information will be used to determine key parameters about the structure and function of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and the pattern and processes of those systems across large areas of the globe. Algorithm development applicable to terrestrial systems will permit the inference of ecological processes from high resolution spectrometry data, similar to that to be forthcoming from the Eos mission. The first summer was spent working with tropical soils and relating their reflectance characteristics to particle size, iron content, and color. This summer the emphasis is on vegetation and work was begun with the Forest Ecosystems Dynamics Project in the Earth Resources Branch where both optical and radar characteristics of a mixed conifer/hardwood forest in Maine are being studied for use in a ecological modeling effort. A major series of aircraft overflights will take place throughout the summer. Laboratory and field spectrometers are used to measure the spectral reflectance of a hierarchy of vegetation from individual leaves to whole canopies for eventual modeling of their nutrient content using reflectance data. Key leaf/canopy parameters are being approximated including chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorus, water content, and leaf specific weight using high resolution spectrometry alone. Measurements are made of carbon exchange across the landscape for input to a spatial modeling effort to gauge production within the forest. A

  17. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images.

  18. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024 ×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images.

  19. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images. PMID:27475069

  20. High-resolution spectroscopy of a giant solar filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckein, Christoph; Denker, Carsten; Verma, Meetu

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of a giant solar quiescent filament were taken with the Echelle spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT; Tenerife, Spain). A mosaic of various spectroheliograms (Hα, Hα+/-0.5 Å and Na D2) were chosen to examine the filament at different heights in the solar atmosphere. In addition, full-disk images (He i 10830 Å and Ca ii K) of the Chromspheric Telescope and full-disk magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were used to complement the spectra. Preliminary results are shown of this filament, which had extremely large linear dimensions (~740'') and was observed in November 2011 while it traversed the northern solar hemisphere.

  1. Crusta: Visualizing High-resolution Global Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardin, T. S.; Kreylos, O.; Bowles, C. J.; Cowgill, E.; Hamann, B.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual globes have become indispensable tools for visualizing, understanding and presenting data from Earth and other planetary bodies. The scientific community has invested much effort into exploiting existing globes to their fullest potential by refining and adapting their capabilities to better satisfy specific needs. For example, Google Earth provides users with the ability to view hillshade images derived from airborne LiDAR data such as the 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope data. However, because most available globes were not designed with the specific needs of geoscientists in mind, shortcomings are becoming increasingly evident in geoscience applications such as terrain visualization. In particular, earth scientists struggle to visualize digital elevation models with both high spatial resolution (0.5 - 1 square meters per sample) and large extent (>2000 square kilometers), such as those obtained with airborne LiDAR. To address the specific earth science need of real-time terrain visualization of LiDAR data, we are developing Crusta as part of a close collaboration involving earth and computer scientists. Crusta is a new virtual globe that differs from widely used globes by both providing accurate global data representation and the ability to easily visualize custom topographic and image data. As a result, Crusta enables real-time, interactive visualization of high resolution digital elevation data spanning thousands of square kilometers, such as the complete 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope airborne LiDAR data set. To implement an accurate data representation and avoid distortion of the display at the poles, where other projections have singularities, Crusta represents the globe as a thirty-sided polyhedron. Each side of this polyhedron can be subdivided to an arbitrarily fine grid on the surface of the globe, which allows Crusta to accommodate input data of arbitrary resolution ranging from global (e.g., Blue Marble) to local (e.g., a tripod

  2. Superconducting High Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, Ionel Dragos

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting high resolution fast-neutron calorimetric spectrometers based on 6LiF and TiB{sub 2} absorbers have been developed. These novel cryogenic spectrometers measure the temperature rise produced in exothermal (n, α) reactions with fast neutrons in 6Li and 10B-loaded materials with heat capacity C operating at temperatures T close to 0.1 K. Temperature variations on the order of 0.5 mK are measured with a Mo/Cu thin film multilayer operated in the transition region between its superconducting and its normal state. The advantage of calorimetry for high resolution spectroscopy is due to the small phonon excitation energies kBT on the order of μeV that serve as signal carriers, resulting in an energy resolution ΔE ~ (kBT2C)1/2, which can be well below 10 keV. An energy resolution of 5.5 keV has been obtained with a Mo/Cu superconducting sensor and a TiB2 absorber using thermal neutrons from a 252Cf neutron source. This resolution is sufficient to observe the effect of recoil nuclei broadening in neutron spectra, which has been related to the lifetime of the first excited state in 7Li. Fast-neutron spectra obtained with a 6Li-enriched LiF absorber show an energy resolution of 16 keV FWHM, and a response in agreement with the 6Li(n, α)3H reaction cross section and Monte Carlo simulations for energies up to several MeV. The energy resolution of order of a few keV makes this novel instrument applicable to fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy based on the unique elemental signature provided by the neutron absorption and scattering resonances. The optimization of the energy resolution based on analytical and numerical models of the detector response is discussed in the context of these applications.

  3. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of plasmodesmata.

    PubMed

    Brecknock, Sarah; Dibbayawan, Teresa P; Vesk, Maret; Vesk, Peter A; Faulkner, Christine; Barton, Deborah A; Overall, Robyn L

    2011-10-01

    Symplastic transport occurs between neighbouring plant cells through functionally and structurally dynamic channels called plasmodesmata (PD). Relatively little is known about the composition of PD or the mechanisms that facilitate molecular transport into neighbouring cells. While transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides 2-dimensional information about the structural components of PD, 3-dimensional information is difficult to extract from ultrathin sections. This study has exploited high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) to reveal the 3-dimensional morphology of PD in the cell walls of algae, ferns and higher plants. Varied patterns of PD were observed in the walls, ranging from uniformly distributed individual PD to discrete clusters. Occasionally the thick walls of the giant alga Chara were fractured, revealing the surface morphology of PD within. External structures such as spokes, spirals and mesh were observed surrounding the PD. Enzymatic digestions of cell wall components indicate that cellulose or pectin either compose or stabilise the extracellular spokes. Occasionally, the PD were fractured open and desmotubule-like structures and other particles were observed in their central regions. Our observations add weight to the argument that Chara PD contain desmotubules and are morphologically similar to higher plant PD.

  4. High-resolution imaging using endoscopic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1990-08-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help to their control. 1.

  5. Holographic high-resolution endoscopic image recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1991-03-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help

  6. High-resolution light microscopy of nanoforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Vainrub, Arnold

    2007-09-01

    We developed a high resolution light imaging system. Diffraction gratings with 100 nm width lines as well as less than 100 nm size features of different-shaped objects are clearly visible on a calibrated microscope test slide (Vainrub et al., Optics Letters, 2006, 31, 2855). The two-point resolution increase results from a known narrowing of the central diffraction peak for the annular aperture. Better visibility and advanced contrast of the smallest features in the image are due to enhancement of high spatial frequencies in the optical transfer function. The imaging system is portable, low energy, and battery operated. It has been adapted to use in both transmitting and reflecting light. It is particularly applicable for motile nanoform systems where structure and functions can be depicted in real time. We have isolated micrometer and submicrometer particles, termed proteons, from human and animal blood. Proteons form by reversible seeded aggregation of proteins around proteon nucleating centers (PNCs). PNCs are comprised of 1-2nm metallic nanoclusters containing 40-300 atoms. Proteons are capable of spontaneous assembling into higher nanoform systems assuming structure of complicated topology. The arrangement of complex proteon system mimics the structure of a small biological cell. It has structures that imitate membrane and nucleolus or nuclei. Some of these nanoforms are motile. They interact and divide. Complex nanoform systems can spontaneously reduce to simple proteons. The physical properties of these nanoforms could shed some light on the properties of early life forms or forms at extreme conditions.

  7. High-resolution CCD imaging alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. L.; Acker, D. E.

    1992-08-01

    High resolution CCD color cameras have recently stimulated the interest of a large number of potential end-users for a wide range of practical applications. Real-time High Definition Television (HDTV) systems are now being used or considered for use in applications ranging from entertainment program origination through digital image storage to medical and scientific research. HDTV generation of electronic images offers significant cost and time-saving advantages over the use of film in such applications. Further in still image systems electronic image capture is faster and more efficient than conventional image scanners. The CCD still camera can capture 3-dimensional objects into the computing environment directly without having to shoot a picture on film develop it and then scan the image into a computer. 2. EXTENDING CCD TECHNOLOGY BEYOND BROADCAST Most standard production CCD sensor chips are made for broadcast-compatible systems. One popular CCD and the basis for this discussion offers arrays of roughly 750 x 580 picture elements (pixels) or a total array of approximately 435 pixels (see Fig. 1). FOR. A has developed a technique to increase the number of available pixels for a given image compared to that produced by the standard CCD itself. Using an inter-lined CCD with an overall spatial structure several times larger than the photo-sensitive sensor areas each of the CCD sensors is shifted in two dimensions in order to fill in spatial gaps between adjacent sensors.

  8. High resolution animated scenes from stills.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhouchen; Wang, Lifeng; Wang, Yunbo; Kang, Sing Bing; Fang, Tian

    2007-01-01

    Current techniques for generating animated scenes involve either videos (whose resolution is limited) or a single image (which requires a significant amount of user interaction). In this paper, we describe a system that allows the user to quickly and easily produce a compelling-looking animation from a small collection of high resolution stills. Our system has two unique features. First, it applies an automatic partial temporal order recovery algorithm to the stills in order to approximate the original scene dynamics. The output sequence is subsequently extracted using a second-order Markov Chain model. Second, a region with large motion variation can be automatically decomposed into semiautonomous regions such that their temporal orderings are softly constrained. This is to ensure motion smoothness throughout the original region. The final animation is obtained by frame interpolation and feathering. Our system also provides a simple-to-use interface to help the user to fine-tune the motion of the animated scene. Using our system, an animated scene can be generated in minutes. We show results for a variety of scenes. PMID:17356221

  9. High-resolution microwave images of Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, A. W.; Muhleman, D. O.; Berge, G. L.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of high-resolution microwave images of Saturn and Saturn's individual rings is presented. Radio interferometric observations of Saturn taken at the Very Large Array in New Mexico at wavelengths of 2 and 6 centimeters reveal interesting new features in both the atmosphere and rings. The resulting maps show an increase in brightness temperature of about 3 K from equator to pole at both wavelengths, while the 6-centimeter map shows a bright band at northern midlatitudes. The data are consistent with a radiative transfer model of the atmosphere that constrains the well-mixed, fully saturated, NH3 mixing ratio to be 0.00012 in a region just below the NH3 clouds, while the observed bright band indicates a 25 percent relative decrease of NH3 in northern midlatitudes. Brightness temperatures for the classical rings are presented. Ring brightness shows a variation with azimuth and is linearly polarized at an average value of about 5 percent. The variations in ring polarization suggest that at least 20 percent of the ring brightness is the result of a single scattering process.

  10. Laser wavelength comparison by high resolution interferometry.

    PubMed

    Layer, H P; Deslattes, R D; Schweitzer, W G

    1976-03-01

    High resolution interferometry has been used to determine the wavelength ratio between two molecularly stabilized He-Ne lasers, one locked to a methane absorption at 3.39 microm and the other locked to the k peak of (129)I(2) at 633 nm. An optical beat frequency technique gave fractional orders while a microwave sideband method yielded the integer parts. Conventional (third derivative) peak seeking servoes stabilized both laser and cavity lengths. Reproducibility of the electronic control system and optics was a few parts in 10(12), while systematic errors associated with curvature of the cavity mirrors limited the accuracy of the wavelength ratio measurement to 2 parts in 10(10). The measured wavelength ratio of the methane stabilized He-Ne laser at 3.39 microm [P(7) line, nu(3) band] to the (129)I(2) (k peak) stabilized He-Ne laser at 633 nm was 5.359 049 260 6 (0.000 2 ppm). This ratio agrees with that calculated from the (lower accuracy) results of earlier wavelength measurements made relative to the (86)Kr standard. Its higher accuracy thus permits a provisional extension of the frequency scale based on the cesium oscillator into the visible spectrum.

  11. High-resolution microwave images of saturn.

    PubMed

    Grossman, A W; Muhleman, D O; Berge, G L

    1989-09-15

    An analysis of high-resolution microwave images of Saturn and Saturn's individual rings is presented. Radio interferometric observations of Saturn taken at the Very Large Array in New Mexico at wavelengths of 2 and 6 centimeters reveal interesting new features in both the atmosphere and rings. The resulting maps show an increase in brightness temperature of about 3 K from equator to pole at both wavelengths, while the 6-centimeter map shows a bright band at northern mid-latitudes. The data are consistent with a radiative transfer model of the atmosphere that constrains the well-mixed, fully saturated, NH(3) mixing ratio to be 1.2 x 10(-4) in a region just below the NH(3) clouds, while the observed bright band indicates a 25 percent relative decrease of NH(3) in northern mid-latitudes. Brightness temperatures for the classical rings are presented. Ring brightness shows a variation with azimuth and is linearly polarized at an average value of about 5 percent. The variations in ring polarization suggest that at least 20 percent of the ring brightness is the result of a single scattering process.

  12. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Brochard, T.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Bravin, A.; Dusseau, L.; Berkvens, P.

    2010-07-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow (˜25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 μm microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron

  13. Large Scale, High Resolution, Mantle Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geenen, T.; Berg, A. V.; Spakman, W.

    2007-12-01

    To model the geodynamic evolution of plate convergence, subduction and collision and to allow for a connection to various types of observational data, geophysical, geodetical and geological, we developed a 4D (space-time) numerical mantle convection code. The model is based on a spherical 3D Eulerian fem model, with quadratic elements, on top of which we constructed a 3D Lagrangian particle in cell(PIC) method. We use the PIC method to transport material properties and to incorporate a viscoelastic rheology. Since capturing small scale processes associated with localization phenomena require a high resolution, we spend a considerable effort on implementing solvers suitable to solve for models with over 100 million degrees of freedom. We implemented Additive Schwartz type ILU based methods in combination with a Krylov solver, GMRES. However we found that for problems with over 500 thousend degrees of freedom the convergence of the solver degraded severely. This observation is known from the literature [Saad, 2003] and results from the local character of the ILU preconditioner resulting in a poor approximation of the inverse of A for large A. The size of A for which ILU is no longer usable depends on the condition of A and on the amount of fill in allowed for the ILU preconditioner. We found that for our problems with over 5×105 degrees of freedom convergence became to slow to solve the system within an acceptable amount of walltime, one minute, even when allowing for considerable amount of fill in. We also implemented MUMPS and found good scaling results for problems up to 107 degrees of freedom for up to 32 CPU¡¯s. For problems with over 100 million degrees of freedom we implemented Algebraic Multigrid type methods (AMG) from the ML library [Sala, 2006]. Since multigrid methods are most effective for single parameter problems, we rebuild our model to use the SIMPLE method in the Stokes solver [Patankar, 1980]. We present scaling results from these solvers for 3D

  14. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    SciTech Connect

    Braeuer-Krisch, E.; Brochard, T.; Prezado, Y.; Bravin, A.; Berkvens, P.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.

    2010-07-23

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow ({approx}25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 {mu}m microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy

  15. High-Resolution Radar Imagery of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    We present high-resolution radar images of Mars obtained during the 2005 and 2007 oppositions. The images were constructed from long-code delay-Doppler observations made with the Arecibo S-band (13-cm) radar. The average image resolution of 3 km represented a better than order-of-magnitude improvement over pre-upgrade Arecibo imagery of the planet. Images of depolarized reflectivity (an indicator primarily of wavelength-scale surface roughness) show the same bright volcanic flow features seen in earlier imagery, but with much finer detail. A new image of the Elysium region shows fine detail in the radar-bright channels of Athabasca Vallis, Marte Vallis, and Grjota Vallis. The new images of Tharsis and Olympus Mons also show a complex array of radar-bright and radar-dark features. Southern Amazonis exhibits some of the most complex and puzzling radar-bright structure on the planet. Another curiosity is the Chryse/Xanthe/Channels region, where we find some radar-bright features in or adjacent to fluvial chaos structures. Chryse/Xanthe is also the only region of Mars showing radar-bright craters (which are rare on Mars but common on the Moon and Mercury). We also obtained the first delay-Doppler image showing the enhanced backscatter from the residual south polar ice cap. In addition to the depolarized imagery, we were able to make the first delay-Doppler images of the circular polarization ratio (an important diagnostic for surface roughness texture). We find that vast areas of the radar-bright volcanic regions have polarization ratios close to unity. Such high ratios are rare for terrestrial lava flows and only seen for extremely blocky surfaces giving high levels of multiple scattering.

  16. Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

    2005-04-01

    It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

  17. Decadal prediction with a high resolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monerie, Paul-Arthur; Valcke, Sophie; Terray, Laurent; Moine, Marie-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The ability of a high resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (with a horizontal resolution of the quarter degree in the ocean and of about 50 km in the atmosphere) to predict the annual means of temperature, precipitation, sea-ice volume and extent is assessed. Reasonable skill in predicting sea surface temperatures and surface air temperature is obtained, especially over the North Atlantic, the tropical Atlantic and the Indian Ocean. The skill in predicting precipitations is weaker and not significant. The Sea Ice Extent and volume are also reasonably predicted in winter (March) and summer (September). It is however argued that the skill is mainly due to the atmosphere feeding in well-mixed GHGs. The mid-90's subpolar gyre warming is assessed. The model simulates a warming of the North Atlantic Ocean, associated with an increase of the meridional heat transport, a strengthening of the North Atlantic current and a deepening of the mixed layer over the Labrador Sea. The atmosphere plays a role in the warming through a modulation of the North Atlantic Oscillation and a shrinking of the subpolar gyre. At the 3-8 years lead-time, a negative anomaly of pressure, located south of the subpolar gyre is associated with the wind speed decrease over the subpolar gyre. It prevents oceanic heat-loss and favors the northward move, from the subtropical to the subpolar gyre, of anomalously warm and salty water, leading to its warming. We finally argued that the subpolar gyre warming is triggered by the ocean dynamic but the atmosphere can contributes to its sustaining. This work is realised in the framework of the EU FP7 SPECS Project.

  18. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  19. High Resolution Global View of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Io, the most volcanic body in the solar system is seen in the highest resolution obtained to date by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The smallest features that can be discerned are 2.5 kilometers in size. There are rugged mountains several kilometers high, layered materials forming plateaus, and many irregular depressions called volcanic calderas. Several of the dark, flow-like features correspond to hot spots, and may be active lava flows. There are no landforms resembling impact craters, as the volcanism covers the surface with new deposits much more rapidly than the flux of comets and asteroids can create large impact craters. The picture is centered on the side of Io that always faces away from Jupiter; north is to the top.

    Color images acquired on September 7, 1996 have been merged with higher resolution images acquired on November 6, 1996 by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The color is composed of data taken, at a range of 487,000 kilometers, in the near-infrared, green, and violet filters and has been enhanced to emphasize the extraordinary variations in color and brightness that characterize Io's face. The high resolution images were obtained at ranges which varied from 245,719 kilometers to 403,100 kilometers.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  20. The dynamic solar chromosphere: recent advances from high resolution telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Tsiropoula, Georgia

    This review focuses on the solar chromosphere, a very inhomogeneous and dynamic layer that exhibits phenomena on a large range of spatial and temporal scales. High-resolution observa-tions from existing telescopes (DST, SST, DOT), as well as long-duration observations with Hinode's SOT employing lines such as the Ca II infrared lines, the Ca II HK and above all the Hα line reveal an incredibly rich, dynamic and highly structured environment, both in quiet and active regions. The fine-structure chromosphere, is mainly constituted by fibrilar features that connect various parts of active regions or span across network cell interiors. We discuss this highly dynamical solar chromosphere, especially below the magnetic canopy, which is gov-erned by flows reflecting both the complex geometry and dynamics of the magnetic field and the propagation and dissipation of waves in the different atmospheric layers. A comprehensive view of the fine-structure chromosphere requires deep understanding of the physical processes involved, investigation of the intricate link with structures/processes at lower photospheric lev-els and analysis of its impact on the mass and energy transport to higher atmospheric layers through flows resulting from different physical processes such as magnetic reconnection and waves. Furthermore, we assess the challenges facing theory and numerical modelling which require the inclusion of several physical ingredients, such as non-LTE and three-dimensional numerical simulations.

  1. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  2. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W

    2004-09-03

    We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in Anatolian plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function

  3. The HFIP High Resolution Hurricane Forecast Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nance, L. B.; Bernardet, L.; Bao, S.; Brown, B.; Carson, L.; Fowler, T.; Halley Gotway, J.; Harrop, C.; Szoke, E.; Tollerud, E. I.; Wolff, J.; Yuan, H.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical cyclones are a serious concern for the nation, causing significant risk to life, property and economic vitality. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service has a mission of issuing tropical cyclone forecasts and warnings, aimed at protecting life and property and enhancing the national economy. In the last 10 years, the errors in hurricane track forecasts have been reduced by about 50% through improved model guidance, enhanced observations, and forecaster expertise. However, little progress has been made during this period toward reducing forecasted intensity errors. To address this shortcoming, NOAA established the Hurricane Forecast Improvement Project (HFIP) in 2007. HFIP is a 10-year plan to improve one to five day tropical cyclone forecasts, with a focus on rapid intensity change. Recent research suggests that prediction models with grid spacing less than 1 km in the inner core of the hurricane may provide a substantial improvement in intensity forecasts. The 2008-09 staging of the High Resolution Hurricane (HRH) Test focused on quantifying the impact of increased horizontal resolution in numerical models on hurricane intensity forecasts. The primary goal of this test was an evaluation of the effect of increasing horizontal resolution within a given model across a variety of storms with different intensity, location and structure. The test focused on 69 retrospectives cases from the 2005 and 2007 hurricane seasons. Six modeling groups participated in the HRH test utilizing a variety of models, including three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, the operational GFDL model, the Navy’s tropical cyclone model, and a model developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UWM). The Development Testbed Center (DTC) was tasked with providing objective verification statistics for a variety of metrics. This presentation provides an overview of the HRH Test and a summary of the standard

  4. First results from the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph - The chromosphere of Alpha Tauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Robinson, Richard D.; Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Ake, Thomas B.; Ebbets, Dennis C.

    1991-01-01

    The K5 III star Alpha Tau was observed with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on November 27, 1990 as part of the Science Assessment Program for the HST. The spectra show intersystem and permitted chromospheric emission lines of semiforbidden C II and Si II, Fe II, Fe I, Ni II, and Co II. Resolved profiles of the semiforbidden C II lines indicate a complex chromospheric turbulent velocity distribution with mean value of roughly 24 km/s, while their observed wavelengths indicate a 4 km/s downflow of the semiforbidden C II plasma. Twenty-five new emission lines have been found in the 2320-2370 A region, 17 of which have been identified with the aid of Skylab data obtained above the solar limb, including four lines from Co II (UV 8) and an Fe I (UV 12) line.

  5. High Resolution Image Reconstruction from Projection of Low Resolution Images DIffering in Subpixel Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mareboyana, Manohar; Le Moigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Bennett, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple algorithm that projects low resolution (LR) images differing in subpixel shifts on a high resolution (HR) also called super resolution (SR) grid. The algorithm is very effective in accuracy as well as time efficiency. A number of spatial interpolation techniques using nearest neighbor, inverse-distance weighted averages, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) etc. used in projection yield comparable results. For best accuracy of reconstructing SR image by a factor of two requires four LR images differing in four independent subpixel shifts. The algorithm has two steps: i) registration of low resolution images and (ii) shifting the low resolution images to align with reference image and projecting them on high resolution grid based on the shifts of each low resolution image using different interpolation techniques. Experiments are conducted by simulating low resolution images by subpixel shifts and subsampling of original high resolution image and the reconstructing the high resolution images from the simulated low resolution images. The results of accuracy of reconstruction are compared by using mean squared error measure between original high resolution image and reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested on remote sensing images and found to outperform previously proposed techniques such as Iterative Back Projection algorithm (IBP), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Maximum a posterior (MAP) algorithms. The algorithm is robust and is not overly sensitive to the registration inaccuracies.

  6. High resolution image reconstruction from projection of low resolution images differing in subpixel shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareboyana, Manohar; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Bennett, Jerome

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate simple algorithms that project low resolution (LR) images differing in subpixel shifts on a high resolution (HR) also called super resolution (SR) grid. The algorithms are very effective in accuracy as well as time efficiency. A number of spatial interpolation techniques using nearest neighbor, inverse-distance weighted averages, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) etc. are used in projection. For best accuracy of reconstructing SR image by a factor of two requires four LR images differing in four independent subpixel shifts. The algorithm has two steps: i) registration of low resolution images and (ii) shifting the low resolution images to align with reference image and projecting them on high resolution grid based on the shifts of each low resolution image using different interpolation techniques. Experiments are conducted by simulating low resolution images by subpixel shifts and subsampling of original high resolution image and the reconstructing the high resolution images from the simulated low resolution images. The results of accuracy of reconstruction are compared by using mean squared error measure between original high resolution image and reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested on remote sensing images and found to outperform previously proposed techniques such as Iterative Back Projection algorithm (IBP), Maximum Likelihood (ML) algorithms. The algorithms are robust and are not overly sensitive to the registration inaccuracies.

  7. High-resolution ground-based spectroscopy: where and how ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, R.

    2002-07-01

    An overview is presented of high-resolution optical spectrographs in operation or under development at large telescopes, with emphasis on those facilities best suited for the study of late-type stars and stellar surface inhomogeneities. Plans for the development of new high-resolution spectroscopic instruments are discussed with emphasis on the ICE spectrograph for the PEPSI spectropolarimeter at the LBT.

  8. Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-03-08

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

  9. Diagnostics of Ellerman bombs with high-resolution spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Fang, Cheng; Guo, Yang; Chen, Peng-Fei; Xu, Zhi; Cao, Wen-Da

    2015-09-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are tiny brightenings often observed near sunspots. The most impressive characteristic of EB spectra is the two emission bumps in both wings of the Hα and Ca II 8542Å lines. High-resolution spectral data of three small EBs were obtained on 2013 June 6 with the largest solar telescope, the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The characteristics of these EBs are analyzed. The sizes of the EBs are in the range of 0.3‧ - 0.8‧ and their durations are only 3-5 min. Our semi-empirical atmospheric models indicate that the heating occurs around the temperature minimum region with a temperature increase of 2700-3000 K, which is surprisingly higher than previously thought. The radiative and kinetic energies are estimated to be as high as 5 × 1025 - 3.0 × 1026 erg despite the small size of these EBs. Observations of the magnetic field show that the EBs just appeared in a parasitic region with mixed polarities and were accompanied by mass motions. Nonlinear force-free field extrapolation reveals that the three EBs are connected with a series of magnetic field lines associated with bald patches, which strongly implies that these EBs should be produced by magnetic reconnection in the solar lower atmosphere. According to the lightcurves and the estimated magnetic reconnection rate, we propose that there is a three phase process in EBs: pre-heating, flaring and cooling phases.

  10. Exploring conical intersections through high resolution photofragment translational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashfold, Michael

    2007-03-01

    High resolution measurements of the kinetic energies of H atom fragments formed during UV photolysis of gas phase imidazole, [1,2] pyrrole, [3] phenol [4] and thiophenol molecules show that: (i) X-H (X = N, O, S) bond fission is an important non-radiative decay process from the ^1πσ* excited states in each of these molecules, and (ii) that the respective co-fragments (imidazolyl, pyrrolyl, phenoxyl and thiophenoxyl) are formed in very limited sub-sets of their available vibrational states. Identification of these product states yields uniquely detailed insights into the vibronic couplings involved in the photo-induced evolution from parent molecule to ultimate fragments. [1] M.N.R. Ashfold, B. Cronin, A.L. Devine, R.N. Dixon and M.G.D. Nix, Science (2006), 312, 1637. [2] A.L. Devine, B. Cronin, M.G.D. Nix and M.N.R. Ashfold, J. Chem. Phys. (in press). [3] B. Cronin, M.G.D. Nix, R.H. Qadiri and M.N.R. Ashfold, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (2004), 6, 5031. [4] M.G.D. Nix, A.L. Devine, B. Cronin, R.N. Dixon and M.N.R. Ashfold, J. Chem. Phys. (2006), 125, 133318.

  11. High-Resolution Observations of a Binary Black Hole Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Phillips, Chris; Norris, Ray; Jarrett, Thomas; Emonts, Bjorn; Cluver, Michelle; Eisenhardt, Peter; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    We propose a 12-hour 2.3 GHz continuum Long Baseline Array (LBA) observation of WISE J2332-5056, a newly discovered supermassive black hole (SMBH) merger candidate that is located in the nearby universe (z = 0.3447). Our recently acquired 9 GHz ATCA map shows unusual radio morphology: a one-sided, smaller (and likely younger) FR-I jet perpendicular to a larger, Doppler-boosted FR-II jet. Follow-up Gemini-S/GMOS spectroscopy of this WISE-selected radio galaxy reveals broad emission lines blue-shifted by > 3,500 km/s with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy, hallmarks of a dual AGN system. Combined, the optical spectroscopy and radio morphology of this object are strongly suggestive of a black hole merger system. Even in the local universe these systems are extremely difficult to identify; yet the process of supermassive blackhole growth is vital toward understanding galaxy evolution from the early to the current universe. Moreover, nearby merging SMBHs may serve as outstanding targets for gravitational wave studies. The proposed high resolution LBA map, reaching 50 pc resolution at the source redshift will allow us to investigate the SMBH merger scenario hypothesis.

  12. High-resolution sea wind hindcasts over the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, M.; García-Díez, M.; Fita, L.; Fernández, J.; Méndez, F. J.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a high-resolution atmospheric hindcast over the Mediterranean area using the WRF-ARW model, focusing on offshore surface wind fields. In order to choose the most adequate model configuration, the study provides details on the calibration of the experimental saet-up through a sensitivity test considering the October-December 2001 period (the 2001 super-storm event in the West Mediterranean). A daily forecast outperforms the spectral technique of previous products and the boundary data from ERA-Interim reanalysis produces the most accurate estimates in terms of wind variability and hour-to-hour correspondence. According to the sensitivity test, two data sets of wind hindcast are produced: the SeaWind I (30-km horizontal resolution for a period of 60 years) and the SeaWind II (15-km horizontal resolution for 20 years). The validation of the resulting surface winds is undertaken considering two offshore observational datasets. On the one hand, hourly surface buoy stations are used to validate wind time series at specific locations; on the other hand, wind altimeter satellite observations are considered for spatial validation in the whole Mediterranean Sea. The results obtained from this validation process show a very good agreement with observations for the southern Europe region. Finally, SeaWind I and II are used to characterize offshore wind fields in the Mediterranean Sea. The statistical structure of sea surface wind is analyzed and the agreement with Weibull probability distribution is discussed. In addition, wind persistence and extreme wind speed (50 year return period) are characterized and relevant areas of wind power generation are described by estimating wind energy quantities.

  13. High resolution airborne geophysics at hazardous waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, L.P.; Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E.; Chong Foo, M.; Gamey, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    In 1994, a high resolution helicopter geophysical survey was conducted over portions of the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. The 1800 line kilometer survey included multi-frequency electromagnetic and magnetic sensors. The areas covered by the high resolution portion of the survey were selected on the basis of their importance to the environmental restoration effort and on data obtained from the reconnaissance phase of the airborne survey in which electromagnetic, magnetic, and radiometric data were collected over the entire Oak Ridge Reservation in 1992--1993. The high resolution phase had lower sensor heights, more and higher EM frequencies, and tighter line spacings than did the reconnaissance survey. When flying over exceptionally clear areas, the high resolution bird came within a few meters of the ground surface. Unfortunately, even sparse trees and power or phone lines could prevent the bird from being towed safely at low altitude, and over such areas it was more usual for it to be flown at about the same altitude as the bird in the reconnaissance survey, about 30m. Even so, the magnetometers used in the high resolution phase were 20m closer to the ground than in the reconnaissance phase because they were mounted on the tail of the bird rather than on the tow cable above the bird. The EM frequencies used in the high resolution survey ranged from 7400Hz to 67000Hz. Only the horizontal coplanar loop configuration was used in the high resolution flyovers.

  14. Update on High-Resolution Geodetically Controlled LROC Polar Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archinal, B.; Lee, E.; Weller, L.; Richie, J.; Edmundson, K.; Laura, J.; Robinson, M.; Speyerer, E.; Boyd, A.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Wagner, R.; Nefian, A.

    2015-10-01

    We describe progress on high-resolution (1 m/pixel) geodetically controlled LROC mosaics of the lunar poles, which can be used for locating illumination resources (for solar power or cold traps) or landing site and surface operations planning.

  15. High Resolution CryoFESEM of Microbial Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsen, Stanley; Lei, Ming; Martin-Lacave, Ines; Dunny, Gary; Wells, Carol

    2003-08-01

    The outer surfaces of three microorganisms, Giardia lamblia, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus mirabilis, were investigated by cryo-immobilization followed by sublimation of extracellular ice and cryocoating with either Pt alone or Pt plus carbon. Cryocoated samples were examined at [minus sign]125°C in either an in-lens field emission SEM or a below-the-lens field emission SEM. Cryocoating with Pt alone was sufficient for low magnification observation, but attempts to do high-resolution imaging resulted in radiolysis and cracking of the specimen surface. Double coating with Pt and carbon, in combination with high resolution backscatter electron detectors, enabled high-resolution imaging of the glycocalyx of bacteria, revealing a sponge-like network over the surface. High resolution examination of bacterial flagella also revealed a periodic substructure. Common artifacts included radiolysis leading to “cracking” of the surface, and insufficient deposition of Pt resulting in the absence of detectable surface topography.

  16. High resolution difference schemes for compressible gas dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, P.; Colella, P.

    1980-07-30

    The advantages and disadvantages of four new high-resolution difference schemes, namely the von Neumann-Richtmyer, Godunovs, MUSCL and Glimms, for mathematically representing physical conditions in compressible gas flows are compared. (LCL)

  17. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  18. AVHRR/1-FM Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer is discussed. The program covers design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical/structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was developed for use on the program. The flight model program objectives were to fabricate, assemble and test four of the advanced very high resolution radiometers along with a bench cooler and collimator.

  19. Volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT of the lung.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2004-11-01

    We developed a volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) protocol that provides combined inspiratory and expiratory volumetric imaging of the lung without increasing radiation exposure, and conducted a preliminary feasibility assessment of this protocol to evaluate diffuse lung disease with small airway abnormalities. The volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT increased the detectability of the conducting airway to the areas of air trapping (P<0.0001), and added significant information about extent and distribution of air trapping (P<0.0001).

  20. Triple aldose reductase/α-glucosidase/radical scavenging high-resolution profiling combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for identification of antidiabetic constituents in crude extract of Radix Scutellariae.

    PubMed

    Tahtah, Yousof; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Wubshet, Sileshi G; Nyberg, Nils T; Jønsson, Louise H; Jäger, Anna K; Qinglei, Sun; Staerk, Dan

    2015-08-21

    In this work, development of a new microplate-based high-resolution profiling assay using recombinant human aldose reductase is presented. Used together with high-resolution radical scavenging and high-resolution α-glucosidase assays, it provided the first report of a triple aldose reductase/α-glucosidase/radical scavenging high-resolution inhibition profile - allowing proof of concept with Radix Scutellariae crude extract as a polypharmacological herbal drug. The triple bioactivity high-resolution profiles were used to pinpoint bioactive compounds, and subsequent structure elucidation was performed with hyphenated high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The only α-glucosidase inhibitor was baicalein, whereas main aldose reductase inhibitors in the crude extract were baicalein and skullcapflavone II, and main radical scavengers were ganhuangemin, viscidulin III, baicalin, oroxylin A 7-O-glucuronide, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin, and skullcapflavone II.

  1. Resolution analysis of high-resolution marine seismic data acquired off Yeosu, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Young; Kim, Wonsik; Koo, Nam-Hyung; Park, Keun-Pil; Yoo, Dong-Geun; Kang, Dong-Hyo; Kim, Young-Gun; Seo, Gab-Seok; Hwang, Kyu-Duk

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution marine seismic surveys have been conducted for the mineral exploration and engineering purpose survey. To improve the quality of high-resolution seismic data, small-scaled multi-channel seismic techniques are used. In this study, we designed high-resolution marine seismic survey using a small airgun and an 8-channel streamer cable and analyzed the resolution of the seismic data related to acquisition and processing parameters. The field survey was conducted off Yeosu, Korea where the stratified thin sedimentary layers are deposited. We used a 30 in3 airgun and an 8-channel streamer cable with a 5 m group interval. We shoot the airgun with a 5 m shot interval and recorded digital data with a 0.1 ms sample interval and 1 s record length. The offset between the source and the first channel was 20 m. We processed the acquired data with simple procedure such as gain recovery, deconvolution, digital filtering, CMP sorting, NMO correction, static correction and stacking. To understand the effect of the acquisition parameters on the vertical and horizontal resolution, we resampled the acquired data using various sample intervals and CMP intervals and produced seismic sections. The analysis results show that the detailed subsurface structures can be imaged with good resolution and continuity using acquisition parameters with a sample interval shorter than 0.2 ms and a CMP interval shorter than 2.5 m. A high-resolution marine 8-channel airgun seismic survey using appropriate acquisition and processing parameters can be effective in imaging marine subsurface structure with a high resolution. This study is a part of a National Research Laboratory (NRL) project and a part of an Energy Technology Innovation (ETI) Project of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE). The authors thank the officers and crew of the R/V Tamhae II for their efforts in the field survey.

  2. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  3. EDITORIAL: High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Rubén; García, Ricardo; Schwarz, Udo

    2009-06-01

    original papers authored by many of the leading groups in the field with the goal of providing a well-balanced overview on the state-of-the-art in this rapidly evolving field. These papers, many of which are based on notable presentations given during the Madrid conference, feature highlights such as (1) the development of sophisticated force spectroscopy procedures that are able to map the complete 3D tip-sample force field on different surfaces; (2) the considerable resolution improvement of Kelvin probe force microscopy (reaching, in some cases, the atomic scale), which is accompanied by a thorough, quantitative understanding of the contrast observed; (3) the perfecting of atomic resolution imaging on insulating substrates, which helps reshape our microscopic understanding of surface properties and chemical activity of these surfaces; (4) the description of instrumental and methodological developments that pave the way to the atomic-scale characterization of magnetic and electronic properties of nanostructures, and last but not least (5) the extension of dynamic imaging modes to high-resolution operation in liquids, ultimately achieving atomic resolution. The latter developments are already having a significant impact in the highly competitive field of biological imaging under physiological conditions. This special issue of Nanotechnology would not have been possible without the highly professional support from Nina Couzin, Amy Harvey, Alex Wotherspoon and the entire Nanotechnology team at IOP Publishing. We are thankful for their help in pushing this project forward. We also thank the authors who have contributed their excellent original articles to this issue, the referees whose comments have helped make the issue an accurate portrait of this rapidly moving field, and the entire NC-AFM community that continues to drive NC-AFM to new horizons.

  4. High-resolution Urban Image Classification Using Extended Features

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution image classification poses several challenges because the typical object size is much larger than the pixel resolution. Any given pixel (spectral features at that location) by itself is not a good indicator of the object it belongs to without looking at the broader spatial footprint. Therefore most modern machine learning approaches that are based on per-pixel spectral features are not very effective in high- resolution urban image classification. One way to overcome this problem is to extract features that exploit spatial contextual information. In this study, we evaluated several features in- cluding edge density, texture, and morphology. Several machine learning schemes were tested on the features extracted from a very high-resolution remote sensing image and results were presented.

  5. High resolution single particle refinement in EMAN2.1.

    PubMed

    Bell, James M; Chen, Muyuan; Baldwin, Philip R; Ludtke, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    EMAN2.1 is a complete image processing suite for quantitative analysis of grayscale images, with a primary focus on transmission electron microscopy, with complete workflows for performing high resolution single particle reconstruction, 2-D and 3-D heterogeneity analysis, random conical tilt reconstruction and subtomogram averaging, among other tasks. In this manuscript we provide the first detailed description of the high resolution single particle analysis pipeline and the philosophy behind its approach to the reconstruction problem. High resolution refinement is a fully automated process, and involves an advanced set of heuristics to select optimal algorithms for each specific refinement task. A gold standard FSC is produced automatically as part of refinement, providing a robust resolution estimate for the final map, and this is used to optimally filter the final CTF phase and amplitude corrected structure. Additional methods are in-place to reduce model bias during refinement, and to permit cross-validation using other computational methods.

  6. High resolution single particle refinement in EMAN2.1.

    PubMed

    Bell, James M; Chen, Muyuan; Baldwin, Philip R; Ludtke, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    EMAN2.1 is a complete image processing suite for quantitative analysis of grayscale images, with a primary focus on transmission electron microscopy, with complete workflows for performing high resolution single particle reconstruction, 2-D and 3-D heterogeneity analysis, random conical tilt reconstruction and subtomogram averaging, among other tasks. In this manuscript we provide the first detailed description of the high resolution single particle analysis pipeline and the philosophy behind its approach to the reconstruction problem. High resolution refinement is a fully automated process, and involves an advanced set of heuristics to select optimal algorithms for each specific refinement task. A gold standard FSC is produced automatically as part of refinement, providing a robust resolution estimate for the final map, and this is used to optimally filter the final CTF phase and amplitude corrected structure. Additional methods are in-place to reduce model bias during refinement, and to permit cross-validation using other computational methods. PMID:26931650

  7. Single sensor processing to obtain high resolution color component signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, William E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for generating color video signals representative of color images of a scene includes the following steps: focusing light from the scene on an electronic image sensor via a filter having a tri-color filter pattern; producing, from outputs of the sensor, first and second relatively low resolution luminance signals; producing, from outputs of the sensor, a relatively high resolution luminance signal; producing, from a ratio of the relatively high resolution luminance signal to the first relatively low resolution luminance signal, a high band luminance component signal; producing, from outputs of the sensor, relatively low resolution color component signals; and combining each of the relatively low resolution color component signals with the high band luminance component signal to obtain relatively high resolution color component signals.

  8. Laser radar cross-section estimation from high-resolution image data.

    PubMed

    Osche, G R; Seeber, K N; Lok, Y F; Young, D S

    1992-05-10

    A methodology for the estimation of ladar cross sections from high-resolution image data of geometrically complex targets is presented. Coherent CO(2) laser radar was used to generate high-resolution amplitude imagery of a UC-8 Buffalo test aircraft at a range of 1.3 km at nine different aspect angles. The average target ladar cross section was synthesized from these data and calculated to be sigma(T) = 15.4 dBsm, which is similar to the expected microwave radar cross sections. The aspect angle dependence of the cross section shows pronounced peaks at nose on and broadside, which are also in agreement with radar results. Strong variations in both the mean amplitude and the statistical distributions of amplitude with the aspect angle have also been observed. The relative mix of diffuse and specular returns causes significant deviations from a simple Lambertian or Swerling II target, especially at broadside where large normal surfaces are present.

  9. High-resolution airborne magnetometry for hydrocarbon exploration: A case study, Wilson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, T.J.; Phillips, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Aeromagnetic anomaly surveying has been used extensively for geophysical exploration since just before World War II. Its primary value in hydrocarbon exploration has been for mapping the strong magnetic anomalies of the crystalline magnetic basement rocks to estimate the regional thickness of overlying, potential oil and gas bearing sediments. These basement responses are typically in the amplitude range of 2--200 nanotesla (nT) or gammas. In contrast, High Resolution Aeromagnetic (HRA) surveys specifically target the sedimentary stack where response amplitudes generated are typically in the range of 0.2-2.0 nT. These low intensity anomalies generated within the sediments are related to changes in the magnetic composition of rocks. This will occur when rocks of differing magnetic intensities are juxtaposed across a fault, or at a stratigraphic truncation. With this objective in mind a new high resolution, high sensitivity aeromagnetic survey was conducted over parts of Wilson and Karnes counties in Texas.

  10. A comparison of high resolution optical and radio observations of W3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickel, H. R.; Harten, R. H.; Gull, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    High resolution maps of the W3 complex for radio continuum and selected optical emission lines are used to derive the visual extinction A(V), the excitation, and the evolutionary state of the component H II regions. A large diffuse H II region in the east, which is the most highly evolved of this type, is found, together with a southern complex of H II regions and a northern complex of young and compact H II regions still embedded in the W3 molecular core. A comparison of the observed dust distribution with ionized and atomic hydrogen and several other molecules in W3 shows the functional relationship between the C-130 column density and A(V) to be in accord with Strohacker's (1978) result for dark clouds.

  11. Modified Noise Power Ratio testing of high resolution digitizers

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.S.

    1994-05-01

    A broadband, full signal range, side-by-side (tandem) test method for estimating the internal noise performance of high resolution digitizers is described and illustrated. The technique involves a re-definition of the traditional Noise Power Ratio (NPR) test, a change that not only makes this test applicable to higher resolution systems than was previously practical, but also enhances its value and flexibility. Since coherence analysis is the basis of this new definition, and since the application of coherence procedures to high resolution data poses several problems, this report discusses these problems and their resolution.

  12. High-resolution seismic studies applied to injected geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.T.; Kasameyer, P.

    1985-01-01

    The application of high-resolution microseismicity studies to the problem of monitoring injected fluids is one component of the Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project at LLNL. The evaluation of microseismicity includes the development of field techniques, and the acquisition and processing of events during the initial development of a geothermal field. To achieve a specific detection threshold and location precision, design criteria are presented for seismic networks. An analysis of a small swarm near Mammoth Lakes, California, demonstrates these relationships and the usefulness of high-resolution seismic studies. A small network is currently monitoring the Mammoth-Pacific geothermal power plant at Casa Diablo as it begins production.

  13. Theoretical Problems in High Resolution Solar Physics, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athay, G. (Editor); Spicer, D. S. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The Science Working Group for the High Resolution Solar Observatory (HRSO) laid plans beginning in 1984 for a series of workshops designed to stimulate a broadbased input from the scientific community to the HRSO mission. These workshops have the dual objectives of encouraging an early start on the difficult theoretical problems in radiative transfer, magnetohydrodynamics, and plasma physics that will be posed by the HRSO data, and maintaining current discussions of results in high resolution solar studies. This workshop was the second in the series. The workshop format presented invited review papers during the formal sessions and contributed poster papers for discussions during open periods. Both are presented.

  14. High Resolution EUV & FUV Spectroscopy of DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Good, S. A.; Bannister, N. P.; Burleigh, M. R.; Holberg, J. B.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Cruddace, R. G.; Kowalski, M. P.

    We report on recent results from a high-resolution spectroscopic survey of hot DA white dwarfs, based on IUE, FUSE and HST observations. For the first time, we address the measurement of element abundances in a completely objective manner with a spectroscopic model fitting technique, which allows us to consider formally the limits that can be placed on abundances in stars where no heavy elements are detected. We also include our latest analysis of the high resolution EUV spectrum of G191-B2B recorded by J-PEX.

  15. Wide swath and high resolution optical imaging satellite of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kato, Eri; Imai, Hiroko; Sagisaka, Masakazu

    2016-05-01

    The "Advanced optical satellite" (tentative name) is a follow-on mission from ALOS. Mission objectives of the advanced optical satellite is to build upon the existing advanced techniques for global land observation using optical sensors, as well as to promote data utilization for social needs. Wide swath and high resolution optical imager onboard the advanced optical satellite will extend the capabilities of earlier ALOS missions. The optical imager will be able to collect high-resolution (< 1 m) and wide-swath (70 km) images with high geo-location accuracy. This paper introduces a conceptual design of the advanced optical satellite.

  16. Microbeam X-Ray Standing Wave and High Resolution Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kazimirov, A.; Bilderback, D.H.; Huang, R.; Sirenko, A.

    2004-05-12

    Post-focusing collimating optics are introduced as a tool to condition X-ray microbeams for the use in high-resolution X-ray diffraction and scattering techniques. As an example, a one-bounce imaging capillary and miniature Si(004) channel-cut crystal were used to produce a microbeam with 10 {mu}m size and an ultimate angular resolution of 2.5 arc sec. This beam was used to measure the strain in semiconductor microstructures by using X-ray high resolution diffraction and standing wave techniques to {delta}d/d < 5x10-4.

  17. On the application and extension of Harten's high resolution scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Warming, R. F.; Harten, A.

    1982-01-01

    Extensions of a second order high resolution explicit method for the numerical computation of weak solutions of one dimensonal hyperbolic conservation laws are discussed. The main objectives were (1) to examine the shock resoluton of Harten's method for a two dimensional shock reflection problem, (2) to study the use of a high resolution scheme as a post-processor to an approximate steady state solution, and (3) to construct an implicit in the delta-form using Harten's scheme for the explicit operator and a simplified iteration matrix for the implicit operator.

  18. High resolution BPMS with integrated gain correction system

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, M.; Briegel, C.; Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Gianfelice, E.; Prieto, P.; Rechenmacher, R.; Voy, D.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2009-08-01

    High resolution beam position monitors (BPM) are an essential tool to achieve and reproduce a low vertical beam emittance at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring. The ATF damping ring (DR) BPMs are currently upgraded with new high resolution read-out electronics. Based on analog and digital down-conversion techniques, the upgrade includes an automatic gain calibration system to correct for slow drift effects and ensure high reproducible beam position readings. The concept and its technical realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented.

  19. High-resolution low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Buban, James P.; Ramasse, Quentin; Gipson, Bryant; Browning, Nigel D.; Stahlberg, Henning

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades instrumentation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has pushed toward higher intensity electron probes to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of recorded images. While this is suitable for robust specimens, biological specimens require a much reduced electron dose for high-resolution imaging. We describe here protocols for low-dose STEM image recording with a conventional field-emission gun STEM, while maintaining the high-resolution capability of the instrument. Our findings show that a combination of reduced pixel dwell time and reduced gun current can achieve radiation doses comparable to low-dose TEM. PMID:19915208

  20. High-resolution low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Buban, James P; Ramasse, Quentin; Gipson, Bryant; Browning, Nigel D; Stahlberg, Henning

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades instrumentation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has pushed toward higher intensity electron probes to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of recorded images. While this is suitable for robust specimens, biological specimens require a much reduced electron dose for high-resolution imaging. We describe here protocols for low-dose STEM image recording with a conventional field-emission gun STEM, while maintaining the high-resolution capability of the instrument. Our findings show that a combination of reduced pixel dwell time and reduced gun current can achieve radiation doses comparable to low-dose TEM.

  1. High Resolution PET with 250 micrometer LSO Detectors and Adaptive Zoom

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, Simon R.; Qi, Jinyi

    2012-01-08

    There have been impressive improvements in the performance of small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems since their first development in the mid 1990s, both in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which have directly contributed to the increasing adoption of this technology for a wide range of biomedical applications. Nonetheless, current systems still are largely dominated by the size of the scintillator elements used in the detector. Our research predicts that developing scintillator arrays with an element size of 250 {micro}m or smaller will lead to an image resolution of 500 {micro}m when using 18F- or 64Cu-labeled radiotracers, giving a factor of 4-8 improvement in volumetric resolution over the highest resolution research systems currently in existence. This proposal had two main objectives: (i) To develop and evaluate much higher resolution and efficiency scintillator arrays that can be used in the future as the basis for detectors in a small-animal PET scanner where the spatial resolution is dominated by decay and interaction physics rather than detector size. (ii) To optimize one such high resolution, high sensitivity detector and adaptively integrate it into the existing microPET II small animal PET scanner as a 'zoom-in' detector that provides higher spatial resolution and sensitivity in a limited region close to the detector face. The knowledge gained from this project will provide valuable information for building future PET systems with a complete ring of very high-resolution detector arrays and also lay the foundations for utilizing high-resolution detectors in combination with existing PET systems for localized high-resolution imaging.

  2. High-resolution optical spectroscopy of Plaskett's star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, N.; Rauw, G.; Martins, F.; Sana, H.; De Becker, M.; Gosset, E.

    2008-10-01

    Context: Plaskett's star (HD 47 129) is a very massive O + O binary that belongs to the Mon OB2 association. Previous work suggests that this system displays the Struve-Sahade effect although the measurements of the secondary radial velocities are very difficult and give controversial results. Both components have powerful stellar winds that collide and produce a strong X-ray emission. Aims: Our aim is to study the physical parameters of this system in detail and to investigate the relation between its spectral properties and its evolutionary status. Methods: We present here analysis of an extensive set of high-resolution optical spectra of HD 47 129. We used a disentangling method to separate the individual spectra of each star. We derived a new orbital solution and discuss the spectral classification of both components. A Doppler tomography technique applied to the emission lines Hα and He II λ 4686 yields a Doppler map that illustrates the wind interactions in the system. Finally, an atmosphere code is used to determine the different chemical abundances of the system components and the wind parameters. Results: HD 47 129 appears to be an O8 III/I + O7.5 III binary system in a post RLOF evolutionary stage, where matter has been transferred from the primary to the secondary star. The He overabundance of the secondary supports this scenario. In addition, the N overabundance and C underabundance of the primary component confirm previous results based on X-ray spectroscopy and indicate that the primary is an evolved massive star. We also determined a new orbital solution, with MP sin^3i = 45.4 ± 2.4 M⊙ and MS sin^3i = 47.3 ± 0.3 M⊙. Furthermore, the secondary star has a high rotational velocity (v sin i ˜ 300 km s-1) that deforms its surface, leading to a non-uniform distribution in effective temperature. This could explain the variations in the equivalent widths of the secondary lines with phase. We suggest that the wind of the secondary star is confined

  3. Giant quiescent solar filament observed with high-resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckein, C.; Verma, M.; Denker, C.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: An extremely large filament was studied in various layers of the solar atmosphere. The inferred physical parameters and the morphological aspects are compared with smaller quiescent filaments. Methods: A giant quiet-Sun filament was observed with the high-resolution Echelle spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain, on 2011 November 15. A mosaic of spectra (ten maps of 100″ × 182″) was recorded simultaneously in the chromospheric absorption lines Hα and Na i D2. Physical parameters of the filament plasma were derived using cloud model (CM) inversions and line core fits. The spectra were complemented with full-disk filtergrams (He i λ10830 Å, Hα, and Ca ii K) of the Chromospheric Telescope (ChroTel) and full-disk magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Results: The filament had extremely large linear dimensions (~817 arcsec), which corresponds to about 658 Mm along a great circle on the solar surface. A total amount of 175119 Hα contrast profiles were inverted using the CM approach. The inferred mean line-of-sight (LOS) velocity, Doppler width, and source function were similar to previous works of smaller quiescent filaments. However, the derived optical thickness was higher. LOS velocity trends inferred from the Hα line core fits were in accord but weaker than those obtained with CM inversions. Signatures of counter-streaming flows were detected in the filament. The largest brightening conglomerates in the line core of Na i D2 coincided well with small-scale magnetic fields as seen by HMI. Mixed magnetic polarities were detected close to the ends of barbs. The computation of photospheric horizontal flows based on HMI magnetograms revealed flow kernels with a size of 5-8 Mm and velocities of 0.30-0.45 km s-1 at the ends of the filament. Conclusions: The physical properties of extremely large filaments are similar to their smaller counterparts, except for the optical thickness, which in

  4. Human enamel structure studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, S.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Human enamel structural features are characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. The human enamel consists of polycrystals with a structure similar to Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. This article describes the structural features of human enamel crystal at atomic and nanometer level. Besides the structural description, a great number of high resolution images are included. Research into the carious process in human enamel is very important for human beings. This article firstly describes the initiation of caries in enamel crystal at atomic and unit-cell level and secondly describes the further steps of caries with structural and chemical demineralization. The demineralization in fact, is the origin of caries in human enamel. The remineralization of carious areas in human enamel has drawn more and more attention as its potential application is realized. This process has been revealed by high resolution electron microscopy in detail in this article. On the other hand, the radiation effects on the structure of human enamel are also characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. In order to reveal this phenomenon clearly, a great number of electron micrographs have been shown, and a physical mechanism is proposed. 26 references.

  5. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  6. High-resolution imaging of upper limb neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Howe, Benjamin Matthew; Spinner, Robert J; Felmlee, Joel P; Amrami, Kimberly K

    2015-04-01

    MRI of the peripheral nerves continues to grow technologically and in clinical use. This article reviews the technological aspects and basic interpretation of high-resolution MR imaging of the upper extremity nerves. These techniques work with 1.5-, or preferably 3-T, scanners regardless of vendors. The article also includes selected pitfalls in the interpretation of upper extremity nerve MRI.

  7. Persistence Diagrams of High-Resolution Temporal Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Méndez, F.; Carsteanu, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study applies Topological Data Analysis (TDA), by generating persistence diagrams to uncover patterns in the data of high-resolution temporal rainfall intensities from Iowa City (IIHR, U of Iowa). Persistence diagrams are a way to identify essential cycles in state-space representations of the data.

  8. Application of Classification Models to Pharyngeal High-Resolution Manometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielens, Jason D.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors present 3 methods of performing pattern recognition on spatiotemporal plots produced by pharyngeal high-resolution manometry (HRM). Method: Classification models, including the artificial neural networks (ANNs) multilayer perceptron (MLP) and learning vector quantization (LVQ), as well as support vector machines (SVM), were…

  9. High-Resolution Land Use and Land Cover Mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    As the Nation?s population grows, quantifying, monitoring, and managing land use becomes increasingly important. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover (LULC) mapping that has been the model both nationally and internationally for over 20 years. At present, the USGS is producing high-resolution LULC data for several watershed and urban areas within the United States. This high-resolution LULC mapping is part of an ongoing USGS Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP). The four components of the LCCP are global (1:2,000,000-scale), national (1:100,000-scale), urban (1:24,000-scale), and special projects (various scales and time periods). Within the urban and special project components, the USGS Rocky Mountain Mapping Center (RMMC) is collecting historical as well as contemporary high-resolution LULC data. RMMC?s high-resolution LULC mapping builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS LULC programs and provides LULC information to meet user requirements.

  10. High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Gary E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines recent developments in techniques for obtaining high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra on solid samples, discussing the kinds of applications for which these techniques are well suited. Also discusses the characteristics of NMR of solids and generating magnetization for NMR in solids. (JN)

  11. High resolution bone mineral densitometry with a gamma camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Evans, H.; Jhingran, S.; Johnson, P.

    1983-01-01

    A technique by which the regional distribution of bone mineral can be determined in bone samples from small animals is described. The technique employs an Anger camera interfaced to a medical computer. High resolution imaging is possible by producing magnified images of the bone samples. Regional densitometry of femurs from oophorectomised and bone mineral loss.

  12. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidman, B.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  13. High-resolution TFT-LCD for spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, JaeWon; Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Pi, Jae-Eun; Oh, Himchan; Kim, GiHeon; Lee, Myung-Lae; Chu, Hye-Yong; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2014-06-01

    SLM with very fine pixel pitch is needed for the holographic display system. Among various kinds of SLMs, commercially available high resolution LCoS has been widely used as a spatial light modulator. But the size of commercially available LCoS SLM is limited because the manufacturing technology of LCoS is based on the semiconductor process developed on small size Si wafer. Recently very high resolution flat panel display panel (~500ppi) was developed as a "retina display". Until now, the pixel pitch of flat panel display is several times larger than the pixel pitch of LCoS. But considering the possibility of shrink down the pixel pitch with advanced lithographic tools, the application of flat panel display will make it possible to build a SLM with high spatial bandwidth product. We simulated High resolution TFT-LCD panel on glass substrate using oxide semiconductor TFT with pixel pitch of 20um. And we considered phase modulation behavior of LC(ECB) mode. The TFT-LCD panel is reflective type with 4-metal structure with organic planarization layers. The technical challenge for high resolution large area SLM will be discussed with very fine pixel.

  14. Plant respirometer enables high resolution of oxygen consumption rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, D. L.

    1966-01-01

    Plant respirometer permits high resolution of relatively small changes in the rate of oxygen consumed by plant organisms undergoing oxidative metabolism in a nonphotosynthetic state. The two stage supply and monitoring system operates by a differential pressure transducer and provides a calibrated output by digital or analog signals.

  15. A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

    2006-01-01

    Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

  16. High Resolution Digital Imaging of Paintings: The Vasari Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Kirk

    1991-01-01

    Describes VASARI (the Visual Art System for Archiving and Retrieval of Images), a project funded by the European Community to show the feasibility of high resolution colormetric imaging directly from paintings. The hardware and software used in the system are explained, storage on optical disks is described, and initial results are reported. (five…

  17. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-10-04

    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  18. Large-field high-resolution mosaic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Sliepen, Guus; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sütterlin, Peter; Lin, Yong; Martin, Sara F.; Panasenco, Olga; Romashets, Eugene P.

    2013-08-01

    Movies with fields-of-view larger than normal, for high-resolution telescopes, will give a better understanding of processes on the Sun such as filament and active region developments and their possible interactions. New active regions can serve as an igniter of the eruption of a nearby filament. A method to create a large field-of-view is to join several fields-of-view into a mosaic. Fields are imaged quickly, one after another, using fast telescope-pointing. Such a pointing cycle has been automated at the Dutch open telescope (DOT), a high-resolution solar telescope located on the Canary Island La Palma. The number and positions of the subfields are calculated automatically and represented by an array of bright points in the guider image which indicates the subfield centers inside the drawn rectangle of the total field on the computer screen with the whole-sun image. Automatic production of flats is also programmed. For the first time, mosaic movies were programmed from stored information on automated telescope motions. The mosaic movies show larger regions of the solar disk in high resolution and fill a gap between available whole-sun images with limited spatial resolution of synoptic telescopes including space instruments and small-field high-cadence movies of high-resolution solar telescopes.

  19. Evacuee Compliance Behavior Analysis using High Resolution Demographic Information

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei; Han, Lee; Liu, Cheng; Tuttle, Mark A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether evacuee compliance behavior with route assignments from different resolutions of demographic data would impact the evacuation performance. Most existing evacuation strategies assume that travelers will follow evacuation instructions, while in reality a certain percent of evacuees do not comply with prescribed instructions. In this paper, a comparison study of evacuation assignment based on Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) and high resolution LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) were conducted for the detailed road network representing Alexandria, Virginia. A revised platform for evacuation modeling built on high resolution demographic data and activity-based microscopic traffic simulation is proposed. The results indicate that evacuee compliance behavior affects evacuation efficiency with traditional TAZ assignment, but it does not significantly compromise the efficiency with high resolution LPC assignment. The TAZ assignment also underestimates the real travel time during evacuation, especially for high compliance simulations. This suggests that conventional evacuation studies based on TAZ assignment might not be effective at providing efficient guidance to evacuees. From the high resolution data perspective, traveler compliance behavior is an important factor but it does not impact the system performance significantly. The highlight of evacuee compliance behavior analysis should be emphasized on individual evacuee level route/shelter assignments, rather than the whole system performance.

  20. High resolution data base for use with MAP

    SciTech Connect

    Tapley, W.C.; Harris, D.B.

    1987-05-05

    A high resolution cartographic data base of thw World is available from the CIA. We obtained this data, extracted portions of the data, and produced cartographic files of varying resolutions. The resulting data files are of the proper format for use with MAP (2), our in-house cartographic plotting program.

  1. High-resolution abundance analysis of HD 140283

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Korotin, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Context. HD 140283 is a reference subgiant that is metal poor and confirmed to be a very old star. The element abundances of this type of old star can constrain the nature and nucleosynthesis processes that occurred in its (even older) progenitors. The present study may shed light on nucleosynthesis processes yielding heavy elements early in the Galaxy. Aims: A detailed analysis of a high-quality spectrum is carried out, with the intent of providing a reference on stellar lines and abundances of a very old, metal-poor subgiant. We aim to derive abundances from most available and measurable spectral lines. Methods: The analysis is carried out using high-resolution (R = 81 000) and high signal-to-noise ratio (800 ii, and Ba ii lines. Results: The abundance analysis provided an extensive line list suitable for metal-poor subgiant stars. The results for Li, CNO, α-, and iron peak elements are in good agreement with literature. The newly NLTE Ba abundance, along with a NLTE Eu correction and a 3D Ba correction from literature, leads to [Eu/Ba] = + 0.59 ± 0.18. This result confirms a dominant r-process contribution, possibly together with a very small contribution from the main s-process, to the neutron-capture elements in HD 140283. Overabundances of the lighter heavy elements and the high abundances derived for Ba, La, and Ce favour the operation of the weak r-process in HD 140283

  2. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. PMID:22574840

  3. High-resolution ultra-violet observations of the interstellar diffuse clouds toward Mu Columbae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofia, Ulysses J.; Savage, Blair D.; Cardelli, Jason A.

    1993-01-01

    Data obtained from the Goddard High Resolution spectrograph (GHRS) are used to study differences in gas-phase abundances of ions occurring in the diffuse neutral clouds toward mu Col. The sight-line characteristics determined in previous studies are reviewed and results for the cloud velocities, absorption equivalent widths, ion column densities, and depletions are presented. It is found that interstellar features from four distinct absorption regions with low-ionization gas are apparent in the GHRS data at heliocentric velocities of 23, 41, 53, and 62 km/s. Absorption by Mg II, Si II, and possibly Al II also occurs over the heliocentric velocity range from -17 to 0 km/s. The presence of stronger Si III absorption over this velocity region indicates that the absorption arises from an ionized gas region.

  4. High-resolution climate simulation of the last glacial maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J

    2008-01-01

    The climate of the last glacial maximum (LGM) is simulated with a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model, the NCAR CCM3 at spectral truncation of T170, corresponding to a grid cell size of roughly 75 km. The purpose of the study is to assess whether there are significant benefits from the higher resolution simulation compared to the lower resolution simulation associated with the role of topography. The LGM simulations were forced with modified CLIMAP sea ice distribution and sea surface temperatures (SST) reduced by 1 C, ice sheet topography, reduced CO{sub 2}, and 21,000 BP orbital parameters. The high-resolution model captures modern climate reasonably well, in particular the distribution of heavy precipitation in the tropical Pacific. For the ice age case, surface temperature simulated by the high-resolution model agrees better with those of proxy estimates than does the low-resolution model. Despite the fact that tropical SSTs were only 2.1 C less than the control run, there are many lowland tropical land areas 4-6 C colder than present. Comparison of T170 model results with the best constrained proxy temperature estimates (noble gas concentrations in groundwater) now yield no significant differences between model and observations. There are also significant upland temperature changes in the best resolved tropical mountain belt (the Andes). We provisionally attribute this result in part as resulting from decreased lateral mixing between ocean and land in a model with more model grid cells. A longstanding model-data discrepancy therefore appears to be resolved without invoking any unusual model physics. The response of the Asian summer monsoon can also be more clearly linked to local geography in the high-resolution model than in the low-resolution model; this distinction should enable more confident validation of climate proxy data with the high-resolution model. Elsewhere, an inferred salinity increase in the subtropical North Atlantic may have

  5. High-resolution DEM Effects on Geophysical Flow Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. R.; Bursik, M. I.; Stefanescu, R. E. R.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical mass flow models are numerical models that approximate pyroclastic flow events and can be used to assess the volcanic hazards certain areas may face. One such model, TITAN2D, approximates granular-flow physics based on a depth-averaged analytical model using inputs of basal and internal friction, material volume at a coordinate point, and a GIS in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). The volume of modeled material propagates over the DEM in a way that is governed by the slope and curvature of the DEM surface and the basal and internal friction angles. Results from TITAN2D are highly dependent upon the inputs to the model. Here we focus on a single input: the DEM, which can vary in resolution. High resolution DEMs are advantageous in that they contain more surface details than lower-resolution models, presumably allowing modeled flows to propagate in a way more true to the real surface. However, very high resolution DEMs can create undesirable artifacts in the slope and curvature that corrupt flow calculations. With high-resolution DEMs becoming more widely available and preferable for use, determining the point at which high resolution data is less advantageous compared to lower resolution data becomes important. We find that in cases of high resolution, integer-valued DEMs, very high-resolution is detrimental to good model outputs when moderate-to-low (<10-15°) slope angles are involved. At these slope angles, multiple adjacent DEM cell elevation values are equal due to the need for the DEM to approximate the low slope with a limited set of integer values for elevation. The first derivative of the elevation surface thus becomes zero. In these cases, flow propagation is inhibited by these spurious zero-slope conditions. Here we present evidence for this "terracing effect" from 1) a mathematically defined simulated elevation model, to demonstrate the terracing effects of integer valued data, and 2) a real-world DEM where terracing must be

  6. Emission features in the spectrum of NGC 7027 near 3. 3 microns at very high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, R.P.; Moorhead, J.M.; Wehlau, W.H.; Maillard, J.P. CNRS, Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris )

    1991-02-01

    A very high resolution spectrum is presented of the planetary nebula NGC 7027 over a 200/cm interval centered at 2950/cm, and the features found are described: (1) nebular continuum, (2) atomic recombination lines of H and He II, and (3) three broader emission features of uncertain origin. For the latter the first evidence is presented that the 3.46 micron feature and possibly the 3.40 micron feature are resolvable into a sequence of narrower features. The interpretation of the broader features is discussed in terms of the hypothesis of identification with emission by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. 18 refs.

  7. Hydrologic Simulation in Mediterranean flood prone Watersheds using high-resolution quality data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eirini Vozinaki, Anthi; Alexakis, Dimitrios; Pappa, Polixeni; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Flooding is a significant threat causing lots of inconveniencies in several societies, worldwide. The fact that the climatic change is already happening, increases the flooding risk, which is no longer a substantial menace to several societies and their economies. The improvement of spatial-resolution and accuracy of the topography and land use data due to remote sensing techniques could provide integrated flood inundation simulations. In this work hydrological analysis of several historic flood events in Mediterranean flood prone watersheds (island of Crete/Greece) takes place. Satellite images of high resolution are elaborated. A very high resolution (VHR) digital elevation model (DEM) is produced from a GeoEye-1 0.5-m-resolution satellite stereo pair and is used for floodplain management and mapping applications such as watershed delineation and river cross-section extraction. Sophisticated classification algorithms are implemented for improving Land Use/ Land Cover maps accuracy. In addition, soil maps are updated with means of Radar satellite images. The above high-resolution data are innovatively used to simulate and validate several historical flood events in Mediterranean watersheds, which have experienced severe flooding in the past. The hydrologic/hydraulic models used for flood inundation simulation in this work are HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS. The Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) curve number (CN) approach is implemented to account for the effect of LULC and soil on the hydrologic response of the catchment. The use of high resolution data provides detailed validation results and results of high precision, accordingly. Furthermore, the meteorological forecasting data, which are also combined to the simulation model results, manage the development of an integrated flood forecasting and early warning system tool, which is capable of confronting or even preventing this imminent risk. The research reported in this paper was fully supported by the

  8. Space to Think: Large, High-Resolution Displays for Sensemaking

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Christopher P.; Endert, Alexander; North, Chris

    2010-05-05

    Space supports human cognitive abilities in a myriad of ways. The note attached to the side of the monitor, the papers spread out on the desk, diagrams scrawled on a whiteboard, and even the keys left out on the counter are all examples of using space to recall, reveal relationships, and think. Technological advances have made it possible to construct large display environments in which space has real meaning. This paper examines how increased space affects the way displays are regarded and used within the context of the cognitively demanding task of sensemaking. A study was conducted observing analysts using a prototype large, high-resolution display to solve an analytic problem. This paper reports on the results of this study and suggests a number of potential design criteria for future sensemaking tools developed for large, high-resolution displays.

  9. High resolution map of light pollution over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzel, Henryka; Netzel, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    In 1976 Berry introduced a simple mathematical equation to calculate artificial night sky brightness at zenith. In the original model cities, considered as points with given population, are only sources of light emission. In contrary to Berry's model, we assumed that all terrain surface can be a source of light. Emission of light depends on percent of built up area in a given cell. We based on Berry's model. Using field measurements and high-resolution data we obtained the map of night sky brightness over Poland in 100-m resolution. High resolution input data, combined with a very simple model, makes it possible to obtain detailed structures of the night sky brightness without complicating the calculations.

  10. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  11. High-resolution imaging of cellular processes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Maddox, Amy S; Maddox, Paul S

    2012-01-01

    Differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis led to a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Sulston et al., 1983) as did the first use of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a transgenic C. elegans (Chalfie et al., 1994). Given that C. elegans is free living, does not require exceptional environmental control, and is optically clear, live imaging is a powerful tool in for this model system. Combining genetics with high-resolution imaging has continued to make important contributions to many fields. In this chapter, we discuss how certain aspects of high-resolution microscopy are implemented. This is not an exhaustive review of microscopy; it is meant to be a helpful guide and point of reference for some basic concepts in imaging. While these concepts are largely true for all biological imaging, they are chosen as particularly important for C. elegans. PMID:22226519

  12. Fabricating High-Resolution X-Ray Collimators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Michael; Atkinson, James E.; Fraser, Iain; Klinger, Jill

    2008-01-01

    A process and method for fabricating multi-grid, high-resolution rotating modulation collimators for arcsecond and sub-arcsecond x-ray and gamma-ray imaging involves photochemical machining and precision stack lamination. The special fixturing and etching techniques that have been developed are used for the fabrication of multiple high-resolution grids on a single array substrate. This technology has application in solar and astrophysics and in a number of medical imaging applications including mammography, computed tomography (CT), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and gamma cameras used in nuclear medicine. This collimator improvement can also be used in non-destructive testing, hydrodynamic weapons testing, and microbeam radiation therapy.

  13. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region

    DOEpatents

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.

    2014-08-26

    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  14. Progressive display of very high resolution images using wavelets.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya; Wang, James Z.

    2002-01-01

    Digital or digitized biomedical images often have very high resolutions', which make them difficult or impossible to display on computer screens. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a multiresolution display method with which users can freely browse the contents of those high resolution images. In this paper, we present an improved wavelet-based progressive image display algorithm by stressing on the encoding and decoding process. The encoder, which dynamically determines levels of transform and partition of coefficients, is based on a modified Haar wavelet transform. The decoder retrieves the necessary data and reconstructs the requested region at a scale specified by the user. A prototype system, which enables virtually any size of images to be displayed progressively, has been implemented based on this algorithm. The system has low computational complexity for both encoding and decoding process. Images Figure 2 PMID:12476909

  15. The theory and practice of high resolution scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.C. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in instrumentation have produced the first commercial examples of what can justifiably be called High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopes. The key components of such instruments are a cold field emission gun, a small-gap immersion probe-forming lens, and a clean dry-pumped vacuum. The performance of these microscopes is characterized by several major features including a spatial resolution, in secondary electron mode on solid specimens, which can exceed 1nm on a routine basis; an incident probe current density of the order of 10{sup 6} amps/cm{sup 2}; and the ability to maintain these levels of performance over an accelerating voltage range of from 1 to 30keV. This combination of high resolution, high probe current, low contamination and flexible electron-optical conditions provides many new opportunitites for the application of the SEM to materials science, physics, and the life sciences. 27 refs., 14 figs.

  16. High-resolution array processing using implicit eigenvector weighting techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, A.K. ); Byrne, C.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Many high-resolution bearing estimators require the explicit calculation of the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the cross-spectral matrix of the sensor outputs. Once the eigenvectors have been calculated, various different estimators can be derived by altering the eigenvalues to give a re-weighing of the eigenvectors. For example, in the MUSIC method the eigenvalues corresponding to those eigenvectors in the noise subspace are set to unity, while the eigenvalues corresponding to those eigenvectors in the signal subspace are set to zero. These weighing functions are reminiscent of ideal filter responses in analog filter theory, where practical filters are designed by using polynomial approximations to the ideal desired response. In this paper, the approximation theory developed for filter design is used to derive high-resolution bearing estimators that do not require explicit calculation of the eigenvectors.

  17. High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy of Cells Using Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Zhang, Wei; Soffe, Rebecca; Nahavandi, Sofia; Shukla, Ravi; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2014-01-01

    Ultrastructural analysis of cells can reveal valuable information about their morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been widely used to provide high-resolution images from the surface of biological samples. However, samples need to be dehydrated and coated with conductive materials for SEM imaging. Besides, immobilizing non-adherent cells during processing and analysis is challenging and requires complex fixation protocols. In this work, we developed a novel dielectrophoresis based microfluidic platform for interfacing non-adherent cells with high-resolution SEM at low vacuum mode. The system enables rapid immobilization and dehydration of samples without deposition of chemical residues over the cell surface. Moreover, it enables the on-chip chemical stimulation and fixation of immobilized cells with minimum dislodgement. These advantages were demonstrated for comparing the morphological changes of non-budding and budding yeast cells following Lyticase treatment. PMID:25089528

  18. High-resolution x-ray phase tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peele, Andrew G.; Thomas, C. David L.; Clement, John G.; Arhatari, Benedicta D.; Hannah, Kevin M.; Doshi, Chandni; Putkunz, Corey T.; Clark, Jesse N.

    2010-09-01

    X-ray tomography is a workhorse tool of non-destructive imaging. It is used to probe three-dimensional structures across a wide range of length scales for objects that offer good absorption contrast to x-rays. In recent years extremely high resolution imaging (on the order of tens of nanometres) has become possible due to technological advances in x-ray optics. At the same time the requirement for strong absorption contrast has been relaxed thanks to the advent of new experimental and algorithmic techniques in phase imaging. Advances in both resolution and phase imaging can be combined to image biological samples at the sub-cellular level. I will report on recent advances in our work including improvements to the current approaches in extracting phase information at high resolution from measurements of the diffracted intensity from a sample. I will also discuss our current experimental status.

  19. [Development of a high resolution simultaneous microwave plasma torch spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Huan, Yan-Fu; Jin, Wei; Feng, Guo-Dong; Fei, Qiang; Cao, Yan-Bo; Jin, Qin-Han

    2007-11-01

    A unique high resolution simultaneous microwave plasma torch (MPT) atomic emission spectrometer was developed and studied preliminarily. Some advanced technologies were applied to the spectrometer, such as echelle grating, UV-intensified CCD array detector, adjustable microwave generator, and water cooling system for the generator, etc. The detection limits of the spectrometer for some elements were determined, the spectral resolution and pixel resolution of the spectrometer were calculated, and an analysis of a practical sample was carried out. The preliminary results demonstrate that such simultaneous spectrometer has advantages of saving sample and time, possessing high sensitivity and resolution, and low-cost for the purchase and maintenance. Taking analytical figures of merit into consideration, the high resolution simultaneous MPT spectrometer will have extended application areas and greater competition potential as compared with sequential MPT spectrometers.

  20. Note: Differential amplified high-resolution tilt angle measurement system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shijie; Li, Yan; Zhang, Enyao; Huang, Pei; Wei, Haoyun

    2014-09-01

    A high-resolution tilt angle measurement system is presented in this paper. In this system, the measurement signal is amplified by two steps: (1) amplified by operational amplifier and (2) differential amplified by two MEMS-based inclinometers. The novel application not only amplifies the signal but, more importantly, substantially reduces the electrical interference and common-mode noise among the same circuit design. Thus, both the extremely high resolution and great long-term stability are achieved in this system. Calibrated by an autocollimator, the system shows a resolution of 2 arc sec. The accuracy is better than ±1.5 arc sec. The zero-drift error is below ±1 arc sec and ±2 arc sec in the short and long term, respectively.

  1. Note: Differential amplified high-resolution tilt angle measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shijie; Li, Yan; Zhang, Enyao; Huang, Pei; Wei, Haoyun

    2014-09-01

    A high-resolution tilt angle measurement system is presented in this paper. In this system, the measurement signal is amplified by two steps: (1) amplified by operational amplifier and (2) differential amplified by two MEMS-based inclinometers. The novel application not only amplifies the signal but, more importantly, substantially reduces the electrical interference and common-mode noise among the same circuit design. Thus, both the extremely high resolution and great long-term stability are achieved in this system. Calibrated by an autocollimator, the system shows a resolution of 2 arc sec. The accuracy is better than ±1.5 arc sec. The zero-drift error is below ±1 arc sec and ±2 arc sec in the short and long term, respectively.

  2. Parallelization and Algorithmic Enhancements of High Resolution IRAS Image Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Yu; Prince, Thomas A.; Tereby, Susan; Beichman, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite caried out a nearly complete survey of the infrared sky, and the survey data are important for the study of many astrophysical phenomena. However, many data sets at other wavelengths have higher resolutions than that of the co-added IRAS maps, and high resolution IRAS images are strongly desired both for their own information content and their usefulness in correlation. The HIRES program was developed by the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) to produce high resolution (approx. 1') images from IRAS data using the Maximum Correlation Method (MCM). We describe the port of HIRES to the Intel Paragon, a massively parallel supercomputer, other software developments for mass production of HIRES images, and the IRAS Galaxy Atlas, a project to map the Galactic plane at 60 and 100(micro)m.

  3. Airborne laser scanning for high-resolution mapping of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csatho, Bea; Schenk, Toni; Krabill, William; Wilson, Terry; Lyons, William; McKenzie, Garry; Hallam, Cheryl; Manizade, Serdar; Paulsen, Timothy

    In order to evaluate the potential of airborne laser scanning for topographic mapping in Antarctica and to establish calibration/validation sites for NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) altimeter mission, NASA, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) joined forces to collect high-resolution airborne laser scanning data.In a two-week campaign during the 2001-2002 austral summer, NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) system was used to collect data over several sites in the McMurdo Sound area of Antarctica (Figure 1a). From the recorded signals, NASA computed laser points and The Ohio State University (OSU) completed the elaborate computation/verification of high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in 2003. This article reports about the DEM generation and some exemplary results from scientists using the geomorphologic information from the DEMs during the 2003-2004 field season.

  4. Protein-DNA binding in high-resolution

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Shaun; Pugh, B. Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental and computational methodologies are enabling ultra-high resolution genome-wide profiles of protein-DNA binding events. For example, the ChIP-exo protocol precisely characterizes protein-DNA crosslinking patterns by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with 5′ → 3′ exonuclease digestion. Similarly, deeply sequenced chromatin accessibility assays (e.g. DNase-seq and ATACseq) enable the detection of protected footprints at protein-DNA binding sites. With these techniques and others, we have the potential to characterize the individual nucleotides that interact with transcription factors, nucleosomes, RNA polymerases, and other regulatory proteins in a particular cellular context. In this review, we explain the experimental assays and computational analysis methods that enable high-resolution profiling of protein-DNA binding events. We discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with such approaches. PMID:26038153

  5. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  6. Effective Area of the AXAF High Resolution Camera (HRC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaude, Daniel; Pease, Deron; Donnelly, Hank; Juda, Mike; Jones, Christine; Murray, Steve; Zombeck, Martin; Kraft, Ralph; Kenter, Almus; Meehan, Gary; Meehan, Gary; Swartz, Doug; Elsner, Ron

    1998-01-01

    The AXAF High-Resolution Camera (HRC) was calibrated at NASA MSFC's X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) during 1997 March and April. We have undertaken an analysis of the HRC effective area using all data presently available from the XRCF. We discuss our spectral fitting of the beam-normalization detectors (BNDs), our method of removing higher order contamination lines present in the spectra, and corrections for beam non-uniformities. We apply a model of photon absorption depth in order to fit a smooth curve to the quantum efficiency of the detector. This is then combined with the most recent model of the AXAF High-Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) to determine the ensemble effective area versus energy for the HRC. We also address future goals and concerns.

  7. A Procedure for High Resolution Satellite Imagery Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Mattia; De Vendictis, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Data products generated from High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) are routinely evaluated during the so-called in-orbit test period, in order to verify if their quality fits the desired features and, if necessary, to obtain the image correction parameters to be used at the ground processing center. Nevertheless, it is often useful to have tools to evaluate image quality also at the final user level. Image quality is defined by some parameters, such as the radiometric resolution and its accuracy, represented by the noise level, and the geometric resolution and sharpness, described by the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). This paper proposes a procedure to evaluate these image quality parameters; the procedure was implemented in a suitable software and tested on high resolution imagery acquired by the QuickBird, WorldView-1 and Cartosat-1 satellites. PMID:22412312

  8. High Resolution Measurements and Electronic Structure Calculations of a Diazanaphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruet, Sébastien; Goubet, Manuel; Pirali, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have long been suspected to be the carriers of so called Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs). Most of the results published in the literature report rotationally unresolved spectra of pure carbon as well as heteroatom-containing PAHs species. To date for this class of molecules, the principal source of rotational informations is ruled by microwave (MW) spectroscopy while high resolution measurements reporting rotational structure of the infrared (IR) vibrational bands are very scarce. Recently, some high resolution techniques provided interesting new results to rotationally resolve the IR and far-IR bands of these large carbonated molecules of astrophysical interest. One of them is to use the bright synchrotron radiation as IR continuum source of a high resolution Fourier transform (FTIR) spectrometer. We report the very complementary analysis of the [1,6] naphthyridine (a N-bearing PAH) for which we recorded the microwave spectrum at the PhLAM laboratory (Lille) and the high resolution far-infrared spectrum on the AILES beamline at synchrotron facility SOLEIL. MW spectroscopy provided highly accurate rotational constants in the ground state to perform Ground State Combinations Differences (GSCD) allowing the analysis of the two most intense FT-FIR bands in the 50-900 wn range. Moreover, during this presentation the negative value of the inertial defect in the GS of the molecule will be discussed. A. Leger, J. L. Puget, Astron. Astrophys. 137, L5-L8 (1984) L. J. Allamandola et al. Astrophys. J. 290, L25-L28 (1985). Z. Kisiel et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 217, 115 (2003) S. Thorwirth et al. Astrophys. J. 662, 1309 (2007) D. McNaughton et al. J. Chem. Phys. 124, 154305 (2011). S. Albert et al. Faraday Discuss. 150, 71-99 (2011) B. E. Brumfield et al. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 1985-1988 (2012) O. Pirali et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 10141 (2013).

  9. High-resolution, cryogenic, side-entry type specimen stage

    DOEpatents

    King, Wayne E.; Merkle, Karl L.

    1979-01-01

    A high-resolution, cryogenic side-entry type specimen stage includes a copper block within which a specimen can be positioned in the electron beam of an electron microscope, one end of the copper block constituting a specimen heat exchanger, means for directing a flow of helium at cryogenic temperature into the heat exchanger, and electrical leads running from the specimen to the exterior of the microscope for four point D.C. electrical resistivity measurements.

  10. Achievement of a 920-MHz High Resolution NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashi, Kenjiro; Shimizu, Tadashi; Goto, Atsushi; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Shinji; Wada, Hitoshi; Fujito, Teruaki; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi; Miki, Takashi; Ito, Satoshi; Hamada, Mamoru; Hayashi, Seiji

    2002-06-01

    We have developed a 920-MHz NMR system and performed the proton NMR measurement of H 2O and ethylbenzene using the superconducting magnet operating at 21.6 T (920 MHz for proton), which is the highest field produced by a superconducting NMR magnet in the persistent mode. From the NMR measurements, it is verified that both homogeneity and stability of the magnet have a specification sufficient for a high resolution NMR.

  11. High resolution microwave spectrometer sounder (HIMSS), volume 1, book 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are presented with respect to the high resolution microwave spectrometer sounder (HIMSS) that is to be used as an instrument for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): (1) preliminary program plans; (2) contract end item (CEI) specification; and (3) the instrument interface description document. Under the preliminary program plans section, plans dealing with the following subject areas are discussed: spares, performance assurance, configuration management, software implementation, contamination, calibration management, and verification.

  12. High-resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.

    1982-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurae scheme to an appropriately modified flux function. The so derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme.

  13. LandScan 2013 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  14. New Challenges in High-Resolution Modeling of Hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. S.

    2006-12-01

    The extreme active Atlantic hurricane seasons in recent years have highlighted the urgent need for a better understanding of the factors that contribute to hurricane intensity and for development of the corresponding advanced hurricane prediction models to improve intensity forecasts. The lack of skill in present forecasts of hurricane structure and intensity may be attributed in part to deficiencies in the current prediction models: insufficient grid resolution, inadequate surface and boundary layer formulations, and the lack of full coupling to a dynamic ocean. The extreme high winds, intense rainfall, large ocean waves, and copious sea spray in hurricanes push the surface-exchange parameters for temperature, water vapor, and momentum into untested regimes. The recent modeling effort is to develop and test a fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean modeling system that is capable of resolving the eye and eyewall in a hurricane at ~1 km grid resolution. The new challenges for these very high resolution models are the corresponding physical representations at 1-km scale, including microphysics, sub-grid turbulence parameterization, atmospheric boundary layer, physical processes at the air-sea interface with surface waves among others. The lack of accurate initial conditions for high-resolution hurricane modeling presents another major challenge. Improvements in initial conditions rest on the use of more airborne and remotely sensed observations in high-resolution assimilation systems and on the application of advanced assimilation schemes to hurricanes. This study aimed to provide an overview of these new challenges using high-resolution model simulations of Hurricanes Isabel (2003), Frances (2004), Katrina and Rita (2005) that were observed extensively by two recent field programs, namely, the Coupled Boundary Layer Air-Sea Transfer (CBLAST)-Hurricane in 2003-2004 and the Hurricane Rainbands and Intensity Change Experiment (RAINEX) in 2005.

  15. High resolution microwave spectrometer sounder (HIMSS), volume 1, book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are presented with respect to the high resolution microwave spectrometer sounder (HIMSS) that is to be used as an instrument for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): (1) an instrument overview; (2) an instrument description; (3) the instrument's conceptual design; (4) technical risks and offsets; (5) instrument reliability; (6) commands and telemetry; (7) mass and power budgets; (8) integration and test program; (9) program implementation; and (10) phase CD schedule.

  16. Optical alignment of high resolution Fourier transform spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Ocallaghan, F. G.; Cassie, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing, high resolution FTS instruments often contain three primary optical subsystems: Fore-Optics, Interferometer Optics, and Post, or Detector Optics. We discuss the alignment of a double-pass FTS containing a cat's-eye retro-reflector. Also, the alignment of fore-optics containing confocal paraboloids with a reflecting field stop which relays a field image onto a camera is discussed.

  17. The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph: Instrument, goals, and science results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Heap, S. R.; Beaver, E. A.; Boggess, A.; Carpenter, K. G.; Ebbets, D. C.; Hutchings, J. B.; Jura, M.; Leckrone, D. S.; Linsky, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS), currently in Earth orbit on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), operates in the wavelength range 1150-3200 A with spectral resolutions (lambda/delta lambda) of approximately 2 x 10(exp 3), 2 x 10(exp 4), and 1 x 10(exp 3). The instrument and its development from inception, its current status, the approach to operations, representative results in the major areas of the scientific goals, and prospects for the future are described.

  18. High-resolution imagery applications in the littorals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abileah, Ronald

    2001-12-01

    We focus on three applications of high-resolution imagery in the littorals: mapping bathymetry, monitoring the health of coral reefs, and taking censuses of marine mammals. All three applications show the importance and potential benefits of higher-resolution imagery. Increased radiometric sensitivity and the simultaneous collection of panchromatic and multispectral imagery are also important. An Ikonos image of Maui is used to demonstrate these applications. We also briefly explain some important differences between multispectral remote sensing over water and land.

  19. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  20. High resolution fiber optic interferometer: FY94 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; D`Silva, A.P.

    1994-12-31

    Objective is a field, on-line high resolution spectrometer system capable of resolving the optical emission from actinide isotopes in an inductively coupled plasma. AOTF (acousto-optic tunable filter) and FFP (fiber optic Fabry-Perot) were combined in this spectrometer, using bulk optical materials. The AOTF-FFP system was tested on U-235/U-238 and RCRA metals. Future development is described; a commercialization plan is attached.

  1. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  2. Characterization of high-resolution HafSOx inorganic resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleksak, R. P.; Herman, G. S.

    2014-04-01

    Inorganic resists are of considerable interest for advanced lithography at the nanoscale due to the potential for high resolution, low line width roughness (LWR), and high sensitivity. Historically inorganic resists suffered from low sensitivity, however approaches have been identified to increase sensitivity while maintaining high contrast. An aqueous precursor of Hf(OH)4-2x-2y(O2)x(SO4)y·qH2O (HafSOx) has been demonstrated with excellent sensitivity to EUV and electrons, while still obtaining high resolution and low LWR. In this work, we characterize both HafSOx precursor solutions and spin-coated thin films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) elemental analysis. HR-TEM of precursor solutions drop cast onto TEM grids confirmed the presence of nanoscale particles. HR-TEM cross sectional images showed that spin-coated HafSOx films are initially uniform in appearance and composition for thin (12 nm) films, however thicker (30 nm) films display segregation of species leading to multilayer structures. Regardless of film thickness, extended exposure to the high energy TEM electron beam induces significant migration of oxygen species to the Si interface. These species result in the formation of SiOx layers that increase in thickness with an increase in TEM electron beam dose. Sulfate is also very mobile in the films and likely assists in the significant condensation exhibited in completely processed films.

  3. Quantification of Murine Pancreatic Tumors by High Resolution Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Sastra, Stephen A.; Olive, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Ultrasonography is a powerful imaging modality that enables non-invasive, real time visualization of abdominal organs and tissues. This technology may be adapted for use in mice through the utilization of higher frequency transducers, allowing for extremely high resolution imaging of the mouse pancreas. This technique is particularly well-suited to pancreas imaging due to the ultrasonographic properties of the normal mouse pancreas, easily accessible imaging planes for the head and tail of the mouse pancreas, and the comparative difficulty in imaging the mouse pancreas with other technologies. A suite of measurements tools is available to characterize the normal and diseased states of tissues. Of particular utility for cancer applications is the ability to use tomography to construct a 3D tumor volume, enabling longitudinal imaging studies to track tumor development, or response to therapies. Here, we describe a detailed method for performing high resolution ultrasound to detect and measure pancreatic lesions in a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic ductal using the VisualSonics Vevo2100 High Resolution Ultrasound System. The method includes preparation of the animal for imaging, 2D and 3D image acquisition, and post-acquisition analysis of tumors volumes. The combined procedure has been utilized extensively by our group and others for the preclinical evaluation of novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (1–4). PMID:23359158

  4. Fabrication High Resolution Metrology Target By Step And Repeat Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusa, Mircea

    1983-10-01

    Based on the photolithography process generally used to generate high resolution masks for semiconductor I.C.S, we found a very useful industrial application of laser technology.First, we have generated high resolution metrology targets which are used in industrial measurement laser interferometers as difra.ction gratings. Secondi we have generated these targets using step and repeat machine, with He-Ne laser interferometer controlled state, as a pattern generator, due to suitable computer programming.Actually, high resolution metrology target, means two chromium plates, one of which is called the" rule" the other one the "vernier". In Fig.1 we have the configuration of the rule and the vernier. The rule has a succesion of 3 μM lines generated as a difraction grating on a 4 x 4 inch chromium blank. The vernier has several exposed fields( areas) having 3 - 15 μm lines, fields placed on very precise position on the chromium blank surface. High degree of uniformity, tight CD tolerances, low defect density required by the targets, creates specialised problems during processing. Details of the processing, together with experimental results will be presented. Before we start to enter into process details, we have to point out that the dimensional requirements of the reticle target, are quite similar or perhaps more strict than LSI master casks. These requirements presented in Fig.2.

  5. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  6. High resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy system for nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    With increased demand for high resolution ultrasonic evaluation, computer based systems or work stations become essential. The ultrasonic spectroscopy method of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was used to develop a high resolution ultrasonic inspection system supported by modern signal processing, pattern recognition, and neural network technologies. The basic system which was completed consists of a 386/20 MHz PC (IBM AT compatible), a pulser/receiver, a digital oscilloscope with serial and parallel communications to the computer, an immersion tank with motor control of X-Y axis movement, and the supporting software package, IUNDE, for interactive ultrasonic evaluation. Although the hardware components are commercially available, the software development is entirely original. By integrating signal processing, pattern recognition, maximum entropy spectral analysis, and artificial neural network functions into the system, many NDE tasks can be performed. The high resolution graphics capability provides visualization of complex NDE problems. The phase 3 efforts involve intensive marketing of the software package and collaborative work with industrial sectors.

  7. Machine Learning Based Road Detection from High Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Ye; Wang, Guofeng; Hu, Xiangyun

    2016-06-01

    At present, remote sensing technology is the best weapon to get information from the earth surface, and it is very useful in geo- information updating and related applications. Extracting road from remote sensing images is one of the biggest demand of rapid city development, therefore, it becomes a hot issue. Roads in high-resolution images are more complex, patterns of roads vary a lot, which becomes obstacles for road extraction. In this paper, a machine learning based strategy is presented. The strategy overall uses the geometry features, radiation features, topology features and texture features. In high resolution remote sensing images, the images cover a great scale of landscape, thus, the speed of extracting roads is slow. So, roads' ROIs are firstly detected by using Houghline detection and buffering method to narrow down the detecting area. As roads in high resolution images are normally in ribbon shape, mean-shift and watershed segmentation methods are used to extract road segments. Then, Real Adaboost supervised machine learning algorithm is used to pick out segments that contain roads' pattern. At last, geometric shape analysis and morphology methods are used to prune and restore the whole roads' area and to detect the centerline of roads.

  8. High resolution, MRI-based, segmented, computerized head phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Zubal, I.G.; Harrell, C.R.; Smith, E.O.; Smith, A.L.; Krischlunas, P.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have created a high-resolution software phantom of the human brain which is applicable to voxel-based radiation transport calculations yielding nuclear medicine simulated images and/or internal dose estimates. A software head phantom was created from 124 transverse MRI images of a healthy normal individual. The transverse T2 slices, recorded in a 256x256 matrix from a GE Signa 2 scanner, have isotropic voxel dimensions of 1.5 mm and were manually segmented by the clinical staff. Each voxel of the phantom contains one of 62 index numbers designating anatomical, neurological, and taxonomical structures. The result is stored as a 256x256x128 byte array. Internal volumes compare favorably to those described in the ICRP Reference Man. The computerized array represents a high resolution model of a typical human brain and serves as a voxel-based anthropomorphic head phantom suitable for computer-based modeling and simulation calculations. It offers an improved realism over previous mathematically described software brain phantoms, and creates a reference standard for comparing results of newly emerging voxel-based computations. Such voxel-based computations lead the way to developing diagnostic and dosimetry calculations which can utilize patient-specific diagnostic images. However, such individualized approaches lack fast, automatic segmentation schemes for routine use; therefore, the high resolution, typical head geometry gives the most realistic patient model currently available.

  9. Modeling high-resolution broadband discourse in complex adaptive systems.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kevin J; Corman, Steven R; McPhee, Robert D; Kuhn, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Numerous researchers and practitioners have turned to complexity science to better understand human systems. Simulation can be used to observe how the microlevel actions of many human agents create emergent structures and novel behavior in complex adaptive systems. In such simulations, communication between human agents is often modeled simply as message passing, where a message or text may transfer data, trigger action, or inform context. Human communication involves more than the transmission of texts and messages, however. Such a perspective is likely to limit the effectiveness and insight that we can gain from simulations, and complexity science itself. In this paper, we propose a model of how close analysis of discursive processes between individuals (high-resolution), which occur simultaneously across a human system (broadband), dynamically evolve. We propose six different processes that describe how evolutionary variation can occur in texts-recontextualization, pruning, chunking, merging, appropriation, and mutation. These process models can facilitate the simulation of high-resolution, broadband discourse processes, and can aid in the analysis of data from such processes. Examples are used to illustrate each process. We make the tentative suggestion that discourse may evolve to the "edge of chaos." We conclude with a discussion concerning how high-resolution, broadband discourse data could actually be collected. PMID:12876447

  10. High-Resolution Angioscopic Imaging During Endovascular Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Patrick Z.; Sacho, Raphael; Weersink, Robert A.; Pereira, Vitor M.; Kucharczyk, Walter; Seibel, Eric J.; Wilson, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoluminal optical imaging, or angioscopy, has not seen widespread application during neurointerventional procedures, largely as a result of the poor imaging resolution of existing angioscopes. Scanning fiber endoscopes (SFEs) are a novel endoscopic platform that allows high-resolution video imaging in an ultraminiature form factor that is compatible with currently used distal access endoluminal catheters. OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility and potential utility of high-resolution angioscopy with an SFE during common endovascular neurosurgical procedures. METHODS: A 3.7-French SFE was used in a porcine model system to image endothelial disruption, ischemic stroke and mechanical thrombectomy, aneurysm coiling, and flow-diverting stent placement. RESULTS: High-resolution, video-rate imaging was shown to be possible during all of the common procedures tested and provided information that was complementary to standard fluoroscopic imaging. SFE angioscopy was able to assess novel factors such as aneurysm base coverage fraction and side branch patency, which have previously not been possible to determine with conventional angiography. CONCLUSION: Endovascular imaging with an SFE provides important information on factors that cannot be assessed fluoroscopically and is a novel platform on which future neurointerventional techniques may be based because it allows for periprocedural inspection of the integrity of the vascular system and the deployed devices. In addition, it may be of diagnostic use for inspecting the vascular wall and postprocedure device evaluation. ABBREVIATIONS: CFB, coherent fiber bundle F, French SFE, scanning fiber endoscope PMID:24762703

  11. Further high-resolution Na I observations of the local interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsh, B. Y.; Vedder, P. W.; Vallerga, J. V.; Craig, N.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution absorption measurements of the interstellar Na I D lines at 5890 A observed toward 27 early-type stars in the local interstellar medium (LISM) are presented. These results are combined with other high-resolution sodium measurements to map the space distribution of neutral sodium column density for some 118 stars out to less than 200 pc. These measurements indicate an upper limit to the neutral sodium column density of log N(Na I) less than 10.0/sq cm can be inferred out to a distance of 50 pc in most directions in the LISM. Also, the rarefield region of the Local Bubble may extend beyond 60 pc in at least 35 percent of the directions sampled thus far. Evidence is shown for a ubiquitous, comoving vector for neutral NaI gas clouds in the LISM which is in a different direction to LISM vectors previously reported for more ionized local gas clouds. A comparison of the measured sodium columns with those of interstellar Ca II for a sample of 12 stars within 95 pc results in a ratio of Na I/Ca II less than 0.5 for most stars. This value implies that there could be warm, neutral gas with T of about 12,500 K beyond 50 pc in the LISM.

  12. High-Resolution Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Pushkar, Yulia; Sauer, Kenneth; Glatzel, Pieter; Bergmann, Uwe; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2007-08-01

    The application of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy methods to study the photosynthetic water oxidizing complex, which contains a unique hetero-nuclear catalytic Mn4Ca cluster, are described. Issues of X-ray damage especially at the metal sites in the Mn4Ca cluster are discussed. The structure of the Mn4Ca catalyst at high-resolution which has so far eluded attempts of determination by X-ray diffraction, EXAFS and other spectroscopic techniques has been addressed using polarized EXAFS techniques applied to oriented PS II membrane preparations and PS II single crystals. A review of how the resolution of traditional EXAFS techniques can be improved, using methods such as range-extended EXAFS is presented, and the changes that occur in the structure of the cluster as it advances through the catalytic cycle are described. X-ray absorption and emission techniques (XANES and K? emission) have been used earlier to determine the oxidation states of the Mn4Ca cluster, and in this report we review the use of X-ray resonant Raman spectroscopy to understand the electronic structure of the Mn4Ca cluster as it cycles through the intermediate S-states.

  13. High-resolution extended source optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaojun; Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Si; Luo, Yuemei; Wang, Xianghong; Liu, Linbo

    2015-10-01

    High resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) is capable of providing detailed tissue microstructures that are critical for disease diagnosis, yet its sensitivity is usually degraded since the system key components are typically not working at their respective center wavelengths. We developed a novel imaging system that achieves enhanced sensitivity without axial resolution degradation by the use of a spectrally encoded extended source (SEES) technique; it allows larger sample power without exceeding the maximum permissible exposure (MPE). In this study, we demonstrate a high-resolution extended source (HRES) OCT system, which is capable of providing a transverse resolution of 4.4 µm and an axial resolution of 2.1 µm in air with the SEES technique. We first theoretically show a sensitivity advantage of 6-dB of the HRES-OCT over that of its point source counterpart using numerical simulations, and then experimentally validate the applicability of the SEES technique to high-resolution OCT (HR-OCT) by comparing the HRES-OCT with an equivalent point-source system. In the HRES-OCT system, a dispersive prism was placed in the infinity space of the sample arm optics to spectrally extend the visual angle (angular subtense) of the light source to 10.3 mrad. This extended source allowed ~4 times larger MPE than its point source counterpart, which results in an enhancement of ~6 dB in sensitivity. Specifically, to solve the unbalanced dispersion between the sample and the reference arm optics, we proposed easy and efficient methods for system calibration and dispersion correction, respectively. With a maximum scanning speed reaching up to 60K A-lines/s, we further conducted imaging experiments with HRES-OCT using the human fingertip in vivo and the swine eye tissues ex vivo. Results demonstrate that the HRES-OCT is able to achieve significantly larger penetration depth than its conventional point source OCT counterpart.

  14. Proceedings of the workshop on high resolution computed microtomography (CMT)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to determine the status of the field, to define instrumental and computational requirements, and to establish minimum specifications required by possible users. The most important message sent by implementers was the remainder that CMT is a tool. It solves a wide spectrum of scientific problems and is complementary to other microscopy techniques, with certain important advantages that the other methods do not have. High-resolution CMT can be used non-invasively and non-destructively to study a variety of hierarchical three-dimensional microstructures, which in turn control body function. X-ray computed microtomography can also be used at the frontiers of physics, in the study of granular systems, for example. With high-resolution CMT, for example, three-dimensional pore geometries and topologies of soils and rocks can be obtained readily and implemented directly in transport models. In turn, these geometries can be used to calculate fundamental physical properties, such as permeability and electrical conductivity, from first principles. Clearly, use of the high-resolution CMT technique will contribute tremendously to the advancement of current R and D technologies in the production, transport, storage, and utilization of oil and natural gas. It can also be applied to problems related to environmental pollution, particularly to spilling and seepage of hazardous chemicals into the Earth's subsurface. Applications to energy and environmental problems will be far-ranging and may soon extend to disciplines such as materials science--where the method can be used in the manufacture of porous ceramics, filament-resin composites, and microelectronics components--and to biomedicine, where it could be used to design biocompatible materials such as artificial bones, contact lenses, or medication-releasing implants. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. High resolution Arctic snow observations: SnowNet (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiemstra, C. A.; Sturm, M.; Gelvin, A. B.; Berezovskaya, S.; Saari, S. P.; Finnegan, D. C.; Liston, G. E.

    2009-12-01

    Snow’s importance has become especially prominent in the terrestrial Arctic, where snow dominates the landscape most of the year and changes in snow arrival, depth, and melt have substantial energy budget and biotic consequences. Yet, the Arctic presents formidable challenges to accurate snow measurements because snow depths can vary greatly over relatively short distances (< 10 m). Snow distribution patterns in windy environments, such as the Arctic, arise from interactions among wind, snow, vegetation, and topography. In this environment, snow is transported easily and is retained in topographic depressions, near taller vegetation, and deposited on the lee sides of hills. Reliable observations of where snow exists in the Arctic landscape can be difficult to obtain, and estimates vary depending on where snow is sampled. Measurements tend to be widely distributed and sparse. In addition, observed changes in Arctic vegetation (e.g., increasing shrubs) and land surfaces (e.g., thermokarst) complicate matters further. In response to this critical shortcoming in Arctic snow measurements, we have developed a prototype observational network (SnowNet) that employs standard meteorological observations and high resolution topographic and vegetation data in concert with a comprehensive spatially-intensive snow measurement program. Our sites at Barrow (started 2007) and Imnavait Creek (started 2008), Alaska, feature frequent site visits and intensive spatial sampling of snow depths and densities and snow-surface topography. Both sites have high resolution (~20 cm) topographic and vegetation data layers generated from remote sensing and ground surveys. Further, we have been incorporating extremely high-resolution (< 10 cm) ground-based LiDAR snow and vegetation datasets that allow us to identify relationships among topography, vegetation, and snow in Arctic environments. In addition, we have collected tens of thousands of manual snow depths across our research sites. This

  16. Large-field high-resolution mosaic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Sliepen, Guus; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sütterlin, Peter; Martin, Sara F.

    2012-09-01

    Movies with fields-of-view larger than normal for high-resolution telescopes will give a better understanding of processes on the Sun, such as filament and active region developments and their possible interactions. New active regions can influence, by their emergence, their environment to the extent of possibly serving as an igniter of the eruption of a nearby filament. A method to create a large field-of-view is to join several fields-of-view into a mosaic. Fields are imaged quickly one after another using fast telescope-pointing. Such a pointing cycle has been automated at the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT), a high-resolution solar telescope located on the Canary Island La Palma. The observer can draw with the computer mouse the desired total field in the guider-telescope image of the whole Sun. The guider telescope is equipped with an H-alpha filter and electronic enhancement of contrast in the image for good visibility of filaments and prominences. The number and positions of the subfields are calculated automatically and represented by an array of bright points indicating the subfield centers inside the drawn rectangle of the total field on the computer screen with the whole-sun image. When the exposures start the telescope repeats automatically the sequence of subfields. Automatic production of flats is also programmed including defocusing and fast motion over the solar disk of the image field. For the first time mosaic movies were programmed from stored information on automated telescope motions from one field to the next. The mosaic movies fill the gap between whole-sun images with limited resolution of synoptic telescopes including space instruments and small-field high-cadence movies of high-resolution solar telescopes.

  17. Multispectral high-resolution hologram generation using orthographic projection images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniraj, I.; Guo, C.; Sheridan, J. T.

    2016-08-01

    We present a new method of synthesizing a digital hologram of three-dimensional (3D) real-world objects from multiple orthographic projection images (OPI). A high-resolution multiple perspectives of 3D objects (i.e., two dimensional elemental image array) are captured under incoherent white light using synthetic aperture integral imaging (SAII) technique and their OPIs are obtained respectively. The reference beam is then multiplied with the corresponding OPI and integrated to form a Fourier hologram. Eventually, a modified phase retrieval algorithm (GS/HIO) is applied to reconstruct the hologram. The principle is validated experimentally and the results support the feasibility of the proposed method.

  18. High-Resolution, Wide-Field-of-View Scanning Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepulveda, Cesar; Wilson, Robert; Seshadri, Suresh

    2007-01-01

    A proposed telescope would afford high resolution over a narrow field of view (<0.10 ) while scanning over a total field of view nominally 16 wide without need to slew the entire massive telescope structure. The telescope design enables resolution of a 1-m-wide object in a 50- km-wide area of the surface of the Earth as part of a 200-km-wide area field of view monitored from an orbit at an altitude of 700 km. The conceptual design of this telescope could also be adapted to other applications both terrestrial and extraterrestrial in which there are requirements for telescopes that afford both wide- and narrow-field capabilities. In the proposed telescope, the scanning would be effected according to a principle similar to that of the Arecibo radio telescope, in which the primary mirror is stationary with respect to the ground and a receiver is moved across the focal surface of the primary mirror. The proposed telescope would comprise (1) a large spherical primary mirror that would afford high resolution over a narrow field of view and (2) a small displaceable optical relay segment that would be pivoted about the center of an aperture stop to effect the required scanning (see figure). Taken together, both comprise a scanning narrow-angle telescope that does not require slewing the telescope structure. In normal operation, the massive telescope structure would stare at a fixed location on the ground. The inner moveable relay optic would be pivoted to scan the narrower field of view over the wider one, making it possible to retain a fixed telescope orientation, while obtaining high-resolution images over multiple target areas during an interval of 3 to 4 minutes in the intended orbit. The pivoting relay segment of the narrow-angle telescope would include refractive and reflective optical elements, including two aspherical mirrors, to counteract the spherical aberration of the primary mirror. Overall, the combination of the primary mirror and the smaller relay optic

  19. High resolution upgrade of the ATF damping ring BPM system

    SciTech Connect

    Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Frisch, J.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Seryi, A.; Smith, T.; Woodley, M.; Briegel, C.; Dysert, R.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished in its first stage, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital downconversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also tests a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented.

  20. High resolution collimator system for X-ray detector

    DOEpatents

    Eberhard, Jeffrey W.; Cain, Dallas E.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution in an X-ray computerized tomography (CT) inspection system is achieved by using a collimator/detector combination to limit the beam width of the X-ray beam incident on a detector element to the desired resolution width. In a detector such as a high pressure Xenon detector array, a narrow tapered collimator is provided above a wide detector element. The collimator slits have any desired width, as small as a few mils at the top, the slit width is easily controlled, and they are fabricated on standard machines. The slit length determines the slice thickness of the CT image.

  1. Measurement of stratospheric HBr using high resolution far infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotti, M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Carli, B.; Ciarpallini, P.; Cortesi, U.; Griffin, M. J.; Lepri, G.; Mencaraglia, F.; Murray, A. G.; Nolt, I. G.; Park, J. H.; Radostitz, J. V.

    Far infrared spectral features of HBr have been observed in the stratospheric emission spectrum using a balloon borne high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer equipped with a high sensitivity detector specially designed for this purpose. The value of 1.6±0.6 parts per trillion in volume for the HBr mixing ratio has been retrieved, from the global-fit analysis of 121 spectra, in the 25-36.5 km altitude range. The result is briefly compared with models and previous assessments.

  2. High-resolution speckle imaging through strong atmospheric turbulence.

    PubMed

    Hope, Douglas A; Jefferies, Stuart M; Hart, Michael; Nagy, James G

    2016-05-30

    We demonstrate that high-resolution imaging through strong atmospheric turbulence can be achieved by acquiring data with a system that captures short exposure ("speckle") images using a range of aperture sizes and then using a bootstrap multi-frame blind deconvolution restoration process that starts with the smallest aperture data. Our results suggest a potential paradigm shift in how we image through atmospheric turbulence. No longer should image acquisition and post processing be treated as two independent processes: they should be considered as intimately related.

  3. High-resolution Brillouin analysis of composite materials beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, Yosef; Antman, Yair; Silbiger, Maayan; Efraim, Liel; Froochzad, Avihay; Adler, Gadi; Levenberg, Eyal; Zadok, Avi

    2015-09-01

    High-resolution Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis of fibers embedded within beams of composite materials is performed with 4 cm resolution and 0.5 MHz sensitivity. Two new contributions are presented. First, analysis was carried out continuously over 30 hours following the production of a beam, observing heating during exothermal curing and buildup of residual strains. Second, the bending stiffness and Young's modulus of the composite beam were extracted based on distributed strain measurements, taken during a static three-point bending experiment. The calculated parameters were used to forecast the beam deflections. The latter were favorably compared against external displacement measurements.

  4. Coregistration of high-resolution Mars orbital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2015-04-01

    The systematic orbital imaging of the Martian surface started 4 decades ago from NASA's Viking Orbiter 1 & 2 missions, which were launched in August 1975, and acquired orbital images of the planet between 1976 and 1980. The result of this reconnaissance was the first medium-resolution (i.e. ≤ 300m/pixel) global map of Mars, as well as a variety of high-resolution images (reaching up to 8m/pixel) of special regions of interest. Over the last two decades NASA has sent 3 more spacecraft with onboard instruments for high-resolution orbital imaging: Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) having onboard the Mars Orbital Camera - Narrow Angle (MOC-NA), Mars Odyssey having onboard the Thermal Emission Imaging System - Visual (THEMIS-VIS) and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) having on board two distinct high-resolution cameras, Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). Moreover, ESA has the multispectral High resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) onboard ESA's Mars Express with resolution up to 12.5m since 2004. Overall, this set of cameras have acquired more than 400,000 high-resolution images, i.e. with resolution better than 100m and as fine as 25 cm/pixel. Notwithstanding the high spatial resolution of the available NASA orbital products, their accuracy of areo-referencing is often very poor. As a matter of fact, due to pointing inconsistencies, usually form errors in roll attitude, the acquired products may actually image areas tens of kilometers far away from the point that they are supposed to be looking at. On the other hand, since 2004, the ESA Mars Express has been acquiring stereo images through the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), with resolution that is usually 12.5-25 metres per pixel. The achieved coverage is more than 64% for images with resolution finer than 20 m/pixel, while for ~40% of Mars, Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) have been produced with are co-registered with MOLA [Gwinner et al., 2010]. The HRSC images and DTMs

  5. A High Resolution Microprobe Study of EETA79001 Lithology C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian M.; Cohen, B. A.; Donovan, J. J.; Vicenzi, E. P.

    2010-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite EETA79001 has received substantial attention for possibly containing a component of Martian soil in its impact glass (Lithology C) [1]. The composition of Martian soil can illuminate near-surface processes such as impact gardening [2] and hydrothermal and volcanic activity [3,4]. Impact melts in meteorites represent our most direct samples of Martian regolith. We present the initial findings from a high-resolution electron microprobe study of Lithology C from Martian meteorite EETA79001. As this study develops we aim to extract details of a potential soil composition and to examine Martian surface processes using elemental ratios and correlations.

  6. Homology Groups of High-Resolution Temporal Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vásquez Aguilar, R.; Carsteanu, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Using high-resolution temporal rainfall intensities from Iowa City, IA (IIHR, U of Iowa), we perform an analysis of the homology groups generated by data connectivity in state space, and attempt a qualitative interpretation of the first and second homology groups. Let us note that homology groups are generated, in the context of topological data analysis (TDA), by representing the data in n-dimensional state space and building a connectivity diagram according to the respective distances between the data points. Subsequently, the topological invariants of the resulting connected structures are being analyzed.

  7. High-resolution continuum observations of the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, Harold

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the PFI or photometric filtergraph instrument is to observe the Sun in the continuum with as high resolution as possible and utilizing the widest range of wavelengths. Because of financial and political problems the CCD was eliminated so that the highest photometric accuracy is only obtainable by comparison with the CFS images. Presently there is a limitation to wavelengths above 2200 A due to the lack of sensitivity of untreated film below 2200 A. Therefore the experiment at present consists of a film camera with 1000 feet of film and 12 filters. The PFI experiments are outlined using only two cameras. Some further problems of the experiment are addressed.

  8. Design of a High Resolution Hexapod Positioning Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Jamie

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a high resolution, six-degree of freedom positioning mechanism. This mechanism, based on the Stewart platform concept, was designed for use with the Developmental Comparative Active Optics Telescope Testbed (DCATT), a ground-based technology testbed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The mechanism provides active control to the DCATT telescope's segmented primary mirror. Emphasis is on design decisions and technical challenges. Significant issues include undesirable motion properties of PZT-inchworm actuators, testing difficulties, dimensional stability, and use of advanced composite materials. Supporting test data from prototype mechanisms is presented.

  9. Design of a High Resolution Hexapod Positioning Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Jamie; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a high resolution, six-degree of freedom positioning mechanism. This mechanism, based on the Stewart platform concept, was designed for use with the Developmental Comparative Active Optics Telescope Testbed (DCATT), a ground-based technology testbed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The mechanism provides active control to the DCATT telescope's segmented primary mirror. Emphasis is on design decisions and technical challenges. Significant issues include undesirable motion properties of PZT-inchworm actuators, testing difficulties, dimensional stability and use of advanced composite materials. Supporting test data from prototype mechanisms is presented.

  10. High-resolution (30 m) lunar radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zisk, Stanley H.

    1988-01-01

    New high-resolution radar images of the lunar surface are being produced using the Haystack Observatory range-Doppler radar system. The goals are to: investigate the decameter-scale properties of the lunar surface, as an aid in the understanding of the geophysical history of the moon; and to improve the understanding of the mechanisms of planetary radar backscattering, to aid in the interpretation of the coarser-resolution images which were and will be obtained from planetary probe missions and other earth-based observations.

  11. Saturn - high-resolution filtered image of Enceladus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This high-resolution filtered image of Enceladus was made from several images obtained Aug. 25 by Voyager 2 from a range of 119,000 kilometers (74,000 miles). It shows further surface detail on this Saturnian moon (also viewed in the accompanying release P-23955C/BW, S-2-50, imaged about the same time). Enceladus is seen to resemble Jupiter's Galilean satellite Ganymede, which is, however, about 10 times larger. Faintly visible here in 'Saturnshine' is the hemisphere turned away from the sun. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  12. Alternative high-resolution lithographic technologies for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitner, Uwe D.; Weichelt, Tina; Bourgin, Yannick; Kinder, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Modern optical applications have special demands on the lithographic fabrication technologies. This relates to the lateral shape of the structures as well as to their three dimensional surface profile. On the other hand optical nano-structures are often periodic which allows for the use of dedicated lithographic exposure principles. The paper briefly reviews actual developments in the field of optical nano-structure generation. Special emphasis will be given to two technologies: electron-beam lithography based on a flexible cell-projection method and the actual developments in diffractive mask aligner lithography. Both offer a cost effective fabrication alternative for high resolution structures or three-dimensional optical surface profiles.

  13. High-resolution satellite imagery for mesoscale meteorological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David B.; Flament, Pierre; Bernstein, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    In this article high-resolution satellite imagery from a variety of meteorological and environmental satellites is compared. Digital datasets from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), Landsat, and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellites were archived as part of the 1990 Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP) and form the basis of the comparisons. During HaRP, GOES geostationary satellite coverage was marginal, so the main emphasis is on the polar-orbiting satellites.

  14. High-resolution CT findings in pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Hattori, Yuki; Matsui, Osamu; Gabata, Toshifumi; Tamori, Shunichi; Minato, Hiroshi; Ohta, Yasuhiko

    2007-11-01

    A 47-year-old man with pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma is herein presented. The patient, whose chief complaint was a mild cough, was found by chest radiograph to have multiple bilateral nodules. Subsequent high-resolution computed tomography demonstrated multiple slightly irregular nodules, perinodular ground-glass opacity, peribronchovascular interstitial thickening, and cysts. A mild enlargement of systemic lymph nodes was also noted. Laboratory tests disclosed a slight elevation in the C-reactive protein, gamma-globulin, interleukin-6, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels. A histopathologic examination of the specimen yielded from a thoracoscopic lung biopsy resulted in a definite diagnosis of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. PMID:18043399

  15. Nowcasting for a high-resolution weather radar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzanski, Evan

    Short-term prediction (nowcasting) of high-impact weather events can lead to significant improvement in warnings and advisories and is of great practical importance. Nowcasting using weather radar reflectivity data has been shown to be particularly useful. The Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) radar network provides high-resolution reflectivity data amenable to producing valuable nowcasts. The high-resolution nature of CASA data requires the use of an efficient nowcasting approach, which necessitated the development of the Dynamic Adaptive Radar Tracking of Storms (DARTS) and sinc kernel-based advection nowcasting methodology. This methodology was implemented operationally in the CASA Distributed Collaborative Adaptive Sensing (DCAS) system in a robust and efficient manner necessitated by the high-resolution nature of CASA data and distributed nature of the environment in which the nowcasting system operates. Nowcasts up to 10 min to support emergency manager decision-making and 1--5 min to steer the CASA radar nodes to better observe the advecting storm patterns for forecasters and researchers are currently provided by this system. Results of nowcasting performance during the 2009 CASA IP experiment are presented. Additionally, currently state-of-the-art scale-based filtering methods were adapted and evaluated for use in the CASA DCAS to provide a scale-based analysis of nowcasting. DARTS was also incorporated in the Weather Support to Deicing Decision Making system to provide more accurate and efficient snow water equivalent nowcasts for aircraft deicing decision support relative to the radar-based nowcasting method currently used in the operational system. Results of an evaluation using data collected from 2007--2008 by the Weather Service Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) located near Denver, Colorado, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research Marshall Test Site near Boulder, Colorado, are presented. DARTS was also used to study the

  16. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    SciTech Connect

    Bollen, Johan; Van De Sompel, Herbert; Hagberg, Aric; Bettencourt, Luis; Chute, Ryan; Rodriguez, Marko A; Balakireva, Lyudmila

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  17. High Resolution Spectroscopy and Imaging of Hot Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, M. P.; Cruddace, R. G.; Gursky, H.; Yentis, D. J.; Barbee, T. W., Jr.; Goldstein, W. H.; Kordas, J. F.; Fritz, G. G.; Barstow, M. A.; Bannister, N. P.; Lapington, J. S.

    2001-12-01

    Future X-ray and EUV missions should include high-resolution spectrometers, permitting use of the full range of spectroscopic diagnostics, in particular measurement of line profiles and Doppler shifts. We present a design for such an instrument (APEX), which would fly on a Small Explorer Satellite and which employs multilayer-coated ion-etched gratings in a normal-incidence configuration. We have already flown successfully a prototype spectrometer (J-PEX) on a NASA sounding rocket. The resulting EUV spectrum of the white dwarf G191-B2B will be presented.

  18. Design and test of a High-Resolution EUV Spectroheliometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Thomas E.; Timothy, J. G.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Kirby, Helen; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Jain, Surendra K.; Saxena, Ajay K.; Bhattacharyya, Jagadish C.; Huber, Martin C. E.; Tondello, Giuseppe

    1992-01-01

    The HiRES High-Resolution EUV Spectroheliometer is a sounding rocket instrument yielding very high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution images of the solar outer atmosphere, on the basis of a 45-cm Gregorian telescope feeding a normal-incidence stigmatic EUV spectrometer with imaging multianode microchannel-array detector system, as well as an IR spectrometer with imaging CCD detector system. Attention is given to the expected performance of this system, including the effects of vibrational misalignments due to the sounding rocket flight environment.

  19. High resolution infrared datasets useful for validating stratospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1992-01-01

    An important objective of the High Speed Research Program (HSRP) is to support research in the atmospheric sciences that will improve the basic understanding of the circulation and chemistry of the stratosphere and lead to an interim assessment of the impact of a projected fleet of High Speed Civil Transports (HSCT's) on the stratosphere. As part of this work, critical comparisons between models and existing high quality measurements are planned. These comparisons will be used to test the reliability of current atmospheric chemistry models. Two suitable sets of high resolution infrared measurements are discussed.

  20. Computing with high-resolution upwind schemes for hyperbolic equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, S. R.; Osher, S.

    1985-01-01

    Computational aspects of modern high-resolution upwind finite-difference schemes for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws are examined. An operational unification is demonstrated for constructing a wide class of flux-difference-split and flux-split schemes based on the design principles underlying total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes. Consideration is also given to TVD scheme design by preprocessing, the extension of preprocessing and postprocessing approaches to general control volumes, the removal of expansion shocks and 'glitches', relaxation methods for implicit TVD schemes, and a new family of high-accuracy TVD schemes.

  1. Applied high resolution geophysical methods: Offshore geoengineering hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Trabant, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    This book is an examination of the purpose, methodology, equipment, and data interpretation of high-resolution geophysical methods, which are used to assess geological and manmade engineering hazards at offshore construction locations. It is a state-of-the-art review. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Maring geophysics, an overview. 3. Marine geotechnique, an overview. 4. Echo sounders. 5. Side scan sonar. 6. Subbottom profilers. 7. Seismic sources. 8. Single-channel seismic reflection systems. 9. Multifold acquisition and digital processing. 10. Marine magnetometers. 11. Marine geoengineering hazards. 12. Survey organization, navigation, and future developments. Appendix. Glossary. References. Index.

  2. High-resolution MR neurography of diffuse peripheral nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Thawait, S K; Chaudhry, V; Thawait, G K; Wang, K C; Belzberg, A; Carrino, J A; Chhabra, A

    2011-09-01

    High-resolution MR imaging of peripheral nerves is becoming more common and practical with the increasing availability of 3T magnets. There are multiple reports of MR imaging of peripheral nerves in compression and entrapment neuropathies. However, there is a relative paucity of literature on MRN appearance of diffuse peripheral nerve lesions. We attempted to highlight the salient imaging features of myriad diffuse peripheral nerve disorders and imaging techniques for MRN. Using clinical and pathologically proved relevant examples, we present the MRN appearance of various types of diffuse peripheral nerve lesions, such as traumatic, inflammatory, infectious, hereditary, radiation-induced, neoplastic, and tumor variants. PMID:20966057

  3. High-resolution imaging of globular cluster cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, N.; Piotto, G.; Djorgovski, S.

    1990-01-01

    An approach based on the maximum entropy method aimed at increasing angular resolution to study globular cluster cores is presented. To perform the image restoration the Gull-Skilling (1989) MEMSYS-3 code for maximum entropy reconstruction of arbitrary data sets was used. This software was recently applied to restoration of ESO images of the R136 object in the core of the 30 Doradus nebula. It was demonstrated that the software made it possible to restore an image at subpixel spatial scales which facilitates the detection of very high-resolution structure in the restored image.

  4. High-Resolution Protein Structure Determination by Serial Femtosecond Crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Boutet, Sébastien; Lomb, Lukas; Williams, Garth J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Aquila, Andrew; Doak, R. Bruce; Weierstall, Uwe; DePonte, Daniel P.; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A.; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kirian, Richard A.; Seibert, M. Marvin; Montanez, Paul A.; Kenney, Chris; Herbst, Ryan; Hart, Philip; Pines, Jack; Haller, Gunther; Gruner, Sol M.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W.; Hromalik, Marianne; Koerner, Lucas J.; van Bakel, Niels; Morse, John; Ghonsalves, Wilfred; Arnlund, David; Bogan, Michael J.; Caleman, Carl; Fromme, Raimund; Hampton, Christina Y.; Hunter, Mark S.; Johansson, Linda C.; Katona, Gergely; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V.; Nass, Karol; Redecke, Lars; Stellato, Francesco; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Dingjie; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Schafer, Donald; Defever, James; Neutze, Richard; Fromme, Petra; Spence, John C. H.; Chapman, Henry N.; Schlichting, Ilme

    2013-01-01

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules. PMID:22653729

  5. High-resolution protein structure determination by serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Boutet, Sébastien; Lomb, Lukas; Williams, Garth J; Barends, Thomas R M; Aquila, Andrew; Doak, R Bruce; Weierstall, Uwe; DePonte, Daniel P; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L; Messerschmidt, Marc; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kirian, Richard A; Seibert, M Marvin; Montanez, Paul A; Kenney, Chris; Herbst, Ryan; Hart, Philip; Pines, Jack; Haller, Gunther; Gruner, Sol M; Philipp, Hugh T; Tate, Mark W; Hromalik, Marianne; Koerner, Lucas J; van Bakel, Niels; Morse, John; Ghonsalves, Wilfred; Arnlund, David; Bogan, Michael J; Caleman, Carl; Fromme, Raimund; Hampton, Christina Y; Hunter, Mark S; Johansson, Linda C; Katona, Gergely; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V; Nass, Karol; Redecke, Lars; Stellato, Francesco; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Dingjie; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Schafer, Donald; Defever, James; Neutze, Richard; Fromme, Petra; Spence, John C H; Chapman, Henry N; Schlichting, Ilme

    2012-07-20

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules.

  6. High-resolution protein structure determination by serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Boutet, Sébastien; Lomb, Lukas; Williams, Garth J; Barends, Thomas R M; Aquila, Andrew; Doak, R Bruce; Weierstall, Uwe; DePonte, Daniel P; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L; Messerschmidt, Marc; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kirian, Richard A; Seibert, M Marvin; Montanez, Paul A; Kenney, Chris; Herbst, Ryan; Hart, Philip; Pines, Jack; Haller, Gunther; Gruner, Sol M; Philipp, Hugh T; Tate, Mark W; Hromalik, Marianne; Koerner, Lucas J; van Bakel, Niels; Morse, John; Ghonsalves, Wilfred; Arnlund, David; Bogan, Michael J; Caleman, Carl; Fromme, Raimund; Hampton, Christina Y; Hunter, Mark S; Johansson, Linda C; Katona, Gergely; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V; Nass, Karol; Redecke, Lars; Stellato, Francesco; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Dingjie; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Schafer, Donald; Defever, James; Neutze, Richard; Fromme, Petra; Spence, John C H; Chapman, Henry N; Schlichting, Ilme

    2012-07-20

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules. PMID:22653729

  7. Evaluation of a high resolution silicon PET insert module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grkovski, Milan; Brzezinski, Karol; Cindro, Vladimir; Clinthorne, Neal H.; Kagan, Harris; Lacasta, Carlos; Mikuž, Marko; Solaz, Carles; Studen, Andrej; Weilhammer, Peter; Žontar, Dejan

    2015-07-01

    Conventional PET systems can be augmented with additional detectors placed in close proximity of the region of interest. We developed a high resolution PET insert module to evaluate the added benefit of such a combination. The insert module consists of two back-to-back 1 mm thick silicon sensors, each segmented into 1040 1 mm2 pads arranged in a 40 by 26 array. A set of 16 VATAGP7.1 ASICs and a custom assembled data acquisition board were used to read out the signal from the insert module. Data were acquired in slice (2D) geometry with a Jaszczak phantom (rod diameters of 1.2-4.8 mm) filled with 18F-FDG and the images were reconstructed with ML-EM method. Both data with full and limited angular coverage from the insert module were considered and three types of coincidence events were combined. The ratio of high-resolution data that substantially improves quality of the reconstructed image for the region near the surface of the insert module was estimated to be about 4%. Results from our previous studies suggest that such ratio could be achieved at a moderate technological expense by using an equivalent of two insert modules (an effective sensor thickness of 4 mm).

  8. High resolution 3D fluorescence tomography using ballistic photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jie; Nouizi, Farouk; Cho, Jaedu; Kwong, Jessica; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a ballistic-photon based approach for improving the spatial resolution of fluorescence tomography using time-domain measurements. This approach uses early photon information contained in measured time-of-fight distributions originating from fluorescence emission. The time point spread functions (TPSF) from both excitation light and emission light are acquired with gated single photon Avalanche detector (SPAD) and time-correlated single photon counting after a short laser pulse. To determine the ballistic photons for reconstruction, the lifetime of the fluorophore and the time gate from the excitation profiles will be used for calibration, and then the time gate of the fluorescence profile can be defined by a simple time convolution. By mimicking first generation CT data acquisition, the sourcedetector pair will translate across and also rotate around the subject. The measurement from each source-detector position will be reshaped into a histogram that can be used by a simple back-projection algorithm in order to reconstruct high resolution fluorescence images. Finally, from these 2D sectioning slides, a 3D inclusion can be reconstructed accurately. To validate the approach, simulation of light transport is performed for biological tissue-like media with embedded fluorescent inclusion by solving the diffusion equation with Finite Element Method using COMSOL Multiphysics simulation. The reconstruction results from simulation studies have confirmed that this approach drastically improves the spatial resolution of fluorescence tomography. Moreover, all the results have shown the feasibility of this technique for high resolution small animal imaging up to several centimeters.

  9. Very High Resolution Simulations of Compressible, Turbulent Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, P R; Porter, D H; Sytine, I; Anderson, S E; Mirin, A A; Curtis, B C; Cohen, R H; Dannevik, W P; Dimits, A M; Eliason, D E; Winkler, K-H; Hodson, S W

    2001-04-26

    The steadily increasing power of supercomputing systems is enabling very high resolution simulations of compressible, turbulent flows in the high Reynolds number limit, which is of interest in astrophysics as well as in several other fluid dynamical applications. This paper discusses two such simulations, using grids of up to 8 billion cells. In each type of flow, convergence in a statistical sense is observed as the mesh is refined. The behavior of the convergent sequences indicates how a subgrid-scale model of turbulence could improve the treatment of these flows by high-resolution Euler schemes like PPM. The best resolved case, a simulation of a Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing layer in a shock tube experiment, also points the way toward such a subgrid-scale model. Analysis of the results of that simulation indicates a proportionality relationship between the energy transfer rate from large to small motions and the determinant of the deviatoric symmetric strain as well as the divergence of the velocity for the large-scale field.

  10. High-Resolution Mars Camera Test Image of Moon (Infrared)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This crescent view of Earth's Moon in infrared wavelengths comes from a camera test by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on its way to Mars. The mission's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera took the image on Sept. 8, 2005, while at a distance of about 10 million kilometers (6 million miles) from the Moon. The dark feature on the right is Mare Crisium. From that distance, the Moon would appear as a star-like point of light to the unaided eye. The test verified the camera's focusing capability and provided an opportunity for calibration. The spacecraft's Context Camera and Optical Navigation Camera also performed as expected during the test.

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched on Aug. 12, 2005, is on course to reach Mars on March 10, 2006. After gradually adjusting the shape of its orbit for half a year, it will begin its primary science phase in November 2006. From the mission's planned science orbit about 300 kilometers (186 miles) above the surface of Mars, the high resolution camera will be able to discern features as small as one meter or yard across.

  11. Unsupervised Feature Learning for High-Resolution Satellite Image Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2013-01-01

    The rich data provided by high-resolution satellite imagery allow us to directly model geospatial neighborhoods by understanding their spatial and structural patterns. In this paper we explore an unsupervised feature learning approach to model geospatial neighborhoods for classification purposes. While pixel and object based classification approaches are widely used for satellite image analysis, often these approaches exploit the high-fidelity image data in a limited way. In this paper we extract low-level features to characterize the local neighborhood patterns. We exploit the unlabeled feature measurements in a novel way to learn a set of basis functions to derive new features. The derived sparse feature representation obtained by encoding the measured features in terms of the learned basis function set yields superior classification performance. We applied our technique on two challenging image datasets: ORNL dataset representing one-meter spatial resolution satellite imagery representing five land-use categories and, UCMERCED dataset consisting of 21 different categories representing sub-meter resolution overhead imagery. Our results are highly promising and, in the case of UCMERCED dataset we outperform the best results obtained for this dataset. We show that our feature extraction and learning methods are highly effective in developing a detection system that can be used to automatically scan large-scale high-resolution satellite imagery for detecting large-facility.

  12. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    DOEpatents

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Rojeski, Ronald A.

    2001-01-16

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  13. Differentiation of Staphylococcus spp. by high-resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Slany, Michal; Vanerkova, Martina; Nemcova, Eva; Zaloudikova, Barbora; Ruzicka, Filip; Freiberger, Tomas

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a fast (post-PCR) high-throughput method to scan for sequence variations in a target gene. The aim of this study was to test the potential of HRMA to distinguish particular bacterial species of the Staphylococcus genus even when using a broad-range PCR within the 16S rRNA gene where sequence differences are minimal. Genomic DNA samples isolated from 12 reference staphylococcal strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus caprae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus xylosus) were subjected to a real-time PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene in the presence of fluorescent dye EvaGreen™, followed by HRMA. Melting profiles were used as molecular fingerprints for bacterial species differentiation. HRMA of S. saprophyticus and S. xylosus resulted in undistinguishable profiles because of their identical sequences in the analyzed 16S rRNA region. The remaining reference strains were fully differentiated either directly or via high-resolution plots obtained by heteroduplex formation between coamplified PCR products of the tested staphylococcal strain and phylogenetically unrelated strain.

  14. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Ge_2C_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorwirth, S.; Lutter, V.; Schlemmer, S.; Giesen, T. F.; Gauss, J.

    2013-06-01

    Carbon-rich systems are of great importance in diverse areas of research like material science as well as astro- and structural chemistry. Despite this relevance, our knowledge of smaller cluster units is still fragmentary, particularly with respect to investigations at high-spectral resolution in the gas phase. Unequivocal assignment of spectral features to their molecular carriers is critically dependent on predictions from high-level quantum-chemical calculations. In turn, high-resolution studies provide useful information to assess the predictive power of quantum-chemical methods. This is particularly interesting for cluster systems harboring heavy elements for which so far relatively little is known from experiment. With this contribution, we would like to present a recent gas-phase study of a polyatomic germanium-carbon cluster, linear Ge_2C_3 (Ge=C=C=C=Ge), which was previously studied in an Ar matrix. The cluster was produced through laser ablation of germanium-graphite sample rods and observed in a free jet at wavelengths around 5μm. Additionally, quantum-chemical calculations of Ge_2C_3 were performed at the CCSD(T) level of theory. The production and observation of Ge_2C_3 suggests that many more binary clusters should be amenable to high-resolution spectroscopic techniques not only in the infrared but also in the microwave region. D. L. Robbins, C. M. L. Rittby, and W. R. M. Graham, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 3570 (2001).

  15. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Mars Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMars server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Mars images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of Mars. The OnMars server is an implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server. Unlike other Mars Internet map servers that provide Martian data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMars WMS server supports encoding of data in Mars-specific coordinate systems. The OnMars server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Martian image and elevation data, including an 8-meter-per-pixel uncontrolled mosaic of most of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) image collection, which is not available elsewhere. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. The OnMars server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  16. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Lunar Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMoon server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Lunar images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of the Moon. The OnMoon server implements the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server protocol and supports Moon-specific extensions. Unlike other Internet map servers that provide Lunar data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMoon server supports encoding of data in Moon-specific coordinate systems. The OnMoon server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Lunar image and elevation data. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF) or the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. Full-precision spectral arithmetic processing is also available, by use of a custom SLD extension. This server can dynamically add shaded relief based on the Lunar elevation to any image layer. This server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  17. High resolution mapping of total deposition of acidifying pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, Thierri; Zhang, Leiming

    2012-09-01

    A framework has been developed to estimate dry and wet deposition over Southern Belgium for a variety of acidifying substances on a 5 × 5 km2 grid. Concentrations of different compounds in the atmosphere or in the precipitation are provided by the measurement networks (both stations and gauges) and are interpolated over Southern Belgium. Dry deposition velocities are calculated using local meteorology and land use information, following the approach described in Zhang et al. (2001, 2003). Local precipitation is provided by merged radar-gauge observations. This is the first high resolution framework for Southern Belgium computing both time- and space-dependent deposition, using a modified kriging interpolation method (for SO2 and NO2), as well as radar-based precipitation. Estimated dry and wet depositions are compared with long range transport (LRT) model results, based on the European emission inventories. Although a good agreement is observed between our results and LRT model results on the annual totals averaged over Southern Belgium, the extent of agreement for the spatial variability of the annual deposition differs significantly from one pollutant to another. This new framework provides consistent high resolution maps for several pollutants, while improving the mapping of dry and wet deposition in Southern Belgium, in order to assess critical loads exceedances.

  18. Invariance Techniques And High-Resolution Null Steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, R.; Kailath, T.

    1988-02-01

    Over the past several decades, a significant amount of research has been performed in the area of high-resolution signal parameter estimation. It is a problem of significance in many signal processing applications including direction-of-arrival estimation in which the locations of multiple sources whose radiation is received by an array of sensors are sought. Much of the research has focussed on approaches based on the formation of optimal weight or copy vectors, procedures derived from the conventional practice of beamforming. This class of approached to parameter estimation problems has come to be known as high-resolution spectral analysis/beamforming since the introduction of the maximum entropy (MEM) method by Burg in 1967, and the maximum-likelihood (ML) method by Capon in 1969. These techniques provide increased resolution and accuracy over their predecessors (including conventional beamforming, but suffer from model mismatch. MUSIC and ESPRIT are recently developed geometric techniques that exploit the underlying model and thereby achieve significant improvements in performance. In this paper, these techniques are summarized. From basic physical principles, it is shown that ESPRIT is actually a multidimensional null steering algorithm, an interpretation with significant intuitive appeal. Finally, optimal signal copy vectors that naturally arise from the algorithm are presented, and their properties as beamforming vectors for this class of problems are discussed.

  19. High resolution three-dimensional prostate ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinbo; Patil, Abhay; Hossack, John A.

    2006-03-01

    This work reports on the application of ultrasound elastography to prostate cancer detection using a high resolution three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging system. The imaging was performed at a relatively high frequency (14 MHz), yielding very fine resolution that is optimal for prostate ultrasound imaging. The fine resolution achieved aids in locating smaller lesions than are normally detectable. Elasticity was measured with a quantitative and automatically controlled "Synthetic Digital Rectal Examination (SDRE)" wherein a smoothly increasing force was applied by injecting water, controlled by an electronic syringe pump, into a latex cover over the transrectal transducer. The lesion identified as stiffened tissue was visually enhanced by colorizing and superimposing it over the conventional B-mode image. Experimental results using a tissue-mimicking phantom demonstrated that the reconstruction accuracy of the I-Beam transducer resulted in less than 15% volumetric error. Thus, this high resolution 3D prostate elastography is possible and may provide reliable and accurate determination of the size and the location of cancers, which may result in improved specificity and sensitivity of cancer detection.

  20. High-resolution diffraction grating interferometric transducer of linear displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Ping; Xia, Haojie; Fei, Yetai

    2016-01-01

    A high-resolution transducer of linear displacements is presented. The system is based on semiconductor laser illumination and a diffraction grating applied as a length master. The theory of the optical method is formulated using Doppler description. The relationship model among the interference strips, measurement errors, grating deflection around the X, Y and Z axes and translation along the Z axis is built. The grating interference strips' direction and space is not changed with movement along the X (direction of grating movement), Y (direction of grating line), Z axis, and the direction and space has a great effect when rotating around the X axis. Moreover the space is little affected by deflection around the Z axis however the direction is changed dramatically. In addition, the strips' position shifted rightward or downwards respectively for deflection around the X or Y axis. Because the emitted beams are separated on the grating plane, the tilt around the X axis error of the stage during motion will lead to the optical path difference of the two beams resulting in phase shift. This study investigates the influence of the tilt around the X axis error. Experiments show that after yaw error compensation, the high-resolution diffraction grating interferometric transducer readings can be significantly improved. The error can be reduced from +/-80 nm to +/-30 nm in maximum.

  1. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Using Negative Spherical Aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chun-Lin; Lentzen, Markus

    2004-04-01

    A novel imaging mode for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is described. It is based on the adjustment of a negative value of the spherical aberration CS of the objective lens of a transmission electron microscope equipped with a multipole aberration corrector system. Negative spherical aberration applied together with an overfocus yields high-resolution images with bright-atom contrast. Compared to all kinds of images taken in conventional transmission electron microscopes, where the then unavoidable positive spherical aberration is combined with an underfocus, the contrast is dramatically increased. This effect can only be understood on the basis of a full nonlinear imaging theory. Calculations show that the nonlinear contrast contributions diminish the image contrast relative to the linear image for a positive-CS setting whereas they reinforce the image contrast relative to the linear image for a negative-CS setting. The application of the new mode to the imaging of oxygen in SrTiO3 and YBa2Cu3O7 demonstrates the benefit to materials science investigations. It allows us to image directly, without further image processing, strongly scattering heavy-atom columns together with weakly scattering light-atom columns.

  2. High resolution multiplexed functional imaging in live embyros (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongli; Peng, Leilei

    2016-03-01

    Optical projection tomography (OPT) creates isotropic 3D imaging of tissue. Two approaches exist today: Wide-field OPT illuminates the entire sample and acquires projection images with a camera; Scanning-laser optical tomography (SLOT) generates the projection with a moving laser beam and point detector. SLOT has superior light collecting efficiency than wide-field optical tomography, making it ideal for tissue fluorescence imaging. Regardless the approach, traditional OPT has to compromise between the resolution and the depth of view. In traditional SLOT, the focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focused plane, making it impossible to achieve high resolution imaging through a large volume specimen. We report using Bessel beam instead of Gaussian beam to perform SLOT. By illuminating samples with a narrow Bessel beam throughout an extended depth, high-resolution projection images can be measured in large volume. Under Bessel illumination, the projection image contains signal from annular-rings of the Bessel beam. Traditional inverse Radon transform of these projections will result in ringing artifacts in reconstructed imaging. Thus a modified 3D filtered back projection algorithm is developed to perform tomography reconstructing of Bessel-illuminated projection images. The resulting 3D imaging is free of artifact and achieved cellular resolution in extended sample volume. The system is applied to in-vivo imaging of transgenic Zebrafish embryos. Results prove Bessel SLOT a promising imaging method in development biology research.

  3. Gemini high-resolution optical spectrograph conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, Kei; McConnachie, Alan; Anthony, André; Bohlender, David; Crampton, David; Desaulniers, Pierre; Dunn, Jennifer; Hardy, Tim; Hill, Alexis; Monin, Dmitry; Pazder, John; Schwab, Christian; Spano, Paola; Starkenburg, Else; Thibault, Simon; Walker, Gordon; Venn, Kim; Zhang, Hu

    2012-09-01

    A multiplexed moderate resolution (R = 34,000) and a single object high resolution (R = 90,000) spectroscopic facility for the entire 340 - 950nm wavelength region has been designed for Gemini. The result is a high throughput, versatile instrument that will enable precision spectroscopy for decades to come. The extended wavelength coverage for these relatively high spectral resolutions is achieved by use of an Echelle grating with VPH cross-dispersers and for the R = 90,000 mode utilization of an image slicer. The design incorporates a fast, efficient, reliable system for acquiring targets over the7 arcmin field of Gemini. This paper outlines the science case development and requirements flow-down process that leads to the configuration of the HIA instrument and describes the overall GHOS conceptual design. In addition, this paper discusses design trades examined during the conceptual design study instrument group of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics has been commissioned by the Gemini Observatory as one of the three competing organizations to conduct a conceptual design study for a new Gemini High-Resolution Optical Spectrograph (GHOS). This paper outlines the science case development and requirements flow-down process that leads to the configuration of the HIA instrument and describes the overall GHOS conceptual design. In addition, this paper discusses design trades examined during the conceptual design study.

  4. Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royal, K.

    2015-12-01

    Keitasha Royal, Meha Jain, Ph.D., David Lobell, Ph.D Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution ImageryThe use of satellite imagery in agriculture is becoming increasingly more significant and valuable. Due to the emergence of new satellites, such as Skybox, these satellites provide higher resolution imagery (e.g 1m) therefore improving the ability to map smallholder agriculture. For the smallholder farm dominated area of northern India, Skybox high-resolution satellite imagery can aid in understanding how to improve farm yields. In particular, we are interested in mapping winter wheat in India, as this region produces approximately 80% of the country's wheat crop, which is important given that wheat is a staple crop that provides approximately 20% of household calories. In northeast India, the combination of increased heat stress, limited irrigation access, and the difficulty for farmers to access advanced farming technologies results in farmers only producing about 50% of their potential crop yield. The use of satellite imagery can aid in understanding wheat yields through time and help identify ways to increase crop yields in the wheat belt of India. To translate Skybox satellite data into meaningful information about wheat fields, we examine vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), to measure the "greenness" of plants to help determine the health of the crops. We test our ability to predict crop characteristics, like sow date and yield, using vegetation indices of 59 fields for which we have field data in Bihar, India.

  5. High-resolution time-frequency distributions for fall detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Moeness G.; Zhang, Yimin D.; Boashash, Boualem

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we examine the role of high-resolution time-frequency distributions (TFDs) of radar micro-Doppler signatures for fall detection. The work supports the recent and rising interest in using emerging radar technology for elderly care and assisted living. Spectrograms have been the de facto joint-variable signal representation, depicting the signal power in both time and frequency. Although there have been major advances in designing quadratic TFDs which are superior to spectrograms in terms of detailing the local signal behavior, the contributions of these distributions in the area of human motion classifications and their offerings in enhanced feature extractions have not yet been properly evaluated. The main purpose of this paper is to show the effect of using high-resolution TFD kernels, in lieu of spectrogram, on fall detection. We focus on the extended modified B-distribution (EMBD) and exploit the level of details it provides as compared with the coarse and smoothed time-frequency signatures offered by spectrograms.

  6. A miniature high-resolution accelerometer utilizing electron tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockstad, Howard K.; Kenny, T. W.; Reynolds, J. K.; Kaiser, W. J.; Vanzandt, T. R.; Gabrielson, Thomas B.

    1992-01-01

    New methods have been developed to implement high-resolution position sensors based on electron tunneling. These methods allow miniaturization while utilizing the position sensitivity of electron tunneling to give high resolution. A single-element tunneling accelerometer giving a displacement resolution of 0.002 A/sq rt Hz at 10 Hz, corresponding to an acceleration resolution of 5 x 10 exp -8 g/sq rt Hz, is described. A new dual-element tunneling structure which overcomes the narrow bandwidth limitations of a single-element structure is described. A sensor with an operating range of 5 Hz to 10 kHz, which can have applications as an acoustic sensor, is discussed. Noise is analyzed for fundamental thermal vibration of the suspended masses and is compared to electronic noise. It is shown that miniature tunnel accelerometers can achieve resolution such that thermal noise in the suspended masses is the dominant cause of the resolution limit. With a proof mass of order 100 mg, noise analysis predicts limiting resolutions approaching 10 exp -9 g/sq rt Hz in a 300 Hz band and 10 exp -8 g/sq rt Hz at 1 kHz.

  7. Automated frame selection process for high-resolution microendoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishijima, Ayumu; Schwarz, Richard A.; Shin, Dongsuk; Mondrik, Sharon; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    We developed an automated frame selection algorithm for high-resolution microendoscopy video sequences. The algorithm rapidly selects a representative frame with minimal motion artifact from a short video sequence, enabling fully automated image analysis at the point-of-care. The algorithm was evaluated by quantitative comparison of diagnostically relevant image features and diagnostic classification results obtained using automated frame selection versus manual frame selection. A data set consisting of video sequences collected in vivo from 100 oral sites and 167 esophageal sites was used in the analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.78 (automated selection) versus 0.82 (manual selection) for oral sites, and 0.93 (automated selection) versus 0.92 (manual selection) for esophageal sites. The implementation of fully automated high-resolution microendoscopy at the point-of-care has the potential to reduce the number of biopsies needed for accurate diagnosis of precancer and cancer in low-resource settings where there may be limited infrastructure and personnel for standard histologic analysis.

  8. SPIDER Progress Towards High Resolution Correlated Fission Product Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Dan; Meierbachtol, Krista; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arnold, Charles; Blackeley, Rick; Bredeweg, Todd; Devlin, Matt; Hecht, Adam; Jandel, Marian; Jorgenson, Justin; Nelson, Ron; White, Morgan; Spider Team

    2014-09-01

    The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (ν), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (ν), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. This work is in part supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Projects 20110037DR and 20120077DR.

  9. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  10. Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoan; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we report an imaging method, termed Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM), which iteratively stitches together a number of variably illuminated, low-resolution intensity images in Fourier space to produce a wide-field, high-resolution complex sample image. By adopting a wavefront correction strategy, the FPM method can also correct for aberrations and digitally extend a microscope’s depth-of-focus beyond the physical limitations of its optics. As a demonstration, we built a microscope prototype with a resolution of 0.78 μm, a field-of-view of ~120 mm2, and a resolution-invariant depth-of-focus of 0.3 mm (characterized at 632 nm). Gigapixel colour images of histology slides verify FPM’s successful operation. The reported imaging procedure transforms the general challenge of high-throughput, high-resolution microscopy from one that is coupled to the physical limitations of the system’s optics to one that is solvable through computation. PMID:25243016

  11. Synthetic vision helicopter flights using high resolution LIDAR terrain data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindlinger, A.; Meuter, M.; Barraci, N.; Güttler, M.; Klingauf, U.; Schiefele, J.; Howland, D.

    2006-05-01

    Helicopters are widely used for operations close to terrain such as rescue missions; therefore all-weather capabilities are highly desired. To minimize or even avoid the risk of collision with terrain and obstacles, Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) could be used to increase situational awareness. In order to demonstrate this, helicopter flights have been performed in the area of Zurich, Switzerland A major component of an SVS is the three-dimensional (3D) depiction of terrain data, usually presented on the primary flight display (PFD). The degree of usability in low level flight applications is a function of the terrain data quality. Today's most precise, large scale terrain data are derived from airborne laser scanning technologies such as LIDAR (light detection and ranging). A LIDAR dataset provided by Swissphoto AG, Zurich with a resolution of 1m was used. The depiction of high resolution terrain data consisting of 1 million elevation posts per square kilometer on a laptop in an appropriate area around the helicopter is challenging. To facilitate the depiction of the high resolution terrain data, it was triangulated applying a 1.5m error margin making it possible to depict an area of 5x5 square kilometer around the helicopter. To position the camera correctly in the virtual scene the SVS had to be supplied with accurate navigation data. Highly flexible and portable measurement equipment which easily could be used in most aircrafts was designed. Demonstration flights were successfully executed in September, October 2005 in the Swiss Alps departing from Zurich.

  12. Precision glass molding of high-resolution diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, Karin; Dukwen, Julia; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans P.; Plöger, Sven; Hermerschmidt, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The demand of high resolution diffractive optical elements (DOE) is growing. Smaller critical dimensions allow higher deflection angles and can fulfill more demanding requirements, which can only be met by using electron-beam lithography. Replication techniques are more economical, since the high cost of the master can be distributed among a larger number of replicas. The lack of a suitable mold material for precision glass molding has so far prevented an industrial use. Glassy Carbon (GC) offers a high mechanical strength and high thermal strength. No anti-adhesion coatings are required in molding processes. This is clearly an advantage for high resolution, high aspect ratio microstructures, where a coating with a thickness between 10 nm and 200 nm would cause a noticeable rounding of the features. Electron-beam lithography was used to fabricate GC molds with highest precision and feature sizes from 250 nm to 2 μm. The master stamps were used for precision glass molding of a low Tg glass L-BAL42 from OHARA. The profile of the replicated glass is compared to the mold with the help of SEM images. This allows discussion of the max. aspect-ratio and min. feature size. To characterize optical performances, beamsplitting elements are fabricated and their characteristics were investigated, which are in excellent agreement to theory.

  13. Observing submesoscale currents from high resolution surface roughness images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascle, N.; Chapron, B.; Nouguier, F.; Mouche, A.; Ponte, A.

    2015-12-01

    At times, high resolution sea surface roughness variations can provide stunning details of submesoscale upper ocean dynamics. As interpreted, transformations of short scale wind waves by horizontal current gradients are responsible for those spectacular observations. Here we present tow major advances towards the quantitative interpretation of those observations. First, we show that surface roughness variations mainly trace two particular characteristics of the current gradient tensor, the divergence and the strain in the wind direction. Local vorticity and shear in the wind direction should not affect short scale roughness distribution and would not be detectable. Second, we discuss the effect of the viewing direction using sets of quasi-simultaneous sun glitter images, taken from different satellites to provide different viewing configurations. We show that upwind and crosswind viewing observations can be markedly different. As further confirmed with idealized numerical simulations, this anisotropy well traces surface current strain area, while more isotropic contrasts likely trace areas dominated by surface divergence conditions. These findings suggest the potential to directly observe surface currents at submesoscale by using high resolution roughness observations at multiple azimuth viewing angles.

  14. A compact high-resolution X-ray powder diffractometer

    PubMed Central

    Fewster, Paul F.; Trout, David R. D.

    2013-01-01

    A new powder diffractometer operating in transmission mode is described. It can work as a rapid very compact instrument or as a high-resolution instrument, and the sample preparation is simplified. The incident beam optics create pure Cu Kα1 radiation, giving rise to peak widths of ∼0.1° in 2θ in compact form with a sample-to-detector minimum radius of 55 mm, reducing to peak widths of <0.05° in high-resolution mode by increasing the detector radius to 240 mm. The resolution of the diffractometer is shown to be governed by a complex mixture of angular divergence, sample size, diffraction effects and the dimensions of the detector pixels. The data can be collected instantaneously, which combined with trivial sample preparation and no sample alignment, makes it a suitable method for very rapid phase identification. As the detector is moved further from the sample, the angular step from the pixel dimension is reduced and the resolution improves significantly for very detailed studies, including structure determination and analysis of the microstructure. The advantage of this geometry is that the resolution of the diffractometer can be calculated precisely and the instrumental artefacts can be analysed easily without a sample present. The performance is demonstrated with LaB6 and paracetamol, and a critical appraisal of the uncertainties in the measurements is presented. The instantaneous data collection offers possibilities in dynamic experiments. PMID:24282331

  15. High-resolution Imaging Techniques for the Assessment of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Roland; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The importance of assessing the bone’s microarchitectural make-up in addition to its mineral density in the context of osteoporosis has been emphasized in a number of publications. The high spatial resolution required to resolve the bone’s microstructure in a clinically feasible scan time is challenging. Currently, the best suited modalities meeting these requirements in vivo are high-resolution peripheral quantitative imaging (HR-pQCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whereas HR-pQCT is limited to peripheral skeleton regions like the wrist and ankle, MRI can also image other sites like the proximal femur but usually with lower spatial resolution. In addition Multidetector-CT has been used for high-resolution imaging of trabecular bone structure, however, the radiation dose is a limiting factor. This article provides an overview of the different modalities, technical requirements and recent developments in this emerging field. Details regarding imaging protocols as well as image post-processing methods for bone structure quantification are discussed. PMID:20609895

  16. High resolution sequence stratigraphic concepts applied to geostatistical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Desaubliaux, G.; De Lestang, A.P.; Eschard, R.

    1995-08-01

    Lithofacies simulations using a high resolution 3D grid allow to enhance the geometries of internal heterogeneities of reservoirs. In this study the series simulated were the Ness formation, part of the Brent reservoir in the Dunbar field located in the Viking graben of the North Sea. Simulations results have been used to build the reservoir layering supporting the 3D grid used for reservoir engineering, and also used as a frame to study the effects of secondary diagenetic processes on petrophysical properties. The method used is based on a geostatistical study and integrates the following data: a geological model using sequence stratigraphic concepts to define lithofacies sequences and associated bounding surfaces, well data (cores and logs) used as database for geostatistical analysis and simulations, seismic data: a 3D seismic survey has been used to define the internal surfaces bounding the units, outcrop data: The Mesa Verde formation (Colorado, USA) has been used as an outcrop analog to calibrate geostatistical parameters for the simulations (horizontal range of the variograms). This study illustrates the capacity to use high resolution sequence stratigraphic concepts to improve the simulations of reservoirs when the lack of subsurface information reduce the accuracy of geostatistical analysis.

  17. Towards Ultra-High Resolution Models of Climate and Weather

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, Michael; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    We present a speculative extrapolation of the performance aspects of an atmospheric general circulation model to ultra-high resolution and describe alternative technological paths to realize integration of such a model in the relatively near future. Due to a superlinear scaling of the computational burden dictated by stability criterion, the solution of the equations of motion dominate the calculation at ultra-high resolutions. From this extrapolation, it is estimated that a credible kilometer scale atmospheric model would require at least a sustained ten petaflop computer to provide scientifically useful climate simulations. Our design study portends an alternate strategy for practical power-efficient implementations of petaflop scale systems. Embedded processor technology could be exploited to tailor a custom machine designed to ultra-high climate model specifications at relatively affordable cost and power considerations. The major conceptual changes required by a kilometer scale climate model are certain to be difficult to implement. Although the hardware, software, and algorithms are all equally critical in conducting ultra-high climate resolution studies, it is likely that the necessary petaflop computing technology will be available in advance of a credible kilometer scale climate model.

  18. High-Resolution Electronics: Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    On page 6568, T. Minari and co-workers describe spontaneous patterning based on the parallel vacuum ultraviolet (PVUV) technique, enabling the homogeneous integration of complex, high-resolution electronic circuits, even on large-scale, flexible, transparent substrates. Irradiation of PVUV to the hydrophobic polymer surface precisely renders the selected surface into highly wettable regions with sharply defined boundaries, which spontaneously guides a metal nanoparticle ink into a series of circuit lines and gaps with the widths down to a resolution of 1 μm.

  19. High-Resolution Electronics: Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    On page 6568, T. Minari and co-workers describe spontaneous patterning based on the parallel vacuum ultraviolet (PVUV) technique, enabling the homogeneous integration of complex, high-resolution electronic circuits, even on large-scale, flexible, transparent substrates. Irradiation of PVUV to the hydrophobic polymer surface precisely renders the selected surface into highly wettable regions with sharply defined boundaries, which spontaneously guides a metal nanoparticle ink into a series of circuit lines and gaps with the widths down to a resolution of 1 μm. PMID:27511534

  20. Very High Resolution Mapping of Tree Cover Using Scalable Deep Learning Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ganguly, sangram; basu, saikat; nemani, ramakrishna; mukhopadhyay, supratik; michaelis, andrew; votava, petr; saatchi, sassan

    2016-04-01

    Several studies to date have provided an extensive knowledge base for estimating forest aboveground biomass (AGB) and recent advances in space-based modeling of the 3-D canopy structure, combined with canopy reflectance measured by passive optical sensors and radar backscatter, are providing improved satellite-derived AGB density mapping for large scale carbon monitoring applications. A key limitation in forest AGB estimation from remote sensing, however, is the large uncertainty in forest cover estimates from the coarse-to-medium resolution satellite-derived land cover maps (present resolution is limited to 30-m of the USGS NLCD Program). As part of our NASA Carbon Monitoring System Phase II activities, we have demonstrated that uncertainties in forest cover estimates at the Landsat scale result in high uncertainties in AGB estimation, predominantly in heterogeneous forest and urban landscapes. We have successfully tested an approach using scalable deep learning architectures (Feature-enhanced Deep Belief Networks and Semantic Segmentation using Convolutional Neural Networks) and High-Performance Computing with NAIP air-borne imagery data for mapping tree cover at 1-m over California and Maryland. Our first high resolution satellite training label dataset from the NAIP data can be found here at http://csc.lsu.edu/~saikat/deepsat/ . In a comparison with high resolution LiDAR data available over selected regions in the two states, we found our results to be promising both in terms of accuracy as well as our ability to scale nationally. In this project, we propose to estimate very high resolution forest cover for the continental US at spatial resolution of 1-m in support of reducing uncertainties in the AGB estimation. The proposed work will substantially contribute to filling the gaps in ongoing carbon monitoring research and help quantifying the errors and uncertainties in related carbon products.

  1. Universal multifractal analysis of high-resolution snowfall data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raupach, Timothy; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel; Berne, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Universal multifractal analysis offers useful insights into the scaling properties of precipitation data. While much work has been done on the scaling properties of rainfall fields, less is known about the scaling properties of solid precipitation such as snowfall, especially at high resolution. We present results of a universal multifractal (UM) analysis of high-resolution solid precipitation data. The data were recorded using a 2D-video-disdrometer (2DVD) situated in the Swiss Alps. Analysis was performed on a one-hour period of snowfall, during which time the mean wind speed was zero, temperatures were low, and no hail was detected. The 2DVD recorded information on individual particles, from which we calculated snow mass. Three "cuts" of the spatio-temporal snowfall process were analysed using the UM framework. First, high-resolution timeseries of precipitation intensity at 100 ms temporal resolution were analysed. These results show two scaling regimes with a transition area between them. Second, we analysed reconstructed vertical columns of particle concentration and snow mass, assuming no horizontal wind and constant vertical velocity (equal to the one recorded on the ground). Strong scaling was observed in the particle concentration fields, with the influence of large (and therefore rare) snowflakes degrading the quality of the scaling observed for higher moments of the particle distribution. There was a clear difference between the measured fields and fields in which the vertical distribution of particles was made homogeneous, indicating that the measured snowfall fields contained non-homogeneous fields. Scaling behaviour was observed down to vertical scales of about 0.5 m, which is similar to published results using rain data. Finally, we used the UM framework to investigate the scaling properties of 2D maps of snow accumulation over a subset of the instrument collection area of 5.12 x 5.12 cm^2. As expected from the vertical column analysis, given that

  2. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  3. High resolution remote sensing of water surface patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodget, A.; Visser, F.; Maddock, I.; Carbonneau, P.

    2012-12-01

    The assessment of in-stream habitat availability within fluvial environments in the UK traditionally includes the mapping of patterns which appear on the surface of the water, known as 'surface flow types' (SFTs). The UK's River Habitat Survey identifies ten key SFTs, including categories such as rippled flow, upwelling, broken standing waves and smooth flow. SFTs result from the interaction between the underlying channel morphology, water depth and velocity and reflect the local flow hydraulics. It has been shown that SFTs can be both biologically and hydraulically distinct. SFT mapping is usually conducted from the river banks where estimates of spatial coverage are made by eye. This approach is affected by user subjectivity and inaccuracies in the spatial extent of mapped units. Remote sensing and specifically the recent developments in unmanned aerial systems (UAS) may now offer an alternative approach for SFT mapping, with the capability for rapid and repeatable collection of very high resolution imagery from low altitudes, under bespoke flight conditions. This PhD research is aimed at investigating the mapping of SFTs using high resolution optical imagery (less than 10cm) collected from a helicopter-based UAS flown at low altitudes (less than 100m). This paper presents the initial findings from a series of structured experiments on the River Arrow, a small lowland river in Warwickshire, UK. These experiments investigate the potential for mapping SFTs from still and video imagery of different spatial resolutions collected at different flying altitudes and from different viewing angles (i.e. vertical and oblique). Imagery is processed using 3D mosaicking software to create orthophotos and digital elevation models (DEM). The types of image analysis which are tested include a simple, manual visual assessment undertaken in a GIS environment, based on the high resolution optical imagery. In addition, an object-based image analysis approach which makes use of the

  4. High resolution meteorological modellingof the Inn Valley atmosphere, Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schicker, I.; Arnold, D.; Seibert, P.

    2009-09-01

    Orography and local meteorology play a major role in Alpine valleys, as they are linked with valley and slope wind systems, stagnation and recirculation, temperature inversions and turbulence. Thus, they have a strong influence of transport and dilution of pollutants in the valley, affecting human health, and sound propagation. Shallow stable layers at the valley floor and low wind speed conditions, especially in autumn and winter, trap pollutants and thus cause unfavourable dispersion conditions , possibly leading to exceedances of air pollution limits. Moreover, under certain synoptic conditions such as persistent high-pressure systems inversion conditions prevail for days. Emissions may accumulate in the valley from day to day and thus critical levels of pollutants may be reached. With the current computer capabilities, numerical meteorological models and particle dispersion models are powerful tools to investigate such situations and their impact on emission-side measures. However, alpine valleys and other complex topographical areas require very high resolutions to ensure accurate representation of the physical processes. Typically, the highest resolutions used nowadays in episodic simulations with models such as, e.g., RAMS, WRF, or MM5, are around 1 km. This still smooths the orography, cutting the peaks and raising the valley bottoms. In this work a comparison of the simulation of the valley atmosphere with two meteorological models, MM5 and WRF, with high horizontal (0.6 km to 0.2 km) and vertical resolutions (35 to 39 half-s levels) is carried out for selected scenarios in which levels of pollutants exceeded air pollution limits. For a better representation of the orography SRTM 3" topography data is used in MM5 for resolutions below 1 km (~ resolution of SRTM 30" data), WRF will be tested only with SRTM 30" due to computational time constraints. The evolution of the valley atmosphere is studied using different PBL schemes available in the models as well

  5. Evaluation of field methods for vertical high resolution aquifer characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vienken, T.; Tinter, M.; Rogiers, B.; Leven, C.; Dietrich, P.

    2012-12-01

    The delineation and characterization of subsurface (hydro)-stratigraphic structures is one of the challenging tasks of hydrogeological site investigations. The knowledge about the spatial distribution of soil specific properties and hydraulic conductivity (K) is the prerequisite for understanding flow and fluid transport processes. This is especially true for heterogeneous unconsolidated sedimentary deposits with a complex sedimentary architecture. One commonly used approach to investigate and characterize sediment heterogeneity is soil sampling and lab analyses, e.g. grain size distribution. Tests conducted on 108 samples show that calculation of K based on grain size distribution is not suitable for high resolution aquifer characterization of highly heterogeneous sediments due to sampling effects and large differences of calculated K values between applied formulas (Vienken & Dietrich 2011). Therefore, extensive tests were conducted at two test sites under different geological conditions to evaluate the performance of innovative Direct Push (DP) based approaches for the vertical high resolution determination of K. Different DP based sensor probes for the in-situ subsurface characterization based on electrical, hydraulic, and textural soil properties were used to obtain high resolution vertical profiles. The applied DP based tools proved to be a suitable and efficient alternative to traditional approaches. Despite resolution differences, all of the applied methods captured the main aquifer structure. Correlation of the DP based K estimates and proxies with DP based slug tests show that it is possible to describe the aquifer hydraulic structure on less than a meter scale by combining DP slug test data and continuous DP measurements. Even though correlations are site specific and appropriate DP tools must be chosen, DP is reliable and efficient alternative for characterizing even strongly heterogeneous sites with complex structured sedimentary aquifers (Vienken et

  6. Optical Histology: High-Resolution Visualization of Tissue Microvasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Austin Jing-Ming

    Mammalian tissue requires the delivery of nutrients, growth factors, and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases to maintain normal function. These elements are delivered by the blood, which travels through the connected network of blood vessels, known as the vascular system. The vascular system consists of large feeder blood vessels (arteries and veins) that are connected to the small blood vessels (arterioles and venules), which in turn are connected to the capillaries that are directly connected to the tissue and facilitate gas exchange and nutrient delivery. These small blood vessels and capillaries make up an intricate but organized network of blood vessels that exist in all mammalian tissues known as the microvasculature and are very important in maintaining the health and proper function of mammalian tissue. Due to the importance of the microvasculature in tissue survival, disruption of the microvasculature typically leads to tissue dysfunction and tissue death. The most prevalent method to study the microvasculature is visualization. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the gold-standard method to visualize tissue microvasculature. IHC is very well-suited for highly detailed interrogation of the tissue microvasculature at the cellular level but is unwieldy and impractical for wide-field visualization of the tissue microvasculature. The objective my dissertation research was to develop a method to enable wide-field visualization of the microvasculature, while still retaining the high-resolution afforded by optical microscopy. My efforts led to the development of a technique dubbed "optical histology" that combines chemical and optical methods to enable high-resolution visualization of the microvasculature. The development of the technique first involved preliminary studies to quantify optical property changes in optically cleared tissues, followed by development and demonstration of the methodology. Using optical histology, I successfully obtained high

  7. High resolution infrared acquisitions droning over the LUSI mud eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Felice, Fabio; Romeo, Giovanni; Di Stefano, Giuseppe; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    The use of low-cost hand-held infrared (IR) thermal cameras based on uncooled micro-bolometer detector arrays became more widespread during the recent years. Thermal cameras have the ability to estimate temperature values without contact and therefore can be used in circumstances where objects are difficult or dangerous to reach such as volcanic eruptions. Since May 2006 the Indonesian LUSI mud eruption continues to spew boiling mud, water, aqueous vapor, CO2, CH4 and covers a surface of nearly 7 km2. At this locality we performed surveys over the unreachable erupting crater. In the framework of the LUSI Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126), in 2014 and 2015, we acquired high resolution infrared images using a specifically equipped remote-controlled drone flying at an altitude of m 100. The drone is equipped with GPS and an autopilot system that allows pre-programming the flying path or designing grids. The mounted thermal camera has peak spectral sensitivity in LW wavelength (μm 10) that is characterized by low water vapor and CO2 absorption. The low distance (high resolution) acquisitions have a temperature detail every cm 40, therefore it is possible to detect and observe physical phenomena such as thermodynamic behavior, hot mud and fluids emissions locations and their time shifts. Despite the harsh logistics and the continuously varying gas concentrations we managed to collect thermal images to estimate the crater zone spatial thermal variations. We applied atmosphere corrections to calculate infrared absorption by high concentration of water vapor. Thousands of images have been stitched together to obtain a mosaic of the crater zone. Regular monitoring with heat variation measurements collected, e.g. every six months, could give important information about the volcano activity estimating its evolution. A future data base of infrared high resolution and visible images stored in a web server could be a useful monitoring tool. An interesting development will be

  8. A stable and high-resolution isoelectric focusing capillary array device for micropreparative separation of proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Si; Dong, Jing-Yu; Guo, Chen-Gang; Wu, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Liu-yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Zhang, Wei-Bing

    2013-11-15

    A simple capillary array IEF device was developed for high resolution and micropreparative separation of trace amounts of proteins. Based on quasi-chip-scale manufacturing, the specific capillaries (600 μm i.d., 1200 μm o.d. and 20 mm length) were integrated with the miniaturized polymethyl-methacrylate electrode trays. Electroosmotic flow was suppressed effectively by modified cross-linked polyacrylamide coating, and instability of IEF was addressed using the designed concentration of electrolytes via moving reaction boundary theory. As a prototyping, the resolution, reproducibility, throughput, speed and linearity of pH gradient were systemically evaluated with model proteins. The results revealed the following advantages: (i) the reproducibility of array was assessed as RSD values of 0.95% (intra-day) and 2.88% (inter-day); (ii) IEF could be completed in 20 min with up to 400 V/cm electric field; (iii) high resolution separation of model proteins achieved in 20mm length column; (iv) multi-units with 48 micro-columns can be easily integrated to obtain high throughput; and (v) good linearity of pH gradient (R=0.9989). More importantly, utility of the device was tested by using hemoglobins sample from human red blood cell. HbA0 and HbA1c with only ΔpI 0.03 have been successfully separated by the developed method. PMID:24148402

  9. Automated Microfluidic Platform for Serial Polymerase Chain Reaction and High-Resolution Melting Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weidong; Bean, Brian; Corey, Scott; Coursey, Johnathan S; Hasson, Kenton C; Inoue, Hiroshi; Isano, Taisuke; Kanderian, Sami; Lane, Ben; Liang, Hongye; Murphy, Brian; Owen, Greg; Shinoda, Nobuhiko; Zeng, Shulin; Knight, Ivor T

    2016-06-01

    We report the development of an automated genetic analyzer for human sample testing based on microfluidic rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA). The integrated DNA microfluidic cartridge was used on a platform designed with a robotic pipettor system that works by sequentially picking up different test solutions from a 384-well plate, mixing them in the tips, and delivering mixed fluids to the DNA cartridge. A novel image feedback flow control system based on a Canon 5D Mark II digital camera was developed for controlling fluid movement through a complex microfluidic branching network without the use of valves. The same camera was used for measuring the high-resolution melt curve of DNA amplicons that were generated in the microfluidic chip. Owing to fast heating and cooling as well as sensitive temperature measurement in the microfluidic channels, the time frame for PCR and HRMA was dramatically reduced from hours to minutes. Preliminary testing results demonstrated that rapid serial PCR and HRMA are possible while still achieving high data quality that is suitable for human sample testing. PMID:25827436

  10. Automated Microfluidic Platform for Serial Polymerase Chain Reaction and High-Resolution Melting Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weidong; Bean, Brian; Corey, Scott; Coursey, Johnathan S; Hasson, Kenton C; Inoue, Hiroshi; Isano, Taisuke; Kanderian, Sami; Lane, Ben; Liang, Hongye; Murphy, Brian; Owen, Greg; Shinoda, Nobuhiko; Zeng, Shulin; Knight, Ivor T

    2016-06-01

    We report the development of an automated genetic analyzer for human sample testing based on microfluidic rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA). The integrated DNA microfluidic cartridge was used on a platform designed with a robotic pipettor system that works by sequentially picking up different test solutions from a 384-well plate, mixing them in the tips, and delivering mixed fluids to the DNA cartridge. A novel image feedback flow control system based on a Canon 5D Mark II digital camera was developed for controlling fluid movement through a complex microfluidic branching network without the use of valves. The same camera was used for measuring the high-resolution melt curve of DNA amplicons that were generated in the microfluidic chip. Owing to fast heating and cooling as well as sensitive temperature measurement in the microfluidic channels, the time frame for PCR and HRMA was dramatically reduced from hours to minutes. Preliminary testing results demonstrated that rapid serial PCR and HRMA are possible while still achieving high data quality that is suitable for human sample testing.

  11. High-resolution stochastic generation of extreme rainfall intensity for urban drainage modelling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peleg, Nadav; Blumensaat, Frank; Molnar, Peter; Fatichi, Simone; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Urban drainage response is highly dependent on the spatial and temporal structure of rainfall. Therefore, measuring and simulating rainfall at a high spatial and temporal resolution is a fundamental step to fully assess urban drainage system reliability and related uncertainties. This is even more relevant when considering extreme rainfall events. However, the current space-time rainfall models have limitations in capturing extreme rainfall intensity statistics for short durations. Here, we use the STREAP (Space-Time Realizations of Areal Precipitation) model, which is a novel stochastic rainfall generator for simulating high-resolution rainfall fields that preserve the spatio-temporal structure of rainfall and its statistical characteristics. The model enables a generation of rain fields at 102 m and minute scales in a fast and computer-efficient way matching the requirements for hydrological analysis of urban drainage systems. The STREAP model was applied successfully in the past to generate high-resolution extreme rainfall intensities over a small domain. A sub-catchment in the city of Luzern (Switzerland) was chosen as a case study to: (i) evaluate the ability of STREAP to disaggregate extreme rainfall intensities for urban drainage applications; (ii) assessing the role of stochastic climate variability of rainfall in flow response and (iii) evaluate the degree of non-linearity between extreme rainfall intensity and system response (i.e. flow) for a small urban catchment. The channel flow at the catchment outlet is simulated by means of a calibrated hydrodynamic sewer model.

  12. High-resolution Modeling Assisted Design of Customized and Individualized Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Bikson, Marom; Rahman, Asif; Datta, Abhishek; Fregni, Felipe; Merabet, Lotfi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers low-intensity currents facilitating or inhibiting spontaneous neuronal activity. tDCS is attractive since dose is readily adjustable by simply changing electrode number, position, size, shape, and current. In the recent past, computational models have been developed with increased precision with the goal to help customize tDCS dose. The aim of this review is to discuss the incorporation of high-resolution patient-specific computer modeling to guide and optimize tDCS. Methods In this review, we discuss the following topics: (i) The clinical motivation and rationale for models of transcranial stimulation is considered pivotal in order to leverage the flexibility of neuromodulation; (ii) The protocols and the workflow for developing high-resolution models; (iii) The technical challenges and limitations of interpreting modeling predictions, and (iv) Real cases merging modeling and clinical data illustrating the impact of computational models on the rational design of rehabilitative electrotherapy. Conclusions Though modeling for non-invasive brain stimulation is still in its development phase, it is predicted that with increased validation, dissemination, simplification and democratization of modeling tools, computational forward models of neuromodulation will become useful tools to guide the optimization of clinical electrotherapy. PMID:22780230

  13. Landslide model performance in a high resolution small-scale landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sy, V.; Schoorl, J. M.; Keesstra, S. D.; Jones, K. E.; Claessens, L.

    2013-05-01

    The frequency and severity of shallow landslides in New Zealand threatens life and property, both on- and off-site. The physically-based shallow landslide model LAPSUS-LS is tested for its performance in simulating shallow landslide locations induced by a high intensity rain event in a small-scale landscape. Furthermore, the effect of high resolution digital elevation models on the performance was tested. The performance of the model was optimised by calibrating different parameter values. A satisfactory result was achieved with a high resolution (1 m) DEM. Landslides, however, were generally predicted lower on the slope than mapped erosion scars. This discrepancy could be due to i) inaccuracies in the DEM or in other model input data such as soil strength properties; ii) relevant processes for this environmental context that are not included in the model; or iii) the limited validity of the infinite length assumption in the infinite slope stability model embedded in the LAPSUS-LS. The trade-off between a correct prediction of landslides versus stable cells becomes increasingly worse with coarser resolutions; and model performance decreases mainly due to altering slope characteristics. The optimal parameter combinations differ per resolution. In this environmental context the 1 m resolution topography resembles actual topography most closely and landslide locations are better distinguished from stable areas than for coarser resolutions. More gain in model performance could be achieved by adding landslide process complexities and parameter heterogeneity of the catchment.

  14. The effects of dust scattering on high-resolution X-ray absorption edge structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrales, L.; García, J.; Wilms, J.; Baganoff, F.

    2016-06-01

    High energy studies of astrophysical dust complement observations of dusty interstellar gas at other wavelengths. With high resolution X-ray spectroscopy, dust scattering significantly enhances the total extinction optical depth and alters the shape of photoelectric absorption edges. This effect is modulated by the dust grain size distribution, spatial location along the line of sight, and the imaging resolution of the X-ray telescope. At soft energies, the spectrum of scattered light is likely to have significant features at the 0.3 keV (C-K), 0.5 keV (O-K), and 0.7 keV (Fe-L) photoelectric absorption edges. This direct probe of ISM dust grain elements will be important for (i) understanding the relative abundances of graphitic grains or PAHs versus silicates, and (ii) measuring the depletion of gas phase elements into solid form. We focus in particular on the Fe-L edge, fitting a template for the total extinction to the high resolution spectrum of three X-ray binaries from the Chandra archive: GX 9+9, XTE J1817-330, and Cyg X-1. We discuss ways in which spectroscopy with XMM can yield insight into dust obscured objects such as stars, binaries, AGN, and foreground quasar absorption line systems.

  15. Random vs realistic amorphous carbon models for high resolution microscopy and electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ricolleau, C. Alloyeau, D.; Le Bouar, Y.; Amara, H.; Landon-Cardinal, O.

    2013-12-07

    Amorphous carbon and amorphous materials in general are of particular importance for high resolution electron microscopy, either for bulk materials, generally covered with an amorphous layer when prepared by ion milling techniques, or for nanoscale objects deposited on amorphous substrates. In order to quantify the information of the high resolution images at the atomic scale, a structural modeling of the sample is necessary prior to the calculation of the electron wave function propagation. It is thus essential to be able to reproduce the carbon structure as close as possible to the real one. The approach we propose here is to simulate a realistic carbon from an energetic model based on the tight-binding approximation in order to reproduce the important structural properties of amorphous carbon. At first, we compare this carbon with the carbon obtained by randomly generating the carbon atom positions. In both cases, we discuss the limit thickness of the phase object approximation. In a second step, we show the influence of both carbons models on (i) the contrast of Cu, Ag, and Au single atoms deposited on carbon and (ii) the determination of the long-range order parameter in CoPt bimetallic nanoalloys.

  16. HIGH-RESOLUTION ATMOSPHERIC ENSEMBLE MODELING AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.; Werth, D.; Chiswell, S.; Etherton, B.

    2011-05-10

    The High-Resolution Mid-Atlantic Forecasting Ensemble (HME) is a federated effort to improve operational forecasts related to precipitation, convection and boundary layer evolution, and fire weather utilizing data and computing resources from a diverse group of cooperating institutions in order to create a mesoscale ensemble from independent members. Collaborating organizations involved in the project include universities, National Weather Service offices, and national laboratories, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The ensemble system is produced from an overlapping numerical weather prediction model domain and parameter subsets provided by each contributing member. The coordination, synthesis, and dissemination of the ensemble information are performed by the Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI) at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. This paper discusses background related to the HME effort, SRNL participation, and example results available from the RENCI website.

  17. High-Resolution Radio Imaging of the "Cosmic Hand"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Chi-Yung; Gaensler, Bryan; Slane, Patrick; Harvey-Smith, Lisa

    2012-10-01

    The 'Cosmic Hand' is an extremely complex pulsar wind nebula system powered by the energetic pulsar B1509-58 in supernova remnant G320.4-1.2 (MSH 15-52). Our recent ATCA observations revealed an intriguing jet-like linear feature of 1'-scale surrounding the pulsar. This could be the first known radio jet from a young pulsar, or a synchrotron wisp extending to high latitude. We propose here high-resolution observations to resolve its detailed morphology and to detect any time variability, with the aim to identify its physical nature. Confirming the jet nature could help reveal its launching mechanism and the particle acceleration process, while a wisp can indicate the flow structure beyond the equatorial plane. In either case, this will set an important example to refine our understanding of pulsar wind physics.

  18. High-Resolution Multiphoton Imaging of Tumors In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Entenberg, David; Segall, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the individual steps in metastasis is crucial if insights at the molecular level are to be linked to the cell biology of cancer. A technical hurdle to achieving the analysis of the individual steps of metastasis is the fact that, at the gross level, tumors are heterogeneous in both animal models and patients. Human primary tumors show extensive variation in all properties ranging from growth and morphology of the tumor through tumor-cell density in the blood and formation and growth of metastases. Methods capable of the direct visualization and analysis of tumor-cell behavior at single-cell resolution in vivo have become crucial in advancing the understanding of mechanisms of metastasis, the definition of microenvironment, and the markers related to both. This article discusses the use of high-resolution multiphoton imaging of tumors (specifically breast tumors in mice) in vivo. PMID:21969629

  19. High resolution absorption spectrum of dianilino in the vapor phase.

    PubMed

    Bayrakçeken, Fuat

    2009-01-01

    Photophysical and photochemical properties of diradical in the first excited state is recorded for the very first time with the IR, band structure for dianilino molecule at room temperature, in the vapor phase. In this experiment high resolution absorption spectra of anilino free radical, dianilino, aniline in the vapor phase and silicon dioxide in the solid state were recorded by flash photolysis technique photographically. Silicon dioxide absorption band between 250 and 255 nm were also observed for the reaction cell, because the cell and windows of the cell material were spectrosilica grade fused quartz. And this absorption band also used as wavelength calibration for all the photoproducts formed in the reaction cell during optical pumping.

  20. CARMENES science preparation. High-resolution spectroscopy of M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, D.; Caballero, J. A.; Jeffers, S.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Mundt, R.; CARMENES Consortium

    2015-05-01

    To ensure an efficient use of CARMENES observing time, and the highest chances of success, it is necessary first to select the most promising targets. To achieve this, we are observing 500 M dwarfs at high-resolution (R = 30,000-48,000), from which we determine the projected rotational velocity vsin{i} with an accuracy better than 0.5-0.2 km/s and radial-velocity stability better than 0.2-0.1 km/s. Our aim is to have at least two spectra at different epochs of the final 300 CARMENES targets. Our observations with FEROS at ESO/MPG 2.2 m La Silla, CAFE at 2.2 m Calar Alto and HRS at Hobby Eberly Telescope allow us to identify single- and double-line spectroscopic binaries and, especially, fast rotators, which should be discarded from the target list for exoplanet searches. Here we present preliminary results.

  1. High resolution spectroscopic study of Be10Lambda;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogami, T.; Chen, C.; Kawama, D.; Achenbach, P.; Ahmidouch, A.; Albayrak, I.; Androic, D.; Asaturyan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Ates, O.; Baturin, P.; Badui, R.; Boeglin, W.; Bono, J.; Brash, E.; Carter, P.; Chiba, A.; Christy, E.; Danagoulian, S.; de Leo, R.; Doi, D.; Elaasar, M.; Ent, R.; Fujii, Y.; Fujita, M.; Furic, M.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gan, L.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gasparian, A.; Han, Y.; Hashimoto, O.; Horn, T.; Hu, B.; Hungerford, Ed. V.; Jones, M.; Kanda, H.; Kaneta, M.; Kato, S.; Kawai, M.; Khanal, H.; Kohl, M.; Liyanage, A.; Luo, W.; Maeda, K.; Margaryan, A.; Markowitz, P.; Maruta, T.; Matsumura, A.; Maxwell, V.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Nagao, S.; Nakamura, S. N.; Narayan, A.; Neville, C.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, M. I.; Nunez, A.; Nuruzzaman, Okayasu, Y.; Petkovic, T.; Pochodzalla, J.; Qiu, X.; Reinhold, J.; Rodriguez, V. M.; Samanta, C.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shichijo, A.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tang, L.; Taniya, N.; Tsukada, K.; Veilleux, M.; Vulcan, W.; Wesselmann, F. R.; Wood, S. A.; Yamamoto, T.; Ya, L.; Ye, Z.; Yokota, K.; Yuan, L.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zhu, L.; Hksjlab E05-115 Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Spectroscopy of a Be10Lambda; hypernucleus was carried out at JLab Hall C using the (e ,e'K+) reaction. A new magnetic spectrometer system (SPL+HES+HKS), specifically designed for high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy, was used to obtain an energy spectrum with a resolution of ˜0.78 MeV (FWHM). The well-calibrated spectrometer system of the present experiment using p (e ,e'K+)Λ ,Σ0 reactions allowed us to determine the energy levels; and the binding energy of the ground-state peak (mixture of 1- and 2- states) was found to be BΛ=8.55 ±0.07 (stat . ) ±0.11 (sys . ) MeV. The result indicates that the ground-state energy is shallower than that of an emulsion study by about 0.5 MeV which provides valuable experimental information on the charge symmetry breaking effect in the Λ N interaction.

  2. High resolution imaging of tunnels by magnetic resonance neurography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kenneth C.; Thawait, Shrey K.; Williams, Eric H.; Hashemi, Shahreyar Shar; Machado, Antonio J.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral nerves often traverse confined fibro-osseous and fibro-muscular tunnels in the extremities, where they are particularly vulnerable to entrapment and compressive neuropathy. This gives rise to various tunnel syndromes, characterized by distinct patterns of muscular weakness and sensory deficits. This article focuses on several upper and lower extremity tunnels, in which direct visualization of the normal and abnormal nerve in question is possible with high resolution 3T MR neurography (MRN). MRN can also serve as a useful adjunct to clinical and electrophysiologic exams by discriminating adhesive lesions (perineural scar) from compressive lesions (such as tumor, ganglion, hypertrophic callous, or anomalous muscles) responsible for symptoms, thereby guiding appropriate treatment. PMID:21479520

  3. Mid-infrared high resolution spectrometer for SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, Samuel H.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Bjoraker, Gordon; Melnick, Gary J.; Neufeld, David A.; Pontoppidan, Klaus; Roberge, Aki; Stacey, Gordon J.; Watson, Dan M.; Wollack, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectral range between 20 µm and 120 µm has a number of diagnostic atomic and molecular lines that can probe physical conditions in a variety of objects. In particular, protoplanetary disk clouds, YSO, planetary atmospheres would benefit from a high resolution spectroscopy in that wavelength range. Through its high spectral resolution the instrument would allow to obtain both physical and dynamical information on the clouds. Comprehensive observations of the various phases of gas in the protoplanetary disks with the instrument would allow to advance the knowledge of the processes leading to the formation of planetary systems. Such an instrument with high spectral resolving power and sensitivity would be a powerful addition to the current SOFIA instruments.

  4. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs—Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  5. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  6. Recent Results in Quantum Chemical Kinetics from High Resolution Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Quack, Martin

    2007-12-26

    We outline the approach of our group to derive intramolecular kinetic primary processes from high resolution spectroscopy. We then review recent results on intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) and on tunneling processes. Examples are the quantum dynamics of the C-H-chromophore in organic molecules, hydrogen bond dynamics in (HF){sub 2} and stereomutation dynamics in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and related chiral molecules. We finally discuss the time scales for these and further processes which range from 10 fs to more than seconds in terms of successive symmetry breakings, leading to the question of nuclear spin symmetry and parity violation as well as the question of CPT symmetry.

  7. Very High Resolution Climate Modelling in Northern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, M.; Christensen, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    Simulations with global climate models (GCMs) clearly indicate that major climate changes for the Arctic can be expected during the 21st century. Already now, there are substantial changes in sea-ice extent and thickness and a considerable increase in air temperature in several regions. Contemporary GCMs are unable to give a realistic representation of the climate and climate change in regions with steep orography, due to their coarse resolution. But even relatively high resolution regional climate models (RCMs) fail in this respect. We have therefore conducted a transient simulation with the newest version of the HIRHAM RCM, covering the period 1958-2001 over a region in northeast European Russia, including the Ural Mountains, with the unprecedented horizontal resolution of 4 km. For this simulation, a double downscaling procedure was applied. Average and extreme values will be discussed, and a comparison of subsurface temperatures to a set of observations from the region will be presented.

  8. A high-resolution fringe printer for studying synthetic holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Miyauchi, H.

    2006-02-01

    A high resolution fringe printer developed for driving the research in computer-generated holograms is presented. This fringe printer consists of a rotation drum and a laser diode and is capable of printing elliptical dots of 1.5 times 3.0 microns in diameter on photosensitive films. These dot sizes are approximately converted into resolutions of 17,000dpi × 8,500dpi. The horizontal and vertical angles of viewing-zone of holograms printed by the printer reach 24 and 12 degrees, respectively. The designed maximum scan speed is more than 200mm/s, and at current stage of development, a hologram of approximately 50 mm square can be printed in approximately 2 hours.

  9. High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of SN 1006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, Jacco

    2005-06-01

    I discuss the high resolution XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectrum of SN 1006. SN 1006 is one of the best examples of a supernova remnant that is far out of ionization equilibrium. Moreover, optical, UV and X-ray data indicate that it is also out of temperature equilibrium. I discuss the X-ray evidence for this. In addition I discuss the lower resolution RGS spectrum of the eastern rim of SN 1006. Despite the lower resolution, the spectrum contains significant evidence for an asymmetric expansion velocity. Two likely solutions fit the O VII triplet. One with no significant thermal broadening and a shell velocity of ~ 6500 km s-1, and one with significant broadening and a shell velocity of 9500 km s -1. The first solution seems the most plausible, as it is consistent with radio expansion measurements, which suggests a decelerated shell.

  10. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  11. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Silver, Eric H.; Legros, Mark; Madden, Norm W.; Goulding, Fred; Landis, Don

    1998-01-01

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  12. High-Resolution Multisensor Infrastructure Inspection with Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschmann, C.; Kuo, C.-M.; Kuo, C.-H.; Boller, C.

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports on the investigations made at Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing (IZFP) where different rotary wing micro UAS have been used to scan infrastructures including bridges and monuments at high resolutions for remote damage assessment and monitoring purposes. The aerial pictures taken at high speed and frequency have then been stitched together to obtain full 2D and 3D building reconstructions at a resolution allowing damages and cracking to be observed still in the millimeter range. With these ultra hi-res building reconstruction models a specific data base could be created for each object in order to provide extensive information for long term evaluation and life cycle management. The UAS also have been equipped with sensors for damage size estimation, which combined with an image processing software developed to allow automatic cracking pattern recognition could be used for further analysis.

  13. Quadrature phase interferometer for high resolution force spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Paolino, Pierdomenico; Aguilar Sandoval, Felipe A.; Bellon, Ludovic

    2013-09-15

    In this article, we present a deflection measurement setup for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It is based on a quadrature phase differential interferometer: we measure the optical path difference between a laser beam reflecting above the cantilever tip and a reference beam reflecting on the static base of the sensor. A design with very low environmental susceptibility and another allowing calibrated measurements on a wide spectral range are described. Both enable a very high resolution (down to 2.5×10{sup −15} m/√(Hz)), illustrated by thermal noise measurements on AFM cantilevers. They present an excellent long-term stability and a constant sensitivity independent of the optical phase of the interferometer. A quick review shows that our precision is equaling or out-performing the best results reported in the literature, but for a much larger deflection range, up to a few μm.

  14. High Resolution Absorption Spectroscopy using Externally Dispersed Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, J; Erskine, D J

    2005-07-06

    We describe the use of Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy. By adding a small fixed-delay interferometer to a dispersive spectrograph, a precise fiducial grid in wavelength is created over the entire spectrograph bandwidth. The fiducial grid interacts with narrow spectral features in the input spectrum to create a moire pattern. EDI uses the moire pattern to obtain new information about the spectra that is otherwise unavailable, thereby improving spectrograph performance. We describe the theory and practice of EDI instruments and demonstrate improvements in the spectral resolution of conventional spectrographs by a factor of 2 to 6. The improvement of spectral resolution offered by EDI can benefit space instruments by reducing spectrograph size or increasing instantaneous bandwidth.

  15. High-Resolution Seismic Reflection to Monitor Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. D.; Raef, A. E.; Lambrecht, J. L.; Byrnes, A. P.

    2006-05-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection has proven a valuable tool detecting changes in fluid composition, rock petrophysical properties, and structures critical to reservoir production management and groundwater protection in Kansas. Surface seismic reflection is not a method that lends itself to direct detection and delineation of boundaries between different fluid compositions in porous media. However, time-lapse seismic does appear to have been successful identifying areas where calculated changes in seismic characteristics (specifically velocity) are greater than 10% at a miscible CO2 flood in Russell County, Kansas. Empirically a 10% change in seismic velocity has proven to be the minimum practical threshold where signal emerging from the noise can be interpreted with any degree of confidence. This change in velocity occurs when the saturation of injection CO2 exceeds 30% of the total pore fluid at this site. To evaluate the potential of high-resolution seismic reflection to monitor the injection in a miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery pilot study in a 900 m deep 5 m thick oolitic carbonate petroleum reservoir, a 4-D seismic reflection program was undertaken that includes 12 different 3-D surveys over 6 years. The first 3 years (8 surveys) were designed to specifically address the potential application of this method to enhanced oil recovery. The last 3 years (3 surveys) are intended to evaluate the effective of seismic in providing the assurances necessary for CO2 sequestration. Collapse structures related to karst features and anthropogenic leaching resulting from faulty bore fluid containment have posed serious threats to the quality of groundwater above the Hutchinson Salt Member of the Permian Wellington Formation in central Kansas. High-resolution seismic reflection played a key role in characterizing the preferential growth of a sinkhole resulting from the dissolution of the Hutchinson Salt in Pawnee County, Kansas. Salt leaching was instigated by

  16. High Resolution Diagnostics of a Linear Shaped Charge Jet

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.B.; Kuklo, R.M.; Shaw, L.L.; Carter, D.L.; Baum, D.W.

    1999-08-10

    The linear shaped charge is designed to produce a knife blade-like flat jet, which will perforate and sever one side of a modestly hard target from the other. This charge is approximately plane wave initiated and used a water pipe quality circular copper liner. To establish the quality of this jet we report about an experiment using several of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory high-resolution diagnostics previously published in this meeting [1]. Image converter tube camera stereo image pairs were obtained early in the jet formation process. Individual IC images were taken just after the perforation of a thin steel plate. These pictures are augmented with 70 mm format rotating mirror framing images, orthogonal 450 KeV flash radiograph pairs, and arrival time switches (velocity traps) positioned along the length of the jet edge. We have confirmed that linear shaped charges are subject to the same need for high quality copper as any other metal jetting device.

  17. High-resolution adaptive holographic interferometer for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovgalenko, George; Dagdanova, Ayuna

    2007-07-01

    We realized new adaptive holographic sensor and interferometer, which allows to visualize high-resolution 3D images of diffuse reflected objects in Continue Hologram Registration Regime- CHRR. The coupled laser wave nonlinear theory was applied for optimization of hologram recording in crystals symmetry 23 and optimized experimental set up. Experimentally demonstrated dynamical holographic image sensors on doped 23 symmetry photosensitive crystals, with resolution 7900-lines/mm at 632 nm and 11641 lines/mm at 440 nm for 15 mW CW HeNe and He-Cd lasers. The results are presented for holographic visualization of Cryogenic and Ultrasonic near field images of Surgical Medical Instrument. Application of CHRR interferometer for hologram registration of moving biological object in "vivo" is illustrated.

  18. Detection of Barchan Dunes in High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaoui, M. A.; Adnani, M.; El Belrhiti, H.; Chaouki, I. E.; Masmoudi, C.

    2016-06-01

    Barchan dunes are the fastest moving sand dunes in the desert. We developed a process to detect barchans dunes on High resolution satellite images. It consisted of three steps, we first enhanced the image using histogram equalization and noise reduction filters. Then, the second step proceeds to eliminate the parts of the image having a texture different from that of the barchans dunes. Using supervised learning, we tested a coarse to fine textural analysis based on Kolomogorov Smirnov test and Youden's J-statistic on co-occurrence matrix. As an output we obtained a mask that we used in the next step to reduce the search area. In the third step we used a gliding window on the mask and check SURF features with SVM to get barchans dunes candidates. Detected barchans dunes were considered as the fusion of overlapping candidates. The results of this approach were very satisfying in processing time and precision.

  19. High resolution spectroscopy from low altitude satellites. [gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakano, G. H.; Imhof, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    The P 78 1 satellite to be placed in a synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 550-660 km will carry two identical high resolution spectrometers each consisting of a single (approximately 85 cc) intrinsic germanium IGE detector. The payload also includes a pair of phoswitch scintillators, an array of CdTe detectors and several particle detectors, all of which are mounted on the wheel of the satellite. The intrinsic high purity IGE detectors receive cooling from two Stirling cycle refrigerators and facilitate the assembly of large and complex detector arrays planned for the next generation of high sensitivity instruments such as those planned for the gamma ray observatory. The major subsystems of the spectrometer are discussed as well as its capabilities.

  20. High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of single cells

    PubMed Central

    Strohm, Eric M.; Moore, Michael J.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic images of stained neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes from a blood smear were acquired using a combined acoustic/photoacoustic microscope. Photoacoustic images were created using a pulsed 532 nm laser that was coupled to a single mode fiber to produce output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm via stimulated Raman scattering. The excitation wavelength was selected using optical filters and focused onto the sample using a 20× objective. A 1000 MHz transducer was co-aligned with the laser spot and used for ultrasound and photoacoustic images, enabling micrometer resolution with both modalities. The different cell types could be easily identified due to variations in contrast within the acoustic and photoacoustic images. This technique provides a new way of probing leukocyte structure with potential applications towards detecting cellular abnormalities and diseased cells at the single cell level. PMID:27114911

  1. Imaging plasmodesmata with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Barton, Deborah A; Overall, Robyn L

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) is an effective tool to investigate the distribution of plasmodesmata within plant cell walls as well as to probe their complex, three-dimensional architecture. It is a useful alternative to traditional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in which plasmodesmata are sectioned to reveal their internal substructures. Benefits of adopting an HRSEM approach to studies of plasmodesmata are that the specimen preparation methods are less complex and time consuming than for TEM, many plasmodesmata within a large region of tissue can be imaged in a single session, and three-dimensional information is readily available without the need for reconstructing TEM serial sections or employing transmission electron tomography, both of which are lengthy processes. Here we describe methods to prepare plant samples for HRSEM using pre- or postfixation extraction of cellular material in order to visualize plasmodesmata embedded within plant cell walls.

  2. Spontaneous Raman scattering as a high resolution XUV radiation source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothenberg, J. E.; Young, J. F.; Harris, S. E.

    1983-01-01

    A type of high resolution XUV radiation source is described which is based upon spontaneous anti-Stokes scattering of tunable incident laser radiation from atoms excited to metastable levels. The theory of the source is summarized and two sets of experiments using He (1s2s)(1)S atoms, produced in a cw hollow cathode and in a pulsed high power microwave discharge, are discussed. The radiation source is used to examine transitions originating from the 3p(6) shell of potassium. The observed features include four previously unreported absorption lines and several sharp interferences of closely spaced autoionizing lines. A source linewidth of about 1.9 cm(-1) at 185,000 cm(-1) is demonstrated.

  3. High resolution modeling of direct ocean carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Follows; John Marshall

    2004-04-22

    This work has followed two themes: (1) Developing and using the adjoint of the MIT ocean biogeochemistry model to examine the efficiency of carbon sequestration in a global configuration. We have demonstrated the power of the adjoint method for systematic ocean model sensitivity studies. We have shown that the relative efficiency of carbon sequestration in the Atlantic and Pacific basins changes with the period of interest. For decadal to centennial scales, the Pacific is more efficient. On longer timescales the Atlantic is more efficient . (2) We have developed and applied a high-resolution, North Atlantic circulation and tracer model to investigate the role of the mesoscale in controlling sequestration efficiency. We show that the mesoscale eddy field, and its explicit representation, significantly affects the estimated sequestration efficiency for local sources on the Eastern US seaboard.

  4. High-resolution phosphor screen beam profile monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Yencho, S.; Walz, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    A high-resolution luminescent screen beam profile monitor was developed to allow viewing of both conventional large diameter SLAC e/sup +//e/sup -/ beams, and also collider rf-bunches having small transverse spatial extent, with one instrument. The principal features of the monitor are described. They include the two-power magnification system offering magnifications of 12 and 78X, respectively; the reticle grid which is optically superimposed on the screen image by a cube beam splitter; selection of a suitable camera; and the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/(Cr) phosphor screen. A simplified version of the monitor for viewing of only micron-sized beams for applications in the collider arcs and final focus regions and achieving a magnification of approx. 40X, coupled with a resolution of approx. 20..mu..m is also presented. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  5. A high-resolution phosphor screen beam profile monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Yencho, S.; Walz, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    A high-resolution luminescent screen beam profile monitor was developed to allow viewing of both conventional large diameter SLAC e/sup +//e/sup -/ beams, and also collider rf-bunches having small transverse spatial extent, with one instrument. The principal features of the monitor are described. They include the two-power magnification system offering magnifications of 12 and 78X, respectively; the reticle grid which is optically superimposed on the screen image by a cube beam splitter; selection of a suitable camera; and the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/(Cr) phosphor screen. A simplified version of the monitor for viewing of only micronsized beams for applications in the collider arcs and final focus regions and achieving a magnification of about40X, coupled with a resolution of about20..mu..m is also presented.

  6. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits.

    PubMed

    Genot, A J; Baccouche, A; Sieskind, R; Aubert-Kato, N; Bredeche, N; Bartolo, J F; Taly, V; Fujii, T; Rondelez, Y

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  7. High-resolution random-modulation cw lidar.

    PubMed

    Ai, Xiao; Nock, Richard; Rarity, John G; Dahnoun, Naim

    2011-08-01

    A high-resolution random-modulation continuous wave lidar for surface detection using a semiconductor laser diode is presented. The laser diode is intensity modulated with the pseudorandom binary sequence. Its enhanced resolution is achieved via interpolation and a novel front-end analog technique, lowering the requirement of the analog-to-digital converter sampling rate and the associated circuitry. Its mathematical model is presented, including the derivation of the signal-to-noise ratio and the distance standard deviation. Analytical and experimental results demonstrate its capability to achieve distance accuracy of less than 2 cm within 2.6 ms acquisition time, over distances ranging from 1 to 12 m. The laser diode emits 1.4 mW of optical power at a wavelength of 635 nm.

  8. Precision Viticulture from Multitemporal, Multispectral Very High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandylakis, Z.; Karantzalos, K.

    2016-06-01

    In order to exploit efficiently very high resolution satellite multispectral data for precision agriculture applications, validated methodologies should be established which link the observed reflectance spectra with certain crop/plant/fruit biophysical and biochemical quality parameters. To this end, based on concurrent satellite and field campaigns during the veraison period, satellite and in-situ data were collected, along with several grape samples, at specific locations during the harvesting period. These data were collected for a period of three years in two viticultural areas in Northern Greece. After the required data pre-processing, canopy reflectance observations, through the combination of several vegetation indices were correlated with the quantitative results from the grape/must analysis of grape sampling. Results appear quite promising, indicating that certain key quality parameters (like brix levels, total phenolic content, brix to total acidity, anthocyanin levels) which describe the oenological potential, phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics can be efficiently estimated from the satellite data.

  9. Thermal refocusing method for spaceborne high-resolution optical imagers.

    PubMed

    Selımoglu, Ozgur; Ekinci, Mustafa; Karcı, Ozgur

    2016-05-20

    We describe the design of a thermal refocusing method for spaceborne high-resolution imagers where Korsch optical design is usually implemented. The secondary mirror is made of aluminum, a high thermal expansion coefficient material, instead of conventional zero-expansion glass ceramics. In this way, the radius of the curvature can be controlled by means of temperature change of the mirror. Change in the radius of curvature also changes the effective focal length of the camera which is used for compensation of the defocus that occurred in space. We show that the 30 μm despace of the secondary mirror in the optical system can be compensated by an ∼10°C temperature change of the mirror while the image quality is maintained. PMID:27411138

  10. A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.

  11. Higher throughput high resolution multi-worm tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javer, Avelino; Li, Kezhi; Gyenes, Bertalan; Brown, Andre; Behavioural Genomics Team

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a high throughput imaging system for tracking multiple nematode worms at high resolution. The tracker consists of 6 cameras mounted on a motorized gantry so that up to 48 plates (each with approximately 30 worms) can be imaged without user intervention. To deal with the high data rate of the cameras we use real time processing to find worms and only save the immediately surrounding pixels. The system is also equipped with automatic oxygen and carbon dioxide control for observing stimulus response behaviour. We will describe the design and performance of the new system, some of the challenges of truly high throughput behaviour recording, and report preliminary results on inter-individual variation in behaviour as well as a quantitative analysis of C. elegans response to hypoxia, oxygen reperfusion, and carbon dioxide. Funding provided by the Medical Research Council.

  12. High-Resolution Mammography Detector Employing Optical Switching Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Yamane, Katsutoshi; Sendai, Tomonari; Hosoi, Yuichi

    Conceiving a new detector structure, FUJIFILM Corporation has successfully put its invention of an X-ray detector employing "Optical Switching" into practical use. Since Optical Switching Technology allows an electrode structure to be easily designed, both high resolution of pixel pitch and low electrical noise readout have been achieved, which have consequently realized the world's smallest pixel size of 50×50 μm2 from a Direct-conversion FPD system as well as high DQE. The digital mammography system equipped with this detector enables to acquire high definition images while maintaining granularity. Its outstanding feature is to be able to acquire high-precision images of microcalcifications which is an important index in breast examination.

  13. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genot, A. J.; Baccouche, A.; Sieskind, R.; Aubert-Kato, N.; Bredeche, N.; Bartolo, J. F.; Taly, V.; Fujii, T.; Rondelez, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator–prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  14. High-resolution Angle Measurement based on Michelson Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang; Fan, Kuang-Chao

    In this paper a reconfigured Michelson interferometer for high-resolution angle measurement is proposed. The anglular displacement of the object mirror will cause optical path difference that generates interference. With an optical phase shift module the photodetectors will collect quadrature signals with 90° phase shift. With pulse counting and phase subdivision processing the optical path change can be calculated and then converted to anglular displacement. The proposed structure is also featured by its miniature design. The optical system is only 55 mm by 55 mm in area. In order to facilitate the alignment of optical components and improve the signal quality, a new optical bonding technology by mechanical fixture is proposed so that the optics can be permanently pressed together without air gap in between. Experiments show that the resolution is 0.01", the accuracy is less than 0.03", and the repeatability is within 0.1" for the measurement range of ± 50 arc seconds.

  15. Automatic Extraction of Building Outline from High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yandong

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new approach for automated extraction of building boundary from high resolution imagery is proposed. The proposed approach uses both geometric and spectral properties of a building to detect and locate buildings accurately. It consists of automatic generation of high quality point cloud from the imagery, building detection from point cloud, classification of building roof and generation of building outline. Point cloud is generated from the imagery automatically using semi-global image matching technology. Buildings are detected from the differential surface generated from the point cloud. Further classification of building roof is performed in order to generate accurate building outline. Finally classified building roof is converted into vector format. Numerous tests have been done on images in different locations and results are presented in the paper.

  16. Bayesian Peptide Peak Detection for High Resolution TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqiu; Zhou, Xiaobo; Wang, Honghui; Suffredini, Anthony; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Yufei; Wong, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we address the issue of peptide ion peak detection for high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) data. A novel Bayesian peptide ion peak detection method is proposed for TOF data with resolution of 10 000–15 000 full width at half-maximum (FWHW). MS spectra exhibit distinct characteristics at this resolution, which are captured in a novel parametric model. Based on the proposed parametric model, a Bayesian peak detection algorithm based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling is developed. The proposed algorithm is tested on both simulated and real datasets. The results show a significant improvement in detection performance over a commonly employed method. The results also agree with expert’s visual inspection. Moreover, better detection consistency is achieved across MS datasets from patients with identical pathological condition. PMID:21544266

  17. High-resolution chemical sensor for unattended underwater networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adornato, Lori; Kaltenbacher, Eric A.; Byrne, Robert H.; Liu, Xuewu; Easley, Regina

    2008-10-01

    Autonomous underwater sensors are the best solution for continuous detection of chemical species in aquatic systems. The Spectrophotometric Elemental Analysis System (SEAS), an in situ instrument that incorporates both fluorescence and colorimetric techniques, provides high-resolution time-series measurements of a wide variety of analytes. The use of Teflon AF2400 long-pathlength optical cells allows for sub-parts-per-billion detection limits. User-defined sampling frequencies up to 1 Hz facilitate measurements of chemical concentrations on highly resolved temporal and spatial scales. Due to its modular construction, SEAS can be adapted for operation in littoral or open ocean regions. We present a high-level overview of the instrument's design along with data from moored deployments and deep water casts.

  18. The sun and nearby stars: microwave observations at high resolution.

    PubMed

    Kundu, M R; Lang, K R

    1985-04-01

    High-resolution microwave observations are providing new insights into the nature of active regions and eruptions on the sun and nearby stars. The strength, evolution, and structure of magnetic fields in coronal loops can be determined by multiple-wavelength observations with the Very Large Array. Flare models can be tested with Very Large Array snapshot maps, which have angular resolutions of better than 1 second of arc in time periods as short as 10 seconds. Magnetic changes that precede solar eruptions on time scales of tens of minutes involve primarily emerging coronal loops and the interactions of two or more loops. Magnetic reconnection at the interface of two closed loops may accelerate electrons and trigger the release of microwave energy in the coronal parts of the magnetic loops. Nearby main-sequence stars of late spectral type emit slowly varying microwave radiation and stellar microwave bursts that show striking similarities to those of the sun. PMID:17811548

  19. High-resolution photoemission study of MgB2.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Sato, T; Souma, S; Muranaka, T; Akimitsu, J

    2001-05-21

    We have performed high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy on MgB2 and observed opening of a superconducting gap with a narrow coherent peak. We found that the superconducting gap is s like with the gap value ( Delta) of 4.5+/-0.3 meV at 15 K. The temperature dependence (15-40 K) of the gap value follows well the BCS form, suggesting that 2Delta/k(B)T(c) at T = 0 is about 3. No pseudogap behavior is observed in the normal state. The present results strongly suggest that MgB2 is categorized into a phonon-mediated BCS superconductor in the weak-coupling regime.

  20. High Resolution Melting (HRM) applied to wine authenticity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Leonor; Gomes, Sónia; Castro, Cláudia; Eiras-Dias, José Eduardo; Brazão, João; Graça, António; Fernandes, José R; Martins-Lopes, Paula

    2017-02-01

    Wine authenticity methods are in increasing demand mainly in Denomination of Origin designations. The DNA-based methodologies are a reliable means of tracking food/wine varietal composition. The main aim of this work was the study of High Resolution Melting (HRM) application as a screening method for must and wine authenticity. Three sample types (leaf, must and wine) were used to validate the three developed HRM assays (Vv1-705bp; Vv2-375bp; and Vv3-119bp). The Vv1 HRM assay was only successful when applied to leaf and must samples. The Vv2 HRM assay successfully amplified all sample types, allowing genotype discrimination based on melting temperature values. The smallest amplicon, Vv3, produced a coincident melting curve shape in all sample types (leaf and wine) with corresponding genotypes. This study presents sensitive, rapid and efficient HRM assays applied for the first time to wine samples suitable for wine authenticity purposes.

  1. III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Jacob; Li, J.; Lie, D. Y. C.; Bradford, Charles; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2011-07-01

    We report the realization and properties of a high-resolution solid-state self-emissive microdisplay based on III-nitride semiconductor micro-size light emitting diodes (µLEDs) capable of delivering video graphics images. The luminance level of III-nitride microdisplays is several orders of magnitude higher than those of liquid crystal and organic-LED displays. The pixel emission intensity was almost constant over an operational temperature range from 100 to -100 °C. The outstanding performance is a direct attribute of III-nitride semiconductors. An energy efficient active drive scheme is accomplished by hybrid integration between µLED arrays and Si CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) active matrix integrated circuits. These integrated devices could play important roles in emerging fields such as biophotonics and optogenetics, as well as ultra-portable products such as next generation pico-projectors.

  2. The high resolution imaging spectrometer (HIRIS) for EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Herring, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The high resolution imaging spectrometer (HIRIS) designed for the Earth Observing System (EOS) is designed to acquire images in 192 spectral bands simultaneously in the 0.4-2.5-micron wavelength region. HIRIS is a targeting rather than a continuous acquisition instrument and obtains high-spatial- and spectral-resolution images in a 30-km swath with a 30-m ground instantaneous field of view (GIFOV) in vertical viewing. Pointing will allow image acquisition at -30 to +60 deg along-track and +/-24 deg cross-track. The raw data rate of the instrument is 512 Mbs. The high spectral resolution will make it possible to identify many surficial materials such as rocks, soils, and suspended matter in water directly. HIRIS also offers the possibility of studying biochemical process in vegetation canopies.

  3. Compact high-resolution Littrow conical diffraction spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qinghua

    2016-06-20

    This paper presents a compact high-resolution Littrow conical diffraction spectrometer (LCDS) that includes an echelle grating for horizontally dispersing the incident light beam into several high diffraction orders, a prism for vertically separating the overlapping diffraction orders, and a shared focusing lens used for both the incident and dispersed beams. The unique design of the optics enables the LCDS to give high dispersion on the detector without requiring a large field of view and, therefore, to achieve the benefits of high spectral resolution and compactness. The use of the Littrow conical diffraction coupled with the shared focusing lens makes the LCDS more compact. The formulas of the footprint of the dispersed spectra are derived, and the numerical simulation is given. The design calculations for application of the LCDS to an optical coherence tomography system are illustrated by an example.

  4. Artifacts and pitfalls of high-resolution CT scans.

    PubMed

    Hahn, F J; Chu, W K; Anderson, J C; Dobry, C A

    1985-01-01

    Artifacts on CT images have been observed since the introduction of CT scanners. Some artifacts have been corrected with the improvement of technology and better understanding of the image formation and reconstruction algorithms. Some artifacts, however, are still observable in state-of-the-art high-resolution scans. Many investigations on CT artifacts have been reported. Some artifacts are obvious and some are similar to patterns commonly associated with pathological conditions. The present report summarizes some of the causes of artifacts and presents some artifacts that mimic pathology on clinical scans of the head and spine. It is the intention of this report to bring these artifacts and potential pitfalls to the attention of the radiologists so that misinterpretation can be avoided.

  5. High-resolution dynamic speech imaging with deformation estimation.

    PubMed

    Maojing Fu; Barlaz, Marissa S; Shosted, Ryan K; Zhi-Pei Liang; Sutton, Bradley P

    2015-08-01

    Dynamic speech magnetic resonance imaging (DSMRI) is a promising technique for visualizing articulatory motion in real time. However, many existing applications of DSMRI have been limited by slow imaging speed and the lack of quantitative motion analysis. In this paper, we present a novel DS-MRI technique to simultaneously estimate dynamic image sequence of speech and the associated deformation field. Extending on our previous Partial Separability (PS) model-based methods, the proposed technique visualizes both speech motion and deformation with a spatial resolution of 2.2 × 2.2 mm(2) and a nominal frame rate of 100 fps. Also, the technique enables direct analysis of articulatory motion through the deformation fields. Effectiveness of the method is systematically examined via in vivo experiments. Utilizing the obtained high-resolution images and deformation fields, we also performed a phonetics study on Brazilian Portuguese to show the method's practical utility. PMID:26736572

  6. A high resolution capacitive imaging sensor for manufacturing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, J.L.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1990-09-06

    A high resolution capacitive image sensing technique for measuring edge and surface profiles during manufacturing processes has been invented. A prototype device utilizing this technique consists of two 0.020 in. (500 {mu}m) diameter electrodes fabricated on a printed circuit board with a 0.010 in. (250 {mu}m) gap between them. As the device is mechanically scanned over the workpiece, the spatial variations in the edge or surface to be measured interfere with an electric field imposed between the electrodes, altering the mutual capacitance. The sensor functions as a near field proximity sensor producing range images of surface imperfections. This sensor has been used in applications requiring a preview image of burrs on the edge of a machined part and other processes requiring an inspection image after automated deburring operations. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  7. High-Resolution Polarimetry of Supernova Remnant Kesteven 69

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, C. A.; Mufson, S. L.; Dickel, J. R.

    2008-06-01

    Reported here are high-resolution 6 cm measurements of the adolescent supernova remnant (SNR) Kesteven 69 made with the hybrid BnC configuration of the Very Large Array. Several three-field mosaics of the polarized and total intensity have been used to study this SNR. These investigations lead to a coherent picture of this region. The expanding shock defines an outer rim of high total intensity, suggesting the front is running into large dense clouds with random magnetic field directions. The SNR consists of predominantly of two types of regions, those with high total and relatively weak polarized emission and those with relatively weak total and strong polarized emission. This morphology can be generally explained by the number of clouds with organized magnetic field along the line of sight. Within this SNR there are regions where the field is varying from radial to tangential. As the SN shock encounters clouds, magnetic fields within clouds will strongly affect cloud dynamics.

  8. Wide and high resolution tension measurement using FRET in embryo.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Tsuboi, Takashi; Ishinabe, Nanako; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Michiue, Tatsuo

    2016-06-23

    During embryonic development, physical force plays an important role in morphogenesis and differentiation. Stretch sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) has the potential to provide non-invasive tension measurements inside living tissue. In this study, we introduced a FRET-based actinin tension sensor into Xenopus laevis embryos and demonstrated that this sensor captures variation of tension across differentiating ectoderm. The actinin tension sensor, containing mCherry and EGFP connected by spider silk protein, was validated in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and embryos. It co-localized with actin filaments and changed FRET efficiencies in response to actin filament destruction, myosin deactivation, and osmotic perturbation. Time-lapse FRET analysis showed that the prospective neural ectoderm bears higher tension than the epidermal ectoderm during gastrulation and neurulation, and cells morphogenetic behavior correlated with the tension difference. These data confirmed that the sensor enables us to measure tension across tissues concurrently and with high resolution.

  9. High-resolution multiphoton imaging of tumors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Entenberg, David; Segall, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John

    2011-10-01

    Analysis of the individual steps in metastasis is crucial if insights at the molecular level are to be linked to the cell biology of cancer. A technical hurdle to achieving the analysis of the individual steps of metastasis is the fact that, at the gross level, tumors are heterogeneous in both animal models and patients. Human primary tumors show extensive variation in all properties ranging from growth and morphology of the tumor through tumor-cell density in the blood and formation and growth of metastases. Methods capable of the direct visualization and analysis of tumor-cell behavior at single-cell resolution in vivo have become crucial in advancing the understanding of mechanisms of metastasis, the definition of microenvironment, and the markers related to both. This article discusses the use of high-resolution multiphoton imaging of tumors (specifically breast tumors in mice) in vivo.

  10. High-resolution analysis of polyprenols by supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bamba, T; Fukasaki, W; Kajiyama, S; Ute, K; Kitayama, T; Kobayashi, A

    2001-03-01

    A high-resolution analysis of polyprenol mixtures was achieved by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The separation of polyprenols was examined on an octadecylsilane-packed column with liquid carbon dioxide as the mobile phase and ethanol as modifier. Using this chromatography system, the resolution of separation (Rs) between octadecaprenol (prenol 18) and nonadecaprenol (prenol 19) was two times higher than that using conventional reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Our SFC technique allows the advantage of baseline separation of polyprenol samples containing hydrophobic components such as terpenes or fatty acids that are unfavorable for good separation. This method is very useful for the analysis of structurally close polyprenol analogues of rubber plant metabolites.

  11. Building a global high resolution atmosphere climate simulation capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Recent work to configure the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4), to run climate-length simulations using a high spatial resolution spectral Eulerian dynamical core is underway. Present day climate simulations using coupled and uncoupled configurations of the equivalent 1 degree spectral dynamical core option in the CCSM4 produce better alignment with observations compared to the CCSM3 and a similar climate compared to equivalent default finite volume configurations. Using the 1 degree results and observations as a benchmark, equivalent 1/4 degree resolution spectral model climate simulations produce mixed results; there some are better resolved dynamical features, but also some deficiencies in the hydrological cycle. Several benefits, challenges, and recommendations to improve high-resolution modeling are discussed.

  12. Porous silicon phantoms for high-resolution scintillation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francia, G.; Scafè, R.; De Vincentis, G.; La Ferrara, V.; Iurlaro, G.; Nasti, I.; Montani, L.; Pellegrini, R.; Betti, M.; Martucciello, N.; Pani, R.

    2006-12-01

    High resolution radionuclide imaging requires phantoms with precise geometries and known activities using either Anger cameras equipped with pinhole collimators or dedicated small animal devices. Porous silicon samples, having areas of different shape and size, can be made and loaded with a radioactive material, obtaining: (a) precise radio-emitting figures corresponding to the porous areas geometry, (b) a radioactivity of each figure depending on the pore's specifications, and (c) the same emission energy to be used in true exams. To this aim a sample with porous circular areas has been made and loaded with a 99mTcO 4- solution. Imaging has been obtained using both general purpose and pinhole collimators. This first sample shows some defects that are analyzed and discussed.

  13. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genot, A. J.; Baccouche, A.; Sieskind, R.; Aubert-Kato, N.; Bredeche, N.; Bartolo, J. F.; Taly, V.; Fujii, T.; Rondelez, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  14. Automated electrostatic probe device of high resolution and accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Aleiferis, S.

    2014-12-15

    In this work, an automated apparatus for driving single electrostatic probes and acquiring the plasma-related data has been designed and fabricated. The voltage range of the present system is ±110 V with an adjustable voltage step as low as 3 mV. Voltage and current measurements are carried out with high resolution and high accuracy circuits, both based on 16 bit analog-to-digital converters. The code embedded in a micro-controller, schedules the operation of the device and transfers the experimental data to a personal computer. The modular design of the system makes possible its modification and thus increases its adaptability to different plasma setups. Finally, the reliable operation of the entire device is confirmed by tests in Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma.

  15. High-resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, B.A.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.

    1984-08-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) finding in 18 patients with temporal bone trauma were reviewed. Eight patients suffered longitudinal fractures of the petrous bone, which were associated with ossicular dislocation in two patients. Transverse fractures were detected in six patients, with a contralateral mastoid fracture in one patient. In four patients, the fractures were restricted to the mastoid region. Of the 14 patients in whom adequate neurologic evaluation was available, seven had a permanent facial nerve or hearing deficit while five suffered at least a transient neurologic deficit related to the temporal bone trauma. Routine head CT (10 mm sections) demonstrated only eight of 19 petrous bone injuries. Evidence of brain trauma or extra-axial hemotoma was seen in 12 patients. In 13 cases, high-resolution CT was also performed, demonstrating temporal bone injuries in all. This latter technique allows rapid and detailed evaluation of temporal bone trauma.

  16. High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to design and build the first imaging hard X-ray detector system that incorporates 3D stacking of closely packed detector readouts in finely-spaced imaging arrays with their required data processing and control electronics. In virtually all imaging astronomical detectors, detector readout is done with flex connectors or connections that are not vertical but rather horizontal , requiring loss of focal plane area. For high resolution pixel detectors needed for high speed event-based X-ray imaging, from low energy applications (CMOS) with focusing X-ray telescopes, to hard X-ray applications with pixelated CZT for large area coded aperture telescopes, this new detector development offers great promise. We propose to extend our previous and current APRA supported ProtoEXIST program that has developed the first large area imaging CZT detectors and demonstrated their astrophysical capabilities on two successful balloon flight to a next generation High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI), which would incorporate microvia technology for the first time to connect the readout ASIC on each CZT crystal directly to its control and data processing system. This 3-dimensional stacking of detector and readout/control system means that large area (>2m2) imaging detector planes for a High Resolution Wide-field hard X-ray telescope can be built with initially greatly reduced detector gaps and ultimately with no gaps. This increases detector area, efficiency, and simplicity of detector integration. Thus higher sensitivity wide-field imagers will be possible at lower cost. HREXI will enable a post-Swift NASA mission such as the EREXS concept proposed to PCOS to be conducted as a future MIDEX mission. This mission would conduct a high resolution (<2 arcmin) , broad band (5 200 keV) hard X-ray survey of black holes on all scales with ~10X higher sensitivity than Swift. In the current era of Time Domain Astrophysics, such a survey capability, in conjunction with a n

  17. Thermal design concept for a high resolution UV spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, P.; Stipandic, E.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal design concept described has been developed for the High Resolution UV Spectrometer/Polarimeter to be flown on the Solar Maximum Mission. Based on experience gained from a similar Orbiting Solar Observatory mission payload, it has been recognized that initial protection of the optical elements, contamination control, reduction of scattered light, tight bulk temperature, and gradient constraints are key elements that must be accommodated in any thermal control concept for this class of instrument. Salient features of the design include: (1) a telescope door providing contamination protection of an aplanatic Gregorian telescope; (2) a rastering system for the secondary mirror; (3) a unique solar heat absorbing device; (4) heat pipes and special radiators; (5) heaters for active temperature control and optics contamination protection; and (6) high precision platinum resistance thermometers. Viability of the design concept has been established by extensive thermal analysis and some subsystem testing. A summary of analytical and test results is included.

  18. High-Resolution Fractionation of Signaling Endosomes Containing Different Receptors

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Gretchen; Welker, Jonathan; Scott, Jessica; van Der Salm, Louise; Grimes, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Receptor endocytosis is regulated by ligand binding, and receptors may signal after endocytosis in signaling endosomes. We hypothesized that signaling endosomes containing different types of receptors may be distinct from one another and have different physical characteristics. To test this hypothesis, we developed a high-resolution organelle fractionation method based on mass and density, optimized to resolve endosomes from other organelles. Three different types of receptors undergoing ligand-induced endocytosis were localized predominately in endosomes that were resolved from one another using this method. Endosomes containing activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), TrkA and EGFR, were similar to one another. Endosomes containing p75NTR (in the tumor necrosis receptor superfamily) and PAC1 (a G-protein-coupled receptor) were distinct from each other and from RTK endosomes. Receptor-specific endosomes may direct the intracellular location and duration of signal transduction pathways to dictate response to signals and determine cell fate. PMID:19416476

  19. High Resolution Melting (HRM) applied to wine authenticity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Leonor; Gomes, Sónia; Castro, Cláudia; Eiras-Dias, José Eduardo; Brazão, João; Graça, António; Fernandes, José R; Martins-Lopes, Paula

    2017-02-01

    Wine authenticity methods are in increasing demand mainly in Denomination of Origin designations. The DNA-based methodologies are a reliable means of tracking food/wine varietal composition. The main aim of this work was the study of High Resolution Melting (HRM) application as a screening method for must and wine authenticity. Three sample types (leaf, must and wine) were used to validate the three developed HRM assays (Vv1-705bp; Vv2-375bp; and Vv3-119bp). The Vv1 HRM assay was only successful when applied to leaf and must samples. The Vv2 HRM assay successfully amplified all sample types, allowing genotype discrimination based on melting temperature values. The smallest amplicon, Vv3, produced a coincident melting curve shape in all sample types (leaf and wine) with corresponding genotypes. This study presents sensitive, rapid and efficient HRM assays applied for the first time to wine samples suitable for wine authenticity purposes. PMID:27596395

  20. Quantum cascade laser linewidth investigations for high resolution photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Germer, Markus; Wolff, Marcus

    2009-02-01

    High detection selectivity is extremely important for gas analyzers in order to correctly identify the measured compound. Therefore, laser-based systems require a high optical resolution, which primarily depends on the spectral linewidth of the radiation source. This study examines the effective linewidth (chirp) of a pulsed distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade laser (QCL) in a photoacoustic (PA) gas detection system. The influence of the QCL operating parameters pulse duration and pulse current as well as the impact of the modulation technique are investigated. Effective QCL linewidths for pulse gate modulation, pulse frequency modulation, and chopper modulation are compared. The investigations are performed by measuring the PA spectra of nitrogen monoxide absorption lines. The results prove the strong influence of pulse duration and pulse current. They also demonstrate that the modulation technique has a considerable influence and, consequently, affects the detection selectivity of the PA analyzer. The aim of this research is to determine optimum operational parameters for high resolution PA spectroscopy.

  1. Wide and high resolution tension measurement using FRET in embryo

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Tsuboi, Takashi; Ishinabe, Nanako; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Michiue, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, physical force plays an important role in morphogenesis and differentiation. Stretch sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) has the potential to provide non-invasive tension measurements inside living tissue. In this study, we introduced a FRET-based actinin tension sensor into Xenopus laevis embryos and demonstrated that this sensor captures variation of tension across differentiating ectoderm. The actinin tension sensor, containing mCherry and EGFP connected by spider silk protein, was validated in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and embryos. It co-localized with actin filaments and changed FRET efficiencies in response to actin filament destruction, myosin deactivation, and osmotic perturbation. Time-lapse FRET analysis showed that the prospective neural ectoderm bears higher tension than the epidermal ectoderm during gastrulation and neurulation, and cells morphogenetic behavior correlated with the tension difference. These data confirmed that the sensor enables us to measure tension across tissues concurrently and with high resolution. PMID:27335157

  2. High-resolution random-modulation cw lidar.

    PubMed

    Ai, Xiao; Nock, Richard; Rarity, John G; Dahnoun, Naim

    2011-08-01

    A high-resolution random-modulation continuous wave lidar for surface detection using a semiconductor laser diode is presented. The laser diode is intensity modulated with the pseudorandom binary sequence. Its enhanced resolution is achieved via interpolation and a novel front-end analog technique, lowering the requirement of the analog-to-digital converter sampling rate and the associated circuitry. Its mathematical model is presented, including the derivation of the signal-to-noise ratio and the distance standard deviation. Analytical and experimental results demonstrate its capability to achieve distance accuracy of less than 2 cm within 2.6 ms acquisition time, over distances ranging from 1 to 12 m. The laser diode emits 1.4 mW of optical power at a wavelength of 635 nm. PMID:21833124

  3. Multilayer Patterning of High Resolution Intrinsically Stretchable Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tybrandt, Klas; Stauffer, Flurin; Vörös, Janos

    2016-05-01

    Stretchable electronics can bridge the gap between hard planar electronic circuits and the curved, soft and elastic objects of nature. This has led to applications like conformal displays, electronic skin and soft neuroprosthetics. A remaining challenge, however, is to match the dimensions of the interfaced systems, as all require feature sizes well below 100 μm. Intrinsically stretchable nanocomposites are attractive in this context as the mechanical deformations occur on the nanoscale, although methods for patterning high performance materials have been lacking. Here we address these issues by reporting on a multilayer additive patterning approach for high resolution fabrication of stretchable electronic devices. The method yields highly conductive 30 μm tracks with similar performance to their macroscopic counterparts. Further, we demonstrate a three layer micropatterned stretchable electroluminescent display with pixel sizes down to 70 μm. These presented findings pave the way towards future developments of high definition displays, electronic skins and dense multielectrode arrays.

  4. High-resolution imaging microchannel plate detector for EUV spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannister, Nigel P.; Lapington, Jonathan S.; Barstow, Martin A.; Fraser, George W.; Sanderson, B. S.; Tandy, J. A.; Pearson, James F.; Spragg, J. E.

    2000-12-01

    We describe the development of an imaging microchannel plate detector for a new class of high resolution EUV spectrometer. The detector incorporates a front MCP coated with a CsI photocathode to enhance quantum efficiency, while the rear MCP, supplied by Photonis SAS for a European Space Agency Technology Research Program, represents one of the first uses of a 6 micron pore device in astronomy. The detector uses a unique design of charge division anode, the Vernier readout, enabling it to deliver a spatial resolution better than 15 microns FWHM. The detector forms an integral component of J- PEX, a sounding rocket EUV spectrometer operating at near- normal incidence, using multilayer coated gratings to deliver a resolution and effective area 10 times that of EUVE in the 225 - 245 angstrom band.

  5. High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of single cells.

    PubMed

    Strohm, Eric M; Moore, Michael J; Kolios, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic images of stained neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes from a blood smear were acquired using a combined acoustic/photoacoustic microscope. Photoacoustic images were created using a pulsed 532 nm laser that was coupled to a single mode fiber to produce output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm via stimulated Raman scattering. The excitation wavelength was selected using optical filters and focused onto the sample using a 20× objective. A 1000 MHz transducer was co-aligned with the laser spot and used for ultrasound and photoacoustic images, enabling micrometer resolution with both modalities. The different cell types could be easily identified due to variations in contrast within the acoustic and photoacoustic images. This technique provides a new way of probing leukocyte structure with potential applications towards detecting cellular abnormalities and diseased cells at the single cell level.

  6. Measuring Large-Scale Social Networks with High Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sekara, Vedran; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Cuttone, Andrea; Madsen, Mette My; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years—the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics) for a densely connected population of 1 000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection. PMID:24770359

  7. High resolution surface wave dispersion studies in China

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.E.; Patton, H.J.

    1997-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory regional calibration project is actively assembling a database of surface-wave dispersion information for China and surrounding areas. As part of the effort to characterize surface wave dispersion in China, we integrate prior long period results from the University of Colorado with our shorter period dispersion measurements in a high resolution survey of key monitoring areas. Focusing on western China initially, we employ broadband data recorded on CDSN stations, and regional events (m{sub b} 4 and above). Our approach is twofold, employing path specific calibration of key stations and well-recorded reference events, and tomographic inference to provide group velocity curves for regions with sparse station distribution and little seismic activity. Initial dispersion studies at Chinese stations WMQ and LZH show substantial azimuthal variation in dispersion, reinforcing the need for careful determination of source regions for path-specific calibration.

  8. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken B. (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor); Dengler, Robert J. (Inventor); Schlecht, Erich T. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional imaging radar operating at high frequency e.g., 670 GHz, is disclosed. The active target illumination inherent in radar solves the problem of low signal power and narrow-band detection by using submillimeter heterodyne mixer receivers. A submillimeter imaging radar may use low phase-noise synthesizers and a fast chirper to generate a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) waveform. Three-dimensional images are generated through range information derived for each pixel scanned over a target. A peak finding algorithm may be used in processing for each pixel to differentiate material layers of the target. Improved focusing is achieved through a compensation signal sampled from a point source calibration target and applied to received signals from active targets prior to FFT-based range compression to extract and display high-resolution target images. Such an imaging radar has particular application in detecting concealed weapons or contraband.

  9. The sun and nearby stars - Microwave observations at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Lang, K. R.

    1985-04-01

    High-resolution microwave observations are providing new insights into the nature of active regions and eruptions on the sun and nearby stars. The strength, evolution, and structure of magnetic fields in coronal loops can be determined by multiple-wavelength observations with the Very Large Array. Flare models ccan be tested with Very Large Array snapshot maps, which have angular resolutions of better than 1 second of arc in time periods as short as 10 seconds. Magnetic changes that precede solar eruptions on time scales of tens of minutes involve primarily emerging coronal loops and the interactions of two or more loops. Magnetic reconnection at the interface of two closed loops may accelerate electrons and trigger the release of microwave energy in the coronal parts of the magnetic loops. Nearby main-sequence stars of late spectral type emit slowly varying microwave radiation and stellar microwave bursts that show striking similarities to those of the sun.

  10. Wide and high resolution tension measurement using FRET in embryo.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Tsuboi, Takashi; Ishinabe, Nanako; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Michiue, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, physical force plays an important role in morphogenesis and differentiation. Stretch sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) has the potential to provide non-invasive tension measurements inside living tissue. In this study, we introduced a FRET-based actinin tension sensor into Xenopus laevis embryos and demonstrated that this sensor captures variation of tension across differentiating ectoderm. The actinin tension sensor, containing mCherry and EGFP connected by spider silk protein, was validated in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and embryos. It co-localized with actin filaments and changed FRET efficiencies in response to actin filament destruction, myosin deactivation, and osmotic perturbation. Time-lapse FRET analysis showed that the prospective neural ectoderm bears higher tension than the epidermal ectoderm during gastrulation and neurulation, and cells morphogenetic behavior correlated with the tension difference. These data confirmed that the sensor enables us to measure tension across tissues concurrently and with high resolution. PMID:27335157

  11. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits.

    PubMed

    Genot, A J; Baccouche, A; Sieskind, R; Aubert-Kato, N; Bredeche, N; Bartolo, J F; Taly, V; Fujii, T; Rondelez, Y

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations. PMID:27442281

  12. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Joe; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David John; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; /Fermilab /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Cambridge U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Cornell U., LNS /LLNL, Livermore /University Coll. London /SLAC /Caltech /KEK, Tsukuba

    2007-06-08

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {mu}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {mu}m.

  13. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, S; Boogert, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Frisch, J; Gronberg, J; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Kolomensky, Y; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Meller, R; Miller, D; Orimoto, T; Ross, M; Slater, M; Smith, S; Smith, T; Terunuma, N; Thomson, M; Urakawa, J; Vogel, V; Ward, D; White, G

    2006-12-18

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {micro}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {micro}m.

  14. High-resolution computed tomography of the normal larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, P.M.; Korobkin, M.

    1983-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides a unique method of evaluating abnormalities of the larynx by virture of its cross-sectional images. Several reports have demonstrated its utility in staging laryngeal carcinoma and defining the extent of injury in cases of laryngeal trauma. In order to appreciate subtle abnormalities of the larynx, a thorough understanding of the normal structures in this small anatomic area is crucial. Although previous studies have defined the normal CT anatomy of the larynx, many of the CT-anatomic correlations of the normal larynx used earlier-generation CT scanners with relatively poor resolution or were limited to transaxial images. High-resolution transaxial, coronal, and sagittal CT in vivo images are correlated with line drawings displaying normal laryngeal anatomy. The exquisite anatomic detail apparent in these images provides a sound basis for understanding subtle abnormalities in pathologic cases. (JMT)

  15. High-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of water dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Z. S.; Miller, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution near-infrared spectra are reported for all of the O-H stretch vibrational bands of the water dimer. The four O-H vibrations are characterized as essentially independent proton-donor or proton-acceptor motions. In addition to the rotational and vibrational information contained in these spectra, details are obtained concerning the internal tunneling dynamics in both the ground and excited vibrational states. These results show that, for tunneling motions which involve the interchange of the proton donor and acceptor molecules, the associated frequencies decrease substantially due to vibrational excitation. The predissociation lifetimes for the various states of the dimer are determined from linewidth measurements. These results clearly show that the predissociation dynamics is strongly dependent on the tunneling states, as well as the Ka quantum number, indicating that the internal tunneling dynamics plays an important role in determining the dissociation rate in this complex.

  16. THz holography in reflection using a high resolution microbolometer array.

    PubMed

    Zolliker, Peter; Hack, Erwin

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate a digital holographic setup for Terahertz imaging of surfaces in reflection. The set-up is based on a high-power continuous wave (CW) THz laser and a high-resolution (640 × 480 pixel) bolometer detector array. Wave propagation to non-parallel planes is used to reconstruct the object surface that is rotated relative to the detector plane. In addition we implement synthetic aperture methods for resolution enhancement and compare Fourier transform phase retrieval to phase stepping methods. A lateral resolution of 200 μm and a relative phase sensitivity of about 0.4 rad corresponding to a depth resolution of 6 μm are estimated from reconstructed images of two specially prepared test targets, respectively. We highlight the use of digital THz holography for surface profilometry as well as its potential for video-rate imaging.

  17. High-Resolution DNA Melting Analysis in Plant Research.

    PubMed

    Simko, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Genetic and genomic studies provide valuable insight into the inheritance, structure, organization, and function of genes. The knowledge gained from the analysis of plant genes is beneficial to all aspects of plant research, including crop improvement. New methods and tools are continually being developed to facilitate rapid and accurate mapping, sequencing, and analyzing of genes. Here, I review the recent progress in the application of high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis of DNA, a method that allows detecting polymorphism in double-stranded DNA by comparing profiles of melting curves. Use of HRM has expanded considerably in the past few years as the method was successfully applied for high-throughput genotyping, mapping genes, testing food products and seeds, and other areas of plant research. PMID:26827247

  18. Tuning and scanning control system for high resolution alexandrite lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James C.; Schwemmer, Geary K.

    1988-01-01

    An alexandrite laser is spectrally narrowed and tuned by the use of three optical elements. Each element provides a successively higher degree of spectral resolution. The digitally controlled tuning and scanning control servo system simultaneously positions all three optical elements to provide continuous high resolution laser spectral tuning. The user may select manual, single, or continuous modes of automated scanning of ranges up to 3.00/cm and at scan rates up to 3.85/cm/min. Scanning over an extended range of up to 9.999/cm may be achieved if the highest resolution optic is removed from the system. The control system is also capable of being remotely operated by another computer or controller via standard RS-232 serial data link.

  19. MAGELLAN: High resolution spectroscopy at FUV and EUV wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grewing, M.; Alighieri, S. D.; Burton, W.; Coleman, C. I.; Hoekstra, R.; Jamar, C.; Labeque, A.; Laurent, C.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Rafanelli, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of ESA's MAGELLAN mission is to provide high resolution spectra of celestial sources down to sixteenth magnitude over the extreme ultraviolet wavelength range (between 50 and 140 nm). This range extends from studies of interstellar matter in the disc and halo of this and other galaxies, to stellar envelopes, hot and evolved stars, clusters, intergalactic matter, nuclei of galaxies, quasars, and, finally, planets and satellites. The instrument has a nonconventional optical design using only one reflecting surface; a high groove density concave grating collects the star light, diffracts it and focuses its spectrum into a bidimensional windowless detector operated in a photon counting mode. The slitless configuration provides the spectra of all the sources (point like and extended) in the field of view of the grating. This field of view is limited by a grid collimator to reduce the diffuse background, the stray light and the probability of overlapping spectra in crowded fields.

  20. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  1. High-resolution mapping of protein sequence-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Douglas M; Araya, Carlos L; Fleishman, Sarel J; Kellogg, Elizabeth H; Stephany, Jason J; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley

    2010-09-01

    We present a large-scale approach to investigate the functional consequences of sequence variation in a protein. The approach entails the display of hundreds of thousands of protein variants, moderate selection for activity and high-throughput DNA sequencing to quantify the performance of each variant. Using this strategy, we tracked the performance of >600,000 variants of a human WW domain after three and six rounds of selection by phage display for binding to its peptide ligand. Binding properties of these variants defined a high-resolution map of mutational preference across the WW domain; each position had unique features that could not be captured by a few representative mutations. Our approach could be applied to many in vitro or in vivo protein assays, providing a general means for understanding how protein function relates to sequence.

  2. A Muon Exposure in the Tohoku High Resolution Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.; Shapire, A.; Widgoff, M.; Childress, S.; Murphy, T.; Alyea, E.D.; Mao, C.; Tai, Y.; Wang, S.; Wu, Y.; Xu, S.W.; /IHEP /MIT /Tohoku U. /Tohoku Gakuin U.

    1986-01-01

    The authors would like to propose an experiment to investigate muon induced interactions in the Tohoku freon bubble chamber, a high resolution 4{pi} detector. The Tohoku bubble chamber is located in Lab F on the neutrino beam line. The NT test beam line, which passes 4.5 meters east of the bubble chamber, has carried a muon beam to Lab F in the past. it appears possible to bend this beam to the west sufficiently to send muons of approximately 200 GeV to the present position of the Tohoku chamber. A bubble chamber experiment will have better systematics than a comparable muons cattering experiment using counters, but will have lower statistics. With the chamber, direct observation of neutral strange particle and charm particle production will make possible a unique clean study of the virtual photon interactions involved.

  3. Theme issue "High Resolution Earth Imaging for Geospatial Information"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heipke, Christian; Soergel, Uwe; Rottensteiner, Franz; Jutzi, Boris

    2015-02-01

    Earth imaging from air and space has undergone major changes over the last decade. Examples of new and significant developments comprise the development and constant improvement of digital aerial cameras, multiple-echo and full-waveform laser scanners and the appearance of geosensor networks and unconventional platforms, most notably unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), sometimes called unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) or remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS), and the ever increasing number of high-resolution and hyperspectral optical and SAR satellite sensors, small satellites and satellite constellations, which allow for both, a continued availability of satellite data over long periods of time, and a very short revisit time for any location on the globe. To give few examples: the latest Landsat satellite, appropriately called the Landsat data continuity mission or LDCM was launched on February 2013, continuing the Landsat mission which began back in 1972; during 2013 and 2014 France has put the SPOT 6 and 7 twin satellites into orbit, extending the history of high resolution space images, which started in 1986; and in April 2014 the European Space Agency (ESA) successfully launched the Sentinel 1A satellite with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor, the first of a fleet of different sensors that will be sent into space in the coming years. Sentinel 1A together with its twin system Sentinel 1B, to be launched in 2016, will continue the tremendous success story of ESA's C band SAR satellite activities dating back to 1991. Like the predecessors ERS 1, ERS 2, and Envisat ASAR, the Sentinel 1 systems are designed to cover the entire land mass with medium resolution, the repeat cycle is 12 days for Sentinel 1A alone and will even drop to six days as soon as both satellites are operational.

  4. High-resolution mechanical imaging of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Guo, Jing; Tzschätzsch, Heiko; Hirsch, Sebastian; Fischer, Thomas; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and reproducibility of in vivo high-resolution mechanical imaging of the asymptomatic human kidney. Hereby nine volunteers were examined at three different physiological states of urinary bladder filling (a normal state, urinary urgency, and immediately after urinary relief). Mechanical imaging was performed of the in vivo kidney using three-dimensional multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography combined with multifrequency dual elastovisco inversion. Other than in classical elastography, where the storage and loss shear moduli are evaluated, we analyzed the magnitude |G(⁎)| and the phase angle φ of the complex shear modulus reconstructed by simultaneous inversion of full wave field data corresponding to 7 harmonic drive frequencies from 30 to 60Hz and a resolution of 2.5mm cubic voxel size. Mechanical parameter maps were derived with a spatial resolution superior to that in previous work. The group-averaged values of |G(⁎)| were 2.67±0.52kPa in the renal medulla, 1.64±0.17kPa in the cortex, and 1.17±0.21kPa in the hilus. The phase angle φ (in radians) was 0.89±0.12 in the medulla, 0.83±0.09 in the cortex, and 0.72±0.06 in the hilus. All regional differences were significant (P<0.001), while no significant variation was found in relation to different stages of bladder filling. In summary our study provides first high-resolution maps of viscoelastic parameters of the three anatomical regions of the kidney. |G(⁎)| and φ provide novel information on the viscoelastic properties of the kidney, which is potentially useful for the detection of renal lesions or fibrosis.

  5. 2D optoacoustic array for high resolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazi, S.; Witte, R. S.; Kim, K.; Huang, S.-W.; Hou, Y.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    An optoacoustic detector denotes the detection of acoustic signals by optical devices. Recent advances in fabrication techniques and the availability of high power tunable laser sources have greatly accelerated the development of efficient optoacoustic detectors. The unique advantages of optoacoustic technology are of special interest in applications that require high resolution imaging. For these applications optoacoustic technology enables high frequency transducer arrays with element size on the order of 10 μm. Laser generated ultrasound (photoacoustic effect) has been studied since the early observations of A.G. Bell (1880) of audible sound generated by light absorption . Modern studies have demonstrated the use of the photoacoustic effect to form a versatile imaging modality for medical and biological applications. A short laser pulse illuminates a tissue creating rapid thermal expansion and acoustic emission. Detection of the resulting acoustic field by an array enables the imaging of the tissue optical absorption using ultrasonic imaging methods. We present an integrated imaging system that employs photoacoustic sound generation and 2D optoacoustic reception. The optoacoustic receiver consists of a thin polymer Fabry-Perot etalon. The etalon is an optical resonator of a high quality factor (Q = 750). The relatively low elasticity modulus of the polymer and the high Q-factor of the resonator combine to yield high ultrasound sensitivity. The etalon thickness (10 μm) was optimized for wide bandwidth (typically above 50 MHz). An optical scanning and focusing system is used to create a large aperture and high density 2D ultrasonic receiver array. High resolution 3D images of phantom targets and biological tissue samples were obtained.

  6. High-resolution mechanical imaging of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Guo, Jing; Tzschätzsch, Heiko; Hirsch, Sebastian; Fischer, Thomas; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and reproducibility of in vivo high-resolution mechanical imaging of the asymptomatic human kidney. Hereby nine volunteers were examined at three different physiological states of urinary bladder filling (a normal state, urinary urgency, and immediately after urinary relief). Mechanical imaging was performed of the in vivo kidney using three-dimensional multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography combined with multifrequency dual elastovisco inversion. Other than in classical elastography, where the storage and loss shear moduli are evaluated, we analyzed the magnitude |G(⁎)| and the phase angle φ of the complex shear modulus reconstructed by simultaneous inversion of full wave field data corresponding to 7 harmonic drive frequencies from 30 to 60Hz and a resolution of 2.5mm cubic voxel size. Mechanical parameter maps were derived with a spatial resolution superior to that in previous work. The group-averaged values of |G(⁎)| were 2.67±0.52kPa in the renal medulla, 1.64±0.17kPa in the cortex, and 1.17±0.21kPa in the hilus. The phase angle φ (in radians) was 0.89±0.12 in the medulla, 0.83±0.09 in the cortex, and 0.72±0.06 in the hilus. All regional differences were significant (P<0.001), while no significant variation was found in relation to different stages of bladder filling. In summary our study provides first high-resolution maps of viscoelastic parameters of the three anatomical regions of the kidney. |G(⁎)| and φ provide novel information on the viscoelastic properties of the kidney, which is potentially useful for the detection of renal lesions or fibrosis. PMID:24355382

  7. Comparative Assessment of Very High Resolution Satellite and Aerial Orthoimagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to assess the accuracy and radiometric quality of orthorectified high resolution satellite imagery from Pleiades-1B satellites through a comparative evaluation of their quantitative and qualitative properties. A Pleiades-B1 stereopair of high resolution images taken in 2013, two adjacent GeoEye-1 stereopairs from 2011 and aerial orthomosaic (LSO) provided by NCMA S.A (Hellenic Cadastre) from 2007 have been used for the comparison tests. As control dataset orthomosaic from aerial imagery provided also by NCMA S.A (0.25m GSD) from 2012 was selected. The process for DSM and orthoimage production was performed using commercial digital photogrammetric workstations. The two resulting orthoimages and the aerial orthomosaic (LSO) were relatively and absolutely evaluated for their quantitative and qualitative properties. Test measurements were performed using the same check points in order to establish their accuracy both as far as the single point coordinates as well as their distances are concerned. Check points were distributed according to JRC Guidelines for Best Practice and Quality Checking of Ortho Imagery and NSSDA standards while areas with different terrain relief and land cover were also included. The tests performed were based also on JRC and NSSDA accuracy standards. Finally, tests were carried out in order to assess the radiometric quality of the orthoimagery. The results are presented with a statistical analysis and they are evaluated in order to present the merits and demerits of the imaging sensors involved for orthoimage production. The results also serve for a critical approach for the usability and cost efficiency of satellite imagery for the production of Large Scale Orthophotos.

  8. Advancing Cyberinfrastructure to support high resolution water resources modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Ogden, F. L.; Jones, N.; Horsburgh, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Addressing the problem of how the availability and quality of water resources at large scales are sensitive to climate variability, watershed alterations and management activities requires computational resources that combine data from multiple sources and support integrated modeling. Related cyberinfrastructure challenges include: 1) how can we best structure data and computer models to address this scientific problem through the use of high-performance and data-intensive computing, and 2) how can we do this in a way that discipline scientists without extensive computational and algorithmic knowledge and experience can take advantage of advances in cyberinfrastructure? This presentation will describe a new system called CI-WATER that is being developed to address these challenges and advance high resolution water resources modeling in the Western U.S. We are building on existing tools that enable collaboration to develop model and data interfaces that link integrated system models running within an HPC environment to multiple data sources. Our goal is to enhance the use of computational simulation and data-intensive modeling to better understand water resources. Addressing water resource problems in the Western U.S. requires simulation of natural and engineered systems, as well as representation of legal (water rights) and institutional constraints alongside the representation of physical processes. We are establishing data services to represent the engineered infrastructure and legal and institutional systems in a way that they can be used with high resolution multi-physics watershed modeling at high spatial resolution. These services will enable incorporation of location-specific information on water management infrastructure and systems into the assessment of regional water availability in the face of growing demands, uncertain future meteorological forcings, and existing prior-appropriations water rights. This presentation will discuss the informatics

  9. Design of the WIYN High Resolution Infrared Camera (WHIRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smee, S. A.; Barkhouser, R. H.; Scharfstein, G. A.; Meixner, M.; Orndorff, J. D.; Miller, T.

    2011-01-01

    The WIYN High Resolution Infrared Camera (WHIRC) is a high-resolution near-infrared imager (0.8-2.5 μm) designed to produce superb images over a moderate (3.3' × 3.4') field of view on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. It takes scientific advantage of the excellent image quality produced by the telescope and its image stabilization subsystem, the WIYN Tip-Tilt Module (WTTM), which is located on one of two Nasmyth ports. WHIRC mounts to WTTM and reimages the WTTM focal plane to a plate scale of 0.1'' pixel-1 at the WHIRC detector. Its straight-through optical path makes for a compact, very low mass, instrument—a necessity, given the stringent moment-loading requirement at the WTTM interface. The WHIRC optical path consists of a vacuum window, a five-element collimator, a dual filter wheel, a five-element achromatic camera, and a 2k2 Raytheon VIRGO mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detector. A novel all-aluminum lens cell design is used to achieve 13 μm lens centering tolerances between ambient and the 77 K operating temperature. A suite of 13 filters facilitates broadband (J, H, and Ks) imaging, as well as narrowband imaging tailored to a variety of astronomical investigations. The imaging performance of WHIRC is excellent. Irrespective of seeing, the telescope, and WTTM, WHIRC delivers 0.13'', 0.11'', and 0.08'' FWHM images in J, H, and Ks, respectively. On sky, the imaging is equally impressive yielding images as good as ~0.25 FWHM in Ks. In this article we describe the WHIRC design in detail and present the predicted and measured instrument performance.

  10. Intact MicroRNA Analysis Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullolli, Majlinda; Knouf, Emily; Arampatzidou, Maria; Tewari, Muneesh; Pitteri, Sharon J.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression, and play key roles in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes and in disease. New tools to analyze miRNAs will add understanding of the physiological origins and biological functions of this class of molecules. In this study, we investigate the utility of high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of miRNAs through proof-of-concept experiments. We demonstrate the ability of mass spectrometry to resolve and separate miRNAs and corresponding 3' variants in mixtures. The mass accuracy of the monoisotopic deprotonated peaks from various miRNAs is in the low ppm range. We compare fragmentation of miRNA by collision-induced dissociation (CID) and by higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) which yields similar sequence coverage from both methods but additional fragmentation by HCD versus CID. We measure the linear dynamic range, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation of miRNA loaded onto a C18 column. Lastly, we explore the use of data-dependent acquisition of MS/MS spectra of miRNA during online LC-MS and demonstrate that multiple charge states can be fragmented, yielding nearly full sequence coverage of miRNA on a chromatographic time scale. We conclude that high resolution mass spectrometry allows the separation and measurement of miRNAs in mixtures and a standard LC-MS setup can be adapted for online analysis of these molecules.

  11. High resolution micro ultrasonic machining for trimming 3D microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, Anupam; Li, Tao; Gianchandani, Yogesh

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of a high resolution micro ultrasonic machining (HR-µUSM) process suitable for post fabrication trimming of complex 3D microstructures made from fused silica. Unlike conventional USM, the HR-µUSM process aims for low machining rates, providing high resolution and high surface quality. The machining rate is reduced by keeping the micro-tool tip at a fixed distance from the workpiece and vibrating it at a small amplitude. The surface roughness is improved by an appropriate selection of abrasive particles. Fluidic modeling is performed to study interaction among the vibrating micro-tool tip, workpiece, and the slurry. Using 304 stainless steel (SS304) tool tips of 50 µm diameter, the machining performance of the HR-µUSM process is characterized on flat fused silica substrates. The depths and surface finish of machined features are evaluated as functions of slurry concentrations, separation between the micro-tool and workpiece, and machining time. Under the selected conditions, the HR-µUSM process achieves machining rates as low as 10 nm s-1 averaged over the first minute of machining of a flat virgin sample. This corresponds to a mass removal rate of ≈20 ng min-1. The average surface roughness, Sa, achieved is as low as 30 nm. Analytical and numerical modeling are used to explain the typical profile of the machined features as well as machining rates. The process is used to demonstrate trimming of hemispherical 3D shells made of fused silica.

  12. Seamounts Identified By High-Resolution Imagery Offshore Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, J. F.; Kagasi, J.; Gikuhi, M.; Njuguna, S.

    2008-12-01

    Multibeam bathymetry and 2-D seismic reflection surveys were carried out between 2007 and 2008 by the Government of Kenya for the purpose of delineating Kenya's extended continental shelf beyond the 200 nautical mile boundary, as allowed under Article 76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). The unique dataset acquired includes areas surveyed for the first time and provides new information on the geological processes of the continental shelf, slope and abyssal plain along the Kenyan passive margin. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry of almost the entire Kenyan continental slope was acquired using two multibeam systems (Kongsberg Simrad EM120 and EM710) aboard the M/V L'Espoir in November/December 2007. A multi-channel seismic survey followed in April/May 2008 (R/V Akademik Alexander Karpinsky) and provided high-resolution seismic reflection profiles. During these surveys, three features interpreted to be seamounts were discovered along Kenya's continental slope at water depths between 2750 and 3500 m. The size of the features varies from 2.5 to 10 km in diameter and 570 to 1740 m in height. The Davie Fracture Zone, a north-south trending transform fault was also identified in the seismic reflection profiles. The ridge, possibly extending from 26°S off south Madagascar to as far north as 2°S, is thought to have been created by the separation and direction of motion of Madagascar from Africa that began in the middle Jurassic. The discovery of these features and the integration of both multibeam bathymetry and seismic reflection profiles provides new information in the study of seamount distribution and their relationship to nearby transform faults.

  13. High resolution CT mammography for surgical biopsy specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Raptopoulos, V.; Baum, J.K.; Hochman, M.; Houlihan, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the performance of high resolution CT on breast biopsy specimens before considering the reevaluation of refined CT techniques in patients with breast abnormalities. High resolution CT was done in 44 surgical biopsy specimens following conventional X-ray specimen mammography. The specimens comprised 38 palpable and nonpalpable soft tissue abnormalities with mean size of 19 mm and 6 specimens with clustered microcalcifications only. There were 21 carcinomas, 10 fibroadenomas, and 13 other benign conditions. Evaluation of CT and conventional images was done separately, and a feature-grading list was used to compare the two modalities. In fatty specimens, grading of morphologic features of masses and the confidence to detect a soft tissue abnormality were equal with both techniques. CT significantly improved the confidence to detect a mass in 17 specimens with dense tissue: On a scale of 0-10, the mean score for detection was 3.8 with radiography and 5.8 with CT (p < 0.008). For clustered microcalcifications, X-ray was superior to CT. The mean CT attenuation of 18 malignant masses (82 HU) was significantly lower than the mean attenuation of 10 fibroadenomas (131 HU; p = 0.003). CT scans of the American College of Radiology test phantom met the requirements for X-ray accreditation. For soft tissue abnormalities, CT specimen mammography performed equally as or better than specimen radiography. These in vitro results suggest potential advantages for increased sensitivity and specificity with CT and justify further investigations. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Three-dimensional high-resolution plasma bubble modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Jin, Hidekatsu

    Equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) is a well-known phenomenon in the equatorial ionospheric F region. As it causes severe scintillation in the amplitude and phase of radio signals, it is important to understand and forecast the occurrence of EPB from a space weather point of view. The development of EPB is known as a evolution of the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Numerical modelings of the instability on the equatorial two-dimensional plane have been conducted since the late 1970's, and the nonlinear evolution of the instability has been clearly presented. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) modelings became popular tools for further understanding of the development of EPB such as 3D structure of EPB, meridional wind effects and gravity wave seeding. One of the biggest advantages of the 3D model is that the off-equatorial E region which is coupled with the equatorial F region can be included in the model. It is known from observations that the conductance of the off-equatorial E region controls the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, that is, sudden decrease of the E-region conductance around the sunset accelerates the evolution of the instability. We have developed a new 3D high-resolution model for EPB, and studied internal structure of EPB and the contribution of the off-equatorial E region. As it is necessary to use high-order numerical schemes to capture sharp plasma density gradient of EPB, we adopted the CIP scheme which can keep the third-order accuracy in time and space. The simulated EPB has asymmetrical density gradients at east and west walls, and the growth rate changes significantly depending on the condition of the off-equatorial E region. In the future, we will integrate the high-resolution model into whole atmosphere-ionosphere coupled model (GAIA) to study the growth of EPB under the realistic background conditions.

  15. A high-resolution regional reanalysis for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlwein, C.

    2015-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers the past 20 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  16. Evaluation of a High-Resolution Regional Reanalysis for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlwein, C.; Wahl, S.; Keller, J. D.; Bollmeyer, C.

    2014-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers 6 years (2007-2012) and is currently extended to 16 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  17. A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentzien, Sabrina; Bollmeyer, Christoph; Crewell, Susanne; Friederichs, Petra; Hense, Andreas; Keller, Jan; Keune, Jessica; Kneifel, Stefan; Ohlwein, Christian; Pscheidt, Ieda; Redl, Stephanie; Steinke, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. The work presented here focuses on the regional reanalysis for Europe with a domain matching the CORDEX-EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km). The COSMO reanalysis system comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO and is complemented by a special soil moisture analysis and boundary conditions given by ERA-interim data. The reanalysis data set currently covers 6 years (2007-2012). The evaluation of the reanalyses is done using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations. The development and evaluation of the COSMO-based reanalysis for the CORDEX-Euro domain can be seen as a preparation for joint European activities on the development of an ensemble system of regional reanalyses for Europe.

  18. High-Resolution Photoelectron Spectroscopy of 2-BUTYNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacovella, Ugo; Gans, Berenger; Merkt, Frederic

    2013-06-01

    Using a coherent narrow-band vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) laser source (bandwitdh of 0.008 cm^{-1}) coupled to a photoionization and pulse-field-ionization zero-kinetic-energy photoelectron (PFI-ZEKE) spectrometer, the threshold photoionization of polyatomic molecules can be studied at high resolution. We present a new measurement of the PFI-ZEKE photoelectron spectrum of the origin band of the X^+ ^2E_{2(d)} ← X ^1{A}_{1(s)} ionizing transition of 2-butyne at a resolution of 0.15 cm^{-1}. Despite this high resolution, the spectral congestion originating from the combined effects of the internal rotation, the spin-orbit coupling and the Jahn-Teller effect prevented the full resolution of the rotational structure of the photoelectron spectrum. Combined with the known structure of the X ^1A_{1(s)} ground state of 2-butyne, including the free internal rotation, the spectrum was used to derive information on the X^+ ^2E_{2(d)} ground state of the 2-butyne radical cation. The rotational branch structure of the spectrum points at a complex energy-level structure of the cation and at the importance of a shape resonance enhancing g photoelectron partial waves. U. Hollenstein, H. Palm, and F. Merkt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4023 (2000). H. C. Longuet-Higgins Mol. Phys. 6, 445 (1963). J. T. Hougen J. Chem. Phys. 37, 1433 (1962). P. R. Bunker Mol. Phys. 8, 81 (1964). H. Xu, U. Jacovella, B. Ruscic, S. T. Pratt and R. R. Lucchese J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154303 (2012).

  19. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Frank M.; Cornelius, Iwan; Blencowe, Anton; Franich, Rick D.; Geso, Moshi

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  20. High Resolution Microendoscopy for Quantitative Diagnosis of Esophageal Neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dongsuk

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the world. Cancers of the esophagus account for 3.8% of all cases of cancers, with approximately 482,300 new cases reported in 2008 worldwide. In the United States alone, it is estimated that approximately 18,000 new cases will be diagnosed in 2013, and 15,210 deaths are expected. Despite advances in surgery and chemoradiation therapy, these advances have not led to a significant increase in survival rates, primarily because diagnosis often at an advanced and incurable stage when treatment is more difficult and less successful. Accurate, objective methods for early detection of esophageal neoplasia are needed. Here, quantitative classification algorithms for high resolution miscroendoscopic images were developed to distinguish between esophageal neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissue. A clinical study in 177 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the classification algorithm in collaboration with the Mount Sinai Medical Center in the United States, the First Hospital of Jilin University in China, and the Cancer Institute and Hospital, the Chinese Academy of Medical Science in China. The study reported a sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 92%, respectively, in the training set, 87% and 97%, respectively, in the test set, and 84% and 95%, respectively, in an independent validation set. Another clinical study in 31 patients with Barrett's esophagus resulted in a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 85%. Finally, a compact, portable version of the high resolution microendoscopy (HRME) device using a consumer-grade camera was developed and a series of biomedical experimental studies were carried out to assess the capability of the device.