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Sample records for ii mhc products

  1. Cohesin regulates MHC class II genes through interactions with MHC class II insulators.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Parimal; Boss, Jeremy M

    2011-10-15

    Cohesin is a multiprotein, ringed complex that is most well-known for its role in stabilizing the association of sister chromatids between S phase and M. More recently, cohesin was found to be associated with transcriptional insulators, elements that are associated with the organization of chromatin into regulatory domains. The human MHC class II (MHC-II) locus contains 10 intergenic elements, termed MHC-II insulators, which bind the transcriptional insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor. MHC-II insulators interact with each other, forming a base architecture of discrete loops and potential regulatory domains. When MHC-II genes are expressed, their proximal promoter regulatory regions reorganize to the foci established by the interacting MHC-II insulators. MHC-II insulators also bind cohesin, but the functional role of cohesin in regulating this system is not known. In this article, we show that the binding of cohesin to MHC-II insulators occurred irrespective of MHC-II expression but was required for optimal expression of the HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes. In a DNA-dependent manner, cohesin subunits interacted with CCCTC-binding factor and the MHC-II-specific transcription factors regulatory factor X and CIITA. Intriguingly, cohesin subunits were important for DNA looping interactions between the HLA-DRA promoter region and a 5' MHC-II insulator but were not required for interactions between the MHC-II insulators themselves. This latter observation introduces cohesin as a regulator of MHC-II expression by initiating or stabilizing MHC-II promoter regulatory element interactions with the MHC-II insulator elements, events that are required for maximal MHC-II transcription.

  2. Domain structures and molecular evolution of class I and class II major histocompatibility gene complex (MHC) products deduced from amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Koji

    1984-12-01

    Domain structures of class I and class II MHC products were analyzed from a viewpoint of amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies. Alignment statistics revealed that class I (transplantation) antigen H chains consist of four mutually homologous domains, and that class II (HLA-DR) antigen β and α chains are both composed of three mutually homologous ones. The N-terminal three and two domains of class I and class II (both β and α) gene products, respectively, all of which being ˜90 residues long, were concluded to be homologous to β2-microglobulin (β2M). The membraneembedded C-terminal shorter domains of these MHC products were also found to be homologous to one another and to the third domain of class I H chains. Class I H chains were found to be more closely related to class II α chains than to class II β chains. Based on these findings, an exon duplication history from a common ancestral gene encoding a β2M-like primodial protein of one-domain-length up to the contemporary MHC products was proposed.

  3. In vitro digestion with proteases producing MHC class II ligands.

    PubMed

    Tohmé, Mira; Maschalidi, Sophia; Manoury, Bénédicte

    2013-01-01

    Proteases generate peptides that bind to MHC class II molecules to interact with a wide diversity of CD4(+) T cells. They are expressed in dedicated organelles: endosomes and lysosomes of professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The identification of endosomal proteases which produce antigenic peptides is important, for example, for better vaccination and to prevent autoimmune diseases. Here, we describe a panel of technics (in vitro digestion assays of protein with recombinant proteases or purified endosomes/lysosomes, T cell stimulation) to monitor the production of MHC class II ligands. PMID:23329510

  4. MHC class II super-enhancer increases surface expression of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ and affects cytokine production in autoimmune vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Giulio; Hayashi, Masahiro; Jin, Ying; Yorgov, Daniel; Santorico, Stephanie A; Holcomb, Cherie; Rastrou, Melinda; Erlich, Henry; Tengesdal, Isak W; Dagna, Lorenzo; Neff, C Preston; Palmer, Brent E; Spritz, Richard A; Dinarello, Charles A

    2016-02-01

    Genetic risk for autoimmunity in HLA genes is most often attributed to structural specificity resulting in presentation of self-antigens. Autoimmune vitiligo is strongly associated with the MHC class II region. Here, we fine-map vitiligo MHC class II genetic risk to three SNPs only 47 bp apart, located within a predicted super-enhancer in an intergenic region between HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1, localized by a genome-wide association study of 2,853 Caucasian vitiligo patients. The super-enhancer corresponds to an expression quantitative trait locus for expression of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ RNA; we observed elevated surface expression of HLA-DR (P = 0.008) and HLA-DQ (P = 0.02) on monocytes from healthy subjects homozygous for the high-risk SNP haplotype. Unexpectedly, pathogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects homozygous for the high-risk super-enhancer haplotype exhibited greater increase in production of IFN-γ and IL-1β than cells from subjects homozygous for the low-risk haplotype. Specifically, production of IFN-γ on stimulation of dectin-1, mannose, and Toll-like receptors with Candida albicans and Staphylococcus epidermidis was 2.5- and 2.9-fold higher in high-risk subjects than in low-risk subjects, respectively (P = 0.007 and P = 0.01). Similarly, production of IL-1β was fivefold higher in high-risk subjects than in low-risk subjects (P = 0.02). Increased production of immunostimulatory cytokines in subjects carrying the high-risk haplotype may act as an "adjuvant" during the presentation of autoantigens, tying together genetic variation in the MHC with the development of autoimmunity. This study demonstrates that for risk of autoimmune vitiligo, expression level of HLA class II molecules is as or more important than antigen specificity.

  5. Ubiquitination by March-I prevents MHC class II recycling and promotes MHC class II turnover in antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Jin; Walseng, Even; Ishido, Satoshi; Roche, Paul A

    2015-08-18

    MHC class II (MHC-II)-dependent antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is carefully controlled to achieve specificity of immune responses; the regulated assembly and degradation of antigenic peptide-MHC-II complexes (pMHC-II) is one aspect of such control. In this study, we have examined the role of ubiquitination in regulating pMHC-II biosynthesis, endocytosis, recycling, and turnover in APCs. By using APCs obtained from MHC-II ubiquitination mutant mice, we find that whereas ubiquitination does not affect pMHC-II formation in dendritic cells (DCs), it does promote the subsequent degradation of newly synthesized pMHC-II. Acute activation of DCs or B cells terminates expression of the MHC-II E3 ubiquitin ligase March-I and prevents pMHC-II ubiquitination. Most importantly, this change results in very efficient pMHC-II recycling from the surface of DCs and B cells, thereby preventing targeting of internalized pMHC-II to lysosomes for degradation. Biochemical and functional assays confirmed that pMHC-II turnover is suppressed in MHC-II ubiquitin mutant DCs or by acute activation of wild-type DCs. These studies demonstrate that acute APC activation blocks the ubiquitin-dependent turnover of pMHC-II by promoting efficient pMHC-II recycling and preventing lysosomal targeting of internalized pMHC-II, thereby enhancing pMHC-II stability for efficient antigen presentation to CD4 T cells.

  6. Mice lacking all conventional MHC class II genes

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Lars; Labrecque, Nathalie; Engberg, Jan; Dierich, Andrée; Svejgaard, Arne; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane; Fugger, Lars

    1999-01-01

    MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules play a central role in the selection of the T cell repertoire, in the establishment and regulation of the adaptive immune response, and in autoimmune deviation. We have generated knockout mice lacking all four of the classical murine MHC-II genes (MHCIIΔ/Δ mice), via a large (80-kilobase) deletion of the entire class II region that was engineered by homologous recombination and Cre recombinase-mediated excision. These mice feature immune system perturbations like those of Aα and Aβ knockout animals, notably a dearth of CD4+ lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen. No new anatomical or physiological abnormalities were observed in MHCIIΔ/Δ mice. Because these animals are devoid of all classical MHC-II chains, even unpaired chains, they make excellent recipients for MHC-II transgenes from other species, avoiding the problem of interspecies cross-pairing of MHC-II chains. Therefore, they should be invaluable for engineering “humanized” mouse models of human MHC-II-associated autoimmune disorders. PMID:10468609

  7. MHC class II exacerbates demyelination in vivo independently of T cells.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Meenaxi M; Chen, Vivian S; Suzuki, Kinuko; Ting, Jenny P Y; Matsushima, Glenn K

    2008-10-15

    We have shown previously the importance of MHC class II for central nervous system remyelination; however, the function of MHC class II during cuprizone-induced demyelination has not been examined. Here, we show that I-A(beta)-/- mice exhibit significantly reduced inflammation and demyelination. RAG-1(1/1) mice are indistinguishable from controls, indicating T cells may not play a role. The role of MHC class II depends on an intact cytoplasmic tail that leads to the production of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and nitric oxide, and oligodendrocyte apoptosis. Thus, the function of MHC class II cytoplasmic tail appears to increase microglial proliferation and activation that exacerbates demyelination. PMID:18805594

  8. Blocking MHC class II on human endothelium mitigates acute rejection

    PubMed Central

    Abrahimi, Parwiz; Qin, Lingfeng; Chang, William G.; Bothwell, Alfred L.M.; Tellides, George; Saltzman, W. Mark; Pober, Jordan S.

    2016-01-01

    Acute allograft rejection is mediated by host CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) targeting graft class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. In experimental rodent models, rejection requires differentiation of naive CD8+ T cells into alloreactive CTL within secondary lymphoid organs, whereas in humans, CTL may alternatively develop within the graft from circulating CD8+ effector memory T cells (TEM) that recognize class I MHC molecules on graft endothelial cells (EC). This latter pathway is poorly understood. Here, we show that host CD4+ TEM, activated by EC class II MHC molecules, provide critical help for this process. First, blocking HLA-DR on EC lining human artery grafts in immunodeficient mice reduces CD8+ CTL development within and acute rejection of the artery by adoptively transferred allogeneic human lymphocytes. Second, siRNA knockdown or CRISPR/Cas9 ablation of class II MHC molecules on EC prevents CD4+ TEM from helping CD8+ TEM to develop into CTL in vitro. Finally, implanted synthetic microvessels, formed from CRISPR/Cas9-modified EC lacking class II MHC molecules, are significantly protected from CD8+ T cell–mediated destruction in vivo. We conclude that human CD8+ TEM–mediated rejection targeting graft EC class I MHC molecules requires help from CD4+ TEM cells activated by recognition of class II MHC molecules. PMID:26900601

  9. DNA sequence of the Peromyscus leucopus MHC class II gene Aa (MhcPeleAa)

    SciTech Connect

    Crew, M.D.; Bates, L.M.

    1996-09-01

    The genus Peromyscus has been extensively studied by populations biologists and ecologists for over eighty years, with P. leucopus (the white-footed mouse) being one of the most intensively investigated species. Polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes have proven useful in population genetic studies and might be helpful in understanding the population dynamics of Peromyscus species which are ubiquitously distributed over North and Central America. Polymorphism of P. leucopus MHC (MhcPele) class II genes was evident by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses using human and mouse probes and Pele class II loci exhibited degrees of polymorphism similar to H2 class II genes (A-like>E-like). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Targeting the MHC II presentation pathway in allergy vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Rhyner, C; Kündig, T; Akdis, C A; Crameri, R

    2007-08-01

    The worldwide increase in the incidence of allergic diseases and the limited efficacy of current vaccines require the development of new efficient vaccination strategies. Based on PTD (protein transduction domain) technology, we have engineered MAT (modular antigen translocation) molecules, aimed to enhance antigen presentation through intracellular targeting of the MHC II presentation pathway. MAT vaccines consist of a cloning cassette, which fuses Tat (transactivator of transcription) peptide to a truncated Ii (invariant chain), which is able to target antigens to the nascent MHC II molecules in the trans-Golgi compartment. To test the efficacy of intracellular targeting, we engineered arrays of MAT-fusions and compared the effects of recombinant allergens, Tat-conjugated allergens and MAT-conjugated allergens for the ability to stimulate T-cell proliferation and cytokine production in human PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cell) cultures derived from allergic individuals, and to elicit protective immune responses in mice. MAT-vaccines induced a strong proliferation of PBMCs at a low concentration and induced a Th2/Treg (regulatory T-cell) cell shift in the cytokine profile, reflecting those reported in successfully desensitized allergic individuals. In allergic mouse models, we showed that MAT-vaccines are highly efficient in desensitizing mice and protect them from anaphylactic shock. The technology is applicable not only for the treatment of allergies, but also for the development of preventive vaccines in general.

  11. Features of target cell lysis by class I and class II MHC restricted cytolytic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Maimone, M.M.; Morrison, L.A.; Braciale, V.L.; Braciale, T.J.

    1986-12-01

    The lytic activity of influenza virus-specific muvine cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones that are restricted by either H-2K/D (class I) or H-2I (class II) major histocompatibility (MHC) locus products was compared on an influenza virus-infected target cell expressing both K/D and I locus products. With the use of two in vitro measurements of cytotoxicity, conventional /sup 51/Cr release, and detergent-releasable radiolabeled DNA (as a measure of nuclear disintegration in the early post-lethal hit period), the authors found no difference between class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL in the kinetics of target cell destruction. In addition, class II MHC-restricted antiviral CTL failed to show any lysis of radiolabeled bystander cells. Killing of labeled specific targets by these class II MHC-restricted CTL was also efficiently inhibited by unlabeled specific competitor cells in a cold target inhibition assay. In sum, these data suggest that class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL mediate target cell destruction by an essentially similar direct mechanism.

  12. Cholesterol lowering drug may influence cellular immune response by altering MHC II function[S

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Koushik; Ghosh, Moumita; Pal, Tuhin Kumar; Chakrabarti, Saikat; Roy, Syamal

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) displays peptides to CD4+ T cells. Depletion of membrane cholesterol from APCs by methyl β-cyclodextrin treatment compromises peptide-MHC II complex formation coupled with impaired binding of conformational antibody, which binds close to the peptide binding groove of MHC II. Interestingly, the total cell surface of MHC II remains unaltered. These defects can be corrected by restoring membrane cholesterol. In silico docking studies with a three-dimensional model showed the presence of a cholesterol binding site in the transmembrane domain of MHC II (TM-MHC-II). From the binding studies it was clear that cholesterol, indeed, interacts with the TM-MHC-II and alters its conformation. Mutation of cholesterol binding residues (F240, L243, and F246) in the TM-MHC-II decreased the affinity for cholesterol. Furthermore, transfection of CHO cells with full-length mutant MHC II, but not wild-type MHC II, failed to activate antigen-specific T cells coupled with decreased binding of conformation-specific antibodies. Thus, cholesterol-induced conformational change of TM-MHC-II may allosterically modulate the peptide binding groove of MHC II leading to T cell activation. PMID:24038316

  13. MHC class II DR allelic diversity in bighorn sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that decreased diversity and/or unique polymorphisms in MHC class II alleles of bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are responsible for lower titer of antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, in comparison to domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). To test this hypothesis, DRA...

  14. MHC class I and MHC class II DRB gene variability in wild and captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Ina; Sharma, Reeta; Goyal, Surendra Prakash; Mishra, Sudanshu; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2010-10-01

    Bengal tigers are highly endangered and knowledge on adaptive genetic variation can be essential for efficient conservation and management. Here we present the first assessment of allelic variation in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II DRB genes for wild and captive tigers from India. We amplified, cloned, and sequenced alpha-1 and alpha-2 domain of MHC class I and beta-1 domain of MHC class II DRB genes in 16 tiger specimens of different geographic origin. We detected high variability in peptide-binding sites, presumably resulting from positive selection. Tigers exhibit a low number of MHC DRB alleles, similar to other endangered big cats. Our initial assessment-admittedly with limited geographic coverage and sample size-did not reveal significant differences between captive and wild tigers with regard to MHC variability. In addition, we successfully amplified MHC DRB alleles from scat samples. Our characterization of tiger MHC alleles forms a basis for further in-depth analyses of MHC variability in this illustrative threatened mammal.

  15. MHC class I and MHC class II DRB gene variability in wild and captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Ina; Sharma, Reeta; Goyal, Surendra Prakash; Mishra, Sudanshu; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2010-10-01

    Bengal tigers are highly endangered and knowledge on adaptive genetic variation can be essential for efficient conservation and management. Here we present the first assessment of allelic variation in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II DRB genes for wild and captive tigers from India. We amplified, cloned, and sequenced alpha-1 and alpha-2 domain of MHC class I and beta-1 domain of MHC class II DRB genes in 16 tiger specimens of different geographic origin. We detected high variability in peptide-binding sites, presumably resulting from positive selection. Tigers exhibit a low number of MHC DRB alleles, similar to other endangered big cats. Our initial assessment-admittedly with limited geographic coverage and sample size-did not reveal significant differences between captive and wild tigers with regard to MHC variability. In addition, we successfully amplified MHC DRB alleles from scat samples. Our characterization of tiger MHC alleles forms a basis for further in-depth analyses of MHC variability in this illustrative threatened mammal. PMID:20821315

  16. MHC Class II Association with Lipid Rafts on the Antigen Presenting Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Howard A.; Roche, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules function by binding peptides derived from either self-or foreign proteins and expressing these peptides on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs) for recognition by CD4 T cells. MHC-II is known to exist on clusters on the surface of APCs, and a variety of biochemical and functional studies have suggested that these clusters represent lipid raft microdomain-associated MHC-II. This review will summarize data exploring the biosynthesis of raft-associated MHC-II and the role that lipid raft association plays in regulating T cell activation by APCs. PMID:25261705

  17. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes.

    PubMed

    Yunis, Juan J; Yunis, Edmond J; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-07-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America.

  18. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes

    PubMed Central

    Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Edmond J.; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America. PMID:23885196

  19. DNA Vaccine that Targets Hemagglutinin to MHC Class II Molecules Rapidly Induces Antibody-Mediated Protection against Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Mjaaland, Siri; Roux, Kenneth H.; Fredriksen, Agnete Brunsvik

    2013-01-01

    New influenza A viruses with pandemic potential periodically emerge due to viral genomic reassortment. In the face of pandemic threats, production of conventional egg-based vaccines is time consuming and of limited capacity. We have developed in this study a novel DNA vaccine in which viral hemagglutinin (HA) is bivalently targeted to MHC class II (MHC II) molecules on APCs. Following DNA vaccination, transfected cells secreted vaccine proteins that bound MHC II on APCs and initiated adaptive immune responses. A single DNA immunization induced within 8 d protective levels of strain-specific Abs and also cross-reactive T cells. During the Mexican flu pandemic, a targeted DNA vaccine (HA from A/California/07/2009) was generated within 3 wk after the HA sequences were published online. These results suggest that MHC II–targeted DNA vaccines could play a role in situations of pandemic threats. The vaccine principle should be extendable to other infectious diseases. PMID:23956431

  20. The arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 regulates CIITA-dependent MHC II transcription.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhiwen; Kong, Xiaocen; Xia, Jun; Wu, Xiaoyan; Li, He; Xu, Huihui; Fang, Mingming; Xu, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC II) dependent antigen presentation serves as a key step in mammalian adaptive immunity and host defense. In antigen presenting cells (e.g., macrophages), MHC II transcription can be activated by interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and mediated by class II transactivator (CIITA). The underlying epigenetic mechanism, however, is not completely understood. Here we report that following IFN-γ stimulation, symmetrically dimethylated histone H3 arginine 2 (H3R2Me2s) accumulated on the MHC II promoter along with CIITA. IFN-γ augmented expression, nuclear translocation, and promoter binding of the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 in macrophages. Over-expression of PRMT5 potentiated IFN-γ induced activation of MHC II transcription in an enzyme activity-dependent manner. In contrast, PRMT5 silencing or inhibition of PRMT5 activity by methylthioadenosine (MTA) suppressed MHC II transactivation by IFN-γ. CIITA interacted with and recruited PRMT5 to the MHC II promoter and mediated the synergy between PRMT5 and ASH2/WDR5 to activate MHC II transcription. PRMT5 expression was down-regulated in senescent and H2O2-treated macrophages rendering ineffectual induction of MHC II transcription by IFN-γ. Taken together, our data reveal a pathophysiologically relevant role for PRMT5 in MHC II transactivation in macrophages. PMID:26972221

  1. Towards universal structure-based prediction of class II MHC epitopes for diverse allotypes.

    PubMed

    Bordner, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    The binding of peptide fragments of antigens to class II MHC proteins is a crucial step in initiating a helper T cell immune response. The discovery of these peptide epitopes is important for understanding the normal immune response and its misregulation in autoimmunity and allergies and also for vaccine design. In spite of their biomedical importance, the high diversity of class II MHC proteins combined with the large number of possible peptide sequences make comprehensive experimental determination of epitopes for all MHC allotypes infeasible. Computational methods can address this need by predicting epitopes for a particular MHC allotype. We present a structure-based method for predicting class II epitopes that combines molecular mechanics docking of a fully flexible peptide into the MHC binding cleft followed by binding affinity prediction using a machine learning classifier trained on interaction energy components calculated from the docking solution. Although the primary advantage of structure-based prediction methods over the commonly employed sequence-based methods is their applicability to essentially any MHC allotype, this has not yet been convincingly demonstrated. In order to test the transferability of the prediction method to different MHC proteins, we trained the scoring method on binding data for DRB1*0101 and used it to make predictions for multiple MHC allotypes with distinct peptide binding specificities including representatives from the other human class II MHC loci, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ, as well as for two murine allotypes. The results showed that the prediction method was able to achieve significant discrimination between epitope and non-epitope peptides for all MHC allotypes examined, based on AUC values in the range 0.632-0.821. We also discuss how accounting for peptide binding in multiple registers to class II MHC largely explains the systematically worse performance of prediction methods for class II MHC compared with those for class I MHC

  2. Mechanistic understanding and significance of small peptides interaction with MHC class II molecules for therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Saifullah; Hoessli, Daniel C; Hameed, Muhammad Waqar

    2016-07-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed by antigen-presenting cells and stimulate CD4(+) T cells, which initiate humoral immune responses. Over the past decade, interest has developed to therapeutically impact the peptides to be exposed to CD4(+) T cells. Structurally diverse small molecules have been discovered that act on the endogenous peptide exchanger HLA-DM by different mechanisms. Exogenously delivered peptides are highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage in vivo; however, it is only when successfully incorporated into stable MHC II-peptide complexes that these peptides can induce an immune response. Many of the small molecules so far discovered have highlighted the molecular interactions mediating the formation of MHC II-peptide complexes. As potential drugs, these small molecules open new therapeutic approaches to modulate MHC II antigen presentation pathways and influence the quality and specificity of immune responses. This review briefly introduces how CD4(+) T cells recognize antigen when displayed by MHC class II molecules, as well as MHC class II-peptide-loading pathways, structural basis of peptide binding and stabilization of the peptide-MHC complexes. We discuss the concept of MHC-loading enhancers, how they could modulate immune responses and how these molecules have been identified. Finally, we suggest mechanisms whereby MHC-loading enhancers could act upon MHC class II molecules.

  3. MHC class II-assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2015-06-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are predicted to choose mates with compatible MHC alleles, to increase the fitness of their offspring. Studies of MHC-based mate choice in wild mammals are under-represented currently, and few investigate more than one class of MHC genes. We investigated mate choice based on the compatibility of MHC class I and II genes in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles). We also investigated mate choice based on microsatellite-derived pairwise relatedness, to attempt to distinguish MHC-specific effects from genomewide effects. We found MHC-assortative mating, based on MHC class II, but not class I genes. Parent pairs had smaller MHC class II DRB amino acid distances and smaller functional distances than expected from random pairings. When we separated the analyses into within-group and neighbouring-group parent pairs, only neighbouring-group pairs showed MHC-assortative mating, due to similarity at MHC class II loci. Our randomizations showed no evidence of genomewide-based inbreeding, based on 35 microsatellite loci; MHC class II similarity was therefore the apparent target of mate choice. We propose that MHC-assortative mate choice may be a local adaptation to endemic pathogens, and this assortative mate choice may have contributed to the low MHC genetic diversity in this population. PMID:25913367

  4. MHC class II-assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2015-06-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are predicted to choose mates with compatible MHC alleles, to increase the fitness of their offspring. Studies of MHC-based mate choice in wild mammals are under-represented currently, and few investigate more than one class of MHC genes. We investigated mate choice based on the compatibility of MHC class I and II genes in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles). We also investigated mate choice based on microsatellite-derived pairwise relatedness, to attempt to distinguish MHC-specific effects from genomewide effects. We found MHC-assortative mating, based on MHC class II, but not class I genes. Parent pairs had smaller MHC class II DRB amino acid distances and smaller functional distances than expected from random pairings. When we separated the analyses into within-group and neighbouring-group parent pairs, only neighbouring-group pairs showed MHC-assortative mating, due to similarity at MHC class II loci. Our randomizations showed no evidence of genomewide-based inbreeding, based on 35 microsatellite loci; MHC class II similarity was therefore the apparent target of mate choice. We propose that MHC-assortative mate choice may be a local adaptation to endemic pathogens, and this assortative mate choice may have contributed to the low MHC genetic diversity in this population.

  5. Neurons Preferentially Respond to Self-MHC Class I Allele Products Regardless of Peptide Presented

    PubMed Central

    Escande-Beillard, Nathalie; Washburn, Lorraine; Zekzer, Dan; Wu, Zhongqi-Phyllis; Eitan, Shoshy; Ivkovic, Sonja; Lu, Yuxin; Dang, Hoa; Middleton, Blake; Bilousova, Tina V.; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Evans, Christopher J.; Joyce, Sebastian; Tian, Jide; Kaufman, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of mice lacking MHC class I (MHC I)-associated proteins have demonstrated a role for MHC I in neurodevelopment. A central question arising from these observations is whether neuronal recognition of MHC I has specificity for the MHC I allele product and the peptide presented. Using a well-established embryonic retina explant system, we observed that picomolar levels of a recombinant self-MHC I molecule inhibited neurite outgrowth. We then assessed the neurobiological activity of a panel of recombinant soluble MHC Is, consisting of different MHC I heavy chains with a defined self- or nonself-peptide presented, on cultured embryonic retinas from mice with different MHC I haplotypes. We observed that self-MHC I allele products had greater inhibitory neuroactivity than nonself-MHC I molecules, regardless of the nature of the peptide presented, a pattern akin to MHC I recognition by some innate immune system receptors. However, self-MHC I molecules had no effect on retinas from MHC I-deficient mice. These observations suggest that neuronal recognition of MHC I may be coordinated with the inherited MHC I alleles, as occurs in the innate immune system. Consistent with this notion, we show that MHC I and MHC I receptors are coexpressed by precursor cells at the earliest stages of retina development, which could enable such coordination. PMID:20018625

  6. High-throughput engineering and analysis of peptide binding to class II MHC.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Boder, Eric T

    2010-07-27

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) proteins govern stimulation of adaptive immunity by presenting antigenic peptides to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Many allelic variants of MHC-II exist with implications in peptide presentation and immunity; thus, high-throughput experimental tools for rapid and quantitative analysis of peptide binding to MHC-II are needed. Here, we present an expression system wherein peptide and MHC-II are codisplayed on the surface of yeast in an intracellular association-dependent manner and assayed by flow cytometry. Accordingly, the relative binding of different peptides and/or MHC-II variants can be assayed by genetically manipulating either partner, enabling the application of directed evolution approaches for high-throughput characterization or engineering. We demonstrate the application of this tool to map the side-chain preference for peptides binding to HLA-DR1 and to evolve novel HLA-DR1 mutants with altered peptide-binding specificity.

  7. Functional recombinant MHC class II molecules and high-throughput peptide-binding assays

    PubMed Central

    Justesen, Sune; Harndahl, Mikkel; Lamberth, Kasper; Nielsen, Lise-Lotte B; Buus, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Background Molecules of the class II major histocompability complex (MHC-II) specifically bind and present exogenously derived peptide epitopes to CD4+ T helper cells. The extreme polymorphism of the MHC-II hampers the complete analysis of peptide binding. It is also a significant hurdle in the generation of MHC-II molecules as reagents to study and manipulate specific T helper cell responses. Methods to generate functional MHC-II molecules recombinantly, and measure their interaction with peptides, would be highly desirable; however, no consensus methodology has yet emerged. Results We generated α and β MHC-II chain constructs, where the membrane-spanning regions were replaced by dimerization motifs, and the C-terminal of the β chains was fused to a biotinylation signal peptide (BSP) allowing for in vivo biotinylation. These chains were produced separately as inclusion bodies in E. coli , extracted into urea, and purified under denaturing and non-reducing conditions using conventional column chromatography. Subsequently, diluting the two chains into a folding reaction with appropriate peptide resulted in efficient peptide-MHC-II complex formation. Several different formats of peptide-binding assay were developed including a homogeneous, non-radioactive, high-throughput (HTS) binding assay. Binding isotherms were generated allowing the affinities of interaction to be determined. The affinities of the best binders were found to be in the low nanomolar range. Recombinant MHC-II molecules and accompanying HTS peptide-binding assay were successfully developed for nine different MHC-II molecules including the DPA1*0103/DPB1*0401 (DP401) and DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201, where both α and β chains are polymorphic, illustrating the advantages of producing the two chains separately. Conclusion We have successfully developed versatile MHC-II resources, which may assist in the generation of MHC class II -wide reagents, data, and tools. PMID:19416502

  8. Rheumatoid Rescue of Misfolded Cellular Proteins by MHC Class II Molecules: A New Hypothesis for Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Arase, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Misfolded proteins localized in the endoplasmic reticulum are degraded promptly and thus are not transported outside cells. However, misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum are rescued from protein degradation upon association with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and are transported to the cell surface by MHC class II molecules without being processed to peptides. Studies on the misfolded proteins rescued by MHC class II molecules have revealed that misfolded proteins associated with MHC class II molecules are specific targets for autoantibodies produced in autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, a strong correlation has been observed between autoantibody binding to misfolded proteins associated with MHC class II molecules and the autoimmune disease susceptibility conferred by each MHC class II allele. These new insights into MHC class II molecules suggest that misfolded proteins rescued from protein degradation by MHC class II molecules are recognized as "neo-self" antigens by immune system and are involved in autoimmune diseases as autoantibody targets.

  9. Characterization and expression of MHC class II alpha and II beta genes in mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyan; Tan, Shangjin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II plays a key role in adaptive immunity by presenting foreign peptides to CD4(+) T cells and by triggering the adaptive immune response. While the structure and function of MHC class II have been well characterized in mammalian, limited research has been done on fishes. In this study, we characterized the gene structure and expression of MHC class II α (Lunar-DAA) and II β (Lunar-DAB) of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Both genes shared, respectively, a high similarity and typical features with other vertebrate MHC class II α and II β. The phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptides revealed that both Lunar-DAA and Lunar-DAB were located in the teleost subclass. Western blotting analyses indicated that both MHC class II α and II β were expressed ubiquitously in immune-related cells, tissues and organs, and that MHC class II α and II β chains existed mainly as heterodimers. While it was highly expressed in gills, thymus, head kidney (HK), spleen, head kidney macrophage and spleen leucocytes, MHC class II β chain was expressed with a low abundance in skin, intestine, stomach and heart. The highest expression of MHC class II β in thymus confirmed the conclusion that thymus is one of the primary lymphoid organs in fishes. The detection of MHC class II αβ dimers in HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes indicated that HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes play a critical role in the adaptive immunity in fishes. All these results provide valuable information for understanding the structure of MHC class II α and II β and their function in immune responses.

  10. Characterization and expression of MHC class II alpha and II beta genes in mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyan; Tan, Shangjin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II plays a key role in adaptive immunity by presenting foreign peptides to CD4(+) T cells and by triggering the adaptive immune response. While the structure and function of MHC class II have been well characterized in mammalian, limited research has been done on fishes. In this study, we characterized the gene structure and expression of MHC class II α (Lunar-DAA) and II β (Lunar-DAB) of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Both genes shared, respectively, a high similarity and typical features with other vertebrate MHC class II α and II β. The phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptides revealed that both Lunar-DAA and Lunar-DAB were located in the teleost subclass. Western blotting analyses indicated that both MHC class II α and II β were expressed ubiquitously in immune-related cells, tissues and organs, and that MHC class II α and II β chains existed mainly as heterodimers. While it was highly expressed in gills, thymus, head kidney (HK), spleen, head kidney macrophage and spleen leucocytes, MHC class II β chain was expressed with a low abundance in skin, intestine, stomach and heart. The highest expression of MHC class II β in thymus confirmed the conclusion that thymus is one of the primary lymphoid organs in fishes. The detection of MHC class II αβ dimers in HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes indicated that HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes play a critical role in the adaptive immunity in fishes. All these results provide valuable information for understanding the structure of MHC class II α and II β and their function in immune responses. PMID:26454477

  11. An analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of MHC-I and MHC-II immunohistochemical staining in muscle biopsies for the diagnosis of inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Cruz, Pedro M; Luo, Yue-Bei; Miller, James; Junckerstorff, Reimar C; Mastaglia, Frank L; Fabian, Victoria

    2014-12-01

    Although there have been several previous reports of immunohistochemical staining for MHC antigens in muscle biopsies, there appears to be a lack of consensus about its routine use in the diagnostic evaluation of biopsies from patients with suspected inflammatory myopathy. Positive MHC-I staining is nonspecific but is widely used as a marker for inflammatory myopathy, whilst the role of MHC-II staining is not clearly defined. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of MHC-I and MHC-II immunostaining for the diagnosis of inflammatory myopathy in a large group of biopsies from a single reference laboratory. Positive staining for MHC-I was found to have a high sensitivity in biopsies from patients with inflammatory myopathy but a very low specificity, as it was also common in other non-inflammatory myopathies and neurogenic disorders. On the other hand, MHC-II positivity had a much higher specificity in all major subgroups of inflammatory myopathy, especially inclusion body myositis. The findings indicate that the combination of MHC-I and MHC-II staining results in a higher degree of specificity for the diagnosis of inflammatory myopathy and that in biopsies with inflammation, positive MHC-II staining strongly supports the diagnosis of an immune-mediated myopathy. We recommend that immunohistochemical staining for both MHC-I and MHC-II should be included routinely in the diagnostic evaluation of muscle biopsies from patients with suspected inflammatory myopathy. However, as the sensitivity and interpretation of MHC staining may depend on the technique used, further studies are needed to compare procedures in different centres and develop standardised protocols.

  12. TNF-α Induces Macroautophagy and Regulates MHC Class II Expression in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Christian W.; Fokken, Claudia; Turville, Stuart G.; Lünemann, Anna; Schmidt, Jens; Münz, Christian; Lünemann, Jan D.

    2011-01-01

    Macroautophagy, a homeostatic process that shuttles cytoplasmic constituents into endosomal and lysosomal compartments, has recently been shown to deliver antigens for presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. Skeletal muscle fibers show a high level of constitutive macroautophagy and express MHC class II molecules upon immune activation. We found that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a monokine overexpressed in inflammatory myopathies, led to a marked up-regulation of macroautophagy in skeletal myocytes. Furthermore, TNF-α augmented surface expression of MHC class II molecules in interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-treated myoblasts. The synergistic effect of TNF-α and IFN-γ on the induction of MHC class II surface expression was not reflected by higher intracellular human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR levels and was reversed by macroautophagy inhibition, suggesting that TNF-α facilitates antigen processing via macroautophagy for more efficient MHC class II loading. Muscle biopsies from patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis, a well defined myopathy with chronic inflammation, showed that over 20% of fibers that contained autophagosomes costained for MHC class II molecules and that more than 40% of double-positive muscle fibers had contact with CD4+ and CD8+ immune cells. These findings establish a mechanism through which TNF-α regulates both macroautophagy and MHC class II expression and suggest that macroautophagy-mediated antigen presentation contributes to the immunological environment of the inflamed human skeletal muscle. PMID:20980264

  13. Towards Universal Structure-Based Prediction of Class II MHC Epitopes for Diverse Allotypes

    PubMed Central

    Bordner, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    The binding of peptide fragments of antigens to class II MHC proteins is a crucial step in initiating a helper T cell immune response. The discovery of these peptide epitopes is important for understanding the normal immune response and its misregulation in autoimmunity and allergies and also for vaccine design. In spite of their biomedical importance, the high diversity of class II MHC proteins combined with the large number of possible peptide sequences make comprehensive experimental determination of epitopes for all MHC allotypes infeasible. Computational methods can address this need by predicting epitopes for a particular MHC allotype. We present a structure-based method for predicting class II epitopes that combines molecular mechanics docking of a fully flexible peptide into the MHC binding cleft followed by binding affinity prediction using a machine learning classifier trained on interaction energy components calculated from the docking solution. Although the primary advantage of structure-based prediction methods over the commonly employed sequence-based methods is their applicability to essentially any MHC allotype, this has not yet been convincingly demonstrated. In order to test the transferability of the prediction method to different MHC proteins, we trained the scoring method on binding data for DRB1*0101 and used it to make predictions for multiple MHC allotypes with distinct peptide binding specificities including representatives from the other human class II MHC loci, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ, as well as for two murine allotypes. The results showed that the prediction method was able to achieve significant discrimination between epitope and non-epitope peptides for all MHC allotypes examined, based on AUC values in the range 0.632–0.821. We also discuss how accounting for peptide binding in multiple registers to class II MHC largely explains the systematically worse performance of prediction methods for class II MHC compared with those for class I

  14. Interspecific hybridization increases MHC class II diversity in two sister species of newts.

    PubMed

    Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna; Zieliński, Piotr; Radwan, Jacek; Babik, Wiesław

    2012-02-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms generating variation within the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes remains incomplete. Assessing MHC variation across multiple populations, of recent and ancient divergence, may facilitate understanding of geographical and temporal aspects of variation. Here, we applied 454 sequencing to perform a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of MHC class II in the closely related, hybridizing newts, Lissotriton vulgaris (Lv) and Lissotriton montandoni (Lm). Our study revealed an extensive (299 alleles) geographically structured polymorphism. Populations at the southern margin of the Lv distribution, inhabited by old and distinct lineages (southern Lv), exhibited moderate MHC variation and strong population structure, indicating little gene flow or extensive local adaptation. Lissotriton vulgaris in central Europe and the northern Balkans (northern Lv) and almost all Lm populations had a high MHC variation. A much higher proportion of MHC alleles was shared between Lm and northern Lv than between Lm and southern Lv. Strikingly, the average pairwise F(ST) between northern Lv and Lm was significantly lower than between northern and southern Lv for MHC, but not for microsatellites. Thus, high MHC variation in Lm and northern Lv may result from gene flow between species. We hypothesize that the interspecific exchange of MHC genes may be facilitated by frequency-dependent selection. A marginally significant correlation between the MHC and microsatellite allelic richness indicates that demographic factors may have contributed to the present-day pattern of MHC variation, but unequivocal signatures of adaptive evolution in MHC class II sequences emphasize the role of selection on a longer timescale.

  15. Tetraspan microdomains distinct from lipid rafts enrich select peptide-MHC class II complexes.

    PubMed

    Kropshofer, H; Spindeldreher, S; Röhn, T A; Platania, N; Grygar, C; Daniel, N; Wölpl, A; Langen, H; Horejsi, V; Vogt, A B

    2002-01-01

    Complexes of peptide and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells but their molecular organization is unknown. Here we show that subsets of MHC class II molecules localize to membrane microdomains together with tetraspan proteins, the peptide editor HLA-DM and the costimulator CD86. Tetraspan microdomains differ from other membrane areas such as lipid rafts, as they enrich MHC class II molecules carrying a selected set of peptide antigens. Antigen-presenting cells deficient in tetraspan microdomains have a reduced capacity to activate CD4+ T cells. Thus, the organization of uniformly loaded peptide-MHC class II complexes in tetraspan domains may be a very early event that determines both the composition of the immunological synapse and the quality of the subsequent T helper cell response.

  16. Evidence for multiple MHC class II β loci in New Zealand's critically endangered kakapo, Strigops habroptilus.

    PubMed

    Knafler, Gabrielle J; Fidler, Andrew; Jamieson, Ian G; Robertson, Bruce C

    2014-02-01

    Immunologically important genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been characterized in a number of avian species with the general finding of considerable variation in size and structural organization among organisms. A range of nonpasserines which represent early-diverging Neoave lineages have been described as having only one MHC class II β locus potentially leading to the conclusion that this is the ancestral condition. Here, we examine the monotypic, early-diverging, critically endangered kakapo, Strigops habroptilus, for allelic variation at MHC class II β exon 2, as part of species' recovery efforts. We found two to four confirmed sequence variants per individual indicating the presence of more than one MHC class II β locus. Given the kakapo's basal evolutionary status, evidence for multiple MHC class II β loci seems to counter the proposed mono-locus history of modern birds. However, MHC gene duplication, maintenance, and loss among and within bird species may confound avian relationships making it difficult to elucidate the ancestral state. This study adds essential data for disentangling the course of MHC structural evolution in birds.

  17. MHC class II antigen presentation pathway in murine tumours: tumour evasion from immunosurveillance?

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W; Lingnau, K; Schmitt, E; Loos, M; Maeurer, M J

    2000-01-01

    Qualitative differences in the MHC class II antigen processing and presentation pathway may be instrumental in shaping the CD4+ T cell response directed against tumour cells. Efficient loading of many MHC class II alleles with peptides requires the assistance of H2-M, a heterodimeric MHC class II-like molecule. In contrast to the HLA-DM region in humans, the β-chain locus is duplicated in mouse, with the H2-Mb1 (Mb1β-chain distal to H2-Mb2 (Mb2) and the H2-Ma (Ma) α-chain gene). Here, we show that murine MHC class II and H2-M genes are coordinately regulated in murine tumour cell lines by T helper cell 1 (IFN-γ) and T helper cell 2 (IL-4 or IL-10) cytokines in the presence of the MHC class II-specific transactivator CIITA as determined by mRNA expression and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, Mαβ1 and Mαβ2 heterodimers are differentially expressed in murine tumour cell lines of different histology. Both H2-M isoforms promote equally processing and presentation of native protein antigens to H2-Ad- and H2-Ed-restricted CD4+ T cells. Murine tumour cell lines could be divided into three groups: constitutive MHC class II and CIITA expression; inducible MHC class II and CIITA expression upon IFN-γ-treatment; and lack of constitutive and IFN-γ-inducible MHC class II and CIITA expression. These differences may impact on CD4+ T cell recognition of cancer cells in murine tumour models. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027433

  18. MHC II expression in the CNS after long-term demyelination

    SciTech Connect

    Cannella, B.; Aquino, D.A.; Raine, C.S.

    1995-07-01

    The ability of chronically demyelinated central nervous system (CNS) tissue to express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules has been measured in mouse spinal cord cultures exposed for 1 and 3 weeks to demyelinating anti-white matter (WM) serum. From previous studies, It was known that after 3 weeks of demyelination in vitro, such cultures are incapable of remyelination. In the present report, MHC II levels were evaluated by immunocytochemistry and by Western and Northern blots. The results have shown that after both 1 and 3 weeks of exposure to myelinotoxic anti-WM serum, the cultures retained the ability to express MHC II and this could be further upregulated by incubation with interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}). Control groups showed increased expression of MHC II with age. By immunocytochemistry, all groups of cultures expressed high levels of MHC II and all groups showed upregulation after IFN{gamma} treatment. Anti-WM-treated cultures demonstrated slightly higher levels of MHC II than controls. Morphologically, the MHC II expression was associated with the surface of astrocytes. Semiquantitative analysis by Western blotting confirmed the increase in class II MHC expression in the long-term treated cultures after IFN{gamma} exposure, revealing no differences between anti-WM-treated and complement-treated cultures. This was also supported by Northern blotting which showed similar mRNA levels in both groups. These findings suggest that long-term demyelinated CNS tissue still possesses the ability to interact with CD4{sup +} T cells, observations of significance to the expansion of the chronic multiple sclerosis lesion. 50 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Adenosine signaling inhibits CIITA-mediated MHC class II transactivation in lung fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingming; Xia, Jun; Wu, Xiaoyan; Kong, Hui; Wang, Hong; Xie, Weiping; Xu, Yong

    2013-08-01

    Efficient antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules represents a critical process in adaptive immunity. Class II transactivator (CIITA) is considered the master regulator of MHC class II (MHC II) transcription. Previously, we have shown that CIITA expression is upregulated in smooth muscle cells deficient in A2b adenosine receptor. Here, we report that treatment with the adenosine receptor agonist adenosine-5'N-ethylcarboxamide (NECA) attenuated MHC II transcription in lung fibro-blast cells as a result of CIITA repression. Further analysis revealed that NECA preferentially abrogated CIITA transcription through promoters III and IV. Blockade with a selective A2b receptor antagonist MRS-1754 restored CIITA-dependent MHC II transactivation. Forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, achieved the same effect as NECA. A2b signaling repressed CIITA transcription by altering histone modifications and recruitment of key factors on the CIITA promoters in a STAT1-dependent manner. MRS-1754 blocked the antagonism of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in CIITA induction by interferon gamma (IFN-γ), alluding to a potential dialogue between TGF-β and adenosine signaling pathways. Finally, A2b signaling attenuated STAT1 phosphorylation and stimulated TGF-β synthesis. In conclusion, we have identified an adenosine-A2b receptor-adenylyl cyclase axis that influences CIITA-mediated MHC II transactivation in lung fibroblast cells and as such have provided invaluable insights into the development of novel immune-modulatory strategies.

  20. MHC evolution in three salmonid species: a comparison between class II alpha and beta genes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Daniela; Conejeros, Pablo; Marshall, Sergio H; Consuegra, Sofia

    2010-08-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are amongst the most variable in vertebrates and represent some of the best candidates to study processes of adaptive evolution. However, despite the number of studies available, most of the information on the structure and function of these genes come from studies in mammals and birds in which the MHC class I and II genes are tightly linked and class II alpha exhibits low variability in many cases. Teleost fishes are among the most primitive vertebrates with MHC and represent good organisms for the study of MHC evolution because their class I and class II loci are not physically linked, allowing for independent evolution of both classes of genes. We have compared the diversity and molecular mechanisms of evolution of classical MH class II alpha and class II beta loci in farm populations of three salmonid species: Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo salar. We found single classical class II loci and high polymorphism at both class II alpha and beta genes in the three species. Mechanisms of evolution were common for both class II genes, with recombination and point mutation involved in generating diversity and positive selection acting on the peptide-binding residues. These results suggest that the maintenance of variability at the class IIalpha gene could be a mechanism to increase diversity in the MHC class II in salmonids in order to compensate for the expression of one single classical locus and to respond to a wider array of parasites. PMID:20521040

  1. MHC evolution in three salmonid species: a comparison between class II alpha and beta genes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Daniela; Conejeros, Pablo; Marshall, Sergio H; Consuegra, Sofia

    2010-08-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are amongst the most variable in vertebrates and represent some of the best candidates to study processes of adaptive evolution. However, despite the number of studies available, most of the information on the structure and function of these genes come from studies in mammals and birds in which the MHC class I and II genes are tightly linked and class II alpha exhibits low variability in many cases. Teleost fishes are among the most primitive vertebrates with MHC and represent good organisms for the study of MHC evolution because their class I and class II loci are not physically linked, allowing for independent evolution of both classes of genes. We have compared the diversity and molecular mechanisms of evolution of classical MH class II alpha and class II beta loci in farm populations of three salmonid species: Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo salar. We found single classical class II loci and high polymorphism at both class II alpha and beta genes in the three species. Mechanisms of evolution were common for both class II genes, with recombination and point mutation involved in generating diversity and positive selection acting on the peptide-binding residues. These results suggest that the maintenance of variability at the class IIalpha gene could be a mechanism to increase diversity in the MHC class II in salmonids in order to compensate for the expression of one single classical locus and to respond to a wider array of parasites.

  2. Immunological Functions of the Membrane Proximal Region of MHC Class II Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Harton, Jonathan; Jin, Lei; Hahn, Amy; Drake, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules present exogenously derived antigen peptides to CD4 T cells, driving activation of naïve T cells and supporting CD4-driven immune functions. However, MHC class II molecules are not inert protein pedestals that simply bind and present peptides. These molecules also serve as multi-functional signaling molecules delivering activation, differentiation, or death signals (or a combination of these) to B cells, macrophages, as well as MHC class II-expressing T cells and tumor cells. Although multiple proteins are known to associate with MHC class II, interaction with STING (stimulator of interferon genes) and CD79 is essential for signaling. In addition, alternative transmembrane domain pairing between class II α and β chains influences association with membrane lipid sub-domains, impacting both signaling and antigen presentation. In contrast to the membrane-distal region of the class II molecule responsible for peptide binding and T-cell receptor engagement, the membrane-proximal region (composed of the connecting peptide, transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic tail) mediates these “non-traditional” class II functions. Here, we review the literature on the function of the membrane-proximal region of the MHC class II molecule and discuss the impact of this aspect of class II immunobiology on immune regulation and human disease. PMID:27006762

  3. Immunological Functions of the Membrane Proximal Region of MHC Class II Molecules.

    PubMed

    Harton, Jonathan; Jin, Lei; Hahn, Amy; Drake, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules present exogenously derived antigen peptides to CD4 T cells, driving activation of naïve T cells and supporting CD4-driven immune functions. However, MHC class II molecules are not inert protein pedestals that simply bind and present peptides. These molecules also serve as multi-functional signaling molecules delivering activation, differentiation, or death signals (or a combination of these) to B cells, macrophages, as well as MHC class II-expressing T cells and tumor cells. Although multiple proteins are known to associate with MHC class II, interaction with STING (stimulator of interferon genes) and CD79 is essential for signaling. In addition, alternative transmembrane domain pairing between class II α and β chains influences association with membrane lipid sub-domains, impacting both signaling and antigen presentation. In contrast to the membrane-distal region of the class II molecule responsible for peptide binding and T-cell receptor engagement, the membrane-proximal region (composed of the connecting peptide, transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic tail) mediates these "non-traditional" class II functions. Here, we review the literature on the function of the membrane-proximal region of the MHC class II molecule and discuss the impact of this aspect of class II immunobiology on immune regulation and human disease. PMID:27006762

  4. Use of MHC class II tetramers to investigate CD4+ T cell responses: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Virginia; Moro, Monica; Del Mare, Sara; Dellabona, Paolo; Casorati, Giulia

    2008-11-01

    MHC-class I tetramers technology enabled the characterization of peptide-specific T cells at the single cell level in a variety of studies. Several laboratories have also developed MHC-class II multimers to characterize Ag-specific CD4+ T cells. However, the generation and use of MHC-class II multimers seems more problematic than that of MHC-I multimers. We have generated HLA-DR*1101 tetramers in a versatile empty form, which can be loaded after purification with peptides of interest. We discuss the impact of critical biological and structural parameters for the optimal staining of Ag-specific CD4+ T cells using HLA-DR*1101 tetramers, such as: (i) activation state of CD4+ T cells; (ii) membrane trafficking in the target CD4+ T cells; (iii) binding characteristics of the loaded CD4 epitope. Our data indicate that reorganization of TCR on the plasma membrane upon CD4+ T cell activation, as well as an homogenous binding frame of the CD4 epitopes to the soluble HLA-DR monomer, are critical for a stable TCR/MHC-class II tetramer interaction. These factors, together with the low frequencies and affinities of specific CD4+ T cells, explain the need for in vitro expansion or ex vivo enrichment of specific T cells for the optimal visualization with MHC-class II tetramers. PMID:18612991

  5. Extensive characterization of the immunophenotype and pattern of cytokine production by distinct subpopulations of normal human peripheral blood MHC II+/lineage− cells

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, J; Bueno, C; Alguero, M C; Sanchez, M L; Cañizo, M C; Fernandez, M E; Vaquero, J M; Laso, F J; Escribano, L; San Miguel, J F; Orfao, A

    1999-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) represent the most powerful professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) in the immune system. The aim of the present study was to analyse, on a single-cell basis by multiparametric flow cytometry with simultaneous four-colour staining and a two-step acquisition procedure, the immunophenotypic profile and cytokine production of DC from 67 normal whole peripheral blood (PB) samples. Two clearly different subsets of HLA-II+/lineage− were identified on the basis of their distinct phenotypic characteristics: one DC subset was CD33strong+ and CD123dim+ (0.16 ± 0.06% of the PB nucleated cells and 55.9 ± 11.9% of all PB DC) and the other, CD33dim+ and CD123strong+ (0.12 ± 0.04% of PB nucleated cells and 44.53 ± 11.5% of all PB DC). Moreover, the former DC subpopulation clearly showed higher expression of the CD13 myeloid-associated antigen, the CD29 and CD58 adhesion molecules, the CD2, CD5 and CD86 costimulatory molecules, the CD32 IgG receptor and the CD11c complement receptor. In addition, these cells showed stronger HLA-DR and HLA-DQ expression and a higher reactivity for the IL-6 receptor α-chain (CD126) and for CD38. In contrast, the CD123strong+/CD33dim+ DC showed a stronger reactivity for the CD4 and CD45RA molecules, whereas they did not express the CD58, CD5, CD11c and CD13 antigens. Regarding cytokine production, our results show that while the CD33strong+/CD123dim+ DC are able to produce significant amounts of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β (97 ± 5% of positive cells), IL-6 (96 ± 1.1% of positive cells), IL-12 (81.5 ± 15.5% of positive cells) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (84 ± 22.1% of positive cells) as well as chemokines such as IL-8 (99 ± 1% of positive cells), the functional ability of the CD123strong+/CD33dim+ DC subset to produce cytokines under the same conditions was almost null. Our results therefore clearly show the presence of two distinct subsets of DC in normal human PB, which differ not only in

  6. Increased susceptibility to Strongyloides venezuelensis infection is related to the parasite load and absence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Silva, Neide Maria; Massa, Virgínia; Alves, Ronaldo; Ueta, Marlene Tiduko; Silva, João Santana; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2013-11-01

    In human and murine models strongyloidiasis induce a Th2 type response. In the current study we investigated the role of different loads of Strongyloides venezuelensis in the immune response raised against the parasite and the participation of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule in the disease outcome in face of the different parasite burden. The C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and MHC II(-/-) mice were individually inoculated by subcutaneous injection with 500 or 3000 S. venezuelensis L3. The MHC II(-/-) mice infected with 3000L3 were more susceptible to S. venezuelensis infection when compared with WT groups, in which the parasite was completely eliminated. The production of Th2 cytokines and specific IgG1 or IgE antibodies against parasite were significantly lowered in MHC II(-/-) infected mice with different larvae inoculums. The infection of MHC II(-/-) mice with S. venezuelensis induced slight inflammatory alterations in the small intestine, and these lesions were lower when compared with WT mice, irrespective of the parasite load utilized to infect animals. Finally, we concluded that MHC class II molecules are essential in the immune response against S. venezuelensis mainly when infection occurs with high parasite inoculum.

  7. Epstein-Barr virus infection of CR2-transfected epithelial cells reveals the presence of MHC class II on the virion.

    PubMed

    Knox, P G; Young, L S

    1995-10-20

    Epithelial cell lines transfected with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) receptor CR2 are susceptible to infection by EBV. Following infection with certain EBV strains we found that these cells became positive for MHC class II. The class II was confirmed as being of viral and not target cell origin by immunostaining with HLA-specific monoclonal antibodies. Electron microscopic immunogold staining confirmed the presence of MHC class II on the surface of the virion. While some MHC class I was also found on the EB virion, other cell surface molecules were absent. Dual color immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy analysis demonstrated colocalization of class II with EBV-encoded structural proteins (MA and VCA) in infected epithelial cells. However, preincubation of EBV with antibodies against either MHC class I or MHC class II failed to affect either EBV binding or EBV infection. The presence of MHC on the surface of the EB virion may be a consequence of the intracellular pathways through which productive virus exits from the cell and may influence the target cell tropism of EBV. PMID:7483258

  8. Limitations of Ab Initio Predictions of Peptide Binding to MHC Class II Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Sette, Alessandro; Bourne, Philip E.; Lund, Ole; Ponomarenko, Julia; Nielsen, Morten; Peters, Bjoern

    2010-01-01

    Successful predictions of peptide MHC binding typically require a large set of binding data for the specific MHC molecule that is examined. Structure based prediction methods promise to circumvent this requirement by evaluating the physical contacts a peptide can make with an MHC molecule based on the highly conserved 3D structure of peptide:MHC complexes. While several such methods have been described before, most are not publicly available and have not been independently tested for their performance. We here implemented and evaluated three prediction methods for MHC class II molecules: statistical potentials derived from the analysis of known protein structures; energetic evaluation of different peptide snapshots in a molecular dynamics simulation; and direct analysis of contacts made in known 3D structures of peptide:MHC complexes. These methods are ab initio in that they require structural data of the MHC molecule examined, but no specific peptide:MHC binding data. Moreover, these methods retain the ability to make predictions in a sufficiently short time scale to be useful in a real world application, such as screening a whole proteome for candidate binding peptides. A rigorous evaluation of each methods prediction performance showed that these are significantly better than random, but still substantially lower than the best performing sequence based class II prediction methods available. While the approaches presented here were developed independently, we have chosen to present our results together in order to support the notion that generating structure based predictions of peptide:MHC binding without using binding data is unlikely to give satisfactory results. PMID:20174654

  9. Susceptibility of amphibians to chytridiomycosis is associated with MHC class II conformation

    PubMed Central

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cashins, Scott D.; Grogan, Laura; Skerratt, Lee F.; Hunter, David; McFadden, Michael; Scheele, Benjamin; Brannelly, Laura A.; Macris, Amy; Harlow, Peter S.; Bell, Sara; Berger, Lee; Waldman, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause precipitous population declines in its amphibian hosts. Responses of individuals to infection vary greatly with the capacity of their immune system to respond to the pathogen. We used a combination of comparative and experimental approaches to identify major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles encoding molecules that foster the survival of Bd-infected amphibians. We found that Bd-resistant amphibians across four continents share common amino acids in three binding pockets of the MHC-II antigen-binding groove. Moreover, strong signals of selection acting on these specific sites were evident among all species co-existing with the pathogen. In the laboratory, we experimentally inoculated Australian tree frogs with Bd to test how each binding pocket conformation influences disease resistance. Only the conformation of MHC-II pocket 9 of surviving subjects matched those of Bd-resistant species. This MHC-II conformation thus may determine amphibian resistance to Bd, although other MHC-II binding pockets also may contribute to resistance. Rescuing amphibian biodiversity will depend on our understanding of amphibian immune defence mechanisms against Bd. The identification of adaptive genetic markers for Bd resistance represents an important step forward towards that goal. PMID:25808889

  10. Susceptibility of amphibians to chytridiomycosis is associated with MHC class II conformation.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cashins, Scott D; Grogan, Laura; Skerratt, Lee F; Hunter, David; McFadden, Michael; Scheele, Benjamin; Brannelly, Laura A; Macris, Amy; Harlow, Peter S; Bell, Sara; Berger, Lee; Waldman, Bruce

    2015-04-22

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause precipitous population declines in its amphibian hosts. Responses of individuals to infection vary greatly with the capacity of their immune system to respond to the pathogen. We used a combination of comparative and experimental approaches to identify major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles encoding molecules that foster the survival of Bd-infected amphibians. We found that Bd-resistant amphibians across four continents share common amino acids in three binding pockets of the MHC-II antigen-binding groove. Moreover, strong signals of selection acting on these specific sites were evident among all species co-existing with the pathogen. In the laboratory, we experimentally inoculated Australian tree frogs with Bd to test how each binding pocket conformation influences disease resistance. Only the conformation of MHC-II pocket 9 of surviving subjects matched those of Bd-resistant species. This MHC-II conformation thus may determine amphibian resistance to Bd, although other MHC-II binding pockets also may contribute to resistance. Rescuing amphibian biodiversity will depend on our understanding of amphibian immune defence mechanisms against Bd. The identification of adaptive genetic markers for Bd resistance represents an important step forward towards that goal. PMID:25808889

  11. Susceptibility of amphibians to chytridiomycosis is associated with MHC class II conformation.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cashins, Scott D; Grogan, Laura; Skerratt, Lee F; Hunter, David; McFadden, Michael; Scheele, Benjamin; Brannelly, Laura A; Macris, Amy; Harlow, Peter S; Bell, Sara; Berger, Lee; Waldman, Bruce

    2015-04-22

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause precipitous population declines in its amphibian hosts. Responses of individuals to infection vary greatly with the capacity of their immune system to respond to the pathogen. We used a combination of comparative and experimental approaches to identify major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles encoding molecules that foster the survival of Bd-infected amphibians. We found that Bd-resistant amphibians across four continents share common amino acids in three binding pockets of the MHC-II antigen-binding groove. Moreover, strong signals of selection acting on these specific sites were evident among all species co-existing with the pathogen. In the laboratory, we experimentally inoculated Australian tree frogs with Bd to test how each binding pocket conformation influences disease resistance. Only the conformation of MHC-II pocket 9 of surviving subjects matched those of Bd-resistant species. This MHC-II conformation thus may determine amphibian resistance to Bd, although other MHC-II binding pockets also may contribute to resistance. Rescuing amphibian biodiversity will depend on our understanding of amphibian immune defence mechanisms against Bd. The identification of adaptive genetic markers for Bd resistance represents an important step forward towards that goal.

  12. High-throughput engineering and analysis of peptide binding to class II MHC

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Boder, Eric T.

    2010-01-01

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) proteins govern stimulation of adaptive immunity by presenting antigenic peptides to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Many allelic variants of MHC-II exist with implications in peptide presentation and immunity; thus, high-throughput experimental tools for rapid and quantitative analysis of peptide binding to MHC-II are needed. Here, we present an expression system wherein peptide and MHC-II are codisplayed on the surface of yeast in an intracellular association-dependent manner and assayed by flow cytometry. Accordingly, the relative binding of different peptides and/or MHC-II variants can be assayed by genetically manipulating either partner, enabling the application of directed evolution approaches for high-throughput characterization or engineering. We demonstrate the application of this tool to map the side-chain preference for peptides binding to HLA-DR1 and to evolve novel HLA-DR1 mutants with altered peptide-binding specificity. PMID:20622157

  13. Disparate MHC class II haplotypes in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein- and myelin basic protein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Muhallab, Saad; Dahlman, Ingrid; Wallström, Erik

    2005-04-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) regulates multiple sclerosis (MS) and its model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We created four new intra-MHC recombinant rat strains, between the MHC haplotypes RT1(n) (BN) and RT1(l) (LEW) on the LEW background, to define disease regulation and localization within the MHC. Immunization with recombinant myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (a.a.1-125; MOG)/IFA induced EAE in strains expressing the MHC class II allele RT1.B(n), whereas strains expressing the RT1.B(l) were resistant. In myelin basic protein peptide (MBP(GP)63-88)/CFA-induced EAE, RT1.B(l) expressing strains were susceptible whereas strains expressing the RT1.B(n) were resistant. High levels of antigen-specific IFN-gamma secreting lymphoid cells and antigen-specific serum IgG antibodies were only recorded in rats with an MHC class II allele that permitted MOG- or MBP-EAE, respectively. Genetically, we localized the MHC regulation of the investigated EAE models to the central part of the MHC, containing the MHC class II (RT1.B/D) and the centromeric parts of the MHC class III. No influences were evident from the classical MHC class I (RT1.A), the telomeric parts of the MHC class III or the non-classical MHC class I (RT1.C/E/M) in contrast to previous reports. The MHC class II haplotype-specific regulation of EAE induced with two different CNS antigens demonstrates a strikingly specific MHC-association even within the same target organ. PMID:15748954

  14. Evolution of MHC class II E beta diversity within the genus Peromyscus.

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Adam D; Herrera, L Gerardo; Nash, Deanna

    2003-01-01

    Progress in understanding the evolution of variation at the MHC has been slowed by an inability to assess the relative roles of mutation vs. intragenic recombination in contributing to observed polymorphism. Recent theoretical advances now permit a quantitative treatment of the problem, with the result that the amount of recombination is at least an order of magnitude greater than that of mutation in the history of class II genes. We suggest that this insight allows progress in evaluating the importance of other factors affecting the evolution of the MHC. We investigated the evolution of MHC class II E beta sequence diversity in the genus Peromyscus. We find evidence for extensive recombination in the history of these sequences. Nevertheless, it appears that intragenic recombination alone is insufficient to account for evolution of MHC diversity in Peromyscus. Significant differences in silent variation among subgenera arose over a relatively short period of time, with little subsequent change. We argue that these observations are consistent with the effects of historical population bottleneck(s). Population restrictions may explain general features of MHC evolution, including the large amount of recombination in the history of MHC genes, because intragenic recombination may efficiently regenerate allelic polymorphism following a population constriction. PMID:12750340

  15. Enhanced induction of thyroid cell MHC class II antigen expression in rats highly responsive to thyroglobulin.

    PubMed

    Lahat, N; Hirose, W; Davies, T F

    1989-04-01

    Initial experiments demonstrated that the degree of autoantibody and proliferative T cell responses to syngeneic rat thyroglobulin differed markedly between Buffalo (high responder) and Fisher (low responder) rats after classical immunization schedules. While varying immune responsiveness may be due to qualitative and quantitative T and B cell differences, the role of thyroid cell MHC class II antigens may be pivotal to the onset of autoimmune thyroiditis in such animal models. We, therefore, examined the induction of MHC class II antigens in thyroid monolayers derived from Buffalo and Fisher rats treated with methimazole (0.1% in their water) for 4 weeks to induce mild thyroid hyperplasia. After thyroidectomy, thyroid cell monolayers were prepared and exposed to recombinant rat gamma-interferon (gamma IF; 10-1000 U/ml) for 1-7 days in the presence and absence of TSH (1 mU/ml). Both Buffalo and Fisher thyroid monolayers responded to gamma IF with MHC class II antigen expression when assessed by laser flow cytometry using MRC OX-6 monoclonal anti-RT1.B. In both types of culture, TSH enhanced MHC class II antigen expression in the presence of gamma IF to the same degree. However, there was a consistently earlier and greater degree of MHC class II antigen expression in Buffalo thyroid monolayers compared to Fisher monolayers, a phenomenon not explicable on the basis of fibroblast contamination as assessed by cytokeratin staining. These data demonstrate that end-organ sensitivity to MHC class II antigen expression may be important in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease.

  16. Characterization of MHC class I and II genes in a subantarctic seabird, the blue petrel, Halobaena caerulea (Procellariiformes).

    PubMed

    Strandh, Maria; Lannefors, Mimi; Bonadonna, Francesco; Westerdahl, Helena

    2011-10-01

    The great polymorphism observed in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is thought to be maintained by pathogen-mediated selection possibly combined with MHC-disassortative mating, guided by MHC-determined olfactory cues. Here, we partly characterize the MHC class I and II B of the blue petrel, Halobaena caerulea (Procellariiformes), a bird with significant olfactory abilities that lives under presumably low pathogen burdens in Subantarctica. Blue petrels are long-lived, monogamous birds which suggest the necessity of an accurate mate choice process. The species is ancestral to songbirds (Passeriformes; many MHC loci), although not to gamefowls (Galliformes; few MHC loci). Considering the phylogenetic relationships and the low subantarctic pathogen burden, we expected few rather than many MHC loci in the blue petrel. However, when we analysed partial MHC class I and class II B cDNA and gDNA sequences we found evidence for as many as at least eight MHC class I loci and at least two class II B loci. These class I and II B sequences showed classical MHC characteristics, e.g. high nucleotide diversity, especially in putative peptide-binding regions where signatures of positive selection was detected. Trans-species polymorphism was found between MHC class II B sequences of the blue petrel and those of thin-billed prion, Pachyptila belcheri, two species that diverged ∼25 MYA. The observed MHC allele richness in the blue petrel may well serve as a basis for mate choice, especially since olfactory discrimination of MHC types may be possible in this species. PMID:21607694

  17. Single-Molecule Motions of MHC Class II Rely on Bound Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kozono, Haruo; Matsushita, Yufuku; Ogawa, Naoki; Kozono, Yuko; Miyabe, Toshihiro; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Okimoto, Noriaki; Taiji, Makoto; Kanagawa, Osami; Sasaki, Yuji C.

    2015-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II protein can bind peptides of different lengths in the region outside the peptide-binding groove. Peptide-flanking residues (PFRs) contribute to the binding affinity of the peptide for MHC and change the immunogenicity of the peptide/MHC complex with regard to T cell receptor (TCR). The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are currently unknown. The molecular flexibility of the peptide/MHC complex may be an important determinant of the structures recognized by certain T cells. We used single-molecule x-ray analysis (diffracted x-ray tracking (DXT)) and fluorescence anisotropy to investigate these mechanisms. DXT enabled us to monitor the real-time Brownian motion of the peptide/MHC complex and revealed that peptides without PFRs undergo larger rotational motions than peptides with PFRs. Fluorescence anisotropy further revealed that peptides without PFRs exhibit slightly larger motions on the nanosecond timescale. These results demonstrate that peptides without PFRs undergo dynamic motions in the groove of MHC and consequently are able to assume diverse structures that can be recognized by T cells. PMID:25606683

  18. SYK regulates macrophage MHC-II expression via activation of autophagy in response to oxidized LDL.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Ho; Gonen, Ayelet; Diehl, Cody J; Kim, Jungsu; Almazan, Felicidad; Witztum, Joseph L; Miller, Yury I

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, which plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, is mediated by major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-dependent antigen presentation. In atherosclerotic lesions, macrophages constitute an important class of antigen-presenting cells that activate adaptive immune responses to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL). It has been reported that autophagy regulates adaptive immune responses by enhancing antigen presentation to MHC class II (MHC-II). In a previous study, we have demonstrated that SYK (spleen tyrosine kinase) regulates generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of MAPK8/JNK1 in macrophages. Because ROS and MAPK8 are known to regulate autophagy, in this study we investigated the role of SYK in autophagy, MHC-II expression and adaptive immune response to OxLDL. We demonstrate that OxLDL induces autophagosome formation, MHC-II expression, and phosphorylation of SYK in macrophages. Gene knockout and pharmacological inhibitors of NOX2 and MAPK8 reduced OxLDL-induced autophagy. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages isolated from wild-type and myeloid-specific SYK knockout mice, we demonstrate that SYK regulates OxLDL-induced ROS generation, MAPK8 activation, BECN1-BCL2 dissociation, autophagosome formation and presentation of OxLDL-derived antigens to CD4(+) T cells. ldlr(-/-) syk(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet produced lower levels of IgG to malondialdehyde (MDA)-LDL, malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA)-LDL, and OxLDL compared to ldlr(-/-) mice. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms by which SYK regulates MHC-II expression via autophagy in macrophages and may contribute to regulation of adaptive immune responses in atherosclerosis.

  19. SYK regulates macrophage MHC-II expression via activation of autophagy in response to oxidized LDL

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo-Ho; Gonen, Ayelet; Diehl, Cody J; Kim, Jungsu; Almazan, Felicidad; Witztum, Joseph L; Miller, Yury I

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, which plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, is mediated by major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-dependent antigen presentation. In atherosclerotic lesions, macrophages constitute an important class of antigen-presenting cells that activate adaptive immune responses to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL). It has been reported that autophagy regulates adaptive immune responses by enhancing antigen presentation to MHC class II (MHC-II). In a previous study, we have demonstrated that SYK (spleen tyrosine kinase) regulates generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of MAPK8/JNK1 in macrophages. Because ROS and MAPK8 are known to regulate autophagy, in this study we investigated the role of SYK in autophagy, MHC-II expression and adaptive immune response to OxLDL. We demonstrate that OxLDL induces autophagosome formation, MHC-II expression, and phosphorylation of SYK in macrophages. Gene knockout and pharmacological inhibitors of NOX2 and MAPK8 reduced OxLDL-induced autophagy. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages isolated from wild-type and myeloid-specific SYK knockout mice, we demonstrate that SYK regulates OxLDL-induced ROS generation, MAPK8 activation, BECN1-BCL2 dissociation, autophagosome formation and presentation of OxLDL-derived antigens to CD4+ T cells. ldlr−/− syk−/− mice fed a high-fat diet produced lower levels of IgG to malondialdehyde (MDA)-LDL, malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA)-LDL, and OxLDL compared to ldlr−/− mice. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms by which SYK regulates MHC-II expression via autophagy in macrophages and may contribute to regulation of adaptive immune responses in atherosclerosis. PMID:25946330

  20. EBP1 protein modulates the expression of human MHC class II molecules in non-hematopoietic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    PISAPIA, LAURA; BARBA, PASQUALE; CORTESE, ANGELA; CICATIELLO, VALERIA; MORELI, FRANCO; DEL POZZO, GIOVANNA

    2015-01-01

    Many solid tumours including melanoma, glioblastoma, and breast carcinomas express MHC class II molecules (MHC II). The surface expression of these molecules confers to non-hematopoietic tumour cells the role of non-professional antigen presenting cells and the ability to potentially stimulate tumour-specific CD4+ T cell response. We studied EBP1, an ErbB3 binding protein, and the effects of p48 and p42 isoforms on the MHC II expression in U87 glioblastoma, M14 melanoma and MCF7 mammary carcinoma cell lines. We found that overexpression of p48 increases MHC II transcription in U87 and M14, through upregulation of CIITA transactivator and STAT1 phosphorylation. In addition, p48 protein influences MHC II expression by increasing mRNA stability. In melanoma and glioblastoma cell lines, p48 isoform functions as oncogene promoting tumour growth, while p42 isoform, that does not affect MHC II expression, acts as a tumour suppressor by blocking cell growth and inducing apoptosis. In contrast, p48 seems to act as tumour suppressor in breast carcinoma inhibiting proliferation, favouring apoptosis, and inducing a slight increase of MHC II expression similar to p42. Our data highlight the tissue specificity function of EBP1 isoforms and demonstrate that only the oncogene p48 activates MHC II expression in human solid tumours, via STAT1 phosphorylation, in order to affect tumour progression by triggering specific immune response. PMID:26081906

  1. Molecular characterization of MHC class II in the Australian invasive cane toad reveals multiple splice variants.

    PubMed

    Lillie, Mette; Cui, Jian; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The cane toad has gained notoriety for its invasion across the Australian landscape, with significant impacts on the native Australian fauna. The invasion has accelerated over time, with invading cane toads adapted for highly dispersive traits. This, however, has come at the cost of the immune system, with lower investment in some immune functions. To investigate the cane toad's immunogenetics, we characterized four major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIA and three MHC class IIB loci. Preliminary observations suggest very low allelic diversity at all loci. We also observed various splice isoforms. One isoform seen at one class IIA and two class IIB loci was missing exon 2, which is essential to peptide binding and presentation. The other isoform, observed at a class IIA locus, is likely to be a soluble MHC product. These results may suggest a significant role of alternative splicing of MHC loci in the Australian cane toad. PMID:27233954

  2. Donor MHC class II antigen is essential for induction of transplantation tolerance by bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Umemura, A; Monaco, A P; Maki, T

    2000-05-01

    Posttransplant infusion of donor bone marrow cells (BMC) induces tolerance to allografts in adult mice, dogs, nonhuman primates, and probably humans. Here we used a mouse skin allograft model and an allogeneic radiation chimera model to examine the role of MHC Ags in tolerance induction. Infusion of MHC class II Ag-deficient (CIID) BMC failed to prolong C57BL/6 (B6) skin grafts in ALS- and rapamycin-treated B10.A mice, whereas wild-type B6 or MHC class I Ag-deficient BMC induced prolongation. Removal of class II Ag-bearing cells from donor BMC markedly reduced the tolerogenic effect compared with untreated BMC, although graft survival was significantly longer in mice given depleted BMC than that in control mice given no BMC. Infusion of CIID BMC into irradiated syngeneic B6 or allogeneic B10.A mice produced normal lymphoid cell reconstitution including CD4+ T cells except for the absence of class II Ag-positive cells. However, irradiated B10.A mice reconstituted with CIID BMC rejected all B6 and a majority of CIID skin grafts despite continued maintenance of high degree chimerism. B10.A mice reconstituted with B6 BMC maintained chimerism and accepted both B6 and CIID skin grafts. Thus, expression of MHC class II Ag on BMC is essential for allograft tolerance induction and peripheral chimerism with cells deficient in class II Ag does not guarantee allograft acceptance. PMID:10779744

  3. Spectrum of MHC Class II Variability in Darwin’s Finches and Their Close Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Akie; Tichy, Herbert; Grant, Peter R.; Grant, B. Rosemary; Sato, Tetsuji; O’hUigin, Colm

    2011-01-01

    The study describes >400 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B exon 2 and 114 intron 2 sequences of 36 passerine bird species, 13 of which belong to the group of Darwin’s finches (DFs) and the remaining 23 to close or more distant relatives of DFs in Central and South America. The data set is analyzed by a combination of judiciously selected statistical methods. The analysis reveals that reliable information concerning MHC organization, including the assignment of sequences to loci, and evolution, as well as the process of species divergence, can be obtained in the absence of genomic sequence data, if the analysis is taken several steps beyond the standard phylogenetic tree construction approach. The main findings of the present study are these: The MHC class II B region of the passerine birds is as elaborate in its organization, divergence, and genetic diversity as the MHC of the eutherian mammals, specifically the primates. Hence, the reported simplicity of the fowl MHC is an oddity. With the help of appropriate markers, the divergence of the MHC genes can be traced deep in the phylogeny of the bird taxa. Transspecies polymorphism is rampant at many of the bird MHC loci. In this respect, the DFs behave as if they were a single, genetically undifferentiated population. There is thus far no indication of alleles that could be considered species, genus, or even DF group specific. The implication of these findings is that DFs are in the midst of adaptive radiations, in which morphological differentiation into species is running ahead of genetic differentiation in genetic systems such as the MHC or the mitochondrial DNA. The radiations are so young that there has not been enough time to sort out polymorphisms at most of the loci among the morphologically differentiating species. These findings parallel those on Lake Victoria haplochromine fishes. Several of the DF MHC allelic lineages can be traced back to the MHC genes of the species Tiaris obscura

  4. Genotyping of black grouse MHC class II B using reference Strand-Mediated Conformational Analysis (RSCA)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a cluster of genes involved in the vertebrate immune system and includes loci with an extraordinary number of alleles. Due to the complex evolution of MHC genes, alleles from different loci within the same MHC class can be very similar and therefore difficult to assign to separate loci. Consequently, single locus amplification of MHC genes is hard to carry out in species with recently duplicated genes in the same MHC class, and multiple MHC loci have to be genotyped simultaneously. Since amplified alleles have the same length, accurate genotyping is difficult. Reference Strand-Mediated Conformational Analysis (RSCA), which is increasingly used in studies of natural populations with multiple MHC genes, is a genotyping method capable to provide high resolution and accuracy in such cases. Findings We adapted the RSCA method to genotype multiple MHC class II B (BLB) genes in black grouse (Tetrao tetrix), a non-model galliform bird species, using a 96-Capillary Array Electrophoresis, the MegaBACE™ 1000 DNA Analysing System (GE Healthcare). In this study we used fluorescently labelled reference strands from both black grouse and hazel grouse and observed good agreement between RSCA and cloning/sequencing since 71 alleles were observed by cloning/sequencing and 76 alleles by RSCA among the 24 individuals included in the comparison. At the individual level however, there was a trend towards more alleles scored with RSCA (1-6 per individual) than cloning/sequencing (1-4 per individual). In 63% of the pair-wise comparison, the identical allele was scored in RSCA as in cloning/sequencing. Nine out of 24 individuals had the same number of alleles in RSCA as in cloning/sequencing. Our RSCA protocol allows a faster RSCA genotyping than presented in many other RSCA studies. Conclusions In this study, we have developed the RSCA typing method further to work on a 96-Capillary Array Electrophoresis (MegaBACE™ 1000). Our

  5. Mutant MHC class II epitopes drive therapeutic immune responses to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kreiter, Sebastian; Vormehr, Mathias; van de Roemer, Niels; Diken, Mustafa; Löwer, Martin; Diekmann, Jan; Boegel, Sebastian; Schrörs, Barbara; Vascotto, Fulvia; Castle, John C.; Tadmor, Arbel D.; Schoenberger, Stephen P.; Huber, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Tumour-specific mutations are ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy as they lack expression in healthy tissues and can potentially be recognized as neo-antigens by the mature T-cell repertoire. Their systematic targeting by vaccine approaches, however, has been hampered by the fact that every patient’s tumour possesses a unique set of mutations (‘the mutanome’) that must first be identified. Recently, we proposed a personalized immunotherapy approach to target the full spectrum of a patient’s individual tumour-specific mutations1. Here we show in three independent murine tumour models that a considerable fraction of non-synonymous cancer mutations is immunogenic and that, unexpectedly, the majority of the immunogenic mutanome is recognized by CD4+ T cells. Vaccination with such CD4+ immunogenic mutations confers strong antitumour activity. Encouraged by these findings, we established a process by which mutations identified by exome sequencing could be selected as vaccine targets solely through bioinformatic prioritization on the basis of their expression levels and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-binding capacity for rapid production as synthetic poly-neo-epitope messenger RNA vaccines. We show that vaccination with such polytope mRNA vaccines induces potent tumour control and complete rejection of established aggressively growing tumours in mice. Moreover, we demonstrate that CD4+ T cell neo-epitope vaccination reshapes the tumour microenvironment and induces cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against an independent immunodominant antigen in mice, indicating orchestration of antigen spread. Finally, we demonstrate an abundance of mutations predicted to bind to MHC class II in human cancers as well by employing the same predictive algorithm on corresponding human cancer types. Thus, the tailored immunotherapy approach introduced here may be regarded as a universally applicable blueprint for comprehensive exploitation of the substantial neo

  6. Cloning and characterization of a new swine MHC (SLA) class II DQB allele.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, T; Tanioka, Y; Tanigawa, M; Matsumoto, Y; Onodera, T; Matsumoto, Y

    1998-06-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of pigs is known as swine leukocyte antigen (SLA). The cDNA encoding a new allele of SLA class II DQ beta-chain was successfully isolated from a CSK miniature pig (derived from Göttingen strain) and characterized by sequence analyses. SLA-DQB cDNA fragment encoding beta 2-domain was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using the sequences preserved in a various vertebrates as primers. Using non-radioisotope technique with the PCR product as a probe, cDNA clone G01 was isolated from a spleen cDNA library, and nucleotide sequence of this clone was determined. This clone encompassed a whole SLA-DQ beta-chain coding region, containing a total length of 1161 nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) of 786 nucleotides, 5' untranslated region of 15 nucleotides, and 3' untranslated region of 360 nucleotides ending with a canonical polyadenylation signal, followed by a poly A tail. Sequence comparisons of the ORF of this clone with those of known SLA-DQB genes confirmed that this clone is a new allele (SLA-DQB*G01). Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of swine, human, and murine MHC class II genes indicated that SLA-DQB was more similar to HLA-DQB1 than H-2A beta. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among SLA-DQB alleles showed that the SLA-DQ beta-chain polymorphism was found almost in beta 1-domain which contains the antigenic peptide binding sites.

  7. Critical role of the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 in dendritic cell activation of CD4 T cells by promoting MHC class II expression via IRF4 and CIITA.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongjie; O'Brien, Thomas F; Wright, Gabriela; Yang, Jialong; Shin, Jinwook; Wright, Kenneth L; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2013-07-15

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is characterized by upregulation of cell-surface MHC class II (MHC-II) and costimulatory molecules, and production of a variety of cytokines that can shape both innate and adaptive immunity. Paradoxically, transcription of the MHC-II genes, as well as its activator, CIITA, is rapidly silenced during DC maturation. The mechanisms that control CIITA/MHC-II expression and silencing have not been fully understood. We report in this article that the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) is a critical regulator of DC function for both innate and adaptive immunity. Its deficiency in DCs results in increased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 but decreased mTORC2 signaling, altered cytokine production, impaired CIITA/MHC-II expression, and defective Ag presentation to CD4 T cells after TLR4 stimulation. We demonstrate further that IFN regulatory factor 4 can directly bind to CIITA promoters, and decreased IFN regulatory factor 4 expression is partially responsible for decreased CIITA/MHC-II expression in TSC1-deficient DCs. Moreover, we identify that CIITA/MHC-II silencing during DC maturation requires mTOR complex 1 activity. Together, our data reveal unexpected roles of TSC1/mTOR that control multifaceted functions of DCs.

  8. Towards the simplification of MHC typing protocols: targeting classical MHC class II genes in a passerine, the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) has drawn the attention of evolutionary biologists due to its importance in crucial biological processes, such as sexual selection and immune response in jawed vertebrates. However, the characterization of classical MHC genes subjected to the effects of natural selection still remains elusive in many vertebrate groups. Here, we have tested the suitability of flanking intron sequences to guide the selective exploration of classical MHC genes driving the co-evolutionary dynamics between pathogens and their passerine (Aves, Order Passeriformes) hosts. Findings Intronic sequences flanking the usually polymorphic exon 2 were isolated from different species using primers sitting on conserved coding regions of MHC class II genes (β chain). Taking the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca as an example, we demonstrate that careful primer design can evade non-classical MHC gene and pseudogene amplification. At least four polymorphic and expressed loci were co-replicated using a single pair of primers in five non-related individuals (N = 28 alleles). The cross-amplification and preliminary inspection of similar MHC fragments in eight unrelated songbird taxa suggests that similar approaches can also be applied to other species. Conclusions Intron sequences flanking the usually polymorphic exon 2 may assist the specific investigation of classical MHC class II B genes in species characterized by extensive gene duplication and pseudogenization. Importantly, the evasion of non-classical MHC genes with a more specific function and non-functional pseudogenes may accelerate data collection and diminish lab costs. Comprehensive knowledge of gene structure, polymorphism and expression profiles may be useful not only for the selective examination of evolutionarily relevant genes but also to restrict chimera formation by minimizing the number of co-amplifying loci. PMID:20815923

  9. Reversion of a transcriptionally defective MHC class II-negative human B-cell mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Ombra, M N; Perfetto, C; Autiero, M; Anzisi, A M; Pasquinelli, R; Maffei, A; Del Pozzo, G; Guardiola, J

    1993-01-01

    RJ2.2.5, a mutant derived from the human B-lymphoma cell, Raji, is unable to express the MHC class II genes because of a recessive transcriptional defect attributed to the lack of an activator function. We report the isolation of a RJ2.2.5 revertant, namely AR, in which the expression of the mRNAs encoded by these genes is restored. Comparison of the binding of nuclear extracts or of partially purified nuclear preparations from the wild-type, the mutant and the revertant cells to a conserved MHC class II promoter element, the X-box, showed no alteration in the mobility of the complexes thus formed. However, in extracts from RJ2.2.5, and other MHC class II negative cell lines, such as HeLa, the amount of complex observed was significantly higher than in wild-type Raji cells. Furthermore, the binding activity exhibited by the AR revertant was lower than that of the RJ2.2.5 and higher than that of Raji. The use of specific monoclonal antibodies indicated that in all cases c-Jun and c-Fos or antigenically related proteins were required for binding. An inverse correlation between the level of DNA-protein complex formed and the level of MHC class II gene mRNA expressed in the three cell lines was apparent, suggesting that overexpression of a DNA binding factor forming complexes with class II promoter elements may cause repression of MHC class II transcription. A model which reconciles the previously ascertained recessivity of the phenotype of the mutation carried by RJ2.2.5 with the findings reported here is discussed. Images PMID:8441650

  10. MHC class II molecules, cathepsins, and La/SSB proteins in lacrimal acinar cell endomembranes.

    PubMed

    Yang, T; Zeng, H; Zhang, J; Okamoto, C T; Warren, D W; Wood, R L; Bachmann, M; Mircheff, A K

    1999-11-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting the lacrimal glands and other epithelia. It has been suggested that acinar cells of the lacrimal glands provoke local autoimmune responses, leading to Sjögren's syndrome when they begin expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. We used isopycnic centrifugation and phase partitioning to resolve compartments that participate in traffic between the basolateral membranes and the endomembrane system to test the hypothesis that MHC class II molecules enter compartments that contain potential autoantigens, i.e., La/SSB, and enzymes capable of proteolytically processing autoantigen, i.e., cathepsins B and D. A series of compartments identified as secretory vesicle membranes, prelysosomes, and microdomains of the trans-Golgi network involved in traffic to the basolateral membrane, to the secretory vesicles, and to the prelysosomes were all prominent loci of MHC class II molecules, La/SSB, and cathepsins B and D. These observations support the thesis that lacrimal gland acinar cells that have been induced to express MHC class II molecules function as autoantigen processing and presenting cells.

  11. A high throughput MHC II binding assay for quantitative analysis of peptide epitopes.

    PubMed

    Salvat, Regina; Moise, Leonard; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Griswold, Karl E

    2014-03-25

    Biochemical assays with recombinant human MHC II molecules can provide rapid, quantitative insights into immunogenic epitope identification, deletion, or design(1,2). Here, a peptide-MHC II binding assay is scaled to 384-well format. The scaled down protocol reduces reagent costs by 75% and is higher throughput than previously described 96-well protocols(1,3-5). Specifically, the experimental design permits robust and reproducible analysis of up to 15 peptides against one MHC II allele per 384-well ELISA plate. Using a single liquid handling robot, this method allows one researcher to analyze approximately ninety test peptides in triplicate over a range of eight concentrations and four MHC II allele types in less than 48 hr. Others working in the fields of protein deimmunization or vaccine design and development may find the protocol to be useful in facilitating their own work. In particular, the step-by-step instructions and the visual format of JoVE should allow other users to quickly and easily establish this methodology in their own labs.

  12. A High Throughput MHC II Binding Assay for Quantitative Analysis of Peptide Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Salvat, Regina; Moise, Leonard; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Griswold, Karl E.

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical assays with recombinant human MHC II molecules can provide rapid, quantitative insights into immunogenic epitope identification, deletion, or design1,2. Here, a peptide-MHC II binding assay is scaled to 384-well format. The scaled down protocol reduces reagent costs by 75% and is higher throughput than previously described 96-well protocols1,3-5. Specifically, the experimental design permits robust and reproducible analysis of up to 15 peptides against one MHC II allele per 384-well ELISA plate. Using a single liquid handling robot, this method allows one researcher to analyze approximately ninety test peptides in triplicate over a range of eight concentrations and four MHC II allele types in less than 48 hr. Others working in the fields of protein deimmunization or vaccine design and development may find the protocol to be useful in facilitating their own work. In particular, the step-by-step instructions and the visual format of JoVE should allow other users to quickly and easily establish this methodology in their own labs. PMID:24686319

  13. Macroautophagy in Endogenous Processing of Self- and Pathogen-Derived Antigens for MHC Class II Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Duraes, Fernanda V.; Niven, Jennifer; Dubrot, Juan; Hugues, Stéphanie; Gannagé, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Although autophagy is a process that has been studied for several years its link with antigen presentation and T cell immunity has only recently emerged. Autophagy, which means “self-eating,” is important to maintain cell homeostasis and refers to a collection of mechanisms that delivers intracellular material for degradation into lysosomes. Among them, macroautophagy pathway has many implications in different biological processes, including innate and adaptive immunity. In particular, macroautophagy can provide a substantial source of intracellular antigens for loading onto MHC class II molecules using the alternative MHC class II pathway. Through autophagosomes, endogenous self-antigens as well as antigens derived from intracellular pathogens can be delivered to MHC class II compartment and presented to CD4+ T cells. The pathway will, therefore, impact both peripheral T cell tolerance and the pathogen specific immune response. This review will describe the contribution of autophagy to intracellular presentation of endogenous self- or pathogen-derived antigens via MHC class II and its consequences on CD4+ T cell responses. PMID:26441964

  14. Characterization of anti-channel catfish MHC class II monoclonal antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study characterizes four monoclonal antibodies (mAb) developed against the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II beta chain of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Immunoprecipitations using catfish clonal B cells revealed that each of these mAbs immunoselected proteins of appro...

  15. Pulse-chase analysis for studies of MHC class II biosynthesis, maturation, and peptide loading

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Tieying; Rinderknecht, Cornelia H; Hadjinicolaou, Andreas V; Busch, Robert; Mellins, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Pulse-chase analysis is a commonly used technique for studying the synthesis, processing and transport of proteins. Cultured cells expressing proteins of interest are allowed to take up radioactively labeled amino acids for a brief interval (“pulse”), during which all newly synthesized proteins incorporate the label. The cells are then returned to non-radioactive culture medium for various times (“chase”), during which proteins may undergo conformational changes, trafficking, or degradation. Proteins of interest are isolated (usually by immunoprecipitation) and resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and the fate of radiolabeled molecules is examined by autoradiography. This chapter describes a pulse-chase protocol suitable for studies of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II biosynthesis and maturation. We discuss how results are affected by the recognition by certain anti-class II antibodies of distinct class II conformations associated with particular biosynthetic states. Our protocol can be adapted to follow the fate of many other endogenously synthesized proteins, including viral or transfected gene products, in cultured cells. PMID:23329504

  16. Expressed MHC class II genes in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from geographically disparate populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, L.; Aldridge, B.M.; Miles, A.K.; Stott, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is central to maintaining the immunologic vigor of individuals and populations. Classical MHC class II genes were targeted for partial sequencing in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from populations in California, Washington, and Alaska. Sequences derived from sea otter peripheral blood leukocyte mRNAs were similar to those classified as DQA, DQB, DRA, and DRB in other species. Comparisons of the derived amino acid compositions supported the classification of these as functional molecules from at least one DQA, DQB, and DRA locus and at least two DRB loci. While limited in scope, phylogenetic analysis of the DRB peptide-binding region suggested the possible existence of distinct clades demarcated by geographic region. These preliminary findings support the need for additional MHC gene sequencing and expansion to a comprehensive study targeting additional otters. ?? 2006 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  17. Influence of kinship and MHC class II genotype on visual traits in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Hinz, Cornelia; Gebhardt, Katharina; Hartmann, Alexander K; Sigman, Lauren; Gerlach, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Kin recognition can drive kin selection and the evolution of social behaviour. In zebrafish (Danio rerio, Hamilton 1822), kin recognition is based on olfactory and visual imprinting processes. If larvae are exposed to visual and chemical cues of kin at day 5 and 6 post fertilization they will recognize kin throughout life, while exposure to non-kin fails to trigger any recognition. Chemical imprinting signals are transcribed by polymorphic genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) code; however, the underlying mechanism for visual imprinting remains unclear. Here we provide evidence for the existence of family-specific differences in morphometry and pigmentation pattern of six day old zebrafish larvae. While rump, tail and body pigmentation were dependent on relatedness, iris pigmentation and morphometry were also influenced by MHC class II genotype. Our study revealed that the MHC not only influences the chemical signature of individuals, but also their visual appearance. PMID:23251449

  18. Large-scale MHC class II genotyping of a wild lemur population by next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Huchard, Elise; Albrecht, Christina; Schliehe-Diecks, Susanne; Baniel, Alice; Roos, Christian; Kappeler, Peter M; Peter, Peter M Kappeler; Brameier, Markus

    2012-12-01

    The critical role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in disease resistance, along with their putative function in sexual selection, reproduction and chemical ecology, make them an important genetic system in evolutionary ecology. Studying selective pressures acting on MHC genes in the wild nevertheless requires population-wide genotyping, which has long been challenging because of their extensive polymorphism. Here, we report on large-scale genotyping of the MHC class II loci of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) from a wild population in western Madagascar. The second exons from MHC-DRB and -DQB of 772 and 672 individuals were sequenced, respectively, using a 454 sequencing platform, generating more than 800,000 reads. Sequence analysis, through a stepwise variant validation procedure, allowed reliable typing of more than 600 individuals. The quality of our genotyping was evaluated through three independent methods, namely genotyping the same individuals by both cloning and 454 sequencing, running duplicates, and comparing parent-offspring dyads; each displaying very high accuracy. A total of 61 (including 20 new) and 60 (including 53 new) alleles were detected at DRB and DQB genes, respectively. Both loci were non-duplicated, in tight linkage disequilibrium and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, despite the fact that sequence analysis revealed clear evidence of historical selection. Our results highlight the potential of 454 sequencing technology in attempts to investigate patterns of selection shaping MHC variation in contemporary populations. The power of this approach will nevertheless be conditional upon strict quality control of the genotyping data.

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Provide Insights into Epitopes Coupled to the Soluble and Membrane-Bound MHC-II Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Martiniano; Correa-Basurto, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Epitope recognition by major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) is essential for the activation of immunological responses to infectious diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that this molecular event takes place in the MHC-II peptide-binding groove constituted by the α and β light chains of the heterodimer. This MHC-II peptide-binding groove has several pockets (P1-P11) involved in peptide recognition and complex stabilization that have been probed through crystallographic experiments and in silico calculations. However, most of these theoretical calculations have been performed without taking into consideration the heavy chains, which could generate misleading information about conformational mobility both in water and in the membrane environment. Therefore, in absence of structural information about the difference in the conformational changes between the peptide-free and peptide-bound states (pMHC-II) when the system is soluble in an aqueous environment or non-covalently bound to a cell membrane, as the physiological environment for MHC-II is. In this study, we explored the mechanistic basis of these MHC-II components using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in which MHC-II was previously co-crystallized with a small epitope (P7) or coupled by docking procedures to a large (P22) epitope. These MD simulations were performed at 310 K over 100 ns for the water-soluble (MHC-IIw, MHC-II-P7w, and MHC-II-P22w) and 150 ns for the membrane-bound species (MHC-IIm, MHC-II-P7m, and MHC-II-P22m). Our results reveal that despite the different epitope sizes and MD simulation environments, both peptides are stabilized primarily by residues lining P1, P4, and P6-7, and similar noncovalent intermolecular energies were observed for the soluble and membrane-bound complexes. However, there were remarkably differences in the conformational mobility and intramolecular energies upon complex formation, causing some differences with respect to how the two peptides are

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations to provide insights into epitopes coupled to the soluble and membrane-bound MHC-II complexes.

    PubMed

    Bello, Martiniano; Correa-Basurto, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Epitope recognition by major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) is essential for the activation of immunological responses to infectious diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that this molecular event takes place in the MHC-II peptide-binding groove constituted by the α and β light chains of the heterodimer. This MHC-II peptide-binding groove has several pockets (P1-P11) involved in peptide recognition and complex stabilization that have been probed through crystallographic experiments and in silico calculations. However, most of these theoretical calculations have been performed without taking into consideration the heavy chains, which could generate misleading information about conformational mobility both in water and in the membrane environment. Therefore, in absence of structural information about the difference in the conformational changes between the peptide-free and peptide-bound states (pMHC-II) when the system is soluble in an aqueous environment or non-covalently bound to a cell membrane, as the physiological environment for MHC-II is. In this study, we explored the mechanistic basis of these MHC-II components using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in which MHC-II was previously co-crystallized with a small epitope (P7) or coupled by docking procedures to a large (P22) epitope. These MD simulations were performed at 310 K over 100 ns for the water-soluble (MHC-IIw, MHC-II-P(7w), and MHC-II-P(22w)) and 150 ns for the membrane-bound species (MHC-IIm, MHC-II-P(7m), and MHC-II-P(22m)). Our results reveal that despite the different epitope sizes and MD simulation environments, both peptides are stabilized primarily by residues lining P1, P4, and P6-7, and similar noncovalent intermolecular energies were observed for the soluble and membrane-bound complexes. However, there were remarkably differences in the conformational mobility and intramolecular energies upon complex formation, causing some differences with respect to how the two peptides

  1. MHC class II transcription is associated with inflammatory responses in a wild marine mammal.

    PubMed

    Montano-Frías, Jorge E; Vera-Massieu, Camila; Álvarez-Martínez, Roberto; Flores-Morán, Adriana; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation is one of the most important non-specific and rapid responses that a vertebrate can elicit in response to damage or a foreign insult. To date, despite increasing evidence that the innate and adaptive branches of immunity are more intricately related than previously thought, few have examined interactions between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, a polymorphic region of the vertebrate genome that is involved with antigen presentation) and inflammation, and even less is known about these interactions in an eco-immunological context. Here, we examined the effect of MHC class II DRB gene multiplicity and transcription on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced inflammation during the early stages of development of California sea lions. Neither constitutive nor expressed ZacaDRB diversity was found to be associated with pup responses to PHA at any of the stages of pup development. However, for two-month-old pups, those with a specific MHC-DRB locus (ZacaDRB-A) tended to have less efficient responsive inflammation. Transcription of distinct MHC-DRB loci was also linked to PHA-induced inflammation, with patterns that varied markedly between ages, and that suggested that ongoing infectious processes could limit the capacity to respond to a secondary challenge. Life history constraints and physiological processes associated with development of California sea lions, in conjunction with their changing pathogenic environment could explain the observed effects of MHC class II transcription on PHA-induced inflammation. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to examine the importance of expressed vs. constitutive MHC loci on inflammation in a natural population. PMID:27137083

  2. Epigenetic control of MHC-II: interplay between CIITA and histone-modifying enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zika, Eleni; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2005-02-01

    Recent advances have shown the crucial role of histone-modifying enzymes in controlling gene activation and repression. This led to the 'histone code' hypothesis, which proposes that combinations of histone modifications work in concert to affect specific gene expression. Mounting evidence suggests that the class II transactivator modulates promoter accessibility by coordinating the recruitment of chromatin modifiers in a time-dependent fashion. MHC-II expression is exquisitely controlled by these highly specific, coordinated and dynamic interactions at the promoter.

  3. Transcriptional control of MHC class II gene expression during differentiation from B cells to plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Dellabona, P; Latron, F; Maffei, A; Scarpellino, L; Accolla, R S

    1989-04-15

    In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for the extinction of the constitutive MHC class II gene expression of human B cells on somatic cell hybridization with murine plasmocytoma cells. We found that this event is due to trans-acting suppressor functions of mouse origin pre-existing in the plasmocytoma cells and acting at transcriptional level. Transcription of the entire family of human class II genes is suppressed, including genes as DO beta for which a distinct regulation of expression in B cells had been previously demonstrated. Suppression appears specific for class II genes because in the hybrids expression of MHC class I genes of mouse is unaffected and of human only partially reduced. Interestingly, also murine invariant chain gene is expressed in both parental plasmocytoma and hybrid cells although at reduced amounts as compared to a murine class II positive B cell line. The class II negative phenotype of hybrid cells and parental plasmocytoma cells is highly stable and unaffected by treatment with protein synthesis inhibitors, suggesting that the transcriptional suppressor function is not mediated by rapid, labile turning-over proteins. Possible mechanisms responsible for transcriptional regulation of MHC class II gene expression during terminal differentiation of B cells to plasma cells are discussed. PMID:2495328

  4. The tetraspanin CD9 mediates lateral association of MHC class II molecules on the dendritic cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Unternaehrer, Julia J.; Chow, Amy; Pypaert, Marc; Inaba, Kayo; Mellman, Ira

    2007-01-01

    We have found that MHC class II (MHC II) molecules exhibit a distinctive organization on the dendritic cell (DC) plasma membrane. Both in DC lysates and on the surface of living cells, I-A and I-E molecules engaged in lateral interactions not observed on other antigen-presenting cells such as B blasts. Because DCs and B blasts express MHC II at comparable surface densities, the interaction was not due to simple mass action. Instead, it reflected the selective expression of the tetraspanin CD9 at the DC surface. I-A and I-E molecules coprecipitated with each other and with CD9. The association of heterologous MHC II molecules was abrogated in DCs from CD9−/− mice. Conversely, expression of exogenous CD9 in B cells induced MHC II interactions. CD9 is thus necessary for the association of heterologous MHC II, a specialization that would facilitate the formation of MHC II multimers expected to enhance T cell receptor stimulation by DCs. PMID:17190803

  5. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  6. Diversification of porcine MHC class II genes: evidence for selective advantage.

    PubMed

    Luetkemeier, Erin S; Malhi, Ripan S; Beever, Jonathan E; Schook, Lawrence B

    2009-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is an immunological gene-dense region of high diversity in mammalian species. Sus scrofa was domesticated by at least six independent events over Eurasia during the Holocene period. It has been hypothesized that the level and distribution of MHC variation in pig populations reflect genetic selection and environmental influences. In an effort to define the complexity of MHC polymorphisms and the role of selection in the generation of class II gene diversity (DQB, DRB1, and pseudogene PsiDRB3), DNA from globally distributed unrelated domestic pigs of European and Asian origins and a Suidae out-group was analyzed. The number of pseudogene alleles identified (PsiDRB3 33) was greater than those found in the expressed genes (DQB 20 and DRB1 23) but the level of observed heterozygosity (PsiDRB3 0.452, DQB 0.732, and DRB1 0.767) and sequence diversity (PsiDRB3 0.029, DQB 0.062, and DRB1 0.074) were significantly lower in the pseudogene, respectively. The substitution ratios reflected an excess of d (N) (DQB 1.476, DRB1 1.724, and PsiDRB3 0.508) and the persistence of expressed gene alleles suggesting the influence of balancing selection, while the pseudogene was undergoing purifying selection. The lack of a clear MHC phylogeographic tree, coupled with close genetic distances observed between the European and Asian populations (DQB 0.047 and DRB1 0.063) suggested that unlike observations using mtDNA, the MHC diversity lacks phylogeographic structure and appears to be globally uniform. Taken together, these results suggest that, despite regional differences in selective breeding and environments, no skewing of MHC diversity has occurred.

  7. Diversification of porcine MHC class II genes: evidence for selective advantage.

    PubMed

    Luetkemeier, Erin S; Malhi, Ripan S; Beever, Jonathan E; Schook, Lawrence B

    2009-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is an immunological gene-dense region of high diversity in mammalian species. Sus scrofa was domesticated by at least six independent events over Eurasia during the Holocene period. It has been hypothesized that the level and distribution of MHC variation in pig populations reflect genetic selection and environmental influences. In an effort to define the complexity of MHC polymorphisms and the role of selection in the generation of class II gene diversity (DQB, DRB1, and pseudogene PsiDRB3), DNA from globally distributed unrelated domestic pigs of European and Asian origins and a Suidae out-group was analyzed. The number of pseudogene alleles identified (PsiDRB3 33) was greater than those found in the expressed genes (DQB 20 and DRB1 23) but the level of observed heterozygosity (PsiDRB3 0.452, DQB 0.732, and DRB1 0.767) and sequence diversity (PsiDRB3 0.029, DQB 0.062, and DRB1 0.074) were significantly lower in the pseudogene, respectively. The substitution ratios reflected an excess of d (N) (DQB 1.476, DRB1 1.724, and PsiDRB3 0.508) and the persistence of expressed gene alleles suggesting the influence of balancing selection, while the pseudogene was undergoing purifying selection. The lack of a clear MHC phylogeographic tree, coupled with close genetic distances observed between the European and Asian populations (DQB 0.047 and DRB1 0.063) suggested that unlike observations using mtDNA, the MHC diversity lacks phylogeographic structure and appears to be globally uniform. Taken together, these results suggest that, despite regional differences in selective breeding and environments, no skewing of MHC diversity has occurred. PMID:19142631

  8. Contrasting patterns of selection acting on MHC class I and class II DRB genes in the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota).

    PubMed

    Kuduk, K; Johanet, A; Allainé, D; Cohas, A; Radwan, J

    2012-08-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes code for proteins that play a critical role in the immune system response. The MHC genes are among the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates, presumably due to balancing selection. The two MHC classes appear to differ in the rate of evolution, but the reasons for this variation are not well understood. Here, we investigate the level of polymorphism and the evolution of sequences that code for the peptide-binding regions of MHC class I and class II DRB genes in the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota). We found evidence for four expressed MHC class I loci and two expressed MHC class II loci. MHC genes in marmots were characterized by low polymorphism, as one to eight alleles per putative locus were detected in 38 individuals from three French Alps populations. The generally limited degree of polymorphism, which was more pronounced in class I genes, is likely due to bottleneck the populations undergone. Additionally, gene duplication within each class might have compensated for the loss of polymorphism at particular loci. The two gene classes showed different patterns of evolution. The most polymorphic of the putative loci, Mama-DRB1, showed clear evidence of historical positive selection for amino acid replacements. However, no signal of positive selection was evident in the MHC class I genes. These contrasting patterns of sequence evolution may reflect differences in selection pressures acting on class I and class II genes.

  9. Prediction of peptides binding to MHC class I and II alleles by temporal motif mining

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) is a key player in the immune response of most vertebrates. The computational prediction of whether a given antigenic peptide will bind to a specific MHC allele is important in the development of vaccines for emerging pathogens, the creation of possibilities for controlling immune response, and for the applications of immunotherapy. One of the problems that make this computational prediction difficult is the detection of the binding core region in peptides, coupled with the presence of bulges and loops causing variations in the total sequence length. Most machine learning methods require the sequences to be of the same length to successfully discover the binding motifs, ignoring the length variance in both motif mining and prediction steps. In order to overcome this limitation, we propose the use of time-based motif mining methods that work position-independently. Results The prediction method was tested on a benchmark set of 28 different alleles for MHC class I and 27 different alleles for MHC class II. The obtained results are comparable to the state of the art methods for both MHC classes, surpassing the published results for some alleles. The average prediction AUC values are 0.897 for class I, and 0.858 for class II. Conclusions Temporal motif mining using partial periodic patterns can capture information about the sequences well enough to predict the binding of the peptides and is comparable to state of the art methods in the literature. Unlike neural networks or matrix based predictors, our proposed method does not depend on peptide length and can work with both short and long fragments. This advantage allows better use of the available training data and the prediction of peptides of uncommon lengths. PMID:23368521

  10. Vaccinia Virus A35R Inhibits MHC Class II Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Kristina E.; Connor, Ramsey F.; Jones, Gwendolyn J.B.; Yimbu, Kenneth; Roper, Rachel L.

    2009-01-01

    The Vaccinia virus gene A35R (Copenhagen designation) is highly conserved in mammalian-tropic poxviruses and is an important virulence factor, but its function was unknown. We show herein that A35 does not affect viral infectivity, apoptosis induction, or replication; however, we found that A35 significantly inhibited MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation, immune priming of T lymphocytes, and subsequent chemokine and cytokine synthesis. A35 localized to endosomes and reduced the amount of a model antigenic peptide displayed in the cleft of class II MHC. In addition, A35 decreased VV specific T cell responses in vivo. Thus, this is the first report identifying a function for the A35 protein in virulence as well as the first report identifying a VV gene that inhibits peptide antigen presentation. PMID:19954808

  11. Selective immunosuppression by administration of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-binding peptides. I. Evidence for in vivo MHC blockade preventing T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Draining lymph node cells (LNC) from mice immunized with hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) display at their surface antigen-MHC complexes able to stimulate, in the absence of any further antigen addition, HEL peptide- specific, class II-restricted T cell hybridomas. Chloroquine addition to these LNC cultures fails to inhibit antigen presentation, indicating that antigenic complexes of class II molecules and HEL peptides are formed in vivo. MHC class II restriction of antigen presentation by LNC from HEL-primed mice was verified by the use of anti-class II monoclonal antibodies. Coinjection of HEL and the I-Ak-binding peptide HEL 112-129 in mice of H-2k haplotype inhibits the ability of LNC to stimulate I-Ak-restricted, HEL 46-61-specific T cell hybridomas. Similar results are obtained in mice coinjected with the HEL peptides 46-61 and 112-129. Inhibition of T hybridoma activation can also be observed using as antigen-presenting cells irradiated, T cell-depleted LNC from mice coinjected with HEL 46-61 and HEL 112-129, ruling out the possible role of either specific or nonspecific suppressor T cells. Inhibition of T cell proliferation is associated with MHC-specific inhibition of antigen presentation and with occupancy by the competitor of class II binding sites, as measured by activation of peptide- specific T cell hybridomas. These results demonstrate that administration of MHC class II binding peptide competitors selectively inhibits antigen presentation to class II-restricted T cells, indicating competitive blockade of class II molecules in vivo. PMID:1569402

  12. MHC class II B diversity in blue tits: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Juan Rivero-de; Schut, Elske; Merino, Santiago; Martínez, Javier; Komdeur, Jan; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we partly characterize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). A total of 22 individuals from three different European locations: Spain, The Netherlands, and Sweden were screened for MHC allelic diversity. The MHC genes were investigated using both PCR-based methods and unamplified genomic DNA with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and southern blots. A total of 13 different exon 2 sequences were obtained independently from DNA and/or RNA, thus confirming gene transcription and likely functionality of the genes. Nine out of 13 alleles were found in more than one country, and two alleles appeared in all countries. Positive selection was detected in the region coding for the peptide binding region (PBR). A maximum of three alleles per individual was detected by sequencing and the RFLP pattern consisted of 4–7 fragments, indicating a minimum number of 2–4 loci per individual. A phylogenetic analysis, demonstrated that the blue tit sequences are divergent compared to sequences from other passerines resembling a different MHC lineage than those possessed by most passerines studied to date. PMID:23919136

  13. DPA1*02012: A DPA1*0201-related Mhc class II allele in West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, C.G.; May, J.; Spauke, D.; Schnittger, L.

    1994-12-31

    DNA techniques such as sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP) hybridizations, restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses, and DNA sequencing have greatly supported the characterization of Mhc class II allelic polymorphism. Here the authors describe a DPA 1 allele which has been identified in two male individuals from Liberia and Benin, West Africa, during a survey study on Mhc class II associations with the different manifestations after infection with Onchocerca volvulus. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Contact sensitizers specifically increase MHC class II expression on murine immature dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Herouet, C; Cottin, M; LeClaire, J; Enk, A; Rousset, F

    2000-01-01

    Contact sensitivity is a T-cell-mediated immune disease that can occur when low-molecular-weight chemicals penetrate the skin. In vivo topical application of chemical sensitizers results in morphological modification of Langerhans cells (LC). Moreover, within 18 h, LC increase their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens expression and migrate to lymph nodes where they present the sensitizer to T lymphocytes. We wanted to determine if such an effect could also be observed in vitro. However, because of the high genetic diversity encountered in humans, assays were performed with dendritic cells (DC) obtained from a Balb/c mouse strain. The capacity of a strong sensitizer, DNBS (2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid), to modulate the phenotype of bone marrow-derived DC in vitro, was investigated. A specific and marked increase of MHC class II molecules expression was observed within 18 h. To eliminate the use of animals in sensitization studies, the XS52 DC line was tested at an immature stage. A 30-min contact with the strong sensitizers DNBS and oxazolone, or the moderate mercaptobenzothiazole, resulted in upregulation of MHC class II molecules expression, analyzed after 18-h incubation. This effect was not observed with irritants (dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium lauryl sulfate) nor with a neutral molecule (sodium chloride). These data suggested the possibility of developing an in vitro model for the identification of the sensitizing potential of chemicals, using a constant and non animal-consuming material.

  15. The MHC class II cofactor, HLA-DM, interacts with immunoglobulin in B cells

    PubMed Central

    Ayyangar, Sashi; Jiang, Wei; Rajasekaran, Narendiran; Spura, Armin; Hessell, Ann J.; Madec, Anne-Marie; Mellins, Elizabeth D.

    2014-01-01

    B cells internalize extracellular antigen into endosomes using the immunoglobulin (Ig) component of the B cell receptor. In endosomes, antigen-derived peptides are loaded onto MHC class II proteins (MHC-II). How these pathways intersect remains unclear. We find that HLA-DM (DM), a catalyst for MHC-II peptide loading, co-precipitates with Ig in lysates from human tonsillar B cells and B cell lines. The molecules in the Ig/DM complexes have mature glycans, and the complexes co-localize with endosomal markers in intact cells. A larger fraction of Ig precipitates with DM after BCR crosslinking, implying that complexes can form when DM meets endocytosed Ig. In vitro, in the endosomal pH range, soluble HLA-DM (sDM) directly binds the Ig Fab domain, and increases levels of free antigen released from immune complexes. Together, these results argue that DM and Ig intersect in the endocytic pathway of B cells with potential functional consequences. PMID:25098292

  16. Dendritic cell preactivation impairs MHC class II presentation of vaccines and endogenous viral antigens

    PubMed Central

    Young, Louise J.; Wilson, Nicholas S.; Schnorrer, Petra; Mount, Adele; Lundie, Rachel J.; La Gruta, Nicole L.; Crabb, Brendan S.; Belz, Gabrielle T.; Heath, William R.; Villadangos, Jose A.

    2007-01-01

    When dendritic cells (DCs) encounter signals associated with infection or inflammation, they become activated and undergo maturation. Mature DCs are very efficient at presenting antigens captured in association with their activating signal but fail to present subsequently encountered antigens, at least in vitro. Such impairment of MHC class II (MHC II) antigen presentation has generally been thought to be a consequence of down-regulation of endocytosis, so it might be expected that antigens synthesized by the DCs themselves (for instance, viral antigens) would still be presented by mature DCs. Here, we show that DCs matured in vivo could still capture and process soluble antigens, but were unable to present peptides derived from these antigens. Furthermore, presentation of viral antigens synthesized by the DCs themselves was also severely impaired. Indeed, i.v. injection of pathogen mimics, which caused systemic DC activation in vivo, impaired the induction of CD4 T cell responses against subsequently encountered protein antigens. This immunosuppressed state could be reversed by adoptive transfer of DCs loaded exogenously with antigens, demonstrating that impairment of CD4 T cell responses was due to lack of antigen presentation rather than to overt suppression of T cell activation. The biochemical mechanism underlying this phenomenon was the down-regulation of MHC II–peptide complex formation that accompanied DC maturation. These observations have important implications for the design of prophylactic and therapeutic DC vaccines and contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms causing immunosuppression during systemic blood infections. PMID:17978177

  17. Immunotoxin Against a Donor MHC Class II Molecule Induces Indefinite Survival of Murine Kidney Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, K.; Nowocin, A. K.; Meader, L.; Edwards, L. A.; Smith, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Rejection of donor organs depends on the trafficking of donor passenger leukocytes to the secondary lymphoid organs of the recipient to elicit an immune response via the direct antigen presentation pathway. Therefore, the depletion of passenger leukocytes may be clinically applicable as a strategy to improve graft survival. Because major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II+ cells are most efficient at inducing immune responses, selective depletion of this population from donor grafts may dampen the alloimmune response and prolong graft survival. In a fully MHC mismatched mouse kidney allograft model, we describe the synthesis of an immunotoxin, consisting of the F(ab′)2 fragment of a monoclonal antibody against the donor MHC class II molecule I‐Ak conjugated with the plant‐derived ribosomal inactivating protein gelonin. This anti–I‐Ak gelonin immunotoxin depletes I‐Ak expressing cells specifically in vitro and in vivo. When given to recipients of kidney allografts, it resulted in indefinite graft survival with normal graft function, presence of Foxp3+ cells within donor grafts, diminished donor‐specific antibody formation, and delayed rejection of subsequent donor‐type skin grafts. Strategies aimed at the donor arm of the immune system using agents such as immunotoxins may be a useful adjuvant to existing recipient‐orientated immunosuppression. PMID:26799449

  18. Molecular requirements for MHC class II alpha-chain engagement and allelic discrimination by the bacterial superantigen streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Katherine J; Xi, Wang; Rahman, A K M Nur-Ur; Nooh, Mohammed M; Kotb, Malak; Sundberg, Eric J; Madrenas, Joaquín; McCormick, John K

    2008-09-01

    Superantigens (SAgs) are microbial toxins that bind to both TCR beta-chain variable domains (Vbetas) and MHC class II molecules, resulting in the activation of T cells in a Vbeta-specific manner. It is now well established that different isoforms of MHC II molecules can play a significant role in the immune response to bacterial SAgs. In this work, using directed mutational studies in conjunction with functional analyses, we provide a complete functional map of the low-affinity MHC II alpha-chain binding interface of the SAg streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SpeC) and identify a functional epitope in the beta-barrel domain that is required for the activation of T cells. Using cell lines that exclusively express individual MHC II isoforms, our studies provide a molecular basis for the selectivity of SpeC-MHC II recognition, and provide one mechanism by how SAgs are capable of distinguishing between different MHC II alleles.

  19. Mass spectrometry analysis and quantitation of peptides presented on the MHC II molecules of mouse spleen dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Bozzacco, Leonia; Yu, Haiqiang; Zebroski, Henry A.; Dengjel, Jörn; Deng, Haiteng; Mojsov, Svetlana; Steinman, Ralph M.

    2011-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules are expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells and display short bound peptide fragments derived from self and nonself antigens. These peptide-MHC complexes function to maintain immunological tolerance in the case of self antigens and initiate the CD4+ T cell response in the case of foreign proteins. Here we report the application of LC-MS/MS analysis to identify MHC II peptides derived from endogenous proteins expressed in freshly isolated murine splenic DCs. The cell number was enriched in vivo upon treatment with Flt3L-B16 melanoma cells. In a typical experiment, starting with about 5× 108 splenic DCs, we were able to reliably identify a repertoire of over 100 MHC II peptides originating from about 55 proteins localized in membrane (23%), intracellular (26%), endo-lysosomal (12%), nuclear (14%) and extracellular (25%) compartments. Using synthetic isotopically labeled peptides corresponding to the sequences of representative bound MHC II peptides, we quantified by LC-MS relative peptide abundance. In a single experiment, peptides were detected in a wide concentration range spanning from 2.5 fmol/μL to 12 pmol/μL or from approximately 13 copies to 2×105 copies per DC. These peptides were found in similar amounts on B cells where we detected about 80 peptides originating from 55 proteins distributed homogenously within the same cellular compartments as in DCs. About 90 different binding motifs predicted by the epitope prediction algorithm were found within the sequences of the identified MHC II peptides. These results set a foundation for future studies to quantitatively investigate the MHC II repertoire on DCs generated under different immunization conditions. PMID:21913724

  20. Composition of MHC class II-enriched lipid microdomains is modified during maturation of primary dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Setterblad, Niclas; Roucard, Corinne; Bocaccio, Claire; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Charron, Dominique; Mooney, Nuala

    2003-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen presenting cells. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression changes with maturation; immature DCs concentrate MHC class II molecules intracellularly, whereas maturation increases surface expression of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules to optimize antigen presentation. Signal transduction via MHC class II molecules localized in lipid microdomains has been described in B lymphocytes and in the THP-1 monocyte cell line. We have characterized MHC class II molecules throughout human DC maturation with particular attention to their localization in lipid-rich microdomains. Only immature DCs expressed empty MHC class II molecules, and maturation increased the level of peptide-bound heterodimers. Ligand binding to surface human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR induced rapid internalization in immature DCs. The proportion of cell-surface detergent-insoluble glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain-clustered HLA-DR was higher in immature DCs despite the higher surface expression of HLA-DR in mature DCs. Constituents of HLA-DR containing microdomains included the src kinase Lyn and the cytoskeletal protein tubulin in immature DCs. Maturation modified the composition of the HLA-DR-containing microdomains to include protein kinase C (PKC)-delta, Lyn, and the cytoskeletal protein actin, accompanied by the loss of tubulin. Signaling via HLA-DR redistributed HLA-DR and -DM and PKC-delta as well as enriching the actin content of mature DC microdomains. The increased expression of HLA-DR as a result of DC maturation was therefore accompanied by modification of the spatial organization of HLA-DR. Such regulation could contribute to the distinct responses induced by ligand binding to MHC class II molecules in immature versus mature DCs.

  1. Polymorphisms at MHC class II DRB1 exon 2 locus in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica).

    PubMed

    Cavallero, Serena; Marco, Ignasi; Lavín, Santiago; D'Amelio, Stefano; López-Olvera, Jorge R

    2012-07-01

    Chamois (Rupicapra spp.) are mountain ungulates from Southern and Central Europe and the Near East. A newly reported border disease virus (BDV) has affected the easternmost populations of Pyrenean chamois, leading to a dramatic population decrease that may drive to genetic variability loss. The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a sensitive marker for genetic variation of populations: polymorphism on the MHC genes is affected both by pathogens and population dynamics and it is ecologically relevant, as depending on host-pathogen relationships and life history features. In the present study MHC class II DRB1 exon 2 variation was investigated in 81 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) belonging to four populations. Haplotype analysis, population genetics statistics and network analysis were carried out, in order to analyze variability, phylogeography and genealogy, and the effects of geography and demographic trend. Twenty-nine haplotypes were identified, 26 of them newly described, with high Gene diversity (Gd). The variability observed in the easternmost populations of Pyrenean chamois showed a higher genetic diversity than that previously reported for other populations of Pyrenean and Cantabrian chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica parva). The most frequent allele was RupyDRB*15, previously undetected, which seems to play a significant role in genotyping the variability, suggesting a possible effect of positive selection. PMID:22425496

  2. Characterization of bovine MHC class II DRB3 diversity in South American Holstein cattle populations.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, S-N; Giovambattista, G; Okimoto, N; Matsumoto, Y; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Acosta, T J; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2015-12-01

    Holstein cattle dominate the global milk production industry because of their outstanding milk production, however, this breed is susceptible to tropical endemic pathogens and suffers from heat stress and thus fewer Holstein populations are raised in tropical areas. The bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA)-DRB3 class II gene is used as a marker for disease and immunological traits, and its polymorphism has been studied extensively in Holstein cattle from temperate and cold regions. We studied the genetic diversity of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in South American Holstein populations to determine whether tropical populations have diverged from those bred in temperate and cold regions by selection and/or crossbreeding with local native breeds. We specifically studied Exon 2 of this gene from 855 South American Holstein individuals by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence-based typing method. We found a high degree of gene diversity at the allelic (Na > 20 and He > 0.87) and molecular (π > 0.080) levels, but a low degree of population structure (FST = 0.009215). A principal components analysis and tree showed that the Bolivian subtropical population had the largest genetic divergence compared with Holsteins bred in temperate or cold regions, and that this population was closely related to Bolivian Creole cattle. Our results suggest that Holstein genetic divergence can be explained by selection and/or gene introgression from local germplasms. This is the first examination of BoLA-DRB3 in Holsteins adapted to tropical environments, and contributes to an ongoing effort to catalog bovine MHC allele frequencies by breed and location.

  3. Bacterial superantigens promote acute nasopharyngeal infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a human MHC Class II-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Katherine J; Zeppa, Joseph J; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T; Xu, Stacey X; Mazzuca, Delfina M; Welch, Ian; Baroja, Miren L; Kotb, Malak; Cairns, Ewa; Cleary, P Patrick; Haeryfar, S M Mansour; McCormick, John K

    2014-05-01

    Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs) as 'trademark' virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ∼10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHC -II binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms.

  4. Effect of decreasing the affinity of the class II-associated invariant chain peptide on the MHC class II peptide repertoire in the presence or absence of H-2M.

    PubMed

    Honey, Karen; Forbush, Katherine; Jensen, Peter E; Rudensky, Alexander Y

    2004-04-01

    The class II-associated invariant chain peptide (CLIP) region of the invariant chain (Ii) directly influences MHC class II presentation by occupying the MHC class II peptide-binding groove, thereby preventing premature loading of peptides. Different MHC class II alleles exhibit distinct affinities for CLIP, and a low affinity interaction has been associated with decreased dependence upon H-2M and increased susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis, suggesting that decreased CLIP affinity alters the MHC class II-bound peptide repertoire, thereby promoting autoimmunity. To examine the role of CLIP affinity in determining the MHC class II peptide repertoire, we generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type human Ii or human Ii containing a CLIP region of low affinity for MHC class II. Our data indicate that although degradation intermediates of Ii containing a CLIP region with decreased affinity for MHC class II do not remain associated with I-A(b), this does not substantially alter the peptide repertoire bound by MHC class II or increase autoimmune susceptibility in the mice. This implies that the affinity of the CLIP:MHC class II interaction is not a strong contributory factor in determining the probability of developing autoimmunity. In contrast, in the absence of H-2M, MHC class II peptide repertoire diversity is enhanced by decreasing the affinity of CLIP for MHC class II, although MHC class II cell surface expression is reduced. Thus, we show clearly, in vivo, the critical chaperone function of H-2M, which preserves MHC class II molecules for high affinity peptide binding upon dissociation of Ii degradation intermediates. PMID:15034026

  5. Murine neuroblastoma vaccines produced by retroviral transfer of MHC class II genes.

    PubMed

    Hock, R A; Reynolds, B D; Tucker-McClung, C L; Heuer, J G

    1996-01-01

    Malignant tumors express tumor-related antigens, but effective antitumor immunity does not occur in the primary host. One hypothesis is that there is insufficient stimulation of T-cell responses due to ineffective antigen presentation. An approach to overcome these deficiencies is to modify tumor cells to express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes and thus facilitate the presentation of antigens directly by tumor cells. Our experiments with a murine neuroblastoma cell line (neuro-2a) transduced with DR (xenogeneic), 1-Ab (allogeneic), or 1-Ak (syngeneic) MHC class II genes support this notion. The relative potencies of the modified neuro-2a to induce immunity to unmodified neuro-2a were neuro-2a/DR > neuro-2a/1-Ab > neuro-2a/1-Ak. Modified neuro-2a also could stimulate naive splenocyte proliferation in vitro. The relative magnitude of the proliferative responses seen after stimulation with modified tumor cells was neuro-2a/DR > neuro-2a/1-Ab > neuro-2a/1-Ak > unmodified neuro-2a. Hence, the tumor cell-induced splenocyte proliferative responses observed in vitro correlate with the effectiveness of the tumor cell vaccines to induce antitumor immunity in vivo. These data show that the expression of exogenous MHC class II on tumor cells is a potent stimulus for specific antitumor immunity. Because of the correlation of the in vivo and in vitro immune responses to modified tumor cells, the tumor-induced lymphocyte proliferation assay may be useful in evaluating tumor cell vaccines produced by additional genetic modifications of tumor cells.

  6. MHC class II DRB diversity, selection pattern and population structure in a neotropical bat species, Noctilio albiventris

    PubMed Central

    Schad, J; Dechmann, D K N; Voigt, C C; Sommer, S

    2011-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have a crucial role in the immune response of vertebrates, alter the individual odour and are involved in shaping mating preferences. Pathogen-mediated selection, sexual selection and maternal–fetal interactions have been proposed as the main drivers of frequently observed high levels of polymorphism in functionally important parts of the MHC. Bats constitute the second largest mammalian order and have recently emerged as important vectors of infectious diseases. In addition, Chiroptera are interesting study subjects in evolutionary ecology in the context of olfactory communication, mate choice and associated fitness benefits. Thus, it is surprising that they belong to the least studied mammalian taxa in terms of their MHC diversity. In this study, we investigated the variability in the functionally important MHC class II gene DRB, evidence for selection and population structure in the group-living lesser bulldog bat, Noctilio albiventris, in Panama. We found a single expressed, polymorphic Noal-DRB gene. The substitution pattern of the nucleotide sequences of the 18 detected alleles provided evidence for positive selection acting above the evolutionary history of the species in shaping MHC diversity. Roosting colonies were not genetically differentiated but females showed lower levels of heterozygosity than males, which might be a sign that the sexes differ in the selection pressures acting on the MHC. This study provides the prerequisites for further investigations of the role of the individual MHC constitution in parasite resistance, olfactory communication and mate choice in N. albiventris and other bats. PMID:21245894

  7. Use of MHC II structural features in the design of vaccines for organ-specific autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Moustakas, Antonis K; Papadopoulos, George K

    2009-01-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II locus is the primary genetic linkage to autoimmune diseases. Susceptibility to each such disease is linked to different alleles, with a few alleles showing also dominant protection. The design of vaccines for autoimmune diseases is a long sought-after goal. As knowledge about the pathogenesis of these diseases has increased, the tools for such an approach have of necessity been refined. We review below the structural essence of MHC II-linked autoimmune diseases which centers on the binding of antigenic peptides to the disease-linked MHC II proteins, and the consequent activation of cognate TCRs from pathogenic CD4+ T cells. The state of affairs in two organ-specific autoimmune diseases, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease are covered, including attempts to treat these via antigen-specific MHC II-guided measures. We offer a couple of testable suggestions as to how this approach could be improved.

  8. Role of PU.1 in MHC Class II Expression via CIITA Transcription in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Miura, Ryosuke; Kasakura, Kazumi; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Hara, Mutsuko; Maeda, Keiko; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Yashiro, Takuya; Nishiyama, Chiharu

    2016-01-01

    The cofactor CIITA is a master regulator of MHC class II expression and several transcription factors regulating the cell type-specific expression of CIITA have been identified. Although the MHC class II expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is also mediated by CIITA, the transcription factors involved in the CIITA expression in pDCs are largely unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the role of a hematopoietic lineage-specific transcription factor, PU.1, in CIITA transcription in pDCs. The introduction of PU.1 siRNA into mouse pDCs and a human pDC cell line, CAL-1, reduced the mRNA levels of MHC class II and CIITA. When the binding of PU.1 to the 3rd promoter of CIITA (pIII) in CAL-1 and mouse pDCs was analyzed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, a significant amount of PU.1 binding to the pIII was detected, which was definitely decreased in PU.1 siRNA-transfected cells. Reporter assays showed that PU.1 knockdown reduced the pIII promoter activity and that three Ets-motifs in the human pIII promoter were candidates of cis-enhancing elements. By electrophoretic mobility shift assays, it was confirmed that two Ets-motifs, GGAA (-181/-178) and AGAA (-114/-111), among three candidates, were directly bound with PU.1. When mouse pDCs and CAL-1 cells were stimulated by GM-CSF, mRNA levels of PU.1, pIII-driven CIITA, total CIITA, MHC class II, and the amount of PU.1 binding to pIII were significantly increased. The GM-CSF-mediated up-regulation of these mRNAs was canceled in PU.1 siRNA-introduced cells. Taking these results together, we conclude that PU.1 transactivates the pIII through direct binding to Ets-motifs in the promoter in pDCs.

  9. Genomics and polymorphism of Agph-DAB1, an Mhc class II B gene in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus).

    PubMed

    Edwards, S V; Gasper, J; March, M

    1998-03-01

    To further our understanding of the evolution of avian Mhc genes at the genomic level, we screened a cosmid library made from a red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) with a blackbird cDNA probe and subcloned from one of the Mhc-containing cosmids a gene which we designate Agph-DAB1. The structure of the gene is similar to that found for chicken class II B genes, except that the introns are surprisingly large, ranging from 98 to over 600 bp, making this the longest avian class II B gene to date. Using primers targeted toward the introns flanking the peptide-binding region (PBR), we amplified the entirety of the second exon and determined nucleotide sequences of 41 PCR products from eight individual blackbirds. The 10 sequence types found, among which were two probable pseudogene sequences, exhibit the classic hallmarks for evolution of PBRs, namely, an excess of nonsynonymous over synonymous substitutions and evidence of gene conversion events in polymorphic subdomains. Despite these patterns and our use of intron primers, the distribution of sequences among individuals suggests that more than one locus was amplified in most individuals, and the bushlike tree of sequences provides little information as to locus-specific clusters. These results imply a complex history of gene conversion, recent duplication, or possibly, concerted evolution among multiple loci, although Agph-DAB1, the first genomic Mhc sequence from a bird other than chicken, provides important clues in the quest for locus-specific Mhc primers in birds.

  10. MHC Class II Binding Prediction—A Little Help from a Friend

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Ivan; Garnev, Panayot; Flower, Darren R.; Doytchinova, Irini

    2010-01-01

    Vaccines are the greatest single instrument of prophylaxis against infectious diseases, with immeasurable benefits to human wellbeing. The accurate and reliable prediction of peptide-MHC binding is fundamental to the robust identification of T-cell epitopes and thus the successful design of peptide- and protein-based vaccines. The prediction of MHC class II peptide binding has hitherto proved recalcitrant and refractory. Here we illustrate the utility of existing computational tools for in silico prediction of peptides binding to class II MHCs. Most of the methods, tested in the present study, detect more than the half of the true binders in the top 5% of all possible nonamers generated from one protein. This number increases in the top 10% and 15% and then does not change significantly. For the top 15% the identified binders approach 86%. In terms of lab work this means 85% less expenditure on materials, labour and time. We show that while existing caveats are well founded, nonetheless use of computational models of class II binding can still offer viable help to the work of the immunologist and vaccinologist. PMID:20508817

  11. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Promote Telomerase Internalization and MHC Class II Presentation on Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Galaine, Jeanne; Kellermann, Guillaume; Guillaume, Yves; Boidot, Romain; Picard, Emilie; Loyon, Romain; Queiroz, Lise; Boullerot, Laura; Beziaud, Laurent; Jary, Marine; Mansi, Laura; André, Claire; Lethier, Lydie; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Borg, Christophe; Godet, Yann; Adotévi, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Telomerase is a prototype-shared tumor Ag and represents an attractive target for anticancer immunotherapy. We have previously described promiscuous and immunogenic HLA-DR-restricted peptides derived from human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and referred as universal cancer peptide (UCP). In nonsmall cell lung cancer, the presence of spontaneous UCP-specific CD4 T cell responses increases the survival of chemotherapy-responding patients. However, the precise mechanisms of hTERT's uptake, processing, and presentation on MHC-II molecules to stimulate CD4 T cells are poorly understood. In this work, by using well-characterized UCP-specific CD4 T cell clones, we showed that hTERT processing and presentation on MHC-II involve both classical endolysosomal and nonclassical cytosolic pathways. Furthermore, to our knowledge, we demonstrated for the first time that hTERT's internalization by dendritic cells requires its interaction with surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Altogether, our findings provide a novel mechanism of tumor-specific CD4 T cell activation and will be useful for the development of novel cancer immunotherapies that harness CD4 T cells. PMID:27481844

  12. High levels of MHC class II allelic diversity in lake trout from Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorschner, M.O.; Duris, T.; Bronte, C.R.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.; Phillips, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Sequence variation in a 216 bp portion of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II B1 domain was examined in 74 individual lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from different locations in Lake Superior. Forty-three alleles were obtained which encoded 71-72 amino acids of the mature protein. These sequences were compared with previous data obtained from five Pacific salmon species and Atlantic salmon using the same primers. Although all of the lake trout alleles clustered together in the neighbor-joining analysis of amino acid sequences, one amino acid allelic lineage was shared with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), a species in another genus which probably diverged from Salvelinus more than 10-20 million years ago. As shown previously in other salmonids, the level of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution (d(N)) exceeded the level of synonymous substitution (d(S)). The level of nucleotide diversity at the MHC class II B1 locus was considerably higher in lake trout than in the Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that lake trout colonized Lake Superior from more than one refuge following the Wisconsin glaciation. Recent population bottlenecks may have reduced nucleotide diversity in Pacific salmon populations.

  13. Trans-species polymorphism and selection in the MHC class II DRA genes of domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Ballingall, Keith T; Rocchi, Mara S; McKeever, Declan J; Wright, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201) differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901), which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T-cells and the

  14. Trans-species polymorphism and selection in the MHC class II DRA genes of domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Ballingall, Keith T; Rocchi, Mara S; McKeever, Declan J; Wright, Frank

    2010-06-30

    Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201) differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901), which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T-cells and the

  15. Enhanced Detection of Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Using Altered Peptide Flanking Residue Peptide–MHC Class II Multimers

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Christopher J.; Dolton, Garry; Scurr, Martin; Ladell, Kristin; Schauenburg, Andrea J.; Miners, Kelly; Madura, Florian; Sewell, Andrew K.; Price, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorochrome-conjugated peptide–MHC (pMHC) class I multimers are staple components of the immunologist’s toolbox, enabling reliable quantification and analysis of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells irrespective of functional outputs. In contrast, widespread use of the equivalent pMHC class II (pMHC-II) reagents has been hindered by intrinsically weaker TCR affinities for pMHC-II, a lack of cooperative binding between the TCR and CD4 coreceptor, and a low frequency of Ag-specific CD4+ T cell populations in the peripheral blood. In this study, we show that peptide flanking regions, extending beyond the central nonamer core of MHC-II–bound peptides, can enhance TCR–pMHC-II binding and T cell activation without loss of specificity. Consistent with these findings, pMHC-II multimers incorporating peptide flanking residue modifications proved superior for the ex vivo detection, characterization, and manipulation of Ag-specific CD4+ T cells, highlighting an unappreciated feature of TCR–pMHC-II interactions. PMID:26553072

  16. Extraordinary MHC class II B diversity in a non-passerine, wild bird: the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra (Aves: Rallidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, Miguel; Muñoz, Joaquin; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) hosts the most polymorphic genes ever described in vertebrates. The MHC triggers the adaptive branch of the immune response, and its extraordinary variability is considered an evolutionary consequence of pathogen pressure. The last few years have witnessed the characterization of the MHC multigene family in a large diversity of bird species, unraveling important differences in its polymorphism, complexity, and evolution. Here, we characterize the first MHC class II B sequences isolated from a Rallidae species, the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra. A next-generation sequencing approach revealed up to 265 alleles that translated into 251 different amino acid sequences (β chain, exon 2) in 902 individuals. Bayesian inference identified up to 19 codons within the presumptive peptide-binding region showing pervasive evidence of positive, diversifying selection. Our analyses also detected a significant excess of high-frequency segregating sites (average Tajima's D = 2.36, P < 0.05), indicative of balancing selection. We found one to six different alleles per individual, consistent with the occurrence of at least three MHC class II B gene duplicates. However, the genotypes comprised of three alleles were by far the most abundant in the population investigated (49.4%), followed by those with two (29.6%) and four (17.5%) alleles. We suggest that these proportions are in agreement with the segregation of MHC haplotypes differing in gene copy number. The most widespread segregating haplotypes, according to our findings, would contain one single gene or two genes. The MHC class II of the Eurasian Coot is a valuable system to investigate the evolutionary implications of gene copy variation and extensive variability, the greatest ever found, to the best of our knowledge, in a wild population of a non-passerine bird. PMID:24683452

  17. Induction of tolerance against the arthritogenic antigen with type-II collagen peptide-linked soluble MHC class II molecules

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon-Kyung; Jung, Sundo; Park, Se-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), self-reactive T cells can recognize peptide antigens derived from type-II collagen (CII). Activation of T cells is an important mediator of autoimmune diseases. Thus, T cells have become a focal point of study to treat autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of recombinant MHC class II molecules in the regulation of antigen-specific T cells by using a self peptide derived from CII (CII260-274; IAGFKGEQGPKGEPG) linked to mouseI-Aq in a murine CIA model. We found that recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules could be recognized by CII-specific T cells and inhibit the same T cells in vitro. Furthermore, the development of CIA in mice was successfully prevented by in vivo injection of recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules. Thus, treatment with recombinant soluble MHC class II molecules in complex with an immunodominant self-peptide might offer a potential therapeutic for chronic inflammation in autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 331-336 PMID:26779996

  18. Recombination hotspots rather than population history dominate linkage disequilibrium in the MHC class II region.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Liisa; Sajantila, Antti; Jeffreys, Alec J

    2003-01-01

    Recombination, demographic history, drift and selection influence the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the human genome, but their relative contributions remain unclear. To investigate the effect of meiotic recombination versus population history on LD, three populations with different demographic histories (UK north Europeans, Saami and Zimbabweans) were genotyped for high-frequency single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across a 75 kb DNA segment of the MHC class II region. This region spans three well-characterized recombination hotspots and a 60 kb long LD block. Despite a high level of underlying haplotype diversity and considerable divergence in haplotype composition between populations, all three populations showed very similar patterns of LD. Surprisingly, the entire 60 kb LD block was present even in Africans, although it was relatively difficult to detect owing to a systematic deficiency of high frequency SNPs. In contrast, DNA within recombination hotspots did not show this low nucleotide diversity in Africans. Thus, while population history has some influence on LD, our findings suggest that recombination hotspots play a major global role in shaping LD patterns as well as helping to maintain localized SNP diversity in this region of the MHC.

  19. Cellular components of the immune barrier in the spinal meninges and dorsal root ganglia of the normal rat: immunohistochemical (MHC class II) and electron-microscopic observations.

    PubMed

    Braun, J S; Kaissling, B; Le Hir, M; Zenker, W

    1993-08-01

    This report deals with the distribution, morphology and specific topical relationships of bone-marrow-derived cells (free cells) in the spinal meninges and dorsal root ganglia of the normal rat. The morphology of these cells has been studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Cells expressing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene product have been recognized by immunofluorescence. At the level of the transmission electron microscope, free cells are found in all layers of the meninges. Many of them display characteristic ultrastructural features of macrophages, whereas others show a highly vacuolated cytoplasm and are endowed with many processes. These elements lack a conspicuous lysosomal system and might represent dendritic cells. Scanning electron microscopy has revealed that free cells contact the cerebrospinal fluid via abundant cytoplasmic processes that cross the cell layers of the pia mater and of the arachnoid. Cells expressing the MHC class II antigen are also found in all layers of the meninges. They are particularly abundant in the layers immediately adjacent to the subarachnoid space, in the neighbourhood of dural vessels, along the spinal roots and in the dural funnels. In addition to the meninges, strong immunoreactivity for MHC class II antigen is observed in the dorsal root ganglia. The ultrastructural and immunohistochemical findings of this study suggest the existence of a well-developed system of immunological surveillance of the subarachnoid space and of the dorsal root ganglia.

  20. Multivesicular bodies in intestinal epithelial cells: responsible for MHC class II-restricted antigen processing and origin of exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Büning, Jürgen; von Smolinski, Dorthe; Tafazzoli, Kianush; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter; Strobel, Stephan; Apostolaki, Maria; Kollias, George; Heath, Joan K; Ludwig, Diether; Gebert, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    In normal conditions intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) constitutively stimulate regulatory CD4+ T cells. However, in Crohn's disease (CD), this major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted antigen presentation results in stimulation of proinflammatory CD4+ T cells. We hypothesized that these alternative functions might be mediated by differential sorting and processing of antigens into distinct MHC II-enriched compartments (MIICs). Accordingly, we analysed the endocytic pathways of lumenally applied ovalbumin (OVA) in IECs of the jejunum and ileum of wild-type (WT) and TNFΔARE/WT mice that develop a CD-resembling ileitis. Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we found that messenger RNA levels of interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-17 and interleukin-10 were significantly up-regulated in the inflamed ileum of TNFΔARE/WT mice, confirming CD-like inflammation. Fluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy revealed the presence of MHC II and invariant chain throughout the late endocytic compartments, with most molecules concentrated in the multivesicular bodies (MVB). OVA was targeted into MVB and, in contrast to other MIICs, accumulated in these structures within 120 min of exposure. The IEC-specific A33 antigen localized to internal vesicles of MVB and A33/class II-bearing exosomes were identified in intercellular spaces. Remarkably, the expression pattern of MHC II/invariant chain molecules and the trafficking of OVA were independent of mucosal inflammation and the specific region in the small intestine. MVB seem to be principally responsible for class II-associated antigen processing in IECs and to constitute the origin of MHC II-loaded exosomes. The distinctive functions of IECs in antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells might arise as a result of differential processing within the MVB identified here. PMID:18710406

  1. New polymorphic microsatellite markers in the human MHC class II region.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaka, Y; Makino, S; Nakajima, K; Tomizawa, M; Oka, A; Kimura, M; Bahram, S; Tamiya, G; Inoko, H

    2000-12-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region spans approximately 1.1 Mb and presently contains over 30 functional genes Susceptibility loci to numerous diseases, mainly of autoimmune nature are known to map to the this region, as assessed by associations with particular HLA class II alleles. However, it has been difficult to precisely localize these susceptibility loci to a single gene, for example DQB1 or DRB1, due to the tight linkage disequilibrium observed in the HLA class II region. To facilitate disease mapping within this region, we have analyzed 2 to approximately 5 bases short tandem repeats (microsatellites) in this same region. A total of 494 microsatellites were identified from the genomic sequence of the HLA class II region. These consist of 158 di-, 65 tri-, 163 tetra-, and 108 pent-nucleotide repeats, out of which four were located within the coding sequence of expressed genes (Daxx, BING1, RXRB and COL11A2). Twenty-two repeats were selected as polymorphic markers due to their high (average) number of alleles (8.9) as well as their high polymorphic content value (PIC) (0.58). These novel polymorphic microsatellites will provide useful genetic markers in HLA-related research, such as genetic mapping of HLA class II-associated diseases, transplantation matching, population genetics, identification of recombination hot spots as well as linkage disequilibrium studies.

  2. Bacterial Superantigens Promote Acute Nasopharyngeal Infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a Human MHC Class II-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Katherine J.; Zeppa, Joseph J.; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T.; Xu, Stacey X.; Mazzuca, Delfina M.; Welch, Ian; Baroja, Miren L.; Kotb, Malak; Cairns, Ewa; Cleary, P. Patrick; Haeryfar, S. M. Mansour; McCormick, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs) as ‘trademark’ virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ∼10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHCII binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms. PMID:24875883

  3. MHC class II genes in the European badger (Meles meles): characterization, patterns of variation, and transcription analysis.

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry

    2012-04-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) comprises many genes, some of which are polymorphic with numerous alleles. Sequence variation among alleles is most pronounced in exon 2 of the class II genes, which encodes the α1 and β1 domains that form the antigen-binding site (ABS) for the presentation of peptides. The MHC thus plays an important role in pathogen defense. European badgers (Meles meles) are a good species in which to study the MHC, as they harbor a variety of pathogens. We present the first characterization of MHC class II genes, isolated from genomic DNA (gDNA) and complementary DNA (cDNA), in the European badger. Examination of seven individuals revealed four DRB, two DQB, two DQA, and two DRA putatively functional gDNA sequences. All of these sequences, except DRA, exhibited high variability in exon 2; DRB had the highest variability. The ABS codons demonstrated high variability, due potentially to balancing selection, while non-ABS codons had lower variability. Positively selected sites were detected in DRB and DQA. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated trans-species polymorphism of class II genes. Comparison with cDNA from whole blood revealed that only DRB had a transcription pattern reflecting the alleles that were present in the gDNA, while the other three genes had disparities between gDNA and cDNA. Only one sequence was transcribed, even though two gDNA sequences were present, from each of both DQB and DRA. Our characterization of badger MHC sequences forms a basis for further studies of MHC variability, mate choice, and pathogen resistance in this, and other, species. PMID:22038175

  4. Clones of T cells discriminate between native and deglycosylated forms of MHC class II antigen in allostimulation.

    PubMed

    Culley, D; Waldron-Edward, D; Manjunath, P; Mamer, O A; Abikar, K; Rode, H; Gordon, J

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the oligosaccharide side chains of MHC Class II antigens in allostimulation. The approach was to cleave the oligosaccharides from protein by subjecting plasma membranes (PM) of the Daudi cell line to chemical deglycosylation yielding deglycosylated (dgl) proteins and a supernatant fraction containing plasma membrane oligosaccharides (dgl sup). MHC Class II antigens affinity purified from the native and the dgl PM were inserted into the plasma membrane of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) used as stimulators in a mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). Cells used as stimulators and as responders were from the same donor. Both native and to a lesser extent the dgl antigen could elicit a proliferative as well as a cytolytic (CML) response. A comparable reduction in the CML reaction was also obtained when native antigen was used to elicit effector cells, but the target was stripped of N-linked oligosaccharides by pretreatment with tunicamycin (TM). Five clones of responding cells raised against the native antigen were studied. Two gave proliferative reactions of equal magnitude to native and to dgl antigen alike, while three responded only to the native form. These three clones did not lyse TM-treated target cells. Inhibition experiments of CML were performed with either the dgl sup containing Daudi PM oligosaccharides or with an anti MHC-Class II MoAb. CML reactivity of the three clones which responded to native antigen was blocked by the dgl sup but not by the anti-MHC antibody. Conversely, the reaction of the two clones reactive to both forms of antigen was only inhibited by the anti-MHC antibody using intact or TM-treated targets. Accordingly, in terms of the latter set of clones oligosaccharide side chains of MHC may not be required for allostimulation. Data obtained with the set of three clones suggest that oligosaccharides could act as target of cytotoxic T cells.

  5. Efficient vaccine against pandemic influenza: combining DNA vaccination and targeted delivery to MHC class II molecules.

    PubMed

    Grødeland, Gunnveig; Bogen, Bjarne

    2015-06-01

    There are two major limitations to vaccine preparedness in the event of devastating influenza pandemics: the time needed to generate a vaccine and rapid generation of sufficient amounts. DNA vaccination could represent a solution to these problems, but efficacy needs to be enhanced. In a separate line of research, it has been established that targeting of vaccine molecules to antigen-presenting cells enhances immune responses. We have combined the two principles by constructing DNA vaccines that encode bivalent fusion proteins; these target hemagglutinin to MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Such DNA vaccines rapidly induce hemagglutinin-specific antibodies and T cell responses in immunized mice. Responses are long-lasting and protect mice against challenge with influenza virus. In a pandemic situation, targeted DNA vaccines could be produced and tested within a month. The novel DNA vaccines could represent a solution to pandemic preparedness in the advent of novel influenza pandemics.

  6. Quantitating MHC class II trafficking in primary dendritic cells using imaging flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Hennies, Cassandra M.; Lehn, Maria A.; Janssen, Edith M.

    2015-01-01

    Presentation of antigenic peptides in MHC class II (MHCII) on dendritic cells (DCs) is the first step in the activation of antigen-specific CD4+T cells. The expression of surface MHCII-peptide complexes is tightly regulated as the frequency of MHCII-peptide complexes can affect the magnitude, as well as the phenotype of the ensuing CD4+T cell response. The surface MHCII-peptide levels are determined by the balance between expression of newly generated complexes, complex internalization, and their subsequent re-emergence or degradation. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin these processes are still poorly understood. Here we describe a multispectral imaging flow cytometry assay to visualize MHCII trafficking that can be used as a tool to dissect the molecular mechanisms that regulate MHCII homeostasis in primary mouse and human DCs. PMID:25967952

  7. Absence of MHC class II on cDCs results in microbial-dependent intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Loschko, Jakob; Schreiber, Heidi A.; Rieke, Gereon J.; Esterházy, Daria; Meredith, Matthew M.; Pedicord, Virginia A.; Yao, Kai-Hui; Caballero, Silvia; Pamer, Eric G.; Mucida, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) play an essential role in host immunity by initiating adaptive T cell responses and by serving as innate immune sensors. Although both innate and adaptive functions of cDCs are well documented, their relative importance in maintaining immune homeostasis is poorly understood. To examine the significance of cDC-initiated adaptive immunity in maintaining homeostasis, independent of their innate activities, we generated a cDC-specific Cre mouse and crossed it to a floxed MHC class II (MHCII) mouse. Absence of MHCII on cDCs resulted in chronic intestinal inflammation that was alleviated by antibiotic treatment and entirely averted under germ-free conditions. Uncoupling innate and adaptive functions of cDCs revealed that innate immune functions of cDCs are insufficient to maintain homeostasis and antigen presentation by cDCs is essential for a mutualistic relationship between the host and intestinal bacteria. PMID:27001748

  8. Imbalanced MHC class II molecule expression at surface of murine B cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    To study the role of class II MHC expression in mouse lymphomagenesis, we examined the cell surface expression of I-A/E antigens on 24 spontaneous or murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-induced mouse B10.A (I-Ak, I-Ek) B cell lymphomas. Two primary B10.A B cell lymphomas were observed with strong I-Ek expression but with only minimal cell surface I-Ak expression. Both tumors are readily transplantable in syngeneic mice, with maintenance of their I-A-, I-E+ phenotype. Strikingly, one I- A-, I-E+ B cell lymphoma contains a (11; 17) translocation with a breakpoint on chromosome 17 that is localized within or very close to the H-2 complex. DNA of both tumors contains normal restriction enzyme fragments of the A alpha and A beta genes. Northern blot analyses indicated that one I-A-, I-E+ tumor strongly expressed A alpha, E alpha, and E beta mRNAs but possessed only a weak expression of A beta mRNA. The other B cell lymphoma showed A beta, E alpha, and E beta mRNA expression but only minimal A alpha mRNA expression. In 11 primary B10.A B cell lymphomas with a normal I-A+, I-E+ phenotype, no imbalances in A alpha/A beta mRNA levels were observed. The implications of these findings for the role of class II MHC expression in mouse B cell lymphoma-genesis are discussed. PMID:3486245

  9. Outer membrane proteins preferentially load MHC class II peptides: Implications for as a Chlamydia trachomatis T cell vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Karuna P.; Yu, Hong; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Chan, Queenie; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Foster, Leonard J.; Brunham, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    CD4 T cell immune responses such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion are necessary for Chlamydia immunity. We used an immunoproteomic approach in which Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum-derived peptides presented by MHC class II molecules on the surface of infected dendritic cells (DCs) were identified by tandem mass spectrometry using bone marrow derived DCs (BMDCs) from mice of different MHC background. We first compared the C. muridarum immunoproteome in C3H mice to that previously identified in C57BL/6 mice. Fourteen MHC class II binding peptides from 11 Chlamydia proteins were identified from C3H infected BMDCs. Two C. muridarum proteins overlapped between C3H and C57B/6 mice and both were polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) which presented distinct class II binding peptides. Next we studied DCs from C57BL/6 mice infected with the human strain, C. trachomatis serovar D. Sixty MHC class II binding peptides derived from 27 C. trachomatis proteins were identified. Nine proteins were orthologous T cell antigens between C. trachomatis and C. muridarum and 2 of the nine were Pmps which generated MHC class II binding epitopes at distinct sequences within the proteins. As determined by antigen specific splenocyte responses outer membrane proteins PmpF, -G and -H and the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were antigenic in mice previously infected with C. muridarum or C. trachomatis. Furthermore a recombinant protein vaccine consisting of the four Pmps (PmpEFGH) with MOMP formulated with a Th1 polarizing adjuvant significantly accelerated (p < 0.001) clearance in the C57BL/6 mice C. trachomatis transcervical infection model. We conclude that Chlamydia outer membrane proteins are important T cell antigens useful in the development of a C. trachomatis subunit vaccine. PMID:25738816

  10. The MHC class II ligand lymphocyte activation gene-3 is co-distributed with CD8 and CD3-TCR molecules after their engagement by mAb or peptide-MHC class I complexes.

    PubMed

    Hannier, S; Triebel, F

    1999-11-01

    Previous studies indicated that signaling through lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), a MHC class II ligand, induced by multivalent anti-receptor antibodies led to unresponsiveness to TCR stimulation. Here, lateral distribution of the LAG-3 molecules and its topological relationship (mutual proximity) to the TCR, CD8, CD4, and MHC class I and II molecules were studied in the plasma membrane of activated human T cells in co-capping experiments and conventional fluorescence microscopy. Following TCR engagement by either TCR-specific mAb or MHC-peptide complex recognition in T-B cell conjugates, LAG-3 was found to be specifically associated with the CD3-TCR complex. Similarly, following CD8 engagement LAG-3 and CD8 were co-distributed on the cell surface while only a low percentage of CD4-capped cells displayed LAG-3 co-caps. In addition, LAG-3 was found to be associated with MHC class II (i.e. DR, DP and DQ) and partially with MHC class I molecules. The supramolecular assemblies described here between LAG-3, CD3, CD8 and MHC class II molecules may result from an organization in raft microdomains, a phenomenon known to regulate early events of T cell activation.

  11. Interplay among coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1, CBP, and CIITA in IFN-gamma-inducible MHC-II gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zika, Eleni; Fauquier, Lucas; Vandel, Laurence; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2005-11-01

    Class II major histocompatibility (MHC-II) genes are prototype targets of IFN-gamma. IFN-gamma activates the expression of the non-DNA-binding master regulator of MHC-II, class II transactivator (CIITA), which is crucial for enhanceosome formation and gene activation. This report shows the importance of the histone methyltransferase, coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase (CARM1/PRMT4), during IFN-gamma-induced MHC-II gene activation. It also demonstrates the coordinated regulation of CIITA, CARM1, and the acetyltransferase cyclic-AMP response element binding (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) during this process. CARM1 synergizes with CIITA in activating MHC-II transcription and synergy is abrogated when an arginine methyltransferase-defective CARM1 mutant is used. Protein-arginine methyltransferase 1 has much less effect on MHC-II transcription. Specific RNA interference reduced CARM1 expression as well as MHC-II expression. The recruitment of CARM1 to the promoter requires endogenous CIITA and results in methylation of histone H3-R17; hence, CIITA is an upstream regulator of histone methylation. Previous work has shown that CARM1 can methylate CBP at three arginine residues. Using wild-type CBP and a mutant of CBP lacking the CARM1-targeted arginine residues (R3A), we show that arginine methylation of CBP is required for IFN-gamma induction of MHC-II. A kinetic analysis shows that CIITA, CARM1, and H3-R17 methylation all precede CBP loading on the MHC-II promoter during IFN-gamma treatment. These results suggest functional and temporal relationships among CIITA, CARM1, and CBP for IFN-gamma induction of MHC-II.

  12. Cholesterol Corrects Altered Conformation of MHC-II Protein in Leishmania donovani Infected Macrophages: Implication in Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Saikat; Roy, Syamal

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously we reported that Kala-azar patients show progressive decrease in serum cholesterol as a function of splenic parasite burden. Splenic macrophages (MΦ) of Leishmania donovani (LD) infected mice show decrease in membrane cholesterol, while LD infected macrophages (I-MΦ) show defective T cell stimulating ability that could be corrected by liposomal delivery of cholesterol. T helper cells recognize peptide antigen in the context of class II MHC molecule. It is known that the conformation of a large number of membrane proteins is dependent on membrane cholesterol. In this investigation we tried to understand the influence of decreased membrane cholesterol in I-MΦ on the conformation of MHC-II protein and peptide-MHC-II stability, and its bearing on the antigen specific T-cell activation. Methodology/Principal Findings MΦ of CBA/j mice were infected with Leishmania donovani (I-MΦ). Two different anti-Aκ mAbs were used to monitor the status of MHC-II protein under parasitized condition. One of them (11.5–2) was conformation specific, whereas the other one (10.2.16) was not. Under parasitized condition, the binding of 11.5–2 decreased significantly with respect to the normal counterpart, whereas that of 10.2.16 remained unaltered. The binding of 11.5–2 was restored to normal upon liposomal delivery of cholesterol in I-MΦ. By molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies we found that there was considerable conformational fluctuation in the transmembrane domain of the MHC-II protein in the presence of membrane cholesterol than in its absence, which possibly influenced the distal peptide binding groove. This was evident from the faster dissociation of the cognate peptide from peptide-MHC complex under parasitized condition, which could be corrected by liposomal delivery of cholesterol in I-MΦ. Conclusion The decrease in membrane cholesterol in I-MΦ may lead to altered conformation of MHC II, and this may contribute to a faster dissociation of

  13. A single nomenclature and associated database for alleles at the MHC class II DRB1 locus of sheep: IPD-MHC-OLA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of standardised nomenclatures with associated databases containing reference sequences for alleles at polymorphic loci within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) has been facilitated by the development of the Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD-MHC). Recently, included within I...

  14. GPS-MBA: computational analysis of MHC class II epitopes in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ruikun; Liu, Zexian; Ren, Jian; Ma, Chuang; Gao, Tianshun; Zhou, Yanhong; Yang, Qing; Xue, Yu

    2012-01-01

    As a severe chronic metabolic disease and autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects millions of people world-wide. Recent advances in antigen-based immunotherapy have provided a great opportunity for further treating T1D with a high degree of selectivity. It is reported that MHC class II I-A(g7) in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human HLA-DQ8 are strongly linked to susceptibility to T1D. Thus, the identification of new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes would be of great help to further experimental and biomedical manipulation efforts. In this study, a novel GPS-MBA (MHC Binding Analyzer) software package was developed for the prediction of I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Using experimentally identified epitopes as the training data sets, a previously developed GPS (Group-based Prediction System) algorithm was adopted and improved. By extensive evaluation and comparison, the GPS-MBA performance was found to be much better than other tools of this type. With this powerful tool, we predicted a number of potentially new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Furthermore, we designed a T1D epitope database (TEDB) for all of the experimentally identified and predicted T1D-associated epitopes. Taken together, this computational prediction result and analysis provides a starting point for further experimental considerations, and GPS-MBA is demonstrated to be a useful tool for generating starting information for experimentalists. The GPS-MBA is freely accessible for academic researchers at: http://mba.biocuckoo.org.

  15. Salmonella Typhimurium induces SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulated and strain dependent downregulation of MHC II expression on porcine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Van Parys, Alexander; Boyen, Filip; Verbrugghe, Elin; Leyman, Bregje; Bram, Flahou; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2012-06-13

    Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the host's immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. In the present study, we found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a specifically downregulated MHC II, but not MHC I, expression on porcine alveolar macrophages in a Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 and SPI-2 dependent way. Salmonella induced downregulation of MHC II expression and intracellular proliferation of Salmonella in macrophages were significantly impaired after opsonization with Salmonella specific antibodies prior to inoculation. Furthermore, the capacity to downregulate MHC II expression on macrophages differed significantly among Salmonella strains, independently of strain specific differences in invasion capacity, Salmonella induced cytotoxicity and altered macrophage activation status. The fact that strain specific differences in MHC II downregulation did not correlate with the extent of in vitro SPI-1 or SPI-2 gene expression indicates that other factors are involved in MHC II downregulation as well. Since Salmonella strain dependent interference with the pig's immune response through downregulation of MHC II expression might indicate that certain Salmonella strains are more likely to escape serological detection, our findings are of major interest for Salmonella monitoring programs primarily based on serology.

  16. Melanoma-specific MHC-II expression represents a tumour-autonomous phenotype and predicts response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Douglas B.; Estrada, Monica V.; Salgado, Roberto; Sanchez, Violeta; Doxie, Deon B.; Opalenik, Susan R.; Vilgelm, Anna E.; Feld, Emily; Johnson, Adam S.; Greenplate, Allison R.; Sanders, Melinda E.; Lovly, Christine M.; Frederick, Dennie T.; Kelley, Mark C.; Richmond, Ann; Irish, Jonathan M.; Shyr, Yu; Sullivan, Ryan J.; Puzanov, Igor; Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Balko, Justin M.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-PD-1 therapy yields objective clinical responses in 30–40% of advanced melanoma patients. Since most patients do not respond, predictive biomarkers to guide treatment selection are needed. We hypothesize that MHC-I/II expression is required for tumour antigen presentation and may predict anti-PD-1 therapy response. In this study, across 60 melanoma cell lines, we find bimodal expression patterns of MHC-II, while MHC-I expression was ubiquitous. A unique subset of melanomas are capable of expressing MHC-II under basal or IFNγ-stimulated conditions. Using pathway analysis, we show that MHC-II(+) cell lines demonstrate signatures of ‘PD-1 signalling', ‘allograft rejection' and ‘T-cell receptor signalling', among others. In two independent cohorts of anti-PD-1-treated melanoma patients, MHC-II positivity on tumour cells is associated with therapeutic response, progression-free and overall survival, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ tumour infiltrate. MHC-II+ tumours can be identified by melanoma-specific immunohistochemistry using commercially available antibodies for HLA-DR to improve anti-PD-1 patient selection. PMID:26822383

  17. Coordinated changes of histone modifications and HDAC mobilization regulate the induction of MHC class II genes by Trichostatin A

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) induces the transcription of the Major Histocompatibility Class II (MHC II) DRA gene in a way independent of the master coactivator CIITA. To analyze the molecular mechanisms by which this epigenetic regulator stimulates MHC II expression, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to monitor the alterations in histone modifications that correlate with DRA transcription after TSA treatment. We found that a dramatic increase in promoter linked histone acetylation is followed by an increase in Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation and a decrease of lysine 9 methylation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments showed that TSA increases the mobility of HDAC while decreasing the mobility of the class II enhanceosome factor RFX5. These data, in combination with ChIP experiments, indicate that the TSA-mediated induction of DRA transcription involves HDAC relocation and enhanceosome stabilization. In order to gain a genome-wide view of the genes responding to inhibition of deacetylases, we compared the transcriptome of B cells before and after TSA treatment using Affymetrix microarrays. This analysis showed that in addition to the DRA gene, the entire MHC II family and the adjacent histone cluster that are located in chromosome 6p21-22 locus are strongly induced by TSA. A complex pattern of gene reprogramming by TSA involves immune recognition, antiviral, apoptotic and inflammatory pathways and extends the rationale for using Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi) to modulate the immune response. PMID:16452299

  18. Molecular polymorphism and expression analysis of MHC class II B gene from red sea bream (Chrysophrys major).

    PubMed

    Chen, Song-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Xi; Xu, Mei-Yu; Ji, Xiang-Shan; Yu, Guo-Cai; Dong, Cheng-Fang

    2006-01-01

    MHC class II (major histocompatibility complex class II) plays an important role in the immune response of vertebrates. Its function is to present antigenic peptides to the T-cell receptor. In order to study the function and molecular polymorphism of class II B gene in fish, we have isolated cDNAs encoding class II B from spleen cDNA library of red sea bream (Chrysophrys major) by using EST sequencing, and examined genomic organization, molecular polymorphism and expression of red sea bream class II B gene. As in other vertebrates, five exons and four introns were identified in red sea bream class II B gene. Seven class II B alleles were identified from seven individuals of red sea bream. The deduced amino acid sequence of red sea bream MHC class II B 1(Chma-DAB*0101) had 87.1, 85.1, 87.1, 90.4, 87.1, 90.8% identity with those of red sea bream class II B 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7(Chma-DAB*0201-Chma-DAB*0701), respectively, and had 75.2, 74.5, 55.9, 55.1, 34.3 and 30.4% identity with those of striped sea bass, cichlid, rainbow trout, Atlantic salmon, mouse and human, respectively. Four different class II B alleles were observed in a single individual and two different 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) sequences from this individual may infer the existence of two loci at least. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that high expression was detected in liver, head kidney, kidney, intestine, gill, stomach, hear and spleen, low expression in muscle and blood. Challenge of red sea bream with the pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio anguillarum, resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of MHC class II B mRNA from 5 to 72 h after infection in liver, spleen, head kidney and intestine, followed by a recovery to normal level after 96 h.

  19. Alternative donor SCT for the treatment of MHC class II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Small, T N; Qasim, W; Friedrich, W; Chiesa, R; Bleesing, J J; Scurlock, A; Veys, P; Sparber-Sauer, M

    2013-02-01

    MHC Class II deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by absent HLA Class II expression resulting in CD4 lymphopenia, lack of Ag-specific responses and recurrent infection. Without successful allogeneic SCT, most children succumb to infection within the first decade of life. To date, alternative donor transplants for this disorder have been inferior to SCT for other forms of combined immunodeficiency disease due to an increased incidence of graft rejection, GVHD and death from infections generally acquired before haematopoietic cell transplantation. This study details the transplant outcome of 16 affected children consecutively transplanted at four centers since 1990, 8 of whom required mechanical ventilation pretransplant. Stem cells were derived from an HLA-mismatched family member (n=10), an HLA-matched unrelated adult donor (n=4), or an unrelated cord blood donor (n=2). Graft failure occurred in five children, all of whom underwent a second SCT. Six patients developed acute GVHD although no patient developed chronic GVHD after primary transplantation. CD4 T-cell reconstitution remained below the normal range for age, suggesting defective thymopoiesis after allo-SCT. Nonetheless, 69% of children survive without GVHD at a median follow-up of 5.7 years, indicating improved outcomes compared with previous studies. PMID:23000650

  20. The activation threshold of CD4+ T cells is defined by TCR/peptide-MHC class II interactions in the thymic medulla.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Tom Li; Tikhonova, Anastasia; Riberdy, Janice M; Laufer, Terri M

    2009-11-01

    Immature thymocytes that are positively selected based upon their response to self-peptide-MHC complexes develop into mature T cells that are not overtly reactive to those same complexes. Developmental tuning is the active process through which TCR-associated signaling pathways of single-positive thymocytes are attenuated to respond appropriately to the peptide-MHC molecules that will be encountered in the periphery. In this study, we explore the mechanisms that regulate the tuning of CD4(+) single-positive T cells to MHC class II encountered in the thymic medulla. Experiments with murine BM chimeras demonstrate that tuning can be mediated by MHC class II expressed by either thymic medullary epithelial cells or thymic dendritic cells. Tuning does not require the engagement of CD4 by MHC class II on stromal cells. Rather, it is mediated by interactions between MHC class II and the TCR. To understand the molecular changes that distinguish immature hyperactive T cells from tuned mature CD4(+) T cells, we compared their responses to TCR stimulation. The altered response of mature CD4 single-positive thymocytes is characterized by the inhibition of ERK activation by low-affinity self-ligands and increased expression of the inhibitory tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Thus, persistent TCR engagement by peptide-MHC class II on thymic medullary stroma inhibits reactivity to self-Ags and prevents autoreactivity in the mature repertoire.

  1. T cells induce extended class II MHC compartments in dendritic cells in a Toll-like receptor-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Boes, Marianne; Bertho, Nicolas; Cerny, Jan; Op den Brouw, Marjolein; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Ploegh, Hidde

    2003-10-15

    Interaction of Ag-loaded dendritic cells with Ag-specific CD4 T cells induces the formation of long tubular class II MHC-positive compartments that polarize toward the T cell. We show involvement of a Toll-like receptor-mediated signal in this unusual form of intracellular class II MHC trafficking. First, wild-type dendritic cells loaded with LPS-free Ag failed to show formation of class II-positive tubules upon Ag-specific T cell engagement, but did so upon supplementation of the Ag with low concentrations of LPS. Second, Ag-loaded myeloid differentiation factor 88 -deficient dendritic cells failed to form these tubules upon interaction with T cells, regardless of the presence of LPS. Finally, inclusion of a cell-permeable peptide that blocks TNFR-associated factor 6 function, downstream of myeloid differentiation factor 88, blocked T cell-dependent tubulation. A Toll-like receptor-dependent signal is thus required to allow Ag-loaded dendritic cells to respond to T cell contact by formation of extended endosomal compartments. This activation does not result in massive translocation of class II MHC molecules to the cell surface.

  2. MHC II-β chain gene expression studies define the regional organization of the thymus in the developing bony fish Dicentrarchus labrax (L.).

    PubMed

    Picchietti, S; Abelli, L; Guerra, L; Randelli, E; Proietti Serafini, F; Belardinelli, M C; Buonocore, F; Bernini, C; Fausto, A M; Scapigliati, G

    2015-02-01

    MHC II-β chain gene transcripts were quantified by real-time PCR and localised by in situ hybridization in the developing thymus of the teleost Dicentrarchus labrax, regarding the specialization of the thymic compartments. MHC II-β expression significantly rose when the first lymphoid colonization of the thymus occurred, thereafter increased further when the organ progressively developed cortex and medulla regions. The evolving patterns of MHC II-β expression provided anatomical insights into some mechanisms of thymocyte selection. Among the stromal cells transcribing MHC II-β, scattered cortical epithelial cells appeared likely involved in the positive selection, while those abundant in the cortico-medullary border and medulla in the negative selection. These latter most represent dendritic cells, based on typical localization and phenotype. These findings provide further proofs that efficient mechanisms leading to maturation of naïve T cells are operative in teleosts, strongly reminiscent of the models conserved in more evolved gnathostomes.

  3. Ubiquitin ligase MARCH 8 cooperates with CD83 to control surface MHC II expression in thymic epithelium and CD4 T cell selection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyin; Jain, Reema; Guan, Jing; Vuong, Vivian; Ishido, Satoshi; La Gruta, Nicole L; Gray, Daniel H; Villadangos, Jose A; Mintern, Justine D

    2016-08-22

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression is tightly regulated, being subjected to cell type-specific mechanisms that closely control its levels at the cell surface. Ubiquitination by the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH 1 regulates MHC II expression in dendritic cells and B cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the related ligase MARCH 8 is responsible for regulating surface MHC II in thymic epithelial cells (TECs). March8(-/-) mice have elevated MHC II at the surface of cortical TECs and autoimmune regulator (AIRE)(-) medullary TECs (mTECs), but not AIRE(+) mTECs. Despite this, thymic and splenic CD4(+) T cell numbers and repertoires remained unaltered in March8(-/-) mice. Notably, the ubiquitination of MHC II by MARCH 8 is controlled by CD83. Mice expressing a mutated form of CD83 (Cd83(anu/anu) mice) have impaired CD4(+) T cell selection, but deleting March8 in Cd83(anu/anu) mice restored CD4(+) T cell selection to normal levels. Therefore, orchestrated regulation of MHC II surface expression in TECs by MARCH 8 and CD83 plays a major role in CD4(+) T cell selection. Our results also highlight the specialized use of ubiquitinating machinery in distinct antigen-presenting cell types, with important functional consequences and implications for therapeutic manipulation.

  4. Ubiquitin ligase MARCH 8 cooperates with CD83 to control surface MHC II expression in thymic epithelium and CD4 T cell selection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyin; Jain, Reema; Guan, Jing; Vuong, Vivian; Ishido, Satoshi; La Gruta, Nicole L; Gray, Daniel H; Villadangos, Jose A; Mintern, Justine D

    2016-08-22

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression is tightly regulated, being subjected to cell type-specific mechanisms that closely control its levels at the cell surface. Ubiquitination by the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH 1 regulates MHC II expression in dendritic cells and B cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the related ligase MARCH 8 is responsible for regulating surface MHC II in thymic epithelial cells (TECs). March8(-/-) mice have elevated MHC II at the surface of cortical TECs and autoimmune regulator (AIRE)(-) medullary TECs (mTECs), but not AIRE(+) mTECs. Despite this, thymic and splenic CD4(+) T cell numbers and repertoires remained unaltered in March8(-/-) mice. Notably, the ubiquitination of MHC II by MARCH 8 is controlled by CD83. Mice expressing a mutated form of CD83 (Cd83(anu/anu) mice) have impaired CD4(+) T cell selection, but deleting March8 in Cd83(anu/anu) mice restored CD4(+) T cell selection to normal levels. Therefore, orchestrated regulation of MHC II surface expression in TECs by MARCH 8 and CD83 plays a major role in CD4(+) T cell selection. Our results also highlight the specialized use of ubiquitinating machinery in distinct antigen-presenting cell types, with important functional consequences and implications for therapeutic manipulation. PMID:27503069

  5. Cell surface display of functional human MHC class II proteins: yeast display versus insect cell display

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Fei; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.; Zhao, Huimin

    2011-01-01

    Reliable and robust systems for engineering functional major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) proteins have proved elusive. Availability of such systems would enable the engineering of peptide-MHCII (pMHCII) complexes for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. In this paper, we have developed a system based on insect cell surface display that allows functional expression of heterodimeric DR2 molecules with or without a covalently bound human myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide, which is amenable to directed evolution of DR2–MBP variants with improved T cell receptor (TCR)-binding affinity. This study represents the first example of functional display of human pMHCII complexes on insect cell surface. In the process of developing this pMHCII engineering system, we have also explored the potential of using yeast surface display for the same application. Our data suggest that yeast display is a useful system for analysis and engineering of peptide binding of MHCII proteins, but not suitable for directed evolution of pMHC complexes that bind with low affinity to self-reactive TCRs. PMID:21752831

  6. Translational diffusion of individual class II MHC membrane proteins in cells.

    PubMed Central

    Vrljic, Marija; Nishimura, Stefanie Y; Brasselet, Sophie; Moerner, W E; McConnell, Harden M

    2002-01-01

    Single-molecule epifluorescence microscopy was used to observe the translational motion of GPI-linked and native I-E(k) class II MHC membrane proteins in the plasma membrane of CHO cells. The purpose of the study was to look for deviations from Brownian diffusion that might arise from barriers to this motion. Detergent extraction had suggested that these proteins may be confined to lipid microdomains in the plasma membrane. The individual I-E(k) proteins were visualized with a Cy5-labeled peptide that binds to a specific extracytoplasmic site common to both proteins. Single-molecule trajectories were used to compute a radial distribution of displacements, yielding average diffusion coefficients equal to 0.22 (GPI-linked I-E(k)) and 0.18 microm(2)/s (native I-E(k)). The relative diffusion of pairs of proteins was also studied for intermolecular separations in the range 0.3-1.0 microm, to distinguish between free diffusion of a protein molecule and diffusion of proteins restricted to a rapidly diffusing small domain. Both analyses show that motion is predominantly Brownian. This study finds no strong evidence for significant confinement of either GPI-linked or native I-E(k) in the plasma membrane of CHO cells. PMID:12414700

  7. DMA and DMB are the only genes in the class II region of the human MHC needed for class II-associated antigen processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ceman, S.; Rudersdorf, R.A.; Petersen, J.M.

    1995-03-15

    Previous studies have shown that homozygous mutations between the LMP2 and DNA loci in the human MHC cause class II molecules to be abnormally conformed and unstable in the presence of SDS at low temperature, and impede class II-associated Ag processing and presentation. These abnormalities result from impaired ability to form intracellular class II/peptide complexes that predominate in normal cells. We show in this work that this defect results from deficient expression of either the DMA or the DMB gene. Human B-LCL.174 (DR3) cells, which have a deletion of all known expressible genes in the class II region, express transgene-encoded HLA-DR3, but have the abnormalities. Transfer of cosmid HA14, which contains the DMA and DMB genes, into .174 (DR3) cells restored normal DR3 conformation, stability in 0.4% SDS at 0{degrees}, and ability to process and present tetanus toxoid, but only when both DMA and DMB mRNAs were present. The requirement for both genetic expressions in engendering normal phenotypes was confirmed by transferring the cloned genes into .174 (DR3) cells separately or together. Because normal phenotypes were fully restored in transferent cells expressing DMA plus DMB, other genes in the {approximately} 1-mb homozygous class II region deletion in .174 (DR3) cells either do not participate in or are dispensable for apparently normal production of intracellular class II/peptide complexes. The properties of DM-deficient EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) suggest ways of identifying humans in whom DM deficiency contributes to congenital immunodeficiency and malignancy. 67 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Allelic diversity at class II DRB1 and DQB loci of the pig MHC (SLA).

    PubMed

    Kanai, T H; Tanioka, Y; Tanigawa, M; Matsumoto, Y; Ueda, S; Onodera, T; Matsumoto, Y

    1999-12-01

    The loci encoding the beta chain of the pig major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens, SLA-DR and -DQ, have been known to exhibit a remarkable degree of allelic polymorphism. Here, to understand the generation of SLA class II polymorphism, 25 SLA-DRB1 and 24 SLA-DQB genes including newly identified 12 SLA-DRB1 and 7 SLA-DQB genes obtained from miniature pigs were analyzed based on the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences. Most of the allelic diversity was attributed to the variable sequences which encode a beta1 domain consisting of a beta-pleated sheet followed by an a helix. In the beta1 domain coding region, there were four GC-rich sequences, which have been considered to involve the intra-exon sequence exchange also in other gene evolutions. The first and second GC-rich sequences were alpha-like sequences, which have been shown to be a putative recombination signal, and were stably conserved among SLA-DRB1 and DQB genes. These alpha-like sequences identified in SLA-DRB1 and SLA-DQB were found to encode the first turning point of the beta-pleated sheet and the boundary between the beta-pleated sheet and the alpha helix. Analysis of clustered sequence variation also suggested intra-exon gene conversions in which the alpha-like sequences act as putative breakpoints. In addition to point mutations and selection mechanism, intra-exon gene conversions must be an important mechanism in the generation of allelic polymorphism at the SLA-DRB1 and SLA-DQB.

  9. Genetic variation and balancing selection at MHC class II exon 2 in cultured stocks and wild populations of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Meng, Z N; Yang, S; Fan, B; Wang, L; Lin, H R

    2012-11-12

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play vital roles in triggering adaptive immune responses and are considered the most variable molecules in vertebrates. Recently, many studies have focused on the polymorphism and evolution mode of MHC in both model and non-model organisms. Here, we analyzed the MHC class II exon 2-encoding β chain in comparison with the mitochondrial Cytb gene and our previously published microsatellite data set in three cultured stocks and four wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in order to investigate its genetic variation and mechanism of evolution. We detected one to four alleles in one individual, suggesting that at least two loci exist in the orange-spotted grouper, as well as a particularly high level of allelic diversity at the MHC loci. Furthermore, the cultured stocks exhibited reduced allelic diversity compared to the wild counterparts. We found evidence of balancing selection at MHC class II exon 2, and codon sites under positive selection were largely correspondent to the protein-binding region. In addition, MHC class II exon 2 revealed significant differences between population differentiation patterns from the neutral mitochondrial Cytb and microsatellites, which may indicate local adaptation at MHC loci in orange-spotted grouper originating from the South China Sea and Southeast Asia.

  10. Promoter accessibility within the environment of the MHC is affected in class II-deficient combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Kara, C J; Glimcher, L H

    1993-01-01

    Class II-deficient combined immunodeficiency (CID) is a hereditary disease resulting in abrogation of transcription of the class II genes of the major histocompatibility complex, due to a defect in a trans-acting regulatory factor. Cell lines from certain CID patients lack factor binding at multiple sites in class II promoters in vivo. A mutation in one of the promoter binding proteins could explain this 'bare' phenotype only if these factors bind cooperatively or in a temporal hierarchy. Alternatively, the mutation could affect the configuration of the promoter within the MHC locus. Here, we provide evidence that the factor(s) defective in class II-deficient CID controls the accessibility of class II promoters within the environment of the MHC. The in vivo occupancy of wild type and mutated class II promoter constructs was examined in stable transfectants of normal and CID-derived cell lines. The CID promoter phenotype could not be reproduced in a normal cell line by eliminating binding at any one promoter element, suggesting that these factors bind independently, both spatially and temporally. In contrast, promoter occupancy was partially restored in two CID lines at a randomly integrated wild type promoter, implying that the promoter is inaccessible to factors in its native environment, but accessible when moved to another location in the genome. Images PMID:8428578

  11. Molecular characterization of MHC class II in a nonmodel anuran species, the fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina.

    PubMed

    Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Stuckas, H; Pfautsch, S; Tiedemann, R

    2007-06-01

    While the anuran Xenopus comprises one of the best characterized nonmammalian taxa regarding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), the organization of this gene complex has never been studied in other anurans, and information on amphibian MHC (other than Xenopus) is generally very scarce. Here, we describe the characterization of the first MHC class II B cDNA sequences from a nonmodel anuran species, the European fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina). We isolated two transcript sequences differing substantially in amino acid composition and length within the beta2 domain. To investigate the variability of the peptide binding region in this species, we sequenced a 158-bp large fragment from wild B. bombina (n = 20) and identified eight distinct alleles. All substitutions but one were nonsynonymous, and many of the highly polymorphic sites corresponded with amino acid positions known to be involved in antigen binding. The level of variation we found in B. bombina was similar compared to that previously found in a comparable sample of a wild urodelan species, Ambystoma tigrinum, and to that found in Xenopus laevis. Based on the cDNA data and the individual's allelic diversity, we conclude that Bombina possesses at least two class II B loci. With our new beta1 primers, we were able to generate sequences in other species of anurans. We provide here a first phylogenetic analysis of this gene in amphibians.

  12. In Situ Peptide-MHC-II Tetramer Staining of Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells in Tissues.

    PubMed

    Dileepan, Thamotharampillai; Kim, Hyeon O; Cleary, P Patrick; Skinner, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    The invention of peptide-MHC-tetramer technology to label antigen-specific T cells has led to an enhanced understanding of T lymphocyte biology. Here we describe the development of an in situ pMHC-II tetramer staining method to visualize antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in tissues. This method complements other methods developed that similarly use MHC class II reagents to stain antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in situ. In this study, we used group A streptococcus (GAS) expressing a surrogate peptide (2W) to inoculate C57BL/6 mice, and used fresh nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) in optimizing the in situ staining of 2W:I-Ab specific CD4+ T cells. The results showed 2W:I-Ab tetramer-binding CD4+ T cells in GAS-2W but not GAS infected mice. This method holds promise to be broadly applicable to study the localization, abundance, and phenotype of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in undisrupted tissues. PMID:26067103

  13. Patterns of evolution of MHC class II genes of crows (Corvus) suggest trans-species polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Eimes, John A; Townsend, Andrea K; Sepil, Irem; Nishiumi, Isao; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of genes that code for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is that alleles often share more similarity between, rather than within species. There are two likely mechanisms that can explain this pattern: convergent evolution and trans-species polymorphism (TSP), in which ancient allelic lineages are maintained by balancing selection and retained by descendant species. Distinguishing between these two mechanisms has major implications in how we view adaptation of immune genes. In this study we analyzed exon 2 of the MHC class IIB in three passerine bird species in the genus Corvus: jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos japonensis) American crows (C. brachyrhynchos) and carrion crows (C. corone orientalis). Carrion crows and American crows are recently diverged, but allopatric, sister species, whereas carrion crows and jungle crows are more distantly related but sympatric species, and possibly share pathogens linked to MHC IIB polymorphisms. These patterns of evolutionary divergence and current geographic ranges enabled us to test for trans-species polymorphism and convergent evolution of the MHC IIB in crows. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MHC IIB sequences revealed several well supported interspecific clusters containing all three species, and there was no biased clustering of variants among the sympatric carrion crows and jungle crows. The topologies of phylogenetic trees constructed from putatively selected sites were remarkably different than those constructed from putatively neutral sites. In addition, trees constructed using non-synonymous substitutions from a continuous fragment of exon 2 had more, and generally more inclusive, supported interspecific MHC IIB variant clusters than those constructed from the same fragment using synonymous substitutions. These phylogenetic patterns suggest that recombination, especially gene conversion, has partially erased the signal of allelic ancestry in these species. While clustering of

  14. Patterns of evolution of MHC class II genes of crows (Corvus) suggest trans-species polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Sepil, Irem; Nishiumi, Isao; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of genes that code for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is that alleles often share more similarity between, rather than within species. There are two likely mechanisms that can explain this pattern: convergent evolution and trans-species polymorphism (TSP), in which ancient allelic lineages are maintained by balancing selection and retained by descendant species. Distinguishing between these two mechanisms has major implications in how we view adaptation of immune genes. In this study we analyzed exon 2 of the MHC class IIB in three passerine bird species in the genus Corvus: jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos japonensis) American crows (C. brachyrhynchos) and carrion crows (C. corone orientalis). Carrion crows and American crows are recently diverged, but allopatric, sister species, whereas carrion crows and jungle crows are more distantly related but sympatric species, and possibly share pathogens linked to MHC IIB polymorphisms. These patterns of evolutionary divergence and current geographic ranges enabled us to test for trans-species polymorphism and convergent evolution of the MHC IIB in crows. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MHC IIB sequences revealed several well supported interspecific clusters containing all three species, and there was no biased clustering of variants among the sympatric carrion crows and jungle crows. The topologies of phylogenetic trees constructed from putatively selected sites were remarkably different than those constructed from putatively neutral sites. In addition, trees constructed using non-synonymous substitutions from a continuous fragment of exon 2 had more, and generally more inclusive, supported interspecific MHC IIB variant clusters than those constructed from the same fragment using synonymous substitutions. These phylogenetic patterns suggest that recombination, especially gene conversion, has partially erased the signal of allelic ancestry in these species. While clustering of

  15. Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection is associated with lower MHC class II gene expression in Apodemus flavicollis: indication for immune suppression?

    PubMed

    Axtner, Jan; Sommer, Simone

    2011-12-01

    Due to their key role in recognizing foreign antigens and triggering the subsequent immune response the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) provide a potential target for parasites to attack in order to evade detection and expulsion from the host. A diminished MHC gene expression results in less activated T cells and might serve as a gateway for pathogens and parasites. Some parasites are suspected to be immune suppressors and promote co-infections of other parasites even in other parts of the body. In our study we found indications that the gut dwelling nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus might exert a systemic immunosuppressive effect in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis). The amount of hepatic MHC class II DRB gene RNA transcripts in infected mice was negatively associated with infection intensity with H. polygyrus. The hepatic expression of immunosuppressive cytokines, such as transforming growth factor β and interleukin 10 was not associated with H. polygyrus infection. We did not find direct positive associations of H. polygyrus with other helminth species. But the prevalence and infection intensity of the nematodes Syphacia stroma and Trichuris muris were higher in multiple infected individuals. Furthermore, our data indicated antagonistic effects in the helminth community of A. flavicollis as cestode infection correlated negatively with H. polygyrus and helminth species richness. Our study shows that expression analyses of immune relevant genes can also be performed in wildlife, opening new aspects and possibilities for future ecological and evolutionary research. PMID:21983561

  16. Genetic variation of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II B gene) in the threatened Hume's pheasant, Syrmaticus humiae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weicai; Bei, Yongjian; Li, Hanhua

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates and encode molecules that play a crucial role in pathogen resistance. As a result of their diversity, they have received much attention in the fields of evolutionary and conservation biology. Here, we described the genetic variation of MHC class II B (MHCIIB) exon 2 in a wild population of Hume's pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae), which has suffered a dramatic decline in population over the last three decades across its ranges in the face of heavy exploitation and habitat loss. Twenty-four distinct alleles were found in 73 S. humiae specimens. We found seven shared alleles among four geographical groups as well as six rare MHCIIB alleles. Most individuals displayed between one to five alleles, suggesting that there are at least three MHCIIB loci of the Hume's pheasant. The dN ⁄ dS ratio at putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) was significantly greater than one, indicating balancing selection is acting on MHCIIB exon 2. Additionally, recombination and gene conversion contributed to generating MHCIIB diversity in the Hume's pheasant. One to three recombination events and seventy-five significant gene conversion events were observed within the Hume's pheasant MHCIIB loci. The phylogenetic tree and network analysis revealed that the Hume's pheasant alleles do not cluster together, but are scattered through the tree or network indicating a trans-species evolutionary mode. These findings revealed the evolution of the Hume's pheasant MHC after suffering extreme habitat fragmentation.

  17. Structural Basis for the Presentation of Tumor-Associated MHC Class II-Restricted Phosphopeptides to CD4+ T Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Depontieu, F; Sidney, J; Salay, T; Engelhard, V; Hunt, D; Sette, A; Topalian, S; Mariuzza, R

    2010-01-01

    Dysregulated protein phosphorylation is a hallmark of malignant transformation. Transformation can generate major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-bound phosphopeptides that are differentially displayed on tumor cells for specific recognition by T cells. To understand how phosphorylation alters the antigenic identity of self-peptides and how MHC class II molecules present phosphopeptides for CD4{sup +} T-cell recognition, we determined the crystal structure of a phosphopeptide derived from melanoma antigen recognized by T cells-1 (pMART-1), selectively expressed by human melanomas, in complex with HLA-DR1. The structure revealed that the phosphate moiety attached to the serine residue at position P5 of pMART-1 is available for direct interactions with T-cell receptor (TCR) and that the peptide N-terminus adopts an unusual conformation orienting it toward TCR. This structure, combined with measurements of peptide affinity for HLA-DR1 and of peptide-MHC recognition by pMART-1-specific T cells, suggests that TCR recognition is focused on the N-terminal portion of pMART-1. This recognition mode appears to be distinct from that of foreign antigen complexes but is remarkably reminiscent of the way autoreactive TCRs engage self- or altered self-peptides, consistent with the tolerogenic nature of tumor-host immune interactions.

  18. Anti-coreceptor antibodies profoundly affect staining with peptide-MHC class I and class II tetramers.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Linda; Scriba, Thomas J; Milicic, Anita; Laugel, Bruno; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A; Phillips, Rodney E; Sewell, Andrew K

    2006-07-01

    The T cell coreceptors CD8 and CD4 bind to invariable regions of peptide-MHC class I (pMHCI) and class II (pMHCII) molecules, respectively, and facilitate antigen recognition by a number of mechanisms. It is established that some antibodies (Ab) specific for the CD8 molecule, which stabilizes TCR/pMHCI interactions, can alter the binding of pMHCI tetramers to cell surface TCR. In contrast, the extremely weak pMHCII/CD4 interaction does not stabilize TCR/pMHCII interactions or contribute to cognate tetramer binding; consequently, it is assumed that anti-CD4 Ab do not affect pMHCII binding. Here, we used a panel of point-mutated HLA A2 molecules with a range of affinities for CD8 spanning over three orders of magnitude to demonstrate that anti-CD8 Ab-mediated inhibition of pMHCI tetramer binding and cognate T cell activation correlates directly with the strength of the pMHCI/CD8 interaction. Further, some anti-CD4 Ab were found to block pMHCII tetramer binding; these effects were also paralleled in T cell activation assays. In sum, these data challenge the assertion that anti-coreceptor Ab exert their effects on T cell activation and pMHC binding solely by blocking pMHC/coreceptor interactions.

  19. Non-neutral evolution and reciprocal monophyly of two expressed Mhc class II B genes in Leach's storm-petrel.

    PubMed

    Dearborn, Donald C; Gager, Andrea B; Gilmour, Morgan E; McArthur, Andrew G; Hinerfeld, Douglas A; Mauck, Robert A

    2015-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) is subject to pathogen-mediated balancing selection and can link natural selection with mate choice. We characterized two Mhc class II B loci in Leach's storm-petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa, focusing on exon 2 which encodes the portion of the protein that binds pathogen peptides. We amplified and sequenced exon 2 with locus-specific nested PCR and Illumina MiSeq using individually barcoded primers. Repeat genotyping of 78 single-locus genotypes produced identical results in 77 cases (98.7%). Sequencing of messenger RNA (mRNA) from three birds confirmed expression of both loci, consistent with the observed absence of stop codons or frameshifts in all alleles. In 48 birds, we found 9 and 12 alleles at the two loci, respectively, and all 21 alleles translated to unique amino acid sequences. Unlike many studies of duplicated Mhc genes, alleles of the two loci clustered into monophyletic groups. Consistent with this phylogenetic result, interlocus gene conversion appears to have affected only two short fragments of the exon. As predicted under a paradigm of pathogen-mediated selection, comparison of synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates found evidence of a history of positive selection at putative peptide binding sites. Overall, the results suggest that the gene duplication event leading to these two loci is not recent and that point mutations and positive selection on the peptide binding sites may be the predominant forces acting on these genes. Characterization of these loci sets the stage for population-level work on the evolutionary ecology of Mhc in this species. PMID:25416539

  20. Selective decreases in T cell receptor V beta expression. Decreased expression of specific V beta families is associated with expression of multiple MHC and non-MHC gene products

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Previous reports of TCR V beta usage, studying either expression of a single V beta in a wide panel of strains (6, 7, 10, 12, 13), or expression of multiple V beta s in a very limited strain distribution (14, 15), have identified instances of clonal deletion of potentially autoreactive T cells specific for either self E alpha E beta or minor lymphocyte stimulatory (Mls) antigens. The present study has investigated the range of self antigens that can influence V beta usage by evaluating expression of 16 V beta families in 30 strains of mice. It was found that significant decreases in expression occur in at least 8 of the 16 V beta families and that dominant influences on the T cell V beta repertoire are exerted by expression of Mlsa, Mlsc, and MHC gene products. Decreased expressions of V beta 5, -11, -12, and -16 were influenced by MHC gene products. The patterns of decreased expression seen in intra-MHC recombinant strains and strains of different non-MHC background were distinct for V beta 11, -12, and -16, suggesting that different ligands are involved in the deletion of T cells expressing each of these V beta genes. Mice expressing Mlsa show decreased expression of V beta 9 as well as V beta 6. Mlsc mice lacked V beta 3 expression in those strains where the expressed MHC type was compatible with a strongly stimulatory Mlsc phenotype. V beta 7 was strongly influenced by both MHC and non-MHC products that are not yet identified. These results demonstrate that strain-specific decreases of mRNA expression occur in a major portion of the TCR repertoire. Self antigens including Mlsa, Mlsc, and E alpha E beta, as well as additional MHC and non-MHC products, appear to induce these decreases in expression in the process of eliminating self-reactive T cells from the mature T cell pool. PMID:2529341

  1. MHC class II DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are one of the most important genetic systems in the vertebrate immune response. The diversity of MHC genes may directly influence the survival of individuals against infectious disease. However, there has been no investigation of MHC diversity in the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus). Here, we analyzed 270-bp nucleotide sequences of the entire exon 2 region of the MHC DQB gene by using 188 samples from the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) from 12 local populations. Results Among 185 of 188 samples, we identified 44 MHC variants that encoded 31 different amino acid sequences (allotypes) and one putative pseudogene. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that MHC variants detected from the Japanese black bear are derived from the DQB locus. One of the 31 DQB allotypes, Urth-DQB*01, was found to be common to all local populations. Moreover, this allotype was shared between the black bear on the Asian continent and the Japanese black bear, suggesting that Urth-DQB*01 might have been maintained in the ancestral black bear population for at least 300,000 years. Our findings, from calculating the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, indicate that balancing selection has maintained genetic variation of peptide-binding residues at the DQB locus of the Japanese black bear. From examination of genotype frequencies among local populations, we observed a considerably lower level of observed heterozygosity than expected. Conclusions The low level of observed heterozygosity suggests that genetic drift reduced DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear due to a bottleneck event at the population or species level. The decline of DQB diversity might have been accelerated by the loss of rare variants that have been maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. Nevertheless, DQB diversity of the black bear appears to be relatively high compared with some other endangered mammalian

  2. MHC-class-II are expressed in a subpopulation of human neural stem cells in vitro in an IFNγ–independent fashion and during development

    PubMed Central

    Vagaska, B.; New, S. E. P.; Alvarez-Gonzalez, C.; D’Acquisto, F.; Gomez, S. G.; Bulstrode, N. W.; Madrigal, A.; Ferretti, P.

    2016-01-01

    Expression of major histocompatibility antigens class-2 (MHC-II) under non-inflammatory conditions is not usually associated with the nervous system. Comparative analysis of immunogenicity of human embryonic/fetal brain-derived neural stem cells (hNSCs) and human mesenchymal stem cells with neurogenic potential from umbilical cord (UC-MSCs) and paediatric adipose tissue (ADSCs), while highlighting differences in their immunogenicity, led us to discover subsets of neural cells co-expressing the neural marker SOX2 and MHC-II antigen in vivo during human CNS development. MHC-II proteins in hNSCs are functional, and differently regulated upon differentiation along different lineages. Mimicking an inflammatory response using the inflammatory cytokine IFNγ induced MHC-II up-regulation in both astrocytes and hNSCs, but not in UC-MSCs and ADSCs, either undifferentiated or differentiated, though IFNγ receptor expression was comparable. Together, hypoimmunogenicity of both UC-MSCs and ADSCs supports their suitability for allogeneic therapy, while significant immunogenicity of hNSCs and their progeny may at least in part underlie negative effects reported in some patients following embryonic neural cell grafts. Crucially, we show for the first time that MHC-II expression in developing human brains is not restricted to microglia as previously suggested, but is present in discrete subsets of neural progenitors and appears to be regulated independently of inflammatory stimuli. PMID:27080443

  3. Identification and quantitation of MHC class II-bound peptides from mouse spleen dendritic cells by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bozzacco, Leonia; Yu, Haiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Summary Advances in immunology and immune therapies require knowledge of antigenic peptide sequences that are presented on MHC class II and class I molecules of antigen presenting cells. The most specialized antigen presenting cells are dendritic cells (DCs). In the past, the small number of DCs that can be isolated from mouse spleen prevented direct analysis of the MHC II peptide repertoire presented by DCs. Here we describe a protocol that integrates immunological methods (in vivo enrichment of mouse spleen DCs by Flt3L treatment and immunoprecipation of MHC II-peptide complexes), mass spectrometry analysis and peptide synthesis (LC-MS/MS and quantitation analysis for non tryptic peptides) to identify and quantitate the endogenous peptides that are bound to MHC II molecules on DCs. The described method produces quantitative data that are reproducible and reliable enough to cover a wide range of peptide copy numbers. We propose the application of this method in future studies to quantitatively investigate the MHC II repertoire on DCs presented during viral infections or different immunizations in vaccine development research. PMID:23963941

  4. Atheroprotective Vaccination with MHC-II Restricted Peptides from ApoB-100

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Kevin; Gonen, Ayelet; Sidney, John; Ouyang, Hui; Witztum, Joseph L.; Sette, Alessandro; Tse, Harley; Ley, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background: Subsets of CD4+ T-cells have been proposed to serve differential roles in the development of atherosclerosis. Some T-cell types are atherogenic (T-helper type 1), while others are thought to be protective (regulatory T-cells). Lineage commitment toward one type of helper T-cell versus another is strongly influenced by the inflammatory context in which antigens are recognized. Immunization of atherosclerosis-prone mice with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or its oxidized derivative (ox-LDL) is known to be atheroprotective. However, the antigen specificity of the T-cells induced by vaccination and the mechanism of protection are not known. Methods: Identification of two peptide fragments (ApoB3501–3516 and ApoB978–993) from murine ApoB-100 was facilitated using I-Ab prediction models, and their binding to I-Ab determined. Utilizing a vaccination scheme based on complete and incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA and IFA) [1 × CFA + 4 × IFA], we immunized Apoe−/−mice with ApoB3501–3516 or ApoB978–993 emulsified in CFA once and subsequently boosted in IFA four times over 15 weeks. Spleens, lymph nodes, and aortas were harvested and evaluated by flow cytometry and real time RT-PCR. Total atherosclerotic plaque burden was determined by aortic pinning and by aortic root histology. Results: Mice immunized with ApoB3501–3516 or ApoB978–993 demonstrated 40% reduction in overall plaque burden when compared to adjuvant-only control mice. Aortic root frozen sections from ApoB3501–3516 immunized mice showed a >60% reduction in aortic sinus plaque development. Aortas from both ApoB3501–3516 and ApoB978–993 immunized mice contained significantly more mRNA for IL-10. Both antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2c titers were elevated in ApoB3501–3516 or ApoB978–993 immunized mice, suggesting helper T-cell immune activity after immunization. Conclusion: Our data show that MHC Class II restricted ApoB-100 peptides can be atheroprotective

  5. CIITA promoter I CARD-deficient mice express functional MHC class II genes in myeloid and lymphoid compartments.

    PubMed

    Zinzow-Kramer, W M; Long, A B; Youngblood, B A; Rosenthal, K M; Butler, R; Mohammed, A-U-R; Skountzou, I; Ahmed, R; Evavold, B D; Boss, J M

    2012-06-01

    Three distinct promoters control the master regulator of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression, class II transactivator (CIITA), in a cell type-specific manner. Promoter I (pI) CIITA, expressed primarily by dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, expresses a unique isoform that contains a caspase-recruitment domain (CARD). The activity and function of this isoform are not understood, but are believed to enhance the function of CIITA in antigen-presenting cells. To determine whether isoform I of CIITA has specific functions, CIITA mutant mice were created in which isoform I was replaced with isoform III sequences. Mice in which pI and the CARD-encoding exon were deleted were also created. No defect in the formation of CD4 T cells, the ability to respond to a model antigen or bacterial or viral challenge was observed in mice lacking CIITA isoform I. Although CIITA and MHC-II expression was decreased in splenic DCs, pI knockout animals expressed CIITA from downstream promoters, suggesting that control of pI activity is mediated by unknown distal elements that could act at pIII, the B-cell promoter. Thus, no critical function is linked to the CARD domain of CIITA isoform I with respect to basic immune system development, function and challenge.

  6. Far upstream regions of class II MHC Ea are necessary for position-independent, copy-dependent expression of Ea transgene.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, S; Wiles, M V

    1993-01-01

    The chromatin upstream of the class II MHC Ea gene contains specific, DNase I hypersensitive (DH) sites (groups I-V), overlapping and extending the promoter proximal and distal control regions. To determine whether the Ea DH groups I-V define a functionally important chromatin domain or locus control region (LCR), we have used wild type Ead gene constructs to generate transgenic mouse lines from strains that do not express an endogenous Ea gene product. Constructs contained either DH groups I-V 'Longs' or DH groups I-II 'Shorts', of the hypersensitive sites defined within 20 kb 5' of Ea. We show that position-independent, copy number-dependent expression of the Ead gene occurs only with the Long construct (8/8 transgenic mouse lines, over a range of copy numbers, 1-30 copies); in contrast, the Short constructs are subject to position-dependent effects. This suggests that the region delineated by Ea DH groups I-II is necessary but not sufficient as an LCR, which requires the presence of the upstream regions containing DH III-V for complete position-independent, copy number-dependent expression. These results introduce an immunologically-important, putative LCR which can be used to target genes to cells of the B cell lineage, as well as to other class II MHC expressing cells, and highlight the importance of chromatin structure analysis as a means to locate DNA regions of regulatory interest which are dispersed over a large distance. Images PMID:8502547

  7. Structural Basis for the Recognition of Mutant Self by a Tumor-Specific, MHC Class II-Restricted T Cell Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Deng,L.; Langley, R.; Brown, P.; Xu, G.; Teng, L.; Wang, Q.; Gonzales, M.; Callender, G.; Nishimura, M.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    Structural studies of complexes of T cell receptor (TCR) and peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have focused on TCRs specific for foreign antigens or native self. An unexplored category of TCRs includes those specific for self determinants bearing alterations resulting from disease, notably cancer. We determined here the structure of a human melanoma-specific TCR (E8) bound to the MHC molecule HLA-DR1 and an epitope from mutant triosephosphate isomerase. The structure had features intermediate between 'anti-foreign' and autoimmune TCR-peptide-MHC class II complexes that may reflect the hybrid nature of altered self. E8 manifested very low affinity for mutant triosephosphate isomerase-HLA-DR1 despite the highly tumor-reactive properties of E8 cells. A second TCR (G4) had even lower affinity but underwent peptide-specific formation of dimers, suggesting this as a mechanism for enhancing low-affinity TCR-peptide-MHC interactions for T cell activation.

  8. A Novel HURRAH Protocol Reveals High Numbers of Monomorphic MHC Class II Loci and Two Asymmetric Multi-Locus Haplotypes in the Père David's Deer

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qiu-Hong; Zhang, Pei; Ni, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Hai-Long; Chen, Yi-Yan; Kuang, Ye-Ye; Ge, Yun-Fa; Fang, Sheng-Guo

    2011-01-01

    The Père David's deer is a highly inbred, but recovered, species, making it interesting to consider their adaptive molecular evolution from an immunological perspective. Prior to this study, genomic sequencing was the only method for isolating all functional MHC genes within a certain species. Here, we report a novel protocol for isolating MHC class II loci from a species, and its use to investigate the adaptive evolution of this endangered deer at the level of multi-locus haplotypes. This protocol was designated “HURRAH” based on its various steps and used to estimate the total number of MHC class II loci. We confirmed the validity of this novel protocol in the giant panda and then used it to examine the Père David's deer. Our results revealed that the Père David's deer possesses nine MHC class II loci and therefore has more functional MHC class II loci than the eight genome-sequenced mammals for which full MHC data are currently available. This could potentially account at least in part for the strong survival ability of this species in the face of severe bottlenecking. The results from the HURRAH protocol also revealed that: (1) All of the identified MHC class II loci were monomorphic at their antigen-binding regions, although DRA was dimorphic at its cytoplasmic tail; and (2) these genes constituted two asymmetric functional MHC class II multi-locus haplotypes: DRA1*01 ∼ DRB1 ∼ DRB3 ∼ DQA1 ∼ DQB2 (H1) and DRA1*02 ∼ DRB2 ∼ DRB4 ∼ DQA2 ∼ DQB1 (H2). The latter finding indicates that the current members of the deer species have lost the powerful ancestral MHC class II haplotypes of nine or more loci, and have instead fixed two relatively weak haplotypes containing five genes. As a result, the Père David's deer are currently at risk for increased susceptibility to infectious pathogens. PMID:21267075

  9. The Missing Link in Epstein-Barr Virus Immune Evasion: the BDLF3 Gene Induces Ubiquitination and Downregulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I (MHC-I) and MHC-II

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Laura L.; Williams, Luke R.; White, Claire; Forrest, Calum; Rowe, Martin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to spread and persist in human populations relies on a balance between host immune responses and EBV immune evasion. CD8+ cells specific for EBV late lytic cycle antigens show poor recognition of target cells compared to immediate early and early antigen-specific CD8+ cells. This phenomenon is due in part to the early EBV protein BILF1, whose immunosuppressive activity increases with lytic cycle progression. However, published data suggest the existence of a hitherto unidentified immune evasion protein further enhancing protection against late EBV antigen-specific CD8+ cells. We have now identified the late lytic BDLF3 gene as the missing link accounting for efficient evasion during the late lytic cycle. Interestingly, BDLF3 also contributes to evasion of CD4+ cell responses to EBV. We report that BDLF3 downregulates expression of surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules in the absence of any effect upon other surface molecules screened, including CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD71 (transferrin receptor). BDLF3 both enhanced internalization of surface MHC molecules and reduced the rate of their appearance at the cell surface. The reduced expression of surface MHC molecules correlated with functional protection against CD8+ and CD4+ T cell recognition. The molecular mechanism was identified as BDLF3-induced ubiquitination of MHC molecules and their subsequent downregulation in a proteasome-dependent manner. IMPORTANCE Immune evasion is a necessary feature of viruses that establish lifelong persistent infections in the face of strong immune responses. EBV is an important human pathogen whose immune evasion mechanisms are only partly understood. Of the EBV immune evasion mechanisms identified to date, none could explain why CD8+ T cell responses to late lytic cycle genes are so infrequent and, when present, recognize lytically infected target cells so poorly relative to CD8+ T cells specific for

  10. Artificial antigen-presenting cells engineered by recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing antigen, MHC class II, and costimulatory molecules elicit proliferation of CD4+ lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oertli, D; Marti, W R; Norton, J A; Tsung, K

    1997-10-01

    The current study was designed to test the ability of recombinant Vaccinia virus (rVV) encoding essential components of an artificial antigen-presenting cell to activate antigen-specific T cells in vitro. We have constructed a set of rVV encoding separately or in combination a CD4+ T cell-specific epitope (the 133-145 peptide of chicken conalbumin), the MHC class II molecule I-Ak, and costimulatory molecules (mB7-1 and mB7-2). Cultured cells infected with rVV encoding both the antigen and the presenting MHC, but not either one alone, could activate cloned CD4+ T cells specific for the virus-encoded epitope. Additional co-expression of mB7-1 and mB7-2 resulted in further enhancement of T cell response. Thus, our rVV vector expressing four different foreign gene products elicited the highest proliferation rates of antigen-specific cloned T cells. PMID:9353162

  11. Genomic Alterations in CIITA Are Frequent in Primary Mediastinal Large B Cell Lymphoma and Are Associated with Diminished MHC Class II Expression.

    PubMed

    Mottok, Anja; Woolcock, Bruce; Chan, Fong Chun; Tong, King Mong; Chong, Lauren; Farinha, Pedro; Telenius, Adèle; Chavez, Elizabeth; Ramchandani, Suvan; Drake, Marie; Boyle, Merrill; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Scott, David W; Rimsza, Lisa M; Siebert, Reiner; Gascoyne, Randy D; Steidl, Christian

    2015-11-17

    Primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, predominantly affecting young patients. We analyzed 45 primary PMBCL tumor biopsies and 3 PMBCL-derived cell lines for the presence of genetic alterations involving the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator CIITA and found frequent aberrations consisting of structural genomic rearrangements, missense, nonsense, and frame-shift mutations (53% of primary tumor biopsies and all cell lines). We also detected intron 1 mutations in 47% of the cases, and detailed sequence analysis strongly suggests AID-mediated aberrant somatic hypermutation as the mutational mechanism. Furthermore, we demonstrate that genomic lesions in CIITA result in decreased protein expression and reduction of MHC class II surface expression, creating an immune privilege phenotype in PMBCL. In summary, we establish CIITA alterations as a common mechanism of immune escape through reduction of MHC class II expression in PMBCL, with potential implications for future treatments targeting microenvironment-related biology.

  12. Direct enumeration of Borrelia-reactive CD4 T cells ex vivo by using MHC class II tetramers

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Abbie L.; Trollmo, Christina; Crawford, Frances; Marrack, Philippa; Steere, Allen C.; Huber, Brigitte T.; Kappler, John; Hafler, David A.

    2000-01-01

    We characterized antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in six patients with treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis, using an HLA-DRB1*0401 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II tetramer covalently loaded with OspA164–175, an immunodominant epitope of Borrelia burgdorferi. Direct analysis of OspA-tetramer binding CD4+ cells in patients expressing the HLA-DRB1*0401 allele revealed frequencies of between <0.005 and 0.1% in peripheral blood (n = 6), and between <0.005 and 3.1% in synovial fluid (n = 3). OspA-tetramer+CD4+ cells were directly cloned at 1 cell per well and expanded by mitogen and IL-2 on allogeneic feeder cells. As measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation, 95% of 168 T cell clones from synovial fluid binding the OspA-tetramer were antigen-reactive. Clones generated from peripheral blood revealed a different pattern of responsiveness when compared with clones generated from synovial fluid, as measured by proliferation, IFN-γ, and IL-13 secretion. These clones, selected on the basis of their peptide binding, also responded to whole protein, but with a different cytokine profile. Our studies demonstrate that MHC class II tetramers can be used in humans to directly identify, isolate, and characterize antigen-reactive T cells from an inflammatory compartment. PMID:11005833

  13. MHC class II DRB diversity in raccoons (Procyon lotor) reveals associations with raccoon rabies virus (Lyssavirus).

    PubMed

    Srithayakumar, Vythegi; Castillo, Sarrah; Rosatte, Rick C; Kyle, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    In North America, the raccoon rabies virus (RRV) is an endemic wildlife disease which causes acute encephalopathies and is a strong selective force on raccoons (Procyon lotor), with estimates of ∼85% of the population succumbing to the disease when epizootic. RRV is regarded as a lethal disease if untreated; therefore, no evolutionary response would be expected of raccoon populations. However, variable immune responses to RRV have been observed in raccoons indicating a potential for evolutionary adaptation. Studies of variation within the immunologically important major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have revealed relationships between MHC alleles and diseases in humans and other wildlife species. This enhances our understanding of how hosts and pathogens adapt and co-evolve. In this study, we used RRV as a model system to study host-pathogen interaction in raccoons from a challenge study and from four wild populations that differ in exposure times and viral lineages. We investigated the potential role of Prlo-DRB polymorphism in relation to susceptibility/resistance to RRV in 113 RRV positive and 143 RRV negative raccoons. Six alleles were found to be associated with RRV negative status and five alleles with RRV positive animals. We found variable patterns of MHC associations given the relative number of selective RRV sweeps in the studied regions and correlations between MHC diversity and RRV lineages. The allelic associations established provide insight into how the genetic variation of raccoons may affect the disease outcome and this can be used to examine similar associations between other rabies variants and their hosts.

  14. Antigen processing of glycoconjugate vaccines; the polysaccharide portion of the pneumococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine co-localizes with MHC II on the antigen processing cell surface.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zengzu; Schreiber, John R

    2009-05-21

    Pneumococcal (Pn) polysaccharides (PS) are T-independent (TI) antigens and do not induce immunological memory or antibodies in infants. Conjugation of PnPS to the carrier protein CRM(197) induces PS-specific antibody in infants, and memory similar to T-dependent (Td) antigens. Conjugates have improved immunogenicity via antigen processing and presentation of carrier protein with MHC II and recruitment of T cell help, but the fate of the PS attached to the carrier is unknown. To determine the location of the PS component of PnPS-CRM(197) in the APC, we separately labeled PS and protein and tracked their location. The PS of types 14-CRM(197) and 19F-CRM(197) was specifically labeled by Alexa Fluor 594 hydrazide (red). The CRM(197) was separately labeled red in a reaction that did not label PS. Labeled antigens were incubated with APC which were fixed, permeabilized and incubated with anti-MHC II antibody labeled green by Alexa Fluor 488, followed by confocal microscopy. Labeled CRM(197) was presented on APC surface and co-localized with MHC II (yellow). Labeled unconjugated 14 or 19F PS did not go to the APC surface, but PS labeled 14-CRM(197) and 19F-CRM(197) was internalized and co-localized with MHC II. Monoclonal antibody to type 14 PS bound to intracellular type 14 PS and PS-CRM(197). Brefeldin A and chloroquine blocked both CRM(197) and PS labeled 14-CRM(197) and 19F-CRM(197) from co-localizing with MHC II. These data suggest that the PS component of the CRM(197) glycoconjugate enters the endosome, travels with CRM(197) peptides to the APC surface and co-localizes with MHC II.

  15. Immune complexes (IC) down-regulate the basal and interferon-γ-induced expression of MHC Class II on human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, P; Beigier-Bompadre, M; De La Barrera, S; Alves-Rosa, M F; Fernandez, G; Palermo, M S; Isturiz, M A

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of Fc receptors for IgG (FcγRs) on monocytes/macrophages with immune complexes (IC) triggers regulatory and effector functions. Previous studies have shown that FcγR–IC interactions inhibit the IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II in murine macrophages. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for these effects have not been elucidated. In addition, whether this IC-dependent effect also occurs in human cells is not known. Taking into account the fact that IC and IFN-γ are frequently found in infections and autoimmune disorders, together with the crucial role MHC class II molecules play in the regulation of immune response, we explored the effect and mechanism of IC-induced MHC class II down-regulation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This effect was studied either in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. We demonstrate that IC exert a drastic inhibition of basal and IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II on human monocytes. This effect was mediated through the interaction of IC with both FcγRI and FcγRII. Moreover, similar results were obtained using supernatants from IC-treated PBMC. The IC-induced down-regulation of MHC class II is abrogated by pepstatin and phosphoramidon, supporting the role of aspartic protease(s) and metalloprotease(s) in this process. In parallel with MHC class II expression, antigen presentation was markedly inhibited in the presence of IC. PMID:11529917

  16. Nonclassical antigen-processing pathways are required for MHC class II-restricted direct tumor recognition by NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Tsuji, Takemasa; Luescher, Immanuel; Old, Lloyd J; Shrikant, Protul; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2014-04-01

    Tumor antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that directly recognize cancer cells are important for orchestrating antitumor immune responses at the local tumor sites. However, the mechanisms of direct MHC class II (MHC-II) presentation of intracellular tumor antigen by cancer cells are poorly understood. We found that two functionally distinct subsets of CD4(+) T cells were expanded after HLA-DPB1*04 (DP04)-binding NY-ESO-1157-170 peptide vaccination in patients with ovarian cancer. Although both subsets recognized exogenous NY-ESO-1 protein pulsed on DP04(+) target cells, only one type recognized target cells with intracellular expression of NY-ESO-1. The tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells more efficiently recognized the short 8-9-mer peptides than the non-tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells. In addition to endosomal/lysosomal proteases that are typically involved in MHC-II antigen presentation, several pathways in the MHC class I presentation pathways, such as the proteasomal degradation and transporter-associated with antigen-processing-mediated peptide transport, were also involved in the presentation of intracellular NY-ESO-1 on MHC-II. The presentation was inhibited significantly by primaquine, a small molecule that inhibits endosomal recycling, consistent with findings that pharmacologic inhibition of new protein synthesis enhances antigen presentation. Together, our data demonstrate that cancer cells selectively present peptides from intracellular tumor antigens on MHC-II by multiple nonclassical antigen-processing pathways. Harnessing the direct tumor-recognizing ability of CD4(+) T cells could be a promising strategy to enhance antitumor immune responses in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

  17. Structural insights into the editing of germ-line-encoded interactions between T-cell receptor and MHC class II by Vα CDR3.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lu; Langley, Ries J; Wang, Qian; Topalian, Suzanne L; Mariuzza, Roy A

    2012-09-11

    The conserved diagonal docking mode observed in structures of T-cell receptors (TCRs) bound to peptide-MHC ligands is believed to reflect coevolution of TCR and MHC genes. This coevolution is supported by the conservation of certain interactions between the germ-line-encoded complementarity-determining region (CDR)1 and CDR2 loops of TCR and MHC. However, the rules governing these interactions are not straightforward, even when the same variable (V) region recognizes the same MHC molecule. Here, we demonstrate that the somatically generated CDR3 loops can markedly alter evolutionarily selected contacts between TCR and MHC ("CDR3 editing"). To understand CDR3 editing at the atomic level, we determined the structure of a human melanoma-specific TCR (G4) bound to the MHC class II molecule HLA-DR1 and an epitope from mutant triose phosphate isomerase (mutTPI). A comparison of the G4-mutTPI-DR1 complex with a complex involving a TCR (E8) that uses the same Vα region to recognize the same mutTPI-DR1 ligand as G4 revealed that CDR1α adopts markedly different conformations in the two TCRs, resulting in an almost entirely different set of contacts with MHC. Based on the structures of unbound G4 and E8, the distinct conformations of CDR1α in these TCRs are not induced by binding to mutTPI-DR1 but result from differences in the length and sequence of CDR3α that are transmitted to CDR1α. The editing of germ-line-encoded TCR-MHC interactions by CDR3 demonstrates that these interactions possess sufficient intrinsic flexibility to accommodate large structural variations in CDR3 and, consequently, in the TCR-binding site.

  18. Structure of the Epstein-Barr virus gp42 protein bound to the MHC class II recepter HLA-DR1

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, M.; Haan, K.M.; Longnecker, R.; Jardetzky, T.

    2010-03-08

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis, establishes long-term latent infections, and is associated with a variety of human tumors. The EBV gp42 glycoprotein binds MHC class II molecules, playing a critical role in infection of B lymphocytes. EBV gp42 belongs to the C-type lectin superfamily, with homology to NK receptors of the immune system. We report the crystal structure of gp42 bound to the human MHC class II molecule HLA-DR1. The gp42 binds HLA-DR1 using a surface site that is distinct from the canonical lectin and NK receptor ligand binding sites. At the canonical ligand binding site, gp42 forms a large hydrophobic groove, which could interact with other ligands necessary for EBV entry, providing a mechanism for coupling MHC recognition and membrane fusion.

  19. Songbird genomics: analysis of 45 kb upstream of a polymorphic Mhc class II gene in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus).

    PubMed

    Gasper, J S; Shiina, T; Inoko, H; Edwards, S V

    2001-07-01

    Here we present the sequence of a 45 kb cosmid containing a previously characterized poly-morphic Mhc class II B gene (Agph-DAB1) from the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). We compared it with a previously sequenced cosmid from this species, revealing two regions of 7.5 kb and 13.0 kb that averaged greater than 97% similarity to each another, indicating a very recent shared duplication. We found 12 retroelements, including two chicken repeat 1 (CR1) elements, constituting 6.4% of the sequence and indicating a lower frequency of retroelements than that found in mammalian genomic DNA. Agph-DAB3, a new class II B gene discovered in the cosmid, showed a low rate of polymorphism and may be functional. In addition, we found a Mhc class II B gene fragment and three genes likely to be functional (encoding activin receptor type II, a zinc finger, and a putative gamma-filamin). Phylogenetic analysis of exon 2 alleles of all three known blackbird Mhc genes indicated strong clustering of alleles by locus, implying that large amounts of interlocus gene conversion have not occurred since these genes have been diverging. Despite this, interspecific comparisons indicate that all three blackbird Mhc genes diverged from one another less than 35 million years ago and are subject to concerted evolution in the long term. Comparison of blackbird and chicken Mhc promoter regions revealed songbird promoter elements for the first time. The high gene density of this cosmid confirms similar findings for the chicken Mhc, but the segment duplications and diversity of retroelements resembles mammalian sequences.

  20. Characterization of expressed class II MHC sequences in the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) reveals multiple DRB loci.

    PubMed

    Busch, Joseph D; Waser, Peter M; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2008-11-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are exceptionally polymorphic due to the combined effects of natural and sexual selection. Most research in wild populations has focused on the second exon of a single class II locus (DRB), but complete gene sequences can provide an illuminating backdrop for studies of intragenic selection, recombination, and organization. To this end, we characterized class II loci in the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis). Seven DRB-like sequences (provisionally named MhcDisp-DRB*01 through *07) were isolated from spleen cDNA and most likely comprise > or =5 loci; this multiformity is quite unlike the situation in muroid rodents such as Mus, Rattus, and Peromyscus. In silico translation revealed the presence of important structural residues for glycosylation sites, salt bonds, and CD4+ T-cell recognition. Amino-acid distances varied widely among the seven sequences (2-34%). Nuclear DNA sequences from the Disp-DRB*07 locus (approximately 10 kb) revealed a conventional exon/intron structure as well as a number of microsatellites and short interspersed nuclear elements (B4, Alu, and IDL-Geo subfamilies). Rates of nucleotide substitution at Disp-DRB*07 are similar in both exons and introns (pi = 0.015 and 0.012, respectively), which suggests relaxed selection and may indicate that this locus is an expressed pseudogene. Finally, we performed BLASTn searches against Dipodomys ordii genomic sequences (unassembled reads) and find 90-97% nucleotide similarity between the two kangaroo rat species. Collectively, these data suggest that class II diversity in heteromyid rodents is based on polylocism and departs from the muroid architecture.

  1. Activated human T cells accomplish MHC class II expression through T cell-specific occupation of class II transactivator promoter III.

    PubMed

    Holling, Tjadine M; van der Stoep, Nienke; Quinten, Edwin; van den Elsen, Peter J

    2002-01-15

    Activated human T cells express HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP on their surface, but the regulation and functioning of MHC class II molecules in T lymphocytes are poorly understood. Because the MHC class II transactivator (CIITA) is essential for MHC class II expression, we have investigated transcriptional activation of CIITA in activated T cells. In this study, we show that in human activated CD4(+) T cells, CIITA promoter III (CIITA-PIII) drives the expression of CIITA. The in vivo genomic footprint analysis revealed activated T cell-specific occupation of CIITA-PIII. Subsequent EMSA analysis of several promoter regions showed differences in banding pattern among activated T cells, naive T cells, primary B cells, and Raji B cells. Activating response element (ARE)-1 is shown to interact with the acute myeloid leukemia 2 transcription factor in nuclear extracts derived from both T and B cells. Interestingly, the acute myeloid leukemia 3 transcription factor was bound in nuclear extracts of T cells only. The ARE-2 sequence is able to bind CREB/activating transcription factor family members in both T and B cells. In addition, a yet unidentified Ets family member was found to interact with site C in activated T cells, whereas in B cells site C was bound by PU.1 and Pip/IFN regulatory factor 4/IFN consensus sequence binding protein for activated T cells. In Jurkat T cells, both ARE-1 and ARE-2 are crucial for CIITA-PIII activity, similar to Raji B cells. The differential banding pattern in in vivo genomic footprinting and transcription factor binding at the ARE-1 and site C between T cells and B cells probably reflects differences in CIITA-PIII activation pathways employed by these cell types. PMID:11777970

  2. Tumour-specific MHC-class-II-restricted responses after in vitro sensitization to synthetic peptides corresponding to gp100 and Annexin II eluted from melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, K; Adibzadeh, M; Halder, T; Kalbacher, H; Heinzel, S; Müller, C; Zeuthen, J; Pawelec, G

    1998-09-01

    In a search for potentially tumour-specific MHC-class-II-restricted antigens, the immunogenicity of endogenous peptides that had been eluted from HLA-DR molecules of the human melanoma cell line FM3 (HLA-DRB1*02x, DRB1*0401) was tested in vitro. Two 16-mers representing gp100 positions 44-59, and annexin II positions 208-223 bound well to isolated DRB1*0401 molecules and are discussed here. HLA-DR-matched normal donors' T cells were cultured with peptide-pulsed artificial antigen-presenting cells (CHO cells cotransfected with genes for HLA-DRB1*0401 and CD80 and coexpressing high levels of both human molecules). Specific sensitization was achieved against both peptides, as measured in assays of autocrine proliferation and interleukin-2 secretion. Moreover, responses to native autologous melanoma cells but not to autologous B cells were also observed. In view of the expression of fas by the activated T cells and of fas ligand by the melanoma cells, blockade of potential fas/ fas-ligand interactions was undertaken using monoclonal antibodies (mAb). The antagonistic fas-specific mAb M3, but not the fas agonist M33, caused a markedly enhanced T cell response to FM3 cells. These results demonstrate that synthetic peptide antigens are able to sensitize T cells in vitro for effective MHC-class-II-restricted recognition of melanoma cells. PMID:9755876

  3. Experimental Validation of Multi-Epitope Peptides Including Promising MHC Class I- and II-Restricted Epitopes of Four Known Leishmania infantum Proteins.

    PubMed

    Agallou, Maria; Athanasiou, Evita; Koutsoni, Olga; Dotsika, Eleni; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a significant worldwide health problem for which no vaccine exists. Activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells is crucial for the generation of protective immunity against parasite. Recent trend in vaccine design has been shifted to epitope-based vaccines that are more specific, safe, and easy to produce. In the present study, four known antigenic Leishmania infantum proteins, cysteine peptidase A (CPA), histone H1, KMP-11, and Leishmania eukaryotic initiation factor (LeIF) were analyzed for the prediction of binding epitopes to H2(d) MHC class I and II molecules, using online available algorithms. Based on in silico analysis, eight peptides including highly scored MHC class I- and II-restricted epitopes were synthesized. Peptide immunogenicity was validated in MHC compatible BALB/c mice immunized with each synthetic peptide emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant/incomplete Freund's adjuvant. CPA_p2, CPA_p3, H1_p1, and LeIF_p6 induced strong spleen cell proliferation upon in vitro peptide re-stimulation. In addition, the majority of the peptides, except of LeIF_p1 and KMP-11_p1, induced IFN-γ secretion, while KMP-11_p1 indicated a suppressive effect on IL-10 production. CPA_p2, CPA_p3, LeIF_p3, and LeIF_p6 induced IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells indicating a TH1-type response. In addition, CPA_p2, CPA_p3, and H1_p1 induced also the induction of CD8(+) T cells. The induction of peptide-specific IgG in immunized mice designated also the existence of B cell epitopes in peptide sequences. Combining immunoinformatic tools and experimental validation, we demonstrated that CPA_p2, CPA_p3, H1_p1, H1_p3, CPA_p2, LeIF_p3, and LeIF_p6 are likely to include potential epitopes for the induction of protective cytotoxic and/or TH1-type immune responses supporting the feasibility of peptide-based vaccine development for leishmaniasis. PMID:24959167

  4. Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A suppresses MHC class II expression by regulating the B-cell transcription factors E47 and PU.1.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiun-Han; Lin, Ju-Yin; Chou, Ya-Ching; Chen, Mei-Ru; Yeh, Te-Huei; Lin, Chung-Wu; Lin, Sue-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Hwa

    2015-04-01

    Oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) uses various approaches to escape host immune responses and persist in B cells. Such persistent infections may provide the opportunity for this virus to initiate tumor formation. Using EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as a model, we found that the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and CD74 in B cells is repressed after EBV infection. Class II transactivator (CIITA) is the master regulator of MHC class II-related genes. As expected, CIITA was downregulated in LCLs. We showed that downregulation of CIITA is caused by EBV latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) and driven by the CIITA-PIII promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that LMP2A-mediated E47 and PU.1 reduction resulted in CIITA suppression. Mechanistically, the LMP2A immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif was critical for the repression of E47 and PU.1 promoter activity via Syk, Src, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Elimination of LMP2A in LCLs using a shLMP2A approach showed that the expression levels of E47, PU.1, CIITA, MHC class II, and CD74 are reversed. These data indicated that the LMP2A may reduce MHC class II expression through interference with the E47/PU.1-CIITA pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that MHC class II may be detected in tonsils and EBV-negative Hodgkin disease but not in EBV-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease and Hodgkin disease.

  5. Salmonella inhibits monocyte differentiation into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells in a MyD88-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Rydström, Anna; Wick, Mary Jo

    2010-05-01

    Monocytes and DCs originate from a shared precursor in the bone marrow, and steady-state DCs in lymphoid organs develop directly from the precursor rather than via a monocyte intermediate. However, monocytes can differentiate into DCs in tissues such as the lung and gut mucosa and into macrophages in most tissues. As Ly6C hi monocytes accumulate in lymphoid organs during oral Salmonella infection, we investigated their ability to develop into potential DCs, identified as CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells, in infected hosts. Ly6C hi monocytes, isolated from the blood of Salmonella-infected mice, developed into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells after culture with GM-CSF or Flt3L. In contrast, the same monocytes cultured in the presence of GM-CSF and heat-killed Salmonella did not differentiate into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells. The bacteria-induced differentiation block was dependent on TLRs, as monocytes from MyD88-/- mice converted into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells even in the presence of bacteria. We hypothesized that Salmonella-activated wild-type monocytes secreted mediators that inhibited differentiation of MyD88-/--derived monocytes. However, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, or IL-12p70 did not account for the inhibition. Finally, monocyte-derived CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells pulsed with OVA peptide or protein did not induce proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells but rather, suppressed the ability of DCs to activate CD4+ T cells. Overall, the data show that Ly6C hi monocytes from Salmonella-infected mice develop into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells with poor antigen-presentation capacity when cultured ex vivo, and that monocyte exposure to Salmonella inhibits their differentiation into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells in a MyD88-dependent fashion.

  6. Direct activation of human dendritic cells by particle-bound but not soluble MHC class II ligand.

    PubMed

    Baleeiro, Renato B; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Dähne, Lars; Lademann, Jürgen; Barbuto, José A; Walden, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key activators of cellular immune responses through their capacity to induce naïve T cells and sustained effector T cell responses. This capacity is a function of their superior efficiency of antigen presentation via MHC class I and class II molecules, and the expression of co-stimulatory cell surface molecules and cytokines. Maturation of DCs is induced by microbial factors via pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors, pro-inflammatory cytokines or cognate interaction with CD4(+) T cells. Here we show that, unexpectedly, the PanDR helper T cell epitope PADRE, a generic T helper cell antigen presented by a large fraction of HLA-DR alleles, when delivered in particle-bound form induced maturation of human DCs. The DCs that received the particle-bound PADRE displayed all features of fully mature DCs, such as high expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, CD83, the MHC-II molecule HLA-DR, secretion of high levels of the biologically active IL-12 (IL-12p70) and induction of vigorous proliferation of naïve CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, the maturation of DCs induced by particle-bound PADRE was shown to involve sphingosine kinase, calcium signaling from internal sources and downstream signaling through the MAP kinase and the p72syk pathways, and finally activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Based on our findings, we propose that particle-bound PADRE may be used as a DC activator in DC-based vaccines.

  7. Trans-species polymorphism of the Mhc class II DRB-like gene in banded penguins (genus Spheniscus).

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Eri F; Tsuda, Tomi T; Sumiyama, Daisuke; Naruse, Taeko K; Fukuda, Michio; Kurita, Masanori; Wilson, Rory P; LeMaho, Yvon; Miller, Gary D; Tsuda, Michio; Murata, Koichi; Kulski, Jerzy K; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2009-05-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (Mhc) class II DRB locus of vertebrates is highly polymorphic and some alleles may be shared between closely related species as a result of balancing selection in association with resistance to parasites. In this study, we developed a new set of PCR primers to amplify, clone, and sequence overlapping portions of the Mhc class II DRB-like gene from the 5'UTR end to intron 3, including exons 1, 2, and 3 and introns 1 and 2 in four species (20 Humboldt, six African, five Magellanic, and three Galapagos penguins) of penguin from the genus Spheniscus (Sphe). Analysis of gene sequence variation by the neighbor-joining method of 21 Sphe sequences and 20 previously published sequences from four other penguin species revealed overlapping clades within the Sphe species, but species-specific clades for the other penguin species. The overlap of the DRB-like gene sequence variants between the four Sphe species suggests that, despite their allopatric distribution, the Sphe species are closely related and that some shared DRB1 alleles may have undergone a trans-species inheritance because of balancing selection and/or recent rapid speciation. The new primers and PCR assays that we have developed for the identification of the DRB1 DNA and protein sequence variations appear to be useful for the characterization of the molecular evolution of the gene in closely related Penguin species and might be helpful for the assessment of the genetic health and the management of the conservation and captivity of these endangered species.

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitors activate CIITA and MHC class II antigen expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Cycon, Kelly A; Mulvaney, Kathleen; Rimsza, Lisa M; Persky, Daniel; Murphy, Shawn P

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) diagnosed in the USA, consists of at least two distinct subtypes: germinal centre B (GCB) and activated B-cell (ABC). Decreased MHC class II (MHCII) expression on the tumours in both DLBCL subtypes directly correlates with significant decreases in patient survival. One common mechanism accounting for MHCII down-regulation in DLBCL is reduced expression of the MHC class II transactivator (CIITA), the master regulator of MHCII transcription. Furthermore, reduced CIITA expression in ABC DLBCL correlates with the presence of the transcriptional repressor positive regulatory domain-I-binding factor-1 (PRDI-BF1). However, the mechanisms underlying down-regulation of CIITA in GCB DLBCL are currently unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that neither PRDI-BF1 nor CpG hypermethylation at the CIITA promoters are responsible for decreased CIITA in GCB DLBCL. In contrast, histone modifications associated with an open chromatin conformation and active transcription were significantly lower at the CIITA promoters in CIITA− GCB cells compared with CIITA+ B cells, which suggests that epigenetic mechanisms contribute to repression of CIITA transcription. Treatment of CIITA− or CIITAlow GCB cells with several different histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) activated modest CIITA and MHCII expression. However, CIITA and MHCII levels were significantly higher in these cells after exposure to the HDAC-1-specific inhibitor MS-275. These results suggest that CIITA transcription is repressed in GCB DLBCL cells through epigenetic mechanisms involving HDACs, and that HDACi treatment can alleviate repression. These observations may have important implications for patient therapy. PMID:23789844

  9. Design of a ProDer f 1 vaccine delivered by the MHC class II pathway of antigen presentation and analysis of the effectiveness for specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiming; Jiang, Yuxin; Li, Chaopin

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1) is one of leading cause for allergic asthma, and allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is currently recognized as the only etiological therapy to ameliorate asthmatic symptom. The current study was designed on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II pathway, invariant chain (Ii)-segment hybrids as vaccine basis to explore the efficacy of Der f 1 hybrid vaccine by virtue of Ii as carrier in enhancing the protective immune response to asthma. Initially, we engineered a fused molecule, DCP-IhC-ProDer f 1, to deliver ProDer f 1 antigen via specific dendritic cell-targeting peptides to dendritic cells (DCs). Then the DCP-IhC-ProDer f 1 was immunized to the asthmatic models of murine induced by ProDer f 1 allergen. The findings showed that the cytokine repertoire in the murine model was shifted after SIT, including stronger secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10, and a decreased production of IL-4 and IL-17. ELISA determination revealed that the hybrid displayed weak IgE and IgG1 reactivities, and IgG2a levels were elevated. Furthermore, DCP-IhC-ProDer f 1 treatment inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissues. Our results suggest that the DCP-Ihc-ProDer f 1 may be used as a candidate SIT against asthma. PMID:25197336

  10. CD40-induced aggregation of MHC class II and CD80 on the cell surface leads to an early enhancement in antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Clatza, Abigail; Bonifaz, Laura C; Vignali, Dario A A; Moreno, José

    2003-12-15

    Ligation of CD40 on B cells increases their ability to present Ag and to activate MHC class II (MHC-II)-restricted T cells. How this occurs is not entirely clear. In this study we demonstrate that CD40 ligation on Ag-presenting B cells (APC) for a short period between 30 min and 3 h has a rapid, augmenting effect on the ability of a B cell line and normal B cells to activate T cells. This is not due to alterations in Ag processing or to an increase in surface expression of CD80, CD86, ICAM-1, or MHC-II. This effect is particularly evident with naive, resting T lymphocytes and appears to be more pronounced under limiting Ag concentrations. Shortly after CD40 ligation on a B cell line, MHC-II and CD80 progressively accumulated in cholesterol-enriched microdomains on the cell surface, which correlated with an initial enhancement in their Ag presentation ability. Moreover, CD40 ligation induced a second, late, more sustained enhancement of Ag presentation, which correlates with a significant increase in CD80 expression by APC. Thus, CD40 signaling enhances the efficiency with which APC activate T cells by at least two related, but distinct, mechanisms: an early stage characterized by aggregation of MHC-II and CD80 clusters, and a late stage in which a significant increase in CD80 expression is observed. These results raise the possibility that one important role of CD40 is to contribute to the formation of the immunological synapse on the APC side.

  11. MHC and Evolution in Teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Grimholt, Unni

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are key players in initiating immune responses towards invading pathogens. Both MHC class I and class II genes are present in teleosts, and, using phylogenetic clustering, sequences from both classes have been classified into various lineages. The polymorphic and classical MHC class I and class II gene sequences belong to the U and A lineages, respectively. The remaining class I and class II lineages contain nonclassical gene sequences that, despite their non-orthologous nature, may still hold functions similar to their mammalian nonclassical counterparts. However, the fact that several of these nonclassical lineages are only present in some teleost species is puzzling and questions their functional importance. The number of genes within each lineage greatly varies between teleost species. At least some gene expansions seem reasonable, such as the huge MHC class I expansion in Atlantic cod that most likely compensates for the lack of MHC class II and CD4. The evolutionary trigger for similar MHC class I expansions in tilapia, for example, which has a functional MHC class II, is not so apparent. Future studies will provide us with a more detailed understanding in particular of nonclassical MHC gene functions. PMID:26797646

  12. Selective pressures on MHC class II genes in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as inferred by hierarchical analysis of population structure.

    PubMed

    Herdegen, M; Babik, W; Radwan, J

    2014-11-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex, which are the most polymorphic of all vertebrate genes, are a pre-eminent system for the study of selective pressures that arise from host-pathogen interactions. Balancing selection capable of maintaining high polymorphism should lead to the homogenization of MHC allele frequencies among populations, but there is some evidence to suggest that diversifying selection also operates on the MHC. However, the pattern of population structure observed at MHC loci is likely to depend on the spatial and/or temporal scale examined. Here, we investigated selection acting on MHC genes at different geographic scales using Venezuelan guppy populations inhabiting four regions. We found a significant correlation between MHC and microsatellite allelic richness across populations, which suggests the role of genetic drift in shaping MHC diversity. However, compared to microsatellites, more MHC variation was explained by differences between populations within larger geographic regions and less by the differences between the regions. Furthermore, among proximate populations, variation in MHC allele frequencies was significantly higher compared to microsatellites, indicating that selection acting on MHC may increase population structure at small spatial scales. However, in populations that have significantly diverged at neutral markers, the population-genetic signature of diversifying selection may be eradicated in the long term by that of balancing selection, which acts to preserve rare alleles and thus maintain a common pool of MHC alleles.

  13. Selective modulation of MHC class II chaperons by a novel IFN-γ-inducible class II transactivator variant in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Bau-Lin; Li, Chia-Hsuan; Chang, Chien-Chung

    2013-10-11

    Class II transactivator (CIITA) plays a critical role in controlling major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene expression. In this study, two novel alternatively spliced variants of human interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible CIITA, one missing exon 7 (CIITAΔE7), the other with TAG inserted at exon 4/5 junction (CIITA-TAG), were identified and characterized. Both variants are naturally occurring since they are present in primary cells. Unlike CIITA-TAG, CIITAΔE7 is expressed more abundantly in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells than in the non-transformed counterpart BEAS-2B cells following IFN-γ stimulation. Transfection experiments showed that CIITAΔE7 induced a markedly lower level of surface HLA-DR, -DP, -DQ expression than CIITA-TAG in A549 cells but not in BEAS-2B cells, although both variants elicited similar amounts of total DR, DP, and DQ proteins. This differential effect was correlated with, in A549 cells, decreased expression of Ii and HLA-DM genes, along with increased expression of HLA-DO genes. Ii and HLA-DM are chaperons assisting in HLA class II assembly, while HLA-DO functions to inhibit endosomal peptide loading and HLA class II membrane transport. These findings raise the possibility that CIITAΔE7 interacts with unknown cancer-associated factors to selectively modulate genes involved in the assembly and transport of HLA class II molecules.

  14. Transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide in MHC Class II Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Tom Li; Fabri, Mario; Groneck, Laura; Röhn, Till A; Hafke, Helena; Robinson, Nirmal; Rietdorf, Jens; Schrama, David; Becker, Jürgen C; Plum, Georg; Krönke, Martin; Kropshofer, Harald; Kalka-Moll, Wiltrud M

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are virulence factors and are considered T cell–independent antigens. However, the capsular polysaccharide Sp1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 has been shown to activate CD4+ T cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II–dependent manner. The mechanism of carbohydrate presentation to CD4+ T cells is unknown. We show in live murine dendritic cells (DCs) that Sp1 translocates from lysosomal compartments to the plasma membrane in MHCII-positive tubules. Sp1 cell surface presentation results in reduction of self-peptide presentation without alteration of the MHCII self peptide repertoire. In DM-deficient mice, retrograde transport of Sp1/MHCII complexes resulting in T cell–dependent immune responses to the polysaccharide in vitro and in vivo is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate the capacity of a bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen to use DC tubules as a vehicle for its transport as an MHCII/saccharide complex to the cell surface for the induction of T cell activation. Furthermore, retrograde transport requires the functional role of DM in self peptide–carbohydrate exchange. These observations open new opportunities for the design of vaccines against microbial encapsulated pathogens. PMID:17367207

  15. An MHC class II restriction bias to I-A in CD4 T cell responses is altered to I-E in DM-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Menges, Paula R.; Jenks, Scott A.; Bikoff, Elizabeth K.; Friedmann, David R.; Knowlden, Zackery A. G.; Sant, Andrea J.

    2010-01-01

    The MHC-encoded cofactor DM, catalyzes endosomal loading of peptides onto MHC class II molecules. Despite evidence from in vitro experiments that DM acts to selectively edit the repertoire of class II:peptide complexes, the consequence of DM expression in vivo, or a predictive pattern of DM activity in the specificity of CD4 T cell responses has remained unresolved. Therefore, to characterize DM function in vivo we utilized wild type (WT) or DM-deficient (DM−/−) mice of the H-2d MHC haplotype and tested the hypothesis that DM promotes narrowing of the repertoire of class II:peptide complexes displayed by APC, leading to a correspondingly selective CD4 T cell response. Surprisingly, our results indicated that DM−/− mice do not exhibit a broadened CD4 T cell response relative to WT mice, but rather shift their immunodominance pattern to new peptides, a pattern associated with a change in class II isotype-restriction. Specifically, we found that CD4 T cell responses in WT mice were primarily restricted to the I-A class II molecule, while DM−/− mice recognize peptides in the context of I-E. The observed shift in isotype-restriction appeared to be due in part to a modification in the peripheral CD4 T cell repertoire available for peptide recognition. PMID:18209058

  16. The diabetogenic mouse MHC class II molecule I-A[subscript g7] is endowed with a switch that modulates TCR affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kenji; Corper, Adam L.; Herro, Rana; Jabri, Bana; Wilson, Ian A.; Teyton, Luc

    2011-11-16

    Genetic susceptibility to autoimmunity is frequently associated with specific MHC alleles. Diabetogenic MHC class II molecules, such as human HLA-DQ8 and mouse I-A{sub g7}, typically have a small, uncharged amino acid residue at position 57 of their {beta} chain ({beta}57); this results in the absence of a salt bridge between {beta}57 and Arg{alpha}76, which is adjacent to the P9 pocket of the peptide-binding groove. However, the influence of Arg{alpha}76 on the selection of the TCR repertoire remains unknown, particularly when the MHC molecule binds a peptide with a neutral amino acid residue at position P9. Here, we have shown that diabetogenic MHC class II molecules bound to a peptide with a neutral P9 residue primarily selected and expanded cells expressing TCRs bearing a negatively charged residue in the first segment of their complementarity determining region 3{beta}. The crystal structure of one such TCR in complex with I-A{sub g7} bound to a peptide containing a neutral P9 residue revealed that a network of favorable long-range (greater than 4 {angstrom}) electrostatic interactions existed among Arg{alpha}76, the neutral P9 residue, and TCR, which supported the substantially increased TCR/peptide-MHC affinity. This network could be modulated or switched to a lower affinity interaction by the introduction of a negative charge at position P9 of the peptide. Our results support the existence of a switch at residue {beta}57 of the I-Ag7 and HLA-DQ8 class II molecules and potentially link normal thymic TCR selection with abnormal peripheral behavior.

  17. The diabetogenic mouse MHC class II molecule I-A[superscript g7] is endowed with a switch that modulates TCR affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kenji; Corper, Adam L.; Herro, Rana; Jabri, Bana; Wilson, Ian A.; Teyton, Luc

    2010-07-22

    Genetic susceptibility to autoimmunity is frequently associated with specific MHC alleles. Diabetogenic MHC class II molecules, such as human HLA-DQ8 and mouse I-A{sup g7}, typically have a small, uncharged amino acid residue at position 57 of their {beta} chain ({beta}57); this results in the absence of a salt bridge between {beta}57 and Arg{alpha}76, which is adjacent to the P9 pocket of the peptide-binding groove. However, the influence of Arg{alpha}76 on the selection of the TCR repertoire remains unknown, particularly when the MHC molecule binds a peptide with a neutral amino acid residue at position P9. Here, we have shown that diabetogenic MHC class II molecules bound to a peptide with a neutral P9 residue primarily selected and expanded cells expressing TCRs bearing a negatively charged residue in the first segment of their complementarity determining region 3{beta}. The crystal structure of one such TCR in complex with I-Ag7 bound to a peptide containing a neutral P9 residue revealed that a network of favorable long-range (greater than 4 {angstrom}) electrostatic interactions existed among Arg{alpha}76, the neutral P9 residue, and TCR, which supported the substantially increased TCR/peptide-MHC affinity. This network could be modulated or switched to a lower affinity interaction by the introduction of a negative charge at position P9 of the peptide. Our results support the existence of a switch at residue {beta}57 of the I-A{sup g7} and HLA-DQ8 class II molecules and potentially link normal thymic TCR selection with abnormal peripheral behavior.

  18. Naturally processed HLA class II peptides reveal highly conserved immunogenic flanking region sequence preferences that reflect antigen processing rather than peptide-MHC interactions.

    PubMed

    Godkin, A J; Smith, K J; Willis, A; Tejada-Simon, M V; Zhang, J; Elliott, T; Hill, A V

    2001-06-01

    MHC class II heterodimers bind peptides 12-20 aa in length. The peptide flanking residues (PFRs) of these ligands extend from a central binding core consisting of nine amino acids. Increasing evidence suggests that the PFRs can alter the immunogenicity of T cell epitopes. We have previously noted that eluted peptide pool sequence data derived from an MHC class II Ag reflect patterns of enrichment not only in the core binding region but also in the PFRS: We sought to distinguish whether these enrichments reflect cellular processes or direct MHC-peptide interactions. Using the multiple sclerosis-associated allele HLA-DR2, pool sequence data from naturally processed ligands were compared with the patterns of enrichment obtained by binding semicombinatorial peptide libraries to empty HLA-DR2 molecules. Naturally processed ligands revealed patterns of enrichment reflecting both the binding motif of HLA-DR2 (position (P)1, aliphatic; P4, bulky hydrophobic; and P6, polar) as well as the nonbound flanking regions, including acidic residues at the N terminus and basic residues at the C terminus. These PFR enrichments were independent of MHC-peptide interactions. Further studies revealed similar patterns in nine other HLA alleles, with the C-terminal basic residues being as highly conserved as the previously described N-terminal prolines of MHC class II ligands. There is evidence that addition of C-terminal basic PFRs to known peptide epitopes is able to enhance both processing as well as T cell activation. Recognition of these allele-transcending patterns in the PFRs may prove useful in epitope identification and vaccine design.

  19. Autophagy proteins in antigen processing for presentation on MHC molecules.

    PubMed

    Münz, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Autophagy describes catabolic pathways that deliver cytoplasmic constituents for lysosomal degradation. Since major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules sample protein degradation products and present them to T cells for adaptive immunity, it is maybe not too surprising that autophagy contributes to this protein antigen processing for MHC presentation. However, the recently recognized breath of pathways, by which autophagy contributes to MHC antigen processing, is exciting. Macroautophagy does not only seem to deliver intracellular but facilitates also extracellular antigen processing by lysosomal hydrolysis for MHC class II presentation. Moreover, even MHC class I molecules that usually display proteasomal products are regulated by macroautophagy, probably using a pool of these molecules outside the endoplasmic reticulum, where MHC class I molecules are loaded with peptide during canonical MHC class I antigen processing. This review aims to summarize these recent developments and point out gaps of knowledge, which should be filled by further investigation, in order to harness the different antigen-processing pathways via autophagy for vaccine improvement. PMID:27319339

  20. Ligation of MHC class I and class II molecules can lead to heterologous desensitization of signal transduction pathways that regulate homotypic adhesion in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, N; Engel, P; Vega, M; Tedder, T F

    1994-06-01

    Engagement of lymphocyte MHC class I and class II Ags activates an array of intracellular signal transduction pathways that up-regulates the activity of cell-surface adhesion receptors, resulting in homotypic cell-cell aggregation. In this study, engagement of MHC class I and class II molecules with specific mAbs was shown to also inhibit lymphocyte homotypic adhesion. Two mAbs reactive with class II Ag, homotypic adhesion blocking mAb (HAB)-2, and HAB-3, and one mAb reactive with class I Ag, HAB-4, were generated that inhibited homotypic adhesion of activated lymphocytes and B and T cell lines at concentrations as low as 0.1 microgram/ml. Binding of these mAbs resulted in heterologous desensitization of other surface signal transduction molecules as homotypic adhesion induced through class I, class II, CD19, CD20, CD39, CD40, Leu-13, and PMA was also inhibited. The spontaneous adhesion exhibited by some cell lines was also abrogated by binding of these mAbs. Abs that either induced, blocked, or had no effect on adhesion bound to distinct epitopes on class I, whereas the anti-class II mAbs recognized either distinct or overlapping epitopes. Thus, engagement of distinct epitopes on MHC molecules can result in homologous or heterologous desensitization of cell-surface signaling molecules. The induction or inhibition of homotypic adhesion through class I molecules did not require the presence of the cytoplasmic domain, as deletion of this portion of the class I molecule had no effect. In contrast, the transmembrane region was essential for signal transduction as the mAbs binding to a chimeric molecule in which the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of class I were exchanged with those of the HB15 molecule did not induce or inhibit homotypic adhesion. Although this report is the first demonstration that homotypic adhesion can be influenced in a negative manner through MHC molecules, these findings demonstrate a considerable level of cross-talk between MHC molecules

  1. FOXP1 suppresses immune response signatures and MHC class II expression in activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Brown, P J; Wong, K K; Felce, S L; Lyne, L; Spearman, H; Soilleux, E J; Pedersen, L M; Møller, M B; Green, T M; Gascoyne, D M; Banham, A H

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP1 (forkhead box P1) transcription factor is a marker of poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here microarray analysis of FOXP1-silenced DLBCL cell lines identified differential regulation of immune response signatures and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) genes as some of the most significant differences between germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like DLBCL with full-length FOXP1 protein expression versus activated B-cell (ABC)-like DLBCL expressing predominantly short FOXP1 isoforms. In an independent primary DLBCL microarray data set, multiple MHC II genes, including human leukocyte antigen DR alpha chain (HLA-DRA), were inversely correlated with FOXP1 transcript expression (P<0.05). FOXP1 knockdown in ABC-DLBCL cells led to increased cell-surface expression of HLA-DRA and CD74. In R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone)-treated DLBCL patients (n=150), reduced HLA-DRA (<90% frequency) expression correlated with inferior overall survival (P=0.0003) and progression-free survival (P=0.0012) and with non-GCB subtype stratified by the Hans, Choi or Visco–Young algorithms (all P<0.01). In non-GCB DLBCL cases with <90% HLA-DRA, there was an inverse correlation with the frequency (P=0.0456) and intensity (P=0.0349) of FOXP1 expression. We propose that FOXP1 represents a novel regulator of genes targeted by the class II MHC transactivator CIITA (MHC II and CD74) and therapeutically targeting the FOXP1 pathway may improve antigen presentation and immune surveillance in high-risk DLBCL patients. PMID:26500140

  2. De novo-developed antibodies to donor MHC antigens lead to dysregulation of microRNAs and induction of MHC class II.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongping; Nayak, Deepak K; Benshoff, Nicholas; Hachem, Ramsey; Gelman, Andrew E; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour

    2015-06-15

    Immune responses to HLA and development of anti-donor HLA (DSA) were shown to play a role in chronic rejection following transplantation. We hypothesized that Abs to MHC change microRNAs (miRNAs), leading to chronic lung allograft rejection. Microarray analysis was performed in a murine model of anti-MHC-induced obliterative airway disease (OAD), a correlate of obliterative bronchiolitis. A unique profile of dysregulated miRNAs was detected in OAD mice on days 7 and 15 after Ab administration compared with control. Sixty-seven miRNAs were increased and 42 miRNAs were decreased in OAD mice on day 7. In addition, 15 miRNAs were overexpressed and 16 miRNAs were underexpressed in OAD mice on day 15. The expression of miR-16 and miR-195 was significantly decreased in lungs of OAD mice, as assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, with increases in H-2 Aa and H-2 Dma mRNA levels. Significant reductions in miR-16 and miR-195 levels were also noted in lung transplant (LTx) patients with DSA compared with LTx patients without DSA. Bioinformatic TargetScan and reporter assays identified the binding of miR-16 and miR-195 to the 3'-untranslated region of regulatory factor X 5. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry indicated posttranscriptional increases in regulatory factor X 5 mRNA and protein expression in OAD mice, as well as in LTx recipients with DSA, which was associated with increased expression of HLA-DPA1, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DRA mRNA. Therefore, our results demonstrated that miRNAs induced by alloimmunity may play important roles in chronic rejection after LTx. PMID:25941328

  3. Molecular characterization of three Mhc class II B haplotypes in the ring-necked pheasant.

    PubMed

    Wittzell, H; von Schantz, T; Zoorob, R; Auffray, C

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the class II B genes in a free-ranging population of the ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus by a combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and DNA sequencing. Special attention was paid to the variation in the second exon, which encodes the peptide-binding beta 1-domain. The population was introduced, but it still exhibited major histocompatibility complex polymorphism with at least three segregating class II B haplotypes and consequently six genotypes. We found two class II B genes associated with each haplotype. The class II B genes of birds had until then only been molecularly characterized in the domestic chicken. The pheasant genes were highly variable, although one of the amplified sequences was found in two different haplotypes. Taken together, the most polymorphic positions (residues 37 and 38) were not identical in any of the predicted protein sequences, but all except one of the motifs had already been found in the domestic chicken. Structurally important features in mammalian class II B genes were generally conserved also in the pheasant sequences, but the loss of a potential salt bridge constituent (Arg72) in several sequences may suggest a slightly different structure of the adjacent parts of the peptide-binding groove. The pheasant genes are most closely related to the so called B-LBII family in the chicken, indicating that this represents a major line of development among avian class II B genes.

  4. Multiple parasites mediate balancing selection at two MHC class II genes in the fossorial water vole: insights from multivariate analyses and population genetics.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, C; Bryja, J; Galan, M; Cadet, P; Deter, J; Chaval, Y; Berthier, K; Ribas Salvador, A; Voutilainen, L; Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the factors mediating selection acting on two MHC class II genes (DQA and DRB) in water vole (Arvicola scherman) natural populations in the French Jura Mountains. Population genetics showed significant homogeneity in allelic frequencies at the DQA1 locus as opposed to neutral markers (nine microsatellites), indicating balancing selection acting on this gene. Moreover, almost exhaustive screening for parasites, including gastrointestinal helminths, brain coccidia and antibodies against viruses responsible for zoonoses, was carried out. We applied a co-inertia approach to the genetic and parasitological data sets to avoid statistical problems related to multiple testing. Two alleles, Arte-DRB-11 and Arte-DRB-15, displayed antagonistic associations with the nematode Trichuris arvicolae, revealing the potential parasite-mediated selection acting on DRB locus. Selection mechanisms acting on the two MHC class II genes thus appeared different. Moreover, overdominance as balancing selection mechanism was showed highly unlikely in this system. PMID:18624885

  5. Multiple parasites mediate balancing selection at two MHC class II genes in the fossorial water vole: insights from multivariate analyses and population genetics.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, C; Bryja, J; Galan, M; Cadet, P; Deter, J; Chaval, Y; Berthier, K; Ribas Salvador, A; Voutilainen, L; Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the factors mediating selection acting on two MHC class II genes (DQA and DRB) in water vole (Arvicola scherman) natural populations in the French Jura Mountains. Population genetics showed significant homogeneity in allelic frequencies at the DQA1 locus as opposed to neutral markers (nine microsatellites), indicating balancing selection acting on this gene. Moreover, almost exhaustive screening for parasites, including gastrointestinal helminths, brain coccidia and antibodies against viruses responsible for zoonoses, was carried out. We applied a co-inertia approach to the genetic and parasitological data sets to avoid statistical problems related to multiple testing. Two alleles, Arte-DRB-11 and Arte-DRB-15, displayed antagonistic associations with the nematode Trichuris arvicolae, revealing the potential parasite-mediated selection acting on DRB locus. Selection mechanisms acting on the two MHC class II genes thus appeared different. Moreover, overdominance as balancing selection mechanism was showed highly unlikely in this system.

  6. HLA-G and MHC Class II Protein Expression in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Bojo, Marcin; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Anna; Jabłońska, Joanna; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Kordek, Radzisław; Młynarski, Wojciech; Robak, Tadeusz; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Lech-Maranda, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    The expression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) and HLA class II protein was studied by immunohistochemical staining of lymph nodes from 148 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and related to the clinical course of the disease. Negative HLA-G expression was associated with a lower probability of achieving a complete remission (p = 0.04). Patients with negative HLA-G expression tended towards a lower 3-year overall survival (OS) rate compared to those with positive expression of HLA-G (p = 0.08). When restricting the analysis to patients receiving chemotherapy with rituximab, the estimated 3-year OS rate of patients with positive HLA-G expression was 73.3 % compared with 47.5 % (p = 0.03) in those with negative expression. Patients with negative HLA class II expression presented a lower 3-year OS rate compared to subjects with positive expression (p = 0.04). The loss of HLA class II expression (p = 0.05) and belonging to the intermediate high/high IPI risk group (p = 0.001) independently increased the risk of death. HLA class II expression also retained its prognostic value in patients receiving rituximab; the 3-year OS rate was 65.3 % in patients with positive HLA class II expression versus 29.6 % (p = 0.04) in subjects that had loss of HLA class II expression. To our knowledge, for the first time, the expression of HLA-G protein in DLBCL and its association with the clinical course of the disease was demonstrated. Moreover, the link between losing HLA class II protein expression and poor survival of patients treated with immunochemotherapy was confirmed.

  7. Genetic Variation at Exon 2 of the MHC Class II DQB Locus in Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) from the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Santillán, Diana D; Lacey, Eileen A; Gendron, Diane; Ortega, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) play an important role in the vertebrate immune response and are among the most polymorphic genes known in vertebrates. In some marine mammals, MHC genes have been shown to be characterized by low levels of polymorphism compared to terrestrial taxa; this reduction in variation is often explained as a result of lower pathogen pressures in marine habitats. To determine if this same reduction in variation applies to the migratory population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) that occurs in the Gulf of California, we genotyped a 172 bp fragment of exon 2 of the MHC Class II DQB locus for 80 members of this population. Twenty-two putatively functional DQB allotypes were identified, all of which were homologous with DQB sequences from other cetacean species. Up to 5 putative alleles per individual were identified, suggesting that gene duplication has occurred at this locus. Rates of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (ω) and maximum likelihood analyses of models of nucleotide variation provided potential evidence of ongoing positive selection at this exon. Phylogenetic analyses of DQB alleles from B. musculus and 16 other species of cetaceans revealed trans-specific conservation of MHC variants, suggesting that selection has acted on this locus over prolonged periods of time. Collectively our findings reveal that immunogenic variation in blue whales is comparable to that in terrestrial mammals, thereby providing no evidence that marine taxa are subject to reduced pathogen-induced selective pressures. PMID:26761201

  8. Drift Rather than Selection Dominates MHC Class II Allelic Diversity Patterns at the Biogeographical Range Scale in Natterjack Toads Bufo calamita

    PubMed Central

    Zeisset, Inga; Beebee, Trevor J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci has gained great popularity in recent years, partly due to their function in protecting vertebrates from infections. This is of particular interest in amphibians on account of major threats many species face from emergent diseases such as chytridiomycosis. In this study we compare levels of diversity in an expressed MHC class II locus with neutral genetic diversity at microsatellite loci in natterjack toad (Bufo (Epidalea) calamita) populations across the whole of the species’ biogeographical range. Variation at both classes of loci was high in the glacial refugium areas (REF) and much lower in postglacial expansion areas (PGE), especially in range edge populations. Although there was clear evidence that the MHC locus was influenced by positive selection in the past, congruence with the neutral markers suggested that historical demographic events were the main force shaping MHC variation in the PGE area. Both neutral and adaptive genetic variation declined with distance from glacial refugia. Nevertheless, there were also some indications from differential isolation by distance and allele abundance patterns that weak effects of selection have been superimposed on the main drift effect in the PGE zone. PMID:24937211

  9. Genetic Variation at Exon 2 of the MHC Class II DQB Locus in Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) from the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Santillán, Diana D; Lacey, Eileen A; Gendron, Diane; Ortega, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) play an important role in the vertebrate immune response and are among the most polymorphic genes known in vertebrates. In some marine mammals, MHC genes have been shown to be characterized by low levels of polymorphism compared to terrestrial taxa; this reduction in variation is often explained as a result of lower pathogen pressures in marine habitats. To determine if this same reduction in variation applies to the migratory population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) that occurs in the Gulf of California, we genotyped a 172 bp fragment of exon 2 of the MHC Class II DQB locus for 80 members of this population. Twenty-two putatively functional DQB allotypes were identified, all of which were homologous with DQB sequences from other cetacean species. Up to 5 putative alleles per individual were identified, suggesting that gene duplication has occurred at this locus. Rates of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (ω) and maximum likelihood analyses of models of nucleotide variation provided potential evidence of ongoing positive selection at this exon. Phylogenetic analyses of DQB alleles from B. musculus and 16 other species of cetaceans revealed trans-specific conservation of MHC variants, suggesting that selection has acted on this locus over prolonged periods of time. Collectively our findings reveal that immunogenic variation in blue whales is comparable to that in terrestrial mammals, thereby providing no evidence that marine taxa are subject to reduced pathogen-induced selective pressures.

  10. Genetic variation of the MHC class II DRB genes in the Japanese weasel, Mustela itatsi, endemic to Japan, compared with the Siberian weasel, Mustela sibirica.

    PubMed

    Nishita, Y; Abramov, A V; Kosintsev, P A; Lin, L-K; Watanabe, S; Yamazaki, K; Kaneko, Y; Masuda, R

    2015-12-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins that play a critical role in vertebrate immune system and are highly polymorphic. To further understand the molecular evolution of the MHC genes, we compared MHC class II DRB genes between the Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi), a species endemic to Japan, and the Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), a closely related species on the continent. We sequenced a 242-bp region of DRB exon 2, which encodes antigen-binding sites (ABS), and found 24 alleles from 31 M. itatsi individuals and 17 alleles from 21 M. sibirica individuals, including broadly distributed, species-specific and/or geographically restricted alleles. Our results suggest that pathogen-driven balancing selection have acted to maintain the diversity in the DRB genes. For predicted ABS, nonsynonymous substitutions exceeded synonymous substitutions, also indicating positive selection, which was not seen at non-ABS. In a Bayesian phylogenetic tree, two M. sibirica DRB alleles were basal to the rest of the sequences from mustelid species and may represent ancestral alleles. Trans-species polymorphism was evident between many mustelid DRB alleles, especially between M. itatsi and M. sibirica. These two Mustela species divided about 1.7 million years ago, but still share many MHC alleles, indicative of their close phylogenetic relationship.

  11. Genetic Variation at Exon 2 of the MHC Class II DQB Locus in Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) from the Gulf of California

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Santillán, Diana D.; Lacey, Eileen A.; Gendron, Diane; Ortega, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) play an important role in the vertebrate immune response and are among the most polymorphic genes known in vertebrates. In some marine mammals, MHC genes have been shown to be characterized by low levels of polymorphism compared to terrestrial taxa; this reduction in variation is often explained as a result of lower pathogen pressures in marine habitats. To determine if this same reduction in variation applies to the migratory population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) that occurs in the Gulf of California, we genotyped a 172 bp fragment of exon 2 of the MHC Class II DQB locus for 80 members of this population. Twenty-two putatively functional DQB allotypes were identified, all of which were homologous with DQB sequences from other cetacean species. Up to 5 putative alleles per individual were identified, suggesting that gene duplication has occurred at this locus. Rates of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (ω) and maximum likelihood analyses of models of nucleotide variation provided potential evidence of ongoing positive selection at this exon. Phylogenetic analyses of DQB alleles from B. musculus and 16 other species of cetaceans revealed trans-specific conservation of MHC variants, suggesting that selection has acted on this locus over prolonged periods of time. Collectively our findings reveal that immunogenic variation in blue whales is comparable to that in terrestrial mammals, thereby providing no evidence that marine taxa are subject to reduced pathogen-induced selective pressures. PMID:26761201

  12. Genetic variation of the MHC class II DRB genes in the Japanese weasel, Mustela itatsi, endemic to Japan, compared with the Siberian weasel, Mustela sibirica.

    PubMed

    Nishita, Y; Abramov, A V; Kosintsev, P A; Lin, L-K; Watanabe, S; Yamazaki, K; Kaneko, Y; Masuda, R

    2015-12-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins that play a critical role in vertebrate immune system and are highly polymorphic. To further understand the molecular evolution of the MHC genes, we compared MHC class II DRB genes between the Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi), a species endemic to Japan, and the Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), a closely related species on the continent. We sequenced a 242-bp region of DRB exon 2, which encodes antigen-binding sites (ABS), and found 24 alleles from 31 M. itatsi individuals and 17 alleles from 21 M. sibirica individuals, including broadly distributed, species-specific and/or geographically restricted alleles. Our results suggest that pathogen-driven balancing selection have acted to maintain the diversity in the DRB genes. For predicted ABS, nonsynonymous substitutions exceeded synonymous substitutions, also indicating positive selection, which was not seen at non-ABS. In a Bayesian phylogenetic tree, two M. sibirica DRB alleles were basal to the rest of the sequences from mustelid species and may represent ancestral alleles. Trans-species polymorphism was evident between many mustelid DRB alleles, especially between M. itatsi and M. sibirica. These two Mustela species divided about 1.7 million years ago, but still share many MHC alleles, indicative of their close phylogenetic relationship. PMID:26593752

  13. CD4+ T cells eliminate MHC class II-negative cancer cells in vivo by indirect effects of IFN-γ

    PubMed Central

    Mumberg, Dominik; Monach, Paul A.; Wanderling, Sherry; Philip, Mary; Toledano, Alicia Y.; Schreiber, Robert D.; Schreiber, Hans

    1999-01-01

    CD4+ T cells can eliminate tumor cells in vivo in the absence of CD8+ T cells. We have CD4+ T cells specific for a MHC class II-restricted, tumor-specific peptide derived from a mutant ribosomal protein expressed by the UV light-induced tumor 6132A-PRO. By using neutralizing mAb specific for murine IFN-γ and adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells into severe combined immunodeficient mice, we show that anti-IFN-γ treatment abolishes the CD4+ T cell-mediated rejection of the tumor cells in vivo. The tumor cells were MHC class II negative, and IFN-γ did not induce MHC class II expression in vitro. Therefore, the tumor-specific antigenic peptide must be presented by host cells and not the tumor cells. Tumor cells transduced to secrete IFN-γ had a markedly reduced growth rate in severe combined immunodeficient mice, but IFN-γ did not inhibit the growth of the tumor cells in vitro. Furthermore, tumor cells stably expressing a dominant-negative truncated form of the murine IFN-γ receptor α chain, and therefore insensitive to IFN-γ, nevertheless were rejected by the adoptively transferred CD4+ T cells. Thus, host cells, and not tumor cells, seem to be the target of IFN-γ. Together, these results show that CD4+ T cells can eliminate IFN-γ-insensitive, MHC class II-negative cancer cells by an indirect mechanism that depends on IFN-γ. PMID:10411927

  14. Negative relationships between cellular immune response, Mhc class II heterozygosity and secondary sexual trait in the montane water vole.

    PubMed

    Charbonnel, Nathalie; Bryja, Josef; Galan, Maxime; Deter, Julie; Tollenaere, Charlotte; Chaval, Yannick; Morand, Serge; Cosson, Jean-François

    2010-05-01

    Heterogeneities in immune responsiveness may affect key epidemiological parameters and the dynamics of pathogens. The roles of immunogenetics in these variations remain poorly explored. We analysed the influence of Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes and epigamic traits on the response to phytohaemagglutinin in males from cyclic populations of the montane water vole (Arvicola scherman). Besides, we tested the relevance of lateral scent glands as honest signals of male quality. Our results did not corroborate neither the hypotheses of genome-wide heterozygosity-fitness correlation nor the Mhc heterozygote advantage. We found a negative relationship between Mhc hetetozygosity and response to phytohaemagglutinin, mediated by a specific Mhc homozygous genotype. Our results therefore support the hypothesis of the Arte-Dqa-05 homozygous genotype being a 'good' Mhc variant in terms of immunogenetic quality. The development of the scent glands seems to be an honest signal for mate choice as it is negatively correlated with helminth load. The 'good gene' hypothesis was not validated as Arte-Dqa-05 homozygous males did not exhibit larger glands. Besides, the negative relationship observed between the size of these glands and the response to phytohaemagglutinin, mainly for Mhc homozygotes, corroborates the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis. The Mhc variants associated with larger glands remain yet to be determined. PMID:25567924

  15. Negative relationships between cellular immune response, Mhc class II heterozygosity and secondary sexual trait in the montane water vole.

    PubMed

    Charbonnel, Nathalie; Bryja, Josef; Galan, Maxime; Deter, Julie; Tollenaere, Charlotte; Chaval, Yannick; Morand, Serge; Cosson, Jean-François

    2010-05-01

    Heterogeneities in immune responsiveness may affect key epidemiological parameters and the dynamics of pathogens. The roles of immunogenetics in these variations remain poorly explored. We analysed the influence of Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes and epigamic traits on the response to phytohaemagglutinin in males from cyclic populations of the montane water vole (Arvicola scherman). Besides, we tested the relevance of lateral scent glands as honest signals of male quality. Our results did not corroborate neither the hypotheses of genome-wide heterozygosity-fitness correlation nor the Mhc heterozygote advantage. We found a negative relationship between Mhc hetetozygosity and response to phytohaemagglutinin, mediated by a specific Mhc homozygous genotype. Our results therefore support the hypothesis of the Arte-Dqa-05 homozygous genotype being a 'good' Mhc variant in terms of immunogenetic quality. The development of the scent glands seems to be an honest signal for mate choice as it is negatively correlated with helminth load. The 'good gene' hypothesis was not validated as Arte-Dqa-05 homozygous males did not exhibit larger glands. Besides, the negative relationship observed between the size of these glands and the response to phytohaemagglutinin, mainly for Mhc homozygotes, corroborates the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis. The Mhc variants associated with larger glands remain yet to be determined.

  16. Ex vivo analysis of human memory CD4 T cells specific for hepatitis C virus using MHC class II tetramers

    PubMed Central

    Day, Cheryl L.; Seth, Nilufer P.; Lucas, Michaela; Appel, Heiner; Gauthier, Laurent; Lauer, Georg M.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M.; Casson, Deborah R.; Chung, Raymond T.; Bell, Shannon; Harcourt, Gillian; Walker, Bruce D.; Klenerman, Paul; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.

    2003-01-01

    Containment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and other chronic human viral infections is associated with persistence of virus-specific CD4 T cells, but ex vivo characterization of circulating CD4 T cells has not been achieved. To further define the phenotype and function of these cells, we developed a novel approach for the generation of tetrameric forms of MHC class II/peptide complexes that is based on the cellular peptide-exchange mechanism. HLA-DR molecules were expressed as precursors with a covalently linked CLIP peptide, which could be efficiently exchanged with viral peptides following linker cleavage. In subjects who spontaneously resolved HCV viremia, but not in those with chronic progressive infection, HCV tetramer–labeled cells could be isolated by magnetic bead capture despite very low frequencies (1:1,200 to 1:111,000) among circulating CD4 T cells. These T cells expressed a set of surface receptors (CCR7+CD45RA–CD27+) indicative of a surveillance function for secondary lymphoid structures and had undergone significant in vivo selection since they utilized a restricted Vβ repertoire. These studies demonstrate a relationship between clinical outcome and the presence of circulating CD4 T cells directed against this virus. Moreover, they show that rare populations of memory CD4 T cells can be studied ex vivo in human diseases. PMID:12975468

  17. MHC class II/ESO tetramer-based generation of in vitro primed anti-tumor T-helper lines for adoptive cell therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Poli, Caroline; Raffin, Caroline; Dojcinovic, Danijel; Luescher, Immanuel; Ayyoub, Maha; Valmori, Danila

    2013-02-01

    Generation of tumor-antigen specific CD4(+) T-helper (T(H)) lines through in vitro priming is of interest for adoptive cell therapy of cancer, but the development of this approach has been limited by the lack of appropriate tools to identify and isolate low frequency tumor antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. Here, we have used recently developed MHC class II/peptide tetramers incorporating an immunodominant peptide from NY-ESO-1 (ESO), a tumor antigen frequently expressed in different human solid and hematologic cancers, to implement an in vitro priming platform allowing the generation of ESO-specific T(H) lines. We isolated phenotypically defined CD4(+) T-cell subpopulations from circulating lymphocytes of DR52b(+) healthy donors by flow cytometry cell sorting and stimulated them in vitro with peptide ESO(119-143), autologous APC and IL-2. We assessed the frequency of ESO-specific cells in the cultures by staining with DR52b/ESO(119-143) tetramers (ESO-tetramers) and TCR repertoire of ESO-tetramer(+) cells by co-staining with TCR variable β chain (BV) specific antibodies. We isolated ESO-tetramer(+) cells by flow cytometry cell sorting and expanded them with PHA, APC and IL-2 to generate ESO-specific T(H) lines. We characterized the lines for antigen recognition, by stimulation with ESO peptide or recombinant protein, cytokine production, by intracellular staining using specific antibodies, and alloreactivity, by stimulation with allo-APC. Using this approach, we could consistently generate ESO-tetramer(+) T(H) lines from conventional CD4(+)CD25(-) naïve and central memory populations, but not from effector memory populations or CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg. In vitro primed T(H) lines recognized ESO with affinities comparable to ESO-tetramer(+) cells from patients immunized with an ESO vaccine and used a similar TCR repertoire. In this study, using MHC class II/ESO tetramers, we have implemented an in vitro priming platform allowing the generation of ESO

  18. Complement component 3 deficiency prolongs MHC-II disparate skin allograft survival by increasing the CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells population.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Quan-You; Liang, Shen-Ju; Li, Gui-Qing; Lv, Yan-Bo; Li, You; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Gui-Lian; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that complement system contributes to allograft rejection. However, its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Herein, we investigate the role of complement component 3 (C3) in a single MHC-II molecule mismatched murine model of allograft rejection using C3 deficient mice (C3(-/-)) as skin graft donors or recipients. Compared with C3(+/+) B6 allografts, C3(-/-) B6 grafts dramatically prolonged survival in MHC-II molecule mismatched H-2(bm12) B6 recipients, indicating that C3 plays a critical role in allograft rejection. Compared with C3(+/+) allografts, both Th17 cell infiltration and Th1/Th17 associated cytokine mRNA levels were clearly reduced in C3(-/-) allografts. Moreover, C3(-/-) allografts caused attenuated Th1/Th17 responses, but increased CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cell expression markedly in local intragraft and H-2(bm12) recipients. Depletion of Treg cells by anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) negated the survival advantages conferred by C3 deficiency. Our results indicate for the first time that C3 deficiency can prolong MHC-II molecule mismatched skin allograft survival, which is further confirmed to be associated with increased CD4(+) CD25(+) Treg cell population expansion and attenuated Th1/Th17 response. PMID:27641978

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies SNPs in the MHC class II loci that are associated with self-reported history of whooping cough

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, George; Ring, Susan M.; Davey-Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Whooping cough is currently seeing resurgence in countries despite high vaccine coverage. There is considerable variation in subject-specific response to infection and vaccine efficacy, but little is known about the role of human genetics. We carried out a case–control genome-wide association study of adult or parent-reported history of whooping cough in two cohorts from the UK: the ALSPAC cohort and the 1958 British Birth Cohort (815/758 cases and 6341/4308 controls, respectively). We also imputed HLA alleles using dense SNP data in the MHC region and carried out gene-based and gene-set tests of association and estimated the amount of additive genetic variation explained by common SNPs. We observed a novel association at SNPs in the MHC class II region in both cohorts [lead SNP rs9271768 after meta-analysis, odds ratio [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] 1.47 (1.35, 1.6), P-value 1.21E − 18]. Multiple strong associations were also observed at alleles at the HLA class II loci. The majority of these associations were explained by the lead SNP rs9271768. Gene-based and gene-set tests and estimates of explainable common genetic variation could not establish the presence of additional associations in our sample. Genetic variation at the MHC class II region plays a role in susceptibility to whooping cough. These findings provide additional perspective on mechanisms of whooping cough infection and vaccine efficacy. PMID:26231221

  20. Genome-wide association study identifies SNPs in the MHC class II loci that are associated with self-reported history of whooping cough.

    PubMed

    McMahon, George; Ring, Susan M; Davey-Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2015-10-15

    Whooping cough is currently seeing resurgence in countries despite high vaccine coverage. There is considerable variation in subject-specific response to infection and vaccine efficacy, but little is known about the role of human genetics. We carried out a case-control genome-wide association study of adult or parent-reported history of whooping cough in two cohorts from the UK: the ALSPAC cohort and the 1958 British Birth Cohort (815/758 cases and 6341/4308 controls, respectively). We also imputed HLA alleles using dense SNP data in the MHC region and carried out gene-based and gene-set tests of association and estimated the amount of additive genetic variation explained by common SNPs. We observed a novel association at SNPs in the MHC class II region in both cohorts [lead SNP rs9271768 after meta-analysis, odds ratio [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] 1.47 (1.35, 1.6), P-value 1.21E - 18]. Multiple strong associations were also observed at alleles at the HLA class II loci. The majority of these associations were explained by the lead SNP rs9271768. Gene-based and gene-set tests and estimates of explainable common genetic variation could not establish the presence of additional associations in our sample. Genetic variation at the MHC class II region plays a role in susceptibility to whooping cough. These findings provide additional perspective on mechanisms of whooping cough infection and vaccine efficacy.

  1. Complement component 3 deficiency prolongs MHC-II disparate skin allograft survival by increasing the CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells population

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Quan-you; Liang, Shen-ju; Li, Gui-qing; Lv, Yan-bo; Li, You; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Gui-lian; Zhang, Ke-qin

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that complement system contributes to allograft rejection. However, its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Herein, we investigate the role of complement component 3 (C3) in a single MHC-II molecule mismatched murine model of allograft rejection using C3 deficient mice (C3−/−) as skin graft donors or recipients. Compared with C3+/+ B6 allografts, C3−/− B6 grafts dramatically prolonged survival in MHC-II molecule mismatched H-2bm12 B6 recipients, indicating that C3 plays a critical role in allograft rejection. Compared with C3+/+ allografts, both Th17 cell infiltration and Th1/Th17 associated cytokine mRNA levels were clearly reduced in C3−/− allografts. Moreover, C3−/− allografts caused attenuated Th1/Th17 responses, but increased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cell expression markedly in local intragraft and H-2bm12 recipients. Depletion of Treg cells by anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) negated the survival advantages conferred by C3 deficiency. Our results indicate for the first time that C3 deficiency can prolong MHC-II molecule mismatched skin allograft survival, which is further confirmed to be associated with increased CD4+ CD25+ Treg cell population expansion and attenuated Th1/Th17 response. PMID:27641978

  2. Patterns of MHC-G-Like and MHC-B Diversification in New World Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Lugo, Juan S.; Cadavid, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    The MHC class I (MHC-I) region in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini) has remained relatively understudied. To evaluate the diversification patterns and transcription behavior of MHC-I in Platyrrhini, we first analyzed public genomic sequences from the MHC-G-like subregion in Saimiri boliviensis, Ateles geoffroyi and Callicebus moloch, and from the MHC-B subregion in Saimiri boliviensis. While S. boliviensis showed multiple copies of both MHC-G-like (10) and –B (15) loci, A. geoffroyi and C. moloch had only three and four MHC-G-like genes, respectively, indicating that not all Platyrrhini species have expanded their MHC-I loci. We then sequenced MHC-G-like and -B cDNAs from nine Platyrrhini species, recovering two to five unique cDNAs per individual for both loci classes. In two Saguinus species, however, no MHC-B cDNAs were found. In phylogenetic trees, MHC-G-like cDNAs formed genus-specific clusters whereas the MHC-B cDNAs grouped by Platyrrhini families, suggesting a more rapid diversification of the former. Furthermore, cDNA sequencing in 12 capuchin monkeys showed that they transcribe at least four MHC-G-like and five MHC-B polymorphic genes, showing haplotypic diversity for gene copy number and signatures of positive natural selection at the peptide binding region. Finally, a quantitative index for MHC:KIR affinity was proposed and tested to predict putative interacting pairs. Altogether, our data indicate that i) MHC-I genes has expanded differentially among Platyrrhini species, ii) Callitrichinae (tamarins and marmosets) MHC-B loci have limited or tissue-specific expression, iii) MHC-G-like genes have diversified more rapidly than MHC-B genes, and iv) the MHC-I diversity is generated mainly by genetic polymorphism and gene copy number variation, likely promoted by natural selection for ligand binding. PMID:26121030

  3. MHC class I and class II phenotype, gene, and haplotype frequencies in Greeks using molecular typing data.

    PubMed

    Papassavas, E C; Spyropoulou-Vlachou, M; Papassavas, A C; Schipper, R F; Doxiadis, I N; Stavropoulos-Giokas, C

    2000-06-01

    In the present study, DNA typing for HLA-A, C, B, DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 was performed for 246 healthy, unrelated Greek volunteers of 20-59 years of age. Phenotype, genotype frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium fit, and 3-locus haplotype frequencies for HLA-A, C, B, HLA-A, B, DRB1, HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and HLA-DRB1, DQB1, DPB1 were calculated. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium, deltas, relative deltas and p-values for significance of the deltas were defined. The population studied is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and many MHC haplotypes are in linkage disequilibrium. The most frequent specificities were HLA-A*02 (phenotype frequency = 44.3%) followed by HLA-A*24 (27.2%), HLA-B*51 (28.5%), HLA-B*18 (26.8%) and HLA-B*35 (26.4%) and HLA-Cw*04 (30.1%) and HLA-Cw*12 (26.8%). The most frequent MHC class II alleles were HLA-DRB1*1104 (34.1%), HLA-DQB1*0301 (54.5%) and HLA-DPB1*0401 with a phenotype frequency of 59.8%. The most prominent HLA-A, C, B haplotypes were HLA-A*24, Cw*04, B*35, and HLA-A*02, Cw*04, B*35, each of them observed in 21/246 individuals. The most frequent HLA-A, B, DRB1 haplotype was HLA-A*02, B*18, DRB1*1104 seen in 20/246 individuals, while the haplotype HLA-DRB1*1104, DQB1*0301, DPB1*0401 was found in 49/246 individuals. Finally, the haplotype DRB1*1104, DQA1*0501, DQB1*0301 was observed in 83/246 individuals. These results can be used for the estimation of the probability of finding a suitable haplotypically identical related or unrelated stem cell donor for patients of Greek ancestry. In addition, they can be used for HLA and disease association studies, genetic distance studies in the Balkan and Mediterranean area, paternity cases, and matching probability calculations for the optimal allocation of kidneys in Greece.

  4. Crystal structure of the human CD4 N-terminal two-domain fragment complexed to a class II MHC molecule.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.-H.; Meijers, R.; Xiong, Y.; Liu, J.-H.; Sakihama, T.; Zhang, R.-G.; Joachimiak, A.; Reinherz, E. L.; Biosciences Division; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School

    2001-09-11

    The structural basis of the interaction between the CD4 coreceptor and a class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is described. The crystal structure of a complex containing the human CD4 N-terminal two-domain fragment and the murine I-A{sup k }class II MHC molecule with associated peptide (pMHCII) shows that only the 'top corner' of the CD4 molecule directly contacts pMHCII. The CD4 Phe-43 side chain extends into a hydrophobic concavity formed by MHC residues from both {alpha}2 and {beta}2 domains. A ternary model of the CD4-pMHCII-T-cell receptor (TCR) reveals that the complex appears V-shaped with the membrane-proximal pMHCII at the apex. This configuration excludes a direct TCR-CD4 interaction and suggests how TCR and CD4 signaling is coordinated around the antigenic pMHCII complex. Human CD4 binds to HIV gp120 in a manner strikingly similar to the way in which CD4 interacts with pMHCII. Additional contacts between gp120 and CD4 give the CD4-gp120 complex a greater affinity. Thus, ligation of the viral envelope glycoprotein to CD4 occludes the pMHCII-binding site on CD4, contributing to immunodeficiency.

  5. MHC class II diversity of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations across their range.

    PubMed

    Lau, Q; Jaratlerdsiri, W; Griffith, J E; Gongora, J; Higgins, D P

    2014-10-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) genes code for proteins that bind and present antigenic peptides and trigger the adaptive immune response. We present a broad geographical study of MHCII DA β1 (DAB) and DB β1 (DBB) variants of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus; n=191) from 12 populations across eastern Australia, with a total of 13 DAB and 7 DBB variants found. We identified greater MHCII variation and, possibly, additional gene copies in koala populations in the north (Queensland and New South Wales) relative to the south (Victoria), confirmed by STRUCTURE analyses and genetic differentiation using analysis of molecular variance. The higher MHCII diversity in the north relative to south could potentially be attributed to (i) significant founder effect in Victorian populations linked to historical translocation of bottlenecked koala populations and (ii) increased pathogen-driven balancing selection and/or local genetic drift in the north. Low MHCII genetic diversity in koalas from the south could reduce their potential response to disease, although the three DAB variants found in the south had substantial sequence divergence between variants. This study assessing MHCII diversity in the koala with historical translocations in some populations contributes to understanding the effects of population translocations on functional genetic diversity.

  6. Btn2a2, a T cell immunomodulatory molecule coregulated with MHC class II genes

    PubMed Central

    Sarter, Kerstin; Leimgruber, Elisa; Gobet, Florian; Agrawal, Vishal; Dunand-Sauthier, Isabelle; Barras, Emmanuèle; Mastelic-Gavillet, Béatris; Kamath, Arun; Fontannaz, Paola; Guéry, Leslie; Duraes, Fernanda do Valle; Lippens, Carla; Ravn, Ulla; Santiago-Raber, Marie-Laure; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Fischer, Nicolas; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Hugues, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has recently emerged that butyrophilins, which are members of the extended B7 family of co-stimulatory molecules, have diverse functions in the immune system. We found that the human and mouse genes encoding butyrophilin-2A2 (BTN2A2) are regulated by the class II trans-activator and regulatory factor X, two transcription factors dedicated to major histocompatibility complex class II expression, suggesting a role in T cell immunity. To address this, we generated Btn2a2-deficient mice. Btn2a2−/− mice exhibited enhanced effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, impaired CD4+ regulatory T cell induction, potentiated antitumor responses, and exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Altered immune responses were attributed to Btn2a2 deficiency in antigen-presenting cells rather than T cells or nonhematopoietic cells. These results provide the first genetic evidence that BTN2A2 is a co-inhibitory molecule that modulates T cell–mediated immunity. PMID:26809444

  7. MHC class II diversity of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations across their range

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Q; Jaratlerdsiri, W; Griffith, J E; Gongora, J; Higgins, D P

    2014-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) genes code for proteins that bind and present antigenic peptides and trigger the adaptive immune response. We present a broad geographical study of MHCII DA β1 (DAB) and DB β1 (DBB) variants of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus; n=191) from 12 populations across eastern Australia, with a total of 13 DAB and 7 DBB variants found. We identified greater MHCII variation and, possibly, additional gene copies in koala populations in the north (Queensland and New South Wales) relative to the south (Victoria), confirmed by STRUCTURE analyses and genetic differentiation using analysis of molecular variance. The higher MHCII diversity in the north relative to south could potentially be attributed to (i) significant founder effect in Victorian populations linked to historical translocation of bottlenecked koala populations and (ii) increased pathogen-driven balancing selection and/or local genetic drift in the north. Low MHCII genetic diversity in koalas from the south could reduce their potential response to disease, although the three DAB variants found in the south had substantial sequence divergence between variants. This study assessing MHCII diversity in the koala with historical translocations in some populations contributes to understanding the effects of population translocations on functional genetic diversity. PMID:24690756

  8. Characterization of MHC class II B polymorphism in multiple populations of wild gorillas using non-invasive samples and next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hans, Jörg B; Haubner, Anne; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Bergl, Richard A; Fünfstück, Tillmann; Gray, Maryke; Morgan, David B; Robbins, Martha M; Sanz, Crickette; Vigilant, Linda

    2015-11-01

    Genes encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are crucial for the recognition and presentation of antigens to the immune system. In contrast to their closest relatives, chimpanzees and humans, much less is known about variation in gorillas at these loci. This study explored the exon 2 variation of -DPB1, -DQB1, and -DRB genes in 46 gorillas from four populations while simultaneously evaluating the feasibility of using fecal samples for high-throughput MHC genotyping. By applying strict similarity- and frequency-based analysis, we found, despite our modest sample size, a total of 18 alleles that have not been described previously, thereby illustrating the potential for efficient and highly accurate MHC genotyping from non-invasive DNA samples. We emphasize the importance of controlling for multiple potential sources of error when applying this massively parallel short-read sequencing technology to PCR products generated from low concentration DNA extracts. We observed pronounced differences in MHC variation between species, subspecies and populations that are consistent with both the ancient and recent demographic histories experienced by gorillas.

  9. Linkage relationships and haplotype polymorphism among cichlid Mhc class II B loci.

    PubMed Central

    Málaga-Trillo, E; Zaleska-Rutczynska, Z; McAndrew, B; Vincek, V; Figueroa, F; Sültmann, H; Klein, J

    1998-01-01

    The species flocks of cichlid fishes in the Great East African Lakes are paradigms of adaptive radiation and hence, of great interest to evolutionary biologists. Phylogenetic studies of these fishes have, however, been hampered by the lack of suitable polymorphic markers. The genes of the major histocompatibility complex hold the promise to provide, through their extensive polymorphism, a large number of such markers, but their use has been hampered by the complexity of the genetic system and the lack of definition of the individual loci. In this study we take the first substantial step to alleviate this problem. Using a combination of methods, including the typing of single sperm cells, gyno- or androgenetic individuals, and haploid embryos, as well as sequencing of class II B restriction fragments isolated from gels for Southern blots, we identify the previously characterized homology groups as distinct loci. At least 17 polymorphic class II B loci, all of which are presumably transcribed, have been found among the different species studied. Most of these loci are shared across the various cichlid species and genera. The number of loci per haplotype varies from individual to individual, ranging from 1 to 13. A total of 21 distinct haplotypes differing in the number of loci they carry has thus far been identified. All the polymorphic loci are part of the same cluster in which, however, distances between at least some of the loci (as indicated by recombination frequencies) are relatively large. Both the individual loci and the haplotypes can now be used to study phylogenetic relationships among the members of the species flocks and the mode in which speciation occurs during adaptive radiation. PMID:9649539

  10. Allergen-specific MHC class II tetramer+ cells are detectable in allergic, but not in nonallergic, individuals.

    PubMed

    Macaubas, Claudia; Wahlstrom, Jan; Galvão da Silva, Ana Paula; Forsthuber, Thomas G; Sønderstrup, Grete; Kwok, William W; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Umetsu, Dale T

    2006-04-15

    Allergen-specific cells are present in very low frequency in peripheral blood of humans, and differ in function in allergic and nonallergic individuals. We report in this study that soluble class II MHC tetramers can be used to directly identify and study such allergen epitope-specific CD4+ T cells in humans. We identified the major antigenic epitope of rye grass allergen Lol p 1 in HLA-DRB1*0401 individuals using HLA-DR*0401 transgenic mice and peripheral blood cells from HLA-DR*0401 individuals. Using DRB1*0401 tetramers loaded with this major epitope of Lol p 1, we detected allergen-specific CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood of DRB1*0401 rye grass allergic individuals after ex vivo expansion with allergen. These tetramer-positive cells produced IL-4, but little IFN-gamma. In contrast, we were unable to detect rye grass tetramer-positive cells in cultures from HLA-DR*0401 nonallergic individuals, even after expansion with IL-2. Thus, our results suggest that rye grass allergen-specific T cells in DR*0401 nonallergic subjects are present at very low levels (e.g., because of deletion or suppression), differ in a fundamental way in their requirement for ex vivo expansion (e.g., they may be anergic), or use TCRs distinct from those of allergic individuals. Thus, analysis using DRB1*0401 tetramers loaded with a major epitope of Lol p 1 indicates that allergen-specific CD4+ T cells in nonallergic individuals are distinct from those in allergic subjects.

  11. LAMP-2C Inhibits MHC Class II Presentation of Cytoplasmic Antigens by Disrupting Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Liliana; McLetchie, Shawna; Gardiner, Gail J; Deffit, Sarah N; Zhou, Delu; Blum, Janice S

    2016-03-15

    Cells use multiple autophagy pathways to sequester macromolecules, senescent organelles, and pathogens. Several conserved isoforms of the lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) regulate these pathways influencing immune recognition and responses. LAMP-2A is required for chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), which promotes Ag capture and MHC class II (MHCII) presentation in B cells and signaling in T cells. LAMP-2B regulates lysosome maturation to impact macroautophagy and phagocytosis. Yet, far less is known about LAMP-2C function. Whereas LAMP2A and LAMP2B mRNA were broadly detected in human tissues, LAMP2C expression was more limited. Transcripts for the three LAMP2 isoforms increased with B cell activation, although specific gene induction varied depending on TLR versus BCR engagement. To examine LAMP-2C function in human B cells and specifically its role in Ag presentation, we used ectopic gene expression. Increased LAMP-2C expression in B cells did not alter MHCII expression or invariant chain processing, but did perturb cytoplasmic Ag presentation via CMA. MHCII presentation of epitopes from exogenous and membrane Ags was not affected by LAMP-2C expression in B cells. Similarly, changes in B cell LAMP-2C expression did not impact macroautophagy. The gene expression of other LAMP2 isoforms and proteasome and lysosomal proteases activities were unperturbed by LAMP-2C ectopic expression. LAMP-2C levels modulated the steady-state expression of several cytoplasmic proteins that are targeted for degradation by CMA and diminished peptide translocation via this pathway. Thus, LAMP-2C serves as a natural inhibitor of CMA that can selectively skew MHCII presentation of cytoplasmic Ags. PMID:26856698

  12. Antigen presentation by liposomes bearing class II MHC and membrane IL-1.

    PubMed Central

    Bakouche, O.; Lachman, L. B.

    1990-01-01

    Liposomes containing membrane IL-1, Iak, and the antigen conalbumin were evaluated as "synthetic antigen presenting cells." The role of these three molecules in macrophage-T cell interaction was studied by testing their ability to induce the proliferation of a T-cell clone specific to conalbumin (the D10 cell line) or immune spleen cells sensitized three times in vivo with conalbumin. In the latter case, splenic macrophages were eliminated by adherence and a lysomotropic agent. The antigen conalbumin was presented on the surface of the liposomes as native undigested protein. When the liposomes presented native conalbumin, Iak, and membrane IL-1, significant proliferation occurred, but if the liposomes lacked membrane IL-1, the proliferation of the T-cell clone and the spleen cells reached only about 60 percent of the previous signal. Native conalbumin and class II antigen alone were required for T-cell activation, while membrane IL-1 only amplified the response. When the liposomes were made with only Iak and membrane IL-1, lacking conalbumin, there was no proliferation of antigen-specific target cells. These results indicated that in this synthetic system, membrane IL-1 increases the magnitude of the response but is not essential for the proliferative response of antigen-specific T cells. PMID:2399741

  13. ITAM signaling in dendritic cells controls T helper cell priming by regulating MHC class II recycling

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Daniel B.; Akilesh, Holly M.; Gmyrek, Grzegorz B.; Piccio, Laura; Gilfillan, Susan; Sim, Julia; Belizaire, Roger; Carrero, Javier A.; Wang, Yinan; Blaufuss, Gregory S.; Sandoval, Gabriel; Fujikawa, Keiko; Cross, Anne H.; Russell, John H.; Cella, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) specialize in antigen capture and maintain a highly dynamic pool of intracellular major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) that continuously recycles from peptide loading compartments to the plasma membrane and back again. This process facilitates sampling of environmental antigens for presentation to T helper cells. Here, we show that a signaling pathway mediated by the DC immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)–containing adaptors (DAP12 and FcRγ) and Vav family guanine nucleotide exchange factors controls the half-life of surface peptide-MHCII (pMHCII) complexes and is critical for CD4 T-cell triggering in vitro. Strikingly, mice with disrupted DC ITAMs show defective T helper cell priming in vivo and are protected from experimental autoimmune encephalitis. Mechanistically, we show that deficiency in ITAM signaling results in increased pMHCII internalization, impaired recycling, and an accumulation of ubiquitinated MHCII species that are prematurely degraded in lysosomes. We propose a novel mechanism for control of T helper cell priming. PMID:20634378

  14. Yeast surface display of a noncovalent MHC class II heterodimer complexed with antigenic peptide.

    PubMed

    Boder, Eric T; Bill, Jerome R; Nields, Andrew W; Marrack, Philippa C; Kappler, John W

    2005-11-20

    Microbial protein display technologies have enabled directed molecular evolution of binding and stability properties in numerous protein systems. In particular, dramatic improvements to antibody binding affinity and kinetics have been accomplished using these tools in recent years. Examples of successful application of display technologies to other immunological proteins have been limited to date. Herein, we describe the expression of human class II major histocompatibility complex allele (MHCII) HLA-DR4 on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a noncovalently associated heterodimer. The yeast-displayed MHCII is fully native as assessed by binding of conformationally specific monoclonal antibodies; failure of antibodies specific for empty HLA-DR4 to bind yeast-displayed protein indicates antigenic peptide is bound. This report represents the first example of a noncovalent protein dimer displayed on yeast and of successful display of wild-type MHCII. Results further point to the potential for using yeast surface display for engineering and analyzing the antigen binding properties of MHCII.

  15. Functional expression of a cattle MHC class II DR-like antigen on mouse L cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, D.C.; Craigmile, S.; Campbell, J.D.M.

    1996-09-01

    Cattle DRA and DRB genes, cloned by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, were transfected into mouse L cells. The cattle DR-expressing L-cell transfectant generated was analyzed serologically, biochemically, and functionally. Sequence analysis of the transfected DRB gene clearly showed showed that it was DRB3 allele DRB3*0101, which corresponds to the 1D-IEF-determined allele DRBF3. 1D-IEF analysis of the tranfectant confirmed that the expressed DR product was DRBF3. Functional integrity of the transfected gene products was demonstrated by the ability of the transfectant cell line to present two antigens (the foot-and-mouth disease virus-derived peptide FMDV15, and ovalbumin) to antigen-specific CD4{sup +} T cells from both the original animal used to obtain the genes, and also from an unrelated DRBF3{sup +} heterozygous animal. Such transfectants will be invaluable tools, allowing us to dissect the precise contributions each locus product makes to the overall immune response in heterozygous animals, information essential for rational vaccine design. 45 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Differences in non-MHC restricted cytotoxic activities of human peripheral blood lymphocytes after transfusion with allogeneic leukocytes or platelets possessing class I and/or class II MHC molecules.

    PubMed

    Pócsik, E; Mihalik, R; Réti, M; Gyódi, E; Pálóczi, K; Mayer, K; Kassai, M; Herold, M; Huber, C; Petrányi, G G

    1990-12-01

    MHC-unrestricted cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 4-6 healthy donors was investigated before and after transfusion with allogeneic leukocytes or platelets. Natural killer and lectin-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (LDCC) of PBL was tested against K562 and Raji target cells in a 4-h and 16-h 51Cr-release assay, respectively. After allotransfusion with leukocytes, we found increased cytotoxic activity of each donor's PBL against all the three targets on day 3 or 7. The highest non-specific cytotoxic activity was detected against the relatively NK resistant Raji target cells. The increase of cytotoxic activity was lowest against the LDCC target (PHA-treated Raji) cells. On the contrary, no changes in cytotoxic activity against any targets were observed after allotransfusion with platelets (possessing class I HLA antigens but no HLA class II molecules). Our results suggest that HLA class II molecules, presumably by inducing immune responses, are essential for activation/generation of non-specific killing of tumor targets after leukocyte transfusion. Thrombocytes, known to be less immunogenic than leukocytes, are not effective in in vivo enhancing of non-specific cytotoxicity. Cellular activation of PBL following leukocyte allotransfusion was confirmed by detection of elevated serum neopterin and beta-2-microglobulin levels on day 3. This was not the case after platelet allotransfusion. In addition, the expression of ICAM-1 antigen (as a molecule involved directly in MHC-unrestricted cytotoxicity) was also found to be increased in two donors' PBL on day 3 after leukocyte transfusion in contrast to transfusion with platelets.

  17. Design of a predicted MHC restricted short peptide immunodiagnostic and vaccine candidate for Fowl adenovirus C in chicken infection.

    PubMed

    Valdivia-Olarte, Hugo; Requena, David; Ramirez, Manuel; Saravia, Luis E; Izquierdo, Ray; Falconi-Agapito, Francesca; Zavaleta, Milagros; Best, Iván; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Zimic, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are the ethiologic agents of multiple pathologies in chicken. There are five different species of FAdVs grouped as FAdV-A, FAdV-B, FAdV-C, FAdV-D, and FAdV-E. It is of interest to develop immunodiagnostics and vaccine candidate for Peruvian FAdV-C in chicken infection using MHC restricted short peptide candidates. We sequenced the complete genome of one FAdV strain isolated from a chicken of a local farm. A total of 44 protein coding genes were identified in each genome. We sequenced twelve Cobb chicken MHC alleles from animals of different farms in the central coast of Peru, and subsequently determined three optimal human MHC-I and four optimal human MHC-II substitute alleles for MHC-peptide prediction. The potential MHC restricted short peptide epitope-like candidates were predicted using human specific (with determined suitable chicken substitutes) NetMHC MHC-peptide prediction model with web server features from all the FAdV genomes available. FAdV specific peptides with calculated binding values to known substituted chicken MHC-I and MHC-II were further filtered for diagnostics and potential vaccine epitopes. Promiscuity to the 3/4 optimal human MHC-I/II alleles and conservation among the available FAdV genomes was considered in this analysis. The localization on the surface of the protein was considered for class II predicted peptides. Thus, a set of class I and class II specific peptides from FAdV were reported in this study. Hence, a multiepitopic protein was built with these peptides, and subsequently tested to confirm the production of specific antibodies in chicken.

  18. Design of a predicted MHC restricted short peptide immunodiagnostic and vaccine candidate for Fowl adenovirus C in chicken infection

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia-Olarte, Hugo; Requena, David; Ramirez, Manuel; Saravia, Luis E; Izquierdo, Ray; Falconi-Agapito, Francesca; Zavaleta, Milagros; Best, Iván; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Zimic, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are the ethiologic agents of multiple pathologies in chicken. There are five different species of FAdVs grouped as FAdV-A, FAdV-B, FAdV-C, FAdV-D, and FAdV-E. It is of interest to develop immunodiagnostics and vaccine candidate for Peruvian FAdV-C in chicken infection using MHC restricted short peptide candidates. We sequenced the complete genome of one FAdV strain isolated from a chicken of a local farm. A total of 44 protein coding genes were identified in each genome. We sequenced twelve Cobb chicken MHC alleles from animals of different farms in the central coast of Peru, and subsequently determined three optimal human MHC-I and four optimal human MHC-II substitute alleles for MHC-peptide prediction. The potential MHC restricted short peptide epitope-like candidates were predicted using human specific (with determined suitable chicken substitutes) NetMHC MHC-peptide prediction model with web server features from all the FAdV genomes available. FAdV specific peptides with calculated binding values to known substituted chicken MHC-I and MHC-II were further filtered for diagnostics and potential vaccine epitopes. Promiscuity to the 3/4 optimal human MHC-I/II alleles and conservation among the available FAdV genomes was considered in this analysis. The localization on the surface of the protein was considered for class II predicted peptides. Thus, a set of class I and class II specific peptides from FAdV were reported in this study. Hence, a multiepitopic protein was built with these peptides, and subsequently tested to confirm the production of specific antibodies in chicken. PMID:26664030

  19. Upregulation and induction of surface antigens with special reference to MHC class II expression in microglia in postnatal rat brain following intravenous or intraperitoneal injections of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Ling, E A

    1994-01-01

    The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of surface antigens including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and complement type 3 (CR3) receptors on microglial cells in the corpus callosum in postnatal rat brain were investigated. When LPS was injected intravenously (i.v.) in 1-d-old rats, the immunostaining of callosal amoeboid microglial cells with OX-18 directed against MHC class I antigen was enhanced 24 h after the injection in comparison with the controls. The expression of MHC class II (Ia) antigen on the same cell type as shown by its immunoreactivity with OX-6 was also elicited especially after 2 intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of LPS. Thus 7 d after a single i.p. injection of LPS into 1-d-old rats, only a few OX-6 positive cells showing a moderate staining reaction were observed in the corpus callosum. The immunoreactivity diminished 14 d after the injection. However, in rats receiving 2 successive i.p. injections of LPS at 1 and 4 d of age and killed 7 d after the 1st injection, a significant number of intensely stained OX-6 positive amoeboid microglial cells were observed in the corpus callosum. The expression of MHC class II antigens induced by 2 injections of LPS was sustained at least until d 14 when the callosal ramified microglial cells, known to be derived from gradual metamorphic transformation of amoeboid microglia, still exhibited intense immunoreactivity with OX-6. The effect of LPS on the expression of CR3 on amoeboid microglial cells was not obvious after a single injection, but the immunoreactivity with OX-42 was also augmented in rats given 2 i.p. administration of LPS into rats at 1 an 4 d of age. It is concluded from this study that the expression of MHC class I and class II antigens on amoeboid microglial cells in corpus callosum was upregulated and induced respectively after i.v. or i.p. injection of LPS into early postnatal rats. Although relatively fewer in number when compared with OX-18 and OX-42

  20. MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism augments thymic regulatory T-cell production and prevents relapse of EAE in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Limin; Li, Nainong; Zhang, Mingfeng; Xue, Sheng-Li; Cassady, Kaniel; Lin, Qing; Riggs, Arthur D; Zeng, Defu

    2015-12-29

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with demyelination, axon damage, and paralysis. Induction of mixed chimerism with allogeneic donors has been shown to not cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in animal models and humans. We have reported that induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism can cure autoimmunity in autoimmune NOD mice, but this approach has not yet been tested in animal models of MS, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we report that MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism with C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) donor in SJL/J (H-2(s)) EAE recipients eliminates clinical symptoms and prevents relapse. This cure is demonstrated by not only disappearance of clinical signs but also reversal of autoimmunity; elimination of infiltrating T, B, and macrophage cells in the spinal cord; and regeneration of myelin sheath. The reversal of autoimmunity is associated with a marked reduction of autoreactivity of CD4(+) T cells and significant increase in the percentage of Foxp3(+) Treg among host-type CD4(+) T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes. The latter is associated with a marked reduction of the percentage of host-type CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes and an increase of Treg percentage among the CD4(+)CD8(+) and CD4(+)CD8(-) thymocytes. Thymectomy leads to loss of prevention of EAE relapse by induction of mixed chimerism, although there is a dramatic expansion of host-type Treg cells in the lymph nodes. These results indicate that induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism can restore thymic negative selection of autoreactive CD4(+) T cells, augment production of Foxp3(+) Treg, and cure EAE. PMID:26647186

  1. MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism augments thymic regulatory T-cell production and prevents relapse of EAE in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Limin; Li, Nainong; Zhang, Mingfeng; Xue, Sheng-Li; Cassady, Kaniel; Lin, Qing; Riggs, Arthur D; Zeng, Defu

    2015-12-29

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with demyelination, axon damage, and paralysis. Induction of mixed chimerism with allogeneic donors has been shown to not cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in animal models and humans. We have reported that induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism can cure autoimmunity in autoimmune NOD mice, but this approach has not yet been tested in animal models of MS, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we report that MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism with C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) donor in SJL/J (H-2(s)) EAE recipients eliminates clinical symptoms and prevents relapse. This cure is demonstrated by not only disappearance of clinical signs but also reversal of autoimmunity; elimination of infiltrating T, B, and macrophage cells in the spinal cord; and regeneration of myelin sheath. The reversal of autoimmunity is associated with a marked reduction of autoreactivity of CD4(+) T cells and significant increase in the percentage of Foxp3(+) Treg among host-type CD4(+) T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes. The latter is associated with a marked reduction of the percentage of host-type CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes and an increase of Treg percentage among the CD4(+)CD8(+) and CD4(+)CD8(-) thymocytes. Thymectomy leads to loss of prevention of EAE relapse by induction of mixed chimerism, although there is a dramatic expansion of host-type Treg cells in the lymph nodes. These results indicate that induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism can restore thymic negative selection of autoreactive CD4(+) T cells, augment production of Foxp3(+) Treg, and cure EAE.

  2. A four-step model for the IL-6 amplifier, a regulator of chronic inflammations in tissue-specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masaaki; Hirano, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly thought that autoimmune diseases are caused by the breakdown of self-tolerance, which suggests the recognition of specific antigens by autoreactive CD4+ T cells contribute to the specificity of autoimmune diseases (Marrack et al., 2001; Mathis and Benoist, 2004). In several cases, however, even for diseases associated with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles, the causative tissue-specific antigens recognized by memory/activated CD4+ T cells have not been established (Mocci et al., 2000; Skapenko et al., 2005). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and arthritis in F759 knock-in mice (F759 mice) are such examples (Atsumi et al., 2002; Brennan et al., 2002; Falgarone et al., 2009). These include associations with class II MHC and CD4 molecules; increased numbers of memory/activated CD4+ T cells; and improved outcomes in response to suppressions and/or deficiencies in class II MHC molecules, CD4+ T cells, and the T cell survival cytokine IL-7. Regarding the development of arthritis in F759 mice, it is not only the immune system, but also non-immune tissue that are involved, indicating that the importance of their interactions (Sawa et al., 2006, 2009; Ogura et al., 2008; Hirano, 2010; Murakami et al., 2011). Furthermore, we have shown that local events such as microbleeding together with an accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in a manner independent of tissue antigen-recognitions induces arthritis in the joints of F759 mice (Murakami et al., 2011). For example, local microbleeding-mediated CCL20 expression induce such an accumulation, causing arthritis development via chronic activation of an IL-17A-dependent IL-6 signaling amplification loop in type 1 collagen+ cells that is triggered by CD4+ T cell-derived cytokine(s) such as IL-17A, which leads to the synergistic activation of STAT3 and NFκB in non-hematopoietic cells in the joint (Murakami et al., 2011). We named this loop the IL-6-mediated inflammation amplifier, or IL-6 amplifier for

  3. RNA-seq liver transcriptome analysis reveals an activated MHC-I pathway and an inhibited MHC-II pathway at the early stage of vaccine immunization in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a prominent vertebrate model of human development and pathogenic disease and has recently been utilized to study teleost immune responses to infectious agents threatening the aquaculture industry. In this work, to clarify the host immune mechanisms underlying the protective effects of a putative vaccine and improve its immunogenicity in the future efforts, high-throughput RNA sequencing technology was used to investigate the immunization-related gene expression patterns of zebrafish immunized with Edwardsiella tarda live attenuated vaccine. Results Average reads of 18.13 million and 14.27 million were obtained from livers of zebrafish immunized with phosphate buffered saline (mock) and E. tarda vaccine (WED), respectively. The reads were annotated with the Ensembl zebrafish database before differential expressed genes sequencing (DESeq) comparative analysis, which identified 4565 significantly differentially expressed genes (2186 up-regulated and 2379 down-regulated in WED; p<0.05). Among those, functional classifications were found in the Gene Ontology database for 3891 and in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database for 3467. Several pathways involved in acute phase response, complement activation, immune/defense response, and antigen processing and presentation were remarkably affected at the early stage of WED immunization. Further qPCR analysis confirmed that the genes encoding the factors involved in major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I processing pathway were up-regulated, while those involved in MHC-II pathway were down-regulated. Conclusion These data provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying zebrafish immune response to WED immunization and might aid future studies to develop a highly immunogenic vaccine against gram-negative bacteria in teleosts. PMID:22805612

  4. Changes in variation at the MHC class II DQA locus during the final demise of the woolly mammoth

    PubMed Central

    Pečnerová, Patrícia; Díez-del-Molino, David; Vartanyan, Sergey; Dalén, Love

    2016-01-01

    According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck. In this study, we analyse three fragments of the MHC DQA gene in woolly mammoth samples radiocarbon dated to before and after a well-documented bottleneck that took place about ten thousand years ago. Our results indicate a decrease in observed heterozygosity and number of alleles, suggesting that genetic drift had an impact on the variation on MHC. Based on coalescent simulations, we found no evidence of balancing selection maintaining MHC diversity during the Holocene. However, strong trans-species polymorphism among mammoths and elephants points to historical effects of balancing selection on the woolly mammoth lineage. PMID:27143688

  5. Changes in variation at the MHC class II DQA locus during the final demise of the woolly mammoth.

    PubMed

    Pečnerová, Patrícia; Díez-Del-Molino, David; Vartanyan, Sergey; Dalén, Love

    2016-05-04

    According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck. In this study, we analyse three fragments of the MHC DQA gene in woolly mammoth samples radiocarbon dated to before and after a well-documented bottleneck that took place about ten thousand years ago. Our results indicate a decrease in observed heterozygosity and number of alleles, suggesting that genetic drift had an impact on the variation on MHC. Based on coalescent simulations, we found no evidence of balancing selection maintaining MHC diversity during the Holocene. However, strong trans-species polymorphism among mammoths and elephants points to historical effects of balancing selection on the woolly mammoth lineage.

  6. Changes in variation at the MHC class II DQA locus during the final demise of the woolly mammoth.

    PubMed

    Pečnerová, Patrícia; Díez-Del-Molino, David; Vartanyan, Sergey; Dalén, Love

    2016-01-01

    According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck. In this study, we analyse three fragments of the MHC DQA gene in woolly mammoth samples radiocarbon dated to before and after a well-documented bottleneck that took place about ten thousand years ago. Our results indicate a decrease in observed heterozygosity and number of alleles, suggesting that genetic drift had an impact on the variation on MHC. Based on coalescent simulations, we found no evidence of balancing selection maintaining MHC diversity during the Holocene. However, strong trans-species polymorphism among mammoths and elephants points to historical effects of balancing selection on the woolly mammoth lineage. PMID:27143688

  7. Changes in variation at the MHC class II DQA locus during the final demise of the woolly mammoth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pečnerová, Patrícia; Díez-Del-Molino, David; Vartanyan, Sergey; Dalén, Love

    2016-05-01

    According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck. In this study, we analyse three fragments of the MHC DQA gene in woolly mammoth samples radiocarbon dated to before and after a well-documented bottleneck that took place about ten thousand years ago. Our results indicate a decrease in observed heterozygosity and number of alleles, suggesting that genetic drift had an impact on the variation on MHC. Based on coalescent simulations, we found no evidence of balancing selection maintaining MHC diversity during the Holocene. However, strong trans-species polymorphism among mammoths and elephants points to historical effects of balancing selection on the woolly mammoth lineage.

  8. Predicting promiscuous antigenic T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mymA operon proteins binding to MHC Class I and Class II molecules.

    PubMed

    Saraav, Iti; Pandey, Kirti; Sharma, Monika; Singh, Swati; Dutta, Prasun; Bhardwaj, Anshu; Sharma, Sadhna

    2016-10-01

    Limited efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine has raised the need to explore other immunogenic candidates to develop an effective vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells play a critical role in host immunity to Mtb. Infection of macrophages with Mtb results in upregulation of mymA operon genes thereby suggesting their importance as immune targets. In the present study, after exclusion of self-peptides mymA operon proteins of Mtb were analyzed in silico for the presence of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I and Class II binding peptides using Bioinformatics and molecular analysis section, NetMHC 3.4, ProPred and Immune epitope database software. Out of 56 promiscuous epitopes obtained, 41 epitopes were predicted to be antigenic for MHC Class I. In MHC Class II, out of 336 promiscuous epitopes obtained, 142 epitopes were predicted to be antigenic. The comparative bioinformatics analysis of mymA operon proteins found Rv3083 to be the best vaccine candidate. Molecular docking was performed with the most antigenic peptides of Rv3083 (LASGAASVV with alleles HLA-B51:01, HAATSGTLI with HLA-A02, IVTATGLNI and EKIHYGLKVNTA with HLA-DRB1_01:01) to study the structural basis for recognition of peptides by various HLA molecules. The software binding prediction was validated by the obtained molecular docking score of peptide-HLA complex. These peptides can be further investigated for their immunological relevance in patients of tuberculosis using major histocompatibility complex tetramer approach. PMID:27389362

  9. Identification of specific recognition molecules on murine mononuclear phagocytes and B lymphocytes for Vi capsular polysaccharide: modulation of MHC class II expression on stimulation with the polysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, A

    1997-01-01

    Vi bacterial polysaccharide is a homopolymer of alpha 1-4 N-acetyl polygalacturonic acid with variable O-acetylation at position C-3 and forms a capsule around many bacteria. It has been referred to as the virulence factor of Salmonella typhi and is also a candidate vaccine against typhoid fever. The present study reports the interaction of this polysaccharide with murine mononuclear phagocytes and lymphocytes, and with human monocytes. Vi showed a dose-dependent binding to the murine monocyte cell lines WEHI-274.1 and J774. This binding was abrogated if the polysaccharide was deacetylated, suggesting involvement of acetyl groups in this interaction. Vi also bound to the murine B-cell lymphoma line A20, to peritoneal exudate cells and to a lesser degree to spleen cells and thymocytes from BALB/c mice. The polysaccharide also interacted with the human histiocytic lymphoma line U937 but not with the human monocyte cell line THP-1. Stimulation with Vi led to up-regulation of surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression on A20 cells. Immunoprecipitation of Vi-bound molecules from cell surface biotinylated A20 and WEHI-274.1 revealed two bands with MW of about 32,000 and 36,000. The study demonstrates that Vi capsular polysaccharide can interact with mononuclear phagocytes and lymphocytes through specific cell surface molecules and modulate MHC class II expression. Images Figure 5 PMID:9370937

  10. Crystallographic and Computational Studies of a Class II MHC Complex with a Nonconforming Peptide: HLA-DRA/DRB3*0101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Christian S.; Gorski, Jack; Stern, Lawrence J.

    2003-03-01

    The stable binding of processed foreign peptide to a class II major histocompatibility (MHC) molecule and subsequent presentation to a T cell receptor is a central event in immune recognition and regulation. Polymorphic residues on the floor of the peptide binding site form pockets that anchor peptide side chains. These and other residues in the helical wall of the groove determine the specificity of each allele and define a motif. Allele specific motifs allow the prediction of epitopes from the sequence of pathogens. There are, however, known epitopes that do not satisfy these motifs: anchor motifs are not adequate for predicting epitopes as there are apparently major and minor motifs. We present crystallographic studies into the nature of the interactions that govern the binding of these so called nonconforming peptides. We would like to understand the role of the P10 pocket and find out whether the peptides that do not obey the consensus anchor motif bind in the canonical conformation observed in in prior structures of class II MHC-peptide complexes. HLA-DRB3*0101 complexed with peptide crystallized in unit cell 92.10 x 92.10 x 248.30 (90, 90, 90), P41212, and the diffraction data is reliable to 2.2ÅWe are complementing our studies with dynamical long time simulations to answer these questions, particularly the interplay of the anchor motifs in peptide binding, the range of protein and ligand conformations, and water hydration structures.

  11. Major histocompatibility complex class II antigens are required for both cytokine production and proliferation induced by mercuric chloride in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Möller, G; Abedi-Valugerdi, M

    1997-10-01

    Autoimmune diseases induced by mercuric chloride are genetically determined, at least one gene being major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-linked. Previously, we showed that in vitro mercury stimulation induced a high proliferative response in lymphocytes from susceptible mice (high-responders) and that the proliferative response could be restored in lymphocytes from low-responders by pretreating the cells with mercury. We also found that the continuous presence of mercury induced IL-2 and IFN-gamma production, while pretreatment with mercury induced IL-4 production. In this study, we showed that anti-MHC class II monoclonal antibodies blocked both the mercury-induced proliferative responses in lymphocytes from high-responders and the restored proliferative responses in low-responders. In addition, anti-MHC class II antibodies also inhibited the mercury-induced IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-4 cytokine production in vitro. The results demonstrate that MHC class II antigens directly participate in mercury-induced cytokine production and cell activation, and are required at the onset of the initiation.

  12. T-cell infiltration and expression of MHC class II antigen by macrophages and microglia in a heterogeneous group in leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Tomimoto, H.; Akiguchi, I.; Akiyama, H.; Kimura, J.; Yanagihara, T.

    1993-01-01

    We report here on T-cell infiltration and diffuse expression of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen in a heterogeneous group of macrophages and microglia in leukoencephalopathy (LE). Microglia reacting positively for HLA-DR were five times more numerous in LE than those in non-LE cases and were distributed densely in the degenerated white matter but sparsely in the subcortical arcuate fibers. CD4- and CD8-positive lymphocytes were 9 and 15 times more plentiful, respectively, in LE cases; they aggregated in the expanded Virchow-Robin spaces and frequently infiltrated the neural parenchyma. An intimate association of T cells with macrophages, and the expression of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), accessory molecules in antigen presentation, were observed in each cell in the region of macrophage clusters. These results indicate that expression of MHC antigen is accompanied by cell adhesion molecules and by infiltration of T cells in a heterogeneous group in leukoencephalopathy and suggests their immunocompetence, although it may be secondary to destruction of myelin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8102032

  13. Modified human beta 2-microglobulin (desLys(58)) displays decreased affinity for the heavy chain of MHC class I and induces nitric oxide production and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Harhaji, L; Lamberth, K; Harndahl, M; Buus, S; Heegaard, N H H; Claesson, M H; Nissen, M H

    2009-03-01

    Beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) is the light chain of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules, and is a prerequisite for the binding of peptides to the heavy chain and their presentation to CD8+ T cells. beta2m can be modified in vivo and in vitro by proteolytic cleavage by complement C1 and subsequent carboxypeptidase B-like activity--processes that lead to the generation of desLys(58) beta2m (dbeta2m). This work aims to study the effect of dbeta2m on peptide binding to MHC-I, the influence of dbeta2m on the binding of beta2m to the MHC-I heavy chain and the biological activity of dbeta2m. Both beta2m and dbeta2m are able to support the generation of MHC-I/peptide complexes at 18 degrees C, but complexes formed in the presence of dbeta2m destabilize at 37 degrees C. Moreover, a 250 times higher concentration of dbeta2m than of beta2m is needed to displace MHC-I associated beta2m from the cell surface. In addition, only beta2m is able to restore MHC-I/peptide complex formation on acid-treated cells whereas dbeta2m appears to bind preferentially to denatured MHC-I heavy chains. In cell cultures, exogenously added dbeta2m, but not beta2m, induces apoptotic cell death in monocytic leukaemic cell lines but spares other kinds of leukaemic cells. Additionally, the presence of dbeta2m, and to a lesser extent beta2m, enhances IFN-gamma-induced NO production by monocytic leukaemic cells. In conclusion, these data show that dbeta2m is not able to support the formation of a stable tri-molecular MHC-I complex at physiological temperature and that dbeta2m exerts other biological functions compared to beta2m when bound to cells.

  14. Innate lymphoid cells and the MHC.

    PubMed

    Robinette, M L; Colonna, M

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a new class of immune cells that include natural killer (NK) cells and appear to be the innate counterparts to CD4(+) helper T cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells based on developmental and functional similarities. Like T cells, both NK cells and other ILCs also show connections to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In human and mouse, NK cells recognize and respond to classical and nonclassical MHC I molecules as well as structural homologues, whereas mouse ILCs have recently been shown to express MHC II. We describe the history of MHC I recognition by NK cells and discuss emerging roles for MHC II expression by ILC subsets, making comparisons between both mouse and human when possible.

  15. Lacking prognostic significance of beta 2-microglobulin, MHC class I and class II antigen expression in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Wintzer, H. O.; Benzing, M.; von Kleist, S.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of MHC antigen expression on the survival of patients with cancer, 77 human breast carcinomas were investigated for the expression of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m), HLA-A,B,C and HLA-DR. Thirty-one benign breast tumours were stained for comparison. The results for the carcinomas were related to the survival data of the cancer patients. The expression of beta 2m, HLA-A,B,C and HLA-DR was significantly lower in malignant tumours compared to the benign lesions. Whereas all benign tumours were positive for beta 2m and HLA-A,B,C and 28/31 positive for HLA-DR the following positivity rates were found in carcinomas: 74/77 for beta 2m, 57/77 for HLA-A,B,C and 10/77 for HLA-DR. The follow-up (median 45 months) of 66 cancer patients for overall survival and of 65 patients for disease-free survival revealed no influence of beta 2m, HLA-A,B,C or HLA-DR expression on the prognosis of this cancer. In conclusion, experimental data indicating the importance of MHC antigens in anti-tumour responses are not confirmed by the analysis of cancer patient survival data. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2201398

  16. The Repertoires of Peptides Presented by MHC-II in the Thymus and in Peripheral Tissue: A Clue for Autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Collado, Javier A; Guitart, Carolina; Ciudad, M Teresa; Alvarez, Iñaki; Jaraquemada, Dolores

    2013-12-17

    T-cell tolerance to self-antigens is established in the thymus through the recognition by developing thymocytes of self-peptide-MHC complexes and induced and maintained in the periphery. Efficient negative selection of auto-reactive T cells in the thymus is dependent on the in situ expression of both ubiquitous and tissue-restricted self-antigens and on the presentation of derived peptides. Weak or inadequate intrathymic expression of self-antigens increases the risk to generate an autoimmune-prone T-cell repertoire. Indeed, even small changes of self-antigen expression in the thymus affect negative selection and increase the predisposition to autoimmunity. Together with other mechanisms, tolerance is maintained in the peripheral lymphoid organs via the recognition by mature T cells of a similar set of self-peptides in homeostatic conditions. However, non-lymphoid peripheral tissue, where organ-specific autoimmunity takes place, often have differential functional processes that may lead to the generation of epitopes that are absent or non-presented in the thymus. These putative differences between peptides presented by MHC molecules in the thymus and in peripheral tissues might be a major key to the initiation and maintenance of autoimmune conditions.

  17. The Repertoires of Peptides Presented by MHC-II in the Thymus and in Peripheral Tissue: A Clue for Autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Javier A.; Guitart, Carolina; Ciudad, M. Teresa; Alvarez, Iñaki; Jaraquemada, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    T-cell tolerance to self-antigens is established in the thymus through the recognition by developing thymocytes of self-peptide-MHC complexes and induced and maintained in the periphery. Efficient negative selection of auto-reactive T cells in the thymus is dependent on the in situ expression of both ubiquitous and tissue-restricted self-antigens and on the presentation of derived peptides. Weak or inadequate intrathymic expression of self-antigens increases the risk to generate an autoimmune-prone T-cell repertoire. Indeed, even small changes of self-antigen expression in the thymus affect negative selection and increase the predisposition to autoimmunity. Together with other mechanisms, tolerance is maintained in the peripheral lymphoid organs via the recognition by mature T cells of a similar set of self-peptides in homeostatic conditions. However, non-lymphoid peripheral tissue, where organ-specific autoimmunity takes place, often have differential functional processes that may lead to the generation of epitopes that are absent or non-presented in the thymus. These putative differences between peptides presented by MHC molecules in the thymus and in peripheral tissues might be a major key to the initiation and maintenance of autoimmune conditions. PMID:24381570

  18. HLA-DRB1*11 and variants of the MHC class II locus are strong risk factors for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ombrello, Michael J; Remmers, Elaine F; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Grom, Alexei; Foell, Dirk; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Martini, Alberto; Gattorno, Marco; Özen, Seza; Prahalad, Sampath; Zeft, Andrew S; Bohnsack, John F; Mellins, Elizabeth D; Ilowite, Norman T; Russo, Ricardo; Len, Claudio; Hilario, Maria Odete E; Oliveira, Sheila; Yeung, Rae S M; Rosenberg, Alan; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Anton, Jordi; Schwarz, Tobias; Hinks, Anne; Bilginer, Yelda; Park, Jane; Cobb, Joanna; Satorius, Colleen L; Han, Buhm; Baskin, Elizabeth; Signa, Sara; Duerr, Richard H; Achkar, J P; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Kottyan, Leah C; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Docampo, Elisa; Estivill, Xavier; Gül, Ahmet; de Bakker, Paul I W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Langefeld, Carl D; Thompson, Susan; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Thomson, Wendy; Kastner, Daniel L; Woo, Patricia

    2015-12-29

    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is an often severe, potentially life-threatening childhood inflammatory disease, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. To determine whether genetic variation within the MHC locus on chromosome 6 influences sJIA susceptibility, we performed an association study of 982 children with sJIA and 8,010 healthy control subjects from nine countries. Using meta-analysis of directly observed and imputed SNP genotypes and imputed classic HLA types, we identified the MHC locus as a bona fide susceptibility locus with effects on sJIA risk that transcended geographically defined strata. The strongest sJIA-associated SNP, rs151043342 [P = 2.8 × 10(-17), odds ratio (OR) 2.6 (2.1, 3.3)], was part of a cluster of 482 sJIA-associated SNPs that spanned a 400-kb region and included the class II HLA region. Conditional analysis controlling for the effect of rs151043342 found that rs12722051 independently influenced sJIA risk [P = 1.0 × 10(-5), OR 0.7 (0.6, 0.8)]. Meta-analysis of imputed classic HLA-type associations in six study populations of Western European ancestry revealed that HLA-DRB1*11 and its defining amino acid residue, glutamate 58, were strongly associated with sJIA [P = 2.7 × 10(-16), OR 2.3 (1.9, 2.8)], as was the HLA-DRB1*11-HLA-DQA1*05-HLA-DQB1*03 haplotype [6.4 × 10(-17), OR 2.3 (1.9, 2.9)]. By examining the MHC locus in the largest collection of sJIA patients assembled to date, this study solidifies the relationship between the class II HLA region and sJIA, implicating adaptive immune molecules in the pathogenesis of sJIA. PMID:26598658

  19. HLA-DRB1*11 and variants of the MHC class II locus are strong risk factors for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ombrello, Michael J; Remmers, Elaine F; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Grom, Alexei; Foell, Dirk; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Martini, Alberto; Gattorno, Marco; Özen, Seza; Prahalad, Sampath; Zeft, Andrew S; Bohnsack, John F; Mellins, Elizabeth D; Ilowite, Norman T; Russo, Ricardo; Len, Claudio; Hilario, Maria Odete E; Oliveira, Sheila; Yeung, Rae S M; Rosenberg, Alan; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Anton, Jordi; Schwarz, Tobias; Hinks, Anne; Bilginer, Yelda; Park, Jane; Cobb, Joanna; Satorius, Colleen L; Han, Buhm; Baskin, Elizabeth; Signa, Sara; Duerr, Richard H; Achkar, J P; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Kottyan, Leah C; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Docampo, Elisa; Estivill, Xavier; Gül, Ahmet; de Bakker, Paul I W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Langefeld, Carl D; Thompson, Susan; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Thomson, Wendy; Kastner, Daniel L; Woo, Patricia

    2015-12-29

    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is an often severe, potentially life-threatening childhood inflammatory disease, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. To determine whether genetic variation within the MHC locus on chromosome 6 influences sJIA susceptibility, we performed an association study of 982 children with sJIA and 8,010 healthy control subjects from nine countries. Using meta-analysis of directly observed and imputed SNP genotypes and imputed classic HLA types, we identified the MHC locus as a bona fide susceptibility locus with effects on sJIA risk that transcended geographically defined strata. The strongest sJIA-associated SNP, rs151043342 [P = 2.8 × 10(-17), odds ratio (OR) 2.6 (2.1, 3.3)], was part of a cluster of 482 sJIA-associated SNPs that spanned a 400-kb region and included the class II HLA region. Conditional analysis controlling for the effect of rs151043342 found that rs12722051 independently influenced sJIA risk [P = 1.0 × 10(-5), OR 0.7 (0.6, 0.8)]. Meta-analysis of imputed classic HLA-type associations in six study populations of Western European ancestry revealed that HLA-DRB1*11 and its defining amino acid residue, glutamate 58, were strongly associated with sJIA [P = 2.7 × 10(-16), OR 2.3 (1.9, 2.8)], as was the HLA-DRB1*11-HLA-DQA1*05-HLA-DQB1*03 haplotype [6.4 × 10(-17), OR 2.3 (1.9, 2.9)]. By examining the MHC locus in the largest collection of sJIA patients assembled to date, this study solidifies the relationship between the class II HLA region and sJIA, implicating adaptive immune molecules in the pathogenesis of sJIA.

  20. HLA-DRB1*11 and variants of the MHC class II locus are strong risk factors for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ombrello, Michael J.; Remmers, Elaine F.; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Grom, Alexei; Foell, Dirk; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Martini, Alberto; Gattorno, Marco; Özen, Seza; Prahalad, Sampath; Zeft, Andrew S.; Bohnsack, John F.; Mellins, Elizabeth D.; Ilowite, Norman T.; Russo, Ricardo; Len, Claudio; Hilario, Maria Odete E.; Oliveira, Sheila; Yeung, Rae S. M.; Rosenberg, Alan; Wedderburn, Lucy R.; Anton, Jordi; Schwarz, Tobias; Hinks, Anne; Bilginer, Yelda; Park, Jane; Cobb, Joanna; Satorius, Colleen L.; Han, Buhm; Baskin, Elizabeth; Signa, Sara; Duerr, Richard H.; Achkar, J. P.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Kottyan, Leah C.; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Docampo, Elisa; Estivill, Xavier; Gül, Ahmet; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Langefeld, Carl D.; Thompson, Susan; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Thomson, Wendy; Kastner, Daniel L.; Woo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is an often severe, potentially life-threatening childhood inflammatory disease, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. To determine whether genetic variation within the MHC locus on chromosome 6 influences sJIA susceptibility, we performed an association study of 982 children with sJIA and 8,010 healthy control subjects from nine countries. Using meta-analysis of directly observed and imputed SNP genotypes and imputed classic HLA types, we identified the MHC locus as a bona fide susceptibility locus with effects on sJIA risk that transcended geographically defined strata. The strongest sJIA-associated SNP, rs151043342 [P = 2.8 × 10−17, odds ratio (OR) 2.6 (2.1, 3.3)], was part of a cluster of 482 sJIA-associated SNPs that spanned a 400-kb region and included the class II HLA region. Conditional analysis controlling for the effect of rs151043342 found that rs12722051 independently influenced sJIA risk [P = 1.0 × 10−5, OR 0.7 (0.6, 0.8)]. Meta-analysis of imputed classic HLA-type associations in six study populations of Western European ancestry revealed that HLA-DRB1*11 and its defining amino acid residue, glutamate 58, were strongly associated with sJIA [P = 2.7 × 10−16, OR 2.3 (1.9, 2.8)], as was the HLA-DRB1*11—HLA-DQA1*05—HLA-DQB1*03 haplotype [6.4 × 10−17, OR 2.3 (1.9, 2.9)]. By examining the MHC locus in the largest collection of sJIA patients assembled to date, this study solidifies the relationship between the class II HLA region and sJIA, implicating adaptive immune molecules in the pathogenesis of sJIA. PMID:26598658

  1. Transport and intracellular distribution of MHC class II molecules and associated invariant chain in normal and antigen-processing mutant cell lines.

    PubMed

    Riberdy, J M; Avva, R R; Geuze, H J; Cresswell, P

    1994-06-01

    We have compared the intracellular transport and subcellular distribution of MHC class II-invariant chain complexes in a wild-type HLA-DR3 homozygous cell line and a mutant cell line, T2.DR3. The latter has a defect in antigen processing and accumulates HLA-DR3 molecules associated with an invariant chain-derived peptide (CLIP) rather than the normal complement of peptides derived from endocytosed proteins. We find that in the wild-type cells, CLIP is transiently associated with HLA-DR3 molecules, suggesting that the peptide is a normal class II-associated intermediate generated during proteolysis of the invariant chain. In the mutant cell line proteolysis of the invariant chain is less efficient, and HLA-DR3/CLIP complexes are generated much more slowly. Examination of the mutant cell line by immunoelectronmicroscopy shows that class II-invariant chain complexes accumulate intracellularly in large acidic vesicles which contain lysosomal markers, including beta-hexosaminidase, cathepsin D, and the lysosomal membrane protein CD63. The markers in these vesicles are identical to those seen in the class II-containing vesicles (MIICs) seen in the wild-type cells but the morphology is drastically different. The vesicles in the mutant cells are endocytic, as measured by the internalization of BSA-gold conjugates. The implication of these findings for antigen processing in general and the nature of the mutation in particular are discussed.

  2. Tissue-specific, inducible and functional expression of the E alpha d MHC class II gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkert, C A; Widera, G; Cowing, C; Heber-Katz, E; Palmiter, R D; Flavell, R A; Brinster, R L

    1985-01-01

    We have introduced the class II E alpha d gene into (C57BL/6 X SJL) F2 mice which do not express their endogenous E alpha gene. The mRNA expression of the E alpha d gene shows the same tissue distribution as the endogenous class II genes except in the case of one mouse, which carried 19 copies of the E alpha d gene. In this mouse expression of E alpha d mRNA was seen in all tissues tested. Expression of the transgene was induced by gamma-interferon in isolated macrophages from the transgenic mice. In addition, fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, mixed lymphocyte response and antigen-presentation experiments showed that the product of the transferred gene is expressed on the cell surface and functions as a major histocompatibility complex restriction element. Transmission of the gene occurred only with female transgenic mice, all males were infertile or did not transmit the gene, suggesting an effect of the transferred DNA sequence on male reproductive function. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3935430

  3. Antigen Presentation by MHC-Dressed Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as conventional dendritic cells (DCs) process protein antigens to MHC-bound peptides and then present the peptide–MHC complexes to T cells. In addition to this canonical antigen presentation pathway, recent studies have revealed that DCs and non-APCs can acquire MHC class I (MHCI) and/or MHC class II (MHCII) from neighboring cells through a process of cell–cell contact-dependent membrane transfer called trogocytosis. These MHC-dressed cells subsequently activate or regulate T cells via the preformed antigen peptide–MHC complexes without requiring any further processing. In addition to trogocytosis, intercellular transfer of MHCI and MHCII can be mediated by secretion of membrane vesicles such as exosomes from APCs, generating MHC-dressed cells. This review focuses on the physiological role of antigen presentation by MHCI- or MHCII-dressed cells, and also discusses differences and similarities between trogocytosis and exosome-mediated transfer of MHC. PMID:25601867

  4. CONSTRUCTION AND EXPRESSION OF DERMATOPHAGOIDES PTERONYSSINUS GROUP 1 MAJOR ALLERGEN T CELL FUSION EPITOPE PEPTIDE VACCINE VECTOR BASED ON THE MHC II PATHWAY.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaopin; Zhao, Beibei; Jiang, Yuxin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Lu, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Antecedentes y objetivo: el Dermatophagoides peteronyssinus es uno de los principales ácaros del polvo doméstico responsables del asma alérgica que se pueden administrar provisionalmente para una inmunoterapia específica. El presente estudio busca construir un vector que codifique epítopos de células T del grupo de alérgenos principal, el Grupo 1 de Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus como una vacuna suministrada mediante la vía MHC de clase II. Métodos: se sintetizaron las secuencias de nucleótidos de los 3 genes objetivo, incluyendo TAT, IhC y el fragmento recombinante de Der p 1 encargado de codificar 3 epítopos de célula T. Después de la amplificación de los 3 fragmentos objetivo por PCR y digestión con endonucleasas de restricción correspondientes, el gen recombinante TAT-IhC-Der p 1-3T se ligó usando T4 DNA ligasa y se insertó en el vector de expresión procariota pET28a (+) para construir el plásmido recombinante pET 28a (+)-TAT-IHC-Der p 1-3T, que se confirmó por digestión con endonucleasas de restricción y secuenciación. El vector recombinante se transformó en E. coli cepa BL21 (DE3) y se indujo con IPTG, y la proteína inducida TATIHC- Der p1-3T se detectó mediante SDS-PAGE. Después de la purificación, la proteina recombinante se confirmó por análisis de inmunotransferencia (Western blot) y se probó su alergenicidad usando el ensayo de unión a IgE. Resultados: el plásmido recombinante pET-28a-TATIHCDer p1-3T se construyó con éxito, se confirmó por digestión con endonucleasas de restricción y la secuenciación y la expresión de la proteína recombinante TAT-IHCDer p1-3T fue inducida en E. coli. Purificación con éxito verificada mediante Western blot de la proteína objetivo, que mostró una capacidad de unión a IgE más fuerte que Der p1. Conclusión: hemos construido con éxito el vector de expresión recombinante pET-28a-TAT-IHC-Der p1-3T que expresa una vacuna de epítopo de células T administrada por vía MHC II con

  5. Genomic organization of the crested ibis MHC provides new insight into ancestral avian MHC structure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Cheng; Lan, Hong; Sun, Li; Deng, Yan-Li; Tang, Ke-Yi; Wan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in immune response. Avian MHCs are not well characterized, only reporting highly compact Galliformes MHCs and extensively fragmented zebra finch MHC. We report the first genomic structure of an endangered Pelecaniformes (crested ibis) MHC containing 54 genes in three regions spanning ~500 kb. In contrast to the loose BG (26 loci within 265 kb) and Class I (11 within 150) genomic structures, the Core Region is condensed (17 within 85). Furthermore, this Region exhibits a COL11A2 gene, followed by four tandem MHC class II αβ dyads retaining two suites of anciently duplicated “αβ” lineages. Thus, the crested ibis MHC structure is entirely different from the known avian MHC architectures but similar to that of mammalian MHCs, suggesting that the fundamental structure of ancestral avian class II MHCs should be “COL11A2-IIαβ1-IIαβ2.” The gene structures, residue characteristics, and expression levels of the five class I genes reveal inter-locus functional divergence. However, phylogenetic analysis indicates that these five genes generate a well-supported intra-species clade, showing evidence for recent duplications. Our analyses suggest dramatic structural variation among avian MHC lineages, help elucidate avian MHC evolution, and provide a foundation for future conservation studies. PMID:25608659

  6. Prevention of soya-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) by bacteria grown on natural gas is dose dependent and related to epithelial MHC II reactivity and CD8α+ intraepithelial lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Romarheim, Odd H; Hetland, Dyveke L; Skrede, Anders; Øverland, Margareth; Mydland, Liv T; Landsverk, Thor

    2013-03-28

    An experiment was carried out to study the preventive effect of bacterial meal (BM) produced from natural gas against plant-induced enteropathy in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Salmon were fed a diet based on fish meal (FM) or seven diets with 200 g/kg solvent-extracted soyabean meal (SBM) to induce enteritis in combination with increasing levels of BM from 0 to 300 g/kg. Salmon fed a SBM-containing diet without BM developed typical SBM-induced enteritis. The enteritis gradually disappeared with increasing inclusion of BM. By morphometry, no significant (P>0.05) differences in the size of stretches stained for proliferating cell nuclear antigen were found with 150 g/kg BM compared with the FM diet. Increasing BM inclusion caused a gradual decline in the number of cluster of differentiation 8 α positive (CD8α+) intraepithelial lymphocytes, and fish fed BM at 200 g/kg or higher revealed no significant difference from the FM diet. Histological sections stained with antibody for MHC class II (MHC II) showed that fish with intestinal inflammation had more MHC II-reactive cells in the lamina propria and submucosa, but less in the epithelium and brush border, compared with fish without inflammation. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences in growth among the diets, but the highest levels of BM slightly reduced protein digestibility and increased the weight of the distal intestine. In conclusion, the prevention of SBM-induced enteritis by BM is dose dependent and related to intestinal levels of MHC II- and CD8α-reactive cells.

  7. MHC II tetramers visualize human CD4+ T cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus infection and demonstrate atypical kinetics of the nuclear antigen EBNA1 response.

    PubMed

    Long, Heather M; Chagoury, Odette L; Leese, Alison M; Ryan, Gordon B; James, Eddie; Morton, Laura T; Abbott, Rachel J M; Sabbah, Shereen; Kwok, William; Rickinson, Alan B

    2013-05-01

    Virus-specific CD4(+) T cells are key orchestrators of host responses to viral infection yet, compared with their CD8(+) T cell counterparts, remain poorly characterized at the single cell level. Here we use nine MHC II-epitope peptide tetramers to visualize human CD4(+) T cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), a disease associated with large virus-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. We find that, while not approaching virus-specific CD8(+) T cell expansions in magnitude, activated CD4(+) T cells specific for epitopes in the latent antigen EBNA2 and four lytic cycle antigens are detected at high frequencies in acute IM blood. They then fall rapidly to values typical of life-long virus carriage where most tetramer-positive cells display conventional memory markers but some, unexpectedly, revert to a naive-like phenotype. In contrast CD4(+) T cell responses to EBNA1 epitopes are greatly delayed in IM patients, in line with the well-known but hitherto unexplained delay in EBNA1 IgG antibody responses. We present evidence from an in vitro system that may explain these unusual kinetics. Unlike other EBNAs and lytic cycle proteins, EBNA1 is not naturally released from EBV-infected cells as a source of antigen for CD4(+) T cell priming. PMID:23569328

  8. Exogenous heat shock protein 70 binds macrophage lipid raft microdomain and stimulates phagocytosis, processing, and MHC-II presentation of antigens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruibo; Kovalchin, Joseph T; Muhlenkamp, Peggy; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2006-02-15

    The extracellular presence of endotoxin-free heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) enhances the rate and capacity of macrophage-mediated phagocytosis at 6 times the basal rate. It is protein-specific, dose- and time-dependent and involves the internalization of inert microspheres, Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and fungi. Structurally, exogenous HSP70 binds the macrophage plasma membrane, specifically on its lipid raft-microdomain. Disruption of lipid rafts, HSP70-LR interaction, or denaturing HSP70 abrogates the HSP-mediated increase in phagocytosis. Further, HSP70-mediated phagocytosis directly enhances the processing and presentation of internalized antigens via the endocytic MHC class-II pathway to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Modulating the HSP70-LR interaction presents an opportunity to intervene at the level of host-pathogen interface: a therapeutic tool for emerging infections, especially when conventional treatment with antibiotics is ineffective (antibiotic resistance) or unavailable (rapidly spreading, endemic). These results identify a new role for HSP70, a highly conserved molecule in stimulating phagocytosis: a primordial macrophage function, thereby influencing both innate and adaptive immune responses.

  9. Regulation of SIV Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cellular Immunity via Autophagosome-Mediated MHC II Molecule-Targeting Antigen Presentation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Liqiang; Li, Pingchao; Xiao, Lijun; Ren, Yizhong; Wang, Dimin; Li, Chufang; Chen, Ling

    2014-01-01

    CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity has increasingly received attention due to its contribution in the control of HIV viral replication; therefore, it is of great significance to improve CD4+ T cell responses to enhance the efficacy of HIV vaccines. Recent studies have suggested that macroautophagy plays a crucial role in modulating adaptive immune responses toward CD4+ T cells or CD8+ T cells. In the present study, a new strategy based on a macroautophagy degradation mechanism is investigated to enhance CD4+ T cell responses against the HIV/SIV gag antigen. Our results showed that when fused to the autophagosome-associated LC3b protein, SIVgag protein can be functionally targeted to autophagosomes, processed by autophagy-mediated degradation in autolysosomes/lysosomes, presented to MHC II compartments and elicit effective potential CD4 T cell responses in vitro. Importantly, compared with the SIVgag protein alone, SIVgag-LC3b fusion antigen can induce a stronger antigen-specific CD4+ T cell response in mice, which is characterized by an enhanced magnitude and polyfunctionality. This study provides insight for the immunological modulation between viral and mammalian cells via autophagy, and it also presents an alternative strategy for the design of new antigens in the development of effective HIV vaccines. PMID:24671203

  10. T-helper cell-response to MHC class II-binding peptides of the renal cell carcinoma-associated antigen RAGE-1.

    PubMed

    Stassar, M J; Raddrizzani, L; Hammer, J; Zöller, M

    2001-08-01

    Recently, epitope prediction software for HLA-DR binding sequences has become available. In view of the importance of T helper (Th) cell activation in immunotherapy of cancer and evidences supporting immunogenicity of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we have tested 4 peptides of RAGE-1 binding promiscuously to HLA-DR molecules for induction of an immune response. The peptides predicted by the TEPITOPE program using a stringent threshold were derived from the open reading frame 2 and 5 of RAGE-1. Induction of response was evaluated by culturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the presence of peptide-loaded dendritic cells (DC) to determine proliferative activity and cytokine expression. Two out of 5 donors did not respond to any of the 4 peptides, 2 donors responded to one peptide and one donor responded to two other peptides. Notably, as revealed by blocking studies and T cell subtype definition, peptides bound to MHC class II molecules and peptide pulsed DC exclusively activated CD4+ T cells, which were of the Th1 subtype. With respect to clinical application it is important that (un)responsiveness of individual donors' PBMC was a very consistent feature. Though we have not tested explicitly whether these peptides correspond to naturally processed peptides, the possibility to define those patients whose Th might respond to in silico predicted peptides of RAGE-1, by an in vitro assay, could well be a helpful step towards setting up a RAGE-1 based immunotherapeutic protocol.

  11. An immunocytochemical study of pulpal responses to cavity preparation by laser ablation in rat molars by using antibodies to heat shock protein (Hsp) 25 and class II MHC antigen.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Nomura, Shuichi; Maeda, Takeyasu; Ohshima, Hayato

    2004-03-01

    Initial responses of odontoblasts and immunocompetent cells to cavity preparation by laser ablation were investigated in rat molars. In untreated control teeth, intense heat shock protein (Hsp) 25 immunoreactivity was found in the cell bodies of odontoblasts, whereas cells immunopositive for the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen were predominantly located beneath the odontoblast layer in the dental pulp. Cavity preparation caused the destruction of the odontoblast layer and the shift of most class-II-MHC-positive cells from the pulp-dentin border toward the pulp core at the affected site. Twelve hours after cavity preparation, numerous class-II-MHC-positive cells appeared along the pulp-dentin border and extended their processes deep into the exposed dentinal tubules, but subsequently disappeared from the pulp-dentin border together with Hsp-25-immunopositive cells by 24 h after the operation. By 3-5 days postoperation, distinct abscess formation consisting of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was found in the dental pulp. The penetration of masses of oral bacteria was recognizable in the dentinal tubules beneath the prepared cavity. These findings indicate that cavity preparation by laser ablation induces remarkable inflammation by continuous bacterial infections via dentinal tubules in this experimental model, thereby delaying pulpal regeneration.

  12. MHC-disassortative mate choice and inbreeding avoidance in a solitary primate.

    PubMed

    Huchard, Elise; Baniel, Alice; Schliehe-Diecks, Susanne; Kappeler, Peter M

    2013-08-01

    Sexual selection theory suggests that choice for partners carrying dissimilar genes at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may play a role in maintaining genetic variation in animal populations by limiting inbreeding or improving the immunity of future offspring. However, it is often difficult to establish whether the observed MHC dissimilarity among mates drives mate choice or represents a by-product of inbreeding avoidance based on MHC-independent cues. Here, we used 454-sequencing and a 10-year study of wild grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus), small, solitary primates from western Madagascar, to compare the relative importance on the mate choice of two MHC class II genes, DRB and DQB, that are equally variable but display contrasting patterns of selection at the molecular level, with DRB under stronger diversifying selection. We further assessed the effect of the genetic relatedness and of the spatial distance among candidate mates on the detection of MHC-dependent mate choice. Our results reveal inbreeding avoidance, along with disassortative mate choice at DRB, but not at DQB. DRB-disassortative mate choice remains detectable after excluding all related dyads (characterized by a relatedness coefficient r > 0), but varies slightly with the spatial distance among candidate mates. These findings suggest that the observed deviations from random mate choice at MHC are driven by functionally important MHC genes (like DRB) rather than passively resulting from inbreeding avoidance and further emphasize the need for taking into account the spatial and genetic structure of the population in correlative tests of MHC-dependent mate choice.

  13. NLRC5: a key regulator of MHC class I-dependent immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Koichi S; van den Elsen, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    The expression of MHC class I molecules is crucial for the initiation and regulation of adaptive immune responses against pathogens. NOD-, LRR- and CARD-containing 5 (NLRC5) was recently identified as a specific transactivator of MHC class I genes (CITA). NLRC5 and the master regulator for MHC class II genes, class II transactivator (CIITA), interact with similar MHC promoter-bound factors. Here, we provide a broad overview of the molecular mechanisms behind MHC class I transcription and the role of the class I transactivator NLRC5 in MHC class I-dependent immune responses.

  14. MHC class II transactivator represses human IL-4 gene transcription by interruption of promoter binding with CBP/p300, STAT6 and NFAT1 via histone hypoacetylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaorong; Jiang, Yang; Lu, Liming; Ding, Qing; Jiao, Zhijun; Zhou, Yun; Xin, Lijun; Chou, Kuang-Yen

    2007-01-01

    In addition to its property of enhancing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression, the class II transactivator (CIITA) was recently demonstrated to be involved in T helper type 1/type 2 (Th1/Th2) differentiation by regulating interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene transcription. There was however, controversy regarding whether CIITA promotes or suppresses IL-4 expression in the experiments with transgenic mice. To clarify the discrepancy by using simpler experimental systems, human Jurkat T cells that express IL-4 but not interferon-γ, even if stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin, were used for CIITA transfection. Significant suppression of IL-4 gene expression was demonstrated. Simultaneously, histones H3 and H4 in the IL-4 promoter were hypoacetylated. The suppression could be totally reversed by the histone deacetylatase inhibitor trichostatin A. Furthermore, the IL-4 expression was determined in primarily established human Th1/Th2 cells to which CIITA small interference RNA (siRNA) had been introduced. A substantially increased level of IL-4 was recorded in the CIITA siRNA-transfected Th1 cells, which was in parallel with significantly enhanced acetylation in histone H3 of the IL-4 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that CIITA abrogated the binding of coactivator CBP/p300 and transcription factors STAT6/NFAT1 to IL-4 promoter in the CIITA-transfected cells. In conclusion, CIITA was active in the repression of transcription activation of human IL-4 gene in both the T-cell line and the primary human CD4 T cells by preventing transcription factors from binding to IL-4 promoter through histone hypoacetylation. Our data confirm a potential significant role of CIITA in controlling Th1/Th2 differentiation via modulation of IL-4 gene activation. PMID:17645498

  15. Ligand-independent activation of the glucocorticoid receptor by ursodeoxycholic acid: Repression of IFN-{gamma}-induced MHC class II gene expression via a glucocorticoid receptor-dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Hirotoshi; Makino, Yuichi; Miura, Takanori

    1996-02-15

    The therapeutic effectiveness of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) for various autoimmune liver diseases strongly indicates that UDCA possesses immunomodulatory activities. Experimental evidence also supports this notion, since, for example, UDCA has been shown to suppress secretion of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-{gamma} from activated T lymphocytes, and Ig production from B lymphocytes. To investigate the mechanical background of UDCA-mediated immunomodulation, we asked whether UDCA interacts with the intracellular signal transduction pathway, especially whether it is involved in immunosuppressive glucocorticoid hormone action. For this purpose, we used a cloned Chinese hamster ovary cell line, CHOpMTGR, in which glucocorticoid receptor cDNA was stably integrated. In immunocytochemical analysis, we found that treatment with UDCA promoted the nuclear translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor in a ligand-independent fashion, which was further confirmed by immunoprecipitation assays. Moreover, the translocated glucocorticoid receptor demonstrated sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Transient transfection experiments revealed that treatment of the cells with UDCA marginally enhanced glucocorticoid-responsive gene expression. We also showed that UDCA suppressed IFN-{gamma}-mediated induction of MHC class II gene expression via the glucocorticoid receptor-mediated pathway. Together, UDCA-dependent promotion of translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor may be associated with, at least in part, its immunomodulatory action through glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene regulation. 68 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Primordial linkage of β2-microglobulin to the MHC.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yuko; Shiina, Takashi; Lohr, Rebecca L; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Pollin, Toni I; Heist, Edward J; Suzuki, Shingo; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Flajnik, Martin F

    2011-03-15

    β2-Microglobulin (β2M) is believed to have arisen in a basal jawed vertebrate (gnathostome) and is the essential L chain that associates with most MHC class I molecules. It contains a distinctive molecular structure called a constant-1 Ig superfamily domain, which is shared with other adaptive immune molecules including MHC class I and class II. Despite its structural similarity to class I and class II and its conserved function, β2M is encoded outside the MHC in all examined species from bony fish to mammals, but it is assumed to have translocated from its original location within the MHC early in gnathostome evolution. We screened a nurse shark bacterial artificial chromosome library and isolated clones containing β2M genes. A gene present in the MHC of all other vertebrates (ring3) was found in the bacterial artificial chromosome clone, and the close linkage of ring3 and β2M to MHC class I and class II genes was determined by single-strand conformational polymorphism and allele-specific PCR. This study satisfies the long-held conjecture that β2M was linked to the primordial MHC (Ur MHC); furthermore, the apparent stability of the shark genome may yield other genes predicted to have had a primordial association with the MHC specifically and with immunity in general.

  17. Induction of antigen-presenting capacity in tumor cells upon infection with non-replicating recombinant vaccinia virus encoding murine MHC class II and costimulatory molecules.

    PubMed

    Marti, W R; Oertli, D; Meko, J B; Norton, J A; Tsung, K

    1997-01-15

    The possibility of inducing antigen-presenting capacity in cells normally lacking such capacity, currently represents a major goal in vaccine research. To address this issue we attempted to generate 'artificial' APC able to stimulate CD4+ T cell responses when tumor cells were infected with a single, recombinant, vaccinia virus (rVV) containing the two genes encoding murine MHC class II I-Ak and a third gene encoding the murine B7-1 (mB7-1) costimulatory molecule. To minimize the cytopathic effect and to improve safety, in view of possible in vivo applications, we made this rVV replication incompetent by Psoralen and long wave UV treatment. Tumor cells infected with rVV encoding I-Ak alone, pulsed with hen egg white lysozyme peptide (HEL46-61), induced IL-2 secretion by an antigen-specific T hybridoma. Tumor cells infected with the rVV encoding mB7-1 provided costimulation for activating resting CD4+ T cells in the presence of ConA. Tumor cells infected with the rVV encoding I-Ak and mB7-1, and pulsed with chicken ovotransferrin peptide (conalbumin133-145), induced a significantly higher response in a specific Th2 cell clone (D10.G4.1) as compared to cells infected with rVV encoding I-Ak molecules only. Thus, this replication incompetent rVV represents a safe, multiple gene, vector system able to confer in one single infection step effective APC capacity to non-professional APCs.

  18. Peptide-specific T helper cells identified by MHC class II tetramers differentiate into several subtypes upon immunization with CAF01 adjuvanted H56 tuberculosis vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Prota, Gennaro; Christensen, Dennis; Andersen, Peter; Medaglini, Donata; Ciabattini, Annalisa

    2015-11-27

    CD4(+) T-cell priming is an essential step in vaccination due to the key role of T helper cells in driving both effector and memory immune responses. Here we have characterized in C57BL/6 mice the T helper subtype differentiation among tetramer-specific CD4(+) T cells primed by subcutaneous immunization with the tuberculosis vaccine antigen H56 plus the adjuvant CAF01. Peptide-specific population identified by the MHC class II tetramers differentiated into several T helper subtypes upon antigen encounter, and the frequency of subpopulations differed according to their localization. Th1 (CXCR3(+)T-bet(+)), Tfh (CXCR5(+)PD-1(+)Bcl-6(+)) and RORγt(+) cells were induced in the lymph nodes draining the immunization site (dLN), while Th1 cells were the predominant subtype in the spleen. In addition, CD4(+) T cells co-expressing multiple T-cell lineage-specifying transcription factors were also detected. In the lungs, most of the tetramer-binding T cells were RORγt(+), while Tfh and Th1 cells were absent. After boosting, a higher frequency of tetramer-binding cells co-expressing the markers CD44 and CD127 was detected compared to primed cells, and cells showed a prevalent Th1 phenotype in both dLN and spleens, while Tfh cells were significantly reduced. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that parenteral immunization with H56 and CAF01 elicits a distribution of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells in both lymphoid tissues and lungs, and gives rise to multiple T helper subtypes, that differ depending on localization and following reactivation.

  19. Role of chain pairing for the production of functional soluble IA major histocompatibility complex class II molecules

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Structural studies of cellular receptor molecules involved in immune recognition require the production of large quantities of the extracellular domains of these glycoproteins. The murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted response has been extensively studied by functional means, but the engineering and purification of the native, empty form of the most-studied murine MHC class II molecule, IA, has been difficult to achieve. IA molecules, which are the murine equivalent of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-DQ molecules, have a low efficiency of chain pairing, which results in poor transport to the cell surface and in the appearance of mixed isotype pairs. We have engineered soluble IA molecules whose pairing has been forced by the addition of leucine zipper peptide dimers at their COOH-terminus. The molecules are secreted "empty" into the extracellular medium and can be loaded with single peptide after purification. These IA molecules have been expressed in milligram quantity for crystallization as well as for activation of T cells and measurement of MHC class II-T cell receptor interactions. PMID:8642319

  20. Towards the MHC-peptide combinatorics.

    PubMed

    Kangueane, P; Sakharkar, M K; Kolatkar, P R; Ren, E C

    2001-05-01

    The exponentially increased sequence information on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles points to the existence of a high degree of polymorphism within them. To understand the functional consequences of MHC alleles, 36 nonredundant MHC-peptide complexes in the protein data bank (PDB) were examined. Induced fit molecular recognition patterns such as those in MHC-peptide complexes are governed by numerous rules. The 36 complexes were clustered into 19 subgroups based on allele specificity and peptide length. The subgroups were further analyzed for identifying common features in MHC-peptide binding pattern. The four major observations made during the investigation were: (1) the positional preference of peptide residues defined by percentage burial upon complex formation is shown for all the 19 subgroups and the burial profiles within entries in a given subgroup are found to be similar; (2) in class I specific 8- and 9-mer peptides, the fourth residue is consistently solvent exposed, however this observation is not consistent in class I specific 10-mer peptides; (3) an anchor-shift in positional preference is observed towards the C terminal as the peptide length increases in class II specific peptides; and (4) peptide backbone atoms are proportionately dominant at the MHC-peptide interface.

  1. Comparative genome analyses reveal distinct structure in the saltwater crocodile MHC.

    PubMed

    Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Deakin, Janine; Godinez, Ricardo M; Shan, Xueyan; Peterson, Daniel G; Marthey, Sylvain; Lyons, Eric; McCarthy, Fiona M; Isberg, Sally R; Higgins, Damien P; Chong, Amanda Y; John, John St; Glenn, Travis C; Ray, David A; Gongora, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a dynamic genome region with an essential role in the adaptive immunity of vertebrates, especially antigen presentation. The MHC is generally divided into subregions (classes I, II and III) containing genes of similar function across species, but with different gene number and organisation. Crocodylia (crocodilians) are widely distributed and represent an evolutionary distinct group among higher vertebrates, but the genomic organisation of MHC within this lineage has been largely unexplored. Here, we studied the MHC region of the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and compared it with that of other taxa. We characterised genomic clusters encompassing MHC class I and class II genes in the saltwater crocodile based on sequencing of bacterial artificial chromosomes. Six gene clusters spanning ∼452 kb were identified to contain nine MHC class I genes, six MHC class II genes, three TAP genes, and a TRIM gene. These MHC class I and class II genes were in separate scaffold regions and were greater in length (2-6 times longer) than their counterparts in well-studied fowl B loci, suggesting that the compaction of avian MHC occurred after the crocodilian-avian split. Comparative analyses between the saltwater crocodile MHC and that from the alligator and gharial showed large syntenic areas (>80% identity) with similar gene order. Comparisons with other vertebrates showed that the saltwater crocodile had MHC class I genes located along with TAP, consistent with birds studied. Linkage between MHC class I and TRIM39 observed in the saltwater crocodile resembled MHC in eutherians compared, but absent in avian MHC, suggesting that the saltwater crocodile MHC appears to have gene organisation intermediate between these two lineages. These observations suggest that the structure of the saltwater crocodile MHC, and other crocodilians, can help determine the MHC that was present in the ancestors of archosaurs.

  2. Comparative Genome Analyses Reveal Distinct Structure in the Saltwater Crocodile MHC

    PubMed Central

    Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Deakin, Janine; Godinez, Ricardo M.; Shan, Xueyan; Peterson, Daniel G.; Marthey, Sylvain; Lyons, Eric; McCarthy, Fiona M.; Isberg, Sally R.; Higgins, Damien P.; Chong, Amanda Y.; John, John St; Glenn, Travis C.; Ray, David A.; Gongora, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a dynamic genome region with an essential role in the adaptive immunity of vertebrates, especially antigen presentation. The MHC is generally divided into subregions (classes I, II and III) containing genes of similar function across species, but with different gene number and organisation. Crocodylia (crocodilians) are widely distributed and represent an evolutionary distinct group among higher vertebrates, but the genomic organisation of MHC within this lineage has been largely unexplored. Here, we studied the MHC region of the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and compared it with that of other taxa. We characterised genomic clusters encompassing MHC class I and class II genes in the saltwater crocodile based on sequencing of bacterial artificial chromosomes. Six gene clusters spanning ∼452 kb were identified to contain nine MHC class I genes, six MHC class II genes, three TAP genes, and a TRIM gene. These MHC class I and class II genes were in separate scaffold regions and were greater in length (2–6 times longer) than their counterparts in well-studied fowl B loci, suggesting that the compaction of avian MHC occurred after the crocodilian-avian split. Comparative analyses between the saltwater crocodile MHC and that from the alligator and gharial showed large syntenic areas (>80% identity) with similar gene order. Comparisons with other vertebrates showed that the saltwater crocodile had MHC class I genes located along with TAP, consistent with birds studied. Linkage between MHC class I and TRIM39 observed in the saltwater crocodile resembled MHC in eutherians compared, but absent in avian MHC, suggesting that the saltwater crocodile MHC appears to have gene organisation intermediate between these two lineages. These observations suggest that the structure of the saltwater crocodile MHC, and other crocodilians, can help determine the MHC that was present in the ancestors of archosaurs. PMID:25503521

  3. Immune Tolerance Induction against Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) Using A New PLP-B7AP Conjugate that Simultaneously Targets B7/CD28 Costimulatory Signal and TCR/MHC-II Signal

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Ahmed H; Kiptoo, Paul; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2015-01-01

    Most of the current therapies used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) are either ineffective or have adverse side effects. As such, there is a need to develop better therapies that specifically target myelin-specific aberrant immune cells involved in CNS inflammation without compromising the general immune system. In the present study, we developed a new bifunctional peptide inhibitor (BPI) that is effective and specific. Our BPI (PLP-B7AP) is composed of an antigenic peptide from myelin proteolipid protein (PLP139–151) and a B7 antisense peptide (B7AP) derived from CD28 receptor. The main hypothesis is that PLP-B7AP simultaneously targets MHC-II and B7-costimulatory molecules on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC) and possibly alters the differentiation of naïve T cells from inflammatory to regulatory phenotypes. Results showed that PLP-B7AP was very effective in suppressing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) compared to various controls in a mouse model. PLP-B7AP was effective when administered both before and after disease induction. Secreted cytokines from splenocytes isolated during periods of high disease severity and remission indicated that PLP-B7AP treatment induced an increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Further, analysis of cortical brain tissue sections showed that PLP-B7AP treated mice had significantly lower demyelination compared to the control group. All these taken together indicate that the T cell receptor (TCR) and the CD28 receptor can be targeted simultaneously to improve efficacy and specificity of potential MS therapeutics. PMID:26140285

  4. MHC associations with clinical and autoantibody manifestations in European SLE.

    PubMed

    Morris, D L; Fernando, M M A; Taylor, K E; Chung, S A; Nititham, J; Alarcón-Riquelme, M E; Barcellos, L F; Behrens, T W; Cotsapas, C; Gaffney, P M; Graham, R R; Pons-Estel, B A; Gregersen, P K; Harley, J B; Hauser, S L; Hom, G; Langefeld, C D; Noble, J A; Rioux, J D; Seldin, M F; Vyse, T J; Criswell, L A

    2014-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically heterogeneous disease affecting multiple organ systems and characterized by autoantibody formation to nuclear components. Although genetic variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is associated with SLE, its role in the development of clinical manifestations and autoantibody production is not well defined. We conducted a meta-analysis of four independent European SLE case collections for associations between SLE sub-phenotypes and MHC single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypes, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and variant HLA amino acids. Of the 11 American College of Rheumatology criteria and 7 autoantibody sub-phenotypes examined, anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibody subsets exhibited the highest number and most statistically significant associations. HLA-DRB1*03:01 was significantly associated with both sub-phenotypes. We found evidence of associations independent of MHC class II variants in the anti-Ro subset alone. Conditional analyses showed that anti-Ro and anti-La subsets are independently associated with HLA-DRB1*0301, and that the HLA-DRB1*03:01 association with SLE is largely but not completely driven by the association of this allele with these sub-phenotypes. Our results provide strong evidence for a multilevel risk model for HLA-DRB1*03:01 in SLE, where the association with anti-Ro and anti-La antibody-positive SLE is much stronger than SLE without these autoantibodies.

  5. Natural selection of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) in Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, S.I.; Tarr, C.L.; Mcintosh, C.E.; Atkinson, C.T.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    The native Hawaiian honeycreepers represent a classic example of adaptive radiation and speciation, but currently face one the highest extinction rates in the world. Although multiple factors have likely influenced the fate of Hawaiian birds, the relatively recent introduction of avian malaria is thought to be a major factor limiting honeycreeper distribution and abundance. We have initiated genetic analyses of class II ?? chain Mhc genes in four species of honeycreepers using methods that eliminate the possibility of sequencing mosaic variants formed by cloning heteroduplexed polymerase chain reaction products. Phylogenetic analyses group the honeycreeper Mhc sequences into two distinct clusters. Variation within one cluster is high, with dN > d S and levels of diversity similar to other studies of Mhc (B system) genes in birds. The second cluster is nearly invariant and includes sequences from honeycreepers (Fringillidae), a sparrow (Emberizidae) and a blackbird (Emberizidae). This highly conserved cluster appears reminiscent of the independently segregating Rfp-Y system of genes defined in chickens. The notion that balancing selection operates at the Mhc in the honeycreepers is supported by transpecies polymorphism and strikingly high dN/dS ratios at codons putatively involved in peptide interaction. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences were invariant in the i'iwi, but were highly variable in the 'amakihi. By contrast, levels of variability of class II ?? chain Mhc sequence codons that are hypothesized to be directly involved in peptide interactions appear comparable between i'iwi and 'amakihi. In the i'iwi, natural selection may have maintained variation within the Mhc, even in the face of what appears to a genetic bottleneck.

  6. CDF II production farm project

    SciTech Connect

    Baranovski, A.; Benjamin, D.; Cooper, G.; Farrington, S.; Genser, K.; Hou, S.; Hsieh, T.; Kotwal, A.; Lipeles, E.; Murat, P.; Norman, M.; /Fermilab /Duke U. /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /UC, San Diego /Glasgow U. /Frascati

    2006-12-01

    We describe the architecture and discuss our operational experience in running the off-line reconstruction farm of the CDFII experiment. The Linux PC-based farm performs a wide set of tasks,ranging from producing calibrations and primary event reconstruction to large scale ntuple production.The farm control software uses a standard Condor toolkit and the data handling part is based on SAM (Sequential Access via Metadata)software.During its lifetime,the CDFII experiment will integrate a large amount of data (several petabytes)and the data processing chain is one of the key components of the successful physics program of the experiment.

  7. MHC heterozygosity and survival in red junglefowl.

    PubMed

    Worley, Kirsty; Collet, Julie; Spurgin, Lewis G; Cornwallis, Charlie; Pizzari, Tommaso; Richardson, David S

    2010-08-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) form a vital part of the vertebrate immune system and play a major role in pathogen resistance. The extremely high levels of polymorphism observed at the MHC are hypothesised to be driven by pathogen-mediated selection. Although the exact nature of selection remains unclear, three main hypotheses have been put forward; heterozygote advantage, negative frequency-dependence and fluctuating selection. Here, we report the effects of MHC genotype on survival in a cohort of semi-natural red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) that suffered severe mortality as a result of an outbreak of the disease coccidiosis. The cohort was followed from hatching until 250 days of age, approximately the age of sexual maturity in this species, during which time over 80% of the birds died. We show that on average birds with MHC heterozygote genotypes survived infection longer than homozygotes and that this effect was independent of genome-wide heterozygosity, estimated across microsatellite loci. This MHC effect appeared to be caused by a single susceptible haplotype (CD_c) the effect of which was masked in all heterozygote genotypes by other dominant haplotypes. The CD_c homozygous genotype had lower survival than all other genotypes, but CD_c heterozygous genotypes had survival probabilities equal to the most resistant homozygote genotype. Importantly, no heterozygotes conferred greater resistance than the most resistant homozygote genotype, indicating that the observed survival advantage of MHC heterozygotes was the product of dominant, rather than overdominant processes. This pattern and effect of MHC diversity in our population could reflect the processes ongoing in similarly small, fragmented natural populations. PMID:20618904

  8. Heavy flavor production in CDF II detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelov, Igor V.; /New Mexico U.

    2006-01-01

    For data collected with the CDF Run II detector, measurements of the charm and bottom production cross-sections are presented. The results are based both on large samples of fully reconstructed hadron decay products of charm and bottom made available by the tracking triggers and on a calorimeter jet triggered sample tagged by the presence of a secondary vertex. The experimental data are compared with theoretical predictions from recent next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD calculations.

  9. Sex-associated expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, and accessory molecules, PDL-1, PDL-2 and MHC-II, in F480+ macrophages during murine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Togno-Peirce, Cristián; Nava-Castro, Karen; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are critically involved in the interaction between T. crassiceps and the murine host immune system. Also, a strong gender-associated susceptibility to murine cysticercosis has been reported. Here, we examined the sex-associated expression of molecules MHC-II, CD80, CD86, PD-L1, and PD-L2 on peritoneal F4/80(hi) macrophages of BALB/c mice infected with Taenia crassiceps. Peritoneal macrophages from both sexes of mice were exposed to T. crassiceps total extract (TcEx). BALB/c Females mice recruit higher number of macrophages to the peritoneum. Macrophages from infected animals show increased expression of PDL2 and CD80 that was dependent from the sex of the host. These findings suggest that macrophage recruitment at early time points during T. crassiceps infection is a possible mechanism that underlies the differential sex-associated susceptibility displayed by the mouse gender.

  10. Sex-Associated Expression of Co-Stimulatory Molecules CD80, CD86, and Accessory Molecules, PDL-1, PDL-2 and MHC-II, in F480+ Macrophages during Murine Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Togno-Peirce, Cristián; Nava-Castro, Karen; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are critically involved in the interaction between T. crassiceps and the murine host immune system. Also, a strong gender-associated susceptibility to murine cysticercosis has been reported. Here, we examined the sex-associated expression of molecules MHC-II, CD80, CD86, PD-L1, and PD-L2 on peritoneal F4/80hi macrophages of BALB/c mice infected with Taenia crassiceps. Peritoneal macrophages from both sexes of mice were exposed to T. crassiceps total extract (TcEx). BALB/c Females mice recruit higher number of macrophages to the peritoneum. Macrophages from infected animals show increased expression of PDL2 and CD80 that was dependent from the sex of the host. These findings suggest that macrophage recruitment at early time points during T. crassiceps infection is a possible mechanism that underlies the differential sex-associated susceptibility displayed by the mouse gender. PMID:23533995

  11. Differential scanning fluorimetry based assessments of the thermal and kinetic stability of peptide-MHC complexes.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Lance M; Yin, Liusong; Wang, Yuan; Blevins, Sydney J; Riley, Timothy P; Belden, Orrin S; Spear, Timothy T; Nishimura, Michael I; Stern, Lawrence J; Baker, Brian M

    2016-05-01

    Measurements of thermal stability by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy have been widely used to assess the binding of peptides to MHC proteins, particularly within the structural immunology community. Although thermal stability assays offer advantages over other approaches such as IC50 measurements, CD-based stability measurements are hindered by large sample requirements and low throughput. Here we demonstrate that an alternative approach based on differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) yields results comparable to those based on CD for both class I and class II complexes. As they require much less sample, DSF-based measurements reduce demands on protein production strategies and are amenable for high throughput studies. DSF can thus not only replace CD as a means to assess peptide/MHC thermal stability, but can complement other peptide-MHC binding assays used in screening, epitope discovery, and vaccine design. Due to the physical process probed, DSF can also uncover complexities not observed with other techniques. Lastly, we show that DSF can also be used to assess peptide/MHC kinetic stability, allowing for a single experimental setup to probe both binding equilibria and kinetics. PMID:26906089

  12. Association between the MHC gene region and variation of serum IgE levels against specific mould allergens in the horse

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether the equine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene region influences the production of mould-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), alleles of the equine leukocyte antigen (ELA-A) locus and three microsatellite markers (UM-011, HTG-05 and HMS-42) located on the same chromosome as the equine MHC were determined in 448 Lipizzan horses. Statistical analyses based on composite models, showed significant associations of the ELA-A and UM-011 loci with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 7 antigen (rAsp f 7). UM-011 was also significantly associated with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 8 antigen (rAsp f 8). In addition to the loci mentioned above, the MHC class II DQA and DRA loci were determined in 76 Lipizzans from one stud. For IgE levels against rAsp f 7, the composite model showed the strongest association for DQA (P < 0.01) while for rAsp f 8 specific IgE levels, similarly to the results found with all 448 horses, the strongest association was found with UM-011 (P = 0.01), which is closely linked with the MHC class II DRB locus. These results suggest that the equine MHC gene region and possibly MHC class II loci, influence the specific IgE response in the horse. However, although the strongest associations were found with DQA and UM-011, this study did not distinguish if the observed effects were due to the MHC itself or to other tightly linked genes. PMID:12927090

  13. Both man & bird & beast: Comparative organization of MHC genes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowsdale, J.

    1995-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the center of the immune universe. Genes in the MHC determine which antigens are processed and presented. Not surprisingly, the MHC contributes the major genetic component to important autoimmune diseases and will no doubt, although evidence is limited, contribute to resistance to infectious disorders. Vertebrates all seem to have MHC genes and it should be possible to determine, within the next few years, whether the clustering of antigen processing and presenting genes in this region is a conserved feature. One could imagine an evolutionary advantage to maintaining the MHC as a unit, either to coordinate expression of the genes in different tissues, or to coordinate T-cell selection during thymic ontogeny, since inheriting a linked set of polymorphic gene products may help to avoid conflicts during positive and negative selection. 153 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. DNA Vaccines Encoding Antigen Targeted to MHC Class II Induce Influenza-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses, Enabling Faster Resolution of Influenza Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Laura; Kinnear, Ekaterina; McDonald, Jacqueline U.; Grodeland, Gunnveig; Bogen, Bjarne; Stubsrud, Elisabeth; Lindeberg, Mona M.; Fredriksen, Agnete Brunsvik; Tregoning, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Current influenza vaccines are effective but imperfect, failing to cover against emerging strains of virus and requiring seasonal administration to protect against new strains. A key step to improving influenza vaccines is to improve our understanding of vaccine-induced protection. While it is clear that antibodies play a protective role, vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells can improve protection. To further explore the role of CD8+ T cells, we used a DNA vaccine that encodes antigen dimerized to an immune cell targeting module. Immunizing CB6F1 mice with the DNA vaccine in a heterologous prime-boost regime with the seasonal protein vaccine improved the resolution of influenza disease compared with protein alone. This improved disease resolution was dependent on CD8+ T cells. However, DNA vaccine regimes that induced CD8+ T cells alone were not protective and did not boost the protection provided by protein. The MHC-targeting module used was an anti-I-Ed single chain antibody specific to the BALB/c strain of mice. To test the role of MHC targeting, we compared the response between BALB/c, C57BL/6 mice, and an F1 cross of the two strains (CB6F1). BALB/c mice were protected, C57BL/6 were not, and the F1 had an intermediate phenotype; showing that the targeting of antigen is important in the response. Based on these findings, and in agreement with other studies using different vaccines, we conclude that, in addition to antibody, inducing a protective CD8 response is important in future influenza vaccines.

  15. DNA Vaccines Encoding Antigen Targeted to MHC Class II Induce Influenza-Specific CD8(+) T Cell Responses, Enabling Faster Resolution of Influenza Disease.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Laura; Kinnear, Ekaterina; McDonald, Jacqueline U; Grodeland, Gunnveig; Bogen, Bjarne; Stubsrud, Elisabeth; Lindeberg, Mona M; Fredriksen, Agnete Brunsvik; Tregoning, John S

    2016-01-01

    Current influenza vaccines are effective but imperfect, failing to cover against emerging strains of virus and requiring seasonal administration to protect against new strains. A key step to improving influenza vaccines is to improve our understanding of vaccine-induced protection. While it is clear that antibodies play a protective role, vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells can improve protection. To further explore the role of CD8(+) T cells, we used a DNA vaccine that encodes antigen dimerized to an immune cell targeting module. Immunizing CB6F1 mice with the DNA vaccine in a heterologous prime-boost regime with the seasonal protein vaccine improved the resolution of influenza disease compared with protein alone. This improved disease resolution was dependent on CD8(+) T cells. However, DNA vaccine regimes that induced CD8(+) T cells alone were not protective and did not boost the protection provided by protein. The MHC-targeting module used was an anti-I-E(d) single chain antibody specific to the BALB/c strain of mice. To test the role of MHC targeting, we compared the response between BALB/c, C57BL/6 mice, and an F1 cross of the two strains (CB6F1). BALB/c mice were protected, C57BL/6 were not, and the F1 had an intermediate phenotype; showing that the targeting of antigen is important in the response. Based on these findings, and in agreement with other studies using different vaccines, we conclude that, in addition to antibody, inducing a protective CD8 response is important in future influenza vaccines. PMID:27602032

  16. DNA Vaccines Encoding Antigen Targeted to MHC Class II Induce Influenza-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses, Enabling Faster Resolution of Influenza Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Laura; Kinnear, Ekaterina; McDonald, Jacqueline U.; Grodeland, Gunnveig; Bogen, Bjarne; Stubsrud, Elisabeth; Lindeberg, Mona M.; Fredriksen, Agnete Brunsvik; Tregoning, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Current influenza vaccines are effective but imperfect, failing to cover against emerging strains of virus and requiring seasonal administration to protect against new strains. A key step to improving influenza vaccines is to improve our understanding of vaccine-induced protection. While it is clear that antibodies play a protective role, vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells can improve protection. To further explore the role of CD8+ T cells, we used a DNA vaccine that encodes antigen dimerized to an immune cell targeting module. Immunizing CB6F1 mice with the DNA vaccine in a heterologous prime-boost regime with the seasonal protein vaccine improved the resolution of influenza disease compared with protein alone. This improved disease resolution was dependent on CD8+ T cells. However, DNA vaccine regimes that induced CD8+ T cells alone were not protective and did not boost the protection provided by protein. The MHC-targeting module used was an anti-I-Ed single chain antibody specific to the BALB/c strain of mice. To test the role of MHC targeting, we compared the response between BALB/c, C57BL/6 mice, and an F1 cross of the two strains (CB6F1). BALB/c mice were protected, C57BL/6 were not, and the F1 had an intermediate phenotype; showing that the targeting of antigen is important in the response. Based on these findings, and in agreement with other studies using different vaccines, we conclude that, in addition to antibody, inducing a protective CD8 response is important in future influenza vaccines. PMID:27602032

  17. MHC-Dependent Desensitization of Intrinsic Anti-Self Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Jubala, Cristan M.; Lamerato-Kozicki, Angela R.; Borakove, Michelle; Lang, Julie; Gardner, Lori A.; Coffey, David; Helm, Karen M.; Schaack, Jerome; Baier, Monika; Cutter, Gary R.; Bellgrau, Donald; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2008-01-01

    The survival of naïve T cells is compromised in the absence of molecules encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) while antigen-experienced T cells survive. We hypothesized that survival pressures in an in vivo, MHC-deficient environment would permit enrichment of less frequent antigen-experienced autoreactive cells at the expense of the majority of antigen naïve T cells. To test this hypothesis, we generated MHC class I and class II-deficient mice in NOD and C57Bl/6 (B6) backgrounds, and examined the capacity of adoptively transferred autoimmune-prone NOD T cells, or non-autoimmune prone naïve B6 T cells, respectively, to reject transplanted wild type pancreatic islets or transplantable tumors in the MHC-deficient mice. In the MHC-deficient environment, CD4 T cells acquired self-hostile properties (islet rejection and tumor invasion) that were independent from their genetic propensity for autoreactivity, while CD8 T cells required appropriate prior exposure to antigen in order to survive and function (reject tumor) in this environment; however, disengagement of Tob1, a negative regulator of proliferation, led to a reverse phenotype with regard to persistence of CD4 and CD8 T cells in the MHC-deficient environment. Our data suggest that self-peptide/MHC interactions have dual roles to facilitate survival and restrain autoreactivity, thus acting as integral components of an intrinsic network of negative regulation that maintains tolerance. PMID:18523772

  18. CITA/NLRC5: A critical transcriptional regulator of MHC class I gene expression.

    PubMed

    Downs, Isaac; Vijayan, Saptha; Sidiq, Tabasum; Kobayashi, Koichi S

    2016-07-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules play essential roles in the development and activation of the human adaptive immune system. An NLR protein, CIITA (MHC class II transactivator) has been recognized as a master regulator of MHC class II gene expression, albeit knowledge about the regulatory mechanism of MHC class I gene expression had been limited. Recently identified MHC class I transactivator (CITA), or NLRC5, also belongs to the NLR protein family and constitutes a critical regulator for the transcriptional activation of MHC class I genes. In addition to MHC class I genes, CITA/NLRC5 induces the expression of β2 -microglobulin, TAP1 and LMP2, essential components of the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. Therefore, CITA/NLRC5 and CIITA are transcriptional regulators that orchestrate the concerted expression of critical components in the MHC class I and class II pathways, respectively. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(4):349-357, 2016. PMID:27087581

  19. Co-evolution of MHC class I and variable NK cell receptors in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Norman, Paul J.; Hilton, Hugo G.; Parham, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Shaping natural killer (NK) cell functions in human immunity and reproduction are diverse killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) that recognize polymorphic MHC class I determinants. A survey of placental mammals suggests KIRs serve as variable NK cell receptors only in certain primates and artiodactyls. Divergence of functional and variable KIRs in primates and artiodactyls predates placental reproduction. Among artiodactyls, cattle but not pigs have diverse KIRs. Catarrhine (humans, apes, and Old World monkeys) and platyrrhine (New World monkeys) primates, but not prosimians, have diverse KIRs. Platyrrhine and catarrhine systems of KIR and MHC class I are highly diverged, but within the catarrhines a stepwise co-evolution of MHC class I and KIRs is discerned. In Old World monkeys, diversification focuses on MHC-A and MHC-B and their cognate lineage II KIR. With evolution of C1-bearing MHC-C from MHC-B, as informed by orangutan, the focus changes to MHC-C and its cognate lineage III KIR. Evolution of C2 from C1 and fixation of MHC-C, drove further elaboration of MHC-C-specific KIRs, as exemplified by chimpanzee. In humans, the evolutionary trajectory changes again. Emerging from reorganization of the KIR locus and selective attenuation of KIR avidity for MHC class I are the functionally distinctive KIR A and KIR B haplotypes. PMID:26284483

  20. Co-evolution of MHC class I and variable NK cell receptors in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Norman, Paul J; Hilton, Hugo H G; Parham, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Shaping natural killer (NK) cell functions in human immunity and reproduction are diverse killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) that recognize polymorphic MHC class I determinants. A survey of placental mammals suggests that KIRs serve as variable NK cell receptors only in certain primates and artiodactyls. Divergence of the functional and variable KIRs in primates and artiodactyls predates placental reproduction. Among artiodactyls, cattle but not pigs have diverse KIRs. Catarrhine (humans, apes, and Old World monkeys) and platyrrhine (New World monkeys) primates, but not prosimians, have diverse KIRs. Platyrrhine and catarrhine systems of KIR and MHC class I are highly diverged, but within the catarrhines, a stepwise co-evolution of MHC class I and KIR is discerned. In Old World monkeys, diversification focuses on MHC-A and MHC-B and their cognate lineage II KIR. With evolution of C1-bearing MHC-C from MHC-B, as informed by orangutan, the focus changes to MHC-C and its cognate lineage III KIR. Evolution of C2 from C1 and fixation of MHC-C drove further elaboration of MHC-C-specific KIR, as exemplified by chimpanzee. In humans, the evolutionary trajectory changes again. Emerging from reorganization of the KIR locus and selective attenuation of KIR avidity for MHC class I are the functionally distinctive KIR A and KIR B haplotypes.

  1. Exosome-driven transfer of tumor-associated Pioneer Translation Products (TA-PTPs) for the MHC class I cross-presentation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Duvallet, Emilie; Boulpicante, Mathilde; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Daskalogianni, Chrysoula; Prado Martins, Rodrigo; Baconnais, Sonia; Manoury, Bénédicte; Fahraeus, Robin; Apcher, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cellular immune reactions against non-self-epitopes require activation of cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells via cross-presentation of MHC class I-restricted peptides by professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs), with the consequent detection and elimination of cells expressing the same antigens via the endogenous (direct) pathway. The source of peptides for the endogenous pathway is constituted of alternative mRNA translation products; however, it is still unclear which source of peptides is used for cross-presentation. Furthermore, the presentation of non-canonical translation products, produced during a non-conventional translation event, on class I molecules of tumor cells has been reported but how these peptides are generated, presented to pAPCs, and their capacity to stimulate CD8+ T cells is still not known. Here, we report that pioneer translation peptides (PTPs) derived from intron or exon pre-mRNAs can serve as tumor-associated antigens (TA-PTPs) and are delivered from the producing tumor cells to pAPCs via exosomes where they are processed by the cytosolic pathway. Injection of TA-PTPs and tumor-derived exosomes efficiently induce CD8+ T-cell proliferation and prevent tumor growth in mice. Our results show that TA-PTPs represent an efficient source of antigenic peptides for CD8+ T cell activation and that full-length proteins are not required for cross-presentation. These findings can have interesting implications for generating tolerance and for designing vectors to generate vaccines. PMID:27757298

  2. Cheetah paradigm revisited: MHC diversity in the world's largest free-ranging population.

    PubMed

    Castro-Prieto, Aines; Wachter, Bettina; Sommer, Simone

    2011-04-01

    For more than two decades, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been considered a paradigm of disease vulnerability associated with low genetic diversity, particularly at the immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Cheetahs have been used as a classic example in numerous conservation genetics textbooks as well as in many related scientific publications. However, earlier studies used methods with low resolution to quantify MHC diversity and/or small sample sizes. Furthermore, high disease susceptibility was reported only for captive cheetahs, whereas free-ranging cheetahs show no signs of infectious diseases and a good general health status. We examined whether the diversity at MHC class I and class II-DRB loci in 149 Namibian cheetahs was higher than previously reported using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, cloning, and sequencing. MHC genes were examined at the genomic and transcriptomic levels. We detected ten MHC class I and four class II-DRB alleles, of which nine MHC class I and all class II-DRB alleles were expressed. Phylogenetic analyses and individual genotypes suggested that the alleles belong to four MHC class I and three class II-DRB putative loci. Evidence of positive selection was detected in both MHC loci. Our study indicated that the low number of MHC class I alleles previously observed in cheetahs was due to a smaller sample size examined. On the other hand, the low number of MHC class II-DRB alleles previously observed in cheetahs was further confirmed. Compared with other mammalian species including felids, cheetahs showed low levels of MHC diversity, but this does not seem to influence the immunocompetence of free-ranging cheetahs in Namibia and contradicts the previous conclusion that the cheetah is a paradigm species of disease vulnerability.

  3. Differences in meiotic recombination rates in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia at an MHC class II hotspot close to disease associated haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Pamela; Urayama, Kevin; Zheng, Jie; Yang, Peng; Ford, Matt; Buffler, Patricia; Chokkalingam, Anand; Lightfoot, Tracy; Taylor, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is a malignant lymphoid disease of which B-cell precursor- (BCP) and T-cell- (T) ALL are subtypes. The role of alleles encoded by major histocompatibility loci (MHC) have been examined in a number of previous studies and results indicating weak, multi-allele associations between the HLA-DPB1 locus and BCP-ALL suggested a role for immunosusceptibility and possibly infection. Two independent SNP association studies of ALL identified loci approximately 37 kb from one another and flanking a strong meiotic recombination hotspot (DNA3), adjacent to HLA-DOA and centromeric of HLA-DPB1. To determine the relationship between this observation and HLA-DPB1 associations, we constructed high density SNP haplotypes of the 316 kb region from HLA-DMB to COL11A2 in childhood ALL and controls using a UK GWAS data subset and the software PHASE. Of four haplotype blocks identified, predicted haplotypes in Block 1 (centromeric of DNA3) differed significantly between BCP-ALL and controls (P = 0.002) and in Block 4 (including HLA-DPB1) between T-ALL and controls (P = 0.049). Of specific common (>5%) haplotypes in Block 1, two were less frequent in BCP-ALL, and in Block 4 a single haplotype was more frequent in T-ALL, compared to controls. Unexpectedly, we also observed apparent differences in ancestral meiotic recombination rates at DNA3, with BCP-ALL showing increased and T-ALL decreased levels compared to controls. In silico analysis using LDsplit sotware indicated that recombination rates at DNA3 are influenced by flanking loci, including SNPs identified in childhood ALL association studies. The observed differences in rates of meiotic recombination at this hotspot, and potentially others, may be a characteristic of childhood leukemia and contribute to disease susceptibility, alternatively they may reflect interactions between ALL-associated haplotypes in this region.

  4. Complex Mhc-based mate choice in a wild passerine

    PubMed Central

    Bonneaud, Camille; Chastel, Olivier; Federici, Pierre; Westerdahl, Helena; Sorci, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    The extreme polymorphism of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) is famous for protecting hosts against constantly evolving pathogens. Mate choice is often evoked as a means of maintaining Mhc variability through avoidance of partners with similar Mhc alleles or preference for heterozygotes. Evidence for these two hypotheses mostly comes from studies on humans and laboratory mice. Here, we tested these hypotheses in a wild outbred population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Females were not more or less closely related to the males they paired with when considering neutral genetic variation. However, males failed to form breeding pairs when they had too few Mhc alleles and when they were too dissimilar from females at Mhc loci (i.e. had no common alleles). Furthermore, pairs did not form at random as Mhc diversity positively correlated in mating pairs. These results suggest that mate choice evolves in response to (i) benefits in terms of parasite resistance acquired from allelic diversity, and (ii) costs associated with the disruption of co-adapted genes. PMID:16600889

  5. Nano-electrospray and microbore liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry studies of copper complexation with MHC restricted peptides.

    PubMed

    Creaser, C S; Lill, J R; Bonner, P L; Hill, S C; Rees, R C

    2000-04-01

    The formation of copper/peptide complex ions by nano-electrospray and microbore HPLC-electrospray mass spectrometry has been investigated for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II restricted peptides. Post-column addition of copper(II) acetate following microbore HPLC-MS separation was carried out using a mixing T-piece or via the sheath flow inlet of the electrospray source. Optimal analytical conditions for copper complex ion formation were determined by variation of copper concentration, pH, nebulization gas supply and spray voltage. Tandem mass spectrometry of copper/peptide complex ions provides peptide sequence information and insight into the peptide chelation sites. Copper associated y fragment ions dominate the product ion spectrum for non-histidine containing peptides, but both b and y copper complex ions were observed for the histidine containing MHC class I associated peptide gp70. PMID:10892016

  6. Identifiying human MHC supertypes using bioinformatic methods.

    PubMed

    Doytchinova, Irini A; Guan, Pingping; Flower, Darren R

    2004-04-01

    Classification of MHC molecules into supertypes in terms of peptide-binding specificities is an important issue, with direct implications for the development of epitope-based vaccines with wide population coverage. In view of extremely high MHC polymorphism (948 class I and 633 class II HLA alleles) the experimental solution of this task is presently impossible. In this study, we describe a bioinformatics strategy for classifying MHC molecules into supertypes using information drawn solely from three-dimensional protein structure. Two chemometric techniques-hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis-were used independently on a set of 783 HLA class I molecules to identify supertypes based on structural similarities and molecular interaction fields calculated for the peptide binding site. Eight supertypes were defined: A2, A3, A24, B7, B27, B44, C1, and C4. The two techniques gave 77% consensus, i.e., 605 HLA class I alleles were classified in the same supertype by both methods. The proposed strategy allowed "supertype fingerprints" to be identified. Thus, the A2 supertype fingerprint is Tyr(9)/Phe(9), Arg(97), and His(114) or Tyr(116); the A3-Tyr(9)/Phe(9)/Ser(9), Ile(97)/Met(97) and Glu(114) or Asp(116); the A24-Ser(9) and Met(97); the B7-Asn(63) and Leu(81); the B27-Glu(63) and Leu(81); for B44-Ala(81); the C1-Ser(77); and the C4-Asn(77). PMID:15034046

  7. Cathepsin S, but not cathepsin L, participates in the MHC class II-associated invariant chain processing in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuhua; Ao, Jingqun; Mu, Yinnan; Yang, Zhijun; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-12-01

    Two cysteine proteases, cathepsin S (CatS) and cathepsin L (CatL), have been identified as the key enzymes involved in the processing of invariant chain (Ii chain) in mammals. However, little is known about the roles of fish cathepsins in the Ii chain processing. In this study, large yellow croaker cathepsin S (LycCatS) and L (LycCatL) were identified and characterized. Based on the sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis, both LycCatS and LycCatL are highly conserved to their counterparts in teleost. These two cathepsins were constitutively expressed in all tissues and immune-related cells tested, although at different levels. Both recombinant LycCatS (rLycCatS) and LycCatL (rLycCatL) possess the typical cysteine protease activity. Like other mammalian endopeptidase cathepsins, rLycCatS and rLycCatL could be autocatalytically activated to remove propeptides and release active mature peptides. On the other hand, the autocatalytic activation of rLycCatL could be inhibited by recombinant large yellow croaker Ii chain (rLyc-TR-Ii), but the autocatalytic activation of rLycCatS was not affected by rLyc-TR-Ii. Furthermore, the activated rLycCatS can efficiently process rLyc-TR-Ii in a stepwise manner in vitro, while the activated rLycCatL can not. These data indicate that cathepsin S may be the main cathepsin involved in the Ii chain processing in bony fish.

  8. Cathepsin S, but not cathepsin L, participates in the MHC class II-associated invariant chain processing in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuhua; Ao, Jingqun; Mu, Yinnan; Yang, Zhijun; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-12-01

    Two cysteine proteases, cathepsin S (CatS) and cathepsin L (CatL), have been identified as the key enzymes involved in the processing of invariant chain (Ii chain) in mammals. However, little is known about the roles of fish cathepsins in the Ii chain processing. In this study, large yellow croaker cathepsin S (LycCatS) and L (LycCatL) were identified and characterized. Based on the sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis, both LycCatS and LycCatL are highly conserved to their counterparts in teleost. These two cathepsins were constitutively expressed in all tissues and immune-related cells tested, although at different levels. Both recombinant LycCatS (rLycCatS) and LycCatL (rLycCatL) possess the typical cysteine protease activity. Like other mammalian endopeptidase cathepsins, rLycCatS and rLycCatL could be autocatalytically activated to remove propeptides and release active mature peptides. On the other hand, the autocatalytic activation of rLycCatL could be inhibited by recombinant large yellow croaker Ii chain (rLyc-TR-Ii), but the autocatalytic activation of rLycCatS was not affected by rLyc-TR-Ii. Furthermore, the activated rLycCatS can efficiently process rLyc-TR-Ii in a stepwise manner in vitro, while the activated rLycCatL can not. These data indicate that cathepsin S may be the main cathepsin involved in the Ii chain processing in bony fish. PMID:26475363

  9. Expression of the mouse MHC class Ib H2-T11 gene product, a paralog of H2-T23 (Qa-1) with shared peptide-binding specificity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lili; Reyes-Vargas, Eduardo; Dai, Hu; Escobar, Hernando; Rudd, Brant; Fairbanks, Jared; Ho, Alexander; Cusick, Mathew F; Kumánovics, Attila; Delgado, Julio; He, Xiao; Jensen, Peter E

    2014-08-01

    The mouse MHC class Ib gene H2-T11 is 95% identical at the DNA level to H2-T23, which encodes Qa-1, one of the most studied MHC class Ib molecules. H2-T11 mRNA was observed to be expressed widely in tissues of C57BL/6 mice, with the highest levels in thymus. To circumvent the availability of a specific mAb, cells were transduced with cDNA encoding T11 with a substituted α3 domain. Hybrid T11D3 protein was expressed at high levels similar to control T23D3 molecules on the surface of both TAP(+) and TAP(-) cells. Soluble T11D3 was generated by folding in vitro with Qa-1 determinant modifier, the dominant peptide presented by Qa-1. The circular dichroism spectrum of this protein was similar to that of other MHC class I molecules, and it was observed to bind labeled Qa-1 determinant modifier peptide with rapid kinetics. By contrast to the Qa-1 control, T11 tetramers did not react with cells expressing CD94/NKG2A, supporting the conclusion that T11 cannot replace Qa-1 as a ligand for NK cell inhibitory receptors. T11 also failed to substitute for Qa-1 in the presentation of insulin to a Qa-1-restricted T cell hybridoma. Despite divergent function, T11 was observed to share peptide-loading specificity with Qa-1. Direct analysis by tandem mass spectrometry of peptides eluted from T11D3 and T23D3 isolated from Hela cells demonstrated a diversity of peptides with a clear motif that was shared between the two molecules. Thus, T11 is a paralog of T23 encoding an MHC class Ib molecule that shares peptide-binding specificity with Qa-1 but differs in function. PMID:24958902

  10. Human B lymphoblastoid cells contain distinct patterns of cathepsin activity in endocytic compartments and regulate MHC class II transport in a cathepsin S-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Lautwein, Alfred; Kraus, Marianne; Reich, Michael; Burster, Timo; Brandenburg, J; Overkleeft, Herman S; Schwarz, Gerold; Kammer, Winfried; Weber, Ekkehard; Kalbacher, Hubert; Nordheim, Alfred; Driessen, Christoph

    2004-05-01

    Endocytic proteolysis represents a major functional component of the major histocompatibility complex class II antigen-presentation machinery. Although transport and assembly of class II molecules in the endocytic compartment are well characterized, we lack information about the pattern of endocytic protease activity along this pathway. Here, we used chemical tools that visualize endocytic proteases in an activity-dependent manner in combination with subcellular fractionation to dissect the subcellular distribution of the major cathepsins (Cat) CatS, CatB, CatH, CatD, CatC, and CatZ as well as the asparagine-specific endoprotease (AEP) in human B-lymphoblastoid cells (BLC). Endocytic proteases were distributed in two distinct patterns: CatB and CatZ were most prominent in early and late endosomes but absent from lysosomes, and CatH, CatS, CatD, CatC, and AEP distributed between late endosomes and lysosomes, suggesting that CatB and CatZ might be involved in the initial proteolytic attack on a given antigen. The entire spectrum of protease activity colocalized with human leukocyte antigen-DM and the C-terminal and N-terminal processing of invariant chain (Ii) in late endosomes. CatS was active in all endocytic compartments. Surprisingly and in contrast with results from dendritic cells, inhibition of CatS activity by leucine-homophenylalanine-vinylsulfone-phenol prevented N-terminal processing of Ii but did not alter the subcellular trafficking or surface delivery of class II complexes, as deferred from pulse-chase analysis in combination with subcellular fractionation and biotinylation of cell-surface protein. Thus, BLC contain distinct activity patterns of proteases in endocytic compartments and regulate the intracellular transport and surface-delivery of class II in a CatS-independent manner. PMID:14966190

  11. MHC restriction of synovial fluid lymphocyte responses to the triggering organism in reactive arthritis. Absence of a class I-restricted response.

    PubMed Central

    Hassell, A B; Pilling, D; Reynolds, D; Life, P F; Bacon, P A; Gaston, J S

    1992-01-01

    Synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC) from patients with reactive arthritis (ReA) show marked proliferative responses to preparations of the organism triggering the arthritis. Initial studies with MHC-specific MoAbs have indicated that a significant element of these proliferative responses is mediated by class II MHC-restricted CD4+ T cells. It is imperative to establish the presence or absence of a class I-restricted response, for two reasons. Firstly, the association of ReA with the MHC class I molecule, HLA B27, raises the possibility of there being a B27-restricted response to the triggering organism. Secondly, a number of the organisms associated with ReA are intracellular pathogens, whose antigens might be expected to be presented by class I MHC molecules. In an effort to identify a class I MHC-restricted pathogen-specific response in the SFMC of ReA patients, we have assessed the proliferative responses of SFMC depleted of CD4+ T cells. Responses were grossly diminished by CD4+ T cell depletion. We also investigated Chlamydia-specific cytotoxicity in the SFMC of patients with sexually acquired ReA in a system using productive chlamydial infection to produce both targets and effectors. Significant antigen specific cytotoxicity was not seen. These experiments do not provide evidence to support the existence of pathogen-specific responses by CD8+, class I-restricted synovial fluid T cells in ReA. PMID:1606728

  12. MHC Class II-Restricted Presentation of the Major House Dust Mite Allergen Der p 1 Is GILT-Dependent: Implications for Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    West, Laura Ciaccia; Grotzke, Jeff E.; Cresswell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is known to reduce disulfide bonds present in proteins internalized by antigen presenting cells, facilitating optimal processing and presentation of peptides on Major Histocompatibility Complex class II molecules, as well as the subsequent activation of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. Here, we show that GILT is required for class II-restricted processing and presentation of immunodominant epitopes from the major house dust mite allergen Der p 1. In the absence of GILT, CD4-positive T cell responses to Der p 1 are significantly reduced, resulting in mitigated allergic airway inflammation in response to Der p 1 and house dust mite extracts in a murine model of asthma. PMID:23326313

  13. Dimeric MHC-peptides inserted into an immunoglobulin scaffold as new immunotherapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Burt; Bona, Constantin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The interactions of the T cell receptor (TCR) with cognate MHC-peptide and co-stimulatory molecules expressed at surface of antigen presenting cells (APC) leads to activation or tolerance of T cells. The development of molecular biological tools allowed for the preparation of soluble MHC-peptide molecules as surrogate for the APC. A decade ago a monomeric class II MHC molecule in which the peptide was covalently linked to β-chain of class II molecule was generated. This type of molecule had a low-binding affinity and did not cause the multimerization of TCR. The requirement of multimerization of TCR led to development of a new class of reagents, chimeric peptides covalently linked to MHC that was dimerized via Fc fragment of an immunoglobulin and linked to 3′ end of the β-chain of MHC class II molecule. These soluble dimerized MHC-peptide chimeric molecules display high affinity for the TCR and caused multimerization of TCR without processing by an APC. Because dimeric molecules are devoid of co-stimulatory molecules interacting with CD28, a second signal, they induce anergy rather the activation of T cells. In this review, we compare the human and murine dimerized MHC class II-peptides and their effect on CD4+ T cells, particularly the generation of T regulatory cells, which make these chimeric molecules an appealing approach for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:21435177

  14. Prediction of binding to MHC class I molecules.

    PubMed

    Adams, H P; Koziol, J A

    1995-09-25

    The binding of antigenic peptide sequences to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is a prerequisite for stimulation of cytotoxic T cell responses. Neural networks are here used to predict the binding capacity of polypeptides to MHC class I molecules encoded by the gene HLA-A*0201. Given a large database of 552 nonamers and 486 decamers and their known binding capacities, the neural networks achieve a predictive hit rate of 0.78 for classifying peptides which might induce an immune response (good or intermediate binders) vs. those which cannot (weak or non-binders). The neural nets also depict specific motifs for different binding capacities. This approach is in principle applicable to all MHC class I and II molecules, given a suitable set of known binding capacities. The trained networks can then be used to perform a systematic search through all pathogen or tumor antigen protein sequences for potential cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes.

  15. T cell receptor interaction with peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and superantigen/MHC ligands is dominated by antigen

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    While recent evidence strongly suggests that the third complementarity determining regions (CDR3s) of T cell receptors (TCRs) directly contact antigenic peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, the nature of other TCR contact(s) is less clear. Here we probe the extent to which different antigens can affect this interaction by comparing the responses of T cells bearing structurally related TCRs to cytochrome c peptides and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) presented by 13 mutant antigen-presenting cell (APC) lines. Each APC expresses a class II MHC molecule (I-Ek) with a single substitution of an amino acid residue predicted to be located on the MHC alpha helices and to point "up" towards the TCR. We find that very limited changes (even a single amino acid) in either a CDR3 loop of the TCR or in a contact residue of the antigenic peptide can have a profound effect on relatively distant TCR/MHC interactions. The extent of these effects can be as great as that observed between T cells bearing entirely different TCRs and recognizing different peptides. We also find that superantigen presentation entails a distinct mode of TCR/MHC interaction compared with peptide presentation. These data suggest that TCR/MHC contacts can be made in a variety of ways between the same TCR and MHC, with the final configuration apparently dominated by the antigen. These observations suggest a molecular basis for recent reports in which either peptide analogues or superantigens trigger distinct pathways of T cell activation. PMID:8393480

  16. Boosting the MHC Class II-Restricted Tumor Antigen Presentation to CD4+ T Helper Cells: A Critical Issue for Triggering Protective Immunity and Re-Orienting the Tumor Microenvironment Toward an Anti-Tumor State.

    PubMed

    Accolla, Roberto S; Lombardo, Letizia; Abdallah, Rawan; Raval, Goutham; Forlani, Greta; Tosi, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Although the existence of an immune response against tumor cells is well documented, the fact that tumors take off in cancer patients indicates that neoplastic cells can circumvent this response. Over the years many investigators have described strategies to rescue the anti-tumor immune response with the aim of creating specific and long-lasting protection against the disease. When exported to human clinical settings, these strategies have revealed in most cases a very limited, if any, positive outcome. We believe that the failure is mostly due to the inadequate triggering of the CD4+ T helper (TH) cell arm of the adaptive immunity, as TH cells are necessary to trigger all the immune effector mechanisms required to eliminate tumor cells. In this review, we focus on novel strategies that by stimulating MHC class II-restricted activation of TH cells generate a specific and persistent adaptive immunity against the tumor. This point is of critical importance for both preventive and therapeutic anti-tumor vaccination protocols, because adaptive immunity with its capacity to produce specific, long-lasting protection and memory responses is indeed the final goal of vaccination. We will discuss data from our as well as other laboratories which strongly suggest that triggering a specific and persistent anti-tumor CD4+ TH cell response stably modify not only the tumor microenvironment but also tumor-dependent extratumor microenvironments by eliminating and/or reducing the blood-derived tumor infiltrating cells that may have a pro-tumor growth function such as regulatory CD4+/CD25+ T cells and myeloid-derived-suppressor cells. Within this frame, therefore, we believe that the establishment of a pro-tumor environment is not the cause but simply the consequence of the tumor strategy to primarily counteract components of the adaptive cellular immunity, particularly TH lymphocytes.

  17. Boosting the MHC Class II-Restricted Tumor Antigen Presentation to CD4+ T Helper Cells: A Critical Issue for Triggering Protective Immunity and Re-Orienting the Tumor Microenvironment Toward an Anti-Tumor State

    PubMed Central

    Accolla, Roberto S.; Lombardo, Letizia; Abdallah, Rawan; Raval, Goutham; Forlani, Greta; Tosi, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Although the existence of an immune response against tumor cells is well documented, the fact that tumors take off in cancer patients indicates that neoplastic cells can circumvent this response. Over the years many investigators have described strategies to rescue the anti-tumor immune response with the aim of creating specific and long-lasting protection against the disease. When exported to human clinical settings, these strategies have revealed in most cases a very limited, if any, positive outcome. We believe that the failure is mostly due to the inadequate triggering of the CD4+ T helper (TH) cell arm of the adaptive immunity, as TH cells are necessary to trigger all the immune effector mechanisms required to eliminate tumor cells. In this review, we focus on novel strategies that by stimulating MHC class II-restricted activation of TH cells generate a specific and persistent adaptive immunity against the tumor. This point is of critical importance for both preventive and therapeutic anti-tumor vaccination protocols, because adaptive immunity with its capacity to produce specific, long-lasting protection and memory responses is indeed the final goal of vaccination. We will discuss data from our as well as other laboratories which strongly suggest that triggering a specific and persistent anti-tumor CD4+ TH cell response stably modify not only the tumor microenvironment but also tumor-dependent extratumor microenvironments by eliminating and/or reducing the blood-derived tumor infiltrating cells that may have a pro-tumor growth function such as regulatory CD4+/CD25+ T cells and myeloid-derived-suppressor cells. Within this frame, therefore, we believe that the establishment of a pro-tumor environment is not the cause but simply the consequence of the tumor strategy to primarily counteract components of the adaptive cellular immunity, particularly TH lymphocytes. PMID:24600588

  18. The diversity of bovine MHC class II DRB3 and DQA1 alleles in different herds of Japanese Black and Holstein cattle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Taku; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsumoto, Yuki; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Ishibashi, Kazuki; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Aida, Yoko

    2011-02-01

    In cattle, bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) have been extensively used as markers for bovine diseases and immunological traits. In this study, we sequenced alleles of the BoLA class II loci, BoLA-DRB3 and BoLA-DQA1, from 650 Japanese cattle from six herds [three herds (507 animals) of Japanese Black cattle and three herds (143 animals) of Holstein cattle] using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) methods. We identified 26 previously reported distinct DRB3 alleles in the two populations: 22 in Japanese Black and 17 in Holstein. The number of DRB3 alleles detected in each herd ranged from 9 to 20. Next, we identified 15 previously reported distinct DQA1 alleles: 13 in Japanese Black and 10 in Holstein. The number of alleles in each herd ranged from 6 to 10. Thus, allelic divergence is significantly greater for DRB3 than for DQA1. A population tree on the basis of the frequencies of the DRB3 and DQA1 alleles showed that, although the genetic distance differed significantly between the two cattle breeds, it was closely related within the three herds of each breed. In addition, Wu-Kabat variability analysis indicated that the DRB3 gene was more polymorphic than the DQA1 gene in both breeds and in all herds, and that the majority of the hypervariable positions within both loci corresponded to pocket-forming residues. The DRB3 and DQA1 heterozygosity for both breeds within each herd were calculated based on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Only one Japanese Black herd showed a significant difference between the expected and observed heterozygosity at both loci. This is the first report presenting a detailed study of the allelic distribution of BoLA-DRB3 and -DQA1 genes in Japanese Black and Holstein cattle from different farms in Japan. These results may help to develop improved livestock breeding strategies in the future. PMID:20965236

  19. Mate choice for neutral and MHC genetic characteristics in Alpine marmots: different targets in different contexts?

    PubMed

    Ferrandiz-Rovira, Mariona; Allainé, Dominique; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre; Cohas, Aurélie

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection through female mate choice for genetic characteristics has been suggested to be an important evolutionary force maintaining genetic variation in animal populations. However, the genetic targets of female mate choice are not clearly identified and whether female mate choice is based on neutral genetic characteristics or on particular functional loci remains an open question. Here, we investigated the genetic targets of female mate choice in Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a socially monogamous mammal where extra-pair paternity (EPP) occurs. We used 16 microsatellites to describe neutral genetic characteristics and two MHC loci belonging to MHC class I and II as functional genetic characteristics. Our results reveal that (1) neutral and MHC genetic characteristics convey different information in this species, (2) social pairs show a higher MHC class II dissimilarity than expected under random mate choice, and (3) the occurrence of EPP increases when social pairs present a high neutral genetic similarity or dissimilarity but also when they present low MHC class II dissimilarity. Thus, female mate choice is based on both neutral and MHC genetic characteristics, and the genetic characteristics targeted seem to be context dependent (i.e., the genes involved in social mate choice and genetic mate choice differ). We emphasize the need for empirical studies of mate choice in the wild using both neutral and MHC genetic characteristics because whether neutral and functional genetic characteristics convey similar information is not universal. PMID:27386072

  20. Mate choice for neutral and MHC genetic characteristics in Alpine marmots: different targets in different contexts?

    PubMed

    Ferrandiz-Rovira, Mariona; Allainé, Dominique; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre; Cohas, Aurélie

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection through female mate choice for genetic characteristics has been suggested to be an important evolutionary force maintaining genetic variation in animal populations. However, the genetic targets of female mate choice are not clearly identified and whether female mate choice is based on neutral genetic characteristics or on particular functional loci remains an open question. Here, we investigated the genetic targets of female mate choice in Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a socially monogamous mammal where extra-pair paternity (EPP) occurs. We used 16 microsatellites to describe neutral genetic characteristics and two MHC loci belonging to MHC class I and II as functional genetic characteristics. Our results reveal that (1) neutral and MHC genetic characteristics convey different information in this species, (2) social pairs show a higher MHC class II dissimilarity than expected under random mate choice, and (3) the occurrence of EPP increases when social pairs present a high neutral genetic similarity or dissimilarity but also when they present low MHC class II dissimilarity. Thus, female mate choice is based on both neutral and MHC genetic characteristics, and the genetic characteristics targeted seem to be context dependent (i.e., the genes involved in social mate choice and genetic mate choice differ). We emphasize the need for empirical studies of mate choice in the wild using both neutral and MHC genetic characteristics because whether neutral and functional genetic characteristics convey similar information is not universal.

  1. ZXDC, a novel zinc finger protein that binds CIITA and activates MHC gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kandari, Wafa; Jambunathan, Srikarthika; Navalgund, Vandana; Koneni, Rupa; Freer, Margot; Parimi, Neeta; Mudhasani, Rajini; Fontes, Joseph D.

    2006-01-01

    The class II trans-activator (CIITA) is recognized as the master regulator of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene transcription and contributes to the transcription of MHC class I genes. To better understand the function of CIITA, we performed yeast two-hybrid with the C-terminal 807 amino acids of CIITA, and cloned a novel human cDNA named zinc finger, X-linked, duplicated family member C (ZXDC). The 858 amino acid ZXDC protein contains 10 zinc fingers and a transcriptional activation domain, and was found to interact with the region of CIITA containing leucine-rich repeats. Over-expression of ZXDC in human cell lines resulted in super-activation of MHC class I and class II promoters by CIITA. Conversely, silencing of ZXDC expression reduced the ability of CIITA to activate transcription of MHC class II genes. Given the specific interaction between the ZXDC and CIITA proteins, as well as the effect of ZXDC on MHC gene transcription, it appears that ZXDC is an important regulator of both MHC class I and class II transcription. PMID:16600381

  2. Sex-specific selection for MHC variability in Alpine chamois

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In mammals, males typically have shorter lives than females. This difference is thought to be due to behavioural traits which enhance competitive abilities, and hence male reproductive success, but impair survival. Furthermore, in many species males usually show higher parasite burden than females. Consequently, the intensity of selection for genetic factors which reduce susceptibility to pathogens may differ between sexes. High variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is believed to be advantageous for detecting and combating the range of infectious agents present in the environment. Increased heterozygosity at these immune genes is expected to be important for individual longevity. However, whether males in natural populations benefit more from MHC heterozygosity than females has rarely been investigated. We investigated this question in a long-term study of free-living Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), a polygynous mountain ungulate. Results Here we show that male chamois survive significantly (P = 0.022) longer if heterozygous at the MHC class II DRB locus, whereas females do not. Improved survival of males was not a result of heterozygote advantage per se, as background heterozygosity (estimated across twelve microsatellite loci) did not change significantly with age. Furthermore, reproductively active males depleted their body fat reserves earlier than females leading to significantly impaired survival rates in this sex (P < 0.008). This sex-difference was even more pronounced in areas affected by scabies, a severe parasitosis, as reproductively active males were less likely to survive than females. However, we did not find evidence for a survival advantage associated with specific MHC alleles in areas affected by scabies. Conclusions Increased MHC class II DRB heterozygosity with age in males, suggests that MHC heterozygous males survive longer than homozygotes. Reproductively active males appear to be less likely to

  3. Tricks with tetramers: how to get the most from multimeric peptide-MHC.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Linda; Lissina, Anna; Cole, David K; van den Berg, Hugo A; Price, David A; Sewell, Andrew K

    2009-02-01

    The development of fluorochrome-conjugated peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) multimers in conjunction with continuing advances in flow cytometry has transformed the study of antigen-specific T cells by enabling their visualization, enumeration, phenotypic characterization and isolation from ex vivo samples. Here, we bring together and discuss some of the 'tricks' that can be used to get the most out of pMHC multimers. These include: (1) simple procedures that can substantially enhance the staining intensity of cognate T cells with pMHC multimers; (2) the use of pMHC multimers to stain T cells with very-low-affinity T-cell receptor (TCR)/pMHC interactions, such as those that typically predominate in tumour-specific responses; and (3) the physical grading and clonotypic dissection of antigen-specific T cells based on the affinity of their cognate TCR using mutant pMHC multimers in conjunction with new approaches to the molecular analysis of TCR gene expression. We also examine how soluble pMHC can be used to examine T-cell activation, manipulate T-cell responses and study allogeneic and superantigen interactions with TCRs. Finally, we discuss the problems that arise with pMHC class II (pMHCII) multimers because of the low affinity of TCR/pMHCII interactions and lack of 'coreceptor help'.

  4. Signals of heterogeneous selection at an MHC locus in geographically proximate ecotypes of sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Larson, Wesley A; Seeb, James E; Dann, Tyler H; Schindler, Daniel E; Seeb, Lisa W

    2014-11-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are an important component of the vertebrate immune system and can provide insights into the role of pathogen-mediated selection in wild populations. Here, we examined variation at the MHC class II peptide-binding region in 27 populations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), distributed among three distinct spawning ecotypes, from a complex of interconnected rivers and lakes in south-western Alaska. We also obtained genotypes from 90 putatively neutral single nucleotide polymorphisms for each population to compare the relative roles of demography and selection in shaping the observed MHC variation. We found that MHC divergence was generally partitioned by spawning ecotype (lake beaches, rivers and streams) and was 30 times greater than variation at neutral markers. Additionally, we observed substantial differences in modes of selection and diversity among ecotypes, with beach populations displaying higher levels of directional selection and lower MHC diversity than the other two ecotypes. Finally, the level of MHC differentiation in our study system was comparable to that observed over much larger geographic ranges, suggesting that MHC variation does not necessarily increase with increasing spatial scale and may instead be driven by fine-scale differences in pathogen communities or pathogen virulence. The low levels of neutral structure and spatial proximity of populations in our study system indicate that MHC differentiation can be maintained through strong selective pressure even when ample opportunities for gene flow exist. PMID:25283474

  5. Maintenance of MHC Class IIB diversity in a recently established songbird population

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Danielle J.; Dapper, Amy L.; Peterson, Mark P.; Atwell, Jonathan W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2012-01-01

    We examined variation at MHC Class IIB genes in a recently established population of dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) in a coastal urban environment in southern California, USA relative to an ancestral-range population from a nearby species-typical montane environment. The founding population is estimated to have been quite small, but we predicted that variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) among the founders would nevertheless be preserved owing to the high functional significance of MHC. Previous studies of MHC in songbirds have had varying degrees of success in isolating loci, as passerines show extensive MHC gene duplication. In order to compare diversity in the two populations, we employed two published approaches to sequencing MHC Class II exon 2: direct sequencing with exon-based primers, and traditional cloning and sequencing with intron-based primers. Results from both methods show that the colonist population has maintained high levels of variation. Our results also indicate varying numbers of alleles across individuals, corroborating evidence for gene duplication in songbird MHC. While future studies in songbirds may need to take a genomic approach to fully understand the structure of MHC in this lineage, our results show that it is possible to use traditional methods to reveal functional variation across populations. PMID:22685370

  6. Maintenance of MHC Class IIB diversity in a recently established songbird population.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Danielle J; Dapper, Amy L; Peterson, Mark P; Atwell, Jonathan W; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2012-03-01

    We examined variation at MHC Class IIB genes in a recently established population of dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) in a coastal urban environment in southern California, USA relative to an ancestral-range population from a nearby species-typical montane environment. The founding population is estimated to have been quite small, but we predicted that variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) among the founders would nevertheless be preserved owing to the high functional significance of MHC. Previous studies of MHC in songbirds have had varying degrees of success in isolating loci, as passerines show extensive MHC gene duplication. In order to compare diversity in the two populations, we employed two published approaches to sequencing MHC Class II exon 2: direct sequencing with exon-based primers, and traditional cloning and sequencing with intron-based primers. Results from both methods show that the colonist population has maintained high levels of variation. Our results also indicate varying numbers of alleles across individuals, corroborating evidence for gene duplication in songbird MHC. While future studies in songbirds may need to take a genomic approach to fully understand the structure of MHC in this lineage, our results show that it is possible to use traditional methods to reveal functional variation across populations.

  7. Evidence for selection maintaining MHC diversity in a rodent species despite strong density fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Andrea C; Herde, Antje; Mazzoni, Camila J; Eccard, Jana A; Sommer, Simone

    2016-07-01

    Strong spatiotemporal variation in population size often leads to reduced genetic diversity limiting the adaptive potential of individual populations. Key genes of adaptive variation are encoded by the immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) playing an essential role in parasite resistance. How MHC variation persists in rodent populations that regularly experience population bottlenecks remains an important topic in evolutionary genetics. We analysed the consequences of strong population fluctuations on MHC class II DRB exon 2 diversity in two distant common vole (Microtus arvalis) populations in three consecutive years using a high-throughput sequencing approach. In 143 individuals, we detected 25 nucleotide alleles translating into 14 unique amino acid MHC alleles belonging to at least three loci. Thus, the overall allelic diversity and amino acid distance among the remaining MHC alleles, used as a surrogate for the range of pathogenic antigens that can be presented to T-cells, are still remarkably high. Both study populations did not show significant population differentiation between years, but significant differences were found between sites. We concluded that selection processes seem to be strong enough to maintain moderate levels of MHC diversity in our study populations outcompeting genetic drift, as the same MHC alleles were conserved between years. Differences in allele frequencies between populations might be the outcome of different local parasite pressures and/or genetic drift. Further understanding of how pathogens vary across space and time will be crucial to further elucidate the mechanisms maintaining MHC diversity in cyclic populations. PMID:27225422

  8. MHC class II tetramer analyses in AE37-vaccinated prostate cancer patients reveal vaccine-specific polyfunctional and long-lasting CD4(+) T-cells.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulou, Eleftheria A; Voutsas, Ioannis F; Papamichail, Michael; Baxevanis, Constantin N; Perez, Sonia A

    2016-07-01

    Realizing the basis for generating long-lasting clinical responses in cancer patients after therapeutic vaccinations provides the means to further ameliorate clinical efficacy. Peptide cancer vaccines stimulating CD4(+) T helper cells are often promising for inducing immunological memory and persistent CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell responses. Recent reports from our clinical trial with the AE37 vaccine, which is a HER2 hybrid polypeptide, documented its efficacy to induce CD4(+) T cell immunity, which was associated with clinical improvements preferentially among HLA-DRB1*11(+) prostate cancer patients. Here, we performed in-depth investigation of the CD4(+) T cell response against the AE37 vaccine. We used the DR11/AE37 tetramer in combination with multicolor flow cytometry to identify and characterize AE37-specific CD4(+) T cells regarding memory and Tregs phenotype in HLA-DRB1*11(+) vaccinated patients. To verify vaccine-specific immunological memory in vivo, we also assessed AE37-specific CD4(+) T cells in defined CD4(+) memory subsets by cell sorting. Finally, vaccine-induced AE37-specific CD4(+) T cells were assessed regarding their functional profile. AE37-specific memory CD4(+) T cells could be detected in peptide-stimulated cultures from prostate cancer patients following vaccination even 4 y post-vaccination. The vast majority of vaccine-induced AE37-specific CD4(+) T cells exhibited a multifunctional, mostly Th1 cytokine signature, with the potential of granzyme B production. In contrast, we found relatively low frequencies of Tregs among AE37-specific CD4(+) T cells. This is the first report on the identification of vaccine-induced HER2-specific multifunctional long-lasting CD4(+) T cells in vaccinated prostate cancer patients. PMID:27622033

  9. MHC class II tetramer analyses in AE37-vaccinated prostate cancer patients reveal vaccine-specific polyfunctional and long-lasting CD4(+) T-cells.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulou, Eleftheria A; Voutsas, Ioannis F; Papamichail, Michael; Baxevanis, Constantin N; Perez, Sonia A

    2016-07-01

    Realizing the basis for generating long-lasting clinical responses in cancer patients after therapeutic vaccinations provides the means to further ameliorate clinical efficacy. Peptide cancer vaccines stimulating CD4(+) T helper cells are often promising for inducing immunological memory and persistent CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell responses. Recent reports from our clinical trial with the AE37 vaccine, which is a HER2 hybrid polypeptide, documented its efficacy to induce CD4(+) T cell immunity, which was associated with clinical improvements preferentially among HLA-DRB1*11(+) prostate cancer patients. Here, we performed in-depth investigation of the CD4(+) T cell response against the AE37 vaccine. We used the DR11/AE37 tetramer in combination with multicolor flow cytometry to identify and characterize AE37-specific CD4(+) T cells regarding memory and Tregs phenotype in HLA-DRB1*11(+) vaccinated patients. To verify vaccine-specific immunological memory in vivo, we also assessed AE37-specific CD4(+) T cells in defined CD4(+) memory subsets by cell sorting. Finally, vaccine-induced AE37-specific CD4(+) T cells were assessed regarding their functional profile. AE37-specific memory CD4(+) T cells could be detected in peptide-stimulated cultures from prostate cancer patients following vaccination even 4 y post-vaccination. The vast majority of vaccine-induced AE37-specific CD4(+) T cells exhibited a multifunctional, mostly Th1 cytokine signature, with the potential of granzyme B production. In contrast, we found relatively low frequencies of Tregs among AE37-specific CD4(+) T cells. This is the first report on the identification of vaccine-induced HER2-specific multifunctional long-lasting CD4(+) T cells in vaccinated prostate cancer patients.

  10. Lysis of pig endothelium by IL-2 activated human natural killer cells is inhibited by swine and human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I gene products.

    PubMed

    Itescu, S; Artrip, J H; Kwiatkowski, P A; Wang, S F; Minanov, O P; Morgenthau, A S; Michler, R E

    1997-01-01

    We have previously described a form of xenograft rejection, mediated by natural killer (NK) cells, occurring in pig-to-primate organ transplants beyond the period of antibody-mediated hyperacute rejection. In this study, two distinct NK activation pathways were identified as mechanisms of pig aortic endotheliual cell (PAEC) lysis by human NK cells. Using an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay, a progressive increase in human NK lysis of PAEC was observed following incubation with human IgG at increasing serum titer. In the absence of IgG, a second mechanism of PAEC lysis by human NK cells was observed following activation with IL-2. IL-2 activation of human NK cells increased lysis of PAEC by over 3-fold compared with ADCC. These results indicate that IL-2 activation of human NK cells induces significantly higher levels of lytic activity than does conventional ADCC involving IgG and FcRIII. We next investigated the role of MHC class I molecules in the regulation of NK lysis following IL-2 activation. PAEC expression of SLA class I molecules was increased by up to 75% by treatment with human TNFa. Following treatment with TNFa at 1 u/ml, IL-2 activated human NK lysis of PAEC was inhibited at every effector:target (E:T) ratio tested. Maximal effect occurred at an E:T ratio of 10:1, with TNFa inhibiting specific lysis by 59% (p < 0.01). Incubation with an anti-SLA class I Mab, but not IgG isotype control, abrogated the protective effects of TNFa on NK lysis of PAEC, suggesting direct inhibitory effects of SLA class I molecules on human NK function. To investigate whether human MHC class I molecules might have similar effects on human NK lysis of PAEC, further experiments were performed using a soluble peptide derived from the alpha-helical region of HLA-B7. Incubation with the HLA-B7 derived peptide significantly reduced the IL-2 activated NK lytic activity against PAEC in a dose-dependent fashion. Maximal effect occurred at a concentration of 10 mg

  11. MHC variability in heritage breeds of chickens.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E; Lund, A R; McCarron, A M; Pinegar, K N; Korver, D R; Classen, H L; Aggrey, S; Utterbach, C; Anthony, N B; Berres, M E

    2016-02-01

    The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is very strongly associated with disease resistance and thus is a very important region of the chicken genome. Historically, MHC (B locus) has been identified by the use of serology with haplotype specific alloantisera. These antisera can be difficult to produce and frequently cross-react with multiple haplotypes and hence their application is generally limited to inbred and MHC-defined lines. As a consequence, very little information about MHC variability in heritage chicken breeds is available. DNA-based methods are now available for examining MHC variability in these previously uncharacterized populations. A high density SNP panel consisting of 101 SNP that span a 230,000 bp region of the chicken MHC was used to examine MHC variability in 17 heritage populations of chickens from five universities from Canada and the United States. The breeds included 6 heritage broiler lines, 3 Barred Plymouth Rock, 2 New Hampshire and one each of Rhode Island Red, Light Sussex, White Leghorn, Dark Brown Leghorn, and 2 synthetic lines. These heritage breeds contained from one to 11 haplotypes per line. A total of 52 unique MHC haplotypes were found with only 10 of them identical to serologically defined haplotypes. Furthermore, nine MHC recombinants with their respective parental haplotypes were identified. This survey confirms the value of these non-commercially utilized lines in maintaining genetic diversity. The identification of multiple MHC haplotypes and novel MHC recombinants indicates that diversity is being generated and maintained within these heritage populations.

  12. Role of the MHC2TA gene in autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Alfonso; Sánchez‐Lopez, Marta; Varadé, Jezabel; Mas, Ana; Martín, M Carmen; de las Heras, Virginia; Arroyo, Rafael; Mendoza, Juan Luis; Díaz‐Rubio, Manuel; Fernández‐Gutiérrez, Benjamín; de la Concha, Emilio G; Urcelay, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes is almost exclusively regulated by the class II transactivator. A promoter polymorphism (−168A/G, rs3087456) in the MHC2TA gene was associated with increased susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and myocardial infarction in a northern European population. However, no evidence of association of this MHC2TA variant with the two autoimmune diseases could be subsequently detected in independent cohorts. Aim To test the aforementioned single nucleotide polymorphism and another G→C change (nt1614 from coding sequence, rs4774) to analyse the haplotype pattern in this MHC2TA gene. Methods A case–control study was performed with 350 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 396 patients with multiple sclerosis, 663 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 519 healthy controls from Madrid. Genotyping was ascertained by using TaqMan assays‐on‐demand on a 7900HT analyser, following the manufacturer's suggestions (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, California, USA). Haplotypes were inferred with the expectation–maximisation algorithm implemented by the Arlequin software. Results No independent association with these autoimmune diseases was found for either polymorphism in the Spanish cohorts tested. However, when haplotypes were compared between patients with rheumatoid arthritis and controls, a significant difference in their overall frequency distribution was observed, evidencing a protective haplotype (−168A/1614C, p = 0.006; odds ratio (OR) 0.7) and a risk haplotype (−168G/1614C, p = 0.019; OR 1.6). Patients with multiple sclerosis mirrored these results, but no effect on IBD was identified. Conclusions The MHC2TA gene influences predisposition to rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, but not to IBD. The −168G allele is not an aetiological variant in itself, but a genetic marker of susceptibility/protection haplotypes. PMID:17012290

  13. Gene duplication and divergence produce divergent MHC genotypes without disassortative mating.

    PubMed

    Dearborn, Donald C; Gager, Andrea B; McArthur, Andrew G; Gilmour, Morgan E; Mandzhukova, Elena; Mauck, Robert A

    2016-09-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exhibit heterozygote advantage in immune defence, which in turn can select for MHC-disassortative mate choice. However, many species lack this expected pattern of MHC-disassortative mating. A possible explanation lies in evolutionary processes following gene duplication: if two duplicated MHC genes become functionally diverged from each other, offspring will inherit diverse multilocus genotypes even under random mating. We used locus-specific primers for high-throughput sequencing of two expressed MHC Class II B genes in Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa, and found that exon 2 alleles fall into two gene-specific monophyletic clades. We tested for disassortative vs. random mating at these two functionally diverged Class II B genes, using multiple metrics and different subsets of exon 2 sequence data. With good statistical power, we consistently found random assortment of mates at MHC. Despite random mating, birds had MHC genotypes with functionally diverged alleles, averaging 13 amino acid differences in pairwise comparisons of exon 2 alleles within individuals. To test whether this high MHC diversity in individuals is driven by evolutionary divergence of the two duplicated genes, we built a phylogenetic permutation model. The model showed that genotypic diversity was strongly impacted by sequence divergence between the most common allele of each gene, with a smaller additional impact of monophyly of the two genes. Divergence of allele sequences between genes may have reduced the benefits of actively seeking MHC-dissimilar mates, in which case the evolutionary history of duplicated genes is shaping the adaptive landscape of sexual selection. PMID:27376487

  14. Choosy Wolves? Heterozygote Advantage But No Evidence of MHC-Based Disassortative Mating.

    PubMed

    Galaverni, Marco; Caniglia, Romolo; Milanesi, Pietro; Lapalombella, Silvana; Fabbri, Elena; Randi, Ettore

    2016-03-01

    A variety of nonrandom mate choice strategies, including disassortative mating, are used by vertebrate species to avoid inbreeding, maintain heterozygosity and increase fitness. Disassortative mating may be mediated by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), an important gene cluster controlling immune responses to pathogens. We investigated the patterns of mate choice in 26 wild-living breeding pairs of gray wolf (Canis lupus) that were identified through noninvasive genetic methods and genotyped at 3 MHC class II and 12 autosomal microsatellite (STR) loci. We tested for deviations from random mating and evaluated the covariance of genetic variables at functional and STR markers with fitness proxies deduced from pedigree reconstructions. Results did not show evidences of MHC-based disassortative mating. Rather we found a higher peptide similarity between mates at MHC loci as compared with random expectations. Fitness values were positively correlated with heterozygosity of the breeders at both MHC and STR loci, whereas they decreased with relatedness at STRs. These findings may indicate fitness advantages for breeders that, while avoiding highly related mates, are more similar at the MHC and have high levels of heterozygosity overall. Such a pattern of MHC-assortative mating may reflect local coadaptation of the breeders, while a reduction in genetic diversity may be balanced by heterozygote advantages. PMID:26610365

  15. MHC diversity and mate choice in the magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus.

    PubMed

    Knafler, Gabrielle J; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee; Bouzat, Juan L

    2012-01-01

    We estimated levels of diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRß1 gene in 50 breeding pairs of the Magellanic penguin and compared those to estimates from Humboldt and Galapagos penguins. We tested for positive selection and 2 conditions required for the evolution of MHC-based disassortative mating: 1) greater MHC diversity between breeding pairs compared to random mating, and 2) associations between MHC genotype and fitness. Cloning and sequencing of the DRß1 gene showed that Magellanic penguins had higher levels of genetic variation than Galapagos and Humboldt penguins. Sequence analysis revealed 45 alleles with 3.6% average proportion of nucleotide differences, nucleotide diversity of 0.030, and observed heterozygosity of 0.770. A gene phylogeny showed 9 allelic lineages with interspersed DRß1 sequences from Humboldt and Galapagos penguins, indicating ancestral polymorphisms. d (N)/d (S) ratios revealed evidence for positive selection. Analysis of breeding pairs showed no disassortative mating preferences. Significant MHC genotype/fitness associations in females suggest, however, that selection for pathogen resistance plays a more important role than mate choice in maintaining diversity at the MHC in the Magellanic penguin. The differential effect of MHC heterozygosity on fitness between the sexes is likely associated with the relative role of hatching and fledging rates as reliable indicators of overall fitness in males and females.

  16. The cytoplasmic and the transmembrane domains are not sufficient for class I MHC signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Gur, H; Geppert, T D; Wacholtz, M C; Lipsky, P E

    1999-02-01

    Class I MHC molecules deliver activation signals to T cells. To analyze the role of the cytoplasmic and the transmembrane (TM) domains of class I MHC molecules in T cell activation, Jurkat cells were transfected with genes for truncated class I MHC molecules which had only four intracytoplasmic amino acids and no potential phosphorylation sites or native molecules or both. Cross-linking either the native or the truncated molecules induced IL-2 production even under limiting stimulation conditions of low engagement of the stimulating mAb. Moreover, direct comparison of transfected truncated and native class I MHC molecules expressed on the same cell revealed significant stimulation induced by cross-linking the truncated molecules, despite low expression. In addition, truncated class I MHC molecules were as able to synergize with CD3, CD2, or CD28 initiated IL-2 production as native molecules. In further experiments, hybrid constructs made of the extracellular portion of the murine CD8 alpha chain and of the TM and the intracytoplasmic domains of H-2Kk class I MHC molecule were transfected into Jurkat T cells. The expression of the transfected hybrid molecules was comparable to that of the native HLA-B7 molecules. Cross-linking the intact monomorphic HLA-A,B,C epitope or the polymorphic HLA-B7 epitope induced IL-2 production upon costimulation with PMA. In contrast, cross-linking the hybrid molecules generated neither an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) nor stimulated IL-2 production. By contrast, cross-linking intact murine class I MHC molecules induced [Ca2+]i, signal and IL-2 production in transfected Jurkat cells. The data therefore indicate that unlike many other signaling molecules, signaling via class I MHC molecules does not involve the cytoplasmic and the TM portions of the molecule, but rather class I MHC signal transduction is likely to be mediated by the extracellular domain of the molecule.

  17. Regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II genes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Nancy M.; Majumder, Parimal; Boss, Jeremy M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) genes are regulated at the level of transcription. Recent studies have shown that chromatin modification is critical for efficient transcription of these genes, and a number of chromatin modifying complexes recruited to MHC-II genes have been described. The MHC-II genes are segregated from each other by a series of chromatin elements, termed MHC-II insulators. Interactions between MHC-insulators and the promoters of MHC-II genes are mediated by the insulator factor CCCTC-binding protein and are critical for efficient expression. This regulatory mechanism provides a novel view of how the entire MHC-II locus is assembled architecturally and can be coordinately controlled. PMID:20970972

  18. Diversity of MHC DQB and DRB Genes in the Endangered Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea).

    PubMed

    Lau, Quintin; Chow, Natalie; Gray, Rachael; Gongora, Jaime; Higgins, Damien P

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an important role in vertebrate adaptive immunity, being responsible for recognizing, binding, and presenting specific antigenic peptides to T lymphocytes. Here, we study the MHC class II DQB and DRB exon 2 genes of the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea), an endangered pinniped species that experiences high pup mortality. Following characterization of N. cinerea DQB and DRB by molecular cloning, and evaluation of diversity in pups across 2 colonies using variant screening (n = 47), 3 DQB alleles and 10 DRB variants (including 1 pseudogene allele) were identified. The higher diversity at DRB relative to DQB is consistent with other studies in marine mammals. Despite overall lower MHC class II allelic diversity relative to some other pinniped species, we observed similar levels of nucleotide diversity and selection in N. cinerea. In addition, we provide support for recent divergence of MHC class II alleles. The characterization of MHC class II diversity in the Australian sea lion establishes a baseline for further investigation of associations with disease, including endemic hookworm infection, and contributes to the conservation management of this species. PMID:25908666

  19. Diversity of MHC DQB and DRB Genes in the Endangered Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea).

    PubMed

    Lau, Quintin; Chow, Natalie; Gray, Rachael; Gongora, Jaime; Higgins, Damien P

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an important role in vertebrate adaptive immunity, being responsible for recognizing, binding, and presenting specific antigenic peptides to T lymphocytes. Here, we study the MHC class II DQB and DRB exon 2 genes of the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea), an endangered pinniped species that experiences high pup mortality. Following characterization of N. cinerea DQB and DRB by molecular cloning, and evaluation of diversity in pups across 2 colonies using variant screening (n = 47), 3 DQB alleles and 10 DRB variants (including 1 pseudogene allele) were identified. The higher diversity at DRB relative to DQB is consistent with other studies in marine mammals. Despite overall lower MHC class II allelic diversity relative to some other pinniped species, we observed similar levels of nucleotide diversity and selection in N. cinerea. In addition, we provide support for recent divergence of MHC class II alleles. The characterization of MHC class II diversity in the Australian sea lion establishes a baseline for further investigation of associations with disease, including endemic hookworm infection, and contributes to the conservation management of this species.

  20. MHC-assortative facial preferences in humans

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S. Craig; Little, Anthony C; Gosling, L. Morris; Jones, Benedict C; Perrett, David I; Carter, Vaughan; Petrie, Marion

    2005-01-01

    Individuals tend to choose mates who are sufficiently genetically dissimilar to avoid inbreeding. As facial attractiveness is a key factor in human mate preference, we investigated whether facial preferences were related to genetic dissimilarity. We asked female volunteers to rate the attractiveness of men from photographs and compared these results with individual genotypes at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In contrast to previously reported preferences based on odour, we found a non-significant tendency for women to rate MHC-similar faces as more attractive, suggesting a preference for cues to a self-similar MHC in faces. Further analysis revealed that male faces received higher attractiveness scores when rated by women who were MHC-similar than by MHC-dissimilar women. Although unexpected, this MHC-similar facial preference is consistent with other studies documenting assortative preferences in humans, including for facial phenotype. PMID:17148217

  1. Brucella abortus Inhibits Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Expression and Antigen Processing through Interleukin-6 Secretion via Toll-Like Receptor 2▿

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, Paula; Cassataro, Juliana; Delpino, M. Victoria; Zwerdling, Astrid; Pasquevich, Karina A.; Samartino, Clara García; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.

    2008-01-01

    The strategies that allow Brucella abortus to survive inside macrophages for prolonged periods and to avoid the immunological surveillance of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-restricted gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes are poorly understood. We report here that infection of THP-1 cells with B. abortus inhibited expression of MHC-II molecules and antigen (Ag) processing. Heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) also induced both these phenomena, indicating the independence of bacterial viability and involvement of a structural component of the bacterium. Accordingly, outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19), a prototypical B. abortus lipoprotein, inhibited both MHC-II expression and Ag processing to the same extent as HKBA. Moreover, a synthetic lipohexapeptide that mimics the structure of the protein lipid moiety also inhibited MHC-II expression, indicating that any Brucella lipoprotein could down-modulate MHC-II expression and Ag processing. Inhibition of MHC-II expression and Ag processing by either HKBA or lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19) depended on Toll-like receptor 2 and was mediated by interleukin-6. HKBA or L-Omp19 also inhibited MHC-II expression and Ag processing of human monocytes. In addition, exposure to the synthetic lipohexapeptide inhibited Ag-specific T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Brucella-infected patients. Together, these results indicate that there is a mechanism by which B. abortus may prevent recognition by T cells to evade host immunity and establish a chronic infection. PMID:17984211

  2. Vemurafenib enhances MHC induction in BRAFV600E homozygous melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Bishu; Hill, Charles E.; Pollack, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    To optimally integrate targeted kinase inhibitors and immunotherapies in the treatment of melanoma, it will be critical to understand how BRAFV600E mutational status and BRAFV600E inhibition influence the expression of genes that govern antitumor immune responses. Because major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are critical for interactions between tumor cells and lymphocytes, we investigated the impact of BRAFV600E-selective inhibitors on the expression of MHC molecules. We found that the treatment of A375 melanoma cells with vemurafenib enhances the induction of MHC Class I and Class II molecules by interferon γ and IFNα2b. Consistent with these findings, we observed that the forced overexpression of BRAFV600E has the opposite effect and can repress the baseline expression of MHC Class I molecules in A375 cells. Further studies utilizing eight other melanoma cell lines revealed that the vemurafenib-mediated enhancement of MHC induction by IFNγ only occurs in the context of homozygous, but not heterozygous, BRAFV600E mutation. These findings suggest that BRAFV600Eactivity directly influences the expression of MHC molecules and the response to Type I and Type II IFNs. Furthermore, our data suggest that the effect of vemurafenib on the expression of immune system-relevant genes may depend on the zygosity of the BRAFV600E mutation, which is not routinely assessed in melanoma patients. PMID:23483066

  3. Heterozygote advantage at MHC DRB may influence response to infectious disease epizootics.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Amy J; Pearson, John; Negro, Sandra S; Chilvers, B Louise; Kennedy, Martin A; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-04-01

    The effect of MHC polymorphism on individual fitness variation in the wild remains equivocal; however, much evidence suggests that heterozygote advantage is a major determinant. To understand the contribution of MHC polymorphism to individual disease resistance or susceptibility in natural populations, we investigated two MHC class II B loci, DQB and DRB, in the New Zealand sea lion (NZSL, Phocarctos hookeri). The NZSL is a threatened species which is unusually susceptible to death by bacterial infection at an early age; it has suffered three bacterial induced epizootics resulting in high mortality levels of young pups since 1997. The MHC DQB and DRB haplotypes of dead NZSL pups with known cause of death (bacteria, enteritis or trauma) were sequenced and reconstructed, compared to pups that survived beyond 2 months of age, and distinct MHC DRB allele frequency and genotype differences were identified. Two findings were striking: (i) one DRB allele was present only in dead pups, and (ii) one heterozygous DRB genotype, common in live pups, was absent from dead pups. These results are consistent with some functional relationship with these variants and suggest heterozygote advantage is operating at DRB. We found no association between heterozygosity and fitness at 17 microsatellite loci, indicating that general heterozygosity is not responsible for the effect on fitness detected here. This result may be a consequence of recurrent selection by multiple pathogen assault over recent years and highlights the importance of heterozygote advantage at MHC as a potential mechanism for fitness differences in wild populations. PMID:25728376

  4. Reduced MHC and neutral variation in the Galápagos hawk, an island endemic

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genes at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are known for high levels of polymorphism maintained by balancing selection. In small or bottlenecked populations, however, genetic drift may be strong enough to overwhelm the effect of balancing selection, resulting in reduced MHC variability. In this study we investigated MHC evolution in two recently diverged bird species: the endemic Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis), which occurs in small, isolated island populations, and its widespread mainland relative, the Swainson's hawk (B. swainsoni). Results We amplified at least two MHC class II B gene copies in each species. We recovered only three different sequences from 32 Galápagos hawks, while we amplified 20 unique sequences in 20 Swainson's hawks. Most of the sequences clustered into two groups in a phylogenetic network, with one group likely representing pseudogenes or nonclassical loci. Neutral genetic diversity at 17 microsatellite loci was also reduced in the Galápagos hawk compared to the Swainson's hawk. Conclusions The corresponding loss in neutral diversity suggests that the reduced variability present at Galápagos hawk MHC class II B genes compared to the Swainson's hawk is primarily due to a founder event followed by ongoing genetic drift in small populations. However, purifying selection could also explain the low number of MHC alleles present. This lack of variation at genes involved in the adaptive immune response could be cause for concern should novel diseases reach the archipelago. PMID:21612651

  5. Unusual features of Self-Peptide/MHC Binding by Autoimmune T Cell Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson,M.; Hahn, M.; Wucherpfennig, K.

    2005-01-01

    Structural studies on T cell receptors (TCRs) specific for foreign antigens demonstrated a remarkably similar topology characterized by a central, diagonal TCR binding mode that maximizes interactions with the MHC bound peptide. However, three recent structures involving autoimmune TCRs demonstrated unusual interactions with self-peptide/MHC complexes. Two TCRs from multiple sclerosis patients bind with unconventional topologies, and both TCRs are shifted toward the peptide N terminus and the MHC class II {beta} chain helix. A TCR from the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model binds in a conventional orientation, but the structure is unusual because the self-peptide only partially fills the binding site. For all three TCRs, interaction with the MHC bound self-peptide is suboptimal, and only two or three TCR loops contact the peptide. Optimal TCR binding modes confer a competitive advantage for antimicrobial T cells during an infection, whereas altered binding properties may permit survival of a subset of autoreactive T cells during thymic selection.

  6. The effect of transfected MHC class I genes on sensitivity to natural killer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Holscher, M; Givan, A L; Brooks, C G

    1991-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules protect target cells from lysis by natural killer cells (NKC), we transfected the MHC- B16 melanoma line F10 with the class I genes encoding Dd, Kb, and Kk. Only low levels of Dd expression could be obtained and there was no protection against NKC. By contrast, Kb and Kk transfectants were obtained which displayed significant resistance to NKC, and with the latter transfectants resistance was clearly related to the level of transgene expression. Various mutants of the F10 line with altered patterns of MHC expression were also obtained. These mutant lines provided evidence that (i) the Db molecule is also capable of inducing resistance to NKC and (ii) high MHC class I expression does not by itself guarantee lowered susceptibility to NKC. PMID:1904402

  7. Contributions of Ea(z) and Eb(z) MHC genes to lupus susceptibility in New Zealand mice.

    PubMed

    Vyse, T J; Rozzo, S J; Drake, C G; Appel, V B; Lemeur, M; Izui, S; Palmer, E; Kotzin, B L

    1998-03-15

    Unlike parental New Zealand Black (NZB) or New Zealand White (NZW) mice, (NZB x NZW)F1 mice exhibit a lupus-like disease characterized by IgG autoantibody production and severe immune complex-mediated nephritis. In studies of the genetic susceptibility to disease in this F1 model, the NZW MHC (H2z) has been strongly linked with the development of disease, and it was hypothesized that class II MHC genes, particularly Ez genes, may underlie this genetic contribution. In the present study, we bred transgenic B6 mice expressing I-Ez or congenic B6 mice carrying H2z with NZB mice and used a backcross analysis to test the hypothesis that Ea(z) and/or Eb(z) genes account for the effect of H2z on disease. The genetic analysis of different backcross combinations showed that unlike mice carrying H2z, mice inheriting Ez transgenes do not demonstrate increased IgG autoantibody production or increased incidence of nephritis. Surprisingly, in the same transgenic backcross mice, inheritance of the endogenous H2b from the B6 strain was strongly linked with the production of IgG autoantibodies, but not with disease. Additional experiments suggested that the level of IgG3 autoantibody production, which is controlled by H2, may be important in the pathogenesis of renal disease. Contributions to autoantibody production were also detected from an NZB locus on distal chromosome 1 (previously named Nba2). Together, these studies provide new insight into the role of MHC in lupus-like autoimmunity.

  8. The MHC class I genes of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Dirscherl, Hayley; McConnell, Sean C; Yoder, Jeffrey A; de Jong, Jill L O

    2014-09-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a central role in the immune response and in the recognition of non-self. Found in all jawed vertebrate species, including zebrafish and other teleosts, MHC genes are considered the most polymorphic of all genes. In this review we focus on the multi-faceted diversity of zebrafish MHC class I genes, which are classified into three sequence lineages: U, Z, and L. We examine the polygenic, polymorphic, and haplotypic diversity of the zebrafish MHC class I genes, discussing known and postulated functional differences between the different class I lineages. In addition, we provide the first comprehensive nomenclature for the L lineage genes in zebrafish, encompassing at least 15 genes, and characterize their sequence properties. Finally, we discuss how recent findings have shed new light on the remarkably diverse MHC loci of this species.

  9. Refining the association of MHC with multiple sclerosis in African Americans.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Joseph P; Cree, Bruce A C; Caillier, Stacy J; Gregersen, Peter K; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar A; Freudenberg, Jan; Lee, Annette; Bridges, S Louis; Hauser, Stephen L; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine

    2010-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system mediated by autoimmune and neurodegenerative pathogenic mechanisms. Multiple genes account for its moderate heritability, but the only genetic region shown to have a large replicable effect on MS susceptibility is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the MHC has made it difficult to fully characterize individual genetic contributions of this region to MS risk in previous studies. African Americans are at a lower risk for MS when compared with northern Europeans and Americans of European descent, but greater haplotypic diversity and distinct patterns of LD suggest that this population may be particularly informative for fine-mapping efforts. To examine the role of the MHC in African American MS, a case-control association study was performed with 499 African American MS patients and 750 African American controls that were genotyped for 6040 MHC region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A replication data set consisting of 451 African American patients and 718 African American controls was genotyped for selected SNPs. Two MHC class II SNPs, rs2647040 and rs3135021, were significant in the replication cohort and partially tagged DRB1*15 alleles. Surprisingly, in comparison to similar studies of individuals of European descent, the MHC seems to play a smaller role in MS susceptibility in African Americans, consistent with pervasive genetic heterogeneity across ancestral groups, and may explain the difference in MS susceptibility between African Americans and individuals of European descent.

  10. Plasmodium relictum infection and MHC diversity in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Loiseau, Claire; Zoorob, Rima; Robert, Alexandre; Chastel, Olivier; Julliard, Romain; Sorci, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites has been proposed as a mechanism maintaining genetic diversity in both host and parasite populations. In particular, the high level of genetic diversity usually observed at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is generally thought to be maintained by parasite-driven selection. Among the possible ways through which parasites can maintain MHC diversity, diversifying selection has received relatively less attention. This hypothesis is based on the idea that parasites exert spatially variable selection pressures because of heterogeneity in parasite genetic structure, abundance or virulence. Variable selection pressures should select for different host allelic lineages resulting in population-specific associations between MHC alleles and risk of infection. In this study, we took advantage of a large survey of avian malaria in 13 populations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) to test this hypothesis. We found that (i) several MHC alleles were either associated with increased or decreased risk to be infected with Plasmodium relictum, (ii) the effects were population specific, and (iii) some alleles had antagonistic effects across populations. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that diversifying selection in space can maintain MHC variation and suggest a pattern of local adaptation where MHC alleles are selected at the local host population level. PMID:20943698

  11. Redirecting soluble antigen for MHC class I cross-presentation during phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hari, Aswin; Ganguly, Anutosh; Mu, Libing; Davis, Shevaun P; Stenner, Melanie D; Lam, Raymond; Munro, Fay; Namet, Inana; Alghamdi, Enaam; Fürstenhaupt, Tobias; Dong, Wei; Detampel, Pascal; Shen, Lian Jun; Amrein, Matthias W; Yates, Robin M; Shi, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Peptides presented by MHC class I molecules are mostly derived from proteins synthesized by the antigen-presenting cell itself, while peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are predominantly from materials acquired by endocytosis. External antigens can also be presented by MHC class I molecules in a process referred to as cross-presentation. Here, we report that mouse dendritic cell (DC) engagement to a phagocytic target alters endocytic processing and inhibits the proteolytic activities. During phagocytosis, endosome maturation is delayed, shows less progression toward the lysosome, and the endocytosed soluble antigen is targeted for MHC class I cross-presentation. The antigen processing in these arrested endosomes is under the control of NAPDH oxidase associated ROS. We also show that cathepsin S is responsible for the generation of the MHC class I epitope. Taken together, our results suggest that in addition to solid structure uptake, DC phagocytosis simultaneously modifies the kinetics of endosomal trafficking and maturation. As a consequence, external soluble antigens are targeted into the MHC class I cross-presentation pathway.

  12. Can balancing selection on MHC loci counteract genetic drift in small fragmented populations of black grouse?

    PubMed

    Strand, Tanja M; Segelbacher, Gernot; Quintela, María; Xiao, Lingyun; Axelsson, Tomas; Höglund, Jacob

    2012-02-01

    The ability of natural populations to adapt to new environmental conditions is crucial for their survival and partly determined by the standing genetic variation in each population. Populations with higher genetic diversity are more likely to contain individuals that are better adapted to new circumstances than populations with lower genetic diversity. Here, we use both neutral and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) markers to test whether small and highly fragmented populations hold lower genetic diversity than large ones. We use black grouse as it is distributed across Europe and found in populations with varying degrees of isolation and size. We sampled 11 different populations; five continuous, three isolated, and three small and isolated. We tested patterns of genetic variation in these populations using three different types of genetic markers: nine microsatellites and 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which both were found to be neutral, and two functional MHC genes that are presumably under selection. The small isolated populations displayed significantly lower neutral genetic diversity compared to continuous populations. A similar trend, but not as pronounced, was found for genotypes at MHC class II loci. Populations were less divergent at MHC genes compared to neutral markers. Measures of genetic diversity and population genetic structure were positively correlated among microsatellites and SNPs, but none of them were correlated to MHC when comparing all populations. Our results suggest that balancing selection at MHC loci does not counteract the power of genetic drift when populations get small and fragmented.

  13. No evidence for the effect of MHC on male mating success in the brown bear.

    PubMed

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wieslaw; Bellemain, Eva; Valentini, Alice; Zedrosser, Andreas; Taberlet, Pierre; Kindberg, Jonas; Swenson, Jon E; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Mate choice is thought to contribute to the maintenance of the spectacularly high polymorphism of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes, along with balancing selection from parasites, but the relative contribution of the former mechanism is debated. Here, we investigated the association between male MHC genotype and mating success in the brown bear. We analysed fragments of sequences coding for the peptide-binding region of the highly polymorphic MHC class I and class II DRB genes, while controlling for genome-wide effects using a panel of 18 microsatellite markers. Male mating success did not depend on the number of alleles shared with the female or amino-acid distance between potential mates at either locus. Furthermore, we found no indication of female mating preferences for MHC similarity being contingent on the number of alleles the females carried. Finally, we found no significant association between the number of MHC alleles a male carried and his mating success. Thus, our results provided no support for the role of mate choice in shaping MHC polymorphism in the brown bear. PMID:25470381

  14. MetaMHCpan, A Meta Approach for Pan-Specific MHC Peptide Binding Prediction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yichang; Luo, Cheng; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Zhu, Shanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Recent computational approaches in bioinformatics can achieve high performance, by which they can be a powerful support for performing real biological experiments, making biologists pay more attention to bioinformatics than before. In immunology, predicting peptides which can bind to MHC alleles is an important task, being tackled by many computational approaches. However, this situation causes a serious problem for immunologists to select the appropriate method to be used in bioinformatics. To overcome this problem, we develop an ensemble prediction-based Web server, which we call MetaMHCpan, consisting of two parts: MetaMHCIpan and MetaMHCIIpan, for predicting peptides which can bind MHC-I and MHC-II, respectively. MetaMHCIpan and MetaMHCIIpan use two (MHC2SKpan and LApan) and four (TEPITOPEpan, MHC2SKpan, LApan, and MHC2MIL) existing predictors, respectively. MetaMHCpan is available at http://datamining-iip.fudan.edu.cn/MetaMHCpan/index.php/pages/view/info . PMID:27076335

  15. No Evidence for the Effect of MHC on Male Mating Success in the Brown Bear

    PubMed Central

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wieslaw; Bellemain, Eva; Valentini, Alice; Zedrosser, Andreas; Taberlet, Pierre; Kindberg, Jonas; Swenson, Jon E.; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Mate choice is thought to contribute to the maintenance of the spectacularly high polymorphism of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes, along with balancing selection from parasites, but the relative contribution of the former mechanism is debated. Here, we investigated the association between male MHC genotype and mating success in the brown bear. We analysed fragments of sequences coding for the peptide-binding region of the highly polymorphic MHC class I and class II DRB genes, while controlling for genome-wide effects using a panel of 18 microsatellite markers. Male mating success did not depend on the number of alleles shared with the female or amino-acid distance between potential mates at either locus. Furthermore, we found no indication of female mating preferences for MHC similarity being contingent on the number of alleles the females carried. Finally, we found no significant association between the number of MHC alleles a male carried and his mating success. Thus, our results provided no support for the role of mate choice in shaping MHC polymorphism in the brown bear. PMID:25470381

  16. Refining the association of MHC with multiple sclerosis in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Joseph P.; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Caillier, Stacy J.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar A.; Freudenberg, Jan; Lee, Annette; Bridges, S. Louis; Hauser, Stephen L.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system mediated by autoimmune and neurodegenerative pathogenic mechanisms. Multiple genes account for its moderate heritability, but the only genetic region shown to have a large replicable effect on MS susceptibility is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the MHC has made it difficult to fully characterize individual genetic contributions of this region to MS risk in previous studies. African Americans are at a lower risk for MS when compared with northern Europeans and Americans of European descent, but greater haplotypic diversity and distinct patterns of LD suggest that this population may be particularly informative for fine-mapping efforts. To examine the role of the MHC in African American MS, a case–control association study was performed with 499 African American MS patients and 750 African American controls that were genotyped for 6040 MHC region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A replication data set consisting of 451 African American patients and 718 African American controls was genotyped for selected SNPs. Two MHC class II SNPs, rs2647040 and rs3135021, were significant in the replication cohort and partially tagged DRB1*15 alleles. Surprisingly, in comparison to similar studies of individuals of European descent, the MHC seems to play a smaller role in MS susceptibility in African Americans, consistent with pervasive genetic heterogeneity across ancestral groups, and may explain the difference in MS susceptibility between African Americans and individuals of European descent. PMID:20466734

  17. Super Natural II--a database of natural products.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Erehman, Jevgeni; Gohlke, Björn-Oliver; Wilhelm, Thomas; Preissner, Robert; Dunkel, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Natural products play a significant role in drug discovery and development. Many topological pharmacophore patterns are common between natural products and commercial drugs. A better understanding of the specific physicochemical and structural features of natural products is important for corresponding drug development. Several encyclopedias of natural compounds have been composed, but the information remains scattered or not freely available. The first version of the Supernatural database containing ∼ 50,000 compounds was published in 2006 to face these challenges. Here we present a new, updated and expanded version of natural product database, Super Natural II (http://bioinformatics.charite.de/supernatural), comprising ∼ 326,000 molecules. It provides all corresponding 2D structures, the most important structural and physicochemical properties, the predicted toxicity class for ∼ 170,000 compounds and the vendor information for the vast majority of compounds. The new version allows a template-based search for similar compounds as well as a search for compound names, vendors, specific physical properties or any substructures. Super Natural II also provides information about the pathways associated with synthesis and degradation of the natural products, as well as their mechanism of action with respect to structurally similar drugs and their target proteins. PMID:25300487

  18. Construction of bioactive chimeric MHC class I tetramer by expression and purification of human-murine chimeric MHC heavy chain and beta(2)m as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ding; Wang, Fang; He, Xiaowen; Jiang, Lei; Li, Dean; Ying, He; Sun, Shuhan

    2006-12-01

    Major histocompatibility (MHC) class I tetramers are used in the quantitative analysis of epitope peptide-specific CD8+ T-cells. An MHC class I tetramer was composed of 4 MHC class I complexes and a fluorescently labeled streptavidin (SA) molecule. Each MHC class I complex consists of an MHC heavy chain, a beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) molecule and a synthetic epitope peptide. In most previous studies, an MHC class I complex was formed in the refolding buffer with an expressed MHC heavy chain molecule and beta(2)m, respectively. This procedure inevitably resulted in the disadvantages of forming unwanted multimers and self-refolding products, and the purification of each kind of monomer was time-consuming. In the present study, the genes of a human/murine chimeric MHC heavy chain (HLA-A2 alpha1, HLA-A2 alpha2 and MHC-H2D alpha3) and beta(2)m were tandem-cloned into plasmid pET17b and expressed as a fusion protein. The recombinant fusion protein was refolded with each of the three HLA-A2 restricted peptides (HBc18-27 FLPSDFFPSI, HBx52-60 HLSLRGLPV, and HBx92-100 VLHKRTLGL) and thus three chimeric MHC class I complexes were obtained. Biotinylation was performed, and its level of efficiency was observed via a band-shift assay in non-reducing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Such chimeric MHC class I tetramers showed a sensitive binding activity in monitoring HLA/A2 restrictive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in immunized HLA/A*0201 transgenic mice. PMID:17046278

  19. The production and crystallization of the human leukocyte antigen class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 complexed with deamidated gliadin peptides implicated in coeliac disease

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Kate N.; Reid, Hugh H.; Borg, Natalie A.; Broughton, Sophie E.; Huyton, Trevor; Anderson, Robert P.; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2007-12-01

    The production and crystallization of human leukocyte antigen class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 in complex with deamidated gliadin peptides is reported. Crystals of HLA-DQ2{sup PQPELPYPQ} diffracted to 3.9 Å, while the HLA-DQ8{sup EGSFQPSQE} crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å, allowing structure determination by molecular replacement. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 are key risk factors in coeliac disease, as they bind deamidated gluten peptides that are subsequently recognized by CD4{sup +} T cells. Here, the production and crystallization of both HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 in complex with the deamidated gliadin peptides DQ2 α-I (PQPELPYPQ) and DQ8 α-I (EGSFQPSQE), respectively, are reported.

  20. Hepatitis C Virus Attenuates Interferon-Induced MHC Class I Expression and Decreases CD8+ T-Cell Effector Functions

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wonseok; Sung, Pil Soo; Park, Su-Hyung; Yoon, Sarah; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Kim, Seungtaek; Han, Kwang Hyub; Kim, Ja Kyung; Rehermann, Barbara; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells are required for clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. MHC class I expression is upregulated by type I and II interferons (IFNs). However, little is known about the effects of HCV infection on IFN-induced expression of MHC class I. METHODS We used the HCV cell culture system (HCVcc) with the genotype 2a Japanese Fulminant Hepatitis-1 strain to investigate IFN-induced expression of MHC class I and its regulatory mechanisms. HCVcc-infected Huh-7.5 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, metabolic labeling, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting analyses. Protein kinase R (PKR) was knocked-down with lentiviruses that express small hairpin (sh)RNAs. The functional effects of MHC class I regulation by HCV were demonstrated in co-culture studies, using HCV-specific CD8+ T cells. RESULTS Although the baseline level of MHC class I was not affected by HCV infection, IFN-induced expression of MHC class I was notably attenuated in HCV-infected cells. This was associated with replicating HCV RNA, not with viral protein. HCV infection reduced IFN-induced synthesis of MHC class I protein and induced phosphorylation of PKR and eIF2α. IFN-induced MHC class I expression was restored by shRNA-mediated knockdown of PKR in HCV-infected cells. Co-culture of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells and HCV-infected cells that expressed HLA-A2 demonstrated that HCV infection reduced the effector functions of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells; these functions were restored by shRNA-mediated knockdown of PKR. CONCLUSIONS IFN-induced expression of MHC class I is attenuated in HCV-infected cells by activation of PKR, which reduces the effector functions of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells. This appears to be an important mechanism by which HCV circumvents antiviral adaptive immune responses. PMID:24486950

  1. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  2. Epigenetic Mechanisms Regulate MHC and Antigen Processing Molecules in Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Álvarez, Beatriz; Rodriguez, Ramón M.; Calvanese, Vincenzo; Blanco-Gelaz, Miguel A.; Suhr, Steve T.; Ortega, Francisco; Otero, Jesus; Cibelli, Jose B.; Moore, Harry; Fraga, Mario F.; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are an attractive resource for new therapeutic approaches that involve tissue regeneration. hESCs have exhibited low immunogenicity due to low levels of Mayor Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class-I and absence of MHC class-II expression. Nevertheless, the mechanisms regulating MHC expression in hESCs had not been explored. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the expression levels of classical and non-classical MHC class-I, MHC class-II molecules, antigen-processing machinery (APM) components and NKG2D ligands (NKG2D-L) in hESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and NTera2 (NT2) teratocarcinoma cell line. Epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of these genes were investigated by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. We showed that low levels of MHC class-I molecules were associated with absent or reduced expression of the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP-1) and tapasin (TPN) components in hESCs and iPSCs, which are involved in the transport and load of peptides. Furthermore, lack of β2-microglobulin (β2m) light chain in these cells limited the expression of MHC class I trimeric molecule on the cell surface. NKG2D ligands (MICA, MICB) were observed in all pluripotent stem cells lines. Epigenetic analysis showed that H3K9me3 repressed the TPN gene in undifferentiated cells whilst HLA-B and β2m acquired the H3K4me3 modification during the differentiation to embryoid bodies (EBs). Absence of HLA-DR and HLA-G expression was regulated by DNA methylation. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide fundamental evidence for the epigenetic control of MHC in hESCs and iPSCs. Reduced MHC class I and class II expression in hESCs and iPSCs can limit their recognition by the immune response against these cells. The knowledge of these mechanisms will further allow the development of strategies to induce tolerance and improve stem cell allograft acceptance

  3. Quality control of MHC class I maturation.

    PubMed

    Paulsson, Kajsa M; Wang, Ping

    2004-01-01

    Assembly of MHC class I molecules in the ER is regulated by the so-called loading complex (LC). This multiprotein complex is of definite importance for class I maturation, but its exact organization and order of assembly are not known. Evidence implies that the quality of peptides loaded onto class I molecules is controlled at multiple stages during MHC class I assembly. We recently found that tapasin, an important component of the LC, interacts with COPI-coated vesicles. Biochemical studies suggested that the tapa-sin-COPI interaction regulates the retrograde transport of immature MHC class I molecules from the Golgi network back to the ER. Also other findings now propose that in addition to the peptide-loading control, the quality control of MHC class I antigen presentation includes the restriction of export of suboptimally loaded MHC class I molecules to the cell surface. In this review, we use recent studies of tapasin to examine the efficiency of TAP, the LC constitution, ER quality control of class I assembly, and peptide optimization. The concepts of MHC class I recycling and ER retention are also discussed. PMID:14718384

  4. Characterization, Polymorphism and Selection of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) DAB Genes in Vulnerable Chinese Egret (Egretta eulophotes)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zeng; Zhou, Xiaoping; Lin, Qingxian

    2013-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is an excellent molecular marker for the studies of evolutionary ecology and conservation genetics because it is a family of highly polymorphic genes that play a key role in vertebrate immune response. In this study, the functional genes of MHC Class II B (DAB) were isolated for the first time in a vulnerable species, the Chinese egret (Egrettaeulophotes). Using a full length DNA and cDNA produced by PCR and RACE methods, four potential MHC DAB loci were characterized in the genome of this egret and all four were expressed in liver and blood. At least four copies of the MHC gene complex were similar to two copies of the minimal essential MHC complex of chicken, but are less complex than the multiple copies expressed in passerine species. In MHC polymorphism, 19 alleles of exon 2 were isolated from 48 individuals using PCR. No stop codons or frameshift mutations were found in any of the coding regions. The signatures of positive selection detected in potential peptide-binding regions by Bayesian analysis, suggesting that all of these genes were functional. These data will provide the fundamental basis for further studies to elucidate the mechanisms and significance of MHC molecular adaptation in vulnerable Chinese egret and other ardeids. PMID:24019955

  5. Antigen processing by epidermal Langerhans cells correlates with the level of biosynthesis of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and expression of invariant chain

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Two prior studies with a small number of T cell lines have shown that the presentation of native protein antigens by epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) is regulated. When freshly isolated, LC are efficient antigen-presenting cells (APC), but after a period of culture LC are inefficient or even inactive. The deficit in culture seems to be a selective loss in antigen processing, since cultured LC are otherwise rich in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II products and are active APC for alloantigens and mitogens, which do not require processing. We have extended the analysis by studying presentation to bulk populations of primed lymph node and a T-T hybrid. Only freshly isolated LC can be pulsed with the protein antigens myoglobin and conalbumin, but once pulsed, antigen is retained in an immunogenic form for at least 2 d. The acquisition of antigen, presumably as MHC-peptide complexes, is inhibited if the fresh LC are exposed to foreign protein in the presence of chloroquine or cycloheximide. The latter, in contrast, improves the efficacy of antigen pulsing in anti-Ig- stimulated B blasts. In additional studies of mechanism, we noted that both fresh and cultured LC endocytose similar amounts of an antigen, rhodamineovalbumin, into perinuclear granules. However, freshly isolated LC synthesize high levels class II MHC molecules and express higher amounts of the class II-associated invariant chain. Fresh LC are at least 5-10 times more active than many other cells types in the level of biosynthesis of MHC class II products. These findings provide a physiologic model in which newly synthesized MHC class II molecules appear to be the principal vehicle for effective antigen processing by APC of the dendritic cell lineage. Another APC, the B lymphoblast, does not appear to require newly synthesized MHC class II molecules for presentation. PMID:2121888

  6. Low MHC variation in the endangered Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus).

    PubMed

    Bollmer, Jennifer L; Vargas, F Hernán; Parker, Patricia G

    2007-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most polymorphic regions of the genome, likely due to balancing selection acting to maintain alleles over time. Lack of MHC variability has been attributed to factors such as genetic drift in small populations and relaxed selection pressure. The Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus), endemic to the Galápagos Islands, is the only penguin that occurs on the equator. It relies upon cold, nutrient-rich upwellings and experiences severe population declines when ocean temperatures rise during El Niño events. These bottlenecks, occurring in an already small population, have likely resulted in reduced genetic diversity in this species. In this study, we used MHC class II exon 2 sequence data from a DRB1-like gene to characterize the amount of genetic variation at the MHC in 30 Galápagos penguins, as well as one Magellanic penguin (S. magellanicus) and two king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), and compared it to that in five other penguin species for which published data exist. We found that the Galápagos penguin had the lowest MHC diversity (as measured by number of polymorphic sites and average divergence among alleles) of the eight penguin species studied. A phylogenetic analysis showed that Galápagos penguin MHC sequences are most closely related to Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) sequences, its putative sister species based on other loci. An excess of non-synonymous mutations and a pattern of trans-specific evolution in the neighbor-joining tree suggest that selection is acting on the penguin MHC. PMID:17457582

  7. Haematopoietic depletion in vaccine-induced neonatal pancytopenia depends on both the titre and specificity of alloantibody and levels of MHC I expression.

    PubMed

    Bell, Charlotte R; MacHugh, Niall D; Connelley, Timothy K; Degnan, Kathryn; Morrison, W Ivan

    2015-07-01

    Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) is a disease of calves characterised by haematopoietic depletion, mediated by ingestion of alloantibodies in colostrum. It has been linked epidemiologically to vaccination of the dams of affected calves with a particular vaccine (Pregsure) containing a novel adjuvant. Evidence suggests that BNP-alloantibodies are directed against MHC I molecules, induced by contaminant bovine cellular material from Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells used in the vaccine's production. We aimed to investigate the specificity of BNP-alloantibody for bovine MHC I alleles, particularly those expressed by MDBK cells, and whether depletion of particular cell types is due to differential MHC I expression levels. A complement-mediated cytotoxicity assay was used to assess functional serum alloantibody titres in BNP-dams, Pregsure-vaccinated dams with healthy calves, cows vaccinated with an alternative product and unvaccinated controls. Alloantibody specificity was investigated using transfected mouse lines expressing the individual MHC I alleles identified from MDBK cells and MHC I-defined bovine leukocyte lines. All BNP-dams and 50% of Pregsure-vaccinated cows were shown to have MDBK-MHC I specific alloantibodies, which cross-reacted to varying degrees with other MHC I genotypes. MHC I expression levels on different blood cell types, assessed by flow cytometry, were found to correlate with levels of alloantibody-mediated damage in vitro and in vivo. Alloantibody-killed bone marrow cells were shown to express higher levels of MHC I than undamaged cells. The results provide evidence that MHC I-specific alloantibodies play a dominant role in the pathogenesis of BNP. Haematopoietic depletion was shown to be dependent on the titre and specificity of alloantibody produced by individual cows and the density of surface MHC I expression by different cell types. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that MHC I molecules originating from MDBK cells

  8. Association of MHC region SNPs with irritant susceptibility in healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Yucesoy, Berran; Talzhanov, Yerkebulan; Michael Barmada, M; Johnson, Victor J; Kashon, Michael L; Baron, Elma; Wilson, Nevin W; Frye, Bonnie; Wang, Wei; Fluharty, Kara; Gharib, Rola; Meade, Jean; Germolec, Dori; Luster, Michael I; Nedorost, Susan

    2016-09-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is the most common work-related skin disease, especially affecting workers in "wet-work" occupations. This study was conducted to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and skin irritant response in a group of healthcare workers. 585 volunteer healthcare workers were genotyped for MHC SNPs and patch tested with three different irritants: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and benzalkonium chloride (BKC). Genotyping was performed using Illumina Goldengate MHC panels. A number of SNPs within the MHC Class I (OR2B3, TRIM31, TRIM10, TRIM40 and IER3), Class II (HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1) and Class III (C2) genes were associated (p < 0.001) with skin response to tested irritants in different genetic models. Linkage disequilibrium patterns and functional annotations identified two SNPs in the TRIM40 (rs1573298) and HLA-DPB1 (rs9277554) genes, with a potential impact on gene regulation. In addition, SNPs in PSMB9 (rs10046277 and ITPR3 (rs499384) were associated with hand dermatitis. The results are of interest as they demonstrate that genetic variations in inflammation-related genes within the MHC can influence chemical-induced skin irritation and may explain the connection between inflamed skin and propensity to subsequent allergic contact sensitization. PMID:27258892

  9. Impact of historical founder effects and a recent bottleneck on MHC variability in Commander Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus)

    PubMed Central

    Ploshnitsa, Anna I; Goltsman, Mikhail E; Macdonald, David W; Kennedy, Lorna J; Sommer, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Populations of Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) have been isolated on two of the Commander Islands (Bering and Mednyi) from the circumpolar distributed mainland population since the Pleistocene. In 1970–1980, an epizootic outbreak of mange caused a severe population decline on Mednyi Island. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a primary role in infectious disease resistance. The main objectives of our study were to compare contemporary variation of MHC class II in mainland and island Arctic foxes, and to document the effects of the isolation and the recent bottleneck on MHC polymorphism by analyzing samples from historical and contemporary Arctic foxes. In 184 individuals, we found 25 unique MHC class II DRB and DQB alleles, and identified evidence of balancing selection maintaining allelic lineages over time at both loci. Twenty different MHC alleles were observed in mainland foxes and eight in Bering Island foxes. The historical Mednyi population contained five alleles and all contemporary individuals were monomorphic at both DRB and DQB. Our data indicate that despite positive and diversifying selection leading to elevated rates of amino acid replacement in functionally important antigen-binding sites, below a certain population size, balancing selection may not be strong enough to maintain genetic diversity in functionally important genes. This may have important fitness consequences and might explain the high pathogen susceptibility in some island populations. This is the first study that compares MHC diversity before and after a bottleneck in a wild canid population using DNA from museum samples. PMID:22408734

  10. Refinement of the MHC Risk Map in a Scandinavian Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Population

    PubMed Central

    Næss, Sigrid; Lie, Benedicte A.; Melum, Espen; Olsson, Marita; Hov, Johannes R.; Croucher, Peter J. P.; Hampe, Jochen; Thorsby, Erik; Bergquist, Annika; Traherne, James A.; Schrumpf, Erik; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Schreiber, Stefan; Franke, Andre; Karlsen, Tom H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic variants within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) represent the strongest genetic susceptibility factors for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Identifying the causal variants within this genetic complex represents a major challenge due to strong linkage disequilibrium and an overall high physical density of candidate variants. We aimed to refine the MHC association in a geographically restricted PSC patient panel. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 365 PSC cases and 368 healthy controls of Scandinavian ancestry were included in the study. We incorporated data from HLA typing (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB3, -DRB1, -DQB1) and single nucleotide polymorphisms across the MHC (n = 18,644; genotyped and imputed) alongside previously suggested PSC risk determinants in the MHC, i.e. amino acid variation of DRβ, a MICA microsatellite polymorphism and HLA-C and HLA-B according to their ligand properties for killer immunoglobulin-like receptors. Breakdowns of the association signal by unconditional and conditional logistic regression analyses demarcated multiple PSC associated MHC haplotypes, and for eight of these classical HLA class I and II alleles represented the strongest association. A novel independent risk locus was detected near NOTCH4 in the HLA class III region, tagged by rs116212904 (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 2.32 [1.80, 3.00], P = 1.35×10−11). Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that classical HLA class I and II alleles, predominantly at HLA-B and HLA-DRB1, are the main risk factors for PSC in the MHC. In addition, the present assessments demonstrated for the first time an association near NOTCH4 in the HLA class III region. PMID:25521205

  11. Computational prediction of cleavage using proteasomal in vitro digestion and MHC I ligand data*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yu-feng; Sheng, Hao; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zhi-yang

    2013-01-01

    Proteasomes are responsible for the production of the majority of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. Hence, it is important to identify correctly which peptides will be generated by proteasomes from an unknown protein. However, the pool of proteasome cleavage data used in the prediction algorithms, whether from major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I ligand or in vitro digestion data, is not identical to in vivo proteasomal digestion products. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of these models still need to be improved. In this paper, three types of proteasomal cleavage data, constitutive proteasome (cCP), immunoproteasome (iCP) in vitro cleavage, and MHC I ligand data, were used for training cleave-site predictive methods based on the kernel-function stabilized matrix method (KSMM). The predictive accuracies of the KSMM+pair coefficients were 75.0%, 72.3%, and 83.1% for cCP, iCP, and MHC I ligand data, respectively, which were comparable to the results from support vector machine (SVM). The three proteasomal cleavage methods were combined in turn with MHC I-peptide binding predictions to model MHC I-peptide processing and the presentation pathway. These integrations markedly improved MHC I peptide identification, increasing area under the receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) values from 0.82 to 0.91. The results suggested that both MHC I ligand and proteasomal in vitro degradation data can give an exact simulation of in vivo processed digestion. The information extracted from cCP and iCP in vitro cleavage data demonstrated that both cCP and iCP are selective in their usage of peptide bonds for cleavage. PMID:24009202

  12. The opossum MHC genomic region revisited.

    PubMed

    Krasnec, Katina V; Sharp, Alana R; Williams, Tracey L; Miller, Robert D

    2015-04-01

    The gray short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica is one of the few marsupial species for which a high quality whole genome sequence is available and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region has been annotated. Previous analyses revealed only a single locus within the opossum MHC region, designated Modo-UA1, with the features expected for encoding a functionally classical class I α-chain. Nine other class I genes found within the MHC are highly divergent and have features usually associated with non-classical roles. The original annotation, however, was based on an early version of the opossum genome assembly. More recent analyses of allelic variation in individual opossums revealed too many Modo-UA1 sequences per individual to be accounted for by a single MHC class I locus found in the genome assembly. A reanalysis of a later generation assembly, MonDom5, revealed the presence of two additional loci, now designated Modo-UA3 and UA4, in a region that was expanded and more complete than in the earlier assembly. Modo-UA1, UA3, and UA4 are all transcribed, although Modo-UA4 transcripts are rarer. Modo-UA4 is also relatively non-polymorphic. Evidence presented support the accuracy of the later assembly and the existence of three related class I genes in the opossum, making opossums more typical of mammals and most tetrapods by having multiple apparent classical MHC class I loci.

  13. Expression of MHC class I receptors confers functional intraclonal heterogeneity to a reactive expansion of gammadelta T cells.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Xavier; Pitard, Vincent; Ravet, Sophie; Roumanes, David; Halary, Franck; Dromer, Claire; Vivier, Eric; Paul, Pascale; Moreau, Jean-François; Déchanet-Merville, Julie

    2005-06-01

    NK cell receptors for MHC class I molecules (MHC-NKR) can be expressed by T cell subsets. The restricted repertoire and phenotypic characteristics of MHC-NKR(+) T cells indicate that expression of MHC-NKR is acquired upon antigenic challenge and might promote expansion of T cells. Previous studies performed on in vitro generated alphabeta T cell clones concluded that MHC-NKR expression was not a clonal attribute. Here, we examined a massive monoclonal expansion of a non-leukemic gammadelta T cell population found in the peripheral blood of a lung-transplanted patient who suffered from a cytomegalovirus infection. Despite their monoclonality, these T cells displayed a heterogeneous and stable in vivo Ig- and lectin-like MHC-NKR phenotype. Twenty percent of the cells displayed a CD94(+)NKG2A(+) phenotype, and 10% were labeled with an anti-CD158b1/b2/j monoclonal antibody. A CD158b/j(+) gammadelta T cell clone derived in vitro from patient's peripheral blood lymphocytes was shown to express the activating form CD158j (KIR2DS2), which once cross-linked stimulated the clone cytolytic function and costimulated the TCR-induced production of cytokines, independently of the killer-activating receptor-associated protein (KARAP). In conclusion, heterogeneity of MHC-NKR expression confers a functional intraclonal diversity that may participate to induction of specific gammadelta T cell effector functions or proliferation upon pathogen challenge.

  14. Localization of type 1 diabetes susceptibility to the MHC class I genes HLA-B and HLA-A

    PubMed Central

    Nejentsev, Sergey; Howson, Joanna M. M.; Walker, Neil M.; Szeszko, Jeffrey; Field, Sarah F.; Stevens, Helen E.; Reynolds, Pamela; Hardy, Matthew; King, Erna; Masters, Jennifer; Hulme, John; Maier, Lisa M.; Smyth, Deborah; Bailey, Rebecca; Cooper, Jason D.; Ribas, Gloria; Campbell, R. Duncan; Clayton, David G.; Todd, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6 is associated with susceptibility to more common diseases than any other region of the human genome, including almost all disorders classified as autoimmune. In type 1 diabetes the major genetic susceptibility determinants have been mapped to the MHC class II genes HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1 (refs 1-3), but these genes cannot completely explain the association between type 1 diabetes and the MHC region4-11. Owing to the region’s extreme gene density, the multiplicity of disease-associated alleles, strong associations between alleles, limited genotyping capability, and inadequate statistical approaches and sample sizes, which, and how many, loci within the MHC determine susceptibility remains unclear. Here, in several large type 1 diabetes data sets, we analyse a combined total of 1,729 polymorphisms, and apply statistical methods—recursive partitioning and regression—to pinpoint disease susceptibility to the MHC class I genes HLA-B and HLA-A (risk ratios>1.5; Pcombined=2.01×10-19 and 2.35×10-13, respectively) in addition to the established associations of the MHC class II genes. Other loci with smaller and/or rarer effects might also be involved, but to find these, future searches must take into account both the HLA class II and class I genes and use even larger samples. Taken together with previous studies4-8,10-16, we conclude that MHC-class-I-mediated events, principally involving HLA-B*39, contribute to the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. PMID:18004301

  15. The functional importance of sequence versus expression variability of MHC alleles in parasite resistance.

    PubMed

    Axtner, Jan; Sommer, Simone

    2012-12-01

    Understanding selection processes driving the pronounced allelic polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes and its functional associations to parasite load have been the focus of many recent wildlife studies. Two main selection scenarios are currently debated which explain the susceptibility or resistance to parasite infections either by the effects of (1) specific MHC alleles which are selected frequency-dependent in space and time or (2) a heterozygote or divergent allele advantage. So far, most studies have focused only on structural variance in co-evolutionary processes although this might not be the only trait subject to natural selection. In the present study, we analysed structural variance stretching from exon1 through exon3 of MHC class II DRB genes as well as genotypic expression variance in relation to the gastrointestinal helminth prevalence and infection intensity in wild yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis). We found support for the functional importance of specific alleles both on the sequence and expression level. By resampling a previously investigated study population we identified specific MHC alleles affected by temporal shifts in parasite pressure and recorded associated changes in allele frequencies. The allele Apfl-DRB*23 was associated with resistance to infections by the oxyurid nematode Syphacia stroma and at the same time with susceptibility to cestode infection intensity. In line with our expectation, MHC mRNA transcript levels tended to be higher in cestode-infected animals carrying the allele Apfl-DRB*23. However, no support for a heterozygote or divergent allele advantage on the sequence or expression level was detected. The individual amino acid distance of genotypes did not explain individual differences in parasite loads and the genetic distance had no effect on MHC genotype expression. For ongoing studies on the functional importance of expression variance in parasite resistance, allele

  16. Eco-immunology of fish invasions: the role of MHC variation.

    PubMed

    Monzón-Argüello, C; Garcia de Leaniz, C; Gajardo, G; Consuegra, S

    2014-06-01

    The relationship between invaders and the pathogens encountered in their new environment can have a large effect on invasion success. Invaders can become free from their natural pathogens and reallocate costly immune resources to growth and reproduction, thereby increasing invasion success. Release from enemies and relaxation of selective pressures could render newly founded populations more variable at immune-related genes, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), particularly when they have different origins. Using rainbow and brown trout, two of the world's most successful fish invaders, we tested the general hypothesis that invaders should display high intrapopulation immunogenetic diversity and interpopulation divergence, due to the interplay between genetic drift and successive waves of genetically divergent introductions. We analysed genetic diversity and signatures of selection at the MHC class II β immune-related locus. In both species, MHC diversity (allelic richness and heterozygosity) for southern hemisphere populations was similar to values reported for populations at their native range. However, MHC functional diversity was limited, and population immunogenetic structuring weaker than that observed using neutral markers. Depleted MHC functional diversity could reflect a decrease in immune response, immune-related assortative mating or selection for resistance to newly encountered parasites. Given that the role of MHC diversity in the survival of these populations remains unclear, depleted functional diversity of invasive salmonids could compromise their long-term persistence. A better understanding of the eco-immunology of invaders may help in managing and preventing the impact of biological invasions, a major cause of loss of biodiversity worldwide.

  17. Contrasting patterns of variation in MHC loci in the Alpine newt.

    PubMed

    Babik, W; Pabijan, M; Radwan, J

    2008-05-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are essential in pathogen recognition and triggering an adaptive immune response. Although they are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates, very little information on MHC variation and patterns of evolution are available for amphibians, a group known to be declining rapidly worldwide. As infectious diseases are invoked in the declines, information on MHC variation should contribute to devising appropriate conservation strategies. In this study, we examined MHC variation in 149 Alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris) from three allopatric population groups in Poland at the northeastern margin of the distribution of this species. The genetic distinctiveness of the population groups has previously been shown by studies of skin graft rejection, allozymes and microsatellites. Two putative expressed MHC II loci with contrasting levels of variation and clear evidence of gene conversion/recombination between them were detected. The Meal-DAB locus is highly polymorphic (37 alleles), and shows evidence of historical positive selection for amino acid replacements and substantial geographical differentiation in allelic richness. On the contrary, the Meal-DBB locus exhibits low polymorphism (three alleles differing by up to two synonymous substitutions) and a uniform distribution of three alleles among geographical regions. The uniform frequencies of the presumptively neutral Meal-DBB alleles may be explained by linkage to Meal-DAB. We found differences in allelic richness in Meal-DAB between regions, consistent with the hypothesis that genetic drift prevails with increasing distance from glacial refugia. Pseudogene loci appear to have evolved neutrally. The level of DAB variation correlated with variation in microsatellite loci, implying that selection and drift interplayed to produce the pattern of MHC variation observed in marginal populations of the Alpine newt.

  18. Identification of a nuclear export sequence in the MHC CIITA.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Emily; Gold, Theresa; Fettig, Veronica; LeVasseur, Michael T; Cressman, Drew E

    2015-06-15

    Initiation of an immune response through expression of MHC class II and related genes is under the control of the CIITA. Normally found in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, CIITA is tightly controlled by a variety of posttranslational modifications as well as interactions with other nuclear and cytoplasmic factors, whereas disruption of this dual subcellular localization impairs CIITA functioning and expression of target genes. Although CIITA has well-defined domains necessary for its nuclear import, the region responsible for the translocation of CIITA from the nucleus has not been characterized. In this study, we identify a leucine-rich motif at residues 717-724 that bears strong homology to known nuclear export sequence (NES) domains. Mutation of this region renders CIITA insensitive to treatment with leptomycin B, an inhibitor of nuclear export, whereas fusion of this domain to a heterologous GFP is sufficient to induce its export to the cytoplasm or cause its retention in the nucleus following leptomycin B treatment. Point mutations of specific leucine residues within the NES disrupt the normal subcellular distribution of the full-length CIITA, impair its ability to interact with the nuclear export factor CRM1, and enhance CIITA-induced gene expression from an MHC class II gene promoter. IFN-γ stimulation of class II genes is further enhanced by inhibiting the nuclear export of endogenous CIITA. Collectively, these data demonstrate the first identification of a specific NES within CIITA and place it among the other protein domains that contribute to the posttranslational regulation of CIITA activity.

  19. Production of a Locus- and Allele-Specific Monoclonal Antibody for the Characterization of SLA-1*0401 mRNA and Protein Expression Levels in MHC-Defined Microminipigs

    PubMed Central

    Kametani, Yoshie; Ohshima, Shino; Miyamoto, Asuka; Shigenari, Atsuko; Takasu, Masaki; Imaeda, Noriaki; Matsubara, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Masafumi; Shiina, Takashi; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Kitagawa, Hitoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K.; Hirayama, Noriaki; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Ando, Asako

    2016-01-01

    The class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presents self-developed peptides to specific T cells to induce cytotoxity against infection. The MHC proteins are encoded by multiple loci that express numerous alleles to preserve the variability of the antigen-presenting ability in each species. The mechanism regulating MHC mRNA and protein expression at each locus is difficult to analyze because of the structural and sequence similarities between alleles. In this study, we examined the correlation between the mRNA and surface protein expression of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-1*0401 after the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by Staphylococcus aureus superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). We prepared a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a domain composed of Y102, L103 and L109 in the α2 domain. The Hp-16.0 haplotype swine possess only SLA-1*0401, which has the mAb epitope, while other haplotypes possess 0 to 3 SLA classical class I loci with the mAb epitopes. When PBMCs from SLA-1*0401 homozygous pigs were stimulated, the SLA-1*0401 mRNA expression level increased until 24 hrs and decreased at 48 hrs. The kinetics of the interferon regulatory transcription factor-1 (IRF-1) mRNA level were similar to those of the SLA-1*0401 mRNA. However, the surface protein expression level continued to increase until 72 hrs. Similar results were observed in the Hp-10.0 pigs with three mAb epitopes. These results suggest that TSST-1 stimulation induced both mRNA and surface protein expression of class I SLA in the swine PBMCs differentially and that the surface protein level was sustained independently of mRNA regulation. PMID:27760184

  20. No major role for insulin-degrading enzyme in antigen presentation by MHC molecules.

    PubMed

    Culina, Slobodan; Mauvais, François-Xavier; Hsu, Hsiang-Ting; Burgevin, Anne; Guénette, Suzanne; Moser, Anna; van Endert, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules requires degradation of epitope source proteins in the cytosol. Although the preeminent role of the proteasome is clearly established, evidence suggesting a significant role for proteasome-independent generation of class I ligands has been reported repeatedly. However, an enzyme responsible for such a role has not been identified. Recently insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) was shown to produce an antigenic peptide derived from the tumor antigen MAGE-A3 in an entirely proteasome-independent manner, raising the question of the global impact of IDE in MHC class I antigen processing. Here we report that IDE knockdown in human cell lines, or knockout in two different mouse strains, has no effect on cell surface expression of various MHC class I molecules, including allomorphs such as HLA-A3 and HLA-B27 suggested to be loaded in an at least a partly proteasome-independent manner. Moreover, reduced or absent IDE expression does not affect presentation of five epitopes including epitopes derived from beta amyloid and proinsulin, two preferred IDE substrates. Thus, IDE does not play a major role in MHC class I antigen processing, confirming the dominant and almost exclusive role of the proteasome in cytosolic production of MHC class I ligands.

  1. No Major Role for Insulin-Degrading Enzyme in Antigen Presentation by MHC Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsiang-Ting; Burgevin, Anne; Guénette, Suzanne; Moser, Anna; van Endert, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules requires degradation of epitope source proteins in the cytosol. Although the preeminent role of the proteasome is clearly established, evidence suggesting a significant role for proteasome-independent generation of class I ligands has been reported repeatedly. However, an enzyme responsible for such a role has not been identified. Recently insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) was shown to produce an antigenic peptide derived from the tumor antigen MAGE-A3 in an entirely proteasome-independent manner, raising the question of the global impact of IDE in MHC class I antigen processing. Here we report that IDE knockdown in human cell lines, or knockout in two different mouse strains, has no effect on cell surface expression of various MHC class I molecules, including allomorphs such as HLA-A3 and HLA-B27 suggested to be loaded in an at least a partly proteasome-independent manner. Moreover, reduced or absent IDE expression does not affect presentation of five epitopes including epitopes derived from beta amyloid and proinsulin, two preferred IDE substrates. Thus, IDE does not play a major role in MHC class I antigen processing, confirming the dominant and almost exclusive role of the proteasome in cytosolic production of MHC class I ligands. PMID:24516642

  2. 40 CFR 82.70 - Nonessential Class II products and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in the production of plastic and elastomeric materials, which contain class II substances for solvent... designated as class II in 40 CFR part 82, appendix B to subpart A) are identified as being nonessential and... 21 CFR 2.125(e); (ii) Lubricants, coatings or cleaning fluids for electrical or electronic...

  3. 78 FR 48193 - Final Adjusted Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Enforcement Administration Final Adjusted Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled.... SUMMARY: This notice establishes final adjusted 2013 aggregate production quotas for controlled substances... List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine, as well as the 2013...

  4. The patterns of MHC association in aplastic and non-aplastic paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jacek; Mika-Witkowska, Renata; Mendek-Czajkowska, Ewa; Rogatko-Koroś, Marta; Graczyk-Pol, Elżbieta; Pyl, Hanna; Klimczak, Aneta; Wójcik, Małgorzata; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Maryniak, Renata; Zupańska, Barbara

    2011-06-01

    The deficiency of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins in plasma membranes of PIG-A gene mutated hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is so far insufficient to explain the domination of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) clone over the normal HSC. We attempted to elucidate possible link between MHC and initial severe aplastic anemia (ISAA/PNH) type and non-aplastic (n/PNH) outcome of PNH. In 50 PNH patients assigned as ISAA/PNH (n = 13), n/PNH (n = 33) or nonassigned (n = 4) and 200 ethnically matched controls we analyzed MHC associations. Our data confirmed strong associations of DRB1*15:01 (RR = 3.51, p = 0.0011) and DQB1*06:02 (RR = 7.09, p = 0.000026) alleles, especially with n/PNH subtype. B*18:01 allele was associated with increased risk of ISAA/PNH subtype (RR = 5.25, p = 0.0028). We conclude that both class II and class I MHC alleles are associated with different subsets of PNH. Clonal selection of PIG-A mutated cells with cognate metabolic block is associated with MHC class II alleles DRB1*15:01 and DQB1*06:02 independent from initial severe AA clone selection. MHC class I molecule B*18:01 can additionally influence the domination of PNH clone in PNH subjects with initial severe aplastic anemia.

  5. Major histocompatibility complex class II compatibility, but not class I, predicts mate choice in a bird with highly developed olfaction.

    PubMed

    Strandh, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena; Pontarp, Mikael; Canbäck, Björn; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Miquel, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Mate choice for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatibility has been found in several taxa, although rarely in birds. MHC is a crucial component in adaptive immunity and by choosing an MHC-dissimilar partner, heterozygosity and potentially broad pathogen resistance is maximized in the offspring. The MHC genotype influences odour cues and preferences in mammals and fish and hence olfactory-based mate choice can occur. We tested whether blue petrels, Halobaena caerulea, choose partners based on MHC compatibility. This bird is long-lived, monogamous and can discriminate between individual odours using olfaction, which makes it exceptionally well suited for this analysis. We screened MHC class I and II B alleles in blue petrels using 454-pyrosequencing and quantified the phylogenetic, functional and allele-sharing similarity between individuals. Partners were functionally more dissimilar at the MHC class II B loci than expected from random mating (p = 0.033), whereas there was no such difference at the MHC class I loci. Phylogenetic and non-sequence-based MHC allele-sharing measures detected no MHC dissimilarity between partners for either MHC class I or II B. Our study provides evidence of mate choice for MHC compatibility in a bird with a high dependency on odour cues, suggesting that MHC odour-mediated mate choice occurs in birds.

  6. Allospecific rejection of MHC class I-deficient bone marrow by CD8 T cells.

    PubMed

    Haspot, F; Li, H W; Lucas, C L; Fehr, T; Beyaz, S; Sykes, M

    2014-01-01

    Avoidance of long-term immunosuppression is a desired goal in organ transplantation. Mixed chimerism offers a promising approach to tolerance induction, and we have aimed to develop low-toxicity, nonimmunodepleting approaches to achieve this outcome. In a mouse model achieving fully MHC-mismatched allogeneic bone marrow engraftment with minimal conditioning (3 Gy total body irradiation followed by anti-CD154 and T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow cells), CD4 T cells in the recipient are required to promote tolerance of preexisting alloreactive recipient CD8 T cells and thereby permit chimerism induction. We now demonstrate that mice devoid of CD4 T cells and NK cells reject MHC Class I-deficient and Class I/Class II-deficient marrow in a CD8 T cell-dependent manner. This rejection is specific for donor alloantigens, since recipient hematopoiesis is not affected by donor marrow rejection and MHC Class I-deficient bone marrow that is syngeneic to the recipient is not rejected. Recipient CD8 T cells are activated and develop cytotoxicity against MHC Class I-deficient donor cells in association with rejection. These data implicate a novel CD8 T cell-dependent bone marrow rejection pathway, wherein recipient CD8 T cells indirectly activated by donor alloantigens promote direct killing, in a T cell receptor-independent manner, of Class I-deficient donor cells.

  7. Is Promiscuity Associated with Enhanced Selection on MHC-DQα in Mice (genus Peromyscus)?

    PubMed Central

    MacManes, Matthew D.; Lacey, Eileen A.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive behavior may play an important role in shaping selection on Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes. For example, the number of sexual partners that an individual has may affect exposure to sexually transmitted pathogens, with more partners leading to greater exposure and, hence, potentially greater selection for variation at MHC loci. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the strength of selection on exon 2 of the MHC-DQα locus in two species of Peromyscus. While the California mouse (P. californicus) is characterized by lifetime social and genetic monogamy, the deer mouse (P. maniculatus) is socially and genetically promiscuous; consistent with these differences in mating behavior, the diversity of bacteria present within the reproductive tracts of females is significantly greater for P. maniculatus. To test the prediction that more reproductive partners and exposure to a greater range of sexually transmitted pathogens are associated with enhanced diversifying selection on genes responsible for immune function, we compared patterns and levels of diversity at the Class II MHC-DQα locus in sympatric populations of P. maniculatus and P. californicus. Using likelihood based analyses, we show that selection is enhanced in the promiscuous P. maniculatus. This study is the first to compare the strength of selection in wild sympatric rodents with known differences in pathogen milieu. PMID:22649541

  8. Lactate induced HIF-1α-PRMT1 cross talk affects MHC I expression in monocytes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Piyushi; Singh, Ankita; Gowda, Pruthvi; Ghosh, Sadashib; Chatterjee, Arpita; Sen, Ellora

    2016-10-01

    Tumor infiltrating monocytes play a crucial role in tumor immune surveillance. As lactate is an important component of the tumor milieu, we investigated its role in the transcriptional regulation of MHC I which is crucial for mounting effective immune responses against tumors. Lactate elevated MHC class I expression in monocytes. Increase in HLAB expression was concomitant with increase in HIF-1α and decrease in PRMT1 levels. Interestingly, a reciprocal relationship was observed between PRMT1 and HIF-1α. While HIF-1α inhibition decreased lactate induced MHC I, both pharmacological inhibition and siRNA mediated knockdown of PRMT1 upregulated HLAB levels. PRMT1 over-expression rescued lactate mediated increase in MHC I expression. Lactate mediated changes in nucleosomal occupancy on HLAB promoter facilitated a chromatin landscape that favoured decreased recruitment of CREB and PRMT1 on CRE site of HLAB locus. The effect of lactate on the chromatin landscape of HLAB was completely mimicked by PRMT1 inhibitor AMI-1 in terms of nucleosomal occupancy and CREB recruitment. Besides demonstrating the importance of lactate in the transcriptional regulation of HLAB, this study highlights for the first time the (i) existence of HIF-1α-PRMT1 regulatory loop and (ii) role of PRMT1 in modulating chromatin landscape crucial for facilitating HLAB gene expression. PMID:27521225

  9. Individual odortypes: Interaction of MHC and background genes

    SciTech Connect

    Willse, Alan R.; Kwak, Jae; Yamazaki, Kunio; Preti, George; Wahl, Jon H.; Beauchamp, Gary

    2006-12-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influence the urinary odors of mice. Behavioral studies have shown (1) that mice differing only at MHC have distinct urinary odors, suggesting an MHC odor phenotype or odortype; (2) that the MHC odortype can be recognized across different (potentially interfering) background strains; and (3) that the MHC odortype is not an additive trait. Very little is known about the odorants underlying this behavioral phenotype. We compared urinary volatile metabolite profiles of two MHC haplotypes (H-2b and H-2k) and their heterozygous cross (H-2b ? H-2k) for two different background strains using SPME headspace analysis followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For a surprisingly large number of compounds an MHC association was found to be moderated by background genotype (i.e., there is a significant MHC ? background interaction effect in the statistical model relating genotype to relative compound concentration). A few compounds have an MHC association that is independent of background strain, consistent with MHC discriminations across background strains observed in behavioral experiments. Perhaps more relevant to the role of MHC in social settings where odors are perceived combinatorially, numerous relative ratios between pairs of compounds were found to discriminate MHC types invariant of background type. In addition, a heterozygous effect ? where the metabolite expression (concentration) for the heterozygote is more extreme than the expression for either homozygote ? was observed for many compounds. The large number of compounds involved as well as the strong background and heterozygous influence suggest a complex (but unknown) mechanism of MHC-related odor expression.

  10. Coevolution of T-cell receptors with MHC and non-MHC ligands

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Caitlin C.; Luoma, Adrienne M.; Adams, Erin J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The structure and amino acid diversity of the T-cell receptor (TCR), similar in nature to that of Fab portions of antibodies, would suggest these proteins have a nearly infinite capacity to recognize antigen. Yet all currently defined native T cells expressing an α and β chain in their TCR can only sense antigen when presented in the context of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule. This MHC molecule can be one of many that exist in vertebrates, presenting small peptide fragments, lipid molecules, or small molecule metabolites. Here we review the pattern of TCR recognition of MHC molecules throughout a broad sampling of species and T-cell lineages and also touch upon T cells that do not appear to require MHC presentation for their surveillance function. We review the diversity of MHC molecules and information on the corresponding T-cell lineages identified in divergent species. We also discuss TCRs with structural domains unlike that of conventional TCRs of mouse and human. By presenting this broad view of TCR sequence, structure, domain organization, and function, we seek to explore how this receptor has evolved across time and been selected for alternative antigen-recognition capabilities in divergent lineages. PMID:26284470

  11. A Highly Tilted Binding Mode by a Self-Reactive T Cell Receptor Results in Altered Engagement of Peptide and MHC

    SciTech Connect

    D Sethi; D Schubert; A Anders; A Heroux; D Bonsor; C Thomas; E Sundberg; J Pyrdol; K Wucherpfennig

    2011-12-31

    Self-reactive T cells that escape elimination in the thymus can cause autoimmune pathology, and it is therefore important to understand the structural mechanisms of self-antigen recognition. We report the crystal structure of a T cell receptor (TCR) from a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that engages its self-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) ligand in an unusual manner. The TCR is bound in a highly tilted orientation that prevents interaction of the TCR-{alpha} chain with the MHC class II {beta} chain helix. In this structure, only a single germline-encoded TCR loop engages the MHC protein, whereas in most other TCR-pMHC structures all four germline-encoded TCR loops bind to the MHC helices. The tilted binding mode also prevents peptide contacts by the short complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3{beta} loop, and interactions that contribute to peptide side chain specificity are focused on the CDR3{alpha} loop. This structure is the first example in which only a single germline-encoded TCR loop contacts the MHC helices. Furthermore, the reduced interaction surface with the peptide may facilitate TCR cross-reactivity. The structural alterations in the trimolecular complex are distinct from previously characterized self-reactive TCRs, indicating that there are multiple unusual ways for self-reactive TCRs to bind their pMHC ligand.

  12. A highly tilted binding mode by a self-reactive T cell receptor results in altered engagement of peptide and MHC

    SciTech Connect

    Sethi, D.K.; Heroux, A.; Schubert, D. A.; Anders, A.-K.; Bonsor, D. A.; Thomas, C. P.; Sundberg, E. J.; Pyrdol, J.; Wucherpfennig, K. W.

    2011-01-17

    Self-reactive T cells that escape elimination in the thymus can cause autoimmune pathology, and it is therefore important to understand the structural mechanisms of self-antigen recognition. We report the crystal structure of a T cell receptor (TCR) from a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that engages its self-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) ligand in an unusual manner. The TCR is bound in a highly tilted orientation that prevents interaction of the TCR-{alpha} chain with the MHC class II {beta} chain helix. In this structure, only a single germline-encoded TCR loop engages the MHC protein, whereas in most other TCR-pMHC structures all four germline-encoded TCR loops bind to the MHC helices. The tilted binding mode also prevents peptide contacts by the short complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3{beta} loop, and interactions that contribute to peptide side chain specificity are focused on the CDR3{alpha} loop. This structure is the first example in which only a single germline-encoded TCR loop contacts the MHC helices. Furthermore, the reduced interaction surface with the peptide may facilitate TCR cross-reactivity. The structural alterations in the trimolecular complex are distinct from previously characterized self-reactive TCRs, indicating that there are multiple unusual ways for self-reactive TCRs to bind their pMHC ligand.

  13. Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Expression and Hemagglutinin Subtype Influence the Infectivity of Type A Influenza Virus for Respiratory Dendritic Cells ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hargadon, Kristian M.; Zhou, Haixia; Albrecht, Randy A.; Dodd, Haley A.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Braciale, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a key role in antiviral immunity, functioning both as innate effector cells in early phases of the immune response and subsequently as antigen-presenting cells that activate the adaptive immune response. In the murine respiratory tract, there are several respiratory dendritic cell (RDC) subsets, including CD103+ DC, CD11bhi DC, monocyte/macrophage DC, and plasmacytoid DC. However, little is known about the interaction between these tissue-resident RDC and viruses that are encountered during natural infection in the respiratory tract. Here, we show both in vitro and in vivo that the susceptibility of murine RDC to infection with type A influenza virus varies with the level of MHC class II expression by RDC and with the virus strain. Both CD103+ and CD11bhi RDC, which express the highest basal level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, are highly susceptible to infection by type A influenza virus. However, efficient infection is restricted to type A influenza virus strains of the H2N2 subtype. Furthermore, enhanced infectivity by viruses of the H2N2 subtype is linked to expression of the I-E MHC class II locus product. These results suggest a potential novel role for MHC class II molecules in influenza virus infection and pathogenesis in the respiratory tract. PMID:21917972

  14. MEDLARS II: A Third Generation Bibliographic Production System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katter, Robert V.; Pearson, Karl M.

    1975-01-01

    Gives an overview of MEDLARS II as an example of a major bibliographic processing system that supports on-line access to a number of very large files, has efficient throughput, and is operated on a single large-scale computer. (Author/PF)

  15. Cleveland Wood Products Mathematics on the Job I-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyahoga Community Coll., Cleveland, OH.

    Employee and facilitator manuals are provided for two courses developed for a workplace literacy program: Mathematics on the Job I and II. Each 10-session course begins with a preassessment and ends with a postassessment. Components of each 2-hour session are objectives, informational materials, and problems or exercises. The facilitator copies…

  16. Genetic basis for MHC-dependent mate choice.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2007-01-01

    Genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), best known for their role in immune recognition and transplantation success, are also involved in modulating mate choice in mice. Early studies with inbred, congenic mouse lines showed that mate choice tended to favor nonself MHC types. A similar phenomenon was demonstrated with semi-wild mice as well. Subsequent studies showed that, rather than nonself choices, it was more accurate to say that mice chose nonparental MHC types for mates since preferences for nonself could be reversed if mice were fostered from birth on parents with nonself MHC types. Other studies have demonstrated that parent-offspring recognition is also regulated by MHC-determined signals suggesting that this system is one of general importance for mouse behavior. Many studies have now demonstrated that volatile mouse body odors are regulated by MHC genes and it is presumably these odor differences that underlie mate choice and familial recognition. Recent studies have shown that many odorants are controlled by the MHC but the mechanism by which MHC genes exert their influence has not been identified. Surprisingly, not only are volatile body odors influenced by MHC genes but so too are nonvolatile signals. Peptides bound to the MHC protein may also function in individual recognition. The extent to which this system is involved in mate choice of other species is unclear although there are some suggestive studies. Indeed, there is tentative evidence that MHC differences, presumably acting via odor changes, may influence human partner selection. Further studies should clarify both the mechanism underlying MHC influence on body odors as well as the generality of their importance in mate selection.

  17. TCR-MHC docking orientation: natural selection, or thymic selection?

    PubMed

    Collins, Edward J; Riddle, David S

    2008-01-01

    T cell receptors (TCR) dock on their peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) targets in a conserved orientation. Since amino acid sidechains are the foundation of specific protein-protein interactions, a simple explanation for the conserved docking orientation is that key amino acids encoded by the TCR and MHC genes have been selected and maintained through evolution in order to preserve TCR/pMHC binding. Expectations that follow from the hypothesis that TCR and MHC evolved to interact are discussed in light of the data that both support and refute them. Finally, an alternative and equally simple explanation for the driving force behind the conserved docking orientation is described.

  18. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  19. Distinct regulation of MHC molecule expression on astrocytes and microglia during viral encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Hamo, Ludwig; Stohlman, Stephen A; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Bergmann, Cornelia C

    2007-08-15

    The potential interplay of glial cells with T cells during viral induced inflammation was assessed by comparing major histocompatibility complex molecule upregulation and retention on astrocytes and microglia. Transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein under control of the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter were infected with a neurotropic coronavirus to facilitate phenotypic characterization of astrocytes and microglia using flow cytometry. Astrocytes in the adult central nervous system up-regulated class I surface expression, albeit delayed compared with microglia. Class II was barely detectable on astrocytes, in contrast to potent up-regulation on microglia. Maximal MHC expression in both glial cell types correlated with IFN-gamma levels and lymphocyte accumulation. Despite a decline of IFN-gamma concomitant to virus clearance, MHC molecule expression on glia was sustained. These data demonstrate distinct regulation of both class I and class II expression by microglia and astrocytes in vivo following viral induced inflammation. Furthermore, prolonged MHC expression subsequent to viral clearance implies a potential for ongoing presentation.

  20. Angiotensin II modification by decomposition products of linoleic acid-derived lipid hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryo; Goto, Takaaki; Oe, Tomoyuki; Lee, Seon Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly susceptible to oxidation induced by reactive oxygen species and enzymes, leading to the formation of lipid hydroperoxides. The linoleic acid (LA)-derived hydroperoxide, 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (HPODE) undergoes homolytic decomposition to reactive aldehydes, 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenal (ONE), 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal (EDE), and 4-hydroperoxy-2(E)-nonenal (HPNE), which can covalently modify peptides and proteins. ONE and HNE have been shown to react with angiotensin (Ang) II (DRVYIHPF) and modify the N-terminus, Arg(2), and His(6). ONE-derived pyruvamide-Ang II (Ang P) alters the biological activities of Ang II considerably. The present study revealed that EDE and HPNE preferentially modified the N-terminus and His(6) of Ang II. In addition to the N-substituted pyrrole of [N-C4H2]-Ang II and Michael addition products of [His(6)(EDE)]-Ang II, hydrated forms were detected as major products, suggesting considerable involvement of the vicinal dihydrodiol (formed by epoxide hydration) in EDE-derived protein modification in vivo. Substantial amounts of [N-(EDE-H2O)]-Ang II isomers were also formed and their synthetic pathway might involve the tautomerization of a carbinolamine intermediate, followed by intramolecular cyclization and dehydration. The main HPNE-derived products were [His(6)(HPNE)]-Ang II and [N-(HPNE-H2O)]-Ang II. However, ONE, HNE, and malondialdehyde-derived modifications were dominant, because HPNE is a precursor of these aldehydes. A mixture of 13-HPODE and [(13)C18]-13-HPODE (1:1) was then used to determine the major modifications derived from LA peroxidation. The characteristic doublet (1:1) observed in the mass spectrum and the mass difference of the [M+H](+) doublet aided the identification of Ang P (N-terminal α-ketoamide), [N-ONE]-Ang II (4-ketoamide), [Arg(2)(ONE-H2O)]-Ang II, [His(6)(HNE)]-Ang II (Michael addition product), [N-C4H2]-Ang II (EDE-derived N-substituted pyrrole

  1. Angiotensin II modification by decomposition products of linoleic acid-derived lipid hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryo; Goto, Takaaki; Oe, Tomoyuki; Lee, Seon Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly susceptible to oxidation induced by reactive oxygen species and enzymes, leading to the formation of lipid hydroperoxides. The linoleic acid (LA)-derived hydroperoxide, 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (HPODE) undergoes homolytic decomposition to reactive aldehydes, 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenal (ONE), 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal (EDE), and 4-hydroperoxy-2(E)-nonenal (HPNE), which can covalently modify peptides and proteins. ONE and HNE have been shown to react with angiotensin (Ang) II (DRVYIHPF) and modify the N-terminus, Arg(2), and His(6). ONE-derived pyruvamide-Ang II (Ang P) alters the biological activities of Ang II considerably. The present study revealed that EDE and HPNE preferentially modified the N-terminus and His(6) of Ang II. In addition to the N-substituted pyrrole of [N-C4H2]-Ang II and Michael addition products of [His(6)(EDE)]-Ang II, hydrated forms were detected as major products, suggesting considerable involvement of the vicinal dihydrodiol (formed by epoxide hydration) in EDE-derived protein modification in vivo. Substantial amounts of [N-(EDE-H2O)]-Ang II isomers were also formed and their synthetic pathway might involve the tautomerization of a carbinolamine intermediate, followed by intramolecular cyclization and dehydration. The main HPNE-derived products were [His(6)(HPNE)]-Ang II and [N-(HPNE-H2O)]-Ang II. However, ONE, HNE, and malondialdehyde-derived modifications were dominant, because HPNE is a precursor of these aldehydes. A mixture of 13-HPODE and [(13)C18]-13-HPODE (1:1) was then used to determine the major modifications derived from LA peroxidation. The characteristic doublet (1:1) observed in the mass spectrum and the mass difference of the [M+H](+) doublet aided the identification of Ang P (N-terminal α-ketoamide), [N-ONE]-Ang II (4-ketoamide), [Arg(2)(ONE-H2O)]-Ang II, [His(6)(HNE)]-Ang II (Michael addition product), [N-C4H2]-Ang II (EDE-derived N-substituted pyrrole

  2. Aldehyde-mannan antigen complexes target the MHC class I antigen-presentation pathway.

    PubMed

    Apostolopoulos, V; Pietersz, G A; Gordon, S; Martinez-Pomares, L; McKenzie, I F

    2000-06-01

    Antigens such as MUC1 coupled to oxidized mannan lead to rapid and efficient MHC class I presentation to CD8+ cells and a preferential T1 response; after reduction there is class II presentation and a T2 immune response. We now show that the selective advantage of the oxidized mannan-MUC1 is due to the presence of aldehydes and not Schiff bases, and that oxidized mannan-MUC1 binds to the mannose and not scavenger receptors and is internalized and presented by MHC class I molecules 1,000 times more efficiently than when reduced. After internalization there is rapid access to the class I pathway via endosomes but not lysosomes, proteasomal processing and transport to the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and cell surface. Aldehydes cause rapid entry into the class I pathway, and can therefore direct the subsequent immune response.

  3. Angiotensin II stimulates superoxide production in the thick ascending limb by activating NOX4

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nancy J.; Garvin, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) stimulates production of superoxide (O2−) by NADPH oxidase (NOX) in medullary thick ascending limbs (TALs). There are three isoforms of the catalytic subunit (NOX1, 2, and 4) known to be expressed in the kidney. We hypothesized that NOX2 mediates ANG II-induced O2− production by TALs. To test this, we measured NOX1, 2, and 4 mRNA and protein by RT-PCR and Western blot in TAL suspensions from rats and found three catalytic subunits expressed in the TAL. We measured O2− production using a lucigenin-based assay. To assess the contribution of NOX2, we measured ANG II-induced O2− production in wild-type and NOX2 knockout mice (KO). ANG II increased O2− production by 346 relative light units (RLU)/mg protein in the wild-type mice (n = 9; P < 0.0007 vs. control). In the knockout mice, ANG II increased O2− production by 290 RLU/mg protein (n = 9; P < 0.007 vs. control). This suggests that NOX2 does not contribute to ANG II-induced O2− production (P < 0.6 WT vs. KO). To test whether NOX4 mediates the effect of ANG II, we selectively decreased NOX4 expression in rats using an adenovirus that expresses NOX4 short hairpin (sh)RNA. Six to seven days after in vivo transduction of the kidney outer medulla, NOX4 mRNA was reduced by 77%, while NOX1 and NOX2 mRNA was unaffected. In control TALs, ANG II stimulated O2− production by 96%. In TALs transduced with NOX4 shRNA, ANG II-stimulated O2− production was not significantly different from the baseline. We concluded that NOX4 is the main catalytic isoform of NADPH oxidase that contributes to ANG II-stimulated O2− production by TALs. PMID:22875785

  4. Chloramphenicol Mediates Superoxide Production in Photosystem II and Enhances Its Photodamage in Isolated Membrane Particles

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Ateeq Ur; Kodru, Sandeesha; Vass, Imre

    2016-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is an inhibitor of protein synthesis, which is frequently used to decouple photodamage and protein synthesis dependent repair of Photosystem II during the process of photoinhibition. It has been reported earlier that CAP is able to mediate superoxide production by transferring electrons from the acceptor side of Photosystem I to oxygen. Here we investigated the interaction of CAP with Photosystem II electron transport processes by oxygen uptake and variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Our data show that CAP can accept electrons at the acceptor side of Photosystem II, most likely from Pheophytin, and deliver them to molecular oxygen leading to superoxide production. In addition, the presence of CAP enhances photodamage of Photosystem II electron transport in isolated membrane particles, which effect is reversible by superoxide dismutase. It is concluded that CAP acts as electron acceptor in Photosystem II and mediates its superoxide dependent photodamage. This effect has potential implications for the application of CAP in photoinhibitory studies in intact systems. PMID:27092170

  5. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. Results We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS) at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Conclusions Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South–north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia. PMID:23031405

  6. MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism mediates thymic deletion of cross-reactive autoreactive T cells and prevents insulitis in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Racine, Jeremy J; Zhang, Mingfeng; Wang, Miao; Morales, William; Shen, Christine; Zeng, Defu

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetic NOD mice have defects in both thymic negative selection and peripheral regulation of autoreactive T cells, and induction of mixed chimerism can effectively reverse these defects. Our recent studies suggest that MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism mediates negative selection of autoreactive thymocytes in wild-type NOD and TCR-transgenic NOD.Rag1(+/+).BDC2.5 mice. However, it remains unknown how mismatched I-A(b) MHC class II can mediate deletion of autoreactive T cells positively selected by I-A(g7). In the present study, we directly tested the hypothesis that mismatched MHC class II in mixed chimeras mediates deletion of cross-reactive autoreactive thymocytes. We first identify that transgenic BDC2.5 T cells from NOD.Rag1(+/+).BDC2.5 but not NOD.Rag1(-/-).BDC2.5 mice possess cross-reactive TCRs with endogenous TCRα-chains; MHC-mismatched H-2(b) but not matched H-2(g7) mixed chimerism mediates thymic deletion of the cross-reactive transgenic T cells in NOD.Rag1(+/+).BDC2.5 mice. Second, by transplanting T cell-depleted (TCD) bone marrow (BM) cells from NOD.Rag1(+/+).BDC2.5 or NOD.Rag1(-/-).BDC2.5 mice into lethally irradiated MHC-mismatched H-2(b) C57BL/6 or MHC-matched congenic B6.H-2(g7) recipients, we demonstrate that NOD.Rag1(+/+).BDC2.5 BM-derived cross-reactive transgenic T cells, but not NOD.Rag1(-/-).BDC2.5 BM-derived non-cross-reactive transgenic T cells, can be positively selected in MHC-mismatched H-2(b) thymus. Third, by cotransplanting NOD.Rag1(+/+).BDC2.5 TCD BM cells with BM cells from MHC-mismatched T cell-deficient C57BL/6 mice into lethally irradiated MHC-matched B6.H-2(g7) recipients, we demonstrate that thymic deletion of the cross-reactive transgenic T cells is dependent on MHC-mismatched donor BM-derived APCs but not on donor BM-derived T cells. Taken together, our studies indicate that MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism can mediate thymic deletion of cross-reactive autoreactive T cells that express more than one TCR.

  7. Primary productivity, bacterial productivity and nitrogen uptake in response to iron enrichment during the SEEDS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Isao; Noiri, Yoshifumi; Cochlan, William P.; Suzuki, Koji; Aramaki, Takafumi; Ono, Tsuneo; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2009-12-01

    Primary productivity (PP), bacterial productivity (BP) and the uptake rates of nitrate and ammonium were measured using isotopic methods ( 13C, 3H, 15N) during a mesoscale iron (Fe)-enrichment experiment conducted in the western subarctic Pacific Ocean in 2004 (SEEDS II). PP increased following Fe enrichment, reached maximal rates 12 days after the enrichment, and then declined to the initial level on day 17. During the 23-day observation period, we observed the development and decline of the Fe-induced bloom. The surface mixed layer (SML) integrated PP increased by 3-fold, but was smaller than the 5-fold increase observed in the previous Fe-enrichment experiment conducted at almost the same location and season during 2001 (SEEDS). Nitrate uptake rates were enhanced by Fe enrichment but decreased after day 5, and became lower than ammonium uptake rates after day 17. The total nitrogenous nutrient uptake rate declined after the peak of the bloom, and accumulation of ammonium was obvious in the euphotic layer. Nitrate utilization accounted for all the requirements of N for the massive bloom development during SEEDS, whereas during SEEDS II, nitrate accounted for >90% of total N utilization on day 5, declining to 40% by the end of the observation period. The SML-integrated BP increased after day 2 and peaked twice on days 8 and 21. Ammonium accumulation and the delayed heterotrophic activity suggested active regeneration occurred after the peak of the bloom. The SML-integrated PP between days 0 and 23 was 19.0 g C m -2. The SML-integrated BP during the same period was 2.6 g C m -2, which was 14% of the SML-integrated PP. Carbon budget calculation for the whole experimental period indicated that 33% of the whole (particulate plus dissolved) PP (21.5 g C m -2) was exported below the SML and 18% was transferred to the meso-zooplankton (growth). The bacterial carbon consumption (43% of the whole PP) was supported by DOC or POC release from phytoplankton, zooplankton

  8. MHC-mediated mate choice increases parasite resistance in salmon.

    PubMed

    Consuegra, Sofia; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos

    2008-06-22

    Natural (parasite-driven) and sexual selection are thought to maintain high polymorphism in the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), but support for a link between mate choice, MHC variation and increased parasite resistance is circumstantial. We compared MHC diversity and Anisakis loads among anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) returning to four rivers to spawn, which had originated from natural spawning (parents allowed to mate freely) or artificial crosses (parents deprived from the potential benefits of mate choice). We found that the offspring of artificially bred salmon had higher parasite loads and were almost four times more likely to be infected than free-mating salmon, despite having similar levels of MHC diversity. Moreover, the offspring of wild salmon were more MHC dissimilar than the offspring of artificially crossed salmon, and uninfected fish were more dissimilar for MHC than infected fish. Thus, our results suggest a link between disassortative mating and offspring benefits and indicate that MHC-mediated mate choice and natural (parasite-driven) selection act in combination to maintain MHC diversity, and hence fitness. Therefore, artificial breeding programmes that negate the potential genetic benefits of mate choice may result in inherently inferior offspring, regardless of population size, rearing conditions or genetic diversity.

  9. MHC genotype and near-deterministic mortality in grey seals.

    PubMed

    de Assunção-Franco, M; Hoffman, J I; Harwood, J; Amos, W

    2012-01-01

    The Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) is one of the best known and best characterised components of the immune system, yet its functions remain somewhat enigmatic, including both anti-pathogen activity and kin recognition. To explore the importance of the MHC relative to literally hundreds of other components of the immune system, we compared MHC genotype frequencies between pups and adults in the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), one of many marine mammals that exhibit low allelic diversity. We find that one allele is strongly associated with pup survival, pups being more likely to be found dead if they lack it, while total allele number is a remarkably strong predictor of survivorship to adulthood. We estimate that approximately 70% of mortality can be attributed to the MHC. Our study therefore shows that low MHC allele diversity belies its critical role in determining whether a weaned pup negotiates disease to become a breeding adult. PMID:22997548

  10. Study of the $ZZ$ diboson production at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    Bauce, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this Thesis is the production of a pair of massive Z vector bosons in the proton antiproton collisions at the Tevatron, at the center-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. We measure the ZZ production cross section in two different leptonic decay modes: into four charged leptons (e or μ) and into two charged leptons plus two neutrinos. The results are based on the whole dataset collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), corresponding to 9.7 fb-1 of data. The combination of the two cross section measurements gives (p$\\bar{p}$→ZZ) = 1.38+0.28 -0.27 pb, and is the most precise ZZ cross section measurement at the Tevatron to date. We further investigate the four lepton final state searching for the production of the scalar Higgs particle in the decay H →ZZ(*) →ℓℓℓ'ℓ'. No evidence of its production has been seen in the data, hence was set a 95% Confidence Level upper limit on its production cross section as a function of the Higgs particle mass, mH, in the range from 120 to 300 GeV/c2.

  11. Biological Methanol Production by a Type II Methanotroph Methylocystis bryophila.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Mardina, Primata; Kim, Sang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kim, In-Won

    2016-04-28

    Methane (CH₄) is the most abundant component in natural gas. To reduce its harmful environmental effect as a greenhouse gas, CH₄ can be utilized as a low-cost feed for the synthesis of methanol by methanotrophs. In this study, several methanotrophs were examined for their ability to produce methanol from CH₄; including Methylocella silvestris, Methylocystis bryophila, Methyloferula stellata, and Methylomonas methanica. Among these methanotrophs, M. bryophila exhibited the highest methanol production. The optimum process parameters aided in significant enhancement of methanol production up to 4.63 mM. Maximum methanol production was observed at pH 6.8, 30°C, 175 rpm, 100 mM phosphate buffer, 50 mM MgCl₂ as a methanol dehydrogenase inhibitor, 50% CH₄ concentration, 24 h of incubation, and 9 mg of dry cell mass ml(-1) inoculum load, respectively. Optimization of the process parameters, screening of methanol dehydrogenase inhibitors, and supplementation with formate resulted in significant improvements in methanol production using M. bryophila. This report suggests, for the first time, the potential of using M. bryophila for industrial methanol production from CH₄.

  12. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries.

  13. EPHECT II: Exposure assessment to household consumer products.

    PubMed

    Dimitroulopoulou, C; Trantallidi, M; Carrer, P; Efthimiou, G C; Bartzis, J G

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework of the EPHECT project (Emissions, exposure patterns and health effects of consumer products in the EU), irritative and respiratory health effects were assessed in relation to acute and long-term exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. In this context, inhalation exposure assessment was carried out for six selected 'target' compounds (acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene). This paper presents the methodology and the outcomes from the micro-environmental modelling of the 'target' pollutants following single or multiple use of selected consumer products and the subsequent exposure assessment. The results indicate that emissions from consumer products of benzene and α-pinene were not considered to contribute significantly to the EU indoor background levels, in contrast to some cases of formaldehyde and d-limonene emissions in Eastern Europe (mainly from cleaning products). The group of housekeepers in East Europe appears to experience the highest exposures to acrolein, formaldehyde and benzene, followed by the group of the retired people in North, who experiences the highest exposures to naphthalene and α-pinene. High exposure may be attributed to the scenarios developed within this project, which follow a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' strategy for exposure and health risk assessment. Despite the above limitations, this is the first comprehensive study that provides exposure estimates for 8 population groups across Europe exposed to 6 priority pollutants, as a result of the use of 15 consumer product classes in households, while accounting for regional differences in uses, use scenarios and ventilation conditions of each region.

  14. EPHECT II: Exposure assessment to household consumer products.

    PubMed

    Dimitroulopoulou, C; Trantallidi, M; Carrer, P; Efthimiou, G C; Bartzis, J G

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework of the EPHECT project (Emissions, exposure patterns and health effects of consumer products in the EU), irritative and respiratory health effects were assessed in relation to acute and long-term exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. In this context, inhalation exposure assessment was carried out for six selected 'target' compounds (acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene). This paper presents the methodology and the outcomes from the micro-environmental modelling of the 'target' pollutants following single or multiple use of selected consumer products and the subsequent exposure assessment. The results indicate that emissions from consumer products of benzene and α-pinene were not considered to contribute significantly to the EU indoor background levels, in contrast to some cases of formaldehyde and d-limonene emissions in Eastern Europe (mainly from cleaning products). The group of housekeepers in East Europe appears to experience the highest exposures to acrolein, formaldehyde and benzene, followed by the group of the retired people in North, who experiences the highest exposures to naphthalene and α-pinene. High exposure may be attributed to the scenarios developed within this project, which follow a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' strategy for exposure and health risk assessment. Despite the above limitations, this is the first comprehensive study that provides exposure estimates for 8 population groups across Europe exposed to 6 priority pollutants, as a result of the use of 15 consumer product classes in households, while accounting for regional differences in uses, use scenarios and ventilation conditions of each region. PMID:26173853

  15. Colonizing the world in spite of reduced MHC variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gangoso, L.; Alcaide, M.; Grande, J.M.; Muñoz, J.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, Kevin; Figuerola, J.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced immune gene diversity is thought to negatively affect the capacity of organisms to adapt to pathogen challenges, which represent a major force in natural selection. Genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) are the most widely invoked adaptive loci in conservation biology, and have become the most popular genetic markers to investigate pathogen-host interactions in vertebrates. Although MHC genes are the most polymorphic genes described in the vertebrate genome, the extent to which MHC diversity determines the long-term persistence of populations is, unclear and often debated, as recent studies have documented the occurrence of natural populations thriving even after a depletion of MHC diversity caused by genetic drift. Here, we show that some phylogenetically related species belonging to the Falco genus (Aves: Falconidae) present a dramatically low MHC variability that has not precluded, nevertheless, the successful colonization of almost all existing regions and habitats worldwide. We found evidence for two remarkably different patterns of MHC variation within the genus. While kestrels show a high MHC variation according to the general theory, falcons exhibit an ancestrally low intra- and inter-specific MHC allelic diversity. We provide compelling evidence that this pattern is not caused by the degeneration of functional genes into pseudogenes, the inadvertent analyses of paralogous MHC genes, or the devastating action of genetic drift. Instead, our results strongly support the idea of an evolutionary transition driven and maintained by natural selection from primarily highly variable towards low polymorphic, but functional and expressed, MHC genes with species-specific pathogen-recognition capabilities.

  16. T cells and their eons-old obsession with MHC

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lei; Scott-Browne, James; Kappler, John W.; Gapin, Laurent; Marrack, Philippa

    2014-01-01

    Summary T cells bearing receptors made up of α and β chains (TCRs) usually react with peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC). This bias could be imposed by positive selection, the phenomenon that selects thymocytes to mature into T cells only if the TCRs they bear react with low but appreciable affinity with MHC + peptide combinations in the thymus cortex. However, it is also possible that the polypeptides of TCRs themselves do not have random specificities but rather are biased toward reaction with MHC. Evolution would therefore have selected for a collection of TCR variable elements that are prone to react with MHC. If this were to be so, positive selection would act on thymocytes bearing a pre biased collection of TCRs to pick out those that react to some extent, but not too well, with self MHC + self-peptides. A problem with studies of this evolutionary idea is the fact that there are many TCR variable elements and that these differ considerably in the amino acids with which they contact MHC. However, recent experiments by our group and others suggest that one group of TCR variable elements, those related to the mouse Vβ8 family, has amino acids in their CDR2 regions that consistently bind a particular site on an MHC α-helix. Other groups of variable elements may use different patterns of amino acids to achieve the same goal. Mutation of these amino acids reduces the ability of T cells and thymocytes to react with MHC. These amino acids are present in the variable regions of distantly related species such as sharks and human. Overall the data indicate that TCR elements have indeed been selected by evolution to react with MHC proteins. Many mysteries about TCRs remain to be solved, including the nature of auto-recognition, the basis of MHC allele specificity, and the very nature and complexity of TCRs on mature T cells. PMID:23046122

  17. T cells and their eons-old obsession with MHC.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lei; Scott-Browne, James; Kappler, John W; Gapin, Laurent; Marrack, Philippa

    2012-11-01

    T cells bearing receptors made up of α and β chains (TCRs) usually react with peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC). This bias could be imposed by positive selection, the phenomenon that selects thymocytes to mature into T cells only if the TCRs they bear react with low but appreciable affinity with MHC + peptide combinations in the thymus cortex. However, it is also possible that the polypeptides of TCRs themselves do not have random specificities but rather are biased toward reaction with MHC. Evolution would therefore have selected for a collection of TCR variable elements that are prone to react with MHC. If this were to be so, positive selection would act on thymocytes bearing a pre biased collection of TCRs to pick out those that react to some extent, but not too well, with self MHC + self-peptides. A problem with studies of this evolutionary idea is the fact that there are many TCR variable elements and that these differ considerably in the amino acids with which they contact MHC. However, recent experiments by our group and others suggest that one group of TCR variable elements, those related to the mouse Vβ8 family, has amino acids in their CDR2 regions that consistently bind a particular site on an MHC α-helix. Other groups of variable elements may use different patterns of amino acids to achieve the same goal. Mutation of these amino acids reduces the ability of T cells and thymocytes to react with MHC. These amino acids are present in the variable regions of distantly related species such as sharks and human. Overall the data indicate that TCR elements have indeed been selected by evolution to react with MHC proteins. Many mysteries about TCRs remain to be solved, including the nature of auto-recognition, the basis of MHC allele specificity, and the very nature and complexity of TCRs on mature T cells. PMID:23046122

  18. 78 FR 37237 - Proposed Adjustments to the Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Enforcement Administration Proposed Adjustments to the Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II... request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice proposes to adjust the 2013 aggregate production quotas for... of annual needs for the list I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine, as...

  19. MHC in a monogamous lizard--Characterization of class I MHC genes in the Australian skink Tiliqua rugosa.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Talat Hojat; Bertozzi, Terry; Miller, Robert D; Gardner, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a highly variable region of vertebrate genomes that encodes cellular proteins involved in the immune response. In addition to the benefits of MHC research in understanding the genetic basis of host resistance to disease, the MHC is an ideal candidate for studying genetic diversity under strong natural selection. However, the MHC of many non-model vertebrate taxa are poorly characterized, hindering an understanding of disease resistance and its application to conservation genetics in these groups. Squamates (lizards and snakes) remain particularly underrepresented despite their being the most diverse order of non-avian sauropsids. We characterized MHC class I sequence diversity from an Australian skink, the sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa), using both cDNA and genomic sequence data and also present genomic class I sequences from the related skinks Tiliqua adelaidensis and Egernia stokesii. Phylogenetic analysis of Tiliqua and other published sqamate MHC class I sequences suggest that MHC diverged very early in Tiliqua compared with the other studied squamates. We identified at least 4 classical MHC class I loci in T. rugosa and also shared polymorphism among T. rugosa, T. adelaidensis and E. stokesii in the sequences encoding peptide-binding α1 and α2 domains.

  20. Angiotensin II stimulates superoxide production by nitric oxide synthase in thick ascending limbs.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Saikumar, Jagannath H; Massey, Katherine J; Hong, Nancy J; Dominici, Fernando P; Carretero, Oscar A; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2016-02-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) causes nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to become a source of superoxide (O2 (-)) via a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent process in endothelial cells. Ang II stimulates both NO and O2 (-) production in thick ascending limbs. We hypothesized that Ang II causes O2 (-) production by NOS in thick ascending limbs via a PKC-dependent mechanism. NO production was measured in isolated rat thick ascending limbs using DAF-FM, whereas O2 (-) was measured in thick ascending limb suspensions using the lucigenin assay. Consistent stimulation of NO was observed with 1 nmol/L Ang II (P < 0.001; n = 9). This concentration of Ang II-stimulated O2 (-) production by 50% (1.77 ± 0.26 vs. 2.62 ± 0.36 relative lights units (RLU)/s/μg protein; P < 0.04; n = 5). In the presence of the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, Ang II-stimulated O2 (-) decreased from 2.02 ± 0.29 to 1.10 ± 0.11 RLU/s/μg protein (P < 0.01; n = 8). L-arginine alone did not change Ang II-stimulated O2 (-) (2.34 ± 0.22 vs. 2.29 ± 0.29 RLU/s/μg protein; n = 5). In the presence of Ang II plus the PKC α/β1 inhibitor Gö 6976, L-NAME had no effect on O2 (-) production (0.78 ± 0.23 vs. 0.62 ± 0.11 RLU/s/μg protein; n = 7). In the presence of Ang II plus apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, L-NAME did not change O2 (-) (0.59 ± 0.04 vs. 0.61 ± ×0.08 RLU/s/μg protein; n = 5). We conclude that: (1) Ang II causes NOS to produce O2 (-) in thick ascending limbs via a PKC- and NADPH oxidase-dependent process; and (2) the effect of Ang II is not due to limited substrate.

  1. Prescriptive Package. Improving Patrol Productivity. Volume II. Specialized Patrol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schack, Stephen; Gay, William G.

    Designed to assist police departments in improving the productivity of their patrol operations, this volume on specialized patrol and a companion volume on routine patrol operations are intended for use by various sizes of departments. The volume of specialized patrol focuses upon the appropriate use and effective operation of specialized patrol…

  2. A locus-wide approach to assessing variation in the avian MHC: the B-locus of the wild turkey

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, L D; Faile, G M; Hendrickson, J A; Mock, K E; Reed, K M

    2011-01-01

    Studies of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity in non-model vertebrates typically focus on structure and sequence variation in the antigen-presenting loci: the highly variable and polymorphic class I and class IIB genes. Although these studies provide estimates of the number of genes and alleles/locus, they often overlook variation in functionally related and co-inherited genes important in the immune response. This study utilizes the sequence of the MHC B-locus derived from a commercial turkey to investigate MHC variation in wild birds. Sequences were obtained for nine interspersed MHC amplicons (non-class I/II) from each of 40 birds representing 3 subspecies of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Analysis of aligned sequences identified 238 single-nucleotide variants approximately one-third of which had minor allele frequencies >0.2 in the sampled birds. PHASE analysis identified 70 prospective MHC haplotypes in the wild turkeys, whereas a combined analysis with commercial birds identified almost 100 haplotypes in the species. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the class IIB loci was used to test the efficacy of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotyping to capture locus-wide variation. Diversity in SNP haplotypes and haplotype sharing among individuals was directly reflected in the DGGE patterns. Utilization of a reference haplotype to sequence interspersed regions of the MHC has significant advantages over other methods of surveying diversity while identifying high-frequency SNPs for genotyping. SNP haplotyping provides a means to identify both divergent haplotypes and homozygous individuals for assessment of immunological variation in wild and domestic populations. PMID:21179065

  3. A locus-wide approach to assessing variation in the avian MHC: the B-locus of the wild turkey.

    PubMed

    Chaves, L D; Faile, G M; Hendrickson, J A; Mock, K E; Reed, K M

    2011-07-01

    Studies of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity in non-model vertebrates typically focus on structure and sequence variation in the antigen-presenting loci: the highly variable and polymorphic class I and class IIB genes. Although these studies provide estimates of the number of genes and alleles/locus, they often overlook variation in functionally related and co-inherited genes important in the immune response. This study utilizes the sequence of the MHC B-locus derived from a commercial turkey to investigate MHC variation in wild birds. Sequences were obtained for nine interspersed MHC amplicons (non-class I/II) from each of 40 birds representing 3 subspecies of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Analysis of aligned sequences identified 238 single-nucleotide variants approximately one-third of which had minor allele frequencies >0.2 in the sampled birds. PHASE analysis identified 70 prospective MHC haplotypes in the wild turkeys, whereas a combined analysis with commercial birds identified almost 100 haplotypes in the species. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the class IIB loci was used to test the efficacy of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotyping to capture locus-wide variation. Diversity in SNP haplotypes and haplotype sharing among individuals was directly reflected in the DGGE patterns. Utilization of a reference haplotype to sequence interspersed regions of the MHC has significant advantages over other methods of surveying diversity while identifying high-frequency SNPs for genotyping. SNP haplotyping provides a means to identify both divergent haplotypes and homozygous individuals for assessment of immunological variation in wild and domestic populations.

  4. Isolation of a 97-kb Minimal Essential MHC B Locus from a New Reverse-4D BAC Library of the Golden Pheasant

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shao-Ying; Wan, Qiu-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system is widely used in isolation of large genomic fragments of interest. Construction of a routine BAC library requires several months for picking clones and arraying BACs into superpools in order to employ 4D-PCR to screen positive BACs, which might be time-consuming and laborious. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a cluster of genes involved in the vertebrate immune system, and the classical avian MHC-B locus is a minimal essential one, occupying a 100-kb genomic region. In this study, we constructed a more effective reverse-4D BAC library for the golden pheasant, which first creates sub-libraries and then only picks clones of positive sub-libraries, and identified several MHC clones within thirty days. The full sequencing of a 97-kb reverse-4D BAC demonstrated that the golden pheasant MHC-B locus contained 20 genes and showed good synteny with that of the chicken. The notable differences between these two species were the numbers of class II B loci and NK genes and the inversions of the TAPBP gene and the TAP1-TAP2 region. Furthermore, the inverse TAP2-TAP1 was unique in the golden pheasant in comparison with that of chicken, turkey, and quail. The newly defined genomic structure of the golden pheasant MHC will give an insight into the evolutionary history of the avian MHC. PMID:22403630

  5. Isolation of a 97-kb minimal essential MHC B locus from a new reverse-4D BAC library of the golden pheasant.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing; He, Ke; Wu, Shao-Ying; Wan, Qiu-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system is widely used in isolation of large genomic fragments of interest. Construction of a routine BAC library requires several months for picking clones and arraying BACs into superpools in order to employ 4D-PCR to screen positive BACs, which might be time-consuming and laborious. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a cluster of genes involved in the vertebrate immune system, and the classical avian MHC-B locus is a minimal essential one, occupying a 100-kb genomic region. In this study, we constructed a more effective reverse-4D BAC library for the golden pheasant, which first creates sub-libraries and then only picks clones of positive sub-libraries, and identified several MHC clones within thirty days. The full sequencing of a 97-kb reverse-4D BAC demonstrated that the golden pheasant MHC-B locus contained 20 genes and showed good synteny with that of the chicken. The notable differences between these two species were the numbers of class II B loci and NK genes and the inversions of the TAPBP gene and the TAP1-TAP2 region. Furthermore, the inverse TAP2-TAP1 was unique in the golden pheasant in comparison with that of chicken, turkey, and quail. The newly defined genomic structure of the golden pheasant MHC will give an insight into the evolutionary history of the avian MHC.

  6. Isolation of a 97-kb minimal essential MHC B locus from a new reverse-4D BAC library of the golden pheasant.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing; He, Ke; Wu, Shao-Ying; Wan, Qiu-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system is widely used in isolation of large genomic fragments of interest. Construction of a routine BAC library requires several months for picking clones and arraying BACs into superpools in order to employ 4D-PCR to screen positive BACs, which might be time-consuming and laborious. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a cluster of genes involved in the vertebrate immune system, and the classical avian MHC-B locus is a minimal essential one, occupying a 100-kb genomic region. In this study, we constructed a more effective reverse-4D BAC library for the golden pheasant, which first creates sub-libraries and then only picks clones of positive sub-libraries, and identified several MHC clones within thirty days. The full sequencing of a 97-kb reverse-4D BAC demonstrated that the golden pheasant MHC-B locus contained 20 genes and showed good synteny with that of the chicken. The notable differences between these two species were the numbers of class II B loci and NK genes and the inversions of the TAPBP gene and the TAP1-TAP2 region. Furthermore, the inverse TAP2-TAP1 was unique in the golden pheasant in comparison with that of chicken, turkey, and quail. The newly defined genomic structure of the golden pheasant MHC will give an insight into the evolutionary history of the avian MHC. PMID:22403630

  7. Organization and characteristics of the major histocompatibility complex class II region in the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis)

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Rui; Ruan, Jue; Wan, Xiao-Ling; Zheng, Yang; Chen, Min-Min; Zheng, Jin-Song; Wang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in the genome of Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) (YFP) or other cetaceans. In this study, a high-quality YFP bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed. We then determined the organization and characterization of YFP MHC class II region by screening the BAC library, followed by sequencing and assembly of positive BAC clones. The YFP MHC class II region consists of two segregated contigs (218,725 bp and 328,435 bp respectively) that include only eight expressed MHC class II genes, three pseudo MHC genes and twelve non-MHC genes. The YFP has fewer MHC class II genes than ruminants, showing locus reduction in DRB, DQA, DQB, and loss of DY. In addition, phylogenic and evolutionary analyses indicated that the DRB, DQA and DQB genes might have undergone birth-and-death evolution, whereas the DQB gene might have evolved under positive selection in cetaceans. These findings provide an essential foundation for future work, such as estimating MHC genetic variation in the YFP or other cetaceans. This work is the first report on the MHC class II region in cetaceans and offers valuable information for understanding the evolution of MHC genome in cetaceans. PMID:26932528

  8. Organization and characteristics of the major histocompatibility complex class II region in the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis).

    PubMed

    Ruan, Rui; Ruan, Jue; Wan, Xiao-Ling; Zheng, Yang; Chen, Min-Min; Zheng, Jin-Song; Wang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in the genome of Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) (YFP) or other cetaceans. In this study, a high-quality YFP bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed. We then determined the organization and characterization of YFP MHC class II region by screening the BAC library, followed by sequencing and assembly of positive BAC clones. The YFP MHC class II region consists of two segregated contigs (218,725 bp and 328,435 bp respectively) that include only eight expressed MHC class II genes, three pseudo MHC genes and twelve non-MHC genes. The YFP has fewer MHC class II genes than ruminants, showing locus reduction in DRB, DQA, DQB, and loss of DY. In addition, phylogenic and evolutionary analyses indicated that the DRB, DQA and DQB genes might have undergone birth-and-death evolution, whereas the DQB gene might have evolved under positive selection in cetaceans. These findings provide an essential foundation for future work, such as estimating MHC genetic variation in the YFP or other cetaceans. This work is the first report on the MHC class II region in cetaceans and offers valuable information for understanding the evolution of MHC genome in cetaceans. PMID:26932528

  9. The nutrition of salmonid fishes. II. Studies on production diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1957-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the diets which are now used to raise salmonoid fishes in the Pacific Coast states, to present the variation which exists in the proximate an alysis of these diets and to relate the diet composition to the body composition of the hatchery product. The factors in strumental in producing the extreme differences in body com position between wild and hatchery fish Avere of particular interest.

  10. Quantum Chemical Analysis of MHC-Peptide Interactions for Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo, W.A; Patarroyo, M.E

    2010-01-01

    The development of an adequate immune response against pathogens is mediated by molecular interactions between different cell types. Among them, binding of antigenic peptides to the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecule expressed on the membrane of antigen presenting cells (APCs), and their subsequent recognition by the T cell receptor have been demonstrated to be crucial for developing an adequate immune response. The present review compiles computational quantum chemistry studies about the electrostatic potential variations induced on the MHC binding region by peptide’s amino acids, carried out with the aim of describing MHC–peptide binding interactions. The global idea is that the electrostatic potential can be represented in terms of a series expansion (charge, dipole, quadrupole, hexadecapole, etc.) whose three first terms provide a good local approximation to the molecular electrostatic ‘landscape’ and to the variations induced on such landscape by targeted modifications on the residues of the antigenic peptide. Studies carried out in four MHC class II human allele molecules, which are the most representative alleles of their corresponding haplotypes, showed that each of these molecules have conserved as well as specific electrostatic characteristics, which can be correlated at a good extent with the peptide binding profiles reported experimentally for these molecules. The information provided by such characteristics would help increase our knowledge about antigen binding and presentation, and could ultimately contribute to developing a logical and rational methodology for designing chemically synthesized, multi-antigenic, subunit-based vaccines, through the application of quantum chemistry methods. PMID:20394575

  11. Central Angiotensin II Stimulation Promotes β Amyloid Production in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Donglin; Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Yingdong; Wang, Bianrong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Zhicong; Tong, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Background Stress and various stress hormones, including catecholamines and glucocorticoids, have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which represents the greatest unresolved medical challenge in neurology. Angiotensin receptor blockers have shown benefits in AD and prone-to-AD animals. However, the mechanisms responsible for their efficacy remain unknown, and no studies have directly addressed the role of central angiotensin II (Ang II), a fundamental stress hormone, in the pathogenesis of AD. The present study focused on the role of central Ang II in amyloidogenesis, the critical process in AD neuropathology, and aimed to provide direct evidence for the role of this stress hormone in the pathogenesis of AD. Methodology/Principal Findings Increased central Ang II levels during stress response were modeled by intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of graded doses of Ang II (6 ng/hr low dose, 60 ng/hr medium dose, and 600 ng/hr high dose, all delivered at a rate of 0.25 µl/hr) to male Sprague Dawley rats (280–310 g) via osmotic pumps. After 1 week of continuous Ang II infusion, the stimulation of Ang II type 1 receptors was accompanied by the modulation of amyloid precursor protein, α-, β-and γ-secretase, and increased β amyloid production. These effects could be completely abolished by concomitant ICV infusion of losartan, indicating that central Ang II played a causative role in these alterations. Conclusions/Significance Central Ang II is essential to the stress response, and the results of this study suggest that increased central Ang II levels play an important role in amyloidogenesis during stress, and that central Ang II-directed stress prevention and treatment might represent a novel anti-AD strategy. PMID:21297982

  12. Modulation of oxygen production in Archaean oceans by episodes of Fe(II) toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Mloszewska, Aleksandra M.; Cirpka, Olaf A.; Schoenberg, Ronny; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Kappler, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Oxygen accumulated in the surface waters of the Earth's oceans and atmosphere several hundred million years before the Great Oxidation Event between 2.4 and 2.3 billion years ago. Before the Great Oxidation Event, periods of enhanced submarine volcanism associated with mantle plume events supplied Fe(II) to sea water. These periods generally coincide with the disappearance of indicators of the presence of molecular oxygen in Archaean sedimentary records. The presence of Fe(II) in the water column can lead to oxidative stress in some organisms as a result of reactions between Fe(II) and oxygen that produce reactive oxygen species. Here we test the hypothesis that the upwelling of Fe(II)-rich, anoxic water into the photic zone during the late Archaean subjected oxygenic phototrophic bacteria to Fe(II) toxicity. In laboratory experiments, we found that supplying Fe(II) to the anoxic growth medium housing a common species of planktonic cyanobacteria decreased both the efficiency of oxygenic photosynthesis and their growth rates. We suggest that this occurs because of increasing intracellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species. We use geochemical modelling to show that Fe(II) toxicity in conditions found in the late Archaean photic zone could have substantially inhibited water column oxygen production, thus decreasing fluxes of oxygen to the atmosphere. We therefore propose that the timing of atmospheric oxygenation was controlled by the timing of submarine, plume-type volcanism, with Fe(II) toxicity as the modulating factor.

  13. Accurate quantitation of MHC-bound peptides by application of isotopically labeled peptide MHC complexes.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Chopie; Kester, Michel G D; Oudgenoeg, Gideon; de Ru, Arnoud H; Janssen, George M C; Drijfhout, Jan W; Spaapen, Robbert M; Jiménez, Connie R; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; van Veelen, Peter A

    2014-09-23

    Knowledge of the accurate copy number of HLA class I presented ligands is important in fundamental and clinical immunology. Currently, the best copy number determinations are based on mass spectrometry, employing single reaction monitoring (SRM) in combination with a known amount of isotopically labeled peptide. The major drawback of this approach is that the losses during sample pretreatment, i.e. immunopurification and filtration steps, are not well defined and must, therefore, be estimated. In addition, such losses can vary for individual peptides. Therefore, we developed a new approach in which isotopically labeled peptide-MHC monomers (hpMHC) are prepared and added directly after cell lysis, i.e. before the usual sample processing. Using this approach, all losses during sample processing can be accounted for and allows accurate determination of specific MHC class I-presented ligands. Our study pinpoints the immunopurification step as the origin of the rather extreme losses during sample pretreatment and offers a solution to account for these losses. Obviously, this has important implications for accurate HLA-ligand quantitation. The strategy presented here can be used to obtain a reliable view of epitope copy number and thus allows improvement of vaccine design and strategies for immunotherapy.

  14. Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanki, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Takagi, F.

    The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed by Fermi, Landau and others. These theories are still surviving even today as a prototype of modern ``fire-ball'' models. After twenty years, a golden age came in this field of physics. It was closely related to the rapid development of accelerator facilities, especially, the invention of colliding-beam machines which yield high enough center-of-mass energies for studying reactions with high multiplicity. Abundant data on final states of multiparticle production have been accumulated mainly by measuring inclusive cross sections and multiplicity distributions. In super high-energy bar{p}p collisions at CERN S pmacr pS Collider, we confirmed the increasing total cross section and found violations of many scaling laws which seemed to be valid at lower energies. This suggests a fundamental complexity of the multiparticle phenomena and offers new materials for further development of theoretical investigations. In the same period, studies of constituent (quark-gluon) structure of hadrons had also been develped. Nowadays, pysicists believe that the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental law of the hadronic world. Multiparticle dynamics should also be described by QCD. We have known that the hard-jet phenomena are well explained by the perturbative QCD. On the other hand, the soft processes are considered to be non-perturbative phenomena which have not yet been solved, and related to the mechanism of the color confinement and formation of strings or color-flux tubes. Multiparticle production would offer useful information on this

  15. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Markers in Conservation Biology

    PubMed Central

    Ujvari, Beata; Belov, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Human impacts through habitat destruction, introduction of invasive species and climate change are increasing the number of species threatened with extinction. Decreases in population size simultaneously lead to reductions in genetic diversity, ultimately reducing the ability of populations to adapt to a changing environment. In this way, loss of genetic polymorphism is linked with extinction risk. Recent advances in sequencing technologies mean that obtaining measures of genetic diversity at functionally important genes is within reach for conservation programs. A key region of the genome that should be targeted for population genetic studies is the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). MHC genes, found in all jawed vertebrates, are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrate genomes. They play key roles in immune function via immune-recognition and -surveillance and host-parasite interaction. Therefore, measuring levels of polymorphism at these genes can provide indirect measures of the immunological fitness of populations. The MHC has also been linked with mate-choice and pregnancy outcomes and has application for improving mating success in captive breeding programs. The recent discovery that genetic diversity at MHC genes may protect against the spread of contagious cancers provides an added impetus for managing and protecting MHC diversity in wild populations. Here we review the field and focus on the successful applications of MHC-typing for conservation management. We emphasize the importance of using MHC markers when planning and executing wildlife rescue and conservation programs but stress that this should not be done to the detriment of genome-wide diversity. PMID:21954351

  16. Colonizing the world in spite of reduced MHC variation.

    PubMed

    Gangoso, L; Alcaide, M; Grande, J M; Muñoz, J; Talbot, S L; Sonsthagen, S A; Sage, G K; Figuerola, J

    2012-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which harbours the most polymorphic vertebrate genes, plays a critical role in the host-pathogen coevolutionary arms race. However, the extent to which MHC diversity determines disease susceptibility and long-term persistence of populations is currently under debate, as recent studies have demonstrated that low MHC variability does not necessarily hamper population viability. However, these studies typically assayed small and decimated populations in species with restricted distribution, thereby making inferences about the evolutionary potential of these populations difficult. Here, we show that MHC impoverishment has not constrained the ecological radiation and flourishing of falcons (Aves: Falconidae) worldwide. We found two remarkably different patterns of MHC variation within the genus Falco. Whereas MHC variation in kestrels (the basal group within the genus) is very high, falcons exhibit ancestrally low intra- and interspecific MHC variability. This pattern is not due to the inadvertent survey of paralogous genes or pseudogenes. Further, patterns of variation in mitochondrial or other nuclear genes do not indicate a generalized low level of genome-wide variability among falcons. Although a relative contribution of genetic drift cannot be completely ruled out, we propose the falcons went through an evolutionary transition, driven and maintained by natural selection, from primarily highly variable towards low polymorphic and slow-evolving MHC genes with a very specific immune function. This study highlights that the importance of MHC diversity cannot be generalized among vertebrates, and hints at the evolution of compensatory immune mechanisms in falcons to cope with emerging and continuously evolving pathogens.

  17. Complex MHC Class I Gene Transcription Profiles and Their Functional Impact in Orangutans.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Natasja G; Heijmans, Corrine M C; van der Wiel, Marit K H; Blokhuis, Jeroen H; Mulder, Arend; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Doxiadis, Gaby G M; Claas, Frans H J; Parham, Peter; Bontrop, Ronald E

    2016-01-15

    MHC haplotypes of humans and the African great ape species have one copy of the MHC-A, -B, and -C genes. In contrast, MHC haplotypes of orangutans, the Asian great ape species, exhibit variation in the number of gene copies. An in-depth analysis of the MHC class I gene repertoire in the two orangutan species, Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus, is presented in this article. This analysis involved Sanger and next-generation sequencing methodologies, revealing diverse and complicated transcription profiles for orangutan MHC-A, -B, and -C. Thirty-five previously unreported MHC class I alleles are described. The data demonstrate that each orangutan MHC haplotype has one copy of the MHC-A gene, and that the MHC-B region has been subject to duplication, giving rise to at least three MHC-B genes. The MHC-B*03 and -B*08 lineages of alleles each account for a separate MHC-B gene. All MHC-B*08 allotypes have the C1-epitope motif recognized by killer cell Ig-like recep