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Sample records for ii na ii

  1. . II.

    PubMed Central

    Orlans, Eva

    1962-01-01

    Specific precipitates formed in 0.9 per cent and 8 per cent NaCl and the precipitates formed by raising the salt concentration of `0.9 per cent' supernatants to 8 per cent were measured quantitatively. With antisera to haemoglobin and myoglobin the antigen in the precipitates was also measured. Except for some very high antibody/antigen ratios found in some cases in antibody excess, these ratios were the same as those found with rabbit antibody, and did not depend on salt concentration. Non-precipitating antibody, prepared by serial absorption of antiserum with small portions of antigen, did not precipitate with antigen even in 8 per cent NaCl; it co-precipitated with homologous rabbit antiserum and delayed its flocculation, but produced no permanent inhibition. Rabbit antiserum to washed specific precipitates made from fowl antisera was used to confirm the presence of two globulins, one a macroglobulin, in the precipitates, and to study their different properties when free in whole serum and when combined with antigen. ImagesFIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 8FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 13FIG. 14 PMID:14482256

  2. Stoichiometry and Na+ binding cooperativity of rat and flounder renal type II Na+-Pi cotransporters.

    PubMed

    Forster, I C; Loo, D D; Eskandari, S

    1999-04-01

    The stoichiometry of the rat and flounder isoforms of the renal type II sodium-phosphate (Na+-Pi) cotransporter was determined directly by simultaneous measurements of phosphate (Pi)-induced inward current and uptake of radiolabeled Pi and Na+ in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the cotransporters. There was a direct correlation between the Pi-induced inward charge and Pi uptake into the oocytes; the slope indicated that one net inward charge was transported per Pi. There was also a direct correlation between the Pi-induced inward charge and Na+ influx; the slope indicated that the influx of three Na+ ions resulted in one net inward charge. This behavior was similar for both isoforms. We conclude that for both Na+-Pi cotransporter isoforms the Na+:Pi stoichiometry is 3:1 and that divalent Pi is the transported substrate. Steady-state activation of the currents showed that the Hill coefficients for Pi were unity for both isoforms, whereas for Na+, they were 1.8 (flounder) and 2.5 (rat). Therefore, despite significant differences in the apparent Na+ binding cooperativity, the estimated Na+:Pi stoichiometry was the same for both isoforms.

  3. Angiotensin II stimulates water and NaCl intake through separate cell signalling pathways in rats.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Derek; Mietlicki, Elizabeth G; Nowak, Erica L; Fluharty, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation of water and NaCl intake is a classic model of the behavioural effects of hormones. In vitro studies indicate that the AngII type 1 (AT(1)) receptor stimulates intracellular pathways that include protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation. Previous studies support the hypotheses that PKC is involved in AngII-induced water, but not NaCl intake and that MAP kinase plays a role in NaCl consumption, but not water intake, after injection of AngII. The present experiments test these hypotheses in rats using central injections of AngII in the presence or absence of a PKC inhibitor or a MAP kinase inhibitor. Pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine attenuated AngII-induced water intake, but NaCl intake was unaffected. In contrast, pretreatment with U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor, had no effect on AngII-induced water intake, but attenuated NaCl intake. These data support the working hypotheses and significantly extend our earlier findings and those of others. Perhaps more importantly, these experiments demonstrate the remarkable diversity of peptide receptor systems and add support for the surprising finding that intracellular signalling pathways can have divergent behavioural relevance.

  4. Angiotensin II stimulates water and NaCl intake through separate cell signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Derek; Mietlicki, Elizabeth G.; Nowak, Erica L.; Fluharty, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation of water and NaCl intake is a classic model of the behavioural effects of hormones. In vitro studies indicate that the AngII type 1 (AT1) receptor stimulates intracellular pathways that include PKC and MAP kinase activation. Previous studies support the hypotheses that PKC is involved in AngII-induced water, but not NaCl intake and that MAP kinase plays a role in NaCl consumption, but not water intake, after injection of AngII. The present experiments test these hypotheses using central injections of AngII in the presence or absence of a PKC inhibitor or a MAP kinase inhibitor. Pre-treatment with the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine attenuated AngII-induced water intake, but NaCl intake was unaffected. In contrast, pre-treatment with U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor, had no effect on AngII-induced water intake, but attenuated NaCl intake. These data support the working hypotheses and significantly extend our earlier findings and those of others. Perhaps more importantly, these experiments demonstrate the remarkable diversity of peptide receptor systems and add support for the surprising finding that intracellular signalling pathways can have divergent behavioural relevance. PMID:18723579

  5. Na(+)-H+ exchanger kinetics in adrenal glomerulosa cells and its activation by angiotensin II

    SciTech Connect

    Conlin, P.R.; Kim, S.Y.; Williams, G.H.; Canessa, M.L. )

    1990-07-01

    We have studied the kinetic properties of basal and angiotensin II (ANG II) stimulated Na(+)-H+ exchange in adrenal glomerulosa cells by measuring changes in cytosolic pH (pHi) and initial rates of 22Na uptake in the presence or absence of dimethylamiloride (DMA). The cells were studied under basal conditions, at constant pHi with varied external sodium (Na+o), and at varied pHi with constant Na+o (50 mM). In 2,7-biscarboxyethyl-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein loaded cells under basal conditions, pHi rose from 7.09 +/- 0.02 to 7.19 +/- 0.02. Similarly, DMA-sensitive Na influx was enhanced from 9.2 +/- 1.3 to 14.8 +/- 2.1 nmol Na+/mg protein x min (P less than 0.01) by ANG II. In cells acid-loaded by preincubation in Na(+)-free media (pHi 6.8), addition of varying Na+o resulted in a rapid H+ efflux that was markedly inhibited by DMA. DMA-sensitive Na+ influx into these acidified cells with varied Na+o exhibited a Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 23 mM and a maximum velocity (Vmax) of 43 nmol Na+/mg protein x min. By varying pHi (from pHi 7.1 to 6.2), DMA-sensitive Na+ influx likewise showed activation with cellular acidification with a pK at pHi 7.09. At pHi 6.8, ANG II decreased the Km for Na+o from 23 to 17 mM and increased the Vmax from 43 to 53 nmol Na+/mg protein x min. The pHi dependence of DMA-sensitive Na+ influx was not affected by ANG II (pK at pHi 7.03). DMA also inhibited AII-stimulated aldosterone secretion and Na+ influx similarly. These results indicate that Na(+)-H+ exchange in adrenal glomerulosa cells is functioning under basal conditions, and is modulated by ANG II with enhanced Na+o affinity and Vmax but without a shift in pHi dependence (similar to ANG II effects on vascular smooth muscle cells). These effects suggest an important role for Na(+)-H+ exchange during ANG II stimulation of aldosterone production by glomerulosa cells.

  6. Role of the Na+/H+ exchanger 3 in angiotensin II-induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao C.; Shull, Gary E.; Miguel-Qin, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    The renal mechanisms responsible for angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension remain incompletely understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that the Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) is required for ANG II-induced hypertension in mice. Five groups of wild-type (Nhe3+/+) and Nhe3−/− mice were treated with vehicle or high pressor doses of ANG II (1.5 mg/kg/day ip, via minipump for 2 wk, or 10 pmol/min iv for 30 min). Under basal conditions, Nhe3−/− mice had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean intra-arterial pressure (MAP) (P < 0.01), 24 h urine (P < 0.05), urinary Na+ (P < 0.01) and urinary K+ excretion (P < 0.01). In response to ANG II, SBP and MAP markedly increased in Nhe3+/+ mice in a time-dependent manner, as expected (P < 0.01). However, these acute and chronic pressor responses to ANG II were significantly attenuated in Nhe3−/− mice (P < 0.01). Losartan blocked ANG II-induced hypertension in Nhe3+/+ mice but induced marked mortality in Nhe3−/− mice. The attenuated pressor responses to ANG II in Nhe3−/− mice were associated with marked compensatory humoral and renal responses to genetic loss of intestinal and renal NHE3. These include elevated basal plasma ANG II and aldosterone and kidney ANG II levels, salt wasting from the intestines, increased renal AQP1, Na+/HCO3−, and Na+/K+-ATPase expression, and increased PKCα, mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2, and glycogen synthase kinase 3αβ signaling proteins in the proximal tubules (P < 0.01). We concluded that NHE3 in proximal tubules of the kidney, along with NHE3 in intestines, is required for maintaining basal blood pressure as well as the full development of ANG II-induced hypertension. PMID:26242933

  7. Angiotensin II directly stimulates macula densa Na-2Cl-K cotransport via apical AT(1) receptors.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Gergely; Peti-Peterdi, János; Rosivall, László; Bell, P Darwin

    2002-02-01

    ANG II is a modulator of tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF); however, the site of its action remains unknown. Macula densa (MD) cells sense changes in luminal NaCl concentration ([NaCl](L)) via a Na-2Cl-K cotransporter, and these cells do possess ANG II receptors. We tested whether ANG II regulates Na-2Cl-K cotransport in MD cells. MD cell Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)](i)) was measured using sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate with fluorescence microscopy. Resting [Na(+)](i) in MD cells was 27.7 +/- 1.05 mM (n = 138) and increased (Delta[Na(+)](i)) by 18.5 +/- 1.14 mM (n = 17) at an initial rate (Delta[Na(+)](i)/Deltat) of 5.54 +/- 0.53 x 10(-4) U/s with an increase in [NaCl](L) from 25 to 150 mM. Both Delta[Na(+)](i) and Delta[Na(+)](i)/Deltat were inhibited by 80% with 100 microM luminal furosemide. ANG II (10(-9) or 10(-12) M) added to the lumen increased MD resting [Na(+)](i) and [NaCl](L)-dependent Delta[Na(+)](i) and caused a twofold increase in Delta[Na(+)](i)/Deltat. Bath (10(-9) M) ANG II also stimulated cotransport activity, and there was no additive effect of simultaneous addition of ANG II to bath and lumen. The effects of luminal ANG II were furosemide sensitive and abolished by the AT(1) receptor blocker candesartan. ANG II at 10(-6) M failed to stimulate the cotransporter, whereas increased cotransport activity could be restored by blocking AT(2) receptors with PD-123, 319. Thus ANG II may modulate TGF responses via alterations in MD Na-2Cl-K cotransport activity.

  8. The Na i and Sr ii Resonance Lines in Solar Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellmacher, G.; Wiehr, E.

    2017-07-01

    We estimate the electron density, ne, and its spatial variation in quiescent prominences from the observed emission ratio of the resonance lines Na i 5890 Å (D2) and Sr ii 4078 Å. For a bright prominence (τ_{α}≈25) we obtain a mean ne≈2×10^{10} cm^{-3}; for a faint one (τ _{α }≈4) ne≈4×10^{10} cm^{-3} on two consecutive days with moderate internal fluctuation and no systematic variation with height above the solar limb. The thermal and non-thermal contributions to the line broadening, T_{kin} and V_{nth}, required to deduce ne from the emission ratio Na i/Sr ii cannot be unambiguously determined from observed widths of lines from atoms of different mass. The reduced widths, ΔλD/λ0, of Sr ii 4078 Å show an excess over those from Na D2 and Hδ 4101 Å, assuming the same T_{kin} and V_{nth}. We attribute this excess broadening to higher non-thermal broadening induced by interaction of ions with the prominence magnetic field. This is suggested by the finding of higher macro-shifts of Sr ii 4078 Å as compared to those from Na D2.

  9. Reaction of beta-diketiminate copper(II) complexes and Na2S2.

    PubMed

    Inosako, Masayuki; Kunishita, Atsushi; Shimokawa, Chizu; Teraoka, Junji; Kubo, Minoru; Ogura, Takashi; Sugimoto, Hideki; Itoh, Shinobu

    2008-11-28

    Reaction of beta-diketiminate copper(II) complexes and Na2S2 resulted in formation of (mu-eta2:eta2-disulfido)dicopper(II) complexes (adduct formation) or beta-diketiminate copper(I) complexes (reduction of copper(II)) depending on the substituents of the supporting ligands. In the case of sterically less demanding ligands, adduct formation occurred to provide the (mu-eta2:eta2-disulfido)dicopper(II) complexes, whereas reduction of copper(II) took place to give the corresponding copper(I) complexes with sterically more demanding beta-diketiminate ligands. Spectroscopic examinations of the reactions at low temperature using UV-vis and ESR as well as kinetic analysis have suggested that a 1 : 1 adduct LCuII-S-SNa with an end-on binding mode is initially formed as a common intermediate, from which different reaction pathways exist depending on the steric environment of the metal-coordination sphere provided by the ligands. Thus, with the sterically less demanding ligands, rearrangement of the disulfide adduct from end-on to side-on followed by self-dimerisation occurs to give the (mu-eta2:eta2-disulfido)dicopper(II) complexes, whereas such an intramolecular rearrangement of the disulfide co-ligand does not take place with the sterically more demanding ligands. In this case, homolytic cleavage of the CuII-S bond occurs to give the reduced copper(I) product. The steric effects of the supporting ligands have been discussed on the basis of detailed analysis of the crystal structures of the copper(II) starting materials.

  10. Photobilirubin II.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, R; Buckley, D G; Hamzetash, D; Hawkes, G E; Ioannou, S; Stoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    An improved preparation of photobilirubin II in ammoniacal methanol is described. Evidence is presented which distinguishes between the two structures proposed earlier for photobilirubin II in favour of the cycloheptadienyl structure. Nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement measurements with bilirubin IX alpha and photobilirubin II in dimethyl sulphoxide are complicated by the occurrence of negative and zero effects. The partition coefficient of photobilirubin II between chloroform and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) is 0.67. PMID:6743241

  11. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    SAGE II Data and Information The goals of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment ( SAGE ) II are to determine the spatial distributions of stratospheric ... profiles and calculating monthly averages of each. The SAGE II sensor (a Sun Photometer) was launched into a 57-degree inclination ...

  12. Angiotensin II stimulates renal proximal tubule Na(+)-ATPase activity through the activation of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Rangel, L B A; Caruso-Neves, C; Lara, L S; Lopes, A G

    2002-08-31

    Recently, our group described an AT(1)-mediated direct stimulatory effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on the Na(+)-ATPase activity of proximal tubules basolateral membranes (BLM) [Am. J. Physiol. 248 (1985) F621]. Data in the present report suggest the participation of a protein kinase C (PKC) in the molecular mechanism of Ang II-mediated stimulation of the Na(+)-ATPase activity due to the following observations: (i) the stimulation of protein phosphorylation in BLM, induced by Ang II, is mimicked by the PKC activator TPA, and is completely reversed by the specific PKC inhibitor, calphostin C; (ii) the Na(+)-ATPase activity is stimulated by Ang II and TPA in the same magnitude, being these effects abolished by the use of the PKC inhibitors, calphostin C and sphingosine; (iii) the Na(+)-ATPase activity is activated by catalytic subunit of PKC (PKC-M), in a similar and nonadditive manner to Ang II; and (iv) Ang II stimulates the phosphorylation of MARCKS, a specific substrate for PKC.

  13. Biosorption of toxic lead (II) ions using tomato waste (Solanum lycopersicum) activated by NaOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permatasari, Diah; Heraldy, Eddy; Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    This research present to uptake lead (II) ion from aqueous solutions by activated tomato waste. Biosorbent were characterized by applying Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The biosorption investigated with parameters including the concentration of NaOH, effects of solution pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time,and initial metal concentration. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic model such us the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied todescribe the biosorption process. According to the experiment, the optimum concentration of NaOH was achieved at 0.1 M. The maximum % lead (II) removal was achieved at pH 4 with 94.5%. Optimum biosorbentdosage were found as 0.1 g/25 mL solution while optimum contact time were found at 75 minutes. The results showed that the biosorption processes of Lead (II) followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Langmuir adsorption isotherm was found fit the adsorption data with amaximum capacity of 24.079 mg/g with anadsorption energy of 28.046 kJ/mol.

  14. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047576 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  15. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047582 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  16. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Tengteng; Liu Wei; Chen Shuang; Prots, Yurii; Schnelle, Walter; Zhao Jingtai; Kniep, Ruediger; Hoffmann, Stefan

    2012-08-15

    A new copper(II) oxide phosphate chloride, NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl], has been synthesized by flux synthesis. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data show that the title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2{sub 1}/c (No. 14), with lattice parameters a=8.392(2) A, b=6.3960(10) A, c=16.670(2) A, {beta}=109.470(10) Degree-Sign , V=843.6(3) A{sup 3}, Z=4. The crystal structure is characterized by a complex chain of copper-centered polyhedra running along [0 1 0] which are connected by phosphate tetrahedra. The resulting three-dimensional polyhedra framework exhibits channels filled by additional copper and sodium atoms. Field and temperature dependent measurements of the specific heat and the magnetic susceptibility reveal low-dimensional magnetic behavior. The compound starts to decompose at 700 K under release of oxygen and evaporation of Cu{sup I}Cl as shown by simultaneous thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of the new copper(II) phosphate chloride, NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl], exhibits linear chains of copper tetrahedra which show low-dimensional magnetic behavior proven by specific heat and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new copper(II) oxide phosphate chloride, NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl], has been synthesized by flux synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure comprises chains of Cu{sub 4}O tetrahedra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low-dimensional behavior has been proven by magnetic and specific heat measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On heating, Cu{sup I}Cl and oxygen are released shown by simultaneous thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry.

  17. Dietary Fructose Enhances the Ability of Low Concentrations of Angiotensin II to Stimulate Proximal Tubule Na+ Reabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Cabral, Pablo D.; Hong, Nancy J.; Asirwatham, Jessica; Yang, Nianxin; Berthiaume, Jessica M.; Dominici, Fernando P.; Garvin, Jeffrey L.

    2017-01-01

    Fructose-enriched diets cause salt-sensitive hypertension. Proximal tubules (PTs) reabsorb 70% of the water and salt filtered through the glomerulus. Angiotensin II (Ang II) regulates this process. Normally, dietary salt reduces Ang II allowing the kidney to excrete more salt, thereby preventing hypertension. We hypothesized that fructose-enriched diets enhance the ability of low concentrations of Ang II to stimulate PT transport. We measured the effects of a low concentration of Ang II (10−12 mol/L) on transport-related oxygen consumption (QO2), and Na/K-ATPase and Na/H-exchange (NHE) activities and expression in PTs from rats consuming tap water (Control) or 20% fructose (FRUC). In FRUC-treated PTs, Ang II increased QO2 by 14.9 ± 1.3 nmol/mg/min (p < 0.01) but had no effect in Controls. FRUC elevated NHE3 expression by 19 ± 3% (p < 0.004) but not Na/K-ATPase expression. Ang II stimulated NHE activity in FRUC PT (Δ + 0.7 ± 0.1 Arbitrary Fluorescent units (AFU)/s, p < 0.01) but not in Controls. Na/K-ATPase activity was not affected. The PKC inhibitor Gö6976 blocked the ability of FRUC to augment the actions of Ang II. FRUC did not alter the inhibitory effect of dopamine on NHE activity. We conclude that dietary fructose increases the ability of low concentrations of Ang II to stimulate PT Na reabsorption via effects on NHE. PMID:28813008

  18. Biosorption of lead (II) ions by NaOH-activated apple (Malus domestica) juice residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimurti, Devita Dwi; Heraldy, Eddy; Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    This research studied the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions using NaOH-activated apple (Malus domestica) juice residue. Biosorbent was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The effects of biosorbent dosage, pH, contact time and initial metal ion concentration had been investigated in batch-adsorption method. The biosorption kinetic data were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Freundlich and Langmuir's isotherm were used to describe the biosorption process. The optimum conditions of Pb(II) adsorption was observed at 60 min of contact time, pH 4, and 0.1 g biosorbent dosage in 25 ml solution. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, resulted biosorption constant rate of 0.184 g.mg-1.min-1. The Langmuir isotherm model exhibited the best fit to experimental data. The maximum biosorption capacity of Pb(II) determined according to the Langmuir model was 90.90 mg.g-1 at 302 K, with the adsorption energy of 26.429 kJ.mol-1.

  19. Unveiling Vela - Time Variability of Interstellar Lines in the Direction of the Vela Supernova Remnant II. Na D and Ca II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameswara Rao, N.; Lambert, David L.; Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Gupta, Ranjan; Muneer, S.; Singh, Harinder P.

    2017-01-01

    In a survey conducted between 2011-12 of interstellar Na I D line profiles in the direction of the Vela supernova remnant, a few lines of sight showed dramatic changes in low velocity absorption components with respect to profiles from 1993-1994 reported by Cha & Sembach. Three stars - HD 63578, HD 68217 and HD 76161 showed large decrease in strength over the 1993-2012 interval. HD 68217 and HD 76161 are associated with the Vela SNR whereas HD 63578 is associated with γ2 Velorum wind bubble. Here, we present high spectral resolution observations of Ca II K lines obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) towards these three stars along with simultaneous observations of Na I D lines. These new spectra confirm that the Na D interstellar absorption weakened drastically between 1993-1994 and 2011-2012 but show for the first time that the Ca II K line is unchanged between 1993-1994 and 2015. This remarkable contrast between the behaviour of Na D and Ca II K line absorption lines is a puzzle concerning gas presumably affected by the outflow from the SNR and the wind from γ2 Velorum.

  20. Unveiling Vela: time variability of interstellar lines in the direction of the Vela supernova remnant - II. Na D and Ca ii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameswara Rao, N.; Lambert, David L.; Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Gupta, Ranjan; Muneer, S.; Singh, Harinder P.

    2017-05-01

    In a survey conducted between 2011 and 2012 of interstellar Na i D line profiles in the direction of the Vela supernova remnant (SNR), a few lines of sight showed dramatic changes in low-velocity absorption components with respect to profiles from 1993 to 1994 reported by Cha & Sembach. Three stars - HD 63578, HD 68217 and HD 76161 - showed large decrease in strength over the 1993-2012 interval. HD 68217 and HD 76161 are associated with the Vela SNR whereas HD 63578 is associated with γ2 Velorum wind bubble. Here, we present high spectral resolution observations of Ca ii K lines obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope towards these three stars along with simultaneous observations of Na i D lines. These new spectra confirm that the Na D interstellar absorption weakened drastically between 1993-1994 and 2011-2012 but show for the first time that the Ca ii K line is unchanged between 1993-1994 and 2015. This remarkable contrast between the behaviour of Na D and Ca ii K absorption lines is a puzzle concerning gas presumably affected by the outflow from the SNR and the wind from γ2 Velorum.

  1. Impact of environmental conditions on the sorption behavior of Pb(II) in Na-bentonite suspensions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shitong; Zhao, Donglin; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Songsheng; Chen, Lei; Yu, Xianjin

    2010-11-15

    In this study, a local bentonite from Lin'an county (Zhejiang province, China) was converted to Na-purified form and the Na-bentonite sample was characterized by using FTIR and XRD to determine its chemical constituents and micro-structure. The removal of lead from wastewaters by Na-bentonite was studied as a function of various environmental parameters such as contact time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic substances and temperature under ambient conditions. The results indicated that the sorption of Pb(II) on Na-bentonite was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. The Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R models were used to simulate the sorption isotherms of Pb(II) at three different temperatures of 298, 318 and 338 K. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG°) calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms indicated that the sorption process of Pb(II) on Na-bentonite was endothermic and spontaneous. At low pH, the sorption of Pb(II) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation and ion exchange with Na(+)/H(+) on Na-bentonite surfaces, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH. From the experimental results, it is possible to conclude that Na-bentonite has good potentialities for cost-effective disposal of lead bearing wastewaters.

  2. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  3. Delta II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Delta II expendable launch vehicle with the ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite), cooperative space X-ray astronomy mission between NASA, Germany and United Kingdom, was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on June 1, 1990.

  4. Fructose stimulates Na/H exchange activity and sensitizes the proximal tubule to angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Pablo D; Hong, Nancy J; Hye Khan, Md Abdul; Ortiz, Pablo A; Beierwaltes, William H; Imig, John D; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2014-03-01

    The proximal nephron reabsorbs 60% to 70% of the fluid and sodium and most of the filtered bicarbonate via Na/H exchanger 3. Enhanced proximal nephron transport is implicated in hypertension. Our findings show that a fructose-enriched diet causes salt sensitivity. We hypothesized that fructose stimulates luminal Na/H exchange activity and sensitizes the proximal tubule to angiotensin II. Na/H exchange was measured in rat proximal tubules as the rate of intracellular pH (pHi) recovery in fluorescent units/s. Replacing 5 mmol/L glucose with 5 mmol/L fructose increased the rate of pHi recovery (1.8±0.6 fluorescent units/s; P<0.02; n=8). Staurosporine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, blocked this effect. We studied whether this effect was because of the addition of fructose or removal of glucose. The basal rate of pHi recovery was first tested in the presence of a 0.6-mmol/L glucose and 1, 3, or 5 mmol/L fructose added in a second period. The rate of pHi recovery did not change with 1 mmol/L but it increased with 3 and 5 mmol/L of fructose. Adding 5 mmol/L glucose caused no change. Removal of luminal sodium blocked pHi recovery. With 5.5 mmol/L glucose, angiotensin II (1 pmol/L) did not affect the rate of pHi recovery (change, -1.1±0.5 fluorescent units/s; n=9) but it increased the rate of pHi recovery with 0.6 mmol/L glucose/5 mmol/L fructose (change, 4.0±2.2 fluorescent units/s; P<0.02; n=6). We conclude that fructose stimulates Na/H exchange activity and sensitizes the proximal tubule to angiotensin II. This mechanism is likely dependent on protein kinase C. These results may partially explain the mechanism by which a fructose diet induces hypertension.

  5. Perinatal Na+ overload programs raised renal proximal Na+ transport and enalapril-sensitive alterations of Ang II signaling pathways during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Edjair V; Vieira-Filho, Leucio D; Silva, Paulo A; Nascimento, Williams S; Aires, Regina S; Oliveira, Fabiana S T; Luzardo, Ricardo; Vieyra, Adalberto; Paixão, Ana D O

    2012-01-01

    High Na(+) intake is a reality in nowadays and is frequently accompanied by renal and cardiovascular alterations. In this study, renal mechanisms underlying perinatal Na(+) overload-programmed alterations in Na(+) transporters and the renin/angiotensin system (RAS) were investigated, together with effects of short-term treatment with enalapril in terms of reprogramming molecular alterations in kidney. Male adult Wistar rats were obtained from dams maintained throughout pregnancy and lactation on a standard diet and drinking water (control) or 0.17 M NaCl (saline group). Enalapril (100 mg/l), an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, was administered for three weeks after weaning. Ninety day old offspring from dams that drank saline presented with proximal tubules exhibiting increased (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase expression and activity. Ouabain-insensitive Na(+)-ATPase activity remained unchanged but its response to angiotensin II (Ang II) was lost. PKC, PKA, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), macrophage infiltration and collagen deposition markedly increased, and AT(2) receptor expression decreased while AT(1) expression was unaltered. Early treatment with enalapril reduced expression and activity of (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase, partially recovered the response of Na(+)-ATPase to Ang II, and reduced PKC and PKA activities independently of whether offspring were exposed to high perinatal Na(+) or not. In addition, treatment with enalapril per se reduced AT(2) receptor expression, and increased TBARS, macrophage infiltration and collagen deposition. The perinatally Na(+)-overloaded offspring presented high numbers of Ang II-positive cortical cells, and significantly lower circulating Ang I, indicating that programming/reprogramming impacted systemic and local RAS. Maternal Na(+) overload programmed alterations in renal Na(+) transporters and in its regulation, as well as severe structural lesions in adult offspring. Enalapril was beneficial predominantly through

  6. Studies on the topology of the renal type II NaPi-cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Lambert, G; Traebert, M; Hernando, N; Biber, J; Murer, H

    1999-05-01

    The rat type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-2) is a 85- to 90-kDa glycosylated protein located at the proximal tubular brush border membrane. Hydropathy predictions suggest eight transmembrane domains (sTM) with a large glycosylated loop between sTM 3 and sTM 4. We have studied the membrane topology of NaPi-2 expressed in oocytes. A 33-amino-acid fragment containing the FLAG epitope was inserted into seven loops connecting the sTMs and into the NH2- and COOH-ends of the protein. FLAG-antibody binding suggested that the loops connecting sTM 1 and sTM 2 as well as sTM 3 and sTM 4 are located extracellularly. Based on the lack of FLAG-antibody binding we suggest intracellular locations for the NH2- and COOH-termini and the region connecting sTM 4 and sTM 5. Immunoprecipitation studies of in vitro translated protein also suggest that the NH2-terminus is sited extracellularly. In immunohistochemical studies with NaPi-2-transfected MDCK cells, an interaction with NH2- and COOH- terminal antipeptide antibodies could only be obtained after membrane permeabilization. The presented data are an experimental documentation of the intracellular location of the NH2- and COOH-termini, and of the extracellular location of extracellular loops 1 and 2.

  7. In vivo fractional P(i) absorption and NaPi-II mRNA expression in rainbow trout are upregulated by dietary P restriction.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Shozo H; McDaniel, Nichole K; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2003-10-01

    Mammalian type II sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-II) and inorganic phosphate uptake stimulator (PiUS) genes are upregulated by dietary phosphorus (P) restriction to increase intestinal and renal P transport, but little is known about NaPi-II and PiUS regulation in other vertebrates. We studied the 1). the tissue distribution and dietary regulation of NaPi-II, PiUS, and sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) mRNA and NaPi-II protein in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 2). effects of dietary P on intestinal Pi absorption in vivo. NaPi-II, PiUS, and SGLT1 mRNA were found in the proximal and distal intestine, pyloric ceca, and kidney. PiUS mRNA was also found in the heart, gill, blood, stomach, liver, skin, and muscle. Tissue distribution of NaPi-II protein correlated with that of NaPi-II mRNA except in gill ionocytes where NaPi-II antibodies recognized related epitopes. Chronic consumption of a low-P diet increased NaPi-II and PiUS but not SGLT1 mRNA abundance in the intestine and kidney. Unlike mammals, there was no detectable shift in tissue or cellular localization of NaPi-II protein in response to dietary P restriction. Regulation of NaPi and PiUS mRNA expression was observed only in fish grown under optimal aqueous oxygen concentrations. In vivo fractional absorption of Pi by the intestine decreased in fish fed high-P diets. Decreases in absorption were less pronounced in fish previously fed low-P diets, suggesting that diet history modulates acute regulation of P absorption. Regulation of dietary Pi absorption in vivo may involve a specific change in intestinal NaPi-II and PiUS gene expression.

  8. FAQs II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Frank, Vikki; Lester, Jaime; Yang, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    In their paper entitled "Why should postsecondary institutions consider partnering to offer (Individual Development Accounts (IDAs)?" the authors reviewed frequently asked questions they encountered from higher education professionals about IDAs, but as their research continued so did the questions. FAQ II has more in-depth questions and…

  9. Gamma II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, M.; Cline, J.; Owen, L.; Boehme, J.; Rottler, L.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.

    2011-05-01

    GAMMA II is the Guide Star Automatic Measuring MAchine relocated from STScI to the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). GAMMA II is a multi-channel laser-scanning microdensitometer that was used to measure POSS and SERC plates to create the Guide Star Catalog and the Digital Sky Survey. The microdensitometer is designed with submicron accuracy in x and y measurements using a HP 5507 laser interferometer, 15 micron sampling, and the capability to measure plates as large as 0.5-m across. GAMMA II is a vital instrument for the success of digitizing the direct, objective prism, and spectra photographic plate collections in APDA for research. We plan several targeted projects. One is a collaboration with Drs. P.D. Hemenway and R. L. Duncombe who plan to scan 1000 plates of 34 minor planets to identify systematic errors in the Fundamental System of celestial coordinates. Another is a collaboration with Dr. R. Hudec (Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) who is working within the Gaia Variability Unit CU7 to digitize objective prism spectra on the Henize plates and Burrell-Schmidt plates located in APDA. These low dispersion spectral plates provide optical counterparts of celestial high-energy sources and cataclysmic variables enabling the simulation of Gaia BP/RP outputs. The astronomical community is invited to explore the more than 140,000 plates from 20 observatories now archived in APDA, and use GAMMA II. The process of relocating GAMMA to APDA, re-commissioning, and starting up the production scan programs will be described. Also, we will present planned research and future upgrades to GAMMA II.

  10. Subthreshold Na+-dependent theta-like rhythmicity in stellate cells of entorhinal cortex layer II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Angel; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    1989-11-01

    THE oscillation of membrane potential in mammalian central neurons is of interest because it relates to the role of oscillations in brain function. It has been proposed that the entorhinal cortex (EC), particularly the stellate cells of layer II (ECIIscs), plays an important part in the genesis of the theta rhythm1-3. These neurons occupy a key position in the neocortex-hippocampus-neocortex circuit, a crucial crossroad in memory functions4,5. Neuronal oscillations typically rely on the activation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ conductances and the Ca2+-dependent K+ conductance that usually follows6,7, as seen in other limbic subcortical structures generating theta rhymicity8-10. Here we report, however, that similar oscillations are generated in ECIIscs by a Na+ conductance. The finding of a subthreshold, voltage-gated, Na+-dependent rhythmic membrane oscillation in mammalian neurons indicates that rhythmicity in heterogeneous neuronal networks may be supported by different sets of intrinsic ionic mechanisms in each of the neuronal elements involved.

  11. Carbonic anhydrase II increases the activity of the human electrogenic Na+/HCO3- cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Becker, Holger M; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2007-05-04

    Several acid/base-coupled membrane transporters, such as the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1), have been shown to bind to different carbonic anhydrase isoforms to create a "transport metabolon." We have expressed NBCe1 derived from human kidney in oocytes of Xenopus leavis and determined its transport activity by recording the membrane current in voltage clamp, and the cytosolic H(+) and Na(+) concentrations using ion-selective microelectrodes. When carbonic anhydrase isoform II (CAII) had been injected into oocytes, the membrane current and the rate of cytosolic Na(+) rise, indicative for NBCe1 activity, increased significantly with the amount of injected CAII (2-200 ng). The CAII inhibitor ethoxyzolamide reversed the effects of CAII on the NBCe1 activity. Co-expressing wild-type CAII or NH(2)-terminal mutant CAII together with NBCe1 provided similar results, whereas co-expressing the catalytically inactive CAII mutant V143Y had no effect on NBCe1 activity. Mass spectrometric analysis and the rate of cytosolic H(+) change following addition of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) confirmed the catalytic activity of injected and expressed CAII in oocytes. Our results show that the transport capacity of NBCe1 is enhanced by the catalytic activity of CAII, in line with the notion that CAII forms a transport metabolon with NBCe1.

  12. Voltage-gated Na+ channel II immunoreactivity is selectively up-regulated in hippocampal interneurons of seizure sensitive gerbils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Kwak, Sung-Eun; Choi, Hui-Chul; Song, Hong-Ki; Kim, Yeong-In; Jo, Seung-Mook; Kang, Tae-Cheon

    2008-06-27

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) in the normal and epileptic hippocampus of gerbils (a genetic epilepsy model) in order to confirm the relationship between VGSC and seizure activity in these animals. There was no difference of VGSC I immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between seizure-resistant (SR) and seizure sensitive (SS) gerbils. VGSC II immunoreactivity was rarely detected in the perikarya of principal neurons and interneurons in the SR gerbil hippocampus. However, in the SS gerbil hippocampus, VGSC II immunoreactivity was densely observed in the somata of interneurons located in the stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum-moleculare. Double immunofluorescent study showed immunoreactivity for calretinin (approximately 80% in VGSC II-positive neurons) or calbindin D-28k (approximately 20% in VGSC II-positive neurons) in VGSC II-immunoreactive neurons. VGSC II-immunoreactive neurons did not show parvalbumin immunoreactivity. These findings suggest that seizure activity in SS gerbils may be related to the selective hyperactivation of interneurons in stratum lacunosum-moleculare via the up-regulation of VGSC II expression, which leads to the disinhibition of CA1 pyramidal cells.

  13. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  14. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  15. Effects of ACE inhibition and ANG II stimulation on renal Na-Cl cotransporter distribution, phosphorylation, and membrane complex properties

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donna H.; Maunsbach, Arvid B.; Riquier-Brison, Anne D.; Nguyen, Mien T. X.; Fenton, Robert A.; Bachmann, Sebastian; Yu, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    The renal distal tubule Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) reabsorbs <10% of the filtered Na+ but is a key control point for blood pressure regulation by angiotensin II (ANG II), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), and thiazide diuretics. This study aimed to determine whether NCC phosphorylation (NCCp) was regulated by acute (20–30 min) treatment with the ACEI captopril (12 μg/min × 20 min) or by a sub-pressor dose of ANG II (20 ng·kg−1·min−1) in Inactin-anesthetized rats. By immuno-EM, NCCp was detected exclusively in or adjacent to apical plama membranes (APM) in controls and after ACEI or ANG II treatment, while NCC total was detected in both APM and subapical cytoplasmic vesicles (SCV) in all conditions. In renal homogenates, neither ACEI nor ANG II treatment altered NCCp abundance, assayed by immunoblot. However, by density gradient fractionation we identified a pool of low-density APM in which NCCp decreased 50% in response to captopril and was restored during ANG II infusion, and another pool of higher-density APM that responded reciprocally, indicative of regulated redistribution between two APM pools. In both pools, NCCp was preferentially localized to Triton-soluble membranes. Blue Native gel electrophoresis established that APM NCCp localized to ∼700 kDa complexes (containing γ-adducin) while unphosphorylated NCC in intracellular membranes primarily localized to ∼400 kDa complexes: there was no evidence for native monomeric or dimeric NCC or NCCp. In summary, this study demonstrates that phosphorylated NCC, localized to multimeric complexes in the APM, redistributes in a regulated manner within the APM in response to ACEI and ANG II. PMID:23114965

  16. A Functional NaV1.7-NaVAb Chimera with a Reconstituted High-Affinity ProTx-II Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Ramkumar; Wu, Sophie; Rodrigo, Iyoncy; Gao, Mian; Low, Simon; Megson, Lisa; Wensel, David; Pieschl, Rick L; Post-Munson, Debra J; Watson, John; Langley, David R; Ahlijanian, Michael K; Bristow, Linda J; Herrington, James

    2017-09-01

    The NaV1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel is implicated in human pain perception by genetics. Rare gain of function mutations in NaV1.7 lead to spontaneous pain in humans whereas loss of function mutations results in congenital insensitivity to pain. Hence, agents that specifically modulate the function of NaV1.7 have the potential to yield novel therapeutics to treat pain. The complexity of the channel and the challenges to generate recombinant cell lines with high NaV1.7 expression have led to a surrogate target strategy approach employing chimeras with the bacterial channel NaVAb. In this report we describe the design, synthesis, purification, and characterization of a chimera containing part of the voltage sensor domain 2 (VSD2) of NaV1.7. Importantly, this chimera, DII S1-S4, forms functional sodium channels and is potently inhibited by the NaV1.7 VSD2 targeted peptide toxin ProTx-II. Further, we show by [(125)I]ProTx-II binding and surface plasmon resonance that the purified DII S1-S4 protein retains high affinity ProTx-II binding in detergent. We employed the purified DII S1-S4 protein to create a scintillation proximity assay suitable for high-throughput screening. The creation of a NaV1.7-NaVAb chimera with the VSD2 toxin binding site provides an important tool for the identification of novel NaV1.7 inhibitors and for structural studies to understand the toxin-channel interaction. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. PESTICINS II. I and II

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Robert R.; Surgalla, Michael J.

    1962-01-01

    Brubaker, Robert R. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Michael J. Surgalla. Pesticins. II. Production of pesticin I and II. J. Bacteriol. 84:539–545. 1962.—Pesticin I was separated from pesticin I inhibitor by ion-exchange chromatography of cell-free culture supernatant fluids and by acid precipitation of soluble preparations obtained from mechanically disrupted cells. The latter procedure resulted in formation of an insoluble pesticin I complex which, upon removal by centrifugation and subsequent dissolution in neutral buffer, exhibited a 100- to 1,000-fold increase in antibacterial activity over that originally observed. However, activity returned to the former level upon addition of the acid-soluble fraction, which contained pesticin I inhibitor. Since the presence of pesticin I inhibitor leads to serious errors in the determination of pesticin I, an assay medium containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in excess Ca++ was developed; this medium eliminated the effect of the inhibitor. By use of the above medium, sufficient pesticin I was found to be contained within 500 nonirradiated cells to inhibit growth of a suitable indicator strain; at least 107 cells were required to effect a corresponding inhibition by pesticin II. Although both pesticins are located primarily within the cell during growth, pesticin I may arise extracellularly during storage of static cells. Slightly higher activity of pesticin I inhibitor was found in culture supernatant fluids than occurred in corresponding cell extracts of equal volume. The differences and similarities between pesticin I and some known bacteriocins are discussed. PMID:14016110

  18. Splice Cassette II of Na+,HCO3− Cotransporter NBCn1 (slc4a7) Interacts with Calcineurin A

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, Andreas A.; Parker, Mark D.; Lee, Soojung; Boron, Walter F.; Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe

    2013-01-01

    Activation of Na+,HCO3− cotransport in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to intracellular pH (pHi) control during artery contraction, but the signaling pathways involved have been unknown. We investigated whether physical and functional interactions between the Na+,HCO3− cotransporter NBCn1 (slc4a7) and the Ca2+/calmodulin-activated serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin exist and play a role for pHi control in VSMCs. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we found that splice cassette II from the N terminus of NBCn1 interacts with calcineurin Aβ. When cassette II was truncated or mutated to disrupt the putative calcineurin binding motif PTVVIH, the interaction was abolished. Native NBCn1 and calcineurin Aβ co-immunoprecipitated from A7r5 rat VSMCs. A peptide (acetyl-DDIPTVVIH-amide), which mimics the putative calcineurin binding motif, inhibited the co-immunoprecipitation whereas a mutated peptide (acetyl-DDIATAVAA-amide) did not. Na+,HCO3− cotransport activity was investigated in VSMCs of mesenteric arteries after an NH4+ prepulse. During depolarization with 50 mm extracellular K+ to raise intracellular [Ca2+], Na+,HCO3− cotransport activity was inhibited 20–30% by calcineurin inhibitors (FK506 and cyclosporine A). FK506 did not affect Na+,HCO3− cotransport activity in VSMCs when cytosolic [Ca2+] was lowered by buffering, nor did it disrupt binding between NBCn1 and calcineurin Aβ. FK506 augmented the intracellular acidification of VSMCs during norepinephrine-induced artery contractions. No physical or functional interactions between calcineurin Aβ and the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 were observed in VSMCs. In conclusion, we demonstrate a physical interaction between calcineurin Aβ and cassette II of NBCn1. Intracellular Ca2+ activates Na+,HCO3− cotransport activity in VSMCs in a calcineurin-dependent manner which is important for protection against intracellular acidification. PMID:23382378

  19. High-NaCl intake impairs dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow in ANG II-infused rats.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aso; Dibona, Gerald F; Marcussen, Niels; Guron, Gregor

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) in ANG II-infused rats and the influence of high-NaCl intake. Sprague-Dawley rats received ANG II (250 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) sc) or saline vehicle (sham) for 14 days after which acute renal clearance experiments were performed during thiobutabarbital anesthesia. Rats (n = 8-10 per group) were either on a normal (NNa; 0.4% NaCl)- or high (HNa; 8% NaCl)-NaCl diet. Separate groups were treated with 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (tempol; 1 M in drinking water). Transfer function analysis from arterial pressure to RBF in the frequency domain was used to examine the myogenic response (MR; 0.06-0.09 Hz) and the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism (TGF; 0.03-0.06 Hz). MAP was elevated in ANG II-infused rats compared with sham groups (P < 0.05). RBF in ANG II HNa was reduced vs. sham NNa and sham HNa (6.0 ± 0.3 vs. 7.9 ± 0.3 and 9.1 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·g kidney wt(-1), P < 0.05). transfer function gain in ANG II HNa was significantly elevated in the frequency range of the MR (1.26 ± 0.50 dB, P < 0.05 vs. all other groups) and in the frequency range of the TGF (-0.02 ± 0.50 dB, P < 0.05 vs. sham NNa and sham HNa). Gain values in the frequency range of the MR and TGF were significantly reduced by tempol in ANG II-infused rats on HNa diet. In summary, the MR and TGF components of RBF autoregulation were impaired in ANG II HNa, and these abnormalities were attenuated by tempol, suggesting a pathogenetic role for superoxide in the impaired RBF autoregulatory response.

  20. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Induces Intrinsic Alterations in Na Channel Gating in Layer II Medial Entorhinal Cortex Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hargus, Nicholas J.; Merrick, Ellen C.; Nigam, Aradhya; Kalmar, Christopher L.; Baheti, Aparna R.; Bertram, Edward H.; Patel, Manoj K.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of adult epilepsy involving the limbic structures of the temporal lobe. Layer II neurons of the entorhinal cortex (EC) form the major excitatory input into the hippocampus via the perforant path and consist of non-stellate and stellate neurons. These neurons are spared and hyper-excitable in TLE. The basis for the hyper-excitability is likely multifactorial and may include alterations in intrinsic properties. In a rat model of TLE, medial EC (mEC) non-stellate and stellate neurons had significantly higher action potential (AP) firing frequencies than in control. The increase remained in the presence of synaptic blockers, suggesting intrinsic mechanisms. Since sodium (Na) channels play a critical role in AP generation and conduction we sought to determine if Na channel gating parameters and expression levels were altered in TLE. Na channel currents recorded from isolated mEC TLE neurons revealed increased Na channel conductances, depolarizing shifts in inactivation parameters and larger persistent (INaP) and resurgent (INaR) Na currents. Immunofluorescence experiments revealed increased staining of Nav1.6 within the axon initial segment and Nav1.2 within the cell bodies of mEC TLE neurons. These studies provide support for additional intrinsic alterations within mEC layer II neurons in TLE and implicate alterations in Na channel activity and expression, in part, for establishing the profound increase in intrinsic membrane excitability of mEC layer II neurons in TLE. These intrinsic changes, together with changes in the synaptic network, could support seizure activity in TLE. PMID:20946956

  1. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of novel Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) mixed ligand complexes with saccharin and nicotinamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakır, S.; Bulut, İ.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Çakır, O.

    2001-01-01

    Four novel mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) with saccharin and nicotinamide were synthesised and characterised on the basis of elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopic study, UV-Vis spectrometric and magnetic susceptibility data. The structure of the Cu (II) complex is completely different from those of the Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes. From the frequencies of the saccharinato CO and SO2 modes, it has been proven that the saccharinato ligands in the structure of the Cu complex are coordinated to the metal ion ([Cu(NA)2(Sac)2(H2O)], where NA - nicotinamide, Sac - saccharinato ligand or ion), whilst in the Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes are uncoordinated and exist as ions ([M(NA)2(H2O)4](Sac)2).

  2. A comparative study for the ion exchange of Fe(III) and Zn(II) on zeolite NaY.

    PubMed

    Ostroski, Indianara C; Barros, Maria A S D; Silva, Edson A; Dantas, João H; Arroyo, Pedro A; Lima, Oswaldo C M

    2009-01-30

    The uptake capacity of Fe(III) and Zn(II) ions in NaY zeolite was investigated. Experiments were carried out in a fixed bed column at 30 degrees C, pH 3.5 and 4.5 for Fe(III) and Zn(II), respectively, and an average particle size of 0.180 mm. In order to minimize the diffusional resistances the influence of flow rate on the breakthrough curves at feed concentrations of 1.56 meq/L for Fe(III) and 0.844 meq/L for Zn(II) was investigated. Flow rate of the minimal resistance in the bed according to mass transfer parameter were 2.0 mL/min for iron and 8.0 mL/min for zinc ions. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models have been used to represent the column equilibrium data. The iron dynamic isotherm was successfully modeled by the Langmuir equation and this mathematical model described well the experimental breakthrough curves for feed concentrations from 0.1 up to 3.5 meq/L. The zinc dynamic isotherm was successfully modeled by the Freundlich equation. This equilibrium model was applied to mathematical model. Experimental breakthrough curves could be predicted. Experiments were also carried out in a batch reactor to investigate the kinetics adsorption of the ions Fe(III) and Zn(II). Langmuir kinetic model fit well both experimental data.

  3. An alkaline tin(II) halide compound Na3Sn2F6Cl: Synthesis, structure, and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Pifu; Luo, Siyang; Huang, Qian; Yang, Yi; Jiang, Xingxing; Liang, Fei; Chen, Chuangtian; Lin, Zheshuai

    2017-04-01

    A new alkali tin(II) halide compound, Na3Sn2F6Cl, is synthesized by hydrothermal method. This compound crystallizes trigonally in space group of R-3c (167), and processes a zero-dimensional (0D) structure consisted of Na+ cations, Cl- anions and the isolated [SnF3]- trigonal pyramids in which the stereochemically active 5s2 lone pair electrons are attached to the Sn2+ cations. Interestingly, the [SnF3]- trigonal pyramids are parallel arranged in the a-b plane, while oppositely arranged in line with rotation along the c- axis. Moreover, the energy bandgap, thermal stability and electronic structure of Na3Sn2F6Cl are characterized and the results reveal that this compound has and indirect bandgap of 3.88 eV and is stable under 270 °C.

  4. Functional and operational design requirements for decontamination and decommissioning of the EBR-I Mark-II NaK: Final report. [NaK eutectics

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.W.; Crandall, D.L.; Dafoe, R.E.; Dolenc, M.R.; LaRue, D.M.

    1987-09-01

    Approximately 180 gal of sodium/potassium (NaK) eutectic liquid metal were severely radioactively contaminated during a meltdown of the Mark-II core of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I) in November 1955. This contaminated NaK, which is contained in four vessels, is currently stored in an underground bunker located at the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) located approximately at the center of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This document presents the Functional and Operational Requirements (F and ORs) for the D and D of the contaminated NaK and the ARVFS bunker site. This project will chemically deactivate the NaK; dispose of the radioactively contaminated product at a designated burial site; chemically deactivate any residual NaK in the containers, and dispose of the containers at a designated burial site; decontaminate and decommission any contaminated process equipment used in these operations, and decontaminate and decommission the ARVFS bunker site. Completion of the above technical objectives will allow for the effective disposition of the NaK, and will return the ARFVS bunker and immediate area to a reusable condition. Upon completion, the ARVFS NaK, which is now considered a significant potential hazard, will be removed from the Surplus Facilities Management Program priority listing of projects. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  5. ProTx-II, a selective inhibitor of NaV1.7 sodium channels, blocks action potential propagation in nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Schmalhofer, William A; Calhoun, Jeffrey; Burrows, Rachel; Bailey, Timothy; Kohler, Martin G; Weinglass, Adam B; Kaczorowski, Gregory J; Garcia, Maria L; Koltzenburg, Martin; Priest, Birgit T

    2008-11-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Na(V)1) channels play a critical role in modulating the excitability of sensory neurons, and human genetic evidence points to Na(V)1.7 as an essential contributor to pain signaling. Human loss-of-function mutations in SCN9A, the gene encoding Na(V)1.7, cause channelopathy-associated indifference to pain (CIP), whereas gain-of-function mutations are associated with two inherited painful neuropathies. Although the human genetic data make Na(V)1.7 an attractive target for the development of analgesics, pharmacological proof-of-concept in experimental pain models requires Na(V)1.7-selective channel blockers. Here, we show that the tarantula venom peptide ProTx-II selectively interacts with Na(V)1.7 channels, inhibiting Na(V)1.7 with an IC(50) value of 0.3 nM, compared with IC(50) values of 30 to 150 nM for other heterologously expressed Na(V)1 subtypes. This subtype selectivity was abolished by a point mutation in DIIS3. It is interesting that application of ProTx-II to desheathed cutaneous nerves completely blocked the C-fiber compound action potential at concentrations that had little effect on Abeta-fiber conduction. ProTx-II application had little effect on action potential propagation of the intact nerve, which may explain why ProTx-II was not efficacious in rodent models of acute and inflammatory pain. Mono-iodo-ProTx-II ((125)I-ProTx-II) binds with high affinity (K(d) = 0.3 nM) to recombinant hNa(V)1.7 channels. Binding of (125)I-ProTx-II is insensitive to the presence of other well characterized Na(V)1 channel modulators, suggesting that ProTx-II binds to a novel site, which may be more conducive to conferring subtype selectivity than the site occupied by traditional local anesthetics and anticonvulsants. Thus, the (125)I-ProTx-II binding assay, described here, offers a new tool in the search for novel Na(V)1.7-selective blockers.

  6. Diffusion of Na(I), Cs(I), Sr(II) and Eu(III) in smectite rich natural clay.

    PubMed

    Kasar, Sharayu; Kumar, Sumit; Bajpai, R K; Tomar, B S

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion of Na(I), Cs(I), Sr(II) and Eu(III) in smectite rich natural clay, proposed as a backfill material in the Indian geological repository, was studied using the out-diffusion method. Radiotracers (22)Na, (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (154)Eu were used; the first three are carrier-free enabling experimental work at sub-micromolar metal ion concentration, and Eu(III) tracer (154)Eu was used at sub millimolar concentration. An out-diffusion methodology, wherein a thin planar source of radioactivity placed between two clay columns diffuses out, was used to obtain the apparent diffusion coefficient (Da) values. This methodology enabled determination of diffusion coefficient even for strongly sorbing (154)Eu. Da values for (22)Na, (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (154)Eu were 2.35 (±0.14) × 10(-11), 2.65 (±0.09) × 10(-12), 3.32 (±0.15) × 10(-11) and 1.23 (±0.15) × 10(-13) m(2) s(-1), respectively. Da values were found to be in fair agreement with literature data reported for similar mineralogical sediments. Sorption of radionuclides on the clay was also determined in the present study and differences in Da values were rationalized on the basis of sorption data. Distribution ratios (Kd) for Cs(I) and Eu(III) were higher than that for Sr(II), which in turn was higher than that for Na(I). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phosphorylation of rat kidney Na-K pump at Ser938 is required for rapid angiotensin II-dependent stimulation of activity and trafficking in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Massey, Katherine J; Li, Quanwen; Rossi, Noreen F; Keezer, Susan M; Mattingly, Raymond R; Yingst, Douglas R

    2016-02-01

    How angiotensin (ANG) II acutely stimulates the Na-K pump in proximal tubules is only partially understood, limiting insight into how ANG II increases blood pressure. First, we tested whether ANG II increases the number of pumps in plasma membranes of native rat proximal tubules under conditions of rapid activation. We found that exposure to 100 pM ANG II for 2 min, which was previously shown to increase affinity of the Na-K pump for Na and stimulate activity threefold, increased the amount of the Na-K pump in plasma membranes of native tubules by 33%. Second, we tested whether previously observed increases in phosphorylation of the Na-K pump at Ser(938) were part of the stimulatory mechanism. These experiments were carried out in opossum kidney cells, cultured proximal tubules stably coexpressing the ANG type 1 (AT1) receptor, and either wild-type or a S938A mutant of rat kidney Na-K pump under conditions found by others to stimulate activity. We found that 10 min of incubation in 10 pM ANG II stimulated activity of wild-type pumps from 2.3 to 3.5 nmol K · mg protein(-1) · min(-1) and increased the amount of the pump in the plasma membrane by 80% but had no effect on cells expressing the S938A mutant. We conclude that acute stimulation of Na-K pump activity in native rat proximal tubules includes increased trafficking to the plasma membrane and that phosphorylation at Ser(938) is part of the mechanism by which ANG II directly stimulates activity and trafficking of the rat kidney Na-K pump in opossum kidney cells.

  8. Phosphorylation of rat kidney Na-K pump at Ser938 is required for rapid angiotensin II-dependent stimulation of activity and trafficking in proximal tubule cells

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Katherine J.; Li, Quanwen; Rossi, Noreen F.; Keezer, Susan M.; Mattingly, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    How angiotensin (ANG) II acutely stimulates the Na-K pump in proximal tubules is only partially understood, limiting insight into how ANG II increases blood pressure. First, we tested whether ANG II increases the number of pumps in plasma membranes of native rat proximal tubules under conditions of rapid activation. We found that exposure to 100 pM ANG II for 2 min, which was previously shown to increase affinity of the Na-K pump for Na and stimulate activity threefold, increased the amount of the Na-K pump in plasma membranes of native tubules by 33%. Second, we tested whether previously observed increases in phosphorylation of the Na-K pump at Ser938 were part of the stimulatory mechanism. These experiments were carried out in opossum kidney cells, cultured proximal tubules stably coexpressing the ANG type 1 (AT1) receptor, and either wild-type or a S938A mutant of rat kidney Na-K pump under conditions found by others to stimulate activity. We found that 10 min of incubation in 10 pM ANG II stimulated activity of wild-type pumps from 2.3 to 3.5 nmol K·mg protein−1·min−1 and increased the amount of the pump in the plasma membrane by 80% but had no effect on cells expressing the S938A mutant. We conclude that acute stimulation of Na-K pump activity in native rat proximal tubules includes increased trafficking to the plasma membrane and that phosphorylation at Ser938 is part of the mechanism by which ANG II directly stimulates activity and trafficking of the rat kidney Na-K pump in opossum kidney cells. PMID:26582472

  9. FT-IR and XRD analysis of natural Na-bentonite and Cu(II)-loaded Na-bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhirong, Liu; Azhar Uddin, Md.; Zhanxue, Sun

    2011-09-01

    Na-bentonite has been studied extensively because of its strong adsorption capacity and complexation ability. In this work, surface area, total pore volume, mean pore diameter, TG, DTA, FT-IR and XRD were carried out in order to reveal the characteristics of natural Na-bentonite. XRD and FT-IR of natural Na-bentonite (China) and Cu-loaded Na-bentonite as a function of Na-bentonite dosage and temperature using batch technique were characterized in detail, respectively.

  10. FT-IR and XRD analysis of natural Na-bentonite and Cu(II)-loaded Na-bentonite.

    PubMed

    Zhirong, Liu; Azhar Uddin, Md; Zhanxue, Sun

    2011-09-01

    Na-bentonite has been studied extensively because of its strong adsorption capacity and complexation ability. In this work, surface area, total pore volume, mean pore diameter, TG, DTA, FT-IR and XRD were carried out in order to reveal the characteristics of natural Na-bentonite. XRD and FT-IR of natural Na-bentonite (China) and Cu-loaded Na-bentonite as a function of Na-bentonite dosage and temperature using batch technique were characterized in detail, respectively.

  11. Water and NaCl intake of chicks as mediated by angiotensin II, renin, or salt deficiency.

    PubMed

    Volmert, R F; Firman, J D

    1991-11-01

    Water, feed and NaCl intakes were measured in response to angiotensin II (ANGII) injected SC and ICV, and renin injected ICV, as well as to dietary salt deficiency in female broiler chicks (Gallus domesticus). In the first experiment, SC (100 micrograms/bird) and ICV (10 micrograms/bird) ANGII injection resulted in increased initial water intake. An additive effect on drinking was noted in response to consecutive daily SC injections. In addition, feed efficiency and growth were depressed following repeated ANGII injections (p less than 0.001). In a 2nd experiment, ICV ANGII stimulated increased cumulative water intake through 18 hours postinjection (p less than 0.05). Intake of 3.0% NaCl solution and feed was unaffected through 48 hours. Renin (1 microgram ICV) failed to affect cumulative water intake up to 48 hours postinjection. In the third experiment, dietary salt deficiency reduced feed intake after just 48 hours on salt-deficient diets (p less than 0.01), and growth and feed efficiency were significantly impaired (p less than 0.001) through 20 days of age. Intakes of NaCl solutions (0.8, 0.7 or 0.6%), however, were unaffected in salt-deficient vs. control birds. While the chicks in these experiments demonstrated a consistent drinking response to ANGII when injected peripherally or centrally, a salt appetite could not be elicited in these birds by components of the renin-angiotensin system or by dietary salt depletion.

  12. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  13. Ca II AND Na I QUASAR ABSORPTION-LINE SYSTEMS IN AN EMISSION-SELECTED SAMPLE OF SDSS DR7 GALAXY/QUASAR PROJECTIONS. I. SAMPLE SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cherinka, B.; Schulte-Ladbeck, R. E.

    2011-10-15

    The aim of this project is to identify low-redshift host galaxies of quasar absorption-line systems by selecting galaxies that are seen in projection onto quasar sightlines. To this end, we use the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to construct a parent sample of 97,489 galaxy/quasar projections at impact parameters of up to 100 kpc to the foreground galaxy. We then search the quasar spectra for absorption-line systems of Ca II and Na I within {+-}500 km s{sup -1} of the galaxy's velocity. This yields 92 Ca II and 16 Na I absorption systems. We find that most of the Ca II and Na I systems are sightlines through the Galactic disk, through high-velocity cloud complexes in our halo, or Virgo Cluster sightlines. Placing constraints on the absorption line rest equivalent width significance ({>=}3.0{sigma}), the local standard of rest velocity along the sightline ({>=}345 km s{sup -1}), and the ratio of the impact parameter to the galaxy optical radius ({<=}5.0), we identify four absorption-line systems that are associated with low-redshift galaxies at high confidence, consisting of two Ca II systems (one of which also shows Na I) and two Na I systems. These four systems arise in blue, {approx}L*{sub r} galaxies. Tables of the 108 absorption systems are provided to facilitate future follow-up.

  14. Precursor routes to quaternary intermetallics: Synthesis, crystal structure, and physical properties of clathrate-II Cs8Na16Al24Si112

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Kaya; Dong, Yongkwan; Nolas, George S.

    2016-05-01

    A new quaternary clathrate-II composition, Cs8Na16Al24Si112, was synthesized by kinetically controlled thermal decomposition (KCTD) employing both NaSi and NaAlSi as the precursors and CsCl as a reactive flux. The crystal structure and composition of Cs8Na16Al24Si112 were investigated using both Rietveld refinement and elemental analysis, and the temperature dependent transport properties were investigated. Our results indicate that KCTD with multiple precursors is an effective method for the synthesis of multinary inorganic phases that are not easily accessible by traditional solid-state synthesis or crystal growth techniques.

  15. Intracellular signaling in the regulation of renal Na-K-ATPase. II. Role of eicosanoids.

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, T; Cohen, H T; Katz, A I

    1993-01-01

    We recently reported a novel intracellular mechanism of renal Na-K-ATPase regulation by agents that increase cell cAMP, which involves protein kinase A-phospholipase A2 and is mediated by one or more arachidonic acid metabolites (Satoh, T., H. T. Cohen, and A. I. Katz. 1992. J. Clin. Invest. 89:1496). The present studies were, therefore, designed to assess the role of eicosanoids in the modulation of Na-K-ATPase activity in the rat cortical collecting duct. The effect of various cAMP agonists (dopamine, fenoldopam, vasopressin, forskolin, and dibutyryl cAMP), which inhibited the pump to a similar extent (approximately 50%), was independent of altered Na entry as it was elicited in the presence of amiloride or nystatin, or when NaCl was replaced with choline Cl. This effect was completely blocked by SKF 525A or ethoxyresorufin, two inhibitors of the cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase pathway, or by pretreating the animals with CoCl2, which depletes cytochrome P450. Equimolar concentrations (10(-7) M) of the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin or meclofenamate caused only a partial inhibition of the cAMP agonists' effect on the pump, whereas nordihydroguaiaretic acid or A 63162, two inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, were without effect. Furthermore, two products of this pathway, leukotriene B4 and leukotriene D4, had no effect on Na-K-ATPase activity, and ICI 198615, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, did not alter pump inhibition by cAMP agonists. Several P450 monoxygenase arachidonic acid metabolites (5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid; 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid; 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid; and 12(R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) as well as PGE2 inhibited the Na:K pump in dose-dependent manner, but the effect of PGE2 was blocked when Na availability was altered, whereas that of 12(R)-HETE remained unchanged. We conclude that the cytochrome P450-monooxygenase pathway of the arachidonic acid cascade plays a major role in the modulation of Na

  16. BASS-II Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-02

    Image taken on card 8 during BASS-II flame test session with reduced O2 partial pressure. Session conducted on GMT 213. The Burning and Suppression of Solids - II (BASS-II) investigation examines the burning and extinction characteristics of a wide variety of fuel samples in microgravity. The BASS-II experiment will guide strategies for materials flammability screening for use in spacecraft as well as provide valuable data on solid fuel burning behavior in microgravity. BASS-II results contribute to the combustion computational models used in the design of fire detection and suppression systems in microgravity and on Earth.

  17. Double knockout of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) causes salt wasting and volume depletion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Barone, Sharon; Brooks, Mary-Beth; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2013-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter NCC and the Cl(-)/HCO3(-)exchanger pendrin are expressed on apical membranes of distal cortical nephron segments and mediate salt absorption, with pendrin working in tandem with the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) and the Na(+)-dependent chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE), whereas NCC is working by itself. A recent study showed that NCC and pendrin compensate for loss of each other under basal conditions, therefore masking the role that each plays in salt reabsorption. Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII, CA2 or CAR2) plays an important role in acid-base transport and salt reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule and acid-base transport in the collecting duct. Animals with CAII deletion show remodeling of intercalated cells along with the downregulation of pendrin. NCC KO mice on the other hand show significant upregulation of pendrin and ENaC. Neither model shows any significant salt wasting under baseline conditions. We hypothesized that the up-regulation of pendrin is essential for the prevention of salt wasting in NCC KO mice. To test this hypothesis, we generated NCC/CAII double KO (dKO) mice by crossing mice with single deletion of NCC and CAII. The NCC/CAII dKO mice displayed significant downregulation of pendrin, along with polyuria and salt wasting. As a result, the dKO mice developed volume depletion, which was associated with the inability to concentrate urine. We conclude that the upregulation of pendrin is essential for the prevention of salt and water wasting in NCC deficient animals and its downregulation or inactivation will result in salt wasting, impaired water conservation and volume depletion in the setting of NCC inactivation or inhibition. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Ouabain binding in tadpole ventral skin II. Localization of Na pump sites

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.H.; Mills, J.W. )

    1987-09-01

    By use of ({sup 3}H)ouabain autoradiography, the distribution of ouabain binding sites in the tadpole ventral skin and the change in the pattern of binding during metamorphosis were examined. In the tadpole the greatest grain density, one hence density of Na pumps, was found in the outer one-third of the epidermis. The pattern of binding changed at stage 20 to a homogeneous distribution. At stage 21 the highest grain density was in the middle third of the epidermis. The adult-like pattern of binding, with the highest density in the serosal two-thirds of the epidermis, was noted at stages 22 and 23. The average grain density through the entire tissue is {approximately}2.4-fold higher in the stage 23 animal than in the tadpole with the significant increase in density occurring between stages 20 and 21. Since the adult Na transport characteristics are also not fully developed until stage 22, it is proposed that the development of the Na-pump characteristics is coincident with the development of other adult transport properties.

  19. Optical studies of interstellar material in low density regions of the Galaxy. I - A survey of interstellar Na I and Ca II absorption toward 57 distant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembach, K. R.; Danks, A. C.; Savage, B. D.

    1993-01-01

    We present high-resolution spectra of the Na I D and Ca II K lines toward 57 late-O and early-B stars along extended (d greater than 1 kpc) low-density paths through the Milky Way disk and halo. The sight lines preferentially sample diffuse gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) along interarm, Galactic center, and high latitude directions. We measure equivalent widths, apparent column densities, and absorption component structure. The Ca II to Na I ratios presented as a function of velocity for each sight line exhibit variations due to elemental depletion, ionization, and density enhancements. Absorption along high latitude sight lines is kinematically simpler than it is along interarm and Galactic center sight lines. Galactic rotation noticeably broadens the absorption profiles of distant stars located in these latter directions. Along several sight lines, we see Ca II absorption at velocities corresponding to large distances (/z/ about 1 kpc) from the Galactic plane. The effects of differences in the Ca II and Na I scale heights and nonzero velocity dispersions are readily apparent in the data. Brief notes are given for several sight lines with interesting absorption properties.

  20. Photosensitization of HNS II

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoton, N.O.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of photosensitization of HNS II was evaluated using an electrically driven flyer in vacuum, air and xenon. Preliminary experiments, without HNS II acceptors, indicated increased ultraviolet light generation by the flyer in argon, krypton and xenon atmospheres relative to air while no ultraviolet light was detectable in vacuum. HNS II initiation threshold tests in vacuum, air and xenon showed only a slight difference in threshold level between air and vacuum, and a higher threshold level in xenon. Thus no relationship was evident from these tests between ultraviolet energy level and the initiation sensitivity of HNS II.

  1. Role of the Na+/H+ exchanger 3 in angiotensin II-induced hypertension in NHE3-deficient mice with transgenic rescue of NHE3 in small intestines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao C; Shull, Gary E; Miguel-Qin, Elisa; Chen, Fang; Zhuo, Jia L

    2015-01-01

    The role of Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) in the kidney in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension remains unknown. The present study used global NHE3-deficient mice with transgenic rescue of the Nhe3 gene in small intestines (tgNhe3−/−) to test the hypothesis that genetic deletion of NHE3 selectively in the kidney attenuates ANG II-induced hypertension. Six groups of wild-type (tgNhe3+/+) and tgNhe3−/− mice were infused with either vehicle or ANG II (1.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks, or 10 nmol/min, i.v., 30 min), treated with or without losartan (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 2 weeks. Basal systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean intra-arterial blood pressure (MAP) were significantly lower in tgNhe3−/− mice (P < 0.01). Basal glomerular filtration rate, 24 h urine excretion, urinary Na+ excretion, urinary K+ excretion, and urinary Cl− excretion were significantly lower in tgNhe3−/− mice (P < 0.01). These responses were associated with significantly elevated plasma ANG II and aldosterone levels, and marked upregulation in aquaporin 1, the Na+/HCO3 cotransporter, the α1 subunit isoform of Na+/K+-ATPase, protein kinase Cα, MAP kinases ERK1/2, and glycogen synthase kinase 3 α/β in the renal cortex of tgNhe3−/− mice (P < 0.01). ANG II infusion markedly increased SBP and MAP and renal cortical transporter and signaling proteins in tgNhe3+/+, as expected, but all of these responses to ANG II were attenuated in tgNhe3−/− mice (P < 0.01). These results suggest that NHE3 in the kidney is necessary for maintaining normal blood pressure and fully developing ANG II-dependent hypertension. PMID:26564064

  2. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  3. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  4. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  5. Common molecular determinants of tarantula huwentoxin-IV inhibition of Na+ channel voltage sensors in domains II and IV.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yucheng; Jackson, James O; Liang, Songping; Cummins, Theodore R

    2011-08-05

    The voltage sensors of domains II and IV of sodium channels are important determinants of activation and inactivation, respectively. Animal toxins that alter electrophysiological excitability of muscles and neurons often modify sodium channel activation by selectively interacting with domain II and inactivation by selectively interacting with domain IV. This suggests that there may be substantial differences between the toxin-binding sites in these two important domains. Here we explore the ability of the tarantula huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV) to inhibit the activity of the domain II and IV voltage sensors. HWTX-IV is specific for domain II, and we identify five residues in the S1-S2 (Glu-753) and S3-S4 (Glu-811, Leu-814, Asp-816, and Glu-818) regions of domain II that are crucial for inhibition of activation by HWTX-IV. These data indicate that a single residue in the S3-S4 linker (Glu-818 in hNav1.7) is crucial for allowing HWTX-IV to interact with the other key residues and trap the voltage sensor in the closed configuration. Mutagenesis analysis indicates that the five corresponding residues in domain IV are all critical for endowing HWTX-IV with the ability to inhibit fast inactivation. Our data suggest that the toxin-binding motif in domain II is conserved in domain IV. Increasing our understanding of the molecular determinants of toxin interactions with voltage-gated sodium channels may permit development of enhanced isoform-specific voltage-gating modifiers.

  6. PROBING OUR HELIOSPHERIC HISTORY. I. HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF Na I AND Ca II ALONG THE SOLAR HISTORICAL TRAJECTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, Katherine; Redfield, Seth E-mail: sredfield@wesleyan.edu

    2013-08-20

    Over the course of its motion through the Galaxy, our solar system has encountered many interstellar environments of varying characteristics. Interstellar medium (ISM) density variations spanning seven orders of magnitude are commonly seen throughout the general Galactic environment, and a sufficiently dense cloud within this range has the potential to dramatically alter the structure of the heliosphere. We present observations of the ISM environments the Sun has most recently encountered based on high-resolution optical spectra toward nearby stars in the direction of the historical solar trajectory. The data were obtained with the highest-resolution spectrographs available, including the Tull Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory and the Ultra-High-Resolution Facility on the Anglo-Australian Telescope at the Anglo-Australian Observatory. Observations were made of interstellar Na I and Ca II doublet absorption toward 43 bright stars within {approx}500 pc. No absorption is seen out to a distance of 120 pc (consistent with the outer boundary of the Local Bubble), but a complex collection of absorbers is seen in stars beyond 120 pc. While common absorbers are consistently seen in most sight lines, significant spatial variation is also detected, even between closely spaced sight lines. This pervasive evidence of small-scale structure not only speaks to the complexity of the morphology or physical properties of the gas in the ISM, but also emphasizes that dramatic structural changes to the heliosphere are common and it is important to understand the implications of such changes, such as the modulation in the cosmic ray flux, on planets.

  7. Probing Our Heliospheric History. I. High-resolution Observations of Na I and Ca II along the Solar Historical Trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Katherine; Redfield, Seth

    2013-08-01

    Over the course of its motion through the Galaxy, our solar system has encountered many interstellar environments of varying characteristics. Interstellar medium (ISM) density variations spanning seven orders of magnitude are commonly seen throughout the general Galactic environment, and a sufficiently dense cloud within this range has the potential to dramatically alter the structure of the heliosphere. We present observations of the ISM environments the Sun has most recently encountered based on high-resolution optical spectra toward nearby stars in the direction of the historical solar trajectory. The data were obtained with the highest-resolution spectrographs available, including the Tull Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory and the Ultra-High-Resolution Facility on the Anglo-Australian Telescope at the Anglo-Australian Observatory. Observations were made of interstellar Na I and Ca II doublet absorption toward 43 bright stars within ~500 pc. No absorption is seen out to a distance of 120 pc (consistent with the outer boundary of the Local Bubble), but a complex collection of absorbers is seen in stars beyond 120 pc. While common absorbers are consistently seen in most sight lines, significant spatial variation is also detected, even between closely spaced sight lines. This pervasive evidence of small-scale structure not only speaks to the complexity of the morphology or physical properties of the gas in the ISM, but also emphasizes that dramatic structural changes to the heliosphere are common and it is important to understand the implications of such changes, such as the modulation in the cosmic ray flux, on planets.

  8. Effect of NaCl, myoglobin, Fe(II), and Fe(III) on lipid oxidation of raw and cooked chicken breast and beef loin.

    PubMed

    Min, Byungrok; Cordray, Joseph C; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2010-01-13

    Chicken breast and beef loin were ground, and no, NaCl, NaCl+myoglobin, NaCl+Fe(II), or NaCl+Fe(III) additions were made; patties were then prepared. Half of the patties were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4 degrees C for 10 days, and the other half were cooked in a 95 degrees C water bath to an internal temperature of 75 degrees C, packaged in oxygen-permeable zipper bags, and stored at 4 degrees C for 7 days. The oxidative stability of raw and cooked chicken breast and beef loin were determined during storage. Chicken breast was more resistant to various exogenous oxidative factors than beef loin: addition of NaCl did not increase TBARS values and nonheme content of raw chicken breast, but significantly increased those of raw beef loin patties during storage. Addition of NaCl+Mb did not affect lipid oxidation in raw chicken breast patties, but decreased the TBARS of beef loin during storage. Addition of NaCl+Fe(III) or NaCl+Fe(II) increased the TBARS values of both raw chicken breast and beef loin during storage, but the increase was greater in beef loin than in chicken breast. The TBARS values of all cooked chicken breast and beef loin increased during 7 days of storage, but the increases in cooked chicken patties were significantly smaller than those of cooked beef loin patties with the same treatments. Addition of NaCl and cooking caused severe degradation of myoglobin, leading to a significant increase in free ionic iron content in beef loin. It is suggested that free ionic iron is the major catalyst for lipid oxidation, and the low "storage-stable and heat-stable" ferric ion reducing capacity in chicken breast were responsible for the high oxidative stability for raw and cooked chicken breast compared with beef loin under prooxidants, cooking, and storage conditions.

  9. Free energy of formation for green rust sodium sulphate (NaFe II6Fe III3(OH) 18(SO 4) 2(s))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davesne, E.; Dideriksen, K.; Christiansen, B. C.; Sonne, M.; Ayala-Luis, K. B.; Koch, C. Bender; Hansen, H. C. B.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2010-11-01

    In a recent study, sulphate-bearing green rust (GR) was shown to incorporate Na + in its structure (NaFe II6Fe III3(OH) 18(SO 4) 2(s); GR). The compound was synthesised by aerial oxidation of Fe(OH) 2(s) in the presence of NaOH. This paper reports on its free energy of formation (ΔGf0). Freshly synthesised GR was titrated with 0.5 M H 2SO 4 in an inert atmosphere at 25 °C, producing dissolved Fe 2+ and magnetite or goethite. Solution concentrations, PHREEQC and the MINTEQ database were used to calculate reaction constants for the reactions: 2NaFeII6 FeIII3 (OH)18(SO)+12H+(aq) ⇆9Fe2+(aq) +2Na+(aq) +4SO42-(aq) +3FeFeIII2 O+24HO,K=10 and NaFeII6 FeIII3 (OH)18(SO)+9H(aq)+⇆6Fe2+(aq) +Na+(aq) +2SO42-(aq) +3α-FeOOH+12HO,K=10. From the determined equilibrium constants and published ΔGf0 values for the other compounds, we derived ΔGf0 = -6366 ± 18 kJ/mol for anhydrous GR. The solubility product at 25 °C and atmospheric pressure is K = 10 -210.5±3.2. It is not yet known if the extent of Na + incorporation in GR depends on formation pathway; it cannot be excluded that both Na-free GR and GR exist. If so, uncertainty in ΔGf0 determined from acid titration is such that the EH-pH stability fields of the two phases are statistically indistinguishable for Na + concentrations as low as ˜30 μM (2 SD level; 0.036 M SO 42- concentration). In sea water, where Na + and SO 42- concentrations are high, but soluble Fe 2+ is low, GR is expected to form where local conditions increase concentration gradients, such as for corrosion of metallic iron and steel. Another example of an environment that would provide GR-favourable conditions is a degrading concrete and steel radioactive waste storage facility, where groundwater is saline. Green rust is a well-known sink for redox-active trace components, making it a compound that should be considered in risk assessment modelling of groundwater quality. Phase stability is critical in such simulations.

  10. Belle II production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi

    2015-12-01

    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  11. FIRE II Cirrus Info

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-03-18

    ... Page:  FIRE II Main Grouping:  Cirrus Description:  First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Data Products:  Cirrus ...

  12. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    ... side effects include: Dizziness Elevated blood potassium level (hyperkalemia) Localized swelling of tissues (angioedema) There have been ... 31, 2016. Townsend RR. Major side effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers. http://www.uptodate. ...

  13. Mod II engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karl, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The Mod II engine, a four-cylinder, automotive Stirling engine utilizing the Siemens-Rinia double-acting concept, was assembled and became operational in January 1986. This paper describes the Mod II engine, its first assembly, and the subsequent development work done on engine components up to the point that engine performance characterization testing took place. Performance data for the engine are included.

  14. START II and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, J.

    1996-10-01

    The second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II), signed by President George Bush and Russian President Boris yeltsin in January 1993, was ratified by the US Senate in January 1996 by and overwhelming vote of 87-4. The treaty, which will slash the strategic arsenals of the United States and Russia to 3,000-3,500 warheads each, is now before the two houses of the Russian Parliament (the Duma and the Federation Council) awaiting ratification amidst confusion and criticism. The Yeltsin administration supports START II and spoke in favor of Russian ratification after the Senate acted on the treaty. The Russian foreign minister and the Russian military believed that START II should be ratified as soon as possible. During the recent presidential campaign and his subsequent illness, President Yeltsin has been virtually silent on the subject of START II and nuclear force reductions. Without a push from the Yeltsin administration, the tone among Duma members, has been sharply critical of START II. Voices across the Russian political spectrum have questioned the treaty and linked it to constraints on highly capable theater missile defense (TMD) systems and the continued viability of the ABM Treaty. And urged that START II ratification be held hostage until NATO abandons its plans to expand eastward. Although the START I and START II accords have generated the momentum, opportunity and expectation-both domestic and international-for additional nuclear arms reductions, the current impasse over ratification in the Duma has cast a shadow over the future of START II and raised questions about the chances for any follow-on (START III) agreement.

  15. Mod II engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karl, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The Mod II engine, a four-cylinder, automotive Stirling engine utilizing the Siemens-Rinia double-acting concept, was assembled and became operational in January 1986. This paper describes the Mod II engine, its first assembly, and the subsequent development work done on engine components up to the point that engine performance characterization testing took place. Performance data for the engine are included.

  16. Angiotensin II-stimulated Ca2+ entry mechanisms in afferent arterioles: role of transient receptor potential canonical channels and reverse Na+/Ca2+ exchange.

    PubMed

    Fellner, Susan K; Arendshorst, William J

    2008-01-01

    In afferent arterioles, the signaling events that lead to an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and initiation of vascular contraction are increasingly being delineated. We have recently studied angiotensin II (ANG II)-mediated effects on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) mobilization of Ca(2+) and the role of superoxide and cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose in these processes. In the current study we investigated the participation of transient receptor potential canonical channels (TRPC) and a Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) in Ca(2+) entry mechanisms. Afferent arterioles, isolated with the magnetized polystyrene bead method, were loaded with fura-2 to measure [Ca(2+)](i) ratiometrically. We observed that the Ca(2+)-dependent chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (10 and 50 microM) affects neither the peak nor plateau [Ca(2+)](i) response to ANG II. Arterioles were pretreated with ryanodine (100 microM) and TMB-8 to block SR mobilization via the ryanodine receptor and inositol trisphosphate receptor, respectively. The peak [Ca(2+)](i) response to ANG II was reduced by 40%. Addition of 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borane to block TRPC-mediated Ca(2+) entry inhibited the peak [Ca(2+)](i) ANG II response by 80% and the plateau by 74%. Flufenamic acid (FFA; 50 microM), which stimulates TRPC6, caused a sustained increase of [Ca(2+)](i) of 146 nM. This response was unaffected by diltiazem or nifedipine. KB-R7943 (at the low concentration of 10 microM) inhibits reverse (but not forward) mode NCX. KB-R7943 decreased the peak [Ca(2+)](i) response to ANG II by 48% and to FFA by 38%. We conclude that TRPC6 and reverse-mode NCX may be important Ca(2+) entry pathways in afferent arterioles.

  17. Na(I)/Cu(I-II) heterometallic cages interconnected by unusual linear 2-coordinate OCN-Cu(I)-NCO links: synthesis, structural, magnetostructural correlation and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Ray, Aurkie; Rosair, Georgina M; Rajeev, Ramanan; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Rentschler, Eva; Mitra, Samiran

    2009-11-21

    A new Na(I)/Cu(I-II) heterometallic coordination complex [Cu(2)L(2)Na(NCO)(2)Cu](n) (1) with an unusual architecture has been synthesised. In 1 cyclic Na-O-Cu-O-Cu cages constructed by the tetradentate N(2)O(2) donor Schiff base ligand (H(2)L = N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyacetophenone)propylenediimine) are interconnected to each other by a rare singly end-to-end bridged OCN-Cu(I)-NCO link generating 1D chain. The complex has been characterised by elemental, spectral and structural analysis. The cyclic voltammogram of 1 has been compared with the analogous complexes. Cryomagnetic susceptibility studies indicate the copper(II) centers in the cyclic Na-O-Cu-O-Cu cages are antiferromagnetically coupled with J = -13.8 cm(-1). Complex 1 is a new addition to a class of rare singly end-to-end cyanato bridged copper(I) species and interestingly the copper ions involved in OCN-Cu(I)-NCO links possess a linear 2-coordinate geometry. Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to gain additional insights into the metal and ligand orbitals participating in this unusual structure.

  18. Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of Na 9Co 2O 7, a new mixed-valent sodium cobaltate(II,III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofin, M.; Peters, E.-M.; Jansen, M.

    2004-04-01

    Na 9Co 2O 7 was prepared via the azide/nitrate route. Stoichiometric mixtures of the precursors (Co 3O 4, NaN 3 and NaNO 3) were heated in a special regime up to 450 °C and annealed at this temperature for 100 h in specially designed silver containers. Single crystals have been grown by annealing a Na 2O/Na 9Co 2O 7 mixture (molar ratio 1:2) at 500 °C for 2000 h in silver crucibles, which were sealed in glass ampoules under dried Ar. According to the X-ray analysis of the crystal structure ( Pca2 1, Z=4, a=9.5477(6) Å, b=9.9040(6) Å, c=10.1919(7) Å, 4103 independent reflections, R1=5.23% (all data)) there are isolated Co IIIO 4 tetrahedra and Co IIO 3 triangles. Na 9Co 2O 7 is isostructural to Na 9Fe 2O 7, and shows Curie-Weiss behaviour down to ˜25 K. The best fit (for Co II ( S=3/2) and Co III ( S=2)) yields an average value of the magnetic moment (per cobalt) μ=3.23 μB ( g=2.07) and Θ=-6 K. At 20 K one observes an onset of ferromagnetic order.

  19. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  20. Keck II status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gerald M.

    1997-03-01

    The second of two 10-meter telescopes comprising the W. M. Keck Observatory is nearing completion. Functionally, the Keck II telescope is a twin of Keck I, but in detail, many improvements have been made. Observatory and scientific instrument budgets are presented for the two telescopes. A new software system was developed for Keck II using EPICS-based architecture. Computer architecture for Keck II was also completely changed from the Keck I design using VMS and VAX computers to UNIX and SUN computers. The new telescope is completely assembled on the site on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Design, construction, and testing of the Keck II telescope has taken significantly less time due to the experience and tools developed for the first telescope. An adaptive optics system is currently being developed for Keck II. Preliminary design of this system is complete and the system is expected to be commissioned in 1998. Configuration of the twin 10-meter telescopes was designed to allow combining of the optical beams from the two telescopes and to add smaller satellite telescopes for interferometry. Plans for this phase are being developed in detail.

  1. Topoisomerase II and leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Pendleton, MaryJean; Lindsey, R. Hunter; Felix, Carolyn A.; Grimwade, David; Osheroff, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that modulate DNA under- and overwinding, knotting, and tangling. Beyond their critical physiological functions, these enzymes are the targets for some of the most widely prescribed anticancer drugs (topoisomerase II poisons) in clinical use. Topoisomerase II poisons kill cells by increasing levels of covalent enzyme-cleaved DNA complexes that are normal reaction intermediates. Drugs such as etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone are frontline therapies for a variety of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Unfortunately, their use is also associated with the development of specific leukemias. Regimens that include etoposide or doxorubicin are linked to the occurrence of acute myeloid leukemias that feature rearrangements at chromosomal band 11q23. Similar rearrangements are seen in infant leukemias and are associated with gestational diets that are high in naturally occurring topoisomerase II–active compounds. Finally, regimens that include mitoxantrone and epirubicin are linked to acute promyelocytic leukemias that feature t(15;17) rearrangements. The first part of this article will focus on type II topoisomerases and describe the mechanism of enzyme and drug action. The second part will discuss how topoisomerase II poisons trigger chromosomal breaks that lead to leukemia and potential approaches for dissociating the actions of drugs from their leukemogenic potential. PMID:24495080

  2. Low dose ouabain stimulates NaK ATPase α1 subunit association with angiotensin II type 1 receptor in renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Ketchem, Corey J; Conner, Clayton D; Murray, Rebecca D; DuPlessis, Madalyn; Lederer, Eleanor D; Wilkey, Daniel; Merchant, Michael; Khundmiri, Syed J

    2016-11-01

    Our laboratory has recently demonstrated that low concentrations of ouabain increase blood pressure in rats associated with stimulation of NaK ATPase activity and activation of the Src signaling cascade in NHE1-dependent manner. Proteomic analysis of human kidney proximal tubule cells (HKC11) suggested that the Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) as an ouabain-associating protein. We hypothesize that ouabain-induced stimulation of NaK ATPase activity is mediated through AT1R. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of ouabain on renal cell angiotensin II production, the effect of AT1R inhibition on ouabain-stimulated NKA activity, and the effect of ouabain on NKA-AT1R association. Ouabain increased plasma angiotensin II levels in rats treated with ouabain (1μg/kg body wt./day) for 9days and increased angiotensin II levels in cell culture media after 24h treatment with ouabain in human (HKC11), mouse (MRPT), and human adrenal cells. Ouabain 10pM stimulated NKA-mediated (86)Rb uptake and phosphorylation of EGFR, Src, and ERK1/2. These effects were prevented by the AT1R receptor blocker candesartan. FRET and TIRF microscopy using Bodipy-labeled ouabain and mCherry-NKA or mCherry-AT1R demonstrated association of ouabain with AT1R and NKA. Further our FRET and TIRF studies demonstrated increased association between AT1R and NKA upon treatment with low dose ouabain. We conclude that ouabain stimulates NKA in renal proximal tubule cells through an angiotensin/AT1R-dependent mechanism and that this pathway contributes to cardiac glycoside associated hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  4. PEP-II Status

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.; Bertsche, K.; Browne, M.; Cai, Y.; Cheng, W.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fisher, A.S.; Fox, J.; Heifets, S.; Himel, T.; Iverson, R.; Kulikov, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Pacak, V.; Pivi, M.; Rivetta, C.; Ross, M.; /SLAC /Saclay /Frascati

    2008-07-25

    PEP-II and BaBar have just finished run 7, the last run of the SLAC B-factory. PEP-II was one of the few high-current e+e- colliding accelerators and holds the present world record for stored electrons and stored positrons. It has stored 2.07 A of electrons, nearly 3 times the design current of 0.75 A and it has stored 3.21 A of positrons, 1.5 times more than the design current of 2.14 A. High-current beams require careful design of several systems. The feedback systems that control instabilities, the RF system stability loops, and especially the vacuum systems have to handle the higher power demands. We present here some of the accomplishments of the PEP-II accelerator and some of the problems we encountered while running high-current beams.

  5. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  6. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  7. Standard rate constants of the charge transfer in the Cr(III)/Cr(II) redox couple in NaCl-KCl-CrCl3 and NaCl-KCl-K3CrF6 salt melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stulov, Yu. V.; Kuznetsov, S. A.

    2011-02-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is used to determine standard charge transfer rate constants k s for a glassycarbon electrode and the Cr(III)/Cr(II) redox couple in the NaCl-KCl-CrCl3 and NaCl-KCl-K3CrF6 systems in the temperature range 973-1173 K. It is shown that k s increases with the temperature and decreases when fluorine anions substitute for chlorine anions in the first coordination sphere of chromium complexes. The activation energies are calculated upon recharging of chromium ions. The results obtained are explained in terms of complexing in salt melts.

  8. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  9. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  10. Interaction of Tarantula Venom Peptide ProTx-II with Lipid Membranes Is a Prerequisite for Its Inhibition of Human Voltage-gated Sodium Channel NaV1.7.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Sónia Troeira; Deplazes, Evelyne; Lawrence, Nicole; Cheneval, Olivier; Chaousis, Stephanie; Inserra, Marco; Thongyoo, Panumart; King, Glenn F; Mark, Alan E; Vetter, Irina; Craik, David J; Schroeder, Christina I

    2016-08-12

    ProTx-II is a disulfide-rich peptide toxin from tarantula venom able to inhibit the human voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 (hNaV1.7), a channel reported to be involved in nociception, and thus it might have potential as a pain therapeutic. ProTx-II acts by binding to the membrane-embedded voltage sensor domain of hNaV1.7, but the precise peptide channel-binding site and the importance of membrane binding on the inhibitory activity of ProTx-II remain unknown. In this study, we examined the structure and membrane-binding properties of ProTx-II and several analogues using NMR spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show a direct correlation between ProTx-II membrane binding affinity and its potency as an hNaV1.7 channel inhibitor. The data support a model whereby a hydrophobic patch on the ProTx-II surface anchors the molecule at the cell surface in a position that optimizes interaction of the peptide with the binding site on the voltage sensor domain. This is the first study to demonstrate that binding of ProTx-II to the lipid membrane is directly linked to its potency as an hNaV1.7 channel inhibitor. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Interaction of Tarantula Venom Peptide ProTx-II with Lipid Membranes Is a Prerequisite for Its Inhibition of Human Voltage-gated Sodium Channel NaV1.7*

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Sónia Troeira; Deplazes, Evelyne; Lawrence, Nicole; Cheneval, Olivier; Chaousis, Stephanie; Inserra, Marco; Thongyoo, Panumart; King, Glenn F.; Mark, Alan E.; Vetter, Irina; Craik, David J.; Schroeder, Christina I.

    2016-01-01

    ProTx-II is a disulfide-rich peptide toxin from tarantula venom able to inhibit the human voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 (hNaV1.7), a channel reported to be involved in nociception, and thus it might have potential as a pain therapeutic. ProTx-II acts by binding to the membrane-embedded voltage sensor domain of hNaV1.7, but the precise peptide channel-binding site and the importance of membrane binding on the inhibitory activity of ProTx-II remain unknown. In this study, we examined the structure and membrane-binding properties of ProTx-II and several analogues using NMR spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show a direct correlation between ProTx-II membrane binding affinity and its potency as an hNaV1.7 channel inhibitor. The data support a model whereby a hydrophobic patch on the ProTx-II surface anchors the molecule at the cell surface in a position that optimizes interaction of the peptide with the binding site on the voltage sensor domain. This is the first study to demonstrate that binding of ProTx-II to the lipid membrane is directly linked to its potency as an hNaV1.7 channel inhibitor. PMID:27311819

  12. An ultraviolet melting study of the stability of the DNA double helix in the NaDNA-bipyridyl-(ethylenediamine)platintum(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Szabó, S; Lee, S A

    2008-08-01

    Complexes of NaDNA with the bipyridyl-(ethylenediamine)platintum(II) (abbreviated [(bipy)Pt(en)]2+) molecular ion have been studied in solution via ultraviolet absorption experiments at 260 nm between 50 and 90 degrees C. These measurements, performed as a function of the molar ratio of the [(bipy)Pt(en)]2+ complex to DNA base pairs, show that the stability of the DNA double helix is increased by the formation of the DNA.[(bipy)Pt(en)]2+ complex: at a molar ratio of 0.33, the temperature at which the DNA double helix separates into two single strands is increased by about 15 degrees C.

  13. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  14. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  15. Reflections on Excellence II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A.

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the book "Excellence II," the new version of "Excellence in Art Education: Ideas and Initiatives," by summarizing each of the nine chapters. Identifies the new features and/or discussions; in particular, the additions of two chapters, one on multiculturalism and cultural pluralism and another on modernism and postmodernism. (CMK)

  16. Instant Insanity II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tom; Young, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    "Instant Insanity II" is a sliding mechanical puzzle whose solution requires the special alignment of 16 colored tiles. We count the number of solutions of the puzzle's classic challenge and show that the more difficult ultimate challenge has, up to row permutation, exactly two solutions, and further show that no…

  17. A la Mode II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowe, Richard A.

    This paper describes two modes of educational decision-making: Mode I, in which the instructor makes such decisions as what to teach, to whom, when, in what order, at what pace, and at what complexity level; and Mode II, in which the learner makes the decisions. While Mode I comprises most of what is regarded as formal education, the learner in…

  18. Class II Microcins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean

    Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/­translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.

  19. Listen & Learn II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Building Resources, Spruce Grove (Alberta).

    Six community builders in Edmonton, Alberta, planned, developed, and implemented Listen and Learn II, a reflective research project in asset-based community building, over a 6-month period in 1998. They met regularly over 2 months to plan the research and design a method that was open to participation at any stage, encouraged exchange of…

  20. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the…

  1. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the…

  2. Instant Insanity II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tom; Young, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    "Instant Insanity II" is a sliding mechanical puzzle whose solution requires the special alignment of 16 colored tiles. We count the number of solutions of the puzzle's classic challenge and show that the more difficult ultimate challenge has, up to row permutation, exactly two solutions, and further show that no…

  3. Central Infusion of Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Agonist Compound 21 Attenuates DOCA/NaCl-Induced Hypertension in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Shu-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Peng, Wei; Shen, Ying; He, Jing-Jing

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether central activation of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2-R) attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/NaCl-induced hypertension in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats and whether female sex hormone status has influence on the effects of AT2-R activation. DOCA/NaCl elicited a greater increase in blood pressure in OVX females than that in intact females. Central infusion of compound 21, a specific AT2-R agonist, abolished DOCA/NaCl pressor effect in intact females, whereas same treatment in OVX females produced an inhibitory effect. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that DOCA/NaCl enhanced the mRNA expression of hypertensive components including AT1-R, ACE-1, and TNF-α in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus in both intact and OVX females. However, the mRNA expressions of antihypertensive components such as AT2-R, ACE-2, and IL-10 were increased only in intact females. Central AT2-R agonist reversed the changes in the hypertensive components in all females, while this agonist further upregulated the expression of ACE2 and IL-10 in intact females, but only IL-10 in OVX females. These results indicate that brain AT2-R activation plays an inhibitory role in the development of DOCA/NaCl-induced hypertension in females. This beneficial effect of AT2-R activation involves regulation of renin-angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:26783414

  4. Computing at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardi, Silvio; de Nardo, Guglielmo; Russo, Guido; Belle II computing Group

    2016-04-01

    The existence of large matter-antimatter asymmetry (CP violation) in the b-quark system as predicted in the Kobayashi-Maskawa theory was established by the B-Factory experiments, Belle and BaBar. However, this cannot explain the magnitude of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe we live in today. This indicates undiscovered new physics exists. The Belle II experiment, the next generation of the B-Factory, is expected to reveal the new physics by accumulating 50 times more data (˜ 50ab-1) than Belle by 2023. The Belle II computing system has to handle an amount of beam data eventually corresponding to several tens of PetaByte per year under an operation of the SuperKEKB accelerator with a designed instantaneous luminosity. Under this situation, it cannot be expected that one site, KEK, will be able to provide all computing resources for the whole Belle II collaboration including the resources not only for the raw data processing but also for the MC production and physics analysis done by users. In order to solve this problem, Belle II employed the distributed computing system based on DIRAC, which provides us the interoperability of heterogeneous computing systems such as grids with different middleware, clouds and the local computing clusters. Since the last year, we performed the MC mass production campaigns to confirm the feasibility and find out the possible bottleneck of our computing system. In parallel, we also started the data transfer challenge through the transpacific and transatlantic networks. This presentation describes the highlights of the Belle II computing and the current status. We will also present the experience of the latest MC production campaign in 2014.

  5. Inhibitory role of peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) on cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying-Hao; Kim, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Sang-Keun; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Moon, Eun-Yi

    2005-08-29

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in all oxygen-utilizing organisms. Peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) as one of antioxidant enzymes may play a protective role against the oxidative damage caused by ROS. In order to define the role of Prx II in organismal aging, we evaluated cellular senescence in Prx II(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF). As compared to wild type MEF, cellular senescence was accelerated in Prx II(-/-) MEF. Senescence-associated (SA)-beta-galactosidase (Gal)-positive cell formation was about 30% higher in Prx II(-/-) MEF. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment attenuated SA-beta-Gal-positive cell formation. Prx II(-/-) MEF exhibited the higher G2/M (41%) and lower S (1.6%) phase cells as compared to 24% and 7.3% [corrected] in wild type MEF, respectively. A high increase in the p16 and a slight increase in the p21 and p53 levels were detected in PrxII(-/-) MEF cells. The cellular senescence of Prx II(-/-) MEF was correlated with the organismal aging of Prx II(-/-) mouse skin. While extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 activation was detected in Prx II(-/-) MEF, ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was detected in Prx II(-/-) skin. These results suggest that Prx II may function as an enzymatic antioxidant to prevent cellular senescence and skin aging.

  6. Pyrophosphate-bridged Cu(II) chain magnet: {[Na3Cu(P2O7)(NO3)].3H2O}n.

    PubMed

    Sartoris, Rosana P; Santana, Ricardo C; Baggio, Ricardo F; Peña, Octavio; Perec, Mireille; Calvo, Rafael

    2010-06-21

    A Cu(II)...Cu(II) pyrophosphate-bridged compound of formula {[Na(3)Cu(P(2)O(7))(NO(3))].3H(2)O}(n) (1) has been characterized. X-ray diffraction measurements show that it crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/m, with unit cell dimensions a = 7.2492(5) A, b = 8.2446(6) A, c = 9.9050(7) A, beta = 107.123(1) degrees, and Z = 2. The structure consists of chains of Cu(II) cations at inversion symmetry sites bound to four equatorial oxygen atoms provided by two pyrophosphate anions halved by a symmetry plane and two axial oxygen atoms of nitrate anions. The molar magnetic susceptibility chi(0) of a powdered sample was measured in the temperature range 2 K < T < 273 K, and an isothermal magnetization curve, M(B(0),T), was obtained at T = 30 K, with the magnetic field B(0) between 0 and 5 T. Fitting a spin-chain model to the susceptibility data, we evaluate an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling 2J = -24.3(1) cm(-1) (defined as H(ex) = -2JS(i)S(j)) between Cu(II) neighbors. For any orientation of B(0), single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra obtained at 9.8 and 33.9 GHz at 300 K display a single signal having a g matrix with orthorhombic symmetry, arising from the merger produced by the exchange interaction of the resonances corresponding to the two rotated Cu(II) sites. The g matrices of the individual molecules calculated assuming axial symmetry yielded principal values g(parallel) = 2.367(1) and g(perpendicular) = 2.074(1) at both frequencies, indicating a d(x(2)-y(2)) ground-state orbital for the Cu(II) ions. The angular variation of the EPR line width suggests exchange narrowing in a system with one-dimensional spin dynamics, as expected from the structure and susceptibility data. The results, discussed in terms of the crystal and electronic structures and of the spin dynamics of the compound, are compared with those obtained in other materials.

  7. A comparative gene analysis with rice identified orthologous group II HKT genes and their association with Na(+) concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Ariyarathna, H A Chandima K; Oldach, Klaus H; Francki, Michael G

    2016-01-19

    Although the HKT transporter genes ascertain some of the key determinants of crop salt tolerance mechanisms, the diversity and functional role of group II HKT genes are not clearly understood in bread wheat. The advanced knowledge on rice HKT and whole genome sequence was, therefore, used in comparative gene analysis to identify orthologous wheat group II HKT genes and their role in trait variation under different saline environments. The four group II HKTs in rice identified two orthologous gene families from bread wheat, including the known TaHKT2;1 gene family and a new distinctly different gene family designated as TaHKT2;2. A single copy of TaHKT2;2 was found on each homeologous chromosome arm 7AL, 7BL and 7DL and each gene was expressed in leaf blade, sheath and root tissues under non-stressed and at 200 mM salt stressed conditions. The proteins encoded by genes of the TaHKT2;2 family revealed more than 93% amino acid sequence identity but ≤52% amino acid identity compared to the proteins encoded by TaHKT2;1 family. Specifically, variations in known critical domains predicted functional differences between the two protein families. Similar to orthologous rice genes on chromosome 6L, TaHKT2;1 and TaHKT2;2 genes were located approximately 3 kb apart on wheat chromosomes 7AL, 7BL and 7DL, forming a static syntenic block in the two species. The chromosomal region on 7AL containing TaHKT2;1 7AL-1 co-located with QTL for shoot Na(+) concentration and yield in some saline environments. The differences in copy number, genes sequences and encoded proteins between TaHKT2;2 homeologous genes and other group II HKT gene families within and across species likely reflect functional diversity for ion selectivity and transport in plants. Evidence indicated that neither TaHKT2;2 nor TaHKT2;1 were associated with primary root Na(+) uptake but TaHKT2;1 may be associated with trait variation for Na(+) exclusion and yield in some but not all saline environments.

  8. [Studies on the liquid-liquid extraction behaviour of Co(II) and Ni(II) without organic solvents].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Deng, F; Shi, Y

    1998-06-01

    In PEG-Eriochrome cyanine R-(NH4)2SO4 system the liquid-liquid extraction behaviour of Co(II) and Ni(II) without organic solvents was investigated. We found that Ni(II) was almost extracted by PEG phase while Co(II) was not extracted in the water solutions of NaAc-HAc (pH=5) and (NH4)2SO4. Thus Co(II) was quantitatively separated from mixed solutions of Ni(II) and Co(II) ions.

  9. Successful closure of treatment-naïve, flat edge (Type II), full-thickness macular hole using inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nazimul; Hussain, Anjli

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to present the outcome of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling flap technique for a treatment-naïve, flat edge (Type II), full-thickness macular hole (MH). Methods A 52-year-old man presented with complaints of decreased vision and seeing black spot. He was diagnosed to have a flat edge, full-thickness MH, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). He underwent 23G vitrectomy with brilliant blue G-assisted inverted ILM peeling with an inverted flap over the hole followed by fluid gas exchange. Results Postoperative follow-up until 3 months showed successful closure of the MH, which was confirmed by OCT. The best-corrected visual acuity improved from baseline 6/60 to 6/12 at the final follow-up. Conclusion Using the inverted ILM flap technique, a treatment-naïve, flat edge (Type II), full thickness MH achieved successful anatomical and functional outcomes. PMID:27785110

  10. Na+,K+-ATPase activity and responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle to norepinephrine, angiotensin II and calcium ionophore A23187 in guinea pig aortic strips.

    PubMed

    Sekine, K; Yamakawa, K; Ogata, E

    1984-01-01

    The functional significance of the Na+,K+-ATPase activity in defining the sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle response to pressor stimuli was studied in guinea pig aortic strips. Subthreshold doses of ouabain (10(-8), 10(-7), 10(-6)M), potentiated the norepinephrine- and angiotensin II-induced contractile responses, dose-dependently. Furthermore, in the presence of subthreshold dose of ouabain (10(-6)M), tension developments were observed with subthreshold doses of norepinephrine and angiotensin II. The mechanism by which subthreshold dose of ouabain potentiated the norepinephrine-induced contractile response was revealed to involve the enhancement both of sensitivity and contractile activity. Ouabain (10(-6)M) potentiated the norepinephrine- and A23187-induced contractile responses, even in the presence of verapamil. These facts indicate that suppression of the vascular Na+,K+-ATPase activity could favor the development of hypertension through potentiating contractile responses to various stimuli and that the potentiation could be a reflection, at least partly, of the decrease in Ca2+-efflux.

  11. European Telecommunications Satellite II (EUTELSAT II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laemmel, G.; Brittinger, P.

    1991-01-01

    EUTELSAT II is a regional public telecommunications system for Europe. The services which will be provided are telephone and television. The satellites will be placed at a geostationary orbit within the arcs of 6 degrees east to 19 degrees east or 26 degrees to 36 degrees east. The designed lifetime is 7 years. After separation of the satellites from the launch vehicles, telemetry, telecommand, and ranging will be performed within the S-band frequencies. After positioning of the satellite at its final geostationary orbit, the Ku-band telecommunication equipment will be activated. From this time on, all satellite control operations will be performed in Ku-band. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the transfer and drift orbit mission phases. The coverage will consist of the 26-m antennas at Goldstone and Canberra as prime support for the transfer and drift orbits. Maximum support will consist of a 7-day period, plus 14 days of contingency support. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  12. Role of Bound Zn(II) in the CadC Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II)-Responsive Repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kandegedara, A.; Thiyagarajan, S; Kondapalli, K; Stemmler, T; Rosen, B

    2009-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 cadCA operon encodes a P-type ATPase, CadA, that confers resistance to Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II). Expression is regulated by CadC, a homodimeric repressor that dissociates from the cad operator/promoter upon binding of Cd(II), Pb(II), or Zn(II). CadC is a member of the ArsR/SmtB family of metalloregulatory proteins. The crystal structure of CadC shows two types of metal binding sites, termed Site 1 and Site 2, and the homodimer has two of each. Site 1 is the physiological inducer binding site. The two Site 2 metal binding sites are formed at the dimerization interface. Site 2 is not regulatory in CadC but is regulatory in the homologue SmtB. Here the role of each site was investigated by mutagenesis. Both sites bind either Cd(II) or Zn(II). However, Site 1 has higher affinity for Cd(II) over Zn(II), and Site 2 prefers Zn(II) over Cd(II). Site 2 is not required for either derepression or dimerization. The crystal structure of the wild type with bound Zn(II) and of a mutant lacking Site 2 was compared with the SmtB structure with and without bound Zn(II). We propose that an arginine residue allows for Zn(II) regulation in SmtB and, conversely, a glycine results in a lack of regulation by Zn(II) in CadC. We propose that a glycine residue was ancestral whether the repressor binds Zn(II) at a Site 2 like CadC or has no Site 2 like the paralogous ArsR and implies that acquisition of regulatory ability in SmtB was a more recent evolutionary event.

  13. Brazilian Participation in World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-15

    Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial (Brazil in War World II): In order to have personnel to perform the jobs of company commanders, it was necessary to...Branco, 136. 18Octavio Costa, Trinta Anos Depois da Volta. O Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial (Rio de Janeiro: Bibliex, 1976), 30. 46 19McCann...na Segunda Guerra Mundial . Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do Exército Editora, 1976. Dulles, John W. F. Vargas of Brazil: A Political Biography. Austin

  14. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  15. Results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66{sub -13}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73{sub -16}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup 5} (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69{sub -11}{sup +11} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  16. RADTRAN II user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M M; Wilmot, E L; Taylor, J M

    1983-02-01

    RADTRAN II is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population subgroups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Groundshine, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloudshine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN II can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable.

  17. High-pressure synthesis and structural characterization of the type II clathrate compound Na(30.5)Si(136) encapsulating two sodium atoms in the same silicon polyhedral cages.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Shoji; Komatsu, Masaya; Tanaka, Masashi; Sawa, Hiroshi; Inumaru, Kei

    2014-05-28

    Single crystals of sodium containing silicon clathrate compounds Na8Si46 (type I) and NaxSi136 (type II) were prepared from the mixtures of NaSi and Si under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of 5 GPa at 600-1000 °C. The type II crystals were obtained at relatively low-temperature conditions of 700-800 °C, which were found to have a Na excess composition Na30.5Si136 in comparison with the compounds NaxSi136 (x ≤ 24) obtained by a thermal decomposition of NaSi under vacuum. The single crystal study revealed that the Na excess type II compound crystallizes in space group Fd3̅m with a lattice parameter of a = 14.796(1) Å, slightly larger than that of the ambient phase (Na24Si136), and the large silicon hexakaidecahedral cages (@Si28) are occupied by two sodium atoms disordered in the two 32e sites around the center of the @Si28 cages. At temperatures <90 K, the crystal symmetry of the compound changes from the face-centered to the primitive cell with space group P213, and the Na atoms in the @Si28 cages are aligned as Na2 pairs. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of Na30.5Si136 suggests that the two Na ions (2 Na(+)) in the cage are changed to a Na2 molecule. The Na atoms of Na30.5Si136 can be deintercalated from the cages topochemically by evacuation at elevated temperatures. The single crystal study of the deintercalated phases NaxSi136 (x = 25.5 and 5.5) revealed that only excess Na atoms have disordered arrangements.

  18. FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-26

    FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) II Cirrus was conducted in southeastern Kansas. It was designed to improve the ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Relevant Documents:  FIRE ...

  19. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... is most often with a tumor called a pheochromocytoma . Involvement of the thyroid gland is most often ...

  20. Marine Resiliency Study II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-06

    the Army Study of Risk and Resilience (Army STARRS) program, by evaluating the physical , family, social, cognitive and mental health status of...MRS II) is to identify the individual, social. and deployment factors that predict trajectories of mental health response, particularly posttraumatic...with an overarching ob ject ive co develop a platform to provide an early analysis of predictors of mental health outcomes , such as Post Traumatic

  1. Operation Everest II.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    In October 1985, 25 years ago, 8 subjects and 27 investigators met at the United States Army Research Institute for Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) altitude chambers in Natick, Massachusetts, to study human responses to a simulated 40-day ascent of Mt. Everest, termed Operation Everest II (OE II). Led by Charlie Houston, John Sutton, and Allen Cymerman, these investigators conducted a large number of investigations across several organ systems as the subjects were gradually decompressed over 40 days to the Everest summit equivalent. There the subjects reached a V(O)(2)max of 15.3 mL/kg/min (28% of initial sea-level values) at 100 W and arterial P(O(2)) and P(CO(2)) of approximately 28 and approximately 10 mm Hg, respectively. Cardiac function resisted hypoxia, but the lungs could not: ventilation-perfusion inequality and O(2) diffusion limitation reduced arterial oxygenation considerably. Pulmonary vascular resistance was increased, was not reversible after short-term hyperoxia, but was reduced during exercise. Skeletal muscle atrophy occurred, but muscle structure and function were otherwise remarkably unaffected. Neurological deficits (cognition and memory) persisted after return to sea level, more so in those with high hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness, with motor function essentially spared. Nine percent body weight loss (despite an unrestricted diet) was mainly (67%) from muscle and exceeded the 2% predicted from energy intake-expenditure balance. Some immunological and lipid metabolic changes occurred, of uncertain mechanism or significance. OE II was unique in the diversity and complexity of studies carried out on a single, courageous cohort of subjects. These studies could never have been carried out in the field, and thus complement studies such as the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest (AMREE) that, although more limited in scope, serve as benchmarks and reality checks for chamber studies like OE II.

  2. Operation Everest II

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Wagner, Peter D. Operation Everest II. High Alt. Med. Biol. 11:111–119, 2010.—In October 1985, 25 years ago, 8 subjects and 27 investigators met at the United States Army Research Institute for Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) altitude chambers in Natick, Massachusetts, to study human responses to a simulated 40-day ascent of Mt. Everest, termed Operation Everest II (OE II). Led by Charlie Houston, John Sutton, and Allen Cymerman, these investigators conducted a large number of investigations across several organ systems as the subjects were gradually decompressed over 40 days to the Everest summit equivalent. There the subjects reached a \\documentclass{aastex}\\usepackage{amsbsy}\\usepackage{amsfonts}\\usepackage{amssymb}\\usepackage{bm}\\usepackage{mathrsfs}\\usepackage{pifont}\\usepackage{stmaryrd}\\usepackage{textcomp}\\usepackage{portland,xspace}\\usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra}\\pagestyle{empty}\\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \\begin{document} \\begin{align*} \\dot{\\rm V}{\\sc O}_2{\\rm max} \\end{align*} \\end{document} of 15.3 mL/kg/min (28% of initial sea-level values) at 100 W and arterial Po2 and Pco2 of ∼28 and ∼10 mm Hg, respectively. Cardiac function resisted hypoxia, but the lungs could not: ventilation–perfusion inequality and O2 diffusion limitation reduced arterial oxygenation considerably. Pulmonary vascular resistance was increased, was not reversible after short-term hyperoxia, but was reduced during exercise. Skeletal muscle atrophy occurred, but muscle structure and function were otherwise remarkably unaffected. Neurological deficits (cognition and memory) persisted after return to sea level, more so in those with high hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness, with motor function essentially spared. Nine percent body weight loss (despite an unrestricted diet) was mainly (67%) from muscle and exceeded the 2% predicted from energy intake–expenditure balance. Some immunological and lipid metabolic changes occurred, of uncertain

  3. Solid-phase extraction of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from environmental samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS).

    PubMed

    Duran, Celal; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan Numan; Soylak, Mustafa; Elci, Latif; Sentürk, Hasan Basri; Tüfekci, Mehmet

    2007-07-19

    A new method using a column packed with Amberlite XAD-2010 resin as a solid-phase extractant has been developed for the multi-element preconcentration of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) ions based on their complex formation with the sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (Na-DDTC) prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) determinations. Metal complexes sorbed on the resin were eluted by 1 mol L(-1) HNO3 in acetone. Effects of the analytical conditions over the preconcentration yields of the metal ions, such as pH, quantity of Na-DDTC, eluent type, sample volume and flow rate, foreign ions etc. have been investigated. The limits of detection (LOD) of the analytes were found in the range 0.08-0.26 microg L(-1). The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials. The method has been applied for the determination of trace elements in some environmental samples.

  4. Speciation of phytate ion in aqueous solution. Protonation constants and copper(II) interactions in NaNO3aq at different ionic strengths.

    PubMed

    Crea, Pasquale; De Stefano, Concetta; Milea, Demetrio; Porcino, Nunziatina; Sammartano, Silvio

    2007-07-01

    The acid base behavior of phytate has been studied (at t=25 degrees C by potentiometry, ISE-H+ glass electrode) in NaNO3aq at different ionic strengths (0.1 < or = I/mol L(-1) < or = 1.0). The interactions with copper(II) were investigated in the same experimental conditions in different metal to ligand (Phy) ratios (1:1 < or = Cu2+ :Phy < or = 4:1), by using both ISE-H+ and ISE-Cu2+ electrodes. Phytate acid base behavior in sodium nitrate is very similar to that in sodium chloride, previously investigated. In the experimental conditions adopted, the formation of three CuiHjPhy(12-2i-j)- species is observed: the mononuclear CuH4Phy6- and CuH5Phy5-, and the dinuclear Cu2H5Phy3-. Analysis of complex formation constants at different ionic strengths reveals that both ISE-H+ and ISE-Cu2+ electrodes gave, within the experimental error, analogous values. Dependence of complex formation constants on ionic strength was modeled by EDH (Extended Debye-Hückel) and SIT (Specific ion Interaction Theory) equations. The sequestering ability of phytate toward copper(II) has been evaluated by the calculation of pL50 (the total ligand concentration, as -log CL, able to bind 50% of metal cation), an empirical parameter already proposed for an objective "quantification" of this ability. A thorough analysis of literature data on phytate-copper(II) complexes has been performed.

  5. AWIPS II Extended - Data Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R.; Schotz, S.; Calkins, J.; Gockel, B.; Ortiz, C.; Peter, R.

    2012-12-01

    AWIPS II Technology Infusion is a multiphase program. The first phase is the migration of the Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and River Forecast Centers (RFCs) AWIPS I capabilities into a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), referred to as AWIPS II. AWIPS II is currently being deployed to Operational Test and Evaluation (OTE) and other select deployment sites. The subsequent phases of AWIPS Technology Infusion, known as AWIPS II Extended, include several projects that will improve technological capabilities of AWIPS II in order to enhance the NWS enterprise and improve services to partners. This paper summarizes AWIPS II Extended - Data Delivery project and reports on its status. Data Delivery enables AWIPS II users to discover, subscribe and access web-enabled data provider systems including the capability to subset datasets by space, time and parameter.

  6. ARICH for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusa, Y.

    2014-10-01

    We report development and current status of Aerogel Ring Imaging Cherenkov counter (ARICH) which is a particle identification detector in the next generation B-factory experiment, the Belle II. The main components of the ARICH are aerogel radiator and photon sensor. When a charged particle goes through the radiator, it emits Cherenkov light photons to the direction which depends on the particle velocity. Combining observables in the Belle II detector, such as a momentum measured with tracker installed inside of the ARICH, and directions of the Cherenkov light photons with the ARICH, we obtain the charged particle mass information. A new photon sensor named Hybrid Avalanche Photon Detector (HAPD) is used to collect a small number of the Cherenkov light photons distributed in the large area effectively. We set up a small part of the ARICH detector and perform the measurement using electron and hadron beam lines at KEK, CERN and DESY. From the obtained results, we expect that it is possible to separate K- and π-mesons by more than 5σ significance level with the ARICH design. The HAPD and its readout electronics production has been started and several kinds of the quality testing for them are ongoing. We also simulate the whole ARICH detector with a GEANT4-based program and expected performance of the particle identification is sufficient for charged tracks in a wide momentum range. After finishing the production of the all components, the construction of the ARICH detector will start in this year and installation to the Belle II detector will be completed in 2015.

  7. Delta II Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Final preparations for lift off of the DELTA II Mars Pathfinder Rocket are shown. Activities include loading the liquid oxygen, completing the construction of the Rover, and placing the Rover into the Lander. After the countdown, important visual events include the launch of the Delta Rocket, burnout and separation of the three Solid Rocket Boosters, and the main engine cutoff. The cutoff of the main engine marks the beginning of the second stage engine. After the completion of the second stage, the third stage engine ignites and then cuts off. Once the third stage engine cuts off spacecraft separation occurs.

  8. Run II luminosity progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.

  9. Thermodynamic assessment of Hg(II)-gibbsite interactions.

    PubMed

    Weerasooriya, Rohan; Seneviratne, Wasana; Kathriarachchi, Heasha A; Tobschall, Heinz J

    2006-09-15

    As discrete particles and/or as surface coatings on other minerals in natural systems, aluminum hydroxides are efficient sinks for Hg(II). The Hg(II) adsorption on gibbsite was determined as a function of temperature (T), pH, and the type of background electrolytes, i.e., NaNO(3), NaClO(4), and NaCl. When the equilibration time t(E) approximately 2 h, the Hg(II) retention on gibbsite was found to be a reversible process, which was ascribed to adsorption. The Hg(II) adsorption capacity, i.e., Gamma(Hg(II)), varied with the type of electrolyte used in accordance with the following order: Gamma(NO(3))(Hg(II)) > or = Gamma(ClO(4))(Hg(II)) > or = Gamma(Cl)(Hg(II)). In all cases, the estimated thermodynamic parameters showed that the Hg(II) adsorption on gibbsite was endothermic and spontaneous. The Hg(II) adsorption data were quantified with the Langmuir or Hill, and Dublin-Radushkevick (DR), isotherms at all temperatures and acidity levels examined. Always, the Hg(II) adsorption data were in compliance with the DR model. However, the Hg(II) adsorption in NaNO(3) or NaClO(4) was interpreted in terms of the Langmuir model. When NaCl was used as electrolyte, the Hg(II) adsorption was modeled well with the Hill equation. The mean free energy values calculated from DR plots concluded that Hg(II)-gibbsite interactions are a result of chemical bonding.

  10. Na sup + -H sup + exchanger in proximal cells isolated from kidney. II. Short-term regulation by glucocorticoids

    SciTech Connect

    Bidet, M.; Merot, J.; Tauc, M.; Poujeol, P. )

    1987-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute regulation by glucocorticoid of the Na{sup +}-H{sup +} exchanger in isolated renal proximal cells of the rabbit. The changes of intracellular pH (pH{sub i}) were determined in a bicarbonate-free buffer by the use of a fluorescent pH probe that may be trapped intracellularly, 2,7-biscarboxyethyl- 5(6)- carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). The activity of the Na{sup +}-H{sup +} exchanger was estimated by measuring the Na{sup +}-induced H{sup +} efflux in BCECF-loaded cells acid loaded with nigericin in choline medium. The uptake of 1.5 mM {sup 22}Na was also studied in Na{sup +}-depleted cells. Acute application of dexamethasone increased the activity of the Na{sup +}-H{sup +} exchanger. The effect on the kinetics of amiloride-sensitive Na{sup +}-H{sup +} exchange indicated that dexamethasone (DEX) increased the activity by increasing the V{sub max} of the carrier for external sodium and for external H{sup +}. The apparent affinity was not modified either for Na{sup +} or for H{sup +}. The glucocorticoid action was undetectable after pretreatment of cells with actinomycin D or cycloheximide. Acute glucocorticoid activation of the Na{sup +}-H{sup +} exchanger in isolated proximal cells required RNA and protein synthesis and was consistent with an increase in the number of carriers in the membrane.

  11. Diluting power of thick limbs of Henle. II. Bumetanide-sensitive /sup 22/Na+ influx in medullary vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, W.B.; Dudley, M.A.; Mehta, P.; Andreoli, T.E.

    1988-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of osmotic gradients on 22Na+ influx in vesicles prepared from rat outer renal medulla. 22Na+ influx driven in a coflow mode by an inwardly directed 100 mM KCl gradient was measured at 20 and 60 s; 1 mM bumetanide inhibited approximately 30% of 22Na+ influx. The bumetanide-sensitive 22Na+ influx was reduced by approximately 65% when either K+ or Cl- was omitted from the aqueous phases. We found that an osmotic gradient for vesicle shrinkage, that is, 600 mM urea in the extravesicular medium, enhanced the bumetanide-sensitive 22Na+ influx twofold. Conversely, an osmotic gradient for vesicle swelling, that is, with vesicles but not extravesicular media loaded with 600 mM urea, produced a 50% suppression of bumetanide-sensitive 22Na+ influx. Moreover, 600 mM extravesicular urea, an osmotic gradient for vesicle shrinkage, also reduced uptake of the nonspecific marker (14C)mannitol. These effects of osmotic gradients were not due to alterations in ionic driving forces, since bumetanide-sensitive 22Na+ influx driven in a counterflow mode by loading the vesicles with 100 mM NaCl also was activated or suppressed by osmotic gradients for vesicle shrinkage or swelling, respectively. We conclude that osmotic gradients, and/or vesicle volume changes, modulate bumetanide-sensitive Na+:K+:2Cl- activity.

  12. Adsorption and coadsorption of molecular hydrogen isotopes in zeolites. II. Infrared analyses of H2, HD, and D2 in NaA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stéphanie-Victoire, Françoise; de Lara, Evelyne Cohen

    1998-10-01

    The infrared analysis of the induced bands of molecular hydrogen isotopes, adsorbed in NaA zeolite, shows several features; (i) when the amount of adsorbed molecules increases, the bands become complex, showing three components, which can be related to different energetic situation of the molecules in the cavity; (ii) the band frequency is lower than the gas frequency; for each species the shifts are proportional to the inverse square root of the mass (same interaction with the crystal); (iii) the absolute intensity increases when the temperature decreases, this is due to the fact that the molecule remains longer in the vicinity of the adsorption site where the electric field is the highest. Its amplitude is deduced from the absolute intensities measured at the lowest temperature (˜1010 V/m, in agreement with other results).

  13. A KEY PHYSICAL MECHANISM FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ENIGMATIC LINEAR POLARIZATION OF THE SOLAR Ba II AND Na I D{sub 1} LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Belluzzi, Luca; Trujillo Bueno, Javier

    2013-09-10

    The linearly polarized spectrum of the solar limb radiation produced by scattering processes is of great diagnostic potential for exploring the magnetism of the solar atmosphere. This spectrum shows an impressive richness of spectral details and enigmatic Q/I signals, whose physical origin must be clearly understood before they can be exploited for diagnostic purposes. The most enduring enigma is represented by the polarization signals observed in the D{sub 1} resonance lines of Na I (5896 A) and Ba II (4934 A), which were expected to be intrinsically unpolarizable. The totality of sodium and 18% of barium have hyperfine structure (HFS), and it has been argued that the only way to produce a scattering polarization signal in such lines is through the presence of a substantial amount of atomic polarization in their lower HFS levels. The strong sensitivity of these long-lived levels to depolarizing mechanisms led to the paradoxical conclusion that the observed D{sub 1}-line polarization is incompatible with the presence in the lower solar chromosphere of inclined magnetic fields sensibly stronger than 0.01 G. Here we show that by properly taking into account the fact that the solar D{sub 1}-line radiation has a non-negligible spectral structure over the short frequency interval spanned by the HFS transitions, it is possible to produce scattering polarization signals in the D{sub 1} lines of Na I and Ba II without the need of ground-level polarization. The resulting linear polarization is not so easily destroyed by elastic collisions and/or magnetic fields.

  14. The Belle II Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piilonen, Leo; Belle Collaboration, II

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II detector is now under construction at the KEK laboratory in Japan. This project represents a substantial upgrade of the Belle detector (and the KEKB accelerator). The Belle II experiment will record 50 ab-1 of data, a factor of 50 more than that recorded by Belle. This large data set, combined with the low backgrounds and high trigger efficiencies characteristic of an e+e- experiment, should provide unprecedented sensitivity to new physics signatures in B and D meson decays, and in τ lepton decays. The detector comprises many forefront subsystems. The vertex detector consists of two inner layers of silicon DEPFET pixels and four outer layers of double-sided silicon strips. These layers surround a beryllium beam pipe having a radius of only 10 mm. Outside of the vertex detector is a large-radius, small-cell drift chamber, an ``imaging time-of-propagation'' detector based on Cerenkov radiation for particle identification, and scintillating fibers and resistive plate chambers used to identify muons. The detector will begin commissioning in 2017.

  15. Ion channels in spinal cord astrocytes in vitro. II. Biophysical and pharmacological analysis of two Na+ current types.

    PubMed

    Sontheimer, H; Waxman, S G

    1992-10-01

    1. Na+ currents expressed in astrocytes cultured from spinal cord were studied by whole cell patch-clamp recording. Two subtypes of astrocytes, pancake and stellate cells, were morphologically differentiated and showed expression of Na+ channels at densities that are unusually high for glial cells (2-8 channels/microns2) and comparable to cultured neurons. 2. Na+ currents in stellate and pancake astrocytes were comparable to neuronal Na+ currents with regard to Na(+)-current activation (tau m) and inactivation (tau h) time constants, which were equally fast in both astrocyte types. However, they differed with respect to voltage dependence of activation, and current-voltage (I-V) curves were approximately 10 mV more positive in stellate cells (-11.1 +/- 5.6 mV, mean +/- SD) than in pancake cells (19.7 +/- 4.5 mV). Steady-state activation (m infinity curves) was 16 mV more negative in pancake (mean V1/2 = -48.8 mV) than in stellate cells (mean V1/2 = -32.7 mV). 3. Steady-state inactivation (h infinity curves) of Na+ currents was distinctly different in the two astrocyte types. In stellate astrocytes h infinity curves had midpoints close to -65 mV (-64.6 +/- 6.5 mV), similar to most cultured neurons. In pancake astrocytes h infinity-curves were approximately 25 mV more negative, with midpoints close to -85 mV (84.5 +/- 9.5 mV). 4. The two forms of Na+ currents were additionally distinguishable by their sensitivity to tetrodotoxin (TTX). Na+ currents in stellate astrocytes were highly TTX sensitive [half-maximal inhibition (Kd) = 5.7 nM] whereas Na+ currents in pancake astrocytes were relatively TTX resistant, requiring 100- to 1,000-fold higher concentrations for blockage (Kd = 1,007 nM). 5. Na+ currents were fit by the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model. In pancake astrocytes, as in squid gigant axons, Na(+)-current kinetics could be well described with an m3h model, whereas in stellate astrocytes Na+ currents were better described with higher-order power terms for activation

  16. Syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of the oxalato-bridged mixed-valence complexes (FeII(bpm)3]2[FeIII2(ox)5].8H2O and FeII(bpm)3Na(H2O)2Fe(ox)(3).4H2O (bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine).

    PubMed

    Armentano, D; De Munno, G; Faus, J; Lloret, F; Julve, M

    2001-02-12

    The preparation and crystal structures of two oxalato-bridged FeII-FeIII mixed-valence compounds, [FeII(bpm)3]2[FeIII2(ox)5].8H2O (1) and FeII(bpm)3Na(H2O)2FeIII(ox)(3).4H2O (2) (bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine; ox = oxalate dianion) are reported here. Complex 1 crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P1, with a = 10.998(2) A, b = 13.073(3) A, c = 13.308(3) A, alpha = 101.95(2) degrees, beta = 109.20(2) degrees, gamma = 99.89(2) degrees, and Z = 1. Complex 2 crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2(1)/c, with a = 12.609(2) A, b = 19.670(5) A, c = 15.843(3) A, beta = 99.46(1) degrees, and Z = 4. The structure of complex 1 consists of centrosymmetric oxalato-bridged dinuclear high-spin iron(III) [Fe2(ox)5]2- anions, tris-chelated low-spin iron(II) [Fe(bpm)3]2+ cations, and lattice water molecules. The iron atoms are hexacoordinated: six oxygen atoms (iron(III)) from two bidentate and one bisbidentate oxalato ligands and six nitrogen atoms (iron(II)) from three bidentate bpm groups. The Fe(III)-O(ox) and Fe(II)-N(bpm) bond distances vary in the ranges 1.967(3)-2.099(3) and 1.967(4)-1.995(3) A, respectively. The iron(III)-iron(III) separation across the bridging oxalato is 5.449(2) A, whereas the shortest intermolecular iron(III)-iron(II) distance is 6.841(2) A. The structure of complex 2 consists of neutral heterotrinuclear Fe(bpm)2Na(H2O)2Fe(ox)3 units and water molecules of crystallization. The tris-chelated low-spin iron(II) ([Fe(bpm)3]2+) and high-spin iron(III) ([Fe(ox)3]3-) entities act as bidentate ligands (through two bpm-nitrogen and two oxalato-oxygen atoms, respectively) toward the univalent sodium cation, yielding the trinuclear (bpm)2Fe(II)-bpm-Na(I)-ox-Fe(III)(ox)2 complex. Two cis-coordinated water molecules complete the distorted octahedral surrounding of the sodium atom. The ranges of the Fe(II)-N(bpm) and Fe(III)-O(ox) bond distances [1.968(6)-1.993(5) and 1.992(6)-2.024(6) A, respectively] compare well with those observed in 1. The Na

  17. Molecular interactions of the gating modifier toxin ProTx-II with NaV 1.5: implied existence of a novel toxin binding site coupled to activation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jaime J; Cummins, Theodore R; Alphy, Sujith; Blumenthal, Kenneth M

    2007-04-27

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels are critical components in the generation of action potentials in excitable cells, but despite numerous structure-function studies on these proteins, their gating mechanism remains unclear. Peptide toxins often modify channel gating, thereby providing a great deal of information about these channels. ProTx-II is a 30-amino acid peptide toxin from the venom of the tarantula, Thrixopelma pruriens, that conforms to the inhibitory cystine knot motif and which modifies activation kinetics of Na(v) and Ca(v), but not K(v), channels. ProTx-II inhibits current by shifting the voltage dependence of activation to more depolarized potentials and, therefore, differs from the classic site 4 toxins that shift voltage dependence of activation in the opposite direction. Despite this difference in functional effects, ProTx-II has been proposed to bind to neurotoxin site 4 because it modifies activation. Here, we investigate the bioactive surface of ProTx-II by alanine-scanning the toxin and analyzing the interactions of each mutant with the cardiac isoform, Na(v)1.5. The active face of the toxin is largely composed of hydrophobic and cationic residues, joining a growing group of predominantly K(v) channel gating modifier toxins that are thought to interact with the lipid environment. In addition, we performed extensive mutagenesis of Na(v)1.5 to locate the receptor site with which ProTx-II interacts. Our data establish that, contrary to prior assumptions, ProTx-II does not bind to the previously characterized neurotoxin site 4, thus making it a novel probe of activation gating in Na(v) channels with potential to shed new light on this process.

  18. Inhibition of chymotrypsin by heparin cofactor II.

    PubMed Central

    Church, F C; Noyes, C M; Griffith, M J

    1985-01-01

    Human heparin cofactor II is a plasma protein that is known to inhibit thrombin. The rate of thrombin inhibition by heparin cofactor II is accelerated (greater than or equal to 1000-fold) in the presence of the glycosaminoglycans, heparin and dermatan sulfate. We have found that chymotrypsin A alpha is also inhibited by heparin cofactor II with a second-order rate constant value of 1.8 X 10(6) M-1 X min-1 at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C. However, there was no measurable effect of heparin or dermatan sulfate on the rate of chymotrypsin inhibition. Arginine-modified heparin cofactor II showed a comparable percentage loss of both antichymotrypsin and antithrombin activities. Heparin cofactor II and chymotrypsin formed a stable complex with a Mr value near 90,000 when analyzed by NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; this suggests a 1:1 reaction stoichiometry. The chymotrypsin cleavage site in heparin cofactor II was the same as that for thrombin, and primary structure analysis of the inhibitor showed a P'1-P'8 sequence of Ser-Thr-Gln-Val-Arg-Phe-Thr-Val ... . The results indicate that, in contrast to alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, which does not inhibit trypsin-like enzymes, including thrombin, heparin cofactor II can effectively inhibit both thrombin and chymotrypsin. PMID:3863104

  19. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Na{sub 2}Ni{sup II}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Maalej, Wassim; Vilminot, Serge; Elaoud, Zakaria; Mhiri, Tahar; Kurmoo, Mohamedally

    2010-11-15

    Na{sub 2}Ni(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}, obtained as light yellow-green crystals under mild hydrothermal conditions, crystallizes in the orthorhombic Pnma space-group with lattice parameters: a=11.9886(3), b=5.3671(2), c=9.0764(3) A, V=584.01 A{sup 3}, Z=4. The structure consists of zig-zag chains of NiO{sub 6} octahedra bridged by two HPO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and the chains are further connected through HPO{sub 3}{sup 2-} to four nearest chains to form a three dimensional framework, delimiting intersecting tunnels in which the sodium ions are located. The Na cations reside in the irregular Na(1)O{sub 5}, Na-O of 2.276-2.745 A, and Na(2)O{sub 9}, Na-O of 2.342-2.376 A, environments. The presence of the phosphite monoanion has been further confirmed by IR spectroscopy. Due to the 3D framework of Ni connected by O-P-O bridges, the magnetic susceptibility behaves as a paramagnet above 100 K (C=1.49(2) emu K mol{sup -1}, {mu}{sub eff}=3.45 {mu}{sub B}, {Theta}=-39(2) K) and below 6 K, it orders antiferromagnetically as confirmed the sharp drop and the non-Brillouin behavior of the isothermal magnetization at 2 K. - Graphical abstract: The structure of Na{sub 2}Ni(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2} consists of zig-zag chains of NiO{sub 6} octahedra bridged by two HPO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and the chains are further connected through HPO{sub 3}{sup 2-} to four nearest chains to form a three dimensional framework, delimiting intersecting tunnels in which the sodium ions are located. It orders antiferromagnetically at 6 K. Display Omitted

  20. Mod II Stirling engine overviews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    The Mod II engine is a second-generation automotive Stirling engine (ASE) optimized for part-power operation. It has been designed specifically to meet the fuel economy and exhaust emissions objectives of the ASE development program. The design, test experience, performance, and comparison of data to analytical performance estimates of the Mod II engine to date are reviewed. Estimates of Mod II performance in its final configuration are also given.

  1. II Zwicky 23 and Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, E. H.; Gallagher, J. S.; Rudie, G. C.; Cigan, P. J.

    II Zwicky 23 (UGC 3179) is a luminous (MB ~ -21) nearby compact narrow emission line st arburst galaxy with blue optical colors and strong emission lines. We present a photometric and morphological study of II Zw 23 and its interacting companions using data obtained with the WIYN 3.5-m telescope in Kitt Peak, Arizona. II Zwicky 23 has a highly disturbed outer structure with long trails of debris that may be feeding tidal dwarfs.

  2. Belle II Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhr, T.; Ritter, M.; Belle Software Group, II

    2016-10-01

    Belle II is a next generation B factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle. The higher luminosity at the SuperKEKB accelerator leads to higher background levels and requires a major upgrade of the detector. As a consequence, the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software must also be upgraded substantially. Most of the software has been redesigned from scratch, taking into account the experience from Belle and other experiments and utilizing new technologies. The large amount of experimental and simulated data requires a high level of reliability and reproducibility, even in parallel environments. Several technologies, tools, and organizational measures are employed to evaluate and monitor the performance of the software during development.

  3. Effect of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on Pb(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium-derived materials.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from binary metal solutions onto the algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal industrial waste and a waste-based composite material was investigated at pH 5.3, in a batch system. Binary Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) solutions have been tested. For the same equilibrium concentrations of both metal ions (1 mmol l(-1)), approximately 66, 85 and 86% of the total uptake capacity of the biosorbents is taken by lead ions in the systems Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II), respectively. Two-metal results were fitted to a discrete and a continuous model, showing the inhibition of the primary metal biosorption by the co-cation. The model parameters suggest that Cd(II) and Zn(II) have the same decreasing effect on the Pb(II) uptake capacity. The uptake of Pb(II) was highly sensitive to the presence of Cu(II). From the discrete model it was possible to obtain the Langmuir affinity constant for Pb(II) biosorption. The presence of the co-cations decreases the apparent affinity of Pb(II). The experimental results were successfully fitted by the continuous model, at different pH values, for each biosorbent. The following sequence for the equilibrium affinity constants was found: Pb>Cu>Cd approximately Zn.

  4. Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schuknecht, Nate; White, David; Hoste, Graeme

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  5. Mode II fatigue crack propagation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Kibler, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation rates were obtained for 2024-T3 bare aluminum plates subjected to in-plane, mode I, extensional loads and transverse, mode II, bending loads. These results were compared to the results of Iida and Kobayashi for in-plane mode I-mode II extensional loads. The engineering significance of mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth is considered in view of the present results. A fatigue crack growth equation for handling mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth rates from existing mode I data is also discussed.

  6. He II-Emitting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Sara R.

    2014-01-01

    A small fraction of star-forming galaxies at redshift, 3, show He II at 1640 A as a narrow emission line (Cassata et al. 2012), but the source of this emission is not understood. Does the He II emission arise in the stars or in the surrounding nebula? To answer this question, we use I Zw 18, a well studied blue compact dwarf galaxy showing narrow He II line emission as a test case. We consider if/how He II narrow emission lines could originate in the nearby nebulosity, or in the winds of hot, massive stars, both those on the main sequence and post-MS evolutionary phases.

  7. Spectrum of excess partial molar absorptivity. Part II: a near infrared spectroscopic study of aqueous Na-halides.

    PubMed

    Sebe, Fumie; Nishikawa, Keiko; Koga, Yoshikata

    2012-04-07

    Our earlier thermodynamic studies suggested that F(-) and Cl(-) form hydration shells with the hydration number 14 ± 2 and 2.3 ± 0.6, respectively, and leave the bulk H(2)O away from hydration shells unperturbed. Br(-) and I(-), on the other hand, form hydrogen bonds directly with the momentarily existing hydrogen bond network of H(2)O, and retard the degree of entropy-volume cross fluctuation inherent in liquid H(2)O. The effect of the latter is stronger for I(-) than Br(-). Here we seek additional information about this qualitative difference between Cl(-) and (Br(-) and I(-)) pair by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. We analyze the ν(2) + ν(3) band of H(2)O in the range 4600-5500 cm(-1) of aqueous solutions of NaCl, NaBr and NaI, by a new approach. From observed absorbance, we calculate excess molar absorptivity, ε(E), excess over the additive contributions of solute and solvent. ε(E) thus contains information about the effect of inter-molecular interactions in the ν(2) + ν(3) spectrum. The spectrum of ε(E) shows three bands; two negative ones at 5263 and 4873 cm(-1), and the positive band at 5123 cm(-1). We then define and calculate the excess partial molar absorptivity of each salt, ε(E)(salt). From the behaviour of ε(E)(salt) we suggest that the negative band at 5263 cm(-1) represents free H(2)O without much hydrogen bonding under the influence of local electric field of ions. Furthermore, from a sudden change in the x(salt) (mole fraction of salt) dependence of ε(E)(salt), we suggest that there is an ion-pairing in x(salt) > 0.032, 0.036, and 0.04 for NaCl, NaBr and NaI respectively. The positive band of ε(E) at 5123 cm(-1) is attributed to a modestly organized hydrogen bond network of H(2)O (or liquid-likeness), and the x(salt) dependence of ε indicated a qualitative difference in the effect of Cl(-) from those of Br(-) and I(-). Namely, the values of ε(E)(salt) stay constant for Cl(-) but those for Br(-) and I(-) decrease smoothly on

  8. The hydrolysis and precipitation of Pd(II) in 0.6 mol kg-1 NaCl: A potentiometric, spectrophotometric, and EXAFS study

    SciTech Connect

    Boily, Jean F.; Seward, Terry M.; Charnock, John M.

    2007-10-15

    The hydrolysis of palladium was investigated in 0.6 mol•kg-1 NaCl at 298.2 K. Potentiometric titrations of solutions at various total concentrations of palladium(II) revealed that dilute (millimolar) conditions can be used to monitor the proton release due to hydrolysis reactions up to 2 protons per palladium(II) as long as the equilibration time is kept small. Spectrophotometric titrations were used to corroborate the homogeneous changes in speciation for the PdCl3OH2- species and to extract its correlative molar absorption coefficients in the 210-320 nm range. The molar absorption coefficients are similar to those of PdCl42- but exhibit a broader distribution of excitation energies resulting from the blue shift of the dominant charge transfer bands due to the presence of OH-. The longer-term potentiometric titrations systematically yielded, on the other hand, precipitates which matured over a period of 6 weeks and resulted in a more extensive release of protons to the solution. Precipitation experiments at six different total palladium(II) concentrations in the 3-11 pH range showed the dominant precipitating phase as Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28. The coordination environment of Pd in this solid was investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and yielded an average 1.75 O and 0.25 Cl per Pd atoms with a Pd-O distance of 2.0 Å and Pd-Cl of 2.1 Å. Finally, the precipitation experiments showed the final products to be of larger solubility than a literature Pd(OH)2 solubility study in which the KCl media induced a solid phase transformation to Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28. Polynuclear complexes Pdq(OH)r2q-r with q=r=[3,9] explain the combined precipitation and hydrolysis data and may represent subsets of [Pd(OH)2]n and/or [Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28]n chains coiled into nanometer-sized spheroids previously described in the literature.

  9. Formation of layered Fe(II)-Al(III)-hydroxides during reaction of Fe(II) with aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Evert J

    2012-05-01

    The reactivity of aqueous Fe(II) with aluminum oxide in anoxic solutions was investigated with batch kinetic experiments combined with Fe K edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements to characterize Fe(II) sorption products. Formation of Fe(II)-Al(III)-layered double hydroxides with an octahedral sheet structure similar to nikischerite (NaFe(II)(6) Al(3)(SO(4))(2)(OH)(18) (H(2)O)(12)) was observed within a few hours during sorption at pH 7.5 and aqueous Fe(II) concentrations of 1-3 mM. These Fe(II) phases are composed of brucite-like Fe(II)(OH)(2) sheets with partial substitution of Al(III) for Fe(II), charge balanced by anions coordinated along the basal planes. Their fast rate of formation suggests that these previously unrecognized Fe(II) phases, which are structurally and compositionally similar to green rust, may be an important sink of Fe(II) in suboxic and anoxic geochemical environments, and impact the fate of structurally compatible trace metals, such as Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II), as well as redox-reactive species including Cr(VI) and U(VI). Further studies are required to assess the thermodynamics, formation kinetics, and stability of these Fe(II) minerals under field conditions.

  10. Biosorption studies on copper (II) and cadmium (II) using pretreated rice straw and rice husk.

    PubMed

    Li, W C; Law, F Y; Chan, Y H M

    2015-07-25

    This study investigated the adsorption and removal behaviour of copper (Cu) (II) and cadmium (Cd) (II) ions using rice husk and rice straw in aqueous solutions. Different parameters were used to investigate their adsorption performance in saline conditions and the optimal level of biosorption at different pH levels. The main parameters were pH (3, 6 and 9), initial concentration level of heavy metals (Cu (II) 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/L and Cd (II) 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/L, respectively), salinity (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl) and contact time (ranging from 3 to 60 min). Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to analyse the removal efficiency and sorption capacity of the pretreated rice husk and rice straw. The removal efficiency and adsorption capacity generally increased with the pH and reached a plateau in alkaline conditions. The percentage removal of Cu (II) by rice husk reached 97 % at pH 9 and 95 % by rice straw at pH 6. Biosorption performance increased in the absence of NaCl. Kinetic studies for both metals revealed that the biosorption of Cu (II) and Cd (II) onto rice straw and husk was pseudo-second order.

  11. Polystyrene nanoparticle trafficking across MDCK-II

    PubMed Central

    Fazlollahi, Farnoosh; Angelow, Susanne; Yacobi, Nazanin R.; Marchelletta, Ronald; Yu, Alan S.L.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.; Borok, Zea; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Crandall, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Polystyrene nanoparticles (PNP) cross rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers via non-endocytic transcellular pathways. To evaluate epithelial cell type-specificity of PNP trafficking, we studied PNP flux across Madin Darby canine kidney cell II monolayers (MDCK-II). Effects of calcium chelation (EGTA), energy depletion (sodium azide (NaN3) or decreased temperature), and endocytosis inhibitors methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBC), monodansylcadaverine and dynasore were determined. Amidine-modified PNP cross MDCK-II 500 times faster than carboxylate-modified PNP. PNP flux did not increase in the presence of EGTA. PNP flux at 4°C and after treatment with NaN3 decreased 75% and 80%, respectively. MBC exposure did not decrease PNP flux, whereas dansylcadaverine- or dynasore-treated MDCK-II exhibited ~80% decreases in PNP flux. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed intracellular colocalization of PNP with clathrin heavy chain. These data indicate that PNP translocation across MDCK-II (1) occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and (2) is dependent upon PNP physicochemical properties. We conclude that uptake/trafficking of nanoparticles into/across epithelia is dependent both on properties of the nanoparticles and the specific epithelial cell type. PMID:21310266

  12. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  13. PARIS II: DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS II (the program for assisting the replacement of industrial solvents, version II), developed at the USEPA, is a unique software tool that can be used for customizing the design of replacement solvents and for the formulation of new solvents. This program helps users avoid ...

  14. Mastracchio during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046391 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  15. Mastracchio during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046381 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  16. Hopkins during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046393 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Mike Hopkins, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  17. Hopkins during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046394 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Mike Hopkins, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  18. Mastracchio during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046387 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  19. PARIS II: DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS II (the program for assisting the replacement of industrial solvents, version II), developed at the USEPA, is a unique software tool that can be used for customizing the design of replacement solvents and for the formulation of new solvents. This program helps users avoid ...

  20. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Dierker

    2008-03-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  1. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema

    Steve Dierker

    2016-07-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  2. SAM II Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-06

    SAM II Data and Information Data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II instrument, which flew on board the Nimbus-7 satellite, are used to ... Guide Readme Files:  Data Set (Text file) Read Software Files :  C Code ...

  3. Annex II technical documentation assessed.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, A W; Roszek, B; van Tienhoven, E A E; Geertsma, R E; Boumans, R T; Kraus, J J A M

    2005-12-01

    Annex II of the Medical Device Directive (MDD) is used frequently by manufacturers to obtain CE-marking. This procedure relies on a full quality assurance system and does not require an assessment of the individual medical device by a Notified Body. An investigation into the availability and the quality of technical documentation for Annex II devices revealed severe shortcomings, which are reported here.

  4. Division II: Sun and Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melrose, Donald B.; Martínez Pillet, Valentin; Webb, David F.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Bougeret, Jean-Louis; Klimchuk, James A.; Kosovichev, Alexander; von Steiger, Rudolf

    Division II of the IAU provides a forum for astronomers and astrophysicists studying a wide range of phenomena related to the structure, radiation and activity of the Sun, and its interaction with the Earth and the rest of the solar system. Division II encompasses three Commissions, 10, 12 and 49, and four Working Groups.

  5. Technology II: Implementation Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) are facing a number of challenges, including the explosive use of the Internet, the digital divide, the need for integrating technology into teaching and learning, the impact of Tidal Wave II, and the need to ensure that technology is accessible to persons with disabilities. The CCCs' Technology II Strategic…

  6. Nonequilibrium Positive Column II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingold, John H.

    1998-10-01

    Previous work has shown that the first principles nonlocal kinetic method [1] is closely approximated by the nonlocal moment method [2] in positive column analysis. In the present paper, the nonlocal moment method is compared with two of the most often used local moment methods: (i) local moment method with Maxwell EEDF; (ii) local moment method with 0D EEDF. The form of the Boltzmann equation for electrons in a positive column discharge suggests that each gas has a characteristic curve of positive column E/N versus NR (E is axial electric field, N is gas density, and R is tube radius). This characteristic curve affords a systematic way of comparing various methods because its course depends on the form of the EEDF used to calculate transport coefficients and inelastic collision rates, on whether or not it is assumed that the electrons are in equilibrium with the axial field, on whether or not ion inertia is taken into account, etc. Using an argon-like gas for illustration, it is shown that the characteristic curve based on equilibrium with 0D EEDF is a poor approximation to that based on nonequilibrium for NR less than 1× 10^17 cm-2 (PR<3 Torr-cm), while that based on equilibrium with Maxwell EEDF is an extremely poor approximation at any value of NR. [1]D. Uhrlandt and R. Winkler, J. Phys. D 29, 115 (1996). [2]J. H. Ingold, Phys. Rev. E 56, 5932 (1997).

  7. Photoinhibition of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2013-01-01

    Photoinhibition of Photosystem II (PSII) is the light-induced loss of PSII electron-transfer activity. Although photoinhibition has been studied for a long time, there is no consensus about its mechanism. On one hand, production of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) by PSII has promoted models in which this reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered to act as the agent of photoinhibitory damage. These chemistry-based models have often not taken into account the photophysical features of photoinhibition-like light response and action spectrum. On the other hand, models that reproduce these basic photophysical features of the reaction have not considered the importance of data about ROS. In this chapter, it is shown that the evidence behind the chemistry-based models and the photophysically oriented models can be brought together to build a mechanism that confirms with all types of experimental data. A working hypothesis is proposed, starting with inhibition of the manganese complex by light. Inability of the manganese complex to reduce the primary donor promotes recombination between the oxidized primary donor and Q(A), the first stable quinone acceptor of PSII. (1)O(2) production due to this recombination may inhibit protein synthesis or spread the photoinhibitory damage to another PSII center. The production of (1)O(2) is transient because loss of activity of the oxygen-evolving complex induces an increase in the redox potential of Q(A), which lowers (1)O(2) production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mycotoxins revisited: Part II.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kyan J; Guss, David A

    2005-02-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature. They are an important source of nutrition, however, certain varieties contain chemicals that can be highly toxic to humans. Industrially cultivated mushrooms are historically very safe, whereas foraging for mushrooms or accidental ingestion of mushrooms in the environment can result in serious illness and death. The emergency department is the most common site of presentation for patients suffering from acute mushroom poisoning. Although recognition can be facilitated by identification of a characteristic toxidrome, the presenting manifestations can be variable and have considerable overlap with more common and generally benign clinical syndromes. The goal of this two-part article is to review the knowledge base on this subject and provide information that will assist the clinician in the early consideration, diagnosis and treatment of mushroom poisoning. Part I reviewed the epidemiology and demographics of mushroom poisoning, the physical characteristics of the most toxic varieties, the classification of the toxic species, and presented an overview of the cyclopeptide-containing mushroom class. Part II is focused on the presentation of the other classes of toxic mushrooms along with an up-to-date review of the most recently identified poisonous varieties.

  9. Angiotensin II receptor heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Herblin, W.F.; Chiu, A.T.; McCall, D.E.; Ardecky, R.J.; Carini, D.J.; Duncia, J.V.; Pease, L.J.; Wong, P.C.; Wexler, R.R.; Johnson, A.L. )

    1991-04-01

    The possibility of receptor heterogeneity in the angiotensin II (AII) system has been suggested previously, based on differences in Kd values or sensitivity to thiol reagents. One of the authors earliest indications was the frequent observation of incomplete inhibition of the binding of AII to adrenal cortical membranes. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that all of the labeling of the rat adrenal was blocked by unlabeled AII or saralasin, but not by DuP 753. The predominant receptor in the rat adrenal cortex (80%) is sensitive to dithiothreitol (DTT) and DuP 753, and is designated AII-1. The residual sites in the adrenal cortex and almost all of the sites in the rat adrenal medulla are insensitive to both DTT and DuP 753, but were blocked by EXP655. These sites have been confirmed by ligand binding studies and are designated AII-2. The rabbit adrenal cortex is unique in yielding a nonuniform distribution of AII-2 sites around the outer layer of glomerulosa cells. In the rabbit kidney, the sites on the glomeruli are AII-1, but the sites on the kidney capsule are AII-2. Angiotensin III appears to have a higher affinity for AII-2 sites since it inhibits the binding to the rabbit kidney capsule but not the glomeruli. Elucidation of the distribution and function of these diverse sites should permit the development of more selective and specific therapeutic strategies.

  10. Rhizobium etli asparaginase II

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Saquero, Alejandro; Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed; Moreno-Enriquez, Angélica; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial l-asparaginase has been a universal component of therapies for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia since the 1970s. Two principal enzymes derived from Escherichia coli and Erwinia chrysanthemi are the only options clinically approved to date. We recently reported a study of recombinant l-asparaginase (AnsA) from Rhizobium etli and described an increasing type of AnsA family members. Sequence analysis revealed four conserved motifs with notable differences with respect to the conserved regions of amino acid sequences of type I and type II l-asparaginases, particularly in comparison with therapeutic enzymes from E. coli and E. chrysanthemi. These differences suggested a distinct immunological specificity. Here, we report an in silico analysis that revealed immunogenic determinants of AnsA. Also, we used an extensive approach to compare the crystal structures of E. coli and E. chrysantemi asparaginases with a computational model of AnsA and identified immunogenic epitopes. A three-dimensional model of AsnA revealed, as expected based on sequence dissimilarities, completely different folding and different immunogenic epitopes. This approach could be very useful in transcending the problem of immunogenicity in two major ways: by chemical modifications of epitopes to reduce drug immunogenicity, and by site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues to diminish immunogenicity without reduction of enzymatic activity. PMID:22895060

  11. Airborne Laser Hydrography II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philpot, W.; Wozencraft, J.

    2016-02-01

    In 1985, Dr. Gary Guenther assembled the text, "Airborne Laser Hydrography" which quickly became a heavily used manual and guide for any and all scientists and engineers involved with airborne lidar bathymetry (ALB). It was a remarkable book that captured a snapshot of the state of the art of ALB and included historical developments, theoretical and modeling efforts as well as design characteristics and constraints, ending with accuracy assessment and a discussion of design tradeoffs. Known familiarly as the "Blue Book" it served the community remarkably well for many years. At 30 years of age, it is still a valued reference, but unavoidably dated in a field that has developed rapidly and nonstop over the intervening years. It is time for an update. The new text is attempt by the ALB community to update and expand upon Guenther's text. Like the original, Blue Book II reviews the historical developments in ALB, extending them into the 21st century, considers basic environmental water optical properties, theoretical developments, data processing and performance evaluation. All have progressed dramatically in the past 30 years. This paper presents an outline of the new book, a description of the contents, with emphasis on the theoretical models of the lidar waveform and its propagation through, and interaction with the water.

  12. Crystal Structure of Rat Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Esser, V.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the {beta}-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

  13. Two-photon excitation spectroscopy of Cr3+:K2NaScF6 elpasolite: II. Theoretical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartram, R. H.; Wein, G. R.; Hamilton, D. S.

    2001-03-01

    Two-photon excitation (TPE) spectra of Cr3+:K2NaScF6, excited by a Raman-shifted, Nd:YAG-pumped tunable dye laser, exhibit several unexpected features. A weak TPE spectrum of the symmetry-forbidden 4A2g→ 4T2g transition is observed without a zero-phonon line. The symmetry-allowed TPE spectrum of the 4A2g→ 4T1ag transition has a multi-phonon side band with anomalously extended vibrational progressions, and an anomalously weak, split zero-phonon line with anomalous polarization anisotropy. These observations are explained, respectively, in terms of theoretical models involving phonon assistance, departures from the closure approximation that permit electron-lattice coupling in intermediate states and a low-temperature phase transition involving librational instability. Hypothetical line-shape simulations are compared with observed TPE spectra.

  14. MIME: Microprogrammable Minicomputer Emulator. Phase II. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    unlimited. — ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ —- , — - - _I _ ~~ ~~ j”— -~j~~$,’ 4~4 AFIT/GCS/EE/79_11 MIME MICROPROGRAMMAB LE MINICOMPUTER EMULATOR PHASE II VOLUME... II THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air University (ATC) in Partial Fulfillment...L— ~—~-__— -- _ _ _ _ -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ onterit~- Volume II Appendix A

  15. Angiotensin II modulates salty and sweet taste sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, Noriatsu; Iwata, Shusuke; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Horio, Nao; Sanematsu, Keisuke; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2013-04-10

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying gustatory detection of dietary sodium is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Here, we show that Angiotensin II (AngII), a major mediator of body fluid and sodium homeostasis, modulates salty and sweet taste sensitivities, and that this modulation critically influences ingestive behaviors in mice. Gustatory nerve recording demonstrated that AngII suppressed amiloride-sensitive taste responses to NaCl. Surprisingly, AngII also enhanced nerve responses to sweeteners, but had no effect on responses to KCl, sour, bitter, or umami tastants. These effects of AngII on nerve responses were blocked by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonist CV11974. In behavioral tests, CV11974 treatment reduced the stimulated high licking rate to NaCl and sweeteners in water-restricted mice with elevated plasma AngII levels. In taste cells AT1 proteins were coexpressed with αENaC (epithelial sodium channel α-subunit, an amiloride-sensitive salt taste receptor) or T1r3 (a sweet taste receptor component). These results suggest that the taste organ is a peripheral target of AngII. The specific reduction of amiloride-sensitive salt taste sensitivity by AngII may contribute to increased sodium intake. Furthermore, AngII may contribute to increased energy intake by enhancing sweet responses. The linkage between salty and sweet preferences via AngII signaling may optimize sodium and calorie intakes.

  16. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  17. Biosatellite II mission.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O E

    1969-01-01

    Biosatellite B was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida, on a two-stage DELTA launch vehicle at 6:04 p.m. on 7 September, 1967. Approximately nine minutes later the 435 kg spacecraft biological laboratory was placed into a satisfactory 315 km near-circular earth orbit, successfully separated from the launch vehicle's second stage and was designated Biosatellite II. The scientific payload consisting of thirteen selected general biology and radiation experiments were subjected to planned, carefully controlled environmental conditions during 45 hours of earth-orbital flight. The decision was made to abbreviate the scheduled 3-day mission by approximately one day because of a threatening tropical storm in the recovery area, and a problem of communication with the spacecraft from the tracking stations. Highest priority was placed on recovery which was essential to obtain the scientific results on all the experiments. The operational phase of the mission came to a successful conclusion with the deorbit of the recovery capsule, deployment of the parachute system and air recovery by the United States Air Force. The 127 kg recovery capsule was returned to biology laboratories at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, for disassembly and immediate inspection and analysis of the biological materials by the experimenters. It was evident immediately that the quality of the biology was excellent and this fact gave promise of a high return of scientific data. The environmental conditions provided to the experimental material in the spacecraft, provisions for experimental controls, and operational considerations are presented as they relate to interpretation of the experimental results.

  18. Intracellular kinetics of ATX-S10·Na(II) and its correlation with photochemical reaction dynamics during a pulsed photosensitization process: effect of pulse repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Morimoto, Yuji; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Although photodynamic therapy with pulsed light excitation has interesting characteristics, its photosensitization mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we showed that the intracellular kinetics of ATX-S10.Na(II), a lysosomal sensitizer, was closely related to photochemical reaction dynamics during photodynamic treatment of A549 cells with nanosecond pulsed light. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that at high frequencies of 10 and 30 Hz the sensitizer initially localized mainly in lysosomes but that it started to be redistributed to the cytosol in certain ranges of radiant exposures. These ranges were found to coincide with a regime of fluorescence degradation with limited oxygen consumption. On the other hand, at 5 Hz, there was no such a discontinuous behavior in the sensitizer redistribution characteristics throughout the period of irradiation; this was consistent with the fact that no reaction switching was observed. Two possible reasons for the appearance of the regime with limited oxygen consumption are discussed: participation of an oxygen-independent reaction and change in the microenvironment for the sensitizer caused by lysosomal photodamage. The pulse frequency-dependent intracellular kinetics of the sensitizer also explains our previous results showing higher cytotoxicity at 5 Hz than at 10 and 30 Hz.

  19. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-14

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Blood Donors; Blood Transfusion; HIV Infections; HIV-1; HIV-2; HTLV-I; HTLV-II; Retroviridae Infections; Hepatitis, Viral, Human; Hepatitis B; Hepacivirus; West Nile Virus

  20. Precursor routes to quaternary intermetallics: Synthesis, crystal structure, and physical properties of clathrate-II Cs{sub 8}Na{sub 16}Al{sub 24}Si{sub 112}

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Kaya; Dong, Yongkwan; Nolas, George S.

    2016-05-15

    A new quaternary clathrate–II composition, Cs{sub 8}Na{sub 16}Al{sub 24}Si{sub 112}, was synthesized by kinetically controlled thermal decomposition (KCTD) employing both NaSi and NaAlSi as the precursors and CsCl as a reactive flux. The crystal structure and composition of Cs{sub 8}Na{sub 16}Al{sub 24}Si{sub 112} were investigated using both Rietveld refinement and elemental analysis, and the temperature dependent transport properties were investigated. Our results indicate that KCTD with multiple precursors is an effective method for the synthesis of multinary inorganic phases that are not easily accessible by traditional solid-state synthesis or crystal growth techniques. - Graphical abstract: Quaternary Cs{sub 8}Na{sub 16}Al{sub 24}S{sub 112} clathrate–II was synthesized for the first time by kinetically controlled thermal decomposition (KCTD) employing a NaSi+NaAlSi precursor mixture with CsCl as the reactive flux, and the structural and transport properties were investigated. Our approach demonstrates a new synthetic pathway for the synthesis of multinary inorganic compounds. This work reports the exploration of a new clathrate composition as this class of materials continues to be of interest for thermoelectrics and other energy-related applications.

  1. Kinetics and transport at AMTEC electrodes. II - Temperature dependence of the interfacial impedance of Na(g)/porous Mo/Na-Beta-double prime alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Underwood, M. L.; Bankston, C. P.; Kummer, J. T.

    1990-01-01

    The exchange current, transfer coefficient, mass-transport parameters, and electrode capacitance at the Na(g)/porous Mo/Na-Beta-double prime alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) phase boundary have been evaluated from 740 to 1220 K. The transfer coefficient exhibits a value close to 0.5 and the exchange current is dominated by collision frequency, with no significant activation energy. Since the porous Mp-electrode adopts a fairly regular microstructure on the BASE surface, the magnitude of the exchange current of mature electrodes directly depends on the actual contact zone of the porous metal film with the BASE ceramic, and decreases slightly as grain growth occurs. The exchange currents and the mass-transport parameters derived for very porous, thin Mo electrodes indicate that the charge-transfer reaction occurs at a small fraction of the interface. High-frequency limiting capacitance and resistance values due to the interface show potential dependence and a value on the order of 1 F/sq m and 0.1-1.0 Ohm-sq cm.

  2. Quininium tetra-chloridozinc(II).

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Zhuang

    2009-09-05

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydr-oxy(6-meth-oxy-quinolin-1-ium-4-yl)meth-yl]-8-vinyl-quinuclidin-1-ium tetra-chlorido-zinc(II)}, (C(20)H(26)N(2)O(2))[ZnCl(4)], consists of a double proton-ated quininium cation and a tetra-chloridozinc(II) anion. The Zn(II) ion is in a slightly distorted tetra-hedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter-molecular N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.

  3. BASS-II Hardware Repair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-27

    ISS039-E-005726 (27 March 2014) --- Expedition 39 Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio performs inflight maintenance on an experiment called Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS)-II. The investigation examines the burning and extinction characteristics of a wide variety of fuel samples in microgravity. The BASS-II experiment will guide strategies for materials flammability screening for use in spacecraft as well as provide valuable data on solid fuel burning behavior in microgravity. BASS-II results contribute to the combustion computational models used in the design of fire detection and suppression systems in microgravity and on Earth.

  4. Tier II Forms and Instructions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Facilities must comply with the new requirements on the Tier II emergency and hazardous chemical inventory form starting reporting year 2013, which is due by March 1, 2014. Some states may have specific requirements for reporting and submission.

  5. Antibacterial Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) Complexes of Thiadiazoles Schiff Bases

    PubMed Central

    Jaffery, Maimoon F.; Supuran, Claudiu T.

    2001-01-01

    Schiff bases were obtained by condensation of 2-amino-l,3,4-thiadiazole with 5-substituted-salicylaldehydes which were further used to obtain complexes of the type [M(L)2]Cl2, where M=Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) or Zn(II). The new compounds described here have been characterized by physical, spectral and analytical data, and have been screened for antibacterial activity against several bacterial strains such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial potency of these Schiff bases increased upon chelation/complexation, against the tested bacterial species, opening new aproaches in the fight against antibiotic resistant strains. PMID:18475981

  6. The Monomeric Pentacyanocobaltate (II) Anion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosha, Donnati M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, background information, and discussion of experimental results are provided for the preparation of Thallium (I) Pentacyanocobaltate (II). The preparation of this pale green salt is carried out in an aqueous medium. (Author/JN)

  7. Division II: Sun and Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, David F.; Melrose, Donald B.; Benz, Arnold O.; Bogdan, Thomas J.; Bougeret, Jean-Louis; Klimchuk, James A.; Martinez-Pillet, Valentin

    2007-12-01

    Division II provides a forum for astronomers studying a wide range of problems related to the structure, radiation and activity of the Sun, and its interaction with the Earth and the rest of the solar system.

  8. Splice cassette II of Na+,HCO3(-) cotransporter NBCn1 (slc4a7) interacts with calcineurin A: implications for transporter activity and intracellular pH control during rat artery contractions.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Andreas A; Parker, Mark D; Lee, Soojung; Boron, Walter F; Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe

    2013-03-22

    Activation of Na(+),HCO3(-) cotransport in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to intracellular pH (pH(i)) control during artery contraction, but the signaling pathways involved have been unknown. We investigated whether physical and functional interactions between the Na(+),HCO3(-) cotransporter NBCn1 (slc4a7) and the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-activated serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin exist and play a role for pHi control in VSMCs. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we found that splice cassette II from the N terminus of NBCn1 interacts with calcineurin Aβ. When cassette II was truncated or mutated to disrupt the putative calcineurin binding motif PTVVIH, the interaction was abolished. Native NBCn1 and calcineurin Aβ co-immunoprecipitated from A7r5 rat VSMCs. A peptide (acetyl-DDIPTVVIH-amide), which mimics the putative calcineurin binding motif, inhibited the co-immunoprecipitation whereas a mutated peptide (acetyl-DDIATAVAA-amide) did not. Na(+),HCO3(-) cotransport activity was investigated in VSMCs of mesenteric arteries after an NH4(+) prepulse. During depolarization with 50 mM extracellular K(+) to raise intracellular [Ca(2+)], Na(+),HCO3(-) cotransport activity was inhibited 20-30% by calcineurin inhibitors (FK506 and cyclosporine A). FK506 did not affect Na(+),HCO3(-) cotransport activity in VSMCs when cytosolic [Ca(2+)] was lowered by buffering, nor did it disrupt binding between NBCn1 and calcineurin Aβ. FK506 augmented the intracellular acidification of VSMCs during norepinephrine-induced artery contractions. No physical or functional interactions between calcineurin Aβ and the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 were observed in VSMCs. In conclusion, we demonstrate a physical interaction between calcineurin Aβ and cassette II of NBCn1. Intracellular Ca(2+) activates Na(+),HCO3(-) cotransport activity in VSMCs in a calcineurin-dependent manner which is important for protection against intracellular acidification.

  9. Cobalt(II) selective membrane electrode based on palladium(II) dichloro acetylthiophene fenchone azine.

    PubMed

    Isa, I M; Mustafar, S; Ahmad, M; Hashim, N; Ghani, S A

    2011-12-15

    A new cobalt(II) ion selective electrode based on palladium(II) dichloro acetylthiophene fenchone azine(I) has been developed. The best membrane composition is found to be 10:60:10:21.1 (I)/PVC/NaTPB/DOP (w/w). The electrode exhibits a Nerstian response in the range of 1.0 × 10(-1)-1.0 × 10(-6)M with a detection limit and slope of 8.0 × 10(-7)M and 29.6 ± 0.2 mV per decade respectively. The response time is within the range of 20-25s and can be used for a period of up to 4 months. The electrode developed reveals good selectivity for cobalt(II) and could be used in pH range of 3-7. The electrode has been successfully used in the determination of cobalt(II) in water samples.

  10. Optical Waveguide Scattering Reduction. II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    FAD-AOAR 815 BATTELLEWCOLUMBUS LABS ON F/S 20/6 OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE SCATTER ING REDUC TION. II.(U) 7 DEC 80 0 W VAHEY, N F HARTMAN, R C SHERMAN F3361... OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE SCATTERING REDUCTION II M BATTELLE COLUMBUS LABORATORIES 505 KING AVENUE COLUMBUS, OHIO 43201 DTIC ELECTEf MAY 12 198111 December...reviewed and is approved for publication. DOUGLAS AWIWILLE, Project Engineer KENNETH R. HUTCHINSON, Chief Electro- Optics Techniques and Electro- Optics

  11. Mastracchio during BASS II Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    ISS038-E-046385 (12 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, uses a computer while setting up the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  12. Preparation, characterization and biological activity of Fe(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and UO 2(II) complexes of new cyclodiphosph(V)azane of sulfaguanidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharaby, Carmen M.

    2005-11-01

    Novel hexachlorocyclodiphosph(V)azane of sulfaguanidine, H 4L, l,3-[ N'-amidino-sulfanilamide]-2,2,2,4,4,4-hexachlorocyclodiphosph(V)azane was prepared and its coordination behaviour towards the transition metal ions Fe(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and UO 2(II) was studied. The structures of the isolated products are proposed based on elemental analyses, IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR, mass spectra, reflectance, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The hyperfine interactions in the isolated complex compounds were studied using 14.4 keV γ-ray from radioactive 57Co (Mössbauer spectroscopy). The data show that the ligand are coordinated to the metal ions via the sulfonamide O and deprotonated NH atoms in an octahedral manner. The H 4L ligand forms complexes of the general formulae [(MX z) 2(H 2L)H 2O) n] and [(FeSO 4) 2 (H 4L) (H 2O) 4], where X = NO 3 in case of UO 2(II) and Cl in case of Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II). The molar conductance data show that the complexes are non-electrolytes. The thermal behaviour of the complexes was studied and different thermodynamic parameters were calculated using Coats-Redfern method. Most of the prepared complexes showed high bactericidal activity and some of the complexes show more activity compared with the ligand and standards.

  13. Randomized phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sin-Ho; Sargent, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, Phase II trials have been conducted as single-arm trials to compare the response probabilities between an experimental therapy and a historical control. Historical control data, however, often have a small sample size, are collected from a different patient population, or use a different response assessment method, so that a direct comparison between a historical control and an experimental therapy may be severely biased. Randomized Phase II trials entering patients prospectively to both experimental and control arms have been proposed to avoid any bias in such cases. The small sample sizes for typical Phase II clinical trials imply that the use of exact statistical methods for their design and analysis is appropriate. In this article, we propose two-stage randomized Phase II trials based on Fisher's exact test, which does not require specification of the response probability of the control arm for testing. Through numerical studies, we observe that the proposed method controls the type I error accurately and maintains a high power. If we specify the response probabilities of the two arms under the alternative hypothesis, we can identify good randomized Phase II trial designs by adopting the Simon's minimax and optimal design concepts that were developed for single-arm Phase II trials.

  14. CgNa, a type I toxin from the giant Caribbean sea anemone Condylactis gigantea shows structural similarities to both type I and II toxins, as well as distinctive structural and functional properties1

    PubMed Central

    Salceda, Emilio; Pérez-Castells, Javier; López-Méndez, Blanca; Garateix, Anoland; Salazar, Hector; López, Omar; Aneiros, Abel; Ständker, Ludger; Béress, Lászlo; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Soto, Enrique; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    CgNa (Condylactis gigantea neurotoxin) is a 47-amino-acid- residue toxin from the giant Caribbean sea anemone Condylactis gigantea. The structure of CgNa, which was solved by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, is somewhat atypical and displays significant homology with both type I and II anemone toxins. CgNa also displays a considerable number of exceptions to the canonical structural elements that are thought to be essential for the activity of this group of toxins. Furthermore, unique residues in CgNa define a characteristic structure with strong negatively charged surface patches. These patches disrupt a surface-exposed cluster of hydrophobic residues present in all anemone-derived toxins described to date. A thorough characterization by patch–clamp analysis using rat DRG (dorsal root ganglion) neurons indicated that CgNa preferentially binds to TTX-S (tetrodotoxin-sensitive) voltage-gated sodium channels in the resting state. This association increased the inactivation time constant and the rate of recovery from inactivation, inducing a significant shift in the steady state of inactivation curve to the left. The specific structural features of CgNa may explain its weaker inhibitory capacity when compared with the other type I and II anemone toxins. PMID:17506725

  15. CgNa, a type I toxin from the giant Caribbean sea anemone Condylactis gigantea shows structural similarities to both type I and II toxins, as well as distinctive structural and functional properties(1).

    PubMed

    Salceda, Emilio; Pérez-Castells, Javier; López-Méndez, Blanca; Garateix, Anoland; Salazar, Hector; López, Omar; Aneiros, Abel; Ständker, Ludger; Béress, Lászlo; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Soto, Enrique; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2007-08-15

    CgNa (Condylactis gigantea neurotoxin) is a 47-amino-acid- residue toxin from the giant Caribbean sea anemone Condylactis gigantea. The structure of CgNa, which was solved by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, is somewhat atypical and displays significant homology with both type I and II anemone toxins. CgNa also displays a considerable number of exceptions to the canonical structural elements that are thought to be essential for the activity of this group of toxins. Furthermore, unique residues in CgNa define a characteristic structure with strong negatively charged surface patches. These patches disrupt a surface-exposed cluster of hydrophobic residues present in all anemone-derived toxins described to date. A thorough characterization by patch-clamp analysis using rat DRG (dorsal root ganglion) neurons indicated that CgNa preferentially binds to TTX-S (tetrodotoxin-sensitive) voltage-gated sodium channels in the resting state. This association increased the inactivation time constant and the rate of recovery from inactivation, inducing a significant shift in the steady state of inactivation curve to the left. The specific structural features of CgNa may explain its weaker inhibitory capacity when compared with the other type I and II anemone toxins.

  16. Abnormal changes in voltage-gated sodium channels Na(V)1.1, Na(V)1.2, Na(V)1.3, Na(V)1.6 and in calmodulin/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, within the brains of spontaneously epileptic rats and tremor rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoxue; Guo, Feng; Lv, Xintong; Feng, Rui; Min, Dongyu; Ma, Lihua; Liu, Yajing; Zhao, Jinsheng; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris; Hao, Liying; Cai, Jiqun

    2013-07-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a crucial role in epilepsy. The expressions of different VGSCs subtypes are varied in diverse animal models of epilepsy that may reflect their multiple phenotypes or the complexity of the mechanisms of epilepsy. In a previous study, we reported that NaV1.1 and NaV1.3 were up-regulated in the hippocampus of the spontaneously epileptic rat (SER). In this study, we further analyzed both the expression and distribution of the typical VGSC subtypes NaV1.1, NaV1.2, NaV1.3 and NaV1.6 in the hippocampus and in the cortex of the temporal lobe of two genetic epileptic animal models: the SER and the tremor rat (TRM). The expressions of calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) were also analyzed with the purpose of assessing the effect of the CaM/CaMKII pathway in these two models of epilepsy. Increased expression of the four VGSC subtypes and CaM, accompanied by a decrease in CaMKII was observed in the hippocampus of both the SERs and the TRM rats. However, the changes observed in the expression of VGSC subtypes and CaM were decreased with an elevated CaMKII in the cortex of their temporal lobes. Double-labeled immunofluorescence data suggested that in SERs and TRM rats, the four subtypes of the VGSC proteins were present throughout the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex and these were co-localized in neurons with CaM. These data represent the first evidence of abnormal changes in expression of four VGSC subtypes (NaV1.1, NaV1.2, NaV1.3 and NaV1.6) and CaM/CaMKII in the hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex of SERs and TRM rats. These changes may be involved in the generation of epileptiform activity and underlie the observed seizure phenotype in these rat models of genetic epilepsy.

  17. Cohort profile: The Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).

    PubMed

    Bertram, Lars; Böckenhoff, Anke; Demuth, Ilja; Düzel, Sandra; Eckardt, Rahel; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Pawelec, Graham; Siedler, Thomas; Wagner, Gert G; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2014-06-01

    Similar to other industrialized countries, Germany's population is ageing. Whereas some people enjoy good physical and cognitive health into old age, others suffer from a multitude of age-related disorders and impairments which reduce life expectancy and affect quality of life. To identify and characterize the factors associated with 'healthy' vs. 'unhealthy' ageing, we have launched the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II), a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional project that ascertains a large number of ageing-related variables from a wide range of different functional domains. Phenotypic assessments include factors related to geriatrics and internal medicine, immunology, genetics, psychology, sociology and economics. Baseline recruitment of the BASE-II cohort was recently completed and has led to the sampling of 1600 older adults (age range 60-80 years), as well as 600 younger adults (20-35 years) serving as the basic population for in-depth analyses. BASE-II data are linked to the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), a long-running panel survey representative of the German population, to estimate sample selectivity. A major goal of BASE-II is to facilitate collaboration with other research groups by freely sharing relevant phenotypic and genotypic data with qualified outside investigators. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  18. Determination of Fe(II)Fe(II) ratio in glass

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.

    1989-07-26

    The procedure was designed for the simple, rapid determination of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio in glass samples. The procedure consists of the following steps: dissolution of the pulverized glass sample in a sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid mixture, containing ammonium vanadate, which preserves the Fe(II) content; addition of boric acid to destroy iron-fluoride complexes, making the iron available for color formation with Ferrozine; addition of pH 5 buffer and Ferrozine reagent to form the magenta-colored ferrous-Ferrozine complex, with measurement of the absorbance for the determination of Fe(II) content; and, addition of ascorbic acid to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), with a second absorbance measurement that determines total Fe. Directions for the preparation of glass from non-radioactive sludge samples are provided. The analysis of this prepared glass for the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio is an indication of the ratio that would be in a plant batch of glass if made from this sludge.

  19. Modeling interactions of Hg(II) and bauxitic soils.

    PubMed

    Weerasooriya, Rohan; Tobschall, Heinz J; Bandara, Atula

    2007-11-01

    The adsorptive interactions of Hg(II) with gibbsite-rich soils (hereafter SOIL-g) were modeled by 1-pK surface complexation theory using charge distribution multi-site ion competition model (CD MUSIC) incorporating basic Stern layer model (BSM) to account for electrostatic effects. The model calibrations were performed for the experimental data of synthetic gibbsite-Hg(II) adsorption. When [NaNO(3)] > or = 0.01M, the Hg(II) adsorption density values, of gibbsite, Gamma(Hg(II)), showed a negligible variation with ionic strength. However, Gamma(Hg(II)) values show a marked variation with the [Cl(-)]. When [Cl(-)] > or = 0.01M, the Gamma(Hg(II)) values showed a significant reduction with the pH. The Hg(II) adsorption behavior in NaNO(3) was modeled assuming homogeneous solid surface. The introduction of high affinity sites, i.e., >Al(s)OH at a low concentration (typically about 0.045 sites nm(-2)) is required to model Hg(II) adsorption in NaCl. According to IR spectroscopic data, the bauxitic soil (SOIL-g) is characterized by gibbsite and bayerite. These mineral phases were not treated discretely in modeling of Hg(II) and soil interactions. The CD MUSIC/BSM model combination can be used to model Hg(II) adsorption on bauxitic soil. The role of organic matter seems to play a role on Hg(II) binding when pH>8. The Hg(II) adsorption in the presence of excess Cl(-) ions required the selection of high affinity sites in modeling.

  20. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-related Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 activation controls hexokinase II expression in benzo(a)pyrene-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Huc, Laurence; Tekpli, Xavier; Holme, Jørn A; Rissel, Mary; Solhaug, Anita; Gardyn, Claire; Le Moigne, Gwénaelle; Gorria, Morgane; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique

    2007-02-15

    Regulation of the balance between survival, proliferation, and apoptosis on carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is still poorly understood and more particularly the role of physiologic variables, including intracellular pH (pH(i)). Although the involvement of the ubiquitous pH(i) regulator Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) in tumorigenesis is well documented, less is known about its role and regulation during apoptosis. Our previous works have shown the primordial role of NHE1 in carcinogenic PAH-induced apoptosis. This alkalinizing transporter was activated by an early CYP1-dependent H(2)O(2) production, subsequently promoting mitochondrial dysfunction leading to apoptosis. The aim of this study was to further elucidate how NHE1 was activated by benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and what the downstream events were in the context of apoptosis. Our results indicate that the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4/c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (MKK4/JNK) pathway was a link between BaP-induced H(2)O(2) production and NHE1 activation. This activation, in combination with BaP-induced phosphorylated p53, promoted mitochondrial superoxide anion production, supporting the existence of a common target for NHE1 and p53. Furthermore, we showed that the mitochondrial expression of glycolytic enzyme hexokinase II (HKII) was decreased following a combined action of NHE1 and p53 pathways, thereby enhancing the BaP-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our findings suggest that, on BaP exposure, MKK4/JNK targets NHE1 with consequences on HKII protein, which might thus be a key protein during carcinogenic PAH apoptosis.

  1. Magnetic properties and magnetic structures of synthetic natrochalcites, NaM(II)2(D3O2)(MoO4)2, M = Co or Ni.

    PubMed

    Vilminot, Serge; André, Gilles; Bourée-Vigneron, Francoise; Baker, Peter J; Blundell, Stephen J; Kurmoo, Mohamedally

    2008-10-08

    The magnetic properties and magnetic structures from neutron diffraction of two synthetic natrochalcites, NaM(II)2(H3O2)(MoO4)2, M = Co (1Co) or Ni (2Ni), are reported. They are isostructural (monoclinic C2/m) and consist of chains of edge-shared MO6 octahedra connected by mu-O from H3O2(-) and MoO4(2-). These chains form a three-dimensional network with O-H-O, O-Mo-O, and O-Na-O bridging 4, 3, and 4 metal ions, respectively. Both compounds behave as canted antiferromagnets but differ in their behaviors, 1Co showing a broad maximum (28 K) above the Neel transition (21 K) and the canting taking place at 13 K, some 8 K below T(N), while for 2Ni the canting takes place at T(N) (28 K). Analyses of the neutron powder diffraction data shed some light on the geometry of D3O2(-) and suggest antiferromagnetism with a propagation vector k = (0,0,0) with the moments within each chain being parallel but antiparallel to those in neighboring chains. The difference between 1Co and 2Ni is in the orientation of the moments; they are parallel to the chain axis (b-axis) for 1Co and perpendicular to it for 2Ni with a major component along the c-axis and a small one along the a-axis. The heat capacity data peak at 20.9(3) K (1Co) and 25.1(1) K (2Ni). The derived magnetic entropies, following correction of the lattice contribution using the measured data for the nonmagnetic Zn analogue, suggest S = 1/2 for 1Co but is lower than that expected for 2Ni (S = 1). In both cases, only ca. 60% of the entropy is found below the magnetic ordering temperature, suggesting considerable short-range correlations at higher temperatures. While the temperature at which the magnetic diffraction becomes observable coincides with that of at the peak in heat capacity, it is lower than T(N) observed by magnetization measurements in both cases, and there is evidence of short-range ordering in a narrow range of temperature (T(N) +/- 5 K).

  2. Adsorption of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) on modified jute fibres.

    PubMed

    Shukla, S R; Pai, Roshan S

    2005-09-01

    The potential of a lignocellulosic fibre, jute, was assessed for adsorption of heavy metal ions like Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from their aqueous solutions. The fibre was also used as adsorbent after chemically modifying it by two different techniques viz, loading of a dye with specific structure, C.I. Reactive Orange 13, and oxidising with hydrogen peroxide. Both the modified jute fibres gave higher metal ion adsorption. Thus, the dye loaded jute fibres showed metal ion uptake values of 8.4, 5.26 and 5.95 mg/g for Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II), respectively, while the corresponding values for oxidised jute fibres were 7.73, 5.57 and 8.02 mg/g, as against 4.23, 3.37 and 3.55 mg/g for unmodified jute fibres. Adsorption isotherm models indicated best fit for Langmuir model for the modified jute fibres. The adsorption values decreased with lowering of pH. The desorption efficiency, regenerative and reuse capacity of these adsorbents were also assessed for three successive adsorption-desorption cycles. The adsorptive capacity was retained only when the caustic soda regeneration is carried out as an intermediate step after desorption. Possible mechanism has been given.

  3. Crystal structure and polymorphism of NaSrVO4: the first A I B II X V O4 larnite-related structure from X-ray powder diffraction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nénert, Gwilherm; O'Meara, Paul; Degen, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    The previously unknown crystal structure of sodium strontium vanadate, NaSrVO_4, is determined and refined from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data. The title compound exhibits the larnite β{-}rm{Ca}_2rm{SiO}_4 structure. This is the first report of such chemistry rm{A}Irm{B}^{II}rm{XO}4, which exhibits this structural type. rm{NaSrVO}_4 exhibits 2 first-order-phase transitions above room temperature towards, respectively, an orthorhombic phase and an α{-}rm{Ca}_2rm{SiO}_4 hexagonal-related structure.

  4. Cloning and characterization of a mitochondrial glyoxalase II from Brassica juncea that is upregulated by NaCl, Zn, and ABA

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Mukesh; Bisht, Rekha; Roy, Suchandra Deb; Sopory, S.K.; Bhalla-Sarin, Neera . E-mail: neerasarin@rediffmail.com

    2005-10-28

    A cDNA (1061 bp) Bj glyII was cloned from a mannitol induced library of Brassica juncea. It encoded a protein of 335 amino acids with a molecular weight of 36.52 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of the clone showed 92% and 56% identity with Pennisetum and rice glyoxalase II, respectively, and 30% identity was observed with the human glyoxalase II. Search for the identical residues revealed the presence of highly conserved THHHXDH domain which is involved in zinc binding. p-NN and pSORT analysis of this sequence revealed a N-terminal mitochondrial target peptide. The cDNA was cloned in pMAL and a fusion protein with MBP (78 kDa) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified approximately sixfold by affinity purification on amylose column and showed its pH optima at 7.0. The K {sub m} was determined to be 120 {mu}M using S-D-lactoylglutathione as substrate. The expression of Bj glyII under various abiotic stress conditions showed that it is upregulated by salinity, heavy metal stress, and ABA.

  5. The CDF SVX II upgrade for the Tevatron Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoletto, Daniela

    1997-04-01

    A microstrip silicon detector SVX II has been proposed for the upgrade of CDF to be installed in 1999 for Run II of the Tevatron. Three barrels of five layers of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors will cover the interaction region. A description of the project status will be presented. Emphasis will be given to the R&D program for silicon sensors which includes capacitance minimization, the study of coupling capacitor integrity, the operation of the detectors in conjunction with the SVXH and SVX2 readout chips in two beam tests and the determination of the detectors performance deterioration due to radiation damage.

  6. BEATRIX-II, phase II: Data summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Slagle, O.D.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1996-05-01

    The BEATRIX-II experimental program was an International Energy Agency sponsored collaborative effort between Japan, Canada, and the United States to evaluate the performance of ceramic solid breeder materials in a fast-neutron environment at high burnup levels. This report addresses the Phase II activities, which included two in situ tritium-recovery canisters: temperature-change and temperature-gradient. The temperature-change canister contained a Li{sub 2}O ring specimen that had a nearly uniform temperature profile and was capable of temperature changes between 530 and 640{degrees}C. The temperature-gradient canister contained a Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} pebble bed operating under a thermal gradient of 440 to 1100{degrees}C. Postirradiation examination was carried out to characterize the Phase II in situ specimens and a series of nonvented capsules designed to address the compatibility of beryllium with lithium-ceramic solid-breeder materials. The results of the BEATRIX-II, Phase II, irradiation experiment provided an extensive data base on the in situ tritium-release characteristics of Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} for lithium burnups near 5%. The composition of the sweep gas was found to be a critical parameter in the recovery of tritium from both Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Tritium inventories measured confirmed that Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} exhibited very low tritium retention during the Phase II irradiation. Tritium inventories in Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} after Phase II tended to be larger than those found for Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} in other in situ experiments, but the larger values may reflect the larger generation rates in BEATRIX-II. A series of 20 capsules was irradiated to determine the compatibility of lithium ceramics and beryllium under conditions similar to a fusion blanket. It is concluded that Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} should remain leading candidates for use in a solid-breeder fusion-blanket application.

  7. EBR-II Data Digitization

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Su-Jong; Rabiti, Cristian; Sackett, John

    2014-08-01

    1. Objectives To produce a validation database out of those recorded signals it will be necessary also to identify the documents need to reconstruct the status of reactor at the time of the beginning of the recordings. This should comprehends the core loading specification (assemblies type and location and burn-up) along with this data the assemblies drawings and the core drawings will be identified. The first task of the project will be identify the location of the sensors, with respect the reactor plant layout, and the physical quantities recorded by the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) data acquisition system. This first task will allow guiding and prioritizing the selection of drawings needed to numerically reproduce those signals. 1.1 Scopes and Deliverables The deliverables of this project are the list of sensors in EBR-II system, the identification of storing location of those sensors, identification of a core isotopic composition at the moment of the start of system recording. Information of the sensors in EBR-II reactor system was summarized from the EBR-II system design descriptions listed in Section 1.2.

  8. Cd(II) and Pb(II) complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The natural polyether ionophorous antibiotics are used for the treatment of coccidiosis in poultry and ruminants. They are effective agents against infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms. On the other hand, it was found that some of these compounds selectively bind lead(II) ions in in vivo experiments, despite so far no Pb(II)-containing compounds of defined composition have been isolated and characterized. To assess the potential of polyether ionophores as possible antidotes in the agriculture, a detailed study on their in vitro complexation with toxic metal ions is required. In the present paper we report for the first time the preparation and the structure elucidation of salinomycin complexes with ions of cadmium(II) and lead(II). Results New metal(II) complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin with Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions were prepared and structurally characterized by IR, FAB-MS and NMR techniques. The spectroscopic information and elemental analysis data reveal that sodium salinomycin (SalNa) undergoes a reaction with heavy metal(II) ions to form [Cd(Sal)2(H2O)2] (1) and [Pb(Sal)(NO3)] (2), respectively. Abstraction of sodium ions from the cavity of the antibiotic is occurring during the complexation reaction. Salinomycin coordinates with cadmium(II) ions as a bidentate monoanionic ligand through the deprotonated carboxylic moiety and one of the hydroxyl groups to yield 1. Two salinomycin anions occupy the equatorial plane of the Cd(II) center, while two water molecules take the axial positions of the inner coordination sphere of the metal(II) cation. Complex 2 consists of monoanionic salinomycin acting in polydentate coordination mode in a molar ratio of 1: 1 to the metal ion with one nitrate ion for charge compensation. Conclusion The formation of the salinomycin heavy metal(II) complexes indicates a possible antidote activity of the ligand in case of chronic/acute intoxications likely to occur in the stock farming

  9. Titan II secondary payload capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, Aubrey J.; Nance, Milo; Odle, Roger C.

    Small satellite programs are often faced with the prospect of flying as a secondary payload because of size or funding considerations. This paper discusses a concept for flying such payloads on flights already scheduled on the Titan II SLV program over the next decade. The Titan II has the capability of inserting over 4200 lbs into LEO and larger payloads on ballistic trajectories from which higher orbits can be achieved when kick motors are used. Orbit changes are possible depending on the specific altitudes and payloads involved. Of the existing 13 remaining missions currently scheduled to fly on the Titan II SLV, excess performance is available on several missions that could be used to insert secondary payloads of up to 3000 lbs into their final orbit. This paper outlines an approach that would implement a secondary payload mission and allow small satellites to schedule a launch at a predetermined date through the year 2000.

  10. NSLS-II INJECTION CONCEPT.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAFTAN, T.; PINAYEV, I.; ROSE, J.; WANG, X.J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Currently the facility upgrade project is in progress at the NSLS (at Brookhaven National Laboratory). The goal of the NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-low-emittance storage ring that will increase radiation brightness by three orders of magnitude over that of the present NSLS X-ray ring. The low emittance of the high brightness ring's lattice results in a short lifetime, so that a top-off injection mode becomes an operational necessity. Therefore, the NSLS-II injection system must provide, and efficiently inject, an electron beam at a high repetition rate. In this paper, we present our concept of the NSLS-II injection system and discuss the conditions for, and constraints on, its design.

  11. The Belle II Physics Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piilonen, Leo; Belle Collaboration, II

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II experiment at the asymmetric e+e- SuperKEKB collider is a major upgrade of the Belle experiment, which ran at the KEKB collider at the KEK laboratory in Japan. The design luminosity of SuperKEKB is 8 ×1035 cm-2 s-1, which is about 40 times higher than that of KEKB. The expected integrated luminosity of Belle II is 50 ab-1 in five years of running. The experiment will focus on searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model via high precision measurements of heavy flavor decays, and searches for rare signals. To reach these goals, the accelerator, detector, electronics, software, and computing systems are all being substantially upgraded. In this talk we discuss the physics program and the expected sensitivity to new physics of the Belle II data set.

  12. Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Bulla, L.; Caria, G.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; De Pietro, G.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kambara, N.; Kang, K. H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kumar, R.; Kun, W.; Kvasnička, P.; La Licata, C.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Libby, J.; Lueck, T.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Resmi, P. K.; Rozanska, M.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Watanuki, S.; Watanabe, M.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.; Zani, L.

    2017-02-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB asymmetric energy e+e‑ collider in KEK, Japan will operate at an instantaneous luminosity 40 times larger than that of its predecessor, Belle. It is built with an aim of collecting a huge amount of data (50 ab‑1 by 2025) for precise CP violation measurements and new physics search. Thus, we need an accurate vertex determination and reconstruction of low momentum tracks which will be achieved with the help of vertex detector (VXD). The Belle II VXD consists of two layers of DEPFET pixels (`Pixel Detector') and four layers of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors (`Silicon Vertex Detector'), assembled over carbon fibre ribs. In this paper, we discuss about the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, especially its design and key features; we also present its module (`ladder') assembly and testing procedures.

  13. Administrative Plans. STIP II (Skill Training Improvement Programs Round II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA.

    Personnel policies, job responsibilities, and accounting procedures are summarized for the Los Angeles Community College District's Skill Training Improvement Programs (STIP II). This report first cites references to the established personnel and affirmative action procedures governing the program and then presents an organizational chart for the…

  14. Propulsion Systems for Aircraft. Aerospace Education II. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This curriculum guide accompanies another publication in the Aerospace Education II series entitled "Propulsion Systems for Aircraft." The guide includes specific guidelines for teachers on each chapter in the textbook. Suggestions are included for objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key…

  15. First results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.

    1994-07-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first five runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 76{sub {minus}18}{sup +21} (stat) {sub {minus}7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. combined with the SAGE I result, the capture rate is 74{sub {minus}12}{sup +13} (stat) {sub {minus}7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 56%--60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  16. Helium II level measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, D.; Hilton, D. K.; Zhang, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a survey of cryogenic liquid level measurement techniques applicable to superfluid helium (He II) is given. The survey includes both continuous and discrete measurement techniques. A number of different probes and controlling circuits for this purpose have been described in the literature. They fall into one of the following categories: capacitive liquid level gauges, superconducting wire liquid level gauges, thermodynamic (heat transfer-based) liquid level gauges, resistive gauges, ultrasound and transmission line-based level detectors. The present paper reviews these techniques and their suitability for He II service. In addition to these methods, techniques for measuring the total liquid volume and mass gauging are also discussed.

  17. Belle II Early Physics Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottler, Zachary; Belle Collaboration, II

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider is a major upgrade of the KEK `` B factory'' facility in Tsukuba, Japan. First beams are planned for early 2017 and first physics data will be recorded in the middle of 2018 during Phase 2 commissioning, while the Belle II detector is still missing its vertex detector system. In this talk we describe the physics program for this early data. The program will focus on bottomonium spectroscopy at different center-of-mass energies, in particular at the ϒ(3 S) and ϒ(6 S) resonances, amongst other energy points.

  18. Distributed Computing at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Vikas; Belle Collaboration, II

    2016-03-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan, will start physics data taking in 2018 and will accumulate 50 ab-1 of e+e- collision data, about 50 times larger than the data set of the earlier Belle experiment. The computing requirements of Belle II are comparable to those of a RUN I high-pT LHC experiment. Computing will make full use of high speed networking and of the Computing Grids in North America, Asia and Europe. Results of an initial MC simulation campaign with 5 ab-1 equivalent luminosity will be described.

  19. The PEP-II design

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.K.

    1995-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Positron Electron Project-II (PEP-II) is a design for a high-luminosity, asymmetric energy, electron-positron colliding beam accelerator that will operate at the center-of-mass energy of the {Upsilon}4S (10.58 GeV). The goal of the design is to achieve a large enough integrated luminosity with a moving center-of-mass reference frame to he able to observe the predicted rare decay modes of the {Upsilon}4S that do not conserve charge parity (CP).

  20. Division II: Sun and Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, David F.; Melrose, Donald B.; Benz, Arnold O.; Bogdan, Thomas J.; Bougeret, Jean-Louis; Klimchuk, James A.; Martinez Pillet, Valentin

    2007-03-01

    Division II of the IAU provides a forum for astronomers studying a wide range of phenomena related to the structure, radiation and activity of the Sun, and its interaction with the Earth and the rest of the solar system. Division II encompasses three Commissions, 10, 12 and 49, and four working groups. During the last triennia the activities of the division involved some reorganization of the division and its working groups, developing new procedures for election of division and commission officers, promoting annual meetings from within the division and evaluating all the proposed meetings, evaluating the division's representatives for the IAU to international scientific organizations, and participating in general IAU business.

  1. A new chelating resin for preconcentration and determination of Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maheswari, Mohan A; Subramanian, Mandakolathur S

    2003-01-01

    A new polychelatogen, AXAD-16-1,2-diphenylethanolamine, was developed by chemically modifying Amberlite XAD-16 with 1,2-diphenylethanolamine to produce an effective metal-chelating functionality for the preconcentration of Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Various physiochemical parameters that influence the quantitative preconcentration and recovery of metal were optimized by both static and dynamic techniques. The resin showed superior extraction efficiency with high-metal loading capacity values of 0.73, 0.80, 0.77, 0.87, 0.74, and 0.81 mmol/g for Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The system also showed rapid metal-ion extraction and stripping, with complete saturation in the sorbent phase within 15 min for all the metal ions. The optimum condition for effective metal-ion extraction was found to be a neutral pH, which is a great advantage in the preconcentration of trace metal ions from natural water samples without any chemical pretreatment of the sample. The resin also demonstrated exclusive ion selectivity toward targeted metal ions by showing greater resistivity to various complexing species and more common metal ions during analyte concentration, which ultimately led to high preconcentration factors of 700 for Cu(II); 600 for Mn(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II); and 500 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), arising from a larger sample breakthrough volume. The lower limits of metal-ion detection were 7 ng/mL for Mn(II) and Ni(II); 5 ng/mL for Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II), and 10 ng/mL for Pb(II). The developed resin was successful in preconcentrating metal ions from synthetic and real water samples, multivitamin-multimineral tablets, and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) with relative standard deviations of < or = 3.0% for all analytical measurements, which demonstrated its practical utility.

  2. Probing Our Heliospheric History II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Katherine; Redfield, S.

    2012-05-01

    A physical relationship between our local interstellar medium (ISM), galactic cosmic rays (GCR), and our planetary environment has long been a subject of interest to the astronomical community. Clouds of sufficient density to compress the heliosphere to within 1 AU are commonly seen throughout the galactic environment, including within the Local Bubble (LB). Such a compression would lead to an increase in the GCR flux at 1 AU and would have drastic consequences for many planetary processes such as atmospheric chemistry, lightning production, cloud cover, and DNA mutation rates for surface organisms. Prior to this work, we derived a column density profile of the ISM toward 49 bright stars along a narrow cone centered on the historical solar path. High resolution spectra were taken of NaI and CaII absorption out to a distance of 610 pc, with a median separation distance of 11 pc between adjacent stars. No absorption is seen out to a distance of 120 pc (consistent with the LB), but a complex number of absorbers is seen beyond. We now present the detection of several distinct clouds, their associated column densities, radial velocities, inferred distances, and size constraints. This combination of cloud properties allows us to derive a volume density profile of the ISM in the Sun's “rear-view mirror,” which represents one plausible record of actual ISM encounters for the Sun. We also make use of empirical relations to determine the effect these clouds would have on the historical heliosphere. Our analysis suggests that within the last 10 million years, if the Sun encountered a cloud with the same properties as we have detected along the solar historical trajectory, the Sun's termination shock would have resided inside the orbit of Uranus, with a GCR flux at Earth an order of magnitude greater than it is currently.

  3. 40 CFR Table II-1 to Subpart II of... - Emission Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission Factors II Table II-1 to Subpart II of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt. 98, Subpt. II, Table II-1...

  4. 40 CFR Table II-1 to Subpart II of... - Emission Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission Factors II Table II-1 to Subpart II of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt. 98, Subpt. II, Table II-1...

  5. Competitive effect of Cu(II) and Zn(II) on the biosorption of lead(II) by Myriophyllum spicatum.

    PubMed

    Yan, Changzhou; Li, Guoxin; Xue, Peiying; Wei, Qunshan; Li, Qingzhao

    2010-07-15

    Batch experiments were conducted to assess the effects of Cu(II) and Zn(II) on the biosorption of Pb(II) ions by fresh tissues of Myriophyllum spicatum. The biosorption of Pb(II) was examined for single, binary and ternary solutions at different initial concentrations and different pH values. The experimental results showed that the biosorption capacity increased with increasing pH from 2.0 to 6.0. Both Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions were found to have an adverse effect on the biosorption of Pb(II). The biosorption equilibrium data for single-metal solution were fitted to three isotherm models: Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips, and the Sips isotherm model gave the best fit for the experimental data. The maximum biosorption of Pb(II) in Pb-Cu binary system decreased with increasing concentration of copper ions, and the biosorption equilibrium data for the binary metal solution fitted the Langmuir competitive model well. Comparison between biosorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) by M. spicatum in the binary solution could lead to the conclusion that the biosorbent (M. spicatum) has no preference of Pb(II) over Cu(II). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the interaction between M. spicatum and Pb(II) ions. The results revealed that the carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups are the main binding sites for Pb(II). 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation and characterization of multi-carboxyl-functionalized silica gel for removal of Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Li, Ming-yu; Feng, Chang-gen; Zeng, Qing-xuan

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the multi-carboxyl-functionalized silica gel was prepared by surface grafting method and applied for the removal of Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) from aqueous solution. The adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR, thermogravimetry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement and elemental analysis, and it proved that the organic functional group, carboxyl group, was grafted successfully onto the silica gel surface. The effect of solution pH on removal efficiencies of Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) was investigated and it was found that with the exception of Zn (II), the removal efficiencies of the rest of metal ions increased with the increasing of pH in the solution, the maximum removal efficiency occurred at pH 6.0, whereas the maximum removal efficiency for Zn (II) was found to be at pH 7.0. Adsorption equilibrium data were well fitted to Langmuir than Freundlich isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity for Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) was 47.07, 41.48, 30.80 and 39.96 mg/g, respectively. Competitive adsorption experiments demonstrated that the adsorbent material had excellent adsorption amount and high affinity for the Cu (II) in the binary systems. In addition, the column experiments were used to investigate stability and reusability of the adsorbent, the dynamic adsorption performance, and desorption of metal ions absorbed from the adsorbent. The results confirmed that the adsorbent presents good dynamic adsorption performance for Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) and these metal ions adsorbed were easy to be desorbed from the adsorbent. The adsorption capacities of metal ions did not present an obvious decrease after five cycles of adsorption-desorption.

  7. Recent results from DORIS II

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a brief review of recent results from the ARGUS and Crystal Ball experiments at DORIS II, concentrating on UPSILON(1S) and UPSILON(2S) spectroscopy with a short foray into ..gamma gamma.. physics. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  8. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, John; Dooryhee, Eric; Wilkins, Stuart; Miller, Lisa; Chu, Yong

    2016-04-25

    NSLS-II is a synchrotron light source helping researchers explore solutions to the grand energy challenges faced by the nation, and open up new regimes of scientific discovery that will pave the way to discoveries in physics, chemistry, and biology — advances that will ultimately enhance national security and help drive the development of abundant, safe, and clean energy technologies.

  9. Application Programming in AWIPS II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, Matt; McGrath, Kevin; Burks, Jason; Carcione, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Since its inception almost 8 years ago, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has integrated NASA data into the National Weather Service's decision support system (DSS) the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SPoRT has, in some instances, had to shape and transform data sets into various formats and manipulate configurations to visualize them in AWIPS. With the advent of the next generation of DSS, AWIPS II, developers will be able to develop their own plugins to handle any type of data. Raytheon is developing AWIPS II to be a more extensible package written mainly in Java, and built around a Service Oriented Architecture. A plugin architecture will allow users to install their own code modules, and (if all the rules have been properly followed) they will work hand-in-hand with AWIPS II as if it were originally built in. Users can bring in new datasets with existing plugins, tweak plugins to handle a nuance or desired new functionality, or create an entirely new visualization layout for a new dataset. SPoRT is developing plugins to ensure its existing NASA data will be ready for AWIPS II when it is delivered, and to prepare for the future of new instruments on upcoming satellites.

  10. 40 K Fastrac II Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A 40 K Fastrac II duration test performed at Marshall Test Stand 116. The purpose of this test was to gauge the length of time between contact of TEA (Triethylenealuminum) and LOX (liquid oxygen) as an ignitor for the Fastrac engine.

  11. Psychiatric Aide II. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimericks, Belinda K.

    This instructor's guide is for a Psychiatric Aide II course intended to provide Psychiatric Aids Is who have demonstrated expertise in giving basic nursing care to the mentally ill with more advanced nursing interventions and techniques. (It is assumed that all nursing care the aides provide is under the direction of a Registered Nurse.)…

  12. RARE II: The Administration's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, M. Rupert

    1977-01-01

    RARE II is a new Roadless Area Review and Evaluation of the National Forest system. Administrators are attempting to inventory existing wilderness areas and to determine criteria for setting aside additional ones. This information will be used for the required 1980 update of the national assessment of forests and rangelands. (MA)

  13. NSLS-II RF SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Gash, W.; Holub, B.; Kawashima, Y.; Ma, H.; Towne, N.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II is a new third generation light source being constructed at Brookhaven Lab. The storage ring is optimized for low emittance by use of damping wigglers to reduce the emittance to below 1 nm-rad. The RF systems are designed to provide stable beam through tight RF phase and amplitude stability requirements.

  14. The Bender-Gestalt II.

    PubMed

    Brannigan, Gary G; Decker, Scott L

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, the Bender-Gestalt II was published. In the present article, the revision process is described, and major changes to the test are discussed. These changes include additional designs, a memory (recall) phase, Motor and Perception supplementary tests, a detailed observation form, a global scoring system, and a large, nationally representative normative base. Directions for future research are also provided.

  15. Achondrogenesis type II with polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rittler, M; Orioli, I M

    1995-11-06

    We report on a newborn male infant who presented the typical findings of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), and who also showed postaxial polydactyly on both feet and bilateral microtia. Polydactyly is frequently part of the short-rib syndromes, but has not been reported in achondrogenesis. The hypothesis of polydactyly as part of a contiguous gene syndrome is discussed.

  16. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema

    Hill, John; Dooryhee, Eric; Wilkins, Stuart; Miller, Lisa; Chu, Yong

    2016-07-12

    NSLS-II is a synchrotron light source helping researchers explore solutions to the grand energy challenges faced by the nation, and open up new regimes of scientific discovery that will pave the way to discoveries in physics, chemistry, and biology — advances that will ultimately enhance national security and help drive the development of abundant, safe, and clean energy technologies.

  17. Tech Area II: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, R.

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  18. Solar Ca II K Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertello, Luca; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Tlatov, Andrey; Singh, Jagdev

    2016-07-01

    Some of the most important archives of past and current long-term solar synoptic observations in the resonance line of Ca II K are described here. These observations are very important for understanding the state of the solar magnetism on time scales up to several decades. The first observations of this kind began in 1904 at the Kodaikanal Observatory (India), followed by similar programs at different other locations. Regular full-disk Ca II K monitoring programs started in 1915 at the Mount Wilson Observatory (USA) and in 1917 at the National Solar Observatory of Japan. Beginning in 1919 and in 1926 regular observations were taken also at the Paris-Meudon Observatory (France) and at the "Donati solar tower telescope of the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Italy, respectively. In 1926 the the Astronomical Observatory of the Coimbra University in Portugal started its own program of Ca II K observations. Although some of these programs have been terminated over the years, their data archives constitute a unique resource for studies of solar variability. In the early 1970s, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Sacramento Peak (USA) started a new program of daily Sun-as-a-star observations in the Ca II K line. Today the NSO is continuing these observations through its Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility.

  19. Electromagnetic calorimeter for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle-ECL; Aulchenko, V.; Bobrov, A.; Bondar, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Garmash, Yu; Goh, Y. M.; Kim, S. H.; Krokovny, P.; Kuzmin, A.; Lee, I. S.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Nakamura, I.; Shebalin, V.; Shwartz, B.; Unno, Y.; Usov, Yu; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobjev, V.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.

    2015-02-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter of the BELLE II detector for experiments at Super B-factory SuperKEKB is briefly described. The project of the calorimeter upgrade to meet severe background conditions expected at the upgraded KEK B factory is presented.

  20. ACRIM II Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-08-23

    ACRIM II Data and Information Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance ... Version:  V2 Level:  L2 Platform:  Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) ... NATIVE Tools:  Earthdata Search: Order Data HTML Order Tool:   Order Data Parameters:  ...

  1. The Impact of IMPACT II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale

    IMPACT II is a teacher-to-teacher networking program designed to improve teaching in New York City schools. Teachers who have been working on new ideas that need more refinement are eligible for $300 grants offered to program developers. Teachers who would like to adopt ideas previously developed by the program may receive $200 as replicator…

  2. Angiotensin II Enhances Connecting Tubule Glomerular Feedback (CTGF)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, YiLin; D’Ambrosio, Martin A.; Garvin, Jeffrey L.; Carretero, Oscar A.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing Na delivery to epithelial Na channels (ENaC) in the connecting tubule (CNT) causes dilation of the afferent arteriole (Af-Art), a process we call CNT glomerular feedback (CTGF). Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates ENaC in the collecting duct via AT1 receptors. We hypothesized that Ang II in the CNT lumen enhances CTGF by activation of AT1 receptors, protein kinase C (PKC) and ENaC. Rabbit Af-Arts and their adherent CNT were microperfused and preconstricted with norepinephrine. Each experiment involved generating two consecutive concentration-response curves by increasing NaCl in the CNT lumen. During the control period, the maximum dilation of the Af-Art was 7.9 ± 0.4 μm, and the concentration of NaCl in the CNT needed to achieve half maximal response (EC50) was 34.7 ± 5.2 mmol/L. After adding Ang II (10−9 mol/L) to the CNT lumen, the maximal response was 9.5 ± 0.7 μm and the EC50 was 11.6 ± 1.3 mmol/L (P=0.01 vs. control). Losartan, an AT1 antagonist (10−6 mol/L) blocked the stimulatory effect of Ang II, PD123319, an AT2 antagonist (10−6 mol/L) did not. The PKC inhibitor staurosporine (10−8 mol/L) added to the CNT inhibited the stimulatory effect of Ang II. The ENaC inhibitor benzamil (10−6 mol/L) prevented both CTGF and its stimulation by Ang II. We concluded that Ang II in the CNT lumen enhances CTGF via activation of AT1, and that this effect requires activation of PKC and ENaC. Potentiation of CTGF by Ang II could help preserve glomerular filtration rate in the presence of renal vasoconstriction. PMID:20696981

  3. Self-assembled decanuclear Na(I)2Mn(II)4Mn(III)4 complexes: from discrete clusters to 1-D and 2-D structures, with the Mn(II)4Mn(III)4 unit displaying a large spin ground state and probable SMM behaviour.

    PubMed

    Langley, Stuart K; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S

    2011-12-07

    The synthesis, magnetic characterization and X-ray crystal structures are reported for five new manganese compounds, [Mn(III)(teaH(2))(sal)]·(1/2)H(2)O (1), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(4)]·6MeOH (2), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(2)](n)·7MeOH (3), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(2)](n)·2MeOH·Et(2)O (4) and [K(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](n)·5MeOH (5). Complex 1 is a mononuclear compound, formed via the reaction of Mn(NO(3))(2)·4H(2)O, triethanolamine (teaH(3)) and salicylic acid (salH(2)) in a basic methanolic solution. Compound 2 is a mixed-valent hetero-metallic cluster made up of a Mn(8)Na(2) decanuclear core and is formed via the reaction of sodium azide (NaN(3)) with 1. Compounds 3-5 are isolated as 1- or 2-D coordination polymers, each containing the decanuclear Mn(8)M(2) (M = Na(+) or K(+)) core building block as the repeating unit. Compound 3 is isolated when 1 is reacted with NaN(3) over a very short reaction time and forms a 1-D coordination polymer. Each unit displays inter-cluster bridges via the O-atoms of teaH(2-) ligands bonding to the sodium ions of an adjacent cluster. Increasing the reaction time appears to drive the formation of 4 which forms 2-D polymeric sheets and is a packing polymorph of 3. The addition of KMnO(4) and NaN(3) to 1 resulted in compound 5, which also forms a 1-D coordination polymer of the decanuclear core unit. The 1-D chains are now linked via inter-cluster potassium and salicylate bridges. Solid state DC susceptibility measurements were performed on compounds 1-5. The data for 1 are as expected for an S = 2 Mn(III) ion, with the isothermal M vs. H data being fitted by matrix diagonalization methods to give values of g and the axial (D) and rhombic (E) zero field splitting parameters of 2.02, -2.70 cm(-1) and 0.36 cm(-1) respectively. The data for 2-5, each with an identical Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic, antimicrobial and DNA cleavage studies of new Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes with naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halli, Madappa B.; Sumathi, R. B.

    2012-08-01

    A series of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes have been synthesized with newly synthesized Schiff base derived from naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide and cinnamaldehyde. The elemental analyses of the complexes are confined to the stoichiometry of the type MLCl2 [M = Co(II) and Cu(II)], ML2Cl2 [M = Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II)] respectively, where L is Schiff base ligand. Structures have been proposed from elemental analyses, IR, electronic, mass, 1H NMR, ESR spectral data, magnetic, and thermal studies. The measured low molar conductance values in DMF indicate that the complexes are non-electrolytes. Spectroscopic studies suggest coordination occurs through azomethine nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of the ligand with the metal ions. The Schiff base and its complexes have been screened for their antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi) and antifungal (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium and Candida albicans) activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The DNA cleavage studies by agarose gel electrophoresis method was studied for all the complexes.

  5. Comparative studies of aerosol extinction measurements made by the SAM II and SAGE II satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, Glenn K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Wang, P.; Osborn, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    Results from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared for measurement locations which are coincident in time and space. At 1.0 micron, the SAM II and SAGE II aerosol extinction profiles are similar within their measurement errors. In addition, sunrise and sunset aerosol extinction data at four different wavelengths are compared for occasions when the SAGE II and SAM II measurements are nearly coincident in space and about 12 hours apart.

  6. Epilepsy Care in Developing Countries: Part II of II

    PubMed Central

    Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2010-01-01

    Although 80% of people with epilepsy reside in resource poor, developing countries, epilepsy care in these regions remains limited and the majority of epilepsy patients go untreated. Cost-effective, sustainable epilepsy care services, delivering first-line antiepileptic drugs through established primary health care facilities, are needed to decrease these treatment gaps. Neurologists with local experience and knowledge of the culture, who are willing to serve as educators, policy advisors, and advocates, can make a difference. This is Part II of a two-part article. Part I reviewed the burden of epilepsy and the current state of resources for treatment in developing countries, while Part II will now discuss various aspects of care in these countries. PMID:20944819

  7. Binding Selectivity of Methanobactin from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b for Copper(I), Silver(I), Zinc(II), Nickel(II), Cobalt(II), Manganese(II), Lead(II), and Iron(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, Jacob W.; Vangala, Rajpal; Angel, Laurence A.

    2017-08-01

    Methanobactin (Mb) from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b is a member of a class of metal binding peptides identified in methanotrophic bacteria. Mb will selectively bind and reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I), and is thought to mediate the acquisition of the copper cofactor for the enzyme methane monooxygenase. These copper chelating properties of Mb make it potentially useful as a chelating agent for treatment of diseases where copper plays a role including Wilson's disease, cancers, and neurodegenerative diseases. Utilizing traveling wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry (TWIMS), the competition for the Mb copper binding site from Ag(I), Pb(II), Co(II), Fe(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) has been determined by a series of metal ion titrations, pH titrations, and metal ion displacement titrations. The TWIMS analyses allowed for the explicit identification and quantification of all the individual Mb species present during the titrations and measured their collision cross-sections and collision-induced dissociation patterns. The results showed Ag(I) and Ni(II) could irreversibly bind to Mb and not be effectively displaced by Cu(I), whereas Ag(I) could also partially displace Cu(I) from the Mb complex. At pH ≈ 6.5, the Mb binding selectivity follows the order Ag(I)≈Cu(I)>Ni(II)≈Zn(II)>Co(II)>>Mn(II)≈Pb(II)>Fe(II), and at pH 7.5 to 10.4 the order is Ag(I)>Cu(I)>Ni(II)>Co(II)>Zn(II)>Mn(II)≈Pb(II)>Fe(II). Breakdown curves of the disulfide reduced Cu(I) and Ag(I) complexes showed a correlation existed between their relative stability and their compact folded structure indicated by their CCS. Fluorescence spectroscopy, which allowed the determination of the binding constant, compared well with the TWIMS analyses, with the exception of the Ni(II) complex. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Research Summary No. 36-6, Volume II. Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    The Research Summary is a bimonthly report of supporting research and development conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This periodical is issued in three volumes. Volume I contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Space Sciences, Systems, Guidance and Control, and Telecommunications Divisions of the Laboratory. Volume II contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Physical Sciences, Engineering Mechanics, Engineering Facilities, and Propulsion Divisions. All work of a classified nature is contained in Volume Ill.

  9. Research Summary No. 36-5, Volume II. Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Research Summary is a bimonthly report of supporting research and development conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This periodical is issued in three volumes. Volume I contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Space Sciences, Systems, Guidance and Control, and Telecommunications Divisions of the Laboratory. Volume II contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Physical Sciences, Engineering Mechanics, Engineering Facilities, and Propulsion Divisions. All work of a classified nature is contained in Volume Ill.

  10. Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a series of three interlocking imaging and spectroscopic surveys, carried out over an eight-year period with a dedicated 2.5m telescope located at Apache Point Observatory in Southern New Mexico. The SDSS Supernova Survey was one of those three components of SDSS and SDSS-II, a 3-year extension of the original SDSS that operated from July 2005 to July 2008. The Supernova Survey was a time-domain survey, involving repeat imaging of the same region of sky every other night, weather permitting. The primary scientific motivation was to detect and measure light curves for several hundred supernovae through repeat scans of the SDSS Southern equatorial stripe 82 (about 2.5? wide by ~120? long). Over the course of three 3-month campaigns SDSS-II SN discovered and measured multi-band lightcurves for ~500 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range z=0.05-0.4. In addition, the project harvested a few hundred light curves for SNe Ia and discovered about 80 spectroscopically confirmed core-collapse supernovae (supernova types Ib/c and II).

  11. Removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution using rice husk-based activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Mohd F. Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Shuib, Anis Suhaila Borhan, Azry

    2014-10-24

    An attempt was made to investigate the potential of rice husk-based activated carbon as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Rice husk-based activated carbon was prepared via treatment of rice husk with NaOH followed by the carbonization process at 400°C for 2 hours. Three samples, i.e. raw rice husk, rice husk treated with NaOH and rice husk-based activated carbon, were analyzed for their morphological characteristics using field-emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX). These samples were also analyzed for their carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and silica contents using CHN elemental analyzer and FESEM/EDX. The porous properties of rice husk-based activated carbon were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, and its surface area and pore volume were 255 m{sup 2}/g and 0.17 cm{sup 2}/g, respectively. The adsorption studies for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution were carried out at a fixed initial concentration of metal ion (150 ppm) with variation amount of adsorbent (rice husk-based activated carbon) as a function of varied contact time at room temperature. The concentration of each metal ion was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained from adsorption studies indicate the potential of rice husk as an economically promising precursor for the preparation of activated carbon for removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Isotherm and kinetic model analyses suggested that the experimental data of adsorption studies fitted well with Langmuir, Freundlich and second-order kinetic models.

  12. Removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution using rice husk-based activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Mohd F.; Shuib, Anis Suhaila; Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Borhan, Azry

    2014-10-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the potential of rice husk-based activated carbon as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Rice husk-based activated carbon was prepared via treatment of rice husk with NaOH followed by the carbonization process at 400°C for 2 hours. Three samples, i.e. raw rice husk, rice husk treated with NaOH and rice husk-based activated carbon, were analyzed for their morphological characteristics using field-emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX). These samples were also analyzed for their carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and silica contents using CHN elemental analyzer and FESEM/EDX. The porous properties of rice husk-based activated carbon were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, and its surface area and pore volume were 255 m2/g and 0.17 cm2/g, respectively. The adsorption studies for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution were carried out at a fixed initial concentration of metal ion (150 ppm) with variation amount of adsorbent (rice husk-based activated carbon) as a function of varied contact time at room temperature. The concentration of each metal ion was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained from adsorption studies indicate the potential of rice husk as an economically promising precursor for the preparation of activated carbon for removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Isotherm and kinetic model analyses suggested that the experimental data of adsorption studies fitted well with Langmuir, Freundlich and second-order kinetic models.

  13. Cytotoxic copper(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II), and nickel(II) coordination compounds of clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Betanzos-Lara, Soledad; Gómez-Ruiz, Celedonio; Barrón-Sosa, Lidia R; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Flores-Álamo, Marcos; Barba-Behrens, Noráh

    2012-09-01

    Sixteen novel mononuclear Cu(II), Co(II), Zn(II), and Ni(II) complexes of the biologically active ligand clotrimazole (clotri) of the forms [M(clotri)(2)Cl(2)]·nH(2)O (1-4), [M(clotri)(2)Br(2)]·nH(2)O (5-7), [M(clotri)(3)Br(2)] (8), [M(clotri)(3)NO(3)]NO(3)·nH(2)O (9, 11), [M(clotri)(3)(NO(3))(2)]·nH(2)O (10), and [M(clotri)(3)(OH(2))(2)NO(3)]NO(3)·nH(2)O (12) were synthesized and fully characterized. Dinuclear [Cu(2)(clotri)(4)μ(2)-Cl(4)]·2H(2)O (1a) and [Cu(2)(clotri)(4)μ(2)-Br(2)]·2H(2)O (5b) as well as tetranuclear [Cu(4)(clotri)(4)μ(4)-Br(6)μ(4)-O] (5a) complexes were also isolated. Complexes 1-7, 9, and 11 present a tetrahedral geometry; complex 8 exhibits a pentacoordinated structure; complexes 1a, 10 and 12 an octahedral geometry. X-ray crystal structures of [Cu(clotri)(2)Cl(2)](1), [Cu(clotri)(2)(EtOH)Cl(2)](1·EtOH), [Zn(clotri)(2)Cl(2)] (3), [Zn(clotri)(2)Br(2)] (7), and [Cu(4)(clotri)(4)μ(4)-Br(6)μ(4)-O] (5a) were obtained. Complexes 1-12 were tested for cytotoxic activity against the human carcinoma cell lines HeLa (cervix-uterine), PC3 (prostate), and HCT-15 (colon) displaying IC(50) values <30 μM. Confocal microscopy and nuclear dying (DAPI) for complex 1 showed condensation of cromatin and nuclear membrane fragmentation. Immunocytochemical detection/expression of biomarkers suggests that complexes 1 and 9 induce cell death via apoptosis. TUNEL assay detected DNA fragmentation in HeLa cells, resulting from apoptotic signaling cascades induced by Cu(II) complexes 1 and 9. (1)H NMR studies of the Zn(II) complexes showed that they can bind to nucleotides.

  14. Cytosolic Ni(II) Sensor in Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Patterson, Carl J.; Pernil, Rafael; Hess, Corinna R.; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2012-01-01

    Efflux of surplus Ni(II) across the outer and inner membranes of Synechocystis PCC 6803 is mediated by the Nrs system under the control of a sensor of periplasmic Ni(II), NrsS. Here, we show that the product of ORF sll0176, which encodes a CsoR/RcnR-like protein now designated InrS (for internal nickel-responsive sensor), represses nrsD (NrsD is deduced to efflux Ni(II) across the inner membrane) from a cryptic promoter between the final two ORFs in the nrs operon. Transcripts initiated from the newly identified nrsD promoter accumulate in response to nickel or cobalt but not copper, and recombinant InrS forms specific, Ni(II)-inhibited complexes with the nrsD promoter region. Metal-dependent difference spectra of Ni(II)- and Cu(I)-InrS are similar to Cu(I)-sensing CsoR and dissimilar to Ni(II)/Co(II)-sensing RcnR, consistent with factors beyond the primary coordination sphere switching metal selectivity. Competition with chelators mag-fura-2, nitrilotriacetic acid, EDTA, and EGTA estimate KD Ni(II) for the tightest site of InrS as 2.05 (±1.5) × 10−14 m, and weaker KD Ni(II) for the cells' metal sensors of other types: Zn(II) co-repressor Zur, Co(II) activator CoaR, and Zn(II) derepressor ZiaR. Ni(II) transfer to InrS occurs upon addition to Ni(II) forms of each other sensor. InrS binds Ni(II) sufficiently tightly to derepress Ni(II) export at concentrations below KD Ni(II) of the other sensors. PMID:22356910

  15. Belle II silicon vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Enami, K.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C. W.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-09-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.

  16. Jefferson Lab's Trim Card II

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Allison; Sarin Philip; C. Higgins; Edward Martin; William Merz

    2005-05-01

    Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) uses Trim Card I power supplies to drive approximately 1900 correction magnets. These trim cards have had a long and illustrious service record. However, some of the employed technology is now obsolete, making it difficult to maintain the system and retain adequate spares. The Trim Card II is being developed to act as a transparent replacement for its aging predecessor. A modular approach has been taken in its development to facilitate the substitution of sections for future improvements and maintenance. The resulting design has been divided into a motherboard and 7 daughter cards which has also allowed for parallel development. The Trim Card II utilizes modern technologies such as a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a microprocessor to embed trim card controls and diagnostics. These reprogrammable devices also provide the versatility to incorporate future requirements.

  17. [Mucolipidoses type II. Case report].

    PubMed

    Aracena, Mariana; Mabe, Paulina; Mena, María; Andreani, Silvia; Daza, Claudio

    2003-03-01

    We report a female newborn with type II mucolipidoses. This condition is characterized clinically by Hurler like features, progressive psychomotor retardation and death during the first or second year of life. Most cases present during the first year of life, with poor weight gain and coarse facies features. The cause of this rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease is the deficiency of the enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase, required for the synthesis of mannose-6-phosphate, the ligand that allows the transport of acid hydrolases into lysosomes. The patient had clinical features commonly found in mucolipidosis II, including disproportionate dwarfism, retarded psychomotor development, coarse facies features, gibbous and restricted joint mobility. The diagnosis was proved by an extremely elevated activity of lysosomal enzymes in the serum, secondary to non-regulated secretion and subsequent intracellular depletion of these proteins. The child suffered recurrent pneumonia and died at 22 months of age.

  18. Spectral, IR and magnetic studies of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with pyrrole-2-carboxyaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (L).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Anil

    2007-11-01

    Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes are synthesized with thiosemicarbazone (L) derived from pyrrole-2-carboxyaldehyde. These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurement, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurement of the complexes in DMSO indicates that the complexes are non-electrolyte except Co(L)2(NO3)2 and Ni(L)2(NO3)2 complexes which are 1:2 electrolyte. All the complexes are of high-spin type. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry may be assigned for Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes except Co(L)2(NO3)2 and Ni(L)2(NO3)2 which are of tetrahedral geometry. A tetragonal geometry may be suggested for Cu(II) complexes.

  19. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Type II Endoleaks

    PubMed Central

    Kuziez, Mohamed S; Sanchez, Luis A; Zayed, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Type II endoleaks occur commonly following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Although they remain enigmatic, multiples studies have evaluated preoperative risk factors and strategies for prevention of type II endoleaks. Prophylactic treatment of type II endoleaks can include embolization of accessory arteries, as well as complete aneurysmal sac occlusion. Regular post-operative surveillance and screening for type II endoleaks with triple-phase CTA is the standard of care. Aneurysm size and growth rate are factors that predict whether a persistence type II endoleak is hemodynamically significant, and whether it requires treatment with percutaneous trans-lumbar or trans-arterial embolization techniques. Less commonly, type II endoleaks can be repaired using laparoscopic or open surgical ligation of feeder arterial branches. Emerging methods using endovascular aneurysm sac sealing technology may continue to alter the incidence and long-term management strategies of type II endoleaks. Here we review the latest strategies in the treatment of Type II endoleaks following EVAR. PMID:27857945

  20. Terrestrial Gamma Flashes at Ground Level - TETRA II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Adams, C.; Bai, S.; Baum, Z.; Hoffman, J.; Khosravi, E.; Legault, M.; Pleshinger, D. J.; Rodriguez, R.; Smith, D.; Sunda-Meya, A.; Trepanier, J.; Ward, A.

    2016-12-01

    An upgraded version of the TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA-II) consists of an array of BGO scintillators located on the campus of the University of Puerto Rico at Utuado. TETRA-II began operation in May 2016. When it is fully operational, TETRA-II will have approximately 10 × the sensitivity of the original TETRA array of NaI scintillators at Louisiana State University that detected 37 millisecond bursts of gamma rays at energies 50 keV - 2 MeV associated with nearby (< 8 km) thunderstorms. The ability to observe ground-level Terrestrial Gamma Flashes from close to the source allows a unique analysis of the storm cells producing these events. A brief description of the TETRA observations, a description of TETRA-II, and preliminary TETRA-II results will be presented.

  1. High Na intake increases renal angiotensin II levels and reduces expression of the ACE2-AT2R-MasR axis in obese Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Preethi; Ali, Quaisar; Sabuhi, Rifat; Wu, Yonnie

    2012-01-01

    High sodium intake is known to regulate the renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. The complex nature of the RAS reveals that its various components may have opposing effects on natriuresis and blood pressure regulation. We hypothesized that high sodium intake differentially regulates and shifts a balance between opposing components of the renal RAS, namely, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-ANG II-type 1 ANG II receptor (AT1R) vs. AT2-ACE2-angiotensinogen (Ang) (1–7)-Mas receptor (MasR), in obesity. In the present study, we evaluated protein and/or mRNA expression of angiotensinogen, renin, AT1A/BR, ACE, AT2R, ACE2, and MasR in the kidney cortex following 2 wk of a 8% high-sodium (HS) diet in lean and obese Zucker rats. The expression data showed that the relative expression pattern of ACE and AT1BR increased, renin decreased, and ACE2, AT2R, and MasR remained unaltered in HS-fed lean rats. On the other hand, HS intake in obese rats caused an increase in the cortical expression of ACE, a decrease in ACE2, AT2R, and MasR, and no changes in renin and AT1R. The cortical levels of ANG II increased by threefold in obese rats on HS compared with obese rats on normal salt (NS), which was not different than in lean rats. The HS intake elevated mean arterial pressure in obese rats (27 mmHg) more than in lean rats (16 mmHg). This study suggests that HS intake causes a pronounced increase in ANG II levels and a reduction in the expression of the ACE2-AT2R-MasR axis in the kidney cortex of obese rats. We conclude that such changes may lead to the potentially unopposed function of AT1R, with its various cellular and physiological roles, including the contribution to the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. PMID:22592638

  2. High Na intake increases renal angiotensin II levels and reduces expression of the ACE2-AT(2)R-MasR axis in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Preethi; Ali, Quaisar; Sabuhi, Rifat; Wu, Yonnie; Hussain, Tahir

    2012-08-01

    High sodium intake is known to regulate the renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. The complex nature of the RAS reveals that its various components may have opposing effects on natriuresis and blood pressure regulation. We hypothesized that high sodium intake differentially regulates and shifts a balance between opposing components of the renal RAS, namely, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-ANG II-type 1 ANG II receptor (AT(1)R) vs. AT(2)-ACE2-angiotensinogen (Ang) (1-7)-Mas receptor (MasR), in obesity. In the present study, we evaluated protein and/or mRNA expression of angiotensinogen, renin, AT(1A/B)R, ACE, AT(2)R, ACE2, and MasR in the kidney cortex following 2 wk of a 8% high-sodium (HS) diet in lean and obese Zucker rats. The expression data showed that the relative expression pattern of ACE and AT(1B)R increased, renin decreased, and ACE2, AT(2)R, and MasR remained unaltered in HS-fed lean rats. On the other hand, HS intake in obese rats caused an increase in the cortical expression of ACE, a decrease in ACE2, AT(2)R, and MasR, and no changes in renin and AT(1)R. The cortical levels of ANG II increased by threefold in obese rats on HS compared with obese rats on normal salt (NS), which was not different than in lean rats. The HS intake elevated mean arterial pressure in obese rats (27 mmHg) more than in lean rats (16 mmHg). This study suggests that HS intake causes a pronounced increase in ANG II levels and a reduction in the expression of the ACE2-AT(2)R-MasR axis in the kidney cortex of obese rats. We conclude that such changes may lead to the potentially unopposed function of AT(1)R, with its various cellular and physiological roles, including the contribution to the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension.

  3. Recovery of EDTA from complex solution using Cu(II) as precipitant and Cu(II) subsequent removal by electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Gyliene, O; Aikaite, J; Nivinskiene, O

    2004-12-10

    Ethylendiaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is a chelating agent widely used in industry and agriculture. Resistant to chemical and biological degradation EDTA represents a serious ecological problem. In order to avoid the outlet into the environment a new method of EDTA recycling has been proposed. The method involves substituting of the metal ions in EDTA complexes by Cu(II) and formation of an insoluble Cu2EDTA.4H2O compound at the excess of Cu(II) ions in weakly acidic solutions. Cu(II) ions substitute such metal ions as Ni(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Ca(II) and Mg(II). After treatment of the precipitate with water only, acidic or alkaline solutions the copper from the suspension formed can be removed by electrolysis. The highest current efficiency under galvanostatic conditions is in alkaline solutions, however, the highest yield of EDTA recovery is in acidic solutions. FT-IR investigations and chemical analysis of the precipitate formed have shown that in acidic and in alkaline solutions, H4EDTA and Na2H2EDTA.2H2O were formed, respectively. Electrolysis in acidic solutions gives the best results, i.e. the formed H4EDTA contains the highest amount of EDTA (95%) and the lowest amount of copper (0.01%).

  4. Preliminary Results from ARCADE II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Wollack, E.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Lubin, P.; Levin, S.; Seiffert, M.

    2006-12-01

    The ARCADE II instrument was designed to compare the cosmic microwave background spectrum to a blackbody spectrum at long (cm) wavelengths where the first stars are predicted to distort the ideal spectrum of the big bang. Reionization generates larger relative distortions at low frequencies. ARCADE II observed at 5 frequencies (3, 8, 10, 30 & 90 GHz). Each radiometer has a corrugated feed horn, a Dicke switch, internal calibrator, and amplifier mounted in an open liquid helium Dewar. The Dewar is 1.5 m in diameter and 1.8 m deep. The ARCADE II employs a double difference scheme to control systematic errors, similar to the design of the COBE FIRAS instrument. The input to each radiometer is switched at 75 Hz between its internal calibrator and its horn antenna. The horn can observe either the sky or an external calibrator which is temperature controled to match the temperature of the CMB. Detailed thermal charactorization of the external calibrator is enabled by 35 RuO thermometers embedded in the calibrator. The external calibrator has demonstrated 2.725 K operation even in the residual atmosphere at balloon altitudes. The ARCADE II was launched on a balloon from Palestine TX on 2006 July 28. Approximately 3 hours of data were obtained, at 115000 feet, that allow calibration of the instrument and precise measurements of the spectrum of the CMB down to 3 GHz. The 12 degree beams of the radiometers were swept across the sky to show the Galaxy as well as the CMB. Pictures taken in flight show that cryogenic surfaces open to the sky can remain relatively frost free for hours with proper helium gas flow.

  5. Particle Identification at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandilya, S.; Belle Collaboration, II

    2016-11-01

    We report on the charged particle identification (PID) systems for the upcoming Belle II experiment. The time of propagation counter in the central region and the proximity focusing ring imaging Cherenkov counters with aerogel radiator in the forward region will be used as the PID devices. They are expected to provide a kaon identification efficiency of more than 94% at a low pion misidentification probability of 4%. The motivation for the upgrade, method and status of both systems are discussed.

  6. PEP-II Operations Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2000-11-01

    PEP-II is a two-ring asymmetric B factory operating at the Upsilon(4S) resonance. It was constructed by a SLAC-LBNL-LLNL collaboration. The collider comprises two rings, a High-Energy Ring (HER) storing 9 GeV electrons, and a Low-Energy Ring (LER) storing 3.1 GeV positrons. Commissioning of the HER began in mid-1997 and commissioning of the LER began in mid-1998. First evidence for collisions was obtained on July 23, 1998. The BaBar detector was installed in early 1999, and commissioning with the detector commenced in May 1999. By September 1999, PEP-II had reached a peak luminosity of 1.35 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. In the present run, which began in October 1999, the peak luminosity has reached 3.1 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} and the integrated luminosity delivered is 25 fb{sup {minus}1}. At present, PEP-II is the world's highest luminosity collider. In this paper we describe the startup experience and summarize the operational experience during fiscal year 2000 (from October 1999 through September 2000). Plan s for luminosity upgrades are briefly described.

  7. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This 'light echo' offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves.

  8. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  9. Testing the Gossamer Albatross II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Gossamer Albatross II is seen here during a test flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The original Gossamer Albatross is best known for completing the first completely human powered flight across the English Channel on June 12, 1979. The Albatross II was the backup craft for the Channel flight. It was fitted with a small battery-powered electric motor and flight instruments for the NASA research program in low-speed flight. NASA completed its flight testing of the Gossamer Albatross II and began analysis of the results in April, 1980. During the six week program, 17 actual data gathering flights and 10 other flights were flown here as part of the joint NASA Langley/Dryden flight research program. The lightweight craft, carrying a miniaturized instrumentation system, was flown in three configurations; using human power, with a small electric motor, and towed with the propeller removed. Results from the program contributed to data on the unusual aerodynamic, performance, stability, and control characteristics of large, lightweight aircraft that fly at slow speeds for application to future high altitude aircraft. The Albatross' design and research data contributed to numerous later high altitude projects, including the Pathfinder.

  10. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. )

    1993-01-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  11. An absorption-selected survey of neutral gas in the Milky Way halo. New results based on a large sample of Ca ii, Na i, and H i spectra towards QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Bekhti, N.; Winkel, B.; Richter, P.; Kerp, J.; Klein, U.; Murphy, M. T.

    2012-06-01

    Aims: We aim at analysing systematically the distribution and physical properties of neutral and mildly ionised gas in the Milky Way halo, based on a large absorption-selected data set. Methods: Multi-wavelength studies were performed combining optical absorption line data of Ca ii and Na i with follow-up H i 21-cm emission line observations along 408 sight lines towards low- and high-redshift QSOs. We made use of archival optical spectra obtained with UVES/VLT. H i data were extracted from the Effelsberg-Bonn H i survey and the Galactic All-Sky survey. For selected sight lines we obtained deeper follow-up observations using the Effelsberg 100-m telescope. Results: Ca ii (Na i) halo absorbers at intermediate and high radial velocities are present in 40-55% (20-35%) of the sightlines, depending on the column density threshold chosen. Many halo absorbers show multi-component absorption lines, indicating the presence of sub-structure. In 65% of the cases, absorption is associated with H i 21-cm emission. The Ca ii (Na i) column density distribution function follows a power-law with a slope of β ≈ -2.2 (-1.4). Conclusions: Our absorption-selected survey confirms our previous results that the Milky Way halo is filled with a large number of neutral gas structures whose high column density tail represents the population of common H i high- and intermediate-velocity clouds seen in 21-cm observations. We find that Na i/Ca ii column density ratios in the halo absorbers are typically smaller than those in the Milky Way disc, in the gas in the Magellanic Clouds, and in damped Lyman α systems. The small ratios (prominent in particular in high-velocity components) indicate a lower level of Ca depletion onto dust grains in Milky Way halo absorbers compared to gas in discs and inner regions of galaxies. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/542/A110

  12. Spectroscopic studies on Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with a N4-macrocylic ligands.

    PubMed

    Swamy, S J; Pola, Someshwar

    2008-09-01

    Complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) with a new tetraaza macrocyclic ligand have been synthesized and characterized by microanalyses, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, mass, thermogravimetric (TGA), IR, 1H and 13C NMR, electronic and ESR spectral studies. All the complexes are found to have the formula [MLX2]x nH2O and are six-coordinated with distorted octahedral geometry.

  13. Demonstration of Spray Booth Recirculation and Partitioning - Phase II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    electrostatic paint spray enclosures, such as the high volume, low pressure ( HVLP ) systems employed at Barstow MCLB, a minimum linear velocity of 100 fpm must be...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Demonstration of Spray Booth Recirculation and Partitioning - Phase II N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) D. Proffitt, R.K. Clayton, & J...ANSI Std. Z39-18 298-102 * , 85-1996 Demonstration of Spray Booth Recirculation and Partitioning - Phase II David Proffitt and Russell K. Clayton

  14. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated augmentation of renal interstitial fluid angiotensin II in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Akira; Seth, Dale M; Navar, L Gabriel

    2003-10-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension is associated with augmented intrarenal concentrations of Ang II; however, the distribution of the increased intrarenal Ang II has not been fully established. To determine the changes in renal interstitial fluid Ang II concentrations in Ang II-induced hypertension and the consequences of treatment with an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker. Rats were selected to receive vehicle (5% acetic acid subcutaneously; n = 6), Ang II (80 ng/min subcutaneously, via osmotic minipump; n = 7) or Ang II plus an AT1 receptor antagonist, candesartan cilexetil (10 mg/kg per day, in drinking water; n = 6) for 13-14 days, at which time, experiments were performed on anesthetized rats. Microdialysis probes were implanted in the renal cortex and were perfused at 2 microl/min. The effluent dialysate concentrations of Ang I and Ang II were measured by radioimmunoassay and reported values were corrected for the equilibrium rates at this perfusion rate. Ang II-infused rats developed greater mean arterial pressures (155 +/- 7 mmHg) than vehicle-infused rats (108 +/- 3 mmHg). Ang II-infused rats showed greater plasma (181 +/- 30 fmol/ml) and kidney (330 +/- 38 fmol/g) Ang II concentrations than vehicle-infused rats (98 +/- 14 fmol/ml and 157 +/- 22 fmol/g, respectively). Renal interstitial fluid Ang II concentrations were much greater than plasma concentrations, averaging 5.74 +/- 0.26 pmol/ml in Ang II-infused rats - significantly greater than those in vehicle-infused rats (2.86 +/- 0.23 pmol/ml). Candesartan treatment prevented the hypertension (87 +/- 3 mmHg) and led to increased plasma Ang II concentrations (441 +/- 27 fmol/ml), but prevented increases in kidney (120 +/- 15 fmol/g) and renal interstitial fluid (2.15 +/- 0.12 pmol/ml) Ang II concentrations. These data indicate that Ang II-infused rats develop increased renal interstitial fluid concentrations of Ang II, which may contribute to the increased vascular resistance and

  15. Masfile--II Pilot Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Five Associated Univ. Libraries, Syracuse, NY.

    The report prepared for the Five Associated University Libraries (FAUL) by the Technical Information Dissemination Bureau (TIDB) at Suny-Buffalo is divided into nine sections: (1) a summary of procedures used to accomplish the specified MASFILE-II tasks; (2) a graphic comparison of the MARC-II and the MASFILE-II formats; (3) recommend…

  16. Biosorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions by cross-linked metal-imprinted chitosans with epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Arh-Hwang

    2011-03-01

    Cross-linked metal-imprinted chitosan microparticles were prepared from chitosan, using four metals (Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II)) as templates, and epichlorohydrin as the cross-linker. The microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. They were used for comparative biosorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the sorption capacities of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) on the templated microparticles increased from 25 to 74%, 13 to 46%, 41 to 57%, and 12 to 43%, respectively, as compared to the microparticles without metal ion templates. The dynamic study showed that the sorption process followed the second-order kinetic equation. Three sorption models, Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich, were applied to the equilibrium isotherm data. The result showed that the Langmuir isotherm equation best fitted for monolayer sorption processes. Furthermore, the microparticles can be regenerated and reused for the metal removal.

  17. Neurofibromatosis type II: a rare neurocutaneous syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Tipu; Khan, Ashfa Ameer; Malik, Muhammad Akbar; Nadeem, Malik Muhammad; Rahman, Mahfooz-Ur-; Khan, Malik Muhammad Nazir

    2007-06-01

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are heterogeneous group of disorders with abnormalities of central as well as peripheral nervous system. Neurofibromatosis type II (NF-II) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome rarely diagnosed in pediatric population. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and radioimaging. We present a 14 years old boy with headache and decreased hearing, who turned to be a case of neurofibromatosis type II.

  18. Argus II retinal prosthesis system: An update.

    PubMed

    Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Yuan, Alex

    2016-09-01

    This review focuses on a description of the Argus II retinal prosthesis system (Argus II; Second Sight Medical Products, Sylmar, CA) that was approved for humanitarian use by the FDA in 2013 in patients with retinitis pigmentosa with bare or no light perception vision. The article describes the components of Argus II, the studies on the implant, and future directions.

  19. Neurofibromatosis type II presenting as vertical diplopia.

    PubMed

    Sokwala, Ahmed; Knapp, Christopher; Gottlob, Irene

    2004-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type II (NF II) is rare and most commonly presents with hearing loss, tinnitus and/or vestibular disturbance in the third decade of life. The authors describe a rare case presenting with NF II with vertical diplopia due to IV(th) nerve palsy. The patient was otherwise asymptomatic despite multiple extensive lesions on MRI.

  20. Comparative Studies on Periodatocuprate(II, III) and Telluratocuprate(II, III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingmei, Wu; Qiang, Su; Gang, Hu; Yufang, Ren

    1995-02-01

    The crystal structures, electronic spectra, and Cu2 p XPS of Cu(III) complexes Na 4H[Cu(H 2TeO 6) 2] · 17H 2O and Na 4K[Cu (HIO 6) 2] · 12H2O have been described. The characterizations of a Cu(III) atom in a complex are as follows: (i) In a square-planar coordination, the average bond length of Cu-O is 0.183 nm, shorter than the 0.190-0.200 nm found for a Cu(II) complex. (2) The "blue shift" occurs for d-d transitions in the electronic spectrum of the Cu(III) complex compared to those of its related Cu(II) complex, resulting from the higher valence state. (3) Cu(III) compounds with CuO 4 square-planar coordination are expected to be diamagnetic whereas Cu(II) compounds to be paramagnetic. (4) Comprehensive investigations on Cu2 p XPS show that the binding energy of Cu2 p3/2 of a pure Cu(III) compound is about 2.0 eV higher than that of its corresponding Cu(II) compound: the shakeup satellites do not appear in the Cu2 p XPS for a pure diamagnetic Cu(III) compound, the same as found for a diamagnetic Ni(II) compound: the FWHM of the signal of Cu2 p XPS may become broader for Cu(III) compound because its core hole's lifetime shortens due to the higher valence state of copper.

  1. Macrocyclic receptor showing extremely high Sr(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Ca(II) selectivities with potential application in chelation treatment of metal intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ferreirós-Martínez, Raquel; Esteban-Gómez, David; Tóth, Éva; de Blas, Andrés; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa

    2011-04-18

    Herein we report a detailed investigation of the complexation properties of the macrocyclic decadentate receptor N,N'-Bis[(6-carboxy-2-pyridil)methyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 (H(2)bp18c6) toward different divalent metal ions [Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Sr(II), and Ca(II)] in aqueous solution. We have found that this ligand is especially suited for the complexation of large metal ions such as Sr(II) and Pb(II), which results in very high Pb(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) selectivities (in fact, higher than those found for ligands widely used for the treatment of lead poisoning such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (edta)), as well as in the highest Sr(II)/Ca(II) selectivity reported so far. These results have been rationalized on the basis of the structure of the complexes. X-ray crystal diffraction, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as theoretical calculations at the density functional theory (B3LYP) level have been performed. Our results indicate that for large metal ions such as Pb(II) and Sr(II) the most stable conformation is Δ(δλδ)(δλδ), while for Ca(II) our calculations predict the Δ(λδλ)(λδλ) form being the most stable one. The selectivity that bp18c6(2-) shows for Sr(II) over Ca(II) can be attributed to a better fit between the large Sr(II) ions and the relatively large crown fragment of the ligand. The X-ray crystal structure of the Pb(II) complex shows that the Δ(δλδ)(δλδ) conformation observed in solution is also maintained in the solid state. The Pb(II) ion is endocyclically coordinated, being directly bound to the 10 donor atoms of the ligand. The bond distances to the donor atoms of the pendant arms (2.55-2.60 Å) are substantially shorter than those between the metal ion and the donor atoms of the crown moiety (2.92-3.04 Å). This is a typical situation observed for the so-called hemidirected compounds, in which the Pb(II) lone pair is stereochemically active. The X-ray structures of the Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes show that

  2. Phosphorylation of DNA topoisomerase II by casein kinase II: modulation of eukaryotic topoisomerase II activity in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, P; Glover, C V; Osheroff, N

    1985-01-01

    The phosphorylation of Drosophila melanogaster DNA topoisomerase II by purified casein kinase II was characterized in vitro. Under the conditions used, the kinase incorporated a maximum of 2-3 molecules of phosphate per homodimer of topoisomerase II. No autophosphorylation of the topoisomerase was observed. The only amino acid residue modified by casein kinase II was serine. Apparent Km and Vmax values for the phosphorylation reaction were 0.4 microM topoisomerase II and 3.3 mumol of phosphate incorporated per min per mg of kinase, respectively. Phosphorylation stimulated the DNA relaxation activity of topoisomerase II by 3-fold over that of the dephosphorylated enzyme, and the effects of modification could be reversed by treatment with alkaline phosphatase. Therefore, this study demonstrates that post-translational enzymatic modifications can be used to modulate the interaction between topoisomerase II and DNA. Images PMID:2987912

  3. Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) removal through untreated rice husk; thermodynamics and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Guiso, Maria Giovanna; Alberti, Giancarla; Emma, Giovanni; Pesavento, Maria; Biesuz, Raffaela

    2012-01-01

    The sorption properties of rice husk towards Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) were studied. The sorption isotherms are described by the Langmuir equation, and Pb(II) shows a higher affinity for rice husk compared to Cu(II) and Cd(II) under the same conditions. The kinetics of sorption obeys to a pseudo second-order equation for all metals. The sorption profiles as a function of the pH were used to characterize the stoichiometry of the sorption reaction. The competition for metal complexation by any ligand in solution is also accounted for. Upon increasing the ionic strength, the sorption curves of Pb(II) move to basic pH; this shift can be explained by considering the effect of nitrate complexes on the free metal ion concentration, since KNO(3) is used as the ionic medium. An attempt to employ rice husk in a dynamic system is presented.

  4. Spectroscopic and mycological studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with 4-aminoantipyrine derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Chandra, Sulekh

    2011-10-01

    Complexes of the type [M(L)X 2], where M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), have been synthesized with novel NO-donor Schiff's base ligand, 1,4-diformylpiperazine bis(4-imino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one) which is obtained by the acid catalyzed condensation of 1,4-diformylpiperazine with 4-aminoantipyrine. The elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV, NMR, mass and EPR studies of the compounds led to the conclusion that the ligand acts as tetradentate chelate. The Schiff's base ligand forms hexacoordinated complexes having octahedral geometry for Ni(II) and tetragonal geometry for Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The mycological studies of the compounds were examined against the several opportunistic pathogens, i.e., Alternaria brassicae, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. The Cu(II) complexes were found to have most fungicidal behavior.

  5. The Practice SSAT-II. [and] Test Administration Manual for the Practice SSAT-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Student Assessment Section.

    The Florida Statewide Assessment Program provides "The Practice SSAT-II," for students who will be taking the State Student Assessment Test, Part II (SSAT-II). This practice test may be administered to tenth grade students taking the test for the first time and to eleventh and twelfth graders if they have previously failed the SSAT-II.…

  6. The Practice SSAT-II. [and] Test Administration Manual for the Practice SSAT-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Student Assessment Section.

    The Florida Statewide Assessment Program provides "The Practice SSAT-II," for students who will be taking the State Student Assessment Test, Part II (SSAT-II). This practice test may be administered to tenth grade students taking the test for the first time and to eleventh and twelfth graders if they have previously failed the SSAT-II.…

  7. Mixed metal copper(II)-nickel(II) and copper(II)-zinc(II) complexes of multihistidine peptide fragments of human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Jószai, Viktória; Turi, Ildikó; Kállay, Csilla; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Di Natale, Giuseppe; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Sóvágó, Imre

    2012-07-01

    Mixed metal copper(II)-nickel(II) and copper(II)-zinc(II) complexes of four peptide fragments of human prion protein have been studied by potentiometric, UV-vis and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. One peptide contained three histidyl residues: HuPrP(84-114) with H85 inside and H96, H111 outside the octarepeat domain. The other three peptides contained two histidyl residues; H96 and H111 for HuPrP(91-115) and HuPrP(84-114)H85A while HuPrP(84-114)H96A contained the histidyl residues at positions 85 and 111. It was found that both histidines of the latter peptides can simultaneously bind copper(II) and nickel(II) ions and dinuclear mixed metal complexes can exist in slightly alkaline solution. One molecule of the peptide with three histidyl residues can bind two copper(II) and one nickel(II) ions. H85 and H111 were identified as the major copper(II) and H96 as the preferred nickel(II) binding sites in mixed metal species. The studies on the zinc(II)-PrP peptide binary systems revealed that zinc(II) ions can coordinate to the 31-mer PrP peptide fragments in the form of macrochelates with two or three coordinated imidazol-nitrogens but the low stability of these complexes cannot prevent the hydrolysis of the metal ion in slightly alkaline solution. These data provide further support for the outstanding affinity of copper(II) ions towards the peptide fragments of prion protein but the binding of nickel(II) can significantly modify the distribution of copper(II) among the available metal binding sites.

  8. Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological evaluation of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with thiosemicarbazone ending by pyrazole and pyridyl rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; Al-Jahdali, M.; El-Rakhawy, El-Bastawesy R.

    2014-08-01

    Here we present the synthesis of the new Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with chelating ligand (Z)-(2-((1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methylene) hydrazinyl)(pyridin-2-ylamino)methanethiol. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, UV-vis, magnetic susceptibility measurements and EPR spectral studies. IR spectra of complexes showed that the ligand behaves as NN neutral bidentate, NSN mononegative tridentate and NSNN mononegative tetradentate. The electronic spectra and the magnetic measurements suggested the octahedral geometry for all complexes as well as the EPR confirmed the tetragonal distorted octahedral for Cu(II) complex. Cd(II) complex showed the highest inhibitory antioxidant activity either using ABTS method. The SOD-like activity exhibited those Cd(II) and Zn(II) complexes have strong antioxidative properties. We tested the synthesized compounds for antitumor activity and showed that the ability to kill liver (HePG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells definitely.

  9. Bioremediation of agricultural solid waste leachates with diverse species of Cu (II) and Cd (II) by periphyton.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiali; Liu, Junzhuo; Wu, Chenxi; Kerr, Philip G; Wong, Po-Keung; Wu, Yonghong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the bioremediation of agricultural solid waste leachates with high-concentrations of Cu (II) and Cd (II) after washing the wastes with water and Na2EDTA solution (0.2M). Results indicate that Cu (II) and Cd (II) are mainly comprised of Cu2(OH)2(2+), Cu3(OH)4(2+), CuOH(+), Cu(H2O)4(OH)2, Cd(2+) and CdOH(+) in the water-washed leachates and Cu(EDTA)(2-), Cu(HEDTA)(-), Cd(EDTA)(2-) and Cd(HEDTA)(-) in the Na2EDTA-washed leachates. Cu (II) removal efficiency by selected native periphyton from the water- and Na2EDTA-washed leachates were 80.5% and 68.4% respectively, and for Cd (II) it was 57.1% and 64.6%, because the periphyton was able to maintain a stable pH of the leachates and regulate its microbial composition and carbon metabolic capability to acclimate the chemical conditions of the leachates. This study provides a new biomeasure to treat leachates with high-concentration Cu(2+) and Cd(2+), and contribute valuable insights into the relationships between periphyton characteristics and heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Topoisomerase II from Human Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Mudeppa, Devaraja G.; Kumar, Shiva; Kokkonda, Sreekanth; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, type II topoisomerases have yielded clinically useful drugs for the treatment of bacterial infections and cancer, but the corresponding enzymes from malaria parasites remain understudied. This is due to the general challenges of producing malaria proteins in functional forms in heterologous expression systems. Here, we express full-length Plasmodium falciparum topoisomerase II (PfTopoII) in a wheat germ cell-free transcription-translation system. Functional activity of soluble PfTopoII from the translation lysates was confirmed through both a plasmid relaxation and a DNA decatenation activity that was dependent on magnesium and ATP. To facilitate future drug discovery, a convenient and sensitive fluorescence assay was established to follow DNA decatenation, and a stable, truncated PfTopoII was engineered for high level enzyme production. PfTopoII was purified using a DNA affinity column. Existing TopoII inhibitors previously developed for other non-malaria indications inhibited PfTopoII, as well as malaria parasites in culture at submicromolar concentrations. Even before optimization, inhibitors of bacterial gyrase, GSK299423, ciprofloxacin, and etoposide exhibited 15-, 57-, and 3-fold selectivity for the malarial enzyme over human TopoII. Finally, it was possible to use the purified PfTopoII to dissect the different modes by which these varying classes of TopoII inhibitors could trap partially processed DNA. The present biochemical advancements will allow high throughput chemical screening of compound libraries and lead optimization to develop new lines of antimalarials. PMID:26055707

  11. PEP-II Hardware Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C. W.

    2005-04-28

    Hardware reliability takes on special importance in large accelerator facilities intended to work as factories; i.e., when they are expected to deliver design performance for extended periods of time. The PEP-II B-Factory at SLAC is such a facility. In this paper, we summarize PEP-II reliability statistics from the first four years of production running. The four running periods extended from January 12 through October 31, 2000, from February 4, 2001 through June 30, 2002, from November 15, 2002 through June 30, 2003, and from September 9, 2003 through July 31, 2004. These four periods are designated Runs 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the discussion and tables presented in the paper. The first four runs encompassed 30,359 hours. During this time, PEP-II was delivering luminosity to the BaBar detector 57.9 percent of the time. In addition, 5.3 percent of the time was used for scheduled dedicated machine development work, and 4.5 percent was scheduled off for maintenance, installations, or safety checks. Injection and tuning accounted for 19.9 percent. The remaining 12.4 percent was lost due to malfunctions. During this time period, a total of 9701 malfunctions were reported, but most did not interrupt the running program. The unscheduled down time, a total of 3883 hours, was attributed to 1724 of these malfunctions. Mean Time to Fail (MTTF) and Mean Time to Repair (MTTR) are presented for each of the major subsystems, and long-term availability trends are discussed.

  12. Zeeman effect of As II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Andrew, K. L.

    1972-01-01

    Spectrograms of As electrodeless-discharge tubes operated in a field of 24,025 G have given Zeeman patterns for 232 As II spectral lines from 2361 to 10,556 A and yielded 80 Lande g factors, of which more than half are new. There is agreement between these and the g values calculated by least-squares fitting for single configurations or for multiconfigurations, where configuration interaction is noticeable. All of the measured g values as well as the energy levels are used in the fitting process.

  13. Commissioning of NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Willeke, F.

    2015-05-03

    NSLS-II, the new 3rd generation light source at BNL was designed for a brightness of 1022 photons s-1mm-2mrad-2 (0.1%BW)-1. It was constructed between 2009 and 2014. The storage ring was commissioned in April 2014 which was followed by insertion device and beamline commissioning in the fall of 2014. All ambitious design parameters of the facility have already been achieved except for commissioning the full beam intensity of 500mA which requires more RF installation. This paper reports on the results of commissioning.

  14. PEP-II status report

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfan, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    The main design features of the PEP-II asymmetric two-ring electron-positron B Factory collider, built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, are described. This facility will complete construction in June 1998. The high energy ring, completed in May 1997, has had 3 months of commissioning and successfully stored 0.75 A of electrons. The success of the high energy ring testing validates not only its ring components, but also the injection system, the RF system and the control system all of which are common to the two rings.

  15. Dinuclear Zn(II) and mixed Cu(II)-Zn(II) complexes of artificial patellamides as phosphatase models.

    PubMed

    Comba, Peter; Eisenschmidt, Annika; Gahan, Lawrence R; Hanson, Graeme R; Mehrkens, Nina; Westphal, Michael

    2016-12-21

    The patellamides (cyclic pseudo-octapeptides) are produced by Prochloron, a symbiont of the ascidians, marine invertebrate filter feeders. These pseudo-octapeptides are present in the cytoplasm and a possible natural function of putative metal complexes of these compounds is hydrolase activity, however the true biological role is still unknown. The dinuclear Cu(II) complexes of synthetic patellamide derivatives have been shown in in vitro experiments to be efficient hydrolase model catalysts. Many hydrolase enzymes, specifically phosphatases and carboanhydrases, are Zn(II)-based enzymes and therefore, we have studied the Zn(II) and mixed Zn(II)/Cu(II) solution chemistry of a series of synthetic patellamide derivatives, including solution structural and computational work, with the special focus on model phosphatase chemistry with bis-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)phosphate (BDNPP) as the substrate. The Zn(II) complexes of a series of ligands are shown to form complexes of similar structure and stability compared to the well-studied Cu(II) analogues and the phosphatase reactivities are also similar. Since the complex stabilities and phosphatase activities are generally a little lower compared to those of Cu(II) and since the concentration of Zn(II) in Prochloron cells is slightly smaller, we conclude that the Cu(II) complexes of the patellamides are more likely to be of biological importance.

  16. 2-line ferrihydrite: synthesis, characterization and its adsorption behaviour for removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Rout, K; Mohapatra, M; Anand, S

    2012-03-21

    Nano-structured 2-line ferrihydrite was synthesized by a pH-controlled precipitation technique at 90 °C. Chemical, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman analyses confirmed the sample to be 2-line ferrihydrite. The nano nature of the prepared sample was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface area obtained by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method was 175.8 m(2) g(-1). The nanopowder so obtained was used to study its behaviour for the removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. The relative importance of experimental parameters such as solution pH, contact time and concentration of adsorbate on the uptake of various cations was evaluated. By increasing the pH from 2.0 to 5.5, adsorption of the four cations increased. The kinetics parameters were compared by fitting the contact time data to both linear as well as non-linear forms of pseudo-second-order models. Linear forms of both Langmuir and Freundlich models fitted the equilibrium data of all the cations except for Pb(II) which was also fitted to the non-linear forms of both the models as it gave a low R(2) value of 0.85 for the Langmuir model. High Langmuir monolayer capacities of 366, 250, 62.5 and 500 mg g(-1) were obtained for Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively. Presence of chloride or sulfate had an adverse effect on cation adsorption. The interactive effects on adsorption from solutions containing two, three or four cations were studied. Surprisingly no Cd(II) adsorption was observed in Pb(II)-Cd(II), Pb(II)-Cd(II)-Zn(II) and Pb(II)-Cd(II)-Cu(II)-Zn(II) systems under the studied concentration range. The overall loading capacity of the adsorbent decreased in mixed cation systems. Metal ion loaded adsorbents were characterized by XRD, FTIR and Raman techniques. The high adsorption capability of the 2-lines ferrihydrite makes it a potentially attractive adsorbent for the removal of cations from aqueous solutions.

  17. Equilibrium and Redox Kinetics of Copper(II)-Thiourea Complexes.

    PubMed

    Doona, Christopher J.; Stanbury, David M.

    1996-05-22

    Stopped-flow spectrophotometric measurements identify and determine equilibrium data for thiourea (tu) complexes of copper(II) formed in aqueous solution. In excess Cu(II), the complex ion [Cu(tu)](2+) has a stability constant beta(1) = 2.3 +/- 0.1 M(-)(1) and molar absorptivity at 340 nm of epsilon(1) = (4.0 +/- 0.2) x 10(3) M(-)(1) cm(-)(1) at 25.0 degrees C, 2.48 mM HClO(4), and &mgr; = 464 mM (NaClO(4)). The fast reduction of Cu(II) by excess tu obeys the rate law -d[Cu(II)]/dt = k'[Cu(II)](2)[tu](7) with a value for the ninth-order rate constant k' = (1.60 +/- 0.18) x 10(14) M(-)(8) s(-)(1), which derives from a rate-determining step involving the bimolecular decomposition of two complexed Cu(II) species. Copper(II) catalyzes the reduction of hexachloroiridate(IV) by tu according to the rate law -d[IrCl(6)(2)(-)]/dt = (k(2,unc)[tu](2) + k(1,cat) [tu](5)[Cu(II)])[IrCl(6)(2)(-)]. Least-squares analysis yields values of k(2,unc) and k(1,cat) equaling 385 +/- 4 M(-)(2) s(-)(1) and (3.7 +/- 0.1) x 10(13) M(-)(6) s(-)(1), respectively, at &mgr; = 115 mM (NaClO(4)). The corresponding mechanism has a rate-determining step that involves the oxidation of [Cu(II)(tu)(5)](2+) by [IrCl(6)](2)(-) rather than the bimolecular reaction of two cupric-tu complexes.

  18. Characterization of functional urotensin II receptors in human skeletal muscle myoblasts: comparison with angiotensin II receptors.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jian-shen; Minor, Lisa K; Smith, Charles; Hu, Bing; Yang, Jing; Andrade-Gordon, Patricia; Damiano, Bruce

    2005-04-01

    The properties of urotensin II (U-II) receptor (UT receptor) and angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor (AT receptor) in primary human skeletal myoblasts (HSMM) and differentiated skeletal myotubes (HSMMT) were characterized. Radiolabeled U-II and ANG II bound specifically to HSMM with Kd's of 0.31 nM (2311 receptors/cell) and 0.61 nM (18,257 receptors/cell), respectively. The cyclic segment of U-II peptide, CFWKYC, was the minimal sequence required for binding, with the WKY residues essential. Inhibitor studies suggested AT1 is the predominant ANG II receptor. After radioligand binding, under conditions designed to minimize receptor internalization, half the bound U-II was resistant to acid washing suggesting that U-II binds tightly to its receptor in a quasi-irreversible fashion. The AT1 receptor-bound radioligand was completely removed under the same conditions. RT-PCR detected the expression of mRNAs for UT and AT1 receptors. Western blotting showed that U-II and ANG II signaled via ERK1/2 kinase. UT receptor was not lost upon differentiation into myotubes since both mRNA for UT receptor and U-II binding were still present. ANG II receptors were also present as shown by ANG II-induced calcium mobilization.

  19. MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis of Mg(II), Ca(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pt(II) adducts with monomethoxypolyethylene glycol 5000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwelase, S. R.; Bariyanga, J.

    2002-05-01

    We have prepared and isolated complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pt(II) with monomethoxypolyethylene glycol 5000 in a pH 7 buffer at 40 °C in order to study the interaction of this polymer carrier with the ions likely to be found in the human body. Their characterization was done by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, thermogravimetry and elemental analysis. The mass spectra allowed us to determine not only the molecular weights but also the nature of the complexes and the findings were in agreement with the elementary analysis data. The calcium ion was found not directly linked to polyethylene glycol but through water molecules. The overall results indicated strong bonding for Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes and weak interactions for Mg(II), Ca(II) and Pt(II).

  20. Ii Chain Controls the Transport of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Molecules to and from Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Brachet, Valérie; Raposo, Graça; Amigorena, Sebastian; Mellman, Ira

    1997-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules are synthesized as a nonameric complex consisting of three αβ dimers associated with a trimer of invariant (Ii) chains. After exiting the TGN, a targeting signal in the Ii chain cytoplasmic domain directs the complex to endosomes where Ii chain is proteolytically processed and removed, allowing class II molecules to bind antigenic peptides before reaching the cell surface. Ii chain dissociation and peptide binding are thought to occur in one or more postendosomal sites related either to endosomes (designated CIIV) or to lysosomes (designated MIIC). We now find that in addition to initially targeting αβ dimers to endosomes, Ii chain regulates the subsequent transport of class II molecules. Under normal conditions, murine A20 B cells transport all of their newly synthesized class II I-Ab αβ dimers to the plasma membrane with little if any reaching lysosomal compartments. Inhibition of Ii processing by the cysteine/serine protease inhibitor leupeptin, however, blocked transport to the cell surface and caused a dramatic but selective accumulation of I-Ab class II molecules in lysosomes. In leupeptin, I-Ab dimers formed stable complexes with a 10-kD NH2-terminal Ii chain fragment (Ii-p10), normally a transient intermediate in Ii chain processing. Upon removal of leupeptin, Ii-p10 was degraded and released, I-Ab dimers bound antigenic peptides, and the peptide-loaded dimers were transported slowly from lysosomes to the plasma membrane. Our results suggest that alterations in the rate or efficiency of Ii chain processing can alter the postendosomal sorting of class II molecules, resulting in the increased accumulation of αβ dimers in lysosome-like MIIC. Thus, simple differences in Ii chain processing may account for the highly variable amounts of class II found in lysosomal compartments of different cell types or at different developmental stages. PMID:9105036

  1. Functional characterization and anti-cancer action of the clinical phase II cardiac Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitor istaroxime: in vitro and in vivo properties and cross talk with the membrane androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Alevizopoulos, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Natalia; Schmidt, Eva-Maria; Tsapara, Anna; Alkahtani, Saad; Honisch, Sabina; Prousis, Kyriakos C.; Alarifi, Saud; Calogeropoulou, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    Sodium potassium pump (Na+/K+ ATPase) is a validated pharmacological target for the treatment of various cardiac conditions. Recent published data with Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitors suggest a potent anti-cancer action of these agents in multiple indications. In the present study, we focus on istaroxime, a Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitor that has shown favorable safety and efficacy properties in cardiac phase II clinical trials. Our experiments in 22 cancer cell lines and in prostate tumors in vivo proved the strong anti-cancer action of this compound. Istaroxime induced apoptosis, affected the key proliferative and apoptotic mediators c-Myc and caspase-3 and modified actin cystoskeleton dynamics and RhoA activity in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, istaroxime was capable of binding to mAR, a membrane receptor mediating rapid, non-genomic actions of steroids in prostate and other cells. These results support a multi-level action of Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitors in cancer cells and collectively validate istaroxime as a strong re-purposing candidate for further cancer drug development. PMID:27027435

  2. Interaction with DNA of a heteronuclear [Na2Cu4] coordination cluster obtained from the assembly of two hydroxo-bridged [Cu(II)2] units by a dimeric sodium nitrate template.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Debashree; Chauhan, Mala; Arjmand, Farukh; Aromí, Guillem; Ray, Debashis

    2009-11-14

    The heteronuclear [Na(2)Cu(4)(bemp)(2)(OH)(2)(NO(3))(2)(OH(2))(4)] x 5 H(2)O (1 x 5H(2)O; H(3)bemp: 2,6-bis-[(2-hydroxyethylimino)-methyl]-4-methyl-phenol) cluster has been synthesized in aqueous-methanol at room temperature and structurally characterized. The water soluble complex is obtained from the template assembly of two [Cu(2)(bemp)(OH)] neutral fragments through their weak oxophillic interactions with two interconnected NaNO(3) units as core. Four [Na(2)Cu(4)] units form a metal-organic cage arrangement in the crystal lattice that traps a (H(2)O)(7) cluster. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements (2-300 K) reveals a strong antiferromagnetic coupling between the Cu(II) ions within the dimers with J = -124.1 cm(-1) (in the H = -2JS(1)S(2) convention). The interaction of complex 1 x 3H(2)O with calf thymus DNA (binding constant K(b), 4.6 x 10(4) M(-1)) in Tris buffer was studied by UV-visible and emission titration, and cyclic voltammetry. The hexanuclear Na(2)Cu(4) complex also binds double-stranded supercoiled plasmid pBR322 DNA and displays efficient hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolytic mechanism is supported by evidence from DNA relegation employing T4 ligase assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching cleavage experiments.

  3. BNL ATF II beamlines design

    SciTech Connect

    Fedurin, M.; Jing, Y.; Stratakis, D.; Swinson, C.

    2015-05-03

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator Test Facility (BNL ATF) is currently undergoing a major upgrade (ATF-II). Together with a new location and much improved facilities, the ATF will see an upgrade in its major capabilities: electron beam energy and quality and CO2 laser power. The electron beam energy will be increased in stages, first to 100-150 MeV followed by a further increase to 500 MeV. Combined with the planned increase in CO2 laser power (from 1-100 TW), the ATF-II will be a powerful tool for Advanced Accelerator research. A high-brightness electron beam, produced by a photocathode gun, will be accelerated and optionally delivered to multiple beamlines. Besides the energy range (up to a possible 500 MeV in the final stage) the electron beam can be tailored to each experiment with options such as: small transverse beam size (<10 um), short bunch length (<100 fsec) and, combined short and small bunch options. This report gives a detailed overview of the ATFII capabilities and beamlines configuration.

  4. [S-II symptom questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, J W

    2000-01-01

    "S-II" Symptom Check-list which allows for a fast diagnosis of neurotic disorders. A result of 165 points suggests the incidence of such disorders with the probability of 90%. The methodology of the construction of the check-list intends for the application of questions most common in those ill due to neurotic disorders (owing to the change in frequency) and the most possibly equal amount of questions on the symptoms common to women and men. Thanks to this the norm for women and men is identical. SCL S-II Symptom Check-list is a shortened and actualised version of the "O" Symptom Check-list, developed in 1975. It is similar to the SCL-90 and highly correlated with it, but it does not contain the variables concerning the psychotic symptoms. Thanks to this, its' accuracy (specificity) in the diagnosis of neurotic disorders is high. 4 pairs of questions allow for the judgement of answer reliability. 10 scales were singled out in the questionnaire. They are only of a helpful value and do not allow for a one-sided diagnosis of the type of the disorder, listed in the ICD-10. The scale results can, however make the correct diagnosis easier.

  5. The Spectrum of Fe II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Gillian; Johansson, Sveneric

    2013-01-01

    The spectrum of singly ionized iron (Fe II) has been recorded using high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) and grating spectroscopy over the wavelength range 900 Å to 5.5 μm. The spectra were observed in high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode discharges using FT spectrometers at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ and Imperial College, London and with the 10.7 m Normal Incidence Spectrograph at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Roughly 12,900 lines were classified using 1027 energy levels of Fe II that were optimized to measured wavenumbers. The wavenumber uncertainties of lines in the FT spectra range from 10-4 cm-1 for strong lines around 4 μm to 0.05 cm-1 for weaker lines around 1500 Å. The wavelength uncertainty of lines in the grating spectra is 0.005 Å. The ionization energy of (130,655.4 ± 0.4) cm-1 was estimated from the 3d6(5D)5g and 3d6(5D)6h levels.

  6. The SRC-II process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, B. K.; Jackson, D. M.

    1981-03-01

    The Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) process which produces low-sulfur distillate fuel oil from coal is discussed. The process dissolves coal in a process-derived solvent at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of hydrogen, separates the undissolved mineral residue, then recovers the original solvent by vacuum distillation. The distillate fuel oil produced is for use largely as a nonpolluting fuel for generating electrical power and steam and is expected to be competitive with petroleum fuels during the 1980s. During this period, the SRC-II fuel oil is expected to be attractive compared with combustion of coal with flue gas desulfurization in U.S. East Coast oil-burning power plants, as well as in small and medium-sized industrial boilers. The substantial quantities of methane, light hydrocarbons and naphtha produced by the process have value as feedstocks for preparation of pipeline gas, ethylene and high-octane unleaded gasoline, and can replace petroleum fractions in many applications. The liquid and gas products from a future large-scale plant, such as the 6000 t/day plant planned for Morgantown, West Virginia, are expected to have an overall selling price of $4.25 to $4.75/GJ.

  7. TOPAZ II Temperature Coefficient Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaiza, David; Haskin, F. Eric; Marshall, Albert C.

    1994-07-01

    A two-dimensional model of the Topaz II reactor core suitable for neutronic analyses of temperature coefficients of reactivity is presented. The model is based on a 30° r-theta segment of the core. Results of TWODANT calculations are used to estimate temperature coefficients associated with fuel, electrodes, moderator, reflector, and tube plates over the range of temperatures anticipated during startup and operation. Results are presented to assess the reactivity effects associated with Doppler broadening, spectral effects and thermal expansion. Comparisons are made between the TWODANT results and empirical Russian curves used for simulating Topaz II system transients. TWODANT results indicate that the prompt temperature coefficients associated with temperature changes in fuel and emitters are negative. This is primarily because of Doppler broadening of the absorption resonances of uranium and molybdenum. The delayed effect of tube plate heating is also negative because fuel is moved radially outward in the core where it is less important. Temperature coefficients associated with delayed heating of the zirconium hydride moderator and the Beryllium reflector are positive, as the change in the neutron spectrum with moderator or reflector temperature decreases the rate of absorption in these components. The TWODANT results agree with the results obtained from the empirical Russian correlations.

  8. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  9. Synthesis, structural characterization, thermal and electrochemical studies of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes containing thiazolylazo ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, S. S.; Sawant, V. A.

    2010-02-01

    Some thiazolylazo derivatives and their metal complexes of the type [M(L)(H 2O)Cl]; M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and L = 6-(2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-quinazolin-4-one (HL 1), 6-(4'-phenyl-2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-quinazolin-4-one (HL 2), 6-(2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-3-( m-tolyl)-quinazolin-4-one (HL 3) and 6-(4'-phenyl-2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-3-( m-tolyl)-quinazolin-4-one (HL 4) have been prepared. All the complexes were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, IR, UV-vis, ESR, TG-DTA and powder X-ray diffraction studies. IR spectra of these complexes reveal that the complex formation occurred through thiazole nitrogen, azo nitrogen, imino nitrogen and sulfur atom of the ligands. On the basis of electronic spectral data and magnetic susceptibility measurement octahedral geometry has been proposed for the Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes and distorted octahedral geometry for the Cu(II) complexes. Electrochemical behavior of Ni(II) complexes exhibit quasireversible oxidation corresponding to Ni(III)/Ni(II) couple along with ligand reduction. X-ray diffraction study is used to elucidate the crystal structure of the complexes.

  10. Biosorption of cadmium (II) and copper (II) by pretreated biomass of marine alga Gracilaria fisheri.

    PubMed

    Chaisuksant, Y

    2003-12-01

    The cadmium (II) and copper (II) adsorption properties of chemically pretreated biomass of red marine alga Gracilaria fisheri were investigated. Batch equilibrium experiments showed that the maximum adsorption capacity values of the pretreated biomass for cadmium and copper were 0.63 and 0.72 mmol g(-1), respectively. The equilibrium data fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption capacity increased as pH increased and reached a plateau at pH 4.0. The cadmium and copper uptake rates were rapid with 90% of the biosorption completed within 30 minutes. The presence of light metal ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) in solution had an insignificant effect on cadmium and copper sorption capacity. These findings indicate a positive potential for the biosorbent development with effective heavy metal removal capacity in the presence of light metal ions in waste streams by using the biomass of plentifully available red marine algae.

  11. Quiet High Speed Fan II (QHSF II): Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, Karen; Weir, Don; Ross, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This report details the aerodynamic, mechanical, structural design and fabrication of a Honey Engines Quiet High Speed Fan II (lower hub/tip ratio and higher specific flow than the Baseline I fan). This fan/nacelle system incorporates features such as advanced forward sweep and an advanced integrated fan/fan exit guide vane design that provides for the following characteristics: (1) Reduced noise at supersonic tip speeds, in comparison to current state-of-the-art fan technology; (2) Improved aeroelastic stability within the anticipated operating envelope; and (3) Aerodynamic performance consistent with current state-of-the-art fan technology. This fan was fabricated by Honeywell and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel for aerodynamic, aeromechanical, and acoustic performance.

  12. Shark Class II Invariant Chain Reveals Ancient Conserved Relationships with Cathepsins and MHC Class II

    PubMed Central

    Criscitiello, Michael F.; Ohta, Yuko; Eubanks, Jeannine O.; Chen, Patricia L.; Flajnik, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    The invariant chain (Ii) is the critical third chain required for the MHC class II heterodimer to be properly guided through the cell, loaded with peptide, and expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells. Here, we report the isolation of the nurse shark Ii gene, and the comparative analysis of Ii splice variants, expression, genomic organization, predicted structure, and function throughout vertebrate evolution. Alternative splicing to yield Ii with and without the putative protease-protective, thyroglobulin-like domain is as ancient as the MHC-based adaptive immune system, as our analyses in shark and lizard further show conservation of this mechanism in all vertebrate classes except bony fish. Remarkable coordinate expression of Ii and class II was found in shark tissues. Conserved Ii residues and cathepsin L orthologs suggest their long co-evolution in the antigen presentation pathway, and genomic analyses suggest 450 million years of conserved Ii exon/intron structure. Other than an extended linker preceding the thyroglobulin-like domain in cartilaginous fish, the Ii gene and protein are predicted to have largely similar physiology from shark to man. Duplicated Ii genes found only in teleosts appear to have become sub-functionalized, as one form is predicted to play the same role as that mediated by Ii mRNA alternative splicing in all other vertebrate classes. No Ii homologs or potential ancestors of any of the functional Ii domains were found in the jawless fish or lower chordates. PMID:21996610

  13. Shark class II invariant chain reveals ancient conserved relationships with cathepsins and MHC class II.

    PubMed

    Criscitiello, Michael F; Ohta, Yuko; Graham, Matthew D; Eubanks, Jeannine O; Chen, Patricia L; Flajnik, Martin F

    2012-03-01

    The invariant chain (Ii) is the critical third chain required for the MHC class II heterodimer to be properly guided through the cell, loaded with peptide, and expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells. Here, we report the isolation of the nurse shark Ii gene, and the comparative analysis of Ii splice variants, expression, genomic organization, predicted structure, and function throughout vertebrate evolution. Alternative splicing to yield Ii with and without the putative protease-protective, thyroglobulin-like domain is as ancient as the MHC-based adaptive immune system, as our analyses in shark and lizard further show conservation of this mechanism in all vertebrate classes except bony fish. Remarkable coordinate expression of Ii and class II was found in shark tissues. Conserved Ii residues and cathepsin L orthologs suggest their long co-evolution in the antigen presentation pathway, and genomic analyses suggest 450 million years of conserved Ii exon/intron structure. Other than an extended linker preceding the thyroglobulin-like domain in cartilaginous fish, the Ii gene and protein are predicted to have largely similar physiology from shark to man. Duplicated Ii genes found only in teleosts appear to have become sub-functionalized, as one form is predicted to play the same role as that mediated by Ii mRNA alternative splicing in all other vertebrate classes. No Ii homologs or potential ancestors of any of the functional Ii domains were found in the jawless fish or lower chordates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chelation of Cu(II), Zn(II), and Fe(II) by tannin constituents of selected edible nuts.

    PubMed

    Karamać, Magdalena

    2009-12-22

    The tannin fractions isolated from hazelnuts, walnuts and almonds were characterised by colorimetric assays and by an SE-HPLC technique. The complexation of Cu(II) and Zn(II) was determined by the reaction with tetramethylmurexide, whereas for Fe(II), ferrozine was employed. The walnut tannins exhibited a significantly weaker reaction with the vanillin/HCl reagent than hazelnut and almond tannins, but the protein precipitation capacity of the walnut fraction was high. The SE-HPLC chromatogram of the tannin fraction from hazelnuts revealed the presence of oligomers with higher molecular weights compared to that of almonds. Copper ions were most effectively chelated by the constituents of the tannin fractions of hazelnuts, walnuts and almonds. At a 0.2 mg/assay addition level, the walnut tannins complexed almost 100% Cu(II). The Fe(II) complexation capacities of the tannin fractions of walnuts and hazelnuts were weaker in comparison to that of the almond tannin fraction, which at a 2.5 mg/assay addition level, bound Fe(II) by approximately 90%. The capacity to chelate Zn(II) was quite varied for the different nut tannin fractions: almond tannins bound as much as 84% Zn(II), whereas the value for walnut tannins was only 8.7%; and for hazelnut tannins, no Zn(II) chelation took place at the levels tested.

  15. Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and trichloroethylene from water by Nanofer ZVI.

    PubMed

    Eglal, Mahmoud M; Ramamurthy, Amruthur S

    2015-01-01

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticle (Nanofer ZVI) is a new reagent due to its unique structure and properties. Images of scanning electron microscopy/electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that Nanofer ZVI is stable, reactive and has a unique structure. The particles exhibited a spherical shape, a chain-like structure with a particle size of 20 to 100 nm and a surface area between 25-30 m2g(-1). The time interval for particles to agglomerate and settle was between 4-6 h. SEM/EDS Images showed that particle size increased to 2 µm due to agglomeration. Investigation of adsorption and oxidation behavior of Nanofer ZVI used for the removal of Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) ions and trichloroethylene (TCE) from aqueous solutions showed that the optimal pH for Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and TCE removal were 4.5 and 4.8, 5.0 and 6.5, respectively. Test data were used to form Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum contaminant loading was estimated as 270, 170, 110, 130 mg per gram of Nanofer ZVI for Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and TCE respectively. Removal of metal ions is interpreted in terms of their hydrated ionic radii and their electronegativity. TCE oxidation followed the dechlorination pathway resulting in nonhazardous by-products.

  16. Impacts of aqueous Mn(II) on the sorption of Zn(II) by hexagonal birnessite.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Joshua P; Elzinga, Evert J

    2015-04-21

    We used a combination of batch studies and spectroscopic analyses to assess the impacts of aqueous Mn(II) on the solubility and speciation of Zn(II) in anoxic suspensions of hexagonal birnessite at pH 6.5 and 7.5. Introduction of aqueous Mn(II) into pre-equilibrated Zn(II)-birnessite suspensions leads to desorption of Zn(II) at pH 6.5, but enhances Zn(II) sorption at pH 7.5. XAS results show that Zn(II) adsorbs as tetrahedral and octahedral triple-corner-sharing complexes at layer vacancy sites when reacted with birnessite in the absence of Mn(II). Addition of aqueous Mn(II) causes no discernible change in Zn(II) surface speciation at pH 6.5, but triggers conversion of adsorbed Zn(II) into spinel Zn(II)1-xMn(II)xMn(III)2O4 precipitates at pH 7.5. This conversion is driven by electron transfer from adsorbed Mn(II) to structural Mn(IV) generating Mn(III) surface species that coprecipitate with Zn(II) and Mn(II). Our results demonstrate substantial production of these reactive Mn(III) surface species within 30 min of contact of the birnessite substrate with aqueous Mn(II). Their importance as a control on the sorption and redox reactivity of Mn-oxides toward Zn(II) and other trace metal(loid)s in environments undergoing biogeochemical manganese redox cycling requires further study.

  17. [Biosorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) in aqueous solutions by fruiting bodies of macrofungi (Auricularia polytricha and Tremella fuciformis)].

    PubMed

    Mo, Yu; Pan, Rong; Huang, Hai-wei; Cao, Li-xiang; Zhang, Ren-duo

    2010-07-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to study the ability of fruiting bodies of Auricularia polytricha and Tremella fuciformis to adsorb Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions, including biosorption ability of the biomass to remove heavy metals from solutions with different concentrations, kinetics of adsorption, influence of co-cations, and biosorption affinity in multi-metalsystem. Results showed that in the solutions with individual metal, the maximum biosorption amounts of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II) by A. polytricha were 18.91, 18.69, 20.33, 12.42 mg x g(-1), respectively, and the highest removal rates for all cases were more than 85%. The maximum biosorption amounts of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II) by T. fuciformis were 19.98, 20.15, 19.16, 16.41 mg x g(-1), respectively, and highest removal rates for all cases were more than 75%. In the solutions with initial concentrations of 10, 50 and 100 mg x L(-1), the biosorption amounts increased but the removal rates decreased as the initial concentrations increasing. The pseudo-second-order reaction model described adsorption kinetics of heavy metal ions by fruiting bodies of A. polytricha and T. fuciformis better than the pseudo-first-order reaction model. In the solutions with multi metals, the biosorption amounts of heavy metals by two biosorbent were in the order of Ph(II) > Cd(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II). The ions with more negative charges were preferential to be sorbed. The biosorption ability of A. polytricha was inhibited in multi-metal solutions. In multi-metal solutions, T. fuciformis sorbed a higher amount of Pb(II) but lower amounts of other three ions than that in the individual metal solutions. The results indicated that both fruiting bodies of A. polytricha and T. fuciformis were potential biosorbents.

  18. Double quantum coherence electron spin resonance on coupled Cu(II)-Cu(II) electron spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, James S.; Saxena, Sunil

    2005-10-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the ability to generate double quantum coherences (DQCs) for the case of Cu(II). We show that small splittings (˜7 MHz) from the Cu(II)-Cu(II) electron-electron magnetic dipolar interaction can be reliably resolved even though the inhomogeneously broadened Cu(II) linewidth is ˜2 GHz. A Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.0 nm was measured on a model peptide system, thus, demonstrating that distances on the nanometer scale may be measured using DQC electron spin resonance (ESR).

  19. Software Aspects of PuMa-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppusamy, R.; Stappers, B.; Stappers, B.

    2006-08-01

    The Pulsar Machine II (PuMa-II) is a state of the art pulsar machine-installed at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), in December 2005. PuMa-II is a flexible instrument and is designed around an ensemble of 44 high-performance computers running the Linux operating system. Much of the flexibility of PuMa-II comes from the software that is being developed for this instrument. The radio signals reaching the telescope undergo several stages of electronic and software processing before a scientifically useful data product is generated. The electronic processing of signals includes the usual RF to IF conversion, analogue to digital conversion and telescope dependent electronic digital delay compensation that happen in the signal chain of WSRT. Within PuMa-II, this data is acquired, stored and suitably processed. In this poster we present various aspects of PuMa-II software and illustrate its pulsar signal processing capabilities.

  20. Contribution of Ca^{2+} ions influx in Cu (II) or Cr (VI) induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourahmad, J.; O'Brien, P. J.

    2003-05-01

    Previously we showed that hepatocyte lysis induced by Cu (II) or Cr (VI) could be partly attributed to membrane lipid peroxidation induced by Cu (II) or Cr (VI) [1, 2]. Changes in Na^+ and Ca^{+2} homeostasis induced when Cu^{+2} or Cr VI were incubated with hepatocytes. Na^+ omission from the media or addition of the Na^+/H^+ exchange inhibitor 5-(N, N-dimethyl)-amiloride markedly increased Cu (II) or Cr (VI) cytotoxicity even though Cu (II) or Cr (VI) did not increase hepatocyte Na^+ when the media contained Na^+. The omission of CI^- from the media or addition of glycine, a CI^- channel blocker also enhanced Cu (II) or Cr (VI) induced cytotoxicity. Intracellular Ca^{+2} levels however were markedly increased when the hepatocytes were incubated with Cu^{+2} or Cr VI in a Na^+ free media and removing media Ca^{+2} with EGTA also prevented Cu (II) or Cr (VI) induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity. This suggests that intracellular Ca^{+2} accumulation contributes to Cu (II) or Cr (VI) induced cytotoxicity and a Na^+_- dependent Ca^{+2} transporter is involved in controlling excessive Ca^{+2} accumulation caused by Cu (II) or Cr (VI).

  1. Start II, red ink, and Boris Yeltsin

    SciTech Connect

    Arbatov, A.

    1993-04-01

    Apart from the vulnerability implied by the START II treaty, it will bear the burden of the general political opposition to the Yeltsin administration. START II will be seen as part of an overall Yeltsin-Andrei Kozyrev foreign policy that is under fire for selling out Russian national interests in Yugoslavia, the Persian Gulf, and elsewhere. This article discusses public opinion concerning START II, the cost of its implementation, and the general purpose of the treaty.

  2. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-09-28

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site`s high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified.

  3. Telemetry Tests Of The Advanced Receiver II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, Sami M.; Bevan, Roland P.; Marina, Miguel

    1993-01-01

    Report describes telemetry tests of Advanced Receiver II (ARX-II): digital radio receiving subsystem operating on intermediate-frequency output of another receiving subsystem called "multimission receiver" (MMR), detecting carrier, subcarrier, and data-symbol signals transmitted by spacecraft, and extracts Doppler information from signals. Analysis of data shows performance of MMR/ARX-II system comparable and sometimes superior to performances of Blk-III/BPA and Blk-III/SDA/SSA systems.

  4. RNA Polymerase II Transcription: Structure and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Bushnell, David A.; Kornberg, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    A minimal RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription system comprises the polymerase and five general transcription factors (GTFs) TFIIB, -D, -E, -F, and -H. The addition of Mediator enables a response to regulatory factors. The GTFs are required for promoter recognition and the initiation of transcription. Following initiation, pol II alone is capable of RNA transcript elongation and of proofreading. Structural studies reviewed here reveal roles of GTFs in the initiation process and shed light on the transcription elongation mechanism. PMID:23000482

  5. AGEX II: Technical quarterly, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.

    1995-03-01

    The AGEX II Technical Quarterly publishes short technical contributions on above ground experiments that use pulsed power and laser drivers. The Quarterly is intended to provide rapid exposure of timely technical ideas and results as well as a means for documenting AGEX II progress and scientific quality for the AGEX II community. Suitable topics include experimental results, diagnostic apparatus, theoretical design, and scaling, among others.

  6. SAGE II aerosol correlative observations - Profile measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, M. T.; Rosen, J. M.; Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, Pi-Huan; Livinfston, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of the aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with profiles from five correlative experiments between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative profiles were derived from six-channel dustsonde measurements and two-wavelength lidar backscatter data. The correlation between the dustsonde- and lidar-derived measurements and the SAGE II data is good, validating the SAGE II lower stratospheric aerosol extinction measurements.

  7. Delta II SIRTF MST Rollback

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-24

    The mobile service tower is rolled back at Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, to reveal NASA's Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) ready for launch aboard a Delta II Heavy launch vehicle. Liftoff is scheduled for Aug. 25 at 1:35:39 a.m. EDT. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Consisting of a 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF will be the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” Its highly sensitive instruments will give a unique view of the Universe and peer into regions of space that are hidden from optical telescopes.

  8. Polymeric potassium triformatocobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Wöhlert, Susanne; Wriedt, Mario; Jess, Inke; Näther, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, poly[tri-μ-formato-cobalt(II)potassium], [CoK(CHO2)3]n the Co2+ cations are coordinated by six O-bonded formate anions in an octa­hedral coordination mode and the K+ cations are eightfold coordinated by seven O-bonded formate anions within irregular polyhedra. The Co2+ cations are connected by bridging formate anions into a three-dimensional coordination network in which the K+ cations are embedded. The asymmetric unit consits of one Co2+ cation located on a center of inversion, one K+ cation located on a twofold axis and two crystallographically independent formato anions, of which one is located on a twofold axis and the other occupies a general position. PMID:21753951

  9. Zinc(II), cadmium(II), mercury(II), and ethylmercury(II) complexes of phosphinothiol ligands.

    PubMed

    Fernández, P; Sousa-Pedrares, A; Romero, J; García-Vázquez, J A; Sousa, A; Pérez-Lourido, P

    2008-03-17

    Neutral zinc, cadmium, mercury(II), and ethylmercury(II) complexes of a series of phosphinothiol ligands, PhnP(C6H3(SH-2)(R-3))3-n (n = 1, 2; R = H, SiMe3) have been synthesized and characterized by IR and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, and (31)P) spectroscopy, FAB mass spectrometry, and X-ray structural analysis. The compounds [Zn{PhP(C6H4S-2)2}] (1) and [Cd{Ph2PC6H4S-2}2] (2) have been synthesized by electrochemical oxidation of anodic metal (zinc or cadmium) in an acetonitrile solution of the appropriate ligand. The presence of pyridine in the electrolytic cell affords the mixed complexes [Zn{PhP(C6H4S-2)2}(py)] (3) and [Cd{PhP(C6H4S-2)2}(py)] (4). [Hg{Ph2PC6H4S-2}2] (5) and [Hg{Ph2PC6H3(S-2)(SiMe3-3)}2] (6) were obtained by the addition of the appropriate ligand to a solution of mercury(II) acetate in methanol in the presence of triethylamine. [EtHg{Ph2PC6H4S-2}] (7), [EtHg{Ph2P(O)C6H3(S-2)(SiMe3-3)}] (8), [{EtHg}2{PhP(C6H4S-2)2}] (9), and [{EtHg}2{PhP(C6H3(S-2)(SiMe3-3))2}] (10) were obtained by reaction of ethylmercury(II) chloride with the corresponding ligand in methanol. In addition, in the reactions of EtHgCl with Ph2PC6H4SH-2 and with the potentially tridentate ligand PhP(C6H3(SH-2)(SiMe3-3)) 2, cleavage of the Hg-C bond was observed with the formation of [Hg{Ph2PC6H4S-2}2] (5) and [Hg(EtHg) 2{PhP(O)(C6H3(S-2)(SiMe3-3))2}2] (11), respectively, and the corresponding hydrocarbon. The crystal structures of [Zn3{PhP(C6H4S-2)2}2{PhP(O)(C6H4S-2)2}] (1*), [Cd2{Ph2PC6H4S-2}3{Ph2P(O)C6H4S-2}] (2*), 3, 5, 6, [EtHg{Ph2P(O)C6H4S-2}] (7*), 8, 9, [{EtHg}2{PhP(O)(C6H3(S-2)(SiMe3-3))2}] (10*), and 11 are discussed. The molecular structures of 1, 2, 4, 7, and 10 have also been studied by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  10. PEP-II prototype klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Fowkes, W.R.; Caryotakis, G.; Lee, T.G.; Pearson, C.; Wright, E.L.

    1993-04-01

    A 540-kW continuous-wave (cw) klystron operating at 476 MHz was developed for use as a power source for testing PEP-II rf accelerating cavities and rf windows. It also serves as a prototype for a 1.2 MW cw klystron presently being developed as a potential rf source for asymmetric colliding ring use. The design incorporates the concepts and many of the parts used in the original 353 MHz PEP klystron developed sixteen years ago. The superior computer simulation codes available today result in improved performance with the cavity frequencies, drift lengths, and output circuit optimized for the higher frequency.The design and operating results of this tube are described with particular emphasis on the factors which affect efficiency and stability.

  11. [Allergy to cosmetics. II. Preservatives].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika

    2004-01-01

    Disinfectants are essential components of body care preparations, household goods and industrial products. They inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi. Esters of parahydroxybenzoate acid and products that release small amounts of formaldehyde (Germal 115, Germal II, Dovicil 200, Bronopol, DMDM hydantoine) were most frequently used in the past. In the 1980s, Katon CG (5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one + 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one) evoked the epidemics of contact dermatitis in Sweden, Finland, Germany, Italy and The Netherlands. In the next years, allergy to another preservative, Euxyl K 400 was dramatically growing. Studies carried out in 11 European countries showed that hypersensitivity increased from 0.7% in 1991 to 3.5% in 2000. It was revealed that not only cosmetics left on the skin sensitize, but also those washable. Apart from preservatives, allergic reactions are induced by emulgators, antioxidants, moisteners, lubricants, stabilizers and stickers.

  12. SWAMI II technology transfer plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.R.; Peterson, K.D.; Harpring, L.J.; Immel, D.M.; Jones, J.D.; Mallet, W.R.

    1995-12-31

    Thousands of drums of radioactive/hazardous/mixed waste are currently stored at DOE sites throughout US; they are stored in warehouse facilities on an interim basis, pending final disposition. Recent emphasis on anticipated decommissioning of facilities indicates that many more drums of waste will be generated, requiring additional storage. Federal and state regulations dictate that hazardous waste covered by RCRA be inspected periodically for container degradation and to verify inventories. All known DOE waste storage facilities are currently inspected manually. A system to perform robotic inspection of waste drums is under development by the SRTC Robotics Group of WSRC; it is called the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI). The first version, SWAMI I, was developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) as a proof of principle system for autonomous inspection of drums in a warehouse. SWAMI I was based on the Transitions Research Corporation (TRC) HelpMate mobile robot. TRC modified the Helpmate to navigate in aisles of drums. SRTC added subsystems to SWAMI I to determine its position in open areas, read bar code labels on the drums up to three levels high, capture images of the drums and perform a radiation survey of the floor in the aisles. The radiation survey was based on SRTC patented technology first implemented on the Semi-Intelligent Mobile Observing Navigator (SIMON). The radiation survey is not essential for the inspection of drums, but is an option that can increase the utility and effectiveness of SWAMI in warehouses with radioactive and/or mixed waste. All the sensors on SWAMI I were fixed on the vehicle. From the success of SWAMI I, a second version, SWAMI II, was developed; it will be evaluated at Fernald and tested with two other mobile robots. Intent is to transfer the technology developed for SWAMI I and II to industry so that it can supply additional units for purchase for drum inspection.

  13. Antibacterial cobalt (II), copper (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) complexes of mercaptothiadiazole--derived furanyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, salicylyl and pyridinyl Schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Zahid H; Pervez, Humayun; Rauf, Abdul; Khan, Khalid M; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2006-04-01

    A series of Co (II), Cu (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) complexes of mercaptothiadiazole-derived furanyl, thienyl, pyrrorlyl, salicylyl and pyridinyl Schiff bases were synthesized, characterized and screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Shigella fexneri, and two Gram-positive; Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureous bacterial strains. The results of these studies show the metal complexes to be more antibacterial as compared to the prepared un-complexed Schiff bases.

  14. Spectroscopic and fluorescence studies on Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with NO donor fluorescence dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; El-Metwaly, Nashwa M.

    2011-10-01

    The reactions of the two common dyes [2TMPACT and 4PENI] with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were done. All the isolated complexes have been characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The IR data reflect the bidentate mode of 2TMPACT towards the mononuclear complex [Mn(II)] even its tetradentate in binuclear complexes [Co(II) and Cu(II)]. However, the bidentate mode is the only behavior of 4PENI ligand towards each metal ion in its mononuclear complexes. The UV-vis spectral analysis beside the magnetic moment measurements are proposed different geometries concerning each metal ions with the two ligands under investigation, as the Mn(II)-2TMPACT complex is an octahedral but Mn(II)-4PENI is a tetrahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds are thermogravimetrically investigated. The proposed thermal decomposition was discussed for each compound with each step as well as, the kinetic parameters were calculated for all preferrible decomposition steps. The mass spectroscopy tool was used to emphasis on the suitable molecular formula proposed and the fragmentation patterns were displayed. The fluorescence properties of the synthesized ligands and their complexes were studied in DMSO at room temperature.

  15. Spectroscopic and fluorescence studies on Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with NO donor fluorescence dyes.

    PubMed

    Refat, Moamen S; el-Metwaly, Nashwa M

    2011-10-15

    The reactions of the two common dyes [2TMPACT and 4PENI] with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were done. All the isolated complexes have been characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The IR data reflect the bidentate mode of 2TMPACT towards the mononuclear complex [Mn(II)] even its tetradentate in binuclear complexes [Co(II) and Cu(II)]. However, the bidentate mode is the only behavior of 4PENI ligand towards each metal ion in its mononuclear complexes. The UV-vis spectral analysis beside the magnetic moment measurements are proposed different geometries concerning each metal ions with the two ligands under investigation, as the Mn(II)-2TMPACT complex is an octahedral but Mn(II)-4PENI is a tetrahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds are thermogravimetrically investigated. The proposed thermal decomposition was discussed for each compound with each step as well as, the kinetic parameters were calculated for all preferrible decomposition steps. The mass spectroscopy tool was used to emphasis on the suitable molecular formula proposed and the fragmentation patterns were displayed. The fluorescence properties of the synthesized ligands and their complexes were studied in DMSO at room temperature.

  16. RNA polymerase II transcription: structure and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Bushnell, David A; Kornberg, Roger D

    2013-01-01

    A minimal RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription system comprises the polymerase and five general transcription factors (GTFs) TFIIB, -D, -E, -F, and -H. The addition of Mediator enables a response to regulatory factors. The GTFs are required for promoter recognition and the initiation of transcription. Following initiation, pol II alone is capable of RNA transcript elongation and of proofreading. Structural studies reviewed here reveal roles of GTFs in the initiation process and shed light on the transcription elongation mechanism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: RNA Polymerase II Transcript Elongation.

  17. Optimization of simultaneous electrochemical determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) at carbon nanotube-modified graphite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pikna, L'ubomír; Heželová, Mária; Kováčová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The health of the environment is worsening every day. Monitoring of potentially toxic elements and remediation of environmental pollution are necessary. Therefore, the research and development of simple, inexpensive, portable and effective sensors is important. Electrochemistry is a useful component of the field of environment monitoring. The present study focuses on evaluating and comparing three types of electrodes (PIGE, PIGE/MWCNT/HNO3 and PIGE/MWCNT/EDTA/HNO3) employed for the simultaneous electrochemical determination of four potentially toxic elements: Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II). Cyclic voltammograms were measured in an acetate buffer. The LOD, LOQ, the standard and relative precisions of the method and a prediction intervals were calculated (according to the technical procedure DIN 32 645) for the three electrodes and for each measured element. The LOD for PIGE/CNT/HNO3 (the electrode with narrowest calculated prediction intervals) was 2.98 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Cd(II), 4.83 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Pb(II), 3.81 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Cu(II), 6.79 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Hg(II). One of the benefits of this study was the determination of the amount of Hg(II) in the mixture of other elements.

  18. Angiotensin II in Refractory Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Elio; Gleeson, Patrick J; Annoni, Filippo; Agosta, Sara; Orlando, Sergio; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Velissaris, Dimitrios; Scolletta, Sabino

    2017-05-01

    Refractory septic shock is defined as persistently low mean arterial blood pressure despite volume resuscitation and titrated vasopressors/inotropes in patients with a proven or suspected infection and concomitant organ dysfunction. Its management typically requires high doses of catecholamines, which can induce significant adverse effects such as ischemia and arrhythmias. Angiotensin II (Ang II), a key product of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, is a vasopressor agent that could be used in conjunction with other vasopressors to stabilize critically ill patients during refractory septic shock, and reduce catecholamine requirements. However, very few clinical data are available to support Ang II administration in this setting. Here, we review the current literature on this topic to better understand the role of Ang II administration during refractory septic shock, differentiating experimental from clinical studies. We also consider the potential role of exogenous Ang II administration in specific organ dysfunction and possible pitfalls with Ang II in sepsis. Various issues remain unresolved and future studies should investigate important topics such as: the optimal dose and timing of Ang II administration, a comparison between Ang II and the other vasopressors (epinephrine; vasopressin), and Ang II effects on microcirculation.

  19. Probing outflows in z = 1 ∼ 2 galaxies through Fe II/Fe II* multiplets

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yuping; Giavalisco, Mauro; Guo, Yicheng

    2014-10-01

    We report on a study of the 2300-2600 Å Fe II/Fe II* multiplets in the rest-UV spectra of star-forming galaxies at 1.0 < z < 2.6 as probes of galactic-scale outflows. We extracted a mass-limited sample of 97 galaxies at z ∼ 1.0-2.6 from ultra-deep spectra obtained during the GMASS spectroscopic survey in the GOODS South field with the Very Large Telescope and FORS2. We obtain robust measures of the rest equivalent width of the Fe II absorption lines down to a limit of W{sub r} > 1.5 Å and of the Fe II* emission lines to W{sub r} > 0.5 Å. Whenever we can measure the systemic redshift of the galaxies from the [O II] emission line, we find that both the Fe II and Mg II absorption lines are blueshifted, indicating that both species trace gaseous outflows. We also find, however, that the Fe II gas has generally lower outflow velocity relative to that of Mg II. We investigate the variation of Fe II line profiles as a function of the radiative transfer properties of the lines, and find that transitions with higher oscillator strengths are more blueshifted in terms of both line centroids and line wings. We discuss the possibility that Fe II lines are suppressed by stellar absorptions. The lower velocities of the Fe II lines relative to the Mg II doublet, as well as the absence of spatially extended Fe II* emission in two-dimensional stacked spectra, suggest that most clouds responsible for Fe II absorption lie close (3 ∼ 4 kpc) to the disks of galaxies. We show that the Fe II/Fe II* multiplets offer unique probes of the kinematic structure of galactic outflows.

  20. Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, S; Zhu, X L; Sly, W S

    1990-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) deficiency has been shown to be the primary defect in the recessively inherited syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis. Until now, the absence of CA II in kidney of CA II-deficient patients has not been shown directly, and the status of the membrane-associated CA in kidney of CA II-deficient patients has been unclear. To address these questions, we analyzed urinary membranes and soluble fractions from normal and CA II-deficient subjects. The CA activity in membrane fractions of normal urine was found to comprise two components--(i) a vesicle-enclosed, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-sensitive fraction, which was shown immunochemically to be the 29-kDa CA II, and (ii) an SDS-resistant fraction, which was due to native and cleaved forms of the 35-kDa, membrane-anchored isozyme CA IV. Urinary membranes from CA II-deficient patients showed little or no SDS-sensitive activity and no immunoreactivity for CA II, providing direct evidence that their mutation, which produces CA II deficiency in erythrocytes, also affects CA II in kidney. CA IV activity and immunoreactivity were present in normal amounts in urinary membranes from CA II-deficient patients. We conclude from the enzymatic and immunological evidence presented that both CA II and CA IV are present in urinary membranes from normal subjects, that renal CA IV is present but renal CA II is absent in urinary membranes from patients with the CA II-deficiency syndrome, and that the methods presented should be useful in studying renal CA II and renal CA IV in other disorders of impaired bicarbonate reabsorption. Images PMID:2117271

  1. A substituted sulfonamide and its Co (II), Cu (II), and Zn (II) complexes as potential antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Jorge R A; Fernández Baldo, Martín; Echeverría, Gustavo; Baldoni, Héctor; Vullo, Daniela; Soria, Delia B; Supuran, Claudiu T; Camí, Gerardo E

    2016-01-01

    A sulfonamide 1-tosyl-1-H-benzo(d)imidazol-2-amine (TBZA) and three new complexes of Co(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) have been synthesized. The compounds have been characterized by elemental analyses, FTIR, (1)H, and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the TBZA, and its Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes, was determined by X-ray diffraction methods. TBZA and its Co(II) complex crystallize in the triclinic P-1 space group, while the Cu(II) complex crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/c space group. Antifungal activity was screened against eight pathogenic yeasts: Candida albicans (DMic 972576), Candida krusei (DMic 951705), Candida glabrata (DMic 982882), Candida tropicalis (DMic 982884), Candida dubliniensis (DMic 93695), Candida guilliermondii (DMic 021150), Cryptococcus neoformans (ATCC 24067), and Cryptococcus gattii (ATCC MYA-4561). Results on the inhibition of various human (h) CAs, hCA I, II, IV, VII, IX, and XII, and pathogenic beta and gamma CAs are also reported.

  2. Kinetics of Formation of Cobalt(II)- and Nickel(II) Carbonic Anhydrase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuate, Robert S.; Reardon, John E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the kinetic behavior associated with the interaction of metal ions with apocarbonic anhydrase, focusing on the formation of two metallocarbonic anhydrase--the biochemically active Co(II) and the inactive Ni(II)derivatives. (GA)

  3. Kinetics of Formation of Cobalt(II)- and Nickel(II) Carbonic Anhydrase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuate, Robert S.; Reardon, John E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the kinetic behavior associated with the interaction of metal ions with apocarbonic anhydrase, focusing on the formation of two metallocarbonic anhydrase--the biochemically active Co(II) and the inactive Ni(II)derivatives. (GA)

  4. Heteroleptic bis(dipyrrinato)copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Ryojun; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Sakamoto, Ryota; Matsuoka, Ryota; Wu, Kuo-Hui; Hattori, Yohei; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2015-09-14

    Heteroleptic bis(dipyrrinato)copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes are synthesized. Their structures are determined by X-ray diffraction analysis, and their properties are investigated by using cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy.

  5. ACCURATE RITZ WAVELENGTHS OF PARITY-FORBIDDEN [Co II] AND [V II] LINES OF ASTROPHYSICAL INTEREST

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C.

    2013-08-15

    We report a comprehensive list of accurate Ritz wavelengths for parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] lines obtained from the analysis of energy levels measured in the laboratory with Fourier transform emission spectroscopy. Such lines, particularly those in the infrared, are in demand for the analysis of low-density astrophysical plasmas in and around objects such as planetary nebulae, star-forming regions, and active galactic nuclei. Transitions between all known metastable levels of Co II and V II are included in our analysis, producing wavelengths for 1477 [V II] lines and 782 [Co II] lines. Of these, 170 [V II] lines and 171 [Co II] lines arise from transitions with calculated transition probabilities greater than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1} and upper level excitations of less than 5 eV, and thus are likely to be observed in astrophysical spectra.

  6. Functionalized cotton via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for enhanced sorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y Q; Deng, Shubo; Niu, Li; Xu, F J; Chai, M Y; Yu, Gang

    2011-09-15

    The surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was used to successfully prepare the aminated cotton and polyacrylic acid sodium (P(AA-Na))-grafted cotton for the efficient removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution in this study. The modified cotton surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The grafted long polymers with high density of amine and carboxyl groups on the cotton surfaces were responsible for the enhanced adsorption of heavy metals. The sorption behaviors including sorption kinetics, isotherms and pH effect were investigated. The sorption equilibrium of Cu(II) and Pb(II) was achieved within 1h on the P(AA-Na)-grafted cotton, much faster than 8h on the aminated cotton. According to the Langmuir fitting, the maximum sorption capacities of Cu(II) and Pb(II) on the P(AA-Na)-grafted cotton were 2.45 and 2.44 mmol/g, respectively, higher than many adsorbents reported in the literature. The P(AA-Na)-grafted cotton had better adsorption behaviors for Cu(II) and Pb(II) than the aminated cotton.

  7. Voltammetric analysis of Cu (II), Cd (II) and Zn (II) complexes and their cyclic voltammetry with several cephalosporin antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Maali, N; Osman, A H; Aly, A A M; Al-Hazmi, G A A

    2005-02-01

    Both osteryoung square wave voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry have been utilized to elucidate and confirm the possible complexation reaction that occur between the various cephalosporin antibiotics and either the toxic, non-essential metal ion, viz. Cd (II), or the essential but toxic (when their concentration exceeds certain level in serum) metal ions, viz. Cu (II) and Zn (II). Voltammetric measurements indicated the existence of 1:1 metal-to-ligand ratio (as in cephalexin and cephapirin complexes), 1:2 ratio (such as in cefamandole, cefuroxime and cefotaxime complexes) and 2:1 ratio in case of ceftazidime complexes. Adsorption behavior was evidenced for Cu (II)-cefuroxime or ceftazidime complexes as well as for those for Zn (II)-cephalexin or cephapirin. This phenomenon could be used for the determination of either the antibiotic or the metal ion using adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Detection limits down to 7x10(-10) M have been easily achieved.

  8. Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of a bipyridine bis-phenol conjugate: generation and properties of coordinated radical species.

    PubMed

    Arora, Himanshu; Philouze, Christian; Jarjayes, Olivier; Thomas, Fabrice

    2010-11-14

    Four bis-phenolate complexes [Zn(II)L], [Ni(II)L], [Cu(II)L] and [Co(II)L] (where [H(2)L = 2,2'-[2,2']bipyridinyl-6-yl-bis-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol] have been synthesized. The copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, showing a metal ion within a square planar geometry, slightly distorted towards tetrahedral. The cyclic voltametry (CV) curve of [Zn(II)L] consists of a single bi-electronic reversible wave at 0.06 V vs. Fc/Fc(+). The electrochemically generated dication is a diradical species [Zn(II)L˙˙](2+) that exhibits the typical phenoxyl π-π* band at 395 nm. It is EPR-silent due to magnetic interactions between the phenoxyl moieties. The CV curves of [Ni(II)L] and [Cu(II)L] exhibit two distinct ligand-centred one-electron oxidation waves. The first one is observed at E(1/2)(1) = 0.38 and 0.40 V for the nickel and copper complex, respectively, and corresponds to the formation of M(II)-coordinated phenoxyl radicals. Accordingly, [Ni(II)L˙](+) exhibits a strong absorption band at 960 nm and an (S = ½) EPR signal centred at g(iso) = 2.02. [Cu(II)L˙](+) is EPR-silent, in agreement with a magnetic coupling between the metal and the radical spin. In contrast with the other complexes, [Co(II)L] was found to react with dioxygen (mostly in the presence of pyridine), giving rise to a stable (S = ½) superoxo radical complex [Co(III)L(Py)(O(2)˙)]. One-electron oxidation of [Co(II)L] at -0.01 V affords a diamagnetic cobalt(III) complex [Co(III)L](+) that is inert towards O(2) binding, whereas two-electron oxidation leads to the paramagnetic phenoxyl radical species [Co(III)L˙](+) whose EPR spectrum features an (S = ½) signal at g(iso) = 2.00.

  9. Stress Tolerance of Photosystem II in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Havaux, Michel

    1992-01-01

    The in vivo photochemical activity of photosystem II was inferred from modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and photoacoustic measurements in intact leaves of several plant species (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Solanum tuberosum L., Solanum nigrum L.) exposed to various environmental stresses (drought, heat, strong light) applied separately or in combination. Photosystem II was shown to be highly drought-resistant: even a drastic desiccation in air of detached leaf samples only marginally affected the quantum yield for photochemistry in photosystem II. However, water stress markedly modified the responses of photosystem II to superimposed constraints. The stability of photosystem II to heat was observed to increase strongly in leaves exposed to water stress conditions: heat treatments (e.g. 42°C in the dark), which caused a complete and irreversible inhibition of photosystem II in well-watered (tomato) leaves, resulted in a small and fully reversible reduction of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II in drought-stressed leaves. In vivo photoacoustic data indicated that photosystem I was highly resistant to both heat and water stresses. When leaves were illuminated with intense white light at 25°C, photoinhibition damage of photosystem II was more pronounced in water-stressed leaves than in undesiccated controls. However, in nondehydrated leaves, photoinhibition of photosystem II was strongly temperature dependent, being drastically stimulated at high temperatures above 38 to 40°C. As a consequence, when exposed to strong light at high temperature, photosystem II photochemistry was significantly less inhibited in dehydrated leaves than in control well-hydrated leaves. Our results demonstrate the existence of a marked antagonism between physicochemical stresses, with water stress enhancing the resistance of photosystem II to constraints (heat, strong light at high temperature) that are usually associated with drought in the field. PMID:16652979

  10. Adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions on activated alumina.

    PubMed

    Naiya, Tarun Kumar; Bhattacharya, Ashim Kumar; Das, Sudip Kumar

    2009-05-01

    The ability of activated alumina as synthetic adsorbent was investigated for adsorptive removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, initial metal ion concentration, and adsorbent dosage level and equilibrium contact time were studied. The optimum solution pH for adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions was found to be 5. Kinetics data were best described by pseudo-second order model. The effective particle diffusion coefficient of Cd(II) and Pb(II) are of the order of 10(-10) m(2)/s. Values of mass transfer coefficient were estimated as 4.868x10(-6) cm/s and 6.85x10(-6) cm/s for Cd(II) and Pb(II) adsorption respectively. The equilibrium adsorption data for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were better fitted to Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous and exothermic for Cd(II) adsorption and endothermic for Pb(II). The sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm were 11.85 kJ/mol and 11.8 kJ/mol for the adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) respectively which indicated that both the adsorption processes were chemical in nature. Desorption studies were carried out using dilute mineral acids. Application studies carried out using industrial waste water samples containing Cd(II) and Pb(II) showed the suitability of activated alumina in waste water treatment plant operation.

  11. Competition of zinc(II) with cadmium(II) or mercury(II) in binding to a 12-mer peptide.

    PubMed

    Jancsó, Attila; Gyurcsik, Béla; Mesterházy, Edit; Berkecz, Róbert

    2013-09-01

    Speciation of the complexes of zinc(II) with a dodecapeptide (Ac-SCPGDQGSDCSI-NH2), inspired by the metal binding domain of MerR metalloregulatory proteins, have been studied by pH-potentiometric titrations, UV, SRCD (synchrotron radiation circular dichroism) and (1)H NMR experiments. (MerR is a family of transcriptional regulators the archetype of which is the Hg(2+)-responsive transcriptional repressor-activator MerR protein.) The aim of the ligand-design was to retain the advantageous metal binding features of MerR proteins in a model peptide for the efficient capture of toxic metal ions. The peptide binds zinc(II) via two deprotonated Cys-thiol groups and one of the Asp-carboxylates in the ZnL parent complex, possessing a remarkably high stability (logK=9.93). In spite of the relatively long peptide loop, bis-complexes are also formed with the metal ion under basic conditions. In a competition with cadmium(II) or mercury(II), zinc(II) cannot prevent the binding of toxic metal ions by the thiolate donor groups of the ligand. Around neutral pH one equivalent of mercury(II) was shown to fully replace zinc(II) from the ZnL species. Partial replacement of zinc(II) from the peptide by one equivalent of cadmium(II), relative to zinc(II) and the ligand, is also presumable, nevertheless, spectroscopic data may suggest the formation of mixed metal ion complexes, as well. Based on the obtained results the investigated dodecapeptide can be a promising candidate for capturing toxic metal ions in practical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Moderately luminous Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Core-collapse Supernovae (CC-SNe) descend from progenitors more massive than about 8 M⊙. Because of the young age of the progenitors, the ejecta may eventually interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM) via highly energetic processes detectable in the radio, X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and, sometimes, in the optical domains. Aims: In this paper we present ultraviolet, optical and near infrared observations of five Type II SNe, namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with few other SNe they form a group of moderately luminous Type II events. We investigate the photometric similarities and differences among these bright objects. We also attempt to characterise them by analysing the spectral evolutions, in order to find some traces of CSM-ejecta interaction. Methods: We collected photometry and spectroscopy with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phases. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate a degree of heterogeneity in this sample. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor stars. Results: The light curves have luminous peak magnitudes (-16.95 < MB < -18.70). The ejected masses of 56Ni for three SNe span a wide range of values (2.8 × 10-2 M⊙ < M(56Ni)< 1.4 × 10-1 M⊙), while for a fourth (SN 2010aj) we could determine a stringent upper limit (7 × 10-3 M⊙). Clues of interaction, such as the presence of high velocity (HV) features of the Balmer lines, are visible in the photospheric spectra of SNe 2009dd and 1996W. For SN 2007pk we observe a spectral transition from a Type IIn to a standard Type II SN. Modelling the observations of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad with radiation hydrodynamics codes, we infer kinetic plus thermal energies of about 0.2-0.5 foe, initial radii of 2-5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of ~5.0-9.5 M⊙. Conclusions: These

  13. FOREWORD: HELAS II International Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizon, Laurent; Roth, Markus

    2008-07-01

    Volume 118 (2008) of Journal of Physics: Conference Series provides a written record of the talks and posters presented at the HELAS II International Conference `Helioseismology, Asteroseismology and MHD Connections'. The conference was held during the week 20-24 August 2007 in Göttingen, Germany, jointly hosted by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Göttingen. A total of 140 scientists from all over the world attended. The Scientific Organizing Committee consisted of Conny Aerts, Annie Baglin, Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard, Thierry Corbard, Jadwiga Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, Stefan Dreizler, Yvonne Elsworth, Laurent Gizon (Chairman), Wolfgang Glatzel, Frank Hill, Donald Kurtz, Oskar von der Lühe, Maria Pia Di Mauro, Mário Monteiro, Pere Pallé, Markus Roth, Philip Scherrer, Manfred Schüssler, and Michael Thompson. HELAS stands for the European Helio- and Asteroseismology Network, a Coordination Action supported by the sixth Framework Programme of the European Union. It aims to bring together researchers in the fields of solar and stellar oscillations. This volume consists of 91 articles organized into sections that reflect the scientific programme of the conference: 012001-07 Wave diagnostics in physics, geophysics and astrophysics 012008-09 Perspectives on helio- and asteroseismology 012010-17 Asteroseismology: Observations 012018-25 Asteroseismology: Theory 012026-32 Global helioseismology and solar models 012033-38 Local helioseismology and magnetic activity 012039-44 Future observational projects in helio- and asteroseismology 012045-91 Poster papers. The overwhelming majority of papers discuss the seismology of the Sun and stars. Papers in the first section provide a broader perspective on wave phenomena and techniques for probing other physical systems, from living beings to the universe as a whole. We were extremely fortunate to have particularly distinguished experts to cover these topics

  14. Diet History Questionnaire II & Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Web-based DHQ

    Cancer.gov

    The Web-based versions of DHQ II and C-DHQ II are identical in content to the paper forms. By automating the DHQ II and providing versions on the Web for public use, researchers have another tool to collect and analyze food frequency questionnaire data.

  15. Sorption hysteresis of Cd(II) and Pb(II) on natural zeolite and bentonite.

    PubMed

    Hamidpour, Mohsen; Kalbasi, Mahmoud; Afyuni, Majid; Shariatmadari, Hossein; Holm, Peter E; Hansen, Hans Christian Brunn

    2010-09-15

    Sorption hysteresis in natural sorbents has important environmental implications for pollutant transport and bioavailability. We examined sorption reversibility of Cd(II) and Pb(II) on zeolite and bentonite. Sorption isotherms were derived by sorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from solutions containing a range of the metal concentrations corresponding to 10-100% maximum sorption capacity (SCmax) of the sorbents. The desorption experiments were performed immediately following the completion of sorption experiments. Sorption and desorption isotherms of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were well described by the Freundlich model. The results revealed that the desorption isotherms of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from zeolite significantly deviated from the sorption isotherms indicating irreversible or very slowly reversible sorption. For bentonite sorption/desorption isotherms were similar indicating reversible sorption. The extent of hysteresis was evaluated from sorption and desorption Freundlich parameters (K(f) and n) through the apparent hysteresis index (HI = n(desorb)/n(sorb); n is the exponent in the Freundlich equation) and differences in Freundlich K(f) parameters. Higher sorption irreversibility was obtained for Pb(II) as compared to Cd(II). The amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) desorbed from bentonite were more than from zeolite, indicating that zeolite was a more effective sorbent for water and wastewater treatment.

  16. 40 CFR Table II-2 to Subpart II - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes II Table II-2 to Subpart II Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt. 98...

  17. 40 CFR Table II-2 to Subpart II - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes II Table II-2 to Subpart II Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt. 98...

  18. Calix[4]arene based chemosensor for selective complexation of Cd(II) and Cu(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazi, Mansoor Ahmed; Qureshi, Imdadullah; Memon, Shahabuddin

    2010-06-01

    The present article describes synthesis, characterization and a detailed complexation study of calix[4]arene based chemosensor ( 4) bearing two anthracenyl units as signaling groups on its coordination sphere. The complex formation ability of 4 toward selected transition metals such as Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) has been investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. Assessment of results reveal that the chemosensor is selective toward Cd(II) and Cu(II). The FT-IR spectroscopic method was applied for further confirmation of the complexation phenomenon. Besides this, a study regarding interference of other metals on complex formation in solution has also supported the efficient binding preference of 4 for Cd(II) and Cu(II). From the results it has been concluded that 4 has compatible coordination sphere to accommodate these metals. The similarities and differences revealed that being soft nature of both metals and because of diagonal relationship in the periodic table their coordination behavior toward N/O-donor ligand may be treated as a test on possibility of the Cu(II) ions to be displaced by Cd(II). The study certainly will help in understanding the hazards of Cd(II) in biological systems.

  19. Spectral and thermodynamic properties of Ag(I), Au(III), Cd(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Hg(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), U(IV), and Zn(II) binding by methanobactin from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong W; Do, Young S; Zea, Corbin J; McEllistrem, Marcus T; Lee, Sung-W; Semrau, Jeremy D; Pohl, Nicola L; Kisting, Clint J; Scardino, Lori L; Hartsel, Scott C; Boyd, Eric S; Geesey, Gill G; Riedel, Theran P; Shafe, Peter H; Kranski, Kim A; Tritsch, John R; Antholine, William E; DiSpirito, Alan A

    2006-12-01

    Methanobactin (mb) is a novel chromopeptide that appears to function as the extracellular component of a copper acquisition system in methanotrophic bacteria. To examine this potential physiological role, and to distinguish it from iron binding siderophores, the spectral (UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence, and X-ray photoelectron) and thermodynamic properties of metal binding by mb were examined. In the absence of Cu(II) or Cu(I), mb will bind Ag(I), Au(III), Co(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), Hg(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), U(VI), or Zn(II), but not Ba(II), Ca(II), La(II), Mg(II), and Sr(II). The results suggest metals such as Ag(I), Au(III), Hg(II), Pb(II) and possibly U(VI) are bound by a mechanism similar to Cu, whereas the coordination of Co(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) by mb differs from Cu(II). Consistent with its role as a copper-binding compound or chalkophore, the binding constants of all the metals examined were less than those observed with Cu(II) and copper displaced other metals except Ag(I) and Au(III) bound to mb. However, the binding of different metals by mb suggests that methanotrophic activity also may play a role in either the solubilization or immobilization of many metals in situ.

  20. Geology of the Phase II System

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, R.; Laughlin, A. William

    1980-11-19

    This is a report on the analysis of EE-2 cuttings and thin sections, geologic characterization of the Phase II system, comparison with Phase 1, and geologic speculations and recommendations concerning Phase II. The EE-2 litholog has been included in the pocket.

  1. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  2. Biology II Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1820.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Academic Programs.

    In 1986, the Louisiana State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education requested that an advanced course in Biology II be developed. The resulting curriculum guide contains grade appropriate goals, skills, and competencies; suggested activities; suggested materials of instruction; and minimum time allotments for instruction. Biology II is a…

  3. TRUPACT-II procedures and maintenance instructions

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-14

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for operation, inspection and maintenance of a TRUPACT-II Shipping Package and directly related components. This document shall supply the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9218. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the TRUPACT-II SARP (NRC Certificate of Compliance No. 9218), the TRUPACT-II SARP shall govern. This document details the operations, maintenance, repair, replacement of components, as well as the documentation required and the procedures to be followed to maintain the integrity of the TRUPACT-II container. These procedures may be modified for site use, but as a minimum all parameters and format listed herein must be included in any site modified version. For convenience and where applicable steps may be performed out of sequence. Packaging and payload handling equipment and transport trailers have been specifically designed for use with the TRUPACT-II Packaging. This document discusses the minimum required procedures for use of the adjustable center of gravity lift fixture and the TRUPACT-II transport trailer in conjunction with the TRUPACT-II Packaging.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: glutaric acidemia type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... experience the most severe symptoms of glutaric acidemia type II . Mutations that allow the enzyme to retain some activity may result in milder forms of the disorder. Learn more about the genes associated with glutaric acidemia type II ETFA ETFB ETFDH Related Information What is ...

  5. World War II: A Technology Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, Suzy

    1990-01-01

    Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)

  6. The CNET Automated Budget System (CABS) II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Morris G.; And Others

    The Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET) Automated Budget System II (CABS II) is an improved and expanded version of an earlier system which was developed by the Training Analysis and Evaluation Group (TAEG) to provide an efficient, easy means of handling the large volume of data necessary to produce budget documents. Intended as a guide…

  7. World War II: A Technology Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, Suzy

    1990-01-01

    Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)

  8. Mastracchio works with BASS-II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-18

    ISS038-E-053251 (18 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  9. Mastracchio works with BASS-II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-18

    ISS038-E-053250 (18 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  10. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  11. Run II data analysis on the grid

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Mandrichenko, Igor Terekhov and Frank Wurthwein

    2002-12-02

    In this document, we begin the technical design for the distributed RunII computing for CDF and D0. The present paper defines the three components of the data handling area of Run II computing, namely the Data Handling System, the Storage System and the Application. We outline their functionality and interaction between them. We identify necessary and desirable elements of the interfaces.

  12. Fits, pyridoxine, and hyperprolinaemia type II.

    PubMed

    Walker, V; Mills, G A; Peters, S A; Merton, W L

    2000-03-01

    The rare inherited disorder hyperprolinaemia type II presents with fits in childhood, usually precipitated by infection. A diagnosis of hyperprolinaemia type II and vitamin B(6) deficiency was made in a well nourished child with fits. It is thought that pyridoxine deficiency was implicated in her fits and was the result of inactivation of the vitamin by the proline metabolite, pyrroline-5-carboxylate.

  13. Addressing Instructional Avoidance with Tier II Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Turtura, Jessica; Parry, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a 3-tiered, prevention-oriented framework, Tier II (secondary, targeted) interventions are designed for students whose problem behaviors have not responded to Tier I but are not severe enough to warrant an individualized Tier III intervention. Tier II interventions are implemented similarly across students receiving the intervention and can be…

  14. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…

  15. Adsorption of Pb(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) onto a vanadium mine tailing from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Shi, Taihong; Jia, Shiguo; Chen, Ying; Wen, Yinghong; Du, Changming; Guo, Huilin; Wang, Zhuochao

    2009-09-30

    The adsorption of heavy metal cations Pb(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solution by a mine tailing which mainly contains muscovite was investigated. The property of the mineral was investigated by using SEM, FT-IR, XRD and BET analysis. pH(pzc) was measured by an titration technique to give a value of 5.4+/-0.1. Kinetics experiments indicated that the processes can be simulated by pseudo-second-order model. Total adsorption amounts of the heavy metal increased, while the adsorption density decreased when the solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L) increased. Grain size did not affect the adsorption capacity significantly. The resulting isotherms can be described by Frendlich relationship. And the maximum adsorption capacity (molar basis) followed the order of Cr(III)>Pb(II)>Cu(II)>Ni(II)>Cd(II). Thermodynamic analysis showed that the adsorption processed were endothermic and may be chemical in nature with positive DeltaH(0). The positive DeltaS(0) suggested that dissociative processed were involved. Small positive DeltaG(0) suggested that the adsorption processes required a small amount of energy. Adsorption processes were slightly affected by electrolyte ion concentration but strongly dependent on pH value. The most possible mechanism of the adsorption processes involve the inner-sphere-complexions by the aluminol or silanol groups on the surface of the mineral.

  16. Children Teaching Children II. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of School Improvement.

    Children Teaching Children (CTC): Collection II is a CD-ROM created at 6 elementary schools in the West Contra Costa Unified School District (California) as part of the Coaching Odyssey for school improvement. CTC II, published by the California Department of Education, is an effective early literacy intervention that integrates the development of…

  17. Synthesis, DFT Calculation, and Antimicrobial Studies of Novel Zn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) Heteroleptic Complexes Containing Benzoylacetone and Dithiocarbamate

    PubMed Central

    Ekennia, Anthony C.; Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Osowole, Aderoju A.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2015-01-01

    Heteroleptic complexes of zinc(II), copper(II), manganese(II), and cobalt(II) of the types [MLL′(H2O)2]·nH2O and [MLL′]·nH2O have been synthesized using sodium N-methyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate (L) and benzoylacetone (L′). The metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic susceptibility, infrared (IR), and UV-visible spectroscopic studies. The electrical conductance measurements revealed the nonelectrolytic nature of the synthesized complexes. The results of the elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and electronic spectra inferred that the Zn(II) complex adopted a four-coordinate geometry while the Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) complexes assumed octahedral geometries. The IR spectra showed that the metal ions coordinated with the ligands via the S- and O-donor atoms. The geometry, electronic, and thermodynamic parameters of the complexes were obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The spin density distributions, relative strength of H–bonds, and thermodynamic parameters revealed that the order of stability of the metal complexes is Mn < Co < Cu > Zn. The agar diffusion methods were used to study the antimicrobial activity of the complexes against two Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and S. pneumoniae), one Gram negative bacterium (E. coli), and two fungi organisms (A. niger and A. candida) and the complexes showed a broad spectrum of activities against the microbes. PMID:26681931

  18. Micro Channel/Multibus-II Interface Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Ambrose, John J.; Jaworski, Richard C.; Heise, Nyles N.; Thornton, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Micro Channel/Multibus-II interface circuit provides electrical interconnections enabling communications between Micro Channels of IBM Personal System/2 computers and IEEE 1296 standard Multibus-II parallel system bus (iPSB). Made mostly of commercially available parts, interface enables independent Micro Channels to communicate over iPSB without modification.

  19. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  20. Adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions by cross-linking chitosan/rectorite nano-hybrid composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lixuan; Chen, Yufei; Zhang, Qiuyun; Guo, Xingmei; Peng, Yanni; Xiao, Huijuan; Chen, Xiaocheng; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-10-05

    Chitosan/rectorie (CTS/REC) nano-hybrid composite microsphere was prepared by changing the proportion of CTS/REC with 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. Compared with the pure cross-linking chitosan microsphere, the nano-hybrid composite microsphere was proved to have better sorption capacity of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II), especially 2:1(CTS/REC-1). The adsorption behavior of the microsphere of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) was investigated in single and binary metal systems. In single system, the equilibrium studies showed that the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) followed the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The negative values of (ΔG) suggested that the adsorption process was spontaneous. In binary system, the combined action of the metals was found to be antagonistic and the metal sorption followed the order of Cu(II)>Cd(II)>Ni(II). The regeneration studies indicated that EDTA desorbed Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) from cross-linking microspheres better than HCl. The FT-IR and XPS spectra showed that coordination bonds were formed between Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) and the nitrogen atoms of cross-linking CTS/REC nano-hybrid composite microspheres.

  1. TRUPACT-II Operating and Maintenance Instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division

    1999-12-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II) Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9218. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the TRUPACT-II SARP, the TRUPACT-II SARP shall govern. TRUPACT-II C of C number 9218 states, ''... each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' It further states, ''... each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the application.'' Chapter 9 of the TRUPACT-II SARP charges the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Waste Isolation Division (WID) with assuring that the TRUPACT-II is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. To meet this requirement and verify consistency of operations when loading and unloading the TRUPACT-II on the trailer, placing a payload in the packaging, unloading the payload from the packaging, or performing maintenance, the U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (U.S. DOE/CAO) finds it necessary to implement the changes that follow. This TRUPACT-II maintenance document represents a change to previous philosophy regarding site specific procedures for the use of the TRUPACT-II. This document details the instructions to be followed to consistently operate and maintain the TRUPACT-II. The intent of these instructions is to ensure that all users of the TRUPACT-II follow the same or equivalent instructions. Users may achieve this intent by any of the following methods: (1) Utilizing these instructions as is, or (2

  2. Visual Fixation in Chiari Type II Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Michael S.; Sharpe, James A.; Lillakas, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Steinbach, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Chiari type II malformation is a congenital deformity of the hindbrain. Square wave jerks are horizontal involuntary saccades that interrupt fixation. Cerebellar disorders may be associated with frequent square wave jerks or saccadic oscillations such as ocular flutter. The effects of Chiari type II malformation on visual fixation are unknown. We recorded eye movements using an eye tracker in 21 participants with Chiari type II malformation, aged 8 to 19 years while they fixated a target for 1 minute. Thirty-eight age-matched healthy participants served as controls. Square wave jerks’ parameters were similar in the 2 groups. Saccadic oscillations were not seen. Chiari type II malformation is not associated with pathological square wave jerks or abnormal saccadic oscillations. The congenital nature of this deformity may permit compensation that preserves stable visual fixation. Alternatively, the deformity of Chiari type II malformation may spare parts of the cerebellum that usually cause fixation instability when damaged. PMID:19182152

  3. Interpreting the H II Region Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oey, M. S.; Clarke, C. J.

    1998-12-01

    We construct Monte Carlo simulations of the H II region luminosity function (H II LF), drawing ionizing stars from a constant stellar IMF, and the number of ionizing stars from a power-law distribution of constant slope. We find that observed variations in the form of the H II LF across the Hubble sequence can be explained by a trend in the maximum number of ionizing stars per nebula. In addition, variations in the form of the H II LF between arm and interarm populations of spiral galaxies can be explained by evolutionary effects. The H II LF can thus reveal features in the most recent (< 10 Myr) star formation history of the host galaxies.

  4. Special Issue International CAWSES-II Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Nakamura, Takuji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2016-01-01

    This special issue gathered papers from the International CAWSES-II Symposium (November 18-22, 2013 at Nagoya University, Japan). Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System II (CAWSES-II) is an international scientific program sponsored by Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) that continued from 2009 to 2013. The program was established with the aim of significantly enhancing our understanding of the space environment and its impacts on life and society. The International CAWSES-II Symposium was successful with 388 presentations; and from that, 38 papers were published in this special issue. In this preface, we briefly discuss the contents of the special issue as well as the CAWSES-II review papers published in Progress in Earth and Planetary Science (PEPS) in 2014-2015.

  5. SAMS-II Requirements and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wald, Lawrence W.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurements System (SAMS) II is the primary instrument for the measurement, storage, and communication of the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). SAMS-II is being developed by the NASA Lewis Research Center Microgravity Science Division to primarily support the Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications (OLMSA) Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) payloads aboard the ISS. The SAMS-II is currently in the test and verification phase at NASA LeRC, prior to its first hardware delivery scheduled for July 1998. This paper will provide an overview of the SAMS-II instrument, including the system requirements and topology, physical and electrical characteristics, and the Concept of Operations for SAMS-II aboard the ISS.

  6. Comparison of Solution and Crystal Properties of Co(II)-Substituted Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Avvaru, Balendu Sankara; Arenas, Daniel J.; Tu, Chingkuang; Tanner, D. B.; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N.

    2010-01-01

    The visible absorption of crystals of Co(II)-substituted human carbonic anhydrase II (Co(II)-HCA II) were measured over a pH range of 6.0 to 11.0 giving an estimate of pKa 8.4 for the ionization of the metal-bound water in the crystal. This is higher by about 1.2 pKa units than the pKa near 7.2 for Co(II)-CA II in solution. This effect is attributed to a nonspecific ionic strength effect of 1.4 M citrate in the precipitant solution used in the crystal growth. A pKa of 8.3 for the aqueous ligand of the cobalt was measured for Co(II)-HCA II in solution containing 0.8 M citrate. Citrate is not an inhibitor of the catalytic activity of Co(II)-HCA II and was not observed in crystal structures. The X-ray structures at 1.5–1.6Å resolution of Co(II)-HCA II were determined for crystals prepared at pH 6.0, 8.5 and 11.0 and revealed no conformational changes of amino-acid side chains as a result of the use of citrate. However, the studies of Co(II)-HCA II did reveal a change in metal coordination from tetrahedral at pH 11 to a coordination consistent with a mixed population of both tetrahedral and penta-coordinate at pH 8.5 to an octahedral geometry characteristic of the oxidized enzyme Co(III)-HCA II at pH 6.0. PMID:20637176

  7. II-VI widegap superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, T.; Yamada, Y.; Endoh, Y.; Nozue, Y.; Mullins, J. T.; Ohno, T.; Masumoto, Y.; Takeda, S.

    We review our recent results of the excitonic properties in ZnSeZnS and Cd xZn 1-xSZnS strained-layer superlattices (SLSs). The most important physical insights in the II-VI widegap superlattices are to understand the relationship between the optical properties of quasi-two-dimensional exciton and strain because the well layer frequently receives biaxial compression or tension. The strain thus causes the significant shifts of the bandgap and splitting of the valence band. Semi-quantative calculations lead to an expectation that ZnSeZnS SLS always exhibits a type I band lineup within 100 Å thicknesses of the ZnSe well at a constant ZnS barrier width of several tens angstrom. This is in good agreement with the experimental results of exciton absorption and its luminescence excitation spectra. The Cd 0.3Zn 0.7SZnS SLSs with a range of well widths can produce intense excitonic emissions around 3.4 eV at room temperature due to the quantum confinement of excitons in the ternary CdZnS well. In order to elucidate localisation and relaxation processes of excitons, we have for the first time reported a multiple-LO-phonon emission process in the excitation spectra. The electric-field studies suggest that the concomitant decrease in intensity and the energy downshift of the exciton line may originate from the quantum confined Stark effect.

  8. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  9. PEP-II operations report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2001-04-01

    PEP-II is a two-ring asymmetric B factory operating at the ϒ(4S) resonance. It was constructed by a SLAC-LBNL-LLNL collaboration. The collider comprises two rings, a High-Energy Ring (HER) storing 9 GeV electrons, and a Low-Energy Ring (LER) storing 3.1 GeV positrons. Commissioning of the HER began in mid-1997 and commissioning of the LER began in mid-1998. First evidence for collisions was obtained on July 23, 1998. The B AB AR detector was installed in early 1999, and commissioning with the detector commenced in May 1999. In the present run, which began in October 1999, the peak luminosity has reached 3.1×10 33 cm-2 s-1 and the integrated luminosity delivered is 25 fb-1. In this paper we describe the startup experience and summarize the operational experience during fiscal year 2000 (from October 1999 through September 2000). Plans for luminosity upgrades are briefly described.

  10. TRUPACT-II, a regulatory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, P.C.; Spooner, O.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Transuranic Package Transporter II (TRUPACT-II) is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certified Type B packaging for the shipment of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) material by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The NRC approved the TRUPACT-II design as meeting the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71) and issued Certificate of Compliance (CofC) Number 9218 to the DOE. There are currently 15 certified TRUPACT-IIs. Additional TRUPACT-IIs will be required to make more than 15,000 shipments of CH-TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The TRUPACT-II may also be used for the DOE inter-site and intra-site shipments of CH-TRU waste. The Land Withdrawal Act (Public Law 102-579), enacted by the US Congress, October 30, 1992, and an agreement between the DOE and the State of New Mexico, signed August 4, 1987, both stipulate that only NRC approved packaging may be used for shipments of TRU waste to the WIPP. Early in the TRUPACT-II development phase it was decided that the transportation system (tractor, trailer, and TRUPACT-II) should be highway legal on all routes without the need for oversize and/or overweight permits. In large measure, public acceptance of the DOE`s efforts to safely transport CH-TRU waste depends on the public`s perception that the TRUPACT-II is in compliance with all applicable regulations, standards, and quality assurance requirements. This paper addresses some of the numerous regulations applicable to Type B packaging, and it describes how the TRUPACT-II complies with these regulations.

  11. Intracellular angiotensin II activates rat myometrium

    PubMed Central

    Deliu, Elena; Tica, Andrei A.; Motoc, Dana; Brailoiu, G. Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin II is a modulator of myometrial activity; both AT1 and AT2 receptors are expressed in myometrium. Since in other tissues angiotensin II has been reported to activate intracellular receptors, we assessed the effects of intracellular administration of angiotensin II via microinjection on myometrium, using calcium imaging. Intracellular injection of angiotensin II increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in myometrial cells in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was abolished by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan but not by the AT2 receptor antagonist PD-123319. Disruption of the endo-lysosomal system, but not that of Golgi apparatus, prevented the angiotensin II-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. Blockade of AT1 receptor internalization had no effect, whereas blockade of microautophagy abolished the increase in [Ca2+]i produced by intracellular injection of angiotensin II; this indicates that microautophagy is a critical step in transporting the peptide into the endo-lysosomes lumenum. The response to angiotensin II was slightly reduced in Ca2+-free saline, indicating a major involvement of Ca2+ release from internal stores. Blockade of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors with heparin and xestospongin C or inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U-73122 abolished the response to angiotensin II, supporting the involvement of PLC-IP3 pathway. Angiotensin II-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was slightly reduced by antagonism of ryanodine receptors. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that in myometrial cells, intracellular angiotensin II activates AT1-like receptors on lysosomes and activates PLC-IP3-dependent Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum; the response is further augmented by a Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release mechanism via ryanodine receptors activation. PMID:21613610

  12. Synthesis, spectral characterization, solution equilibria, in vitro antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes with Schiff base derived from 5-bromosalicylaldehyde and 2-aminomethylthiophene.

    PubMed

    El-Sherif, Ahmed A; Eldebss, Taha M A

    2011-09-01

    Schiff base namely 2-aminomethylthiophenyl-4-bromosalicylaldehyde (ATS)(4-bromo-2-(thiophen-2-yl-imino)methylphenol) and its metal complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance, mass spectra, ESR and thermal analysis (TGA). The analytical data of the complexes show the formation of 1:2 [M:L] ratio of the formula [ML2], where M represents Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cu(II) ions, while L represents the deprotonated Schiff base. IR spectra show that ATS is coordinated to the metal ions in a bidentate manner through azomethine-N and phenolic-oxygen groups. The ligand and their metal chelates have been screened for their antimicrobial activities using the disc diffusion method against the selected bacteria. A cytotoxicity of the compounds against colon (HCT116) and larynx (HEP2) cancer cells have been studied. Protonation constants of (ATS) ligand and stability constants of its Cu2+, Co2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ complexes were determined by potentiometric titration method in 50% (v/v) DMSO-water solution at ionic strength of 0.1 M NaNO3. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis, spectral characterization, solution equilibria, in vitro antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes with Schiff base derived from 5-bromosalicylaldehyde and 2-aminomethylthiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sherif, Ahmed A.; Eldebss, Taha M. A.

    2011-09-01

    Schiff base namely 2-aminomethylthiophenyl-4-bromosalicylaldehyde (ATS)(4-bromo-2-(thiophen-2-yl-imino)methylphenol) and its metal complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance, mass spectra, ESR and thermal analysis (TGA). The analytical data of the complexes show the formation of 1:2 [M:L] ratio of the formula [ML 2], where M represents Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cu(II) ions, while L represents the deprotonated Schiff base. IR spectra show that ATS is coordinated to the metal ions in a bidentate manner through azomethine-N and phenolic-oxygen groups. The ligand and their metal chelates have been screened for their antimicrobial activities using the disc diffusion method against the selected bacteria. A cytotoxicity of the compounds against colon (HCT116) and larynx (HEP2) cancer cells have been studied. Protonation constants of (ATS) ligand and stability constants of its Cu 2+, Co 2+, Mn 2+, Zn 2+ and Ni 2+ complexes were determined by potentiometric titration method in 50% (v/v) DMSO-water solution at ionic strength of 0.1 M NaNO 3.

  14. Sustained inhibition of the NaV1.7 sodium channel by engineered dimers of the domain II binding peptide GpTx-1.

    PubMed

    Murray, Justin K; Biswas, Kaustav; Holder, J Ryan; Zou, Anruo; Ligutti, Joseph; Liu, Dong; Poppe, Leszek; Andrews, Kristin L; Lin, Fen-Fen; Meng, Shi-Yuan; Moyer, Bryan D; McDonough, Stefan I; Miranda, Les P

    2015-11-01

    Many efforts are underway to develop selective inhibitors of the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 as new analgesics. Thus far, however, in vitro selectivity has proved difficult for small molecules, and peptides generally lack appropriate pharmacokinetic properties. We previously identified the NaV1.7 inhibitory peptide GpTx-1 from tarantula venom and optimized its potency and selectivity via structure-guided analoging. To further understand GpTx-1 binding to NaV1.7, we have mapped the binding site to transmembrane segments 1-4 of the second pseudosubunit internal repeat (commonly referred to as Site 4) using NaV1.5/NaV1.7 chimeric protein constructs. We also report that select GpTx-1 amino acid residues apparently not contacting NaV1.7 can be derivatized with a hydrophilic polymer without adversely affecting peptide potency. Homodimerization of GpTx-1 with a bifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker resulted in a compound with increased potency and a significantly reduced off-rate, demonstrating the ability to modulate the function and properties of GpTx-1 by linking to additional molecules.

  15. Early failure of Class II resin composite versus Class II amalgam restorations placed by dental students.

    PubMed

    Overton, J D; Sullivan, Diane J

    2012-03-01

    Using the information from remake request slips in a dental school's predoctoral clinic, we examined the short-term survival of Class II resin composite restorations versus Class II dental amalgam restorations. In the student clinic, resin composite is used in approximately 58 percent of Class II restorations placed, and dental amalgam is used in the remaining 42 percent. In the period examined, Class II resin composite restorations were ten times more likely to be replaced at no cost to the patient than Class II dental amalgam restorations. A total of eighty-four resin composite restorations and six amalgam restorations were replaced due to an identified failure.

  16. Membrane events and ionic processes involved in dopamine release from tuberoinfundibular neurons. II. Effect of the inhibition of the Na+-Ca++ exchange by amiloride

    SciTech Connect

    Taglialatela, M.; Amoroso, S.; Canzoniero, L.M.; Di Renzo, G.F.; Annunziato, L.

    1988-08-01

    In the present study we investigated the effect of amiloride, a rather specific inhibitor of the membrane Na+-Ca++ exchange system, on the release of endogenous dopamine (DA) and previously taken-up (3H)DA from tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons. Amiloride (300 microM) stimulated either endogenous DA or (3H)DA release. Amiloride-induced stimulation of (3H)DA release was prevented in a Ca++-free plus ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid medium. Amiloride, at the same concentration, reinforced both high K+- and electrically-induced stimulation of (3H)DA release. These results are explained on the basis of the ability of amiloride in blocking the Na+-Ca++ exchange system, therefore causing an elevation of intracellular Ca++ levels in resting conditions, and a further accumulation of Ca++ ions after high K+- or electrically elicited opening of voltage-operated channels specific for Ca++ ions. The enhanced intracellular Ca++ availability may trigger the stimulation of neurotransmitter release. In addition, amiloride was able to block in a dose-dependent manner (70-300 microM) the ouabain-induced (3H)DA release, suggesting that, when intracellular concentrations of Na+ are increased by the blockade of Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase the Na+-Ca+;+ exchange carrier reverses its resting mode of operation, mediating the influx of extracellular Ca++ ions. Amiloride, by blocking the Na+-Ca++ exchange mechanism, prevents the ouabain-elicited entrance of extracellular Ca++ ions, therefore inhibiting (3H)DA release stimulated by the cardioactive glycoside. Collectively, the results of the present study seem to be compatible with the idea that the Na+-Ca++ exchange mechanism is involved in the regulation of (3H)DA release from tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons, through the regulation of Ca++ movements across the plasma membrane.

  17. Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Ayad, D M; Sarhan, A A

    2010-04-15

    The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes involving hydroxy antipyrine azodyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaber, M.; Hassanein, A. M.; Lotfalla, A. A.

    2008-03-01

    The complexes formed between some hydroxy antipyrine azodyes and Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were studied spectrophotometrically in solution. The stoichiometry and stability constants of the metal chelates were determined. The spectrophotometric determination of the titled metal ions and titration using EDTA were reported. The chelating behaviour of the azodyes was confirmed by preparing the solid chelates in which their structures are elucidated using molar conductance, elemental, thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses, IR, ESR and electronic spectra as well as the magnetic measurements. Kinetic parameters are computed from the thermal decomposition data. The electrical properties for the metal complexes are measured from which the activation energies are calculated.

  19. Effects of Mg II and Ca II ionization on ab-initio solar chromosphere models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rammacher, W.; Cuntz, M.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustically heated solar chromosphere models are computed considering radiation damping by (non-LTE) emission from H(-) and by Mg II and Ca II emission lines. The radiative transfer equations for the Mg II k and Ca II K emission lines are solved using the core-saturation method with complete redistribution. The Mg II k and Ca II K cooling rates are compared with the VAL model C. Several substantial improvements over the work of Ulmschneider et al. (1987) are included. It is found that the rapid temperature rises caused by the ionization of Mg II are not formed in the middle chromosphere, but occur at larger atmospheric heights. These models represent the temperature structure of the 'real' solar chromosphere much better. This result is a major precondition for the study of ab-initio models for solar flux tubes based on MHD wave propagation and also for ab-initio models for the solar transition layer.

  20. Effects of Mg II and Ca II ionization on ab-initio solar chromosphere models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rammacher, W.; Cuntz, M.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustically heated solar chromosphere models are computed considering radiation damping by (non-LTE) emission from H(-) and by Mg II and Ca II emission lines. The radiative transfer equations for the Mg II k and Ca II K emission lines are solved using the core-saturation method with complete redistribution. The Mg II k and Ca II K cooling rates are compared with the VAL model C. Several substantial improvements over the work of Ulmschneider et al. (1987) are included. It is found that the rapid temperature rises caused by the ionization of Mg II are not formed in the middle chromosphere, but occur at larger atmospheric heights. These models represent the temperature structure of the 'real' solar chromosphere much better. This result is a major precondition for the study of ab-initio models for solar flux tubes based on MHD wave propagation and also for ab-initio models for the solar transition layer.

  1. Primary structure of the. cap alpha. -subunit of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. II. Isolation, reverse transcription, and cloning of messenger RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Petrukhin, K.E.; Broude, N.E.; Arsenyan, S.G.; Grishin, A.V.; Dzhandzhugazyan, K.N.; Modyanov, N.N.

    1986-10-01

    The messenger RNA coding the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase has been isolated from the outer medullary layer of porcine kidneys. The mRNA gives a specific hybridization band in the 25S-26S region with three oligonucleotide probes synthesized on the basis of information on the structure of three peptides isolated from a tryptic hydrolyzate of the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase. The translation of the mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by immunochemical identification of the products of synthesis confirmed the presence of the mRNA of the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase in an enriched fraction of poly(A/sup +/)-RNA. This preparation has been used for the synthesis of cloning of double-stranded cDNA.

  2. Chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles-sorbent for solid phase extraction of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II).

    PubMed

    Djerahov, Lubomir; Vasileva, Penka; Karadjova, Irina; Kurakalva, Rama Mohan; Aradhi, Keshav Krishna

    2016-08-20

    The present study describes the ecofriendly method for the preparation of chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and application of this film as efficient sorbent for separation and enrichment of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II). The stable CS-AgNPs colloid was prepared by dispersing the AgNPs sol in chitosan solution at appropriate ratio and further used to obtain a cast film with very good stability under storage and good mechanical strength for easy handling in aqueous medium. The incorporation of AgNPs in the structure of CS film and interaction between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The homogeneously embedded AgNPs (average diameter 29nm, TEM analysis) were clearly observed throughout the film by SEM. The CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film shows high sorption activity toward trace metals under optimized chemical conditions. The results suggest that the CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film can be feasibly used as a novel sorbent material for solid-phase extraction of metal pollutants from surface waters.

  3. Teleost chloride cell. II. Autoradiographic localization of gill Na,K- ATPase in killifish Fundulus heteroclitus adapted to low and high salinity environments

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    The specific binding and inhibitory action of (3H)ouabain were employed to localize transport Na,K-ATPase in the euryhaline teleost gill, a NaCl-transporting osmoregulatory tissue in which both enzyme activity and transepithelial transport vary with environmental salinity. In killifish fully adapted to 10%, 100%, or 200% seawater, the gills were internally perfused and externally irrigated in situ. After suitable internal or external exposure to (3H)ouabain, individual gill arches were excised for Na,K-ATPase assay, measurement of radiolabel binding, or quantitative high-resolution autoradiography. Internal exposure to 50 muM ouabain resulted in essentially complete enzyme inhibition, and binding paralleled the increases in enzyme activity at higher salinities; in contrast, external exposure gave minimal and erratic results consistent with leakage of external ouabain into interstitial fluid. (3H)Ouabain autoradiographs demonstrated that, irrespective of exposure or salinity, most of the gill binding was associated with chloride cell. These cells increased in size and number with salinity and, at the subcellular level, the distribution pattern for bound ouabain was always identical to that for the amplified basal-lateral (tubular system) membrane. The combined physiologicmorphologic results constitute final direct proof that chloride cells are the primary site of gill Na,K-ATPase. More important, they provide convincing evidence for unexpected increases in basal-lateral enzyme at higher salinities and thus raise a fundamental objection to the long-postulated role of the Na pump in secretory NaCl transport. PMID:132451

  4. [O II] nebular emission from Mg II absorbers: star formation associated with the absorbing gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Ravi; Srianand, Raghunathan; Petitjean, Patrick; Noterdaeme, Pasquier

    2017-10-01

    We present nebular emission associated with 198 strong Mg II absorbers at 0.35 ≤z ≤ 1.1 in the fibre spectra of quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Measured [O II] luminosities (L_[O II]) are typical of sub-L⋆ galaxies with derived star formation rate (uncorrected for fibre losses and dust reddening) in the range of 0.5-20 M⊙ yr-1. Typically less than ∼3 per cent of the Mg II systems with rest equivalent width, W2796≥2Å, show L_[O II] ≥0.3 L^{\\star }_[O II]. The detection rate is found to increase with increasing W2796 and z. No significant correlation is found between W2796 and L_[O II] even when we restrict the samples to narrow z ranges. A strong correlation is seen between L_[O II] and z. While this is expected from the luminosity evolution of galaxies, we show that finite fibre size plays a very crucial role in this correlation. The measured nebular line ratios (like [O III]/[O II] and [O III]/H β) and their z evolution are consistent with those of galaxies detected in deep surveys. Based on the median stacked spectra, we infer the average metallicity (log Z ∼8.3), ionization parameter (log q∼7.5) and stellar mass (log (M/M⊙) ∼ 9.3). The Mg II systems with nebular emission typically have W2796 ≥2 Å, Mg II doublet ratio close to 1 and W(Fe II λ2600)/W2796∼0.5 as often seen in damped Ly α and 21-cm absorbers at these redshifts. This is the biggest reported sample of [O II] emission from Mg II absorbers at low-impact parameters ideally suited for probing various feedback processes at play in z ≤ 1 galaxies.

  5. IGF-II receptors and IGF-II-stimulated glucose transport in human fat cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, M.K.; Buchanan, C.; Raineri-Maldonado, C.; Khazanie, P.; Atkinson, S.; DiMarchi, R.; Caro, J.F. )

    1990-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) receptors have been described in rat but not in human adipocytes. In both species, IGF-II has been reported to stimulate glucose transport by interacting with the insulin receptor. In this study, we have unequivocally demonstrated the presence of IGF-II receptors in human adipocytes. 125I-labeled IGF-II specifically binds to intact adipocytes, membranes, and lectin-purified detergent solubilized extracts. Through the use of 0.5 mM disuccinimidyl suberate, 125I-IGF-II is cross-linked to a 260-kDa protein that is identified as the IGF-II receptor by displacement experiments with unlabeled IGF-II, IGF-I, and insulin and either by immunoprecipitation or by Western blot analysis with mannose 6-phosphate receptor antibodies. The concentrations of IGF-II required for half-maximal and maximal stimulation of glucose transport in human adipocytes are 35 and 100 times more than that of insulin. The possibility of IGF-II stimulating glucose transport by interacting predominantly with the insulin receptor is suggested by the following: (1) the concentration of IGF-II that inhibits half of insulin binding is only 20 times more than that of insulin; (2) the lack of an additive effect of IGF-II and insulin for maximal stimulation of glucose transport; (3) the ability of monoclonal insulin receptor antibodies to decrease glucose transport stimulated by submaximal concentrations of both IGF-II and insulin; and (4) the ability of IGF-II to stimulate insulin receptor autophosphorylation albeit at a reduced potency when compared with insulin.

  6. New Rh2(II,II) Architecture for the Catalytic Reduction of H⁺.

    PubMed

    White, Travis A; Witt, Suzanne E; Li, Zhanyong; Dunbar, Kim R; Turro, Claudia

    2015-10-19

    Formamidinate-bridged Rh2(II,II) complexes containing diimine ligands of the formula cis-[Rh2(II,II)(μ-DTolF)2(NN)2](2+) (Rh2-NN2), where DTolF = p-ditolylformamidinate and NN = dppn (benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-h]quinoxaline), dppz (dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine), and phen (1,10-phenanthroline), electrocatalytically reduce H(+) to H2 in DMF solutions containing CH3COOH at a glassy carbon electrode. Cathodic scans in the absence of acid display a Rh(III,II/II,II) reduction at -0.90 V vs Fc(+)/Fc followed by NN(0/-) reduction at -1.13, -1.36, and -1.65 V for Rh2-dppn2, Rh2-dppz2, and Rh2-phen2, respectively. Upon the addition of acid, Rh2-dppn2 and Rh2-dppz2 undergo reduction-protonation-reduction at each pyrazine-containing NN ligand prior to the Rh2(II,II/II,I) reduction. The Rh2(II,I) species is then protonated at one of the metal centers, resulting in the formation of the corresponding Rh2(II,III)-hydride. In the case of Rh2-phen2, the reduction of the phen ligand is followed by intramolecular electron transfer to the Rh2(II,II) core in the presence of protons to form a Rh2(II,III)-hydride species. Further reduction and protonation at the Rh2 core for all three complexes rapidly catalyzes H2 formation with varied calculated turnover frequencies (TOF) and overpotential values (η): 2.6 × 10(4) s(-1) and 0.56 V for Rh2-dppn, 2.8 × 10(4) s(-1) and 0.50 V for Rh2-dppz2, and 5.9 × 10(4) s(-1) and 0.64 V for Rh2-phen2. Bulk electrolysis confirmed H2 formation, and further CH3COOH addition regenerates H2 production, attesting to the robust nature of the architecture. The cis-[Rh2(II,II)(μ-DTolF)2(NN)2](2+) architecture benefits by combining electron-rich formamidinate bridges, a redox-active Rh2(II,II) core, and electron-accepting NN diimine ligands to allow for the electrocatalysis of H(+) substrate to H2 fuel.

  7. Angiotensin II receptors in testes

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, M.A.; Aguilera, G.

    1988-05-01

    Receptors for angiotensin II (AII) were identified and characterized in testes of rats and several primate species. Autoradiographic analysis of the binding of 125I-labeled (Sar1,Ile8)AII to rat, rhesus monkey, cebus monkey, and human testicular slide-mounted frozen sections indicated specific binding to Leydig cells in the interstitium. In rat collagenase-dispersed interstitial cells fractionated by Percoll gradient, AII receptor content was parallel to that of hCG receptors, confirming that the AII receptors are in the Leydig cells. In rat dispersed Leydig cells, binding was specific for AII and its analogs and of high affinity (Kd, 4.8 nM), with a receptor concentration of 15 fmol/10(6) cells. Studies of AII receptors in rat testes during development reveals the presence of high receptor density in newborn rats which decreases toward the adult age (4934 +/- 309, 1460 +/- 228, 772 +/- 169, and 82 +/- 12 fmol/mg protein at 5, 15, 20, and 30 days of age, respectively) with no change in affinity. At all ages receptors were located in the interstitium, and the decrease in binding was parallel to the decrease in the interstitial to tubular ratio observed with age. AII receptor properties in membrane-rich fractions from prepuberal testes were similar in the rat and rhesus monkey. Binding was time and temperature dependent, reaching a plateau at 60 min at 37 C, and was increased by divalent cations, EGTA, and dithiothreitol up to 0.5 mM. In membranes from prepuberal monkey testes, AII receptors were specific for AII analogs and of high affinity (Kd, 4.2 nM) with a receptor concentration of 7599 +/- 1342 fmol/mg protein. The presence of AII receptors in Leydig cells in rat and primate testes in conjunction with reports of the presence of other components of the renin-angiotensin system in the testes suggests that the peptide has a physiological role in testicular function.

  8. Visualizing Heat Transport in Helium II

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sciver, S. W.

    2006-04-27

    Many technical systems including large particle accelerators, space astrophysics experiments and high field superconducting magnets are enabled at least in part by the unique transport properties of He II. Heat is carried in He II by a mechanism known as thermal counterflow whereby the liquid behaves as if it consists of two fluid components, with the normal fluid component carrying the entropy and the superfluid component flowing in opposition to conserve mass and momentum. This unique mechanism leads to an effective thermal conductivity for He II which is many orders of magnitude larger than that of classical fluids or even metals at low temperature. Although scientists have long believed in the theory of thermal counterflow, there have been very few attempts to actually observe this process and the associated fluid component motion. Recently, our group has been able to utilize the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique to study the local dynamics of He II thermal counterflow. Some exceptional observations have resulted from this work. Following a brief motivational introduction, the paper begins with a review of the important heat transport mechanisms in He II. Next the challenges and techniques available for visualizing counterflow fields in He II are described. Finally, recent PIV experiments on He II heat transport that clearly display the flow fields associated with motion of the two fluid components are discussed.

  9. SEARCHING FOR NEW HYPERCOMPACT H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Pandian, Jagadheep D.; Kurtz, Stan

    2011-09-20

    Hypercompact (HC) H II regions are, by nature, very young H II regions, associated with the earliest stages of massive star formation. They may represent the transition phase as an early B-type star grows into an O-type star. Unfortunately, so few HC H II regions are presently known that their general attributes and defining characteristics are based on small number statistics. A larger sample is needed for detailed studies and good statistics. Class II methanol masers are one of the best indicators of the early stages of massive star formation. Using the Arecibo Methanol Maser Galactic Plane Survey-the most sensitive blind survey for 6.7 GHz methanol masers to date-we selected 24 HC H II region candidates. We made Expanded Very Large Array continuum observations at 3.6 and 1.3 cm to search for HC H II regions associated with these masers. We identified six potential HC H II regions in our sample based on the presence of optically thick free-free emission. Overall, we find that 30% of the methanol masers have an associated centimeter radio continuum source (separation less than 0.1 pc), which is in general agreement with previous studies.

  10. Dinuclear Metallacycles with Single M-X-M Bridges (X = Cl(-), Br(-); M = Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II)): Strong Antiferromagnetic Superexchange Interactions.

    PubMed

    Reger, Daniel L; Pascui, Andrea E; Foley, Elizabeth A; Smith, Mark D; Jezierska, Julia; Wojciechowska, Agnieszka; Stoian, Sebastian A; Ozarowski, Andrew

    2017-03-06

    A series of monochloride-bridged, dinuclear metallacycles of the general formula [M2(μ-Cl)(μ-L)2](ClO4)3 have been prepared using the third-generation, ditopic bis(pyrazolyl)methane ligands L = m-bis[bis(1-pyrazolyl)methyl]benzene (Lm), M = Cu(II), Zn(II), and L = m-bis[bis(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)methyl]benzene (Lm*), M = Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II). These complexes were synthesized from the direct reactions of M(ClO4)2·6H2O, MCl2, and the ligand, Lm or Lm*, in the appropriate stoichiometric amounts. Three analogous complexes of the formula [M2(μ-Cl)(μ-L)2](BF4)3, L = Lm, M = Cu(II), and L = Lm*, M = Co(II), Cu(II), were prepared from the reaction of [M2(μ-F)(μ-L)2](BF4)3 and (CH3)3SiCl. The bromide-bridged complex [Cu2(μ-Br)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4)3 was prepared by the first method. Three acyclic complexes, [Co2(μ-Lm)μ-Cl4], [Co2(μ-Lm*)Cl4], and [Co2(μ-Lm*)Br4], were also prepared. The structures of all [M2(μ-X)(μ-L)2](3+) (X = Cl(-), Br(-)) complexes have two ditopic bis(pyrazolyl)methane ligands bridging two metals in a metallacyclic arrangement. The fifth coordination site of the distorted trigonal bipyramidal metal centers is filled by a bridging halide ligand that has an unusual linear or nearly linear M-X-M angle. The NMR spectra of [Zn2(μ-Cl)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4)3 and especially [Cd2(μ-Cl)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4)3 demonstrate that the metallacycle structure is maintained in solution. Solid state magnetic susceptibility data for the copper(II) compounds show very strong antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, with -J values of 536 cm(-1) for [Cu2(μ-Cl)(μ-Lm)2](ClO4)3·xCH3CN, 720 cm(-1) for [Cu2(μ-Cl)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4)3, and 945 cm(-1) for [Cu2(μ-Br)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4)3·2CH3CN. Smaller but still substantial antiferromagnetic interactions are observed with other first row transition metals, with -J values of 98 cm(-1) for [Ni2(μ-Cl)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4)3, 55 cm(-1) for [Co2(μ-Cl)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4)3, and 34 cm(-1) for [Fe2(μ-Cl)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4

  11. Dilithium disodium nickel(II) cyclo-hexa-phosphate dodeca-hydrate, Li(2)Na(2)NiP(6)O(18)·12H(2)O.

    PubMed

    Abid, Sonia; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Rzaigui, Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    The crystal structure of Li(2)Na(2)NiP(6)O(18)·12H(2)O is characterized by the presence of six-membered P(6)O(18) (6-) phosphate ring anions (inter-nal symmetry -1) having a chair conformation and three different cations, viz. Li(+), Na(+) and Ni(2+), to counterbalance the anionic charge. All atoms are in general positions except for nickel, which lies on a special position with site symmetry 2. Lithium has a tetra-hedral environment (LiO(4)), and sodium and nickel have octa-hedral environments [NaO(6) and Ni(H(2)O)(6), respectively]. The P(6)O(18) rings are linked via corner sharing by NaO(6) octa-hedra and LiO(4) tetra-hedra to form a three-dimensional framework presenting tunnels running along [010] in which the six-coordinated Ni(2+) cations are located. The structure is stabilized by a network of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  12. Host-induced genome alterations in Phytophthora ramorum, I. NA1 lineage on coast live oak in California, II. EU1 lineage on Chamaecyparis lawsoniana in UK

    Treesearch

    Takao Kasuga; Mai Bui; Elizabeth Bernhardt; Tedmund Swiecki; Kamyar Aram; Lien Bertier; Jennifer Yuzon; Liliana M. Cano; Joan Webber; Clive Brasier; Caroline Press; Niklaus Grünwald; David Rizzo; Matteo Garbelotto

    2017-01-01

    Rapid phenotypic diversification in clonal invasive populations is often observed, although the underlying genetic mechanisms remain elusive. Lineages of the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum are exclusively clonal, yet isolates of the NA1 lineage from oak (Quercus spp.) frequently exhibit...

  13. Characteristics of He II Proximity Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Syphers, David; Meiksin, Avery; Kriss, Gerard A.; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.; Anderson, Scott F.

    2015-06-01

    The proximity profile in the spectra of z≈ 3 quasars, where fluxes extend blueward of the He ii Lyα wavelength 304 (1+z) Å, is one of the most important spectral features in the study of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Based on the Hubble Space Telescope spectra of 24 He ii quasars, we find that the majority of them display a proximity profile, corresponding to an ionization radius as large as 20 Mpc in the source's rest frame. In comparison with those in the H i spectra of the quasars at z ≈ 6, the He ii proximity effect is more prominent and is observed over a considerably longer period of reionization. The He ii proximity zone sizes decrease at higher redshifts, particularly at z\\gt 3.3. This trend is similar to that for H i, signaling an onset of He ii reionization at z≳ 4. For quasar SDSS1253+6817 (z = 3.48), the He ii absorption trough displays a gradual decline and serves as a good case for modeling the He ii reionization. To model such a broad profile requires a quasar radiation field whose energy distribution between 4 and 1 Rydberg is considerably harder than normally assumed. The UV continuum of this quasar is indeed exceptionally steep, and the He ii ionization level in the quasar vicinity is higher than the average level in the IGM. These results are evidence that a very hard EUV continuum from this quasar produces a large ionized zone around it. Distinct exceptions are the two brightest He ii quasars at z ≈ 2.8, for which no significant proximity profile is present, probably implying that they are very young.

  14. The VRI colours of H II galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telles, Eduardo; Terlevich, Roberto

    1997-03-01

    We present a high spatial resolution CCD surface photometry study in the optical V, R and I broad-band filters of a sample of 15 H II galaxies. Narrow-band imaging allows the separation of the emission-line region from the extended parts of the galaxy. The latter are assumed to represent the underlying galaxy in H II galaxies; thus the colours of the underlying galaxy are measured. The colours of the underlying stellar continuum within the starburst are also derived by subtracting the contribution of the emission lines falling in the broad-band filters. The distribution of colours of the underlying galaxy in H II galaxies is similar to the colours of other late-type low surface brightness galaxies, which suggests a close kinship of these with the quiescent phases of H II galaxies. However, comparison wtih recent evolutionary population synthesis models shows that the observational errors and the uncertainties in the models are still too large to put strict constraints on their past star formation history. Our analysis of the morphology and structural properties, from contour maps and luminosity profiles, of this sample of 15 H II galaxies agrees with what has been found by Telles and Telles, Melnick & Terlevich, namely that H II galaxies comprise two broad classes segregated by their luminosity; Type I H II galaxies are luminous and have disturbed and irregular outer shapes, while Type II H II galaxies are less luminous and have regular shapes. The outer parts of their profiles are well represented by an exponential, as in other types of known dwarf galaxy.

  15. Oxidation of Fe(II) in rainwater.

    PubMed

    Willey, J D; Whitehead, R F; Kieber, R J; Hardison, D R

    2005-04-15

    Photochemically produced Fe(II) is oxidized within hours under environmentally realistic conditions in rainwater. The diurnal variation between photochemical production and reoxidation of Fe(II) observed in our laboratory accurately mimics the behavior of ferrous iron observed in field studies where the highest concentrations of dissolved Fe(ll) occur in afternoon rain during the period of maximum sunlight intensity followed by gradually decreasing concentrations eventually returning to early morning pre-light values. The experimental work presented here, along with the results of kinetics studies done by others, suggests thatthe primary process responsible for the decline in photochemically produced Fe(II) concentrations is oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. This reaction is first order with respect to both the concentrations of Fe(II) and H2O2. The second-order rate constant determined for six different authentic rain samples varied over an order of magnitude and was always less than or equal to the rate constant determined for this reaction in simple acidic solutions. Oxidation of photochemically produced ferrous iron by other oxidants including molecular oxygen, ozone, hydroxyl radical, hydroperoxyl/superoxide radical, and hexavalent chromium were found to be insignificant under the conditions present in rainwater. This study shows that Fe(II) occurs as at least two different chemical species in rain; photochemically produced Fe(II) that is oxidized over time periods of hours, and a background Fe(II) that is protected against oxidation, perhaps by organic complexation, and is stable against oxidation for days. Because the rate of oxidation of photochemically produced Fe(II) does not increase with increasing rainwater pH, the speciation of this more labile form of Fe(II) is also not controlled by simple hydrolysis reactions.

  16. Assessing Sensitivity to Antibacterial Topoisomerase II Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Linnell, Sonia K.; Hiasa, Hiroshi; Zechiedrich, Lynn; Nitiss, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have two major classes of topoisomerases that make transient single- or double-strand cuts in DNA. While these enzymes play critical roles in cellular processes, they are also important targets of therapeutic agents. This unit describes assays to use in characterizing topoisomerase II-targeting agents in vitro and in bacterial cells. It provides protocols for characterizing the action of small molecules against bacterial type II topoisomerases in vitro and the in vivo effects of putative topoisomerase II-targeting antibiotics, as well as for measuring trapped enzyme/DNA covalent complexes, the major cytotoxic lesion induced by fluoroquinolones. PMID:21948169

  17. Level II Ergonomic Analyses, Dover AFB, DE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    IERA-RS-BR-TR-1999-0002 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE IERA Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover AFB, DE Andrew Marcotte Marilyn Joyce The Joyce...Project (070401881, Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover...1.0 INTRODUCTION 1-1 1.1 Purpose Of The Level II Ergonomie Analyses : 1-1 1.2 Approach 1-1 1.2.1 Initial Shop Selection and Administration of the

  18. CAPPS II: the foundation of aviation security?

    PubMed

    Barnett, Arnold

    2004-08-01

    A new computer system is being developed to classify U.S. air travelers by the degree of terrorist threat they might pose. Reports indicate that the system--called CAPPS II--would use large amounts of information about each passenger, perhaps including such personal details as his or her magazine-subscription behavior. We argue that what is publicly known about CAPPS II raises questions about how substantially the system would improve aviation security. We discuss conditions under which CAPPS II could yield safety benefits, but suggest that it might be more prudent to view the system as one component of future security arrangements rather than the centerpiece of these arrangements.

  19. LHC II system sensitivity to magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotae, Vlad; Creanga, Ioan

    2005-03-01

    Experiments have been designed to reveal the influences of ferrofluid treatment and static magnetic field exposure on the photosynthetic system II, where the light harvesting complex (LHC II) controls the ratio chlorophyll a/ chlorophyll b (revealing, indirectly, the photosynthesis rate). Spectrophotometric measurement of chlorophyll content revealed different influences for relatively low ferrofluid concentrations (10-30 μl/l) in comparison to higher concentrations (70-100 μl/l). The overlapped effect of the static magnetic field shaped better the stimulatory ferrofluid action on LHC II system in young poppy plantlets.

  20. Delta II Second stage lift and mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-19

    On Pad 17-B at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Delta II second stage is being lowered toward the Delta II first stage, already in place inside the mobile service tower. The Delta II is the launch vehicle for the THEMIS spacecraft. THEMIS consists of five identical probes, the largest number of scientific satellites ever launched into orbit aboard a single rocket. This unique constellation of satellites will resolve the tantalizing mystery of what causes the spectacular sudden brightening of the aurora borealis and aurora australis - the fiery skies over the Earth's northern and southern polar regions. THEMIS is scheduled to launch Feb. 15 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  1. Belle II Physics Prospects, Status and Schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, J.

    2016-11-01

    The second generation B-factory at the SuperKEKB facility in Tsukuba, Japan is beginning to take shape. The highly anticipated Belle II experiment will have a rich physics program at the intensity frontier, in complement to existing experiments in the energy frontier. Accelerator commissioning has been making good progress, as has the construction and installation of the Belle II detector. An overview of the physics prospects at Belle II, as well as the status and schedule of the experiment, is presented.

  2. Adsorption of copper (II), chromium (III), nickel (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions by meranti sawdust.

    PubMed

    Rafatullah, M; Sulaiman, O; Hashim, R; Ahmad, A

    2009-10-30

    The present study proposed the use of meranti sawdust in the removal of Cu(II), Cr(III), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions from synthetic aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption studies showed that meranti sawdust was able to adsorb Cu(II), Cr(III), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions in the concentration range 1-200mg/L. The adsorption was favoured with maximum adsorption at pH 6, whereas the adsorption starts at pH 1 for all metal ions. The effects of contact time, initial concentration of metal ions, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been reported. The applicability of Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm was tried for the system to completely understand the adsorption isotherm processes. The adsorption kinetics tested with pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models yielded high R(2) values from 0.850 to 0.932 and from 0.991 to 0.999, respectively. The meranti sawdust was found to be cost effective and has good efficiency to remove these toxic metal ions from aqueous solution.

  3. Synthesis and studies on Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) complexes of Knoevenagel β-diketone ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumathi, S.; Tharmaraj, P.; Sheela, C. D.; Anitha, C.

    2012-11-01

    Transition metal complexes of various acetylacetone based ligands of the type ML [where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II); L = 3-(aryl)-pentane-2,4-dione] have been synthesized. The structural features have been derived from their elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, Mass and ESR spectral studies. Conductivity measurements reveal that all the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. Spectroscopic and other analytical data of the complexes suggest octahedral geometry for other metal(II) complexes. The redox behavior of the copper(II) complexes have been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The free ligands and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro biological activities against the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as well as the fungus Candida albicans by well diffusion method. The zone of inhibition value indicates that the most of the metal(II) complexes are found to possess increased activities compared to those of the free ligands. All synthesized compounds may serve as potential photoactive materials as indicated from their characteristic fluorescence properties. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the ligands (L1-L3) was found to be considerable effect than that of urea and KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate).

  4. Pecan nutshell as biosorbent to remove Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Vaghetti, Julio C P; Lima, Eder C; Royer, Betina; da Cunha, Bruna M; Cardoso, Natali F; Brasil, Jorge L; Dias, Silvio L P

    2009-02-15

    In the present study we reported for the first time the feasibility of pecan nutshell (PNS, Carya illinoensis) as an alternative biosorbent to remove Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II) metallic ions from aqueous solutions. The ability of PNS to remove the metallic ions was investigated by using batch biosorption procedure. The effects such as, pH, biosorbent dosage on the adsorption capacities of PNS were studied. Four kinetic models were tested, being the adsorption kinetics better fitted to fractionary-order kinetic model. Besides that, the kinetic data were also fitted to intra-particle diffusion model, presenting three linear regions, indicating that the kinetics of adsorption should follow multiple sorption rates. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. Taking into account a statistical error function, the data were best fitted to Sips isotherm model. The maximum biosorption capacities of PNS were 1.35, 1.78 and 0.946mmolg(-1) for Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II), respectively.

  5. Synthesis and studies on Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) complexes of Knoevenagel β-diketone ligands.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, S; Tharmaraj, P; Sheela, C D; Anitha, C

    2012-11-01

    Transition metal complexes of various acetylacetone based ligands of the type ML [where M=Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II); L=3-(aryl)-pentane-2,4-dione] have been synthesized. The structural features have been derived from their elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, Mass and ESR spectral studies. Conductivity measurements reveal that all the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. Spectroscopic and other analytical data of the complexes suggest octahedral geometry for other metal(II) complexes. The redox behavior of the copper(II) complexes have been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The free ligands and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro biological activities against the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as well as the fungus Candida albicans by well diffusion method. The zone of inhibition value indicates that the most of the metal(II) complexes are found to possess increased activities compared to those of the free ligands. All synthesized compounds may serve as potential photoactive materials as indicated from their characteristic fluorescence properties. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the ligands (L1-L3) was found to be considerable effect than that of urea and KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II Printable PDF Open All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II is a progressive disorder ...

  7. Intense interval training in healthy older adults increases skeletal muscle [(3)H]ouabain-binding site content and elevates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α2 isoform abundance in Type II fibers.

    PubMed

    Wyckelsma, Victoria L; Levinger, Itamar; Murphy, Robyn M; Petersen, Aaron C; Perry, Ben D; Hedges, Christopher P; Anderson, Mitchell J; McKenna, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Young adults typically adapt to intense exercise training with an increased skeletal muscle Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) content, concomitant with reduced extracellular potassium concentration [K(+)] during exercise and enhanced exercise performance. Whether these changes with longitudinal training occur in older adults is unknown and was investigated here. Fifteen older adults (69.4 ± 3.5 years, mean ± SD) were randomized to either 12 weeks of intense interval training (4 × 4 min at 90-95% peak heart rate), 3 days/week (IIT, n = 8); or no exercise controls (n = 7). Before and after training, participants completed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test until a rating of perceived exertion of 17 (very hard) on a 20-point scale was attained, with measures of antecubital venous [K(+)]v Participants underwent a resting muscle biopsy prior to and at 48-72 h following the final training session. After IIT, the peak exercise work rate (25%), oxygen uptake (16%) and heart rate (6%) were increased (P < 0.05). After IIT, the peak exercise plasma [K(+)]v tended to rise (P = 0.07), while the rise in plasma [K(+)]v relative to work performed (nmol.L(-1)J(-1)) was unchanged. Muscle NKA content increased by 11% after IIT (P < 0.05). Single fiber measurements, increased in NKA α2 isoform in Type II fibers after IIT (30%, P < 0.05), with no changes to the other isoforms in single fibers or homogenate. Thus, intense exercise training in older adults induced an upregulation of muscle NKA, with a fiber-specific increase in NKA α2 abundance in Type II fibers, coincident with increased muscle NKA content and enhanced exercise performance.

  8. Selected methods for dissolved iron (II, III) and dissolved sulfide (-II) determinations in geothermal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vivit, D.V.; Jenne, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved sulfide (-II) and dissolved iron (II, III) were determined in geothermal well water samples collected at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Most samples consisted of liquid and gas (two phases) at the instant of collection; and a subset of samples, referred to as ' flashed ' samples, consisted of pressurized steam samples which were allowed to condense. Sulfide was determined by sulfide specific ion electrode; Fe(II) and Fe(III) plus Fe(II) were determined spectrophotometrically. The precision and accuracy of the methods were evaluated for these high-silica waters with replicate analyses, spike recoveries, and an alternate method. Direct current (d.c.) argon plasma emission spectrometry was the alternate method used for Fe(III)-plus-Fe(II) analyses. Mean dissolved iron concentrations ranged from 20.2 to 834 micrograms/L (ug/L) as Fe(II) and 26.8 to 904 ug/L as Fe(III) plus Fe(II). Mean sulfide concentrations ranged from about 0.01 to 5.3 mg/L (S-II) Generally, higher S(-II) values and larger Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios were found in the two-phase samples. These findings suggest that the ' flashed ' samples are at a less reduced state than the two-phase samples. (Author 's abstract)

  9. T lymphocytes and dendritic cells are activated by the deletion of peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) gene.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Yi; Noh, Young-Wook; Han, Ying-Hao; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Jin-Man; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Lim, Jong-Seok

    2006-02-15

    Peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) is a member of antioxidant enzyme family and it plays a protective role against oxidative damage. Constitutive production of endogenous reactive oxygen species was detected in spleen and bone marrow cells lacking Prx II. Here, we investigated the role of Prx II in immune responses. The total number of splenocytes (especially, the population of S-phase cells and CD3(+) T cells) was significantly higher in Prx II(-/-) mice than in wild type. Number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in Prx II(-/-) mice was also higher than wild type. Differentiation of Prx II(-/-) mouse bone marrow cells into CD11c-positive dendritic cells was greater than that of wild type. Transplantation of Prx II(-/-) bone marrow cells into wild type mice increased PBMCs in blood and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Prx II deletion enhances concanavalin A (ConA)-induced splenocyte proliferation and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) activity of bone marrow-derived CD11c-positive dendritic cells to stimulate recipient splenocytes. Collectively, these data suggest that Prx II inhibits the immune cell responsiveness, which may be regulated by scavenging the low amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  10. Increased association of dynamin II with myosin II in ras transformed NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soon-Jeong; Kim, Su-Gwan; Yoo, Jiyun; Han, Mi-Young; Park, Joo-Cheol; Kim, Heung-Joong; Kang, Seong-Soo; Choi, Baik-Dong; Jeong, Moon-Jin

    2006-08-01

    Dynamin has been implicated in the formation of nascent vesicles through both endocytic and secretory pathways. However, dynamin has recently been implicated in altering the cell membrane shape during cell migration associated with cytoskeleton-related proteins. Myosin II has been implicated in maintaining cell morphology and in cellular movement. Therefore, reciprocal immunoprecipitation was carried out to identify the potential relationship between dynamin II and myosin II. The dynamin II expression level was higher when co-expressed with myosin II in Ras transformed NIH3T3 cells than in normal NIH3T3 cells. Confocal microscopy also confirmed the interaction between these two proteins. Interestingly, exposing the NIH3T3 cells to platelet-derived growth factor altered the interaction and localization of these two proteins. The platelet-derived growth factor treatment induced lamellipodia and cell migration, and dynamin II interacted with myosin II. Grb2, a 24 kDa adaptor protein and an essential element of the Ras signaling pathway, was found to be associated with dynamin II and myosin II gene expression in the Ras transformed NIH3T3 cells. These results suggest that dynamin II acts as an intermediate messenger in the Ras signal transduction pathway leading to membrane ruffling and cell migration.

  11. Voltage-sensor movements describe slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels II: A periodic paralysis mutation in NaV1.4 (L689I)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, slow inactivation (SI) of NaV1.4 voltage-gated sodium channels prevents spontaneous depolarization and fatigue. Inherited mutations in NaV1.4 that impair SI disrupt activity-induced regulation of channel availability and predispose patients to hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. In our companion paper in this issue (Silva and Goldstein. 2013. J. Gen. Physiol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.201210909), the four voltage sensors in NaV1.4 responsible for activation of channels over microseconds are shown to slowly immobilize over 1–160 s as SI develops and to regain mobility on recovery from SI. Individual sensor movements assessed via attached fluorescent probes are nonidentical in their voltage dependence, time course, and magnitude: DI and DII track SI onset, and DIII appears to reflect SI recovery. A causal link was inferred by tetrodotoxin (TTX) suppression of both SI onset and immobilization of DI and DII sensors. Here, the association of slow sensor immobilization and SI is verified by study of NaV1.4 channels with a hyperkalemic periodic paralysis mutation; L689I produces complex changes in SI, and these are found to manifest directly in altered sensor movements. L689I removes a component of SI with an intermediate time constant (∼10 s); the mutation also impedes immobilization of the DI and DII sensors over the same time domain in support of direct mechanistic linkage. A model that recapitulates SI attributes responsibility for intermediate SI to DI and DII (10 s) and a slow component to DIII (100 s), which accounts for residual SI, not impeded by L689I or TTX. PMID:23401572

  12. High catalytic activity of palladium(II)-exchanged mesoporous sodalite and NaA zeolite for bulky aryl coupling reactions: reusability under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minkee; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Na, Kyungsu; Yu, Byung-Woo; Ryoo, Ryong

    2009-01-01

    Exchange for the better: Mesoporous sodalite and NaA zeolite exchanged with Pd(2+) exhibit remarkably high activity and reusability in C-C coupling reactions under aerobic atmosphere. It is proposed that the catalytic reactions are mediated by a molecular Pd(0) species generated in situ within the pores (see picture), which is oxidized back to Pd(2+) by O(2), preventing the formation of catalytically inactive Pd(0) agglomerates.

  13. Energy levels of terbium(III) in the elpasolite Cs2NaTbBr6. II. A correlation crystal field analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaw, C. S.; Denning, R. G.

    A set of more than 100 electronic energy levels in Cs2NaTbBr6, extending from the ground state to 5H4, is used to test different models of the correlation crystal field (CCF). These are based on Judd's orthogonal g(k)iQ two-electron operators, and more specifically on contributions due to spin-correlation, or ligand polarization. Similar data from Cs2NaTbCl6 and Cs2NaTbF6 has also been analysed. Only fourth-rank operators make clear improvements to the quality of the fit in deviant multiplets. Empirically the g7(4) and g9(4) operators are found to be the most effective. Although fourth-rank operators achieve modest success in correcting the calculated spread of the multiplets, no single operator has a significant impact on the shortcomings of the one-body crystal field. This result is discussed in terms of the limitations of an effective-operator Hamiltonian.

  14. Copper(II) and lead(II) removal from aqueous solution by water treatment residues.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Paola; Silvetti, Margherita; Garau, Giovanni; Demurtas, Daniela; Deiana, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the ability of Fe- and Al-based water treatment residues (Fe- and Al-WTR) to accumulate Pb(II) and Cu(II) at pH 4.5. The role of the inorganic and organic fractions of WTRs in metals sorption was also assessed. Sorption isotherms showed a higher sorption of Pb(II) by both WTRs with respect to Cu(II) (e.g. 0.105 and 0.089 mmol g(-1) of Pb(II) and Cu(II) respectively sorbed by Fe-WTR). Fe-WTR revealed a stronger sorbent for both metals than Al-WTR. The amount of Pb(II) and Cu(II) sorbed by Fe-WTR was about the 69% and 63% higher than that sorbed by the Al-WTR. The organic matter of Fe- and Al-WTR contributed to about 26% and 8.5% respectively in the sorption of both metals. The sequential extraction procedure showed that the greatest amount of metals sorbed by both WTRs were tightly bound and not extractable, and this was particularly apparent for Cu(II). The FT-IR spectra indicated the formation of inner-sphere complexes between the Fe(Al)-O nucleus and Pb(II) and Cu(II). Moreover, the FT-IR spectra also suggested that the humic fraction of WTRs interacted, through the carboxylate groups, with Cu(II) and Pb(II) by forming mainly monodentate and bidentate complexes, respectively.

  15. Kinetics of homogeneous and surface-catalyzed mercury(II) reduction by iron(II)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amirbahman, Aria; Kent, Douglas B.; Curtis, Gary P.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Production of elemental mercury, Hg(0), via Hg(II) reduction is an important pathway that should be considered when studying Hg fate in environment. We conducted a kinetic study of abiotic homogeneous and surface-catalyzed Hg(0) production by Fe(II) under dark anoxic conditions. Hg(0) production rate, from initial 50 pM Hg(II) concentration, increased with increasing pH (5.5–8.1) and aqueous Fe(II) concentration (0.1–1 mM). The homogeneous rate was best described by the expression, rhom = khom [FeOH+] [Hg(OH)2]; khom = 7.19 × 10+3 L (mol min)−1. Compared to the homogeneous case, goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (α-Fe2O3) increased and γ-alumina (γ-Al2O3) decreased the Hg(0) production rate. Heterogeneous Hg(0) production rates were well described by a model incorporating equilibrium Fe(II) adsorption, rate-limited Hg(II) reduction by dissolved and adsorbed Fe(II), and rate-limited Hg(II) adsorption. Equilibrium Fe(II) adsorption was described using a surface complexation model calibrated with previously published experimental data. The Hg(0) production rate was well described by the expression rhet = khet [>SOFe(II)] [Hg(OH)2], where >SOFe(II) is the total adsorbed Fe(II) concentration; khet values were 5.36 × 10+3, 4.69 × 10+3, and 1.08 × 10+2 L (mol min)−1 for hematite, goethite, and γ-alumina, respectively. Hg(0) production coupled to reduction by Fe(II) may be an important process to consider in ecosystem Hg studies.

  16. Comparative analysis of a CFo ATP synthase subunit II homologue derived from marine and fresh-water algae.

    PubMed

    Suda, Yoshito; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Okuda, Yuko; Tsunemoto, Mei; Matsuda, Yuri; Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Kazunori; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Harada, Kazuo; Bamba, Takeshi; Hirata, Kazumasa

    2009-11-01

    Comparative analysis was performed with a CFo ATP synthase subunit II homologue (CFo-II) derived from marine or fresh-water algae. The marine algae-derived CFo-II-transformed Escherichia coli grew and accumulated ATP more vigorously in NaCl or Cadmium containing medium, suggesting that this gene was useful for the development of stress-tolerant plant.

  17. An infrared spectroscopic based method for mercury(II) detection in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Chandrasoma, Asela; Hamid, Amer Al Abdel; Bruce, Alice E; Bruce, Mitchell R M; Tripp, Carl P

    2012-05-30

    A new method that uses solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with FTIR spectroscopy to detect Hg(II) in aqueous samples is described. The technique is envisioned for on-site, field evaluation rather than lab-based techniques. This paper presents the "proof of principle" of this new approach toward measurements of Hg(II) in water and identifies mass transport issues that would need to be overcome in order to migrate from a lab based method to field operation. The SPE material supported on a Si wafer is derivatized with an acylthiosemicarbazide, which undergoes a reaction in the presence of aqueous Hg(II) to form an oxadiazole ring. The progress of the reaction is monitored by IR spectroscopy. Following EPA guidelines, the method of detection limit (MDL) for the SPE/IR was 5 μg of Hg(II)cm(-2). In a 1L sample and a 1cm(2) Si wafer, this translates to a detection limit of 5 ppb. This system shows a high selectivity toward aqueous Hg(II) over other thiophilic heavy metal ions such as Pb(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), and Zn(II) and other metal ions such as Ni(II), Mn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), In(III), Ru(III), Na(I), and Ag(I) in aqueous solutions.

  18. Removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution using sodium humate as heavy metal capturing agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shixiang; Liu, Yong; Fan, Qin; Zhou, Anlan; Fan, Lu; Mu, Yulan

    2016-12-01

    An environmental friendly and economic natural biopolymer-sodium humate (HA-Na) was used to capture Hg(II) from aqueous solutions, and the trapped Hg(II) (HA-Na-Hg) was then removed by aluminium coagulation. The best Hg(II) capturing performance (90.60%) was observed under the following conditions: initial pH of 7.0, coagulation pH of 6.0, HA-Na dosage of 5.0 g L(-1), Al2(SO4)3.18H2O dosage of 4.0 g L(-1), initial Hg(II) concentration of 50 mg L(-1) and capturing time of 30 min. The HA-Na compositions with the molecular weight beyond 70 kDa showed the most intense affinity toward Hg(II). The results showed that the reaction equilibrium was achieved within 10 min (pH 7.0), and could be well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The capturing process could be well described by the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum capturing capacity of Hg(II) was high up to 9.80 mg g(-1) at 298 K (pH 7.0). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that the redox reaction between Hg(II) and HA-Na and the coordination reaction of carboxyl and hydroxy groups of HA-Na with Hg(II) were responsible for Hg(II) removal. The successive regeneration experiment showed that the capturing efficiency of humates for Hg(II) was maintained at about 51% after five capture-regeneration recycles.

  19. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Imaging Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub Wesley; Bryden, Geoff; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Chen, Pin; Trauger, John

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed coronagraph on a balloon-borne platform, for the purpose of observing debris disks around nearby stars. Zodiac II will have a 1.2-m diameter telescope mounted in a balloon-borne gondola capable of arcsecond quality pointing, and with the capability to make long-duration (several week) flights. Zodiac II will have a coronagraph able to make images of debris disks, meaning that its scattered light speckles will be at or below an average contrast level of about 10(exp -7) in three narrow (7 percent) bands centered on the V band, and one broad (20%) one at I band. We will discuss the potential science to be done with Zodiac II.

  20. Far Outer Galaxy H II Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, A. L.; deGues, E. J.; Brand, J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have made a multifrequency (6, 3.6, and 2 cm), high-resolution (3"-6"), radio continuum survey of IRAS selected sources from the catalogue of Wouterloot & Brand (1989) to search for and study H II regions in the far outer Galaxy. We identified 31 sources in this catalog with well determined galactocentric distances, and with R approx.. greater than 15 kpc and L(sub FIR) approx.greater than 10(exp 4) solar luminosity, indicating the presence of high-mass star-formation. We have observed 11 of these sources with the Very Large Array (VLA). We observed the sources at 6 and 2 cm using "scaled arrays", making possible a direct and reliable comparison of the data at these two wavelengths for the determination of spectral indices. We detected a total of 12 radio sources, of which 10 have spectral indices consistent with optically-thin free-free emission from H II regions. Combined with previous VLA observations by other investigators, we have data on a total of 15 H II regions at galactocentric distances of 15 to 18.2kpc, among the most remote H II regions found in our Galaxy. The sizes of the H II regions range from approx. less than 0.10 to 2.3 pc. Using the measured fluxes and sizes, we determine the electron densities, emission measures, and excitation parameters of the H II regions, as well as the fluxes of Lyman continuum photons needed to keep the nebulae ionized. The sizes and electron densities are consistent with most of the sources detected in this survey being compact or ultracompact H II regions. Seven of the fifteen H II regions have sizes approx. less than 0.20 pc. Assuming simple pressure-driven expansion of the H II regions, these sizes indicate ages approx. less than 5 x 10(exp 4) yr, or only 1% of the lifetime of an O star, which implies an unlikely overabundance of O stars in the outer Galaxy. Thus, the large number of compact H II regions suggests that the time these regions spend in a compact phase must be much longer than their dynamical

  1. Psychological Action and Structure in "Richard II."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toole, William B., III

    1978-01-01

    Explores the theme that the suffering arising from Richard II's loss of power, a power that consisted more of appearance than of intrinsic worth, led him to spiritual growth and the development of real value as a person. (MB)

  2. Courseware Review: Vernier Software: Precision Timer II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, John C.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Vernier Software: Precision Timer II" for high school through college mechanics. Introduces 14 different modes including pulse time, pendulum timer, bouncer timer, gate timer, collision timers, and stroke calibration. Provides two typical displays and ratings of the software. (YP)

  3. Far Outer Galaxy H II Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, A. L.; deGues, E. J.; Brand, J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have made a multifrequency (6, 3.6, and 2 cm), high-resolution (3"-6"), radio continuum survey of IRAS selected sources from the catalogue of Wouterloot & Brand (1989) to search for and study H II regions in the far outer Galaxy. We identified 31 sources in this catalog with well determined galactocentric distances, and with R approx.. greater than 15 kpc and L(sub FIR) approx.greater than 10(exp 4) solar luminosity, indicating the presence of high-mass star-formation. We have observed 11 of these sources with the Very Large Array (VLA). We observed the sources at 6 and 2 cm using "scaled arrays", making possible a direct and reliable comparison of the data at these two wavelengths for the determination of spectral indices. We detected a total of 12 radio sources, of which 10 have spectral indices consistent with optically-thin free-free emission from H II regions. Combined with previous VLA observations by other investigators, we have data on a total of 15 H II regions at galactocentric distances of 15 to 18.2kpc, among the most remote H II regions found in our Galaxy. The sizes of the H II regions range from approx. less than 0.10 to 2.3 pc. Using the measured fluxes and sizes, we determine the electron densities, emission measures, and excitation parameters of the H II regions, as well as the fluxes of Lyman continuum photons needed to keep the nebulae ionized. The sizes and electron densities are consistent with most of the sources detected in this survey being compact or ultracompact H II regions. Seven of the fifteen H II regions have sizes approx. less than 0.20 pc. Assuming simple pressure-driven expansion of the H II regions, these sizes indicate ages approx. less than 5 x 10(exp 4) yr, or only 1% of the lifetime of an O star, which implies an unlikely overabundance of O stars in the outer Galaxy. Thus, the large number of compact H II regions suggests that the time these regions spend in a compact phase must be much longer than their dynamical

  4. A dinuclear Ni(II) complex with two types of intramolecular magnetic couplings: Ni(II)-Ni(II) and Ni(II)-TTF*+.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-Xia; Ambrus, Christina; Dolder, Stefan; Neels, Antonia; Decurtins, Silvio

    2006-11-27

    A dinuclear Ni(II) complex involving tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) radicals as ligands has been prepared and characterized, [Ni2(mu-Cl)2(L*+)2(I3)4(I2)3.(H2O)2.(C4H8O)3 (1), L = 4,5-bis(2-pyridylmethylsulfanyl)-4',5'-ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene. There are two types of intramolecular magnetic exchange interactions, namely one ferromagnetic Ni(II)-Ni(II) and one antiferromagnetic Ni(II)-TTF*+. This study is new in the respect of revealing a magnetic exchange interaction between a TTF*+ radical and a paramagnetic transition metal ion. This is due to the fact of a direct binding of the transition metal ion to the skeleton of the TTF*+ radical.

  5. The RNA polymerase II elongation complex.

    PubMed

    Aso, T; Conaway, J W; Conaway, R C

    1995-11-01

    The initiation stage of transcription by RNA polymerase II has long been regarded as the primary site for regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence reveals that the RNA polymerase II elongation complex is also a major target for regulation. Biochemical studies are implicating an increasing number of transcription factors in the regulation of elongation, and these transcription factors are being found to function by a diverse collection of mechanisms. Moreover, unexpected features of the structure and catalytic mechanism of RNA polymerase II are forcing a reconsideration of long-held views on the mechanics of some of the most basic aspects of polymerase function. In this review, we will describe recent insights into the structures and functions of RNA polymerase II and the transcription factors that control its activity during the elongation stage of eukaryotic messenger RNA synthesis.

  6. Resistance domain in type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1980-01-05

    We show that traveling domains with a finite resistance can exist in type II superconductors in the presence of a transport current. An experiment in which this effect generates an alternating electric field and current is proposed.

  7. Achondrogenesis type II, abnormalities of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Machado, M A; Chou, J W; Campbell, D

    1987-09-01

    Immune and lectin histochemical and microchemical methods were employed to study growth cartilage from seven cases of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino). The normal architecture of the epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage was replaced by a morphologically heterogeneous tissue. Some areas were comprised of vascular canals surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue and enlarged cells that had the appearance and histochemical characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Other areas contained a mixture of cells ranging from small to the enlarged chondrocytes. The extracellular matrix in the latter areas was more abundant and had characteristics of both precartilage mesenchymal matrix and typical cartilage matrix; it contained types I and II collagen, cartilage proteoglycan, fibronectin, and peanut agglutinin binding glycoconjugate(s). Peptide mapping of cyanogen bromide cartilage collagen peptides revealed the presence of types I and II collagen. These observations could be explained by a defect in the biosynthesis of type II collagen or in chondrocyte differentiation.

  8. Achondrogenesis II-hypochondrogenesis: variability versus heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Borochowitz, Z; Ornoy, A; Lachman, R; Rimoin, D L

    1986-06-01

    Recently hypochondrogenesis was described as a form of neonatally lethal dwarfism said to resemble spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita radiographically and achondrogenesis II morphologically. Because of the difficulty in distinguishing radiographically between mild achondrogenesis II and severe hypochondrogenesis, we performed a clinical, radiographic, and morphologic study of 24 cases originally classified as either achondrogenesis II or hypochondrogenesis, in an attempt to distinguish between heterogeneity and clinical variability. Review of the radiographic findings in these cases show a fairly continuous spectrum of bony defects, rather than two distinct radiographic syndromes. Chondro-osseous histology and ultrastructure was similar in all cases regardless of severity and was characterized by hypervascularity and hypercellularity of the cartilage with multiple small, round dilated cysternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum. These findings suggest that hypochondrogenesis and achondrogenesis type II represent a spectrum with marked phenotypic variability.

  9. Noether symmetries of Bianchi type II spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Mark; Yazdan, Shair-a.

    2017-05-01

    This paper is devoted to investigate Noether symmetries of Bianchi type II spacetimes. We use the reduced involutive form of the determining equations to classify their possible algebras. We show that Noether symmetries contain both Killing vectors and homothetic motions.

  10. Central Drift Chamber for Belle-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, N.

    2017-06-01

    The Central Drift Chamber (CDC) is the main device for tracking and identification of charged particles for Belle-II experiment. The Belle-II CDC is cylindrical wire chamber with 14336 sense wires, 2.3 m-length and 2.2 m-diameter. The wire chamber and readout electronics have been completely replaced from the Belle CDC. The new readout electronics system must handle higher trigger rate of 30 kHz with less dead time at the design luminosity of 8 × 1035 cm-2s-1. The front-end electronics are located close to detector and send digitized signal through optical fibers. The Amp-Shaper-Discriminator chips, FADC and FPGA are assembled on a single board. Belle-II CDC with readout electronics has been installed successfully in Belle structure in October 2016. We will present overview of the Belle-II CDC and status of commissioning with cosmic ray.

  11. Rapid and wide-range determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) in fish tissues using light addressable potentiometric sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Xu, Yiwei; Tahir, Haroon E; Zou, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping

    2017-04-15

    A rapid and wide-range method, based on light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), is introduced into determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) in fish tissues. A compact LAPS module is prepared by integrating four LAPS chips specifically sensitive to target elements. Its responses in digestions from various settings are investigated to find suitable factors. Analytical properties of this method are evaluated in consequent experiments under optimized conditions. Measurement range for each target element exceeds 0.1 to 1000mgL(-1), and response time is less than 10s. Accuracy, precision and selectivity of the proposed method are also well defined in measurements. It is successively performed to detect the target elements in real fish samples from 4 species, and obtained results are consistent with certified method.

  12. Courseware Review: Vernier Software: Precision Timer II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, John C.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Vernier Software: Precision Timer II" for high school through college mechanics. Introduces 14 different modes including pulse time, pendulum timer, bouncer timer, gate timer, collision timers, and stroke calibration. Provides two typical displays and ratings of the software. (YP)

  13. PEP-II Status and Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Wienands, H.U.; Biagini, M.E.; Decker, F.J.; Donald, M.H.; Ecklund, S.; Fisher, A.; Holtzapple, R.L.; Iverson, R.H.; Krejcik, P.; Kulikov, A.V.; Meyer, T.; Nelson, J.; Novokhatski, A.; Reichel, I.; Sullivan, M.; Seeman, J.T.; Turner, J.; Steier, C.; Zisman, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2012-04-24

    PEP-II/BABAR are presently in their second physics run. With machine and detector performance and reliability at an all-time high, almost 51 fb{sup -1} have been integrated by BABAR up to mid-October 2001. PEP-II luminosity has reached 4.4 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and our highest monthly delivered luminosity has been above 6 pb{sup -1}, exceeding the performance parameters given in the PEP-II CDR by almost 50%. The increase compared to the first run in 2000 has been achieved by a combination of beam-current increase and beam-size decrease. In this paper we will summarize the PEP-II performance and the present limitations as well as our plans to further increase machine performance.

  14. NSLS-II Transport Line Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller R. P.; Wahl, W.; Anderson, A.; Benish, B.; DeBoer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hu, J.-P.; Johanson, M.P.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Padrazo, D.; Roy, K.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.

    2012-05-20

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state-of-the-art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The first part of the Linac to Booster Transport (LBT) line has been installed for linac commissioning. This part includes all components necessary to commission the NSLS-II linac. The second part of this transport line is undergoing installation. Initial results of hardware commissioning will be discussed. The Booster to Storage Ring (BSR) transport line underwent a design review. The first part of the BSR transport line, consisting of all components necessary to commission the booster will be installed in 2012 for booster commissioning. We report on the final design of the BSR line along with the plan to commission the booster.

  15. Effective kinematic viscosity of turbulent He II

    SciTech Connect

    Chagovets, T. V.; Gordeev, A. V.; Skrbek, L.

    2007-08-15

    The temperature dependence of the effective kinematic viscosity of turbulent He II, {nu}{sub eff}(T), is deduced from second sound attenuation data using the late stage of decay of thermally induced counterflow He II turbulence in two channels of square cross section. It is shown to qualitatively agree with the published data for {nu}{sub eff}(T) calculated based on experiments on decaying-grid-generated He II turbulence [Niemela et al., J. Low Temp. Phys. 138, 537 (2005)]. Corrections to these data due to the 'sine squared' law that describes attenuation of the second sound wave propagating along an arbitrary direction with respect to the direction of the core of a quantized vortex in turbulent He II are discussed and applied.

  16. Neutral (bis-beta-diketonato) iron(III), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) metallocycles: structural, electrochemical and solvent extraction studies.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Jack K; Bray, David J; Gloe, Kerstin; Gloe, Karsten; Hayter, Michael J; Jolliffe, Katrina A; Lawrance, Geoffrey A; Meehan, George V; McMurtrie, John C; Lindoy, Leonard F; Wenzel, Marco

    2007-05-07

    Neutral dimeric metallocyclic complexes of type [M(2)(L(1))(2)B(n)] (where M = cobalt(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II), L(1) is the doubly deprotonated form of a 1,3-aryl linked bis-beta-diketone ligand of type 1,3-bis(RC(O)CH(2)C(O))C(6)H(4) (R=Me, n-Pr, t-Bu) and B is pyridine (Py) or 4-ethylpyridine (EtPy)) have been synthesised, adding to similar complexes already reported for copper(II). New lipophilic ligand derivatives with R = octyl or nonyl were also prepared for use in solvent extraction experiments. Structural, electrochemical and solvent extraction investigations of selected metal complex systems from the above series are reported, with the X-ray structures of [Co(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(4)] x 2.25CHCl(3) x 0.5H(2)O (R=Pr), [Co(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(4)] (R=t-Bu), [Ni(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(4)] (R=t-Bu), [Zn(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(2)] (R=Me) and [Zn(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(4)] (R=t-Bu) being presented. The electrochemistry of H(2)L(1) (R=t-Bu) and of [Fe(2)(L(1))(3)], [Co(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(4)], [Ni(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(4)], [Cu(2)(L(1))(2)] and [Zn(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(2)] has been examined. Oxidative processes for the complexes are dominantly irreversible, but several examples of quasireversible behaviour were observed and support the assignment of an anodic process, seen between +1.0 and +1.6 V, as a metal-centred oxidation. The reduction processes for the respective metal complexes are not simple, and irreversible in most cases. Solvent extraction studies (water/chloroform) involving variable concentrations of metal, bis-beta-diketone and heterocyclic base have been performed for cobalt(II) and zinc(II) using a radiotracer technique to probe the stoichiometries of the extracted species in each case. Synergism was observed when 4-ethylpyridine was added to the bis-beta-diketone ligand in the chloroform phase. Competitive extraction studies show a clear uptake preference for copper(II) over cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II).

  17. Upgrades for GERDA Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisel, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) of 76Ge. It is a process that violates lepton number conservation and is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. GERDA is located underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. An array of bare high-purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge is operated in a cryostat with 64 m3 of liquid argon supplemented by a 3 m thick shield of water. The experiment aims at exploring the 0 νββ decay up to a half life of 2 .1026 yr in two phases: Phase I of the experiment has been concluded last year. No signal is observed and the so far best limit is derived for the half life of the 0 νββ decay of 76Ge, T1/20ν <= 2 . 1 .1025 yr (90% C.L.), after an exposure of 21 . 6 kg .yr. The result refutes an earlier claim of discovery with high probability. The background index of 1 .10-2 cts/(keV .kg .yr) is lower by about one order of magnitude compared to previous experiments. At present the experiment is being upgraded to Phase II. The aim is to collect an exposure of 100kg .yr and further reduce the background by another order of magnitude to a level of <=10-3 cts/(keV .kg .yr). The detector mass will be increased by ~20 kg of new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors from enriched 76Ge, which exhibit superior pulse shape discrimination and hence background rejection power. Low mass detector holders, cold front-end electronics, contacting and cabling schemes are redesigned for ultra low mass and radiopurity. In addition, a retractable liquid argon veto will be installed to efficiently suppress background events that induce scintillation in the liquid argon. A hybrid solution of photomultiplier tubes and silicon photomultipliers coupled to scintillating fibres was chosen. This talk gives an account of the results and these challenging modifications to meet our design goals. The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA

  18. SPAK deficiency corrects pseudohypoaldosteronism II caused by WNK4 mutation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Pei-Yi; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Wu, Yi-Chang; Fang, Yu-Wei; Chau, Tom; Uchida, Shinichi; Sasaki, Sei; Yang, Sung-Sen; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of the OSR1 (Oxidative stress-responsive kinase-1)/SPAK [STE20 (sterile 20)/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase]-NCC (Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter) signaling cascade plays an important role in the WNK [With-No-Lysine (K)] kinase 4 D561A knock-in mouse model of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHA II) characterized by salt-sensitive hypertension and hyperkalemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the respective roles of Osr1 and Spak in the pathogenesis of PHA II in vivo. Wnk4 (D561A/+) mice were crossed with kidney tubule-specific (KSP) Osr1 knockout (KSP-Osr1 (-/-)) and Spak knockout (Spak (-/-)) mice. Blood pressure, plasma and urine biochemistries, and the relevant protein expression in the kidneys were examined. Wnk4 (D561A/+), KSP-Osr1 (-/-), and Spak (-/-) mice recapitulated the phenotypes of PHA II, Bartter-like syndrome, and Gitelman syndrome, respectively. Wnk4 (D561A/+).KSP-Osr1 (-/-) remained phenotypically PHA II while Wnk4 (D561A/+).Spak (-/-) mice became normotensive and lacked the PHA II phenotype. Phosphorylated Spak and Ncc were similarly increased in both Wnk4 (D561A/+) and Wnk4 (D561A/+).KSP-Osr1 (-/-) mice while phosphorylated Ncc normalized in Wnk4 (D561A/+).Spak (-/-) mice. Furthermore, Wnk4 (D561A/+).KSP-Osr1 (-/-) mice exhibited exaggerated salt excretion in response to thiazide diuretics while Wnk4 (D561A/+).Spak (-/-) mice exhibited normal responses. Wnk4(D561A/+).Spak (-/-).KSP-Osr1 (-/-) triple mutant mice had low blood pressure and diminished phosphorylated Ncc. Both SPAK and OSR1 are important in the maintenance of blood pressure but activation of SPAK-NCC plays the dominant role in PHA II. SPAK may be a therapeutic target for disorders with salt-sensitive hypertension related to WNK4 activation.

  19. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmaster, L. R.

    1986-01-01

    Design features and the performance envelope of the SAGE II stratospheric aerosol monitoring instrument on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite are described. SAGE II was designed to obtain vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosols, monitor global seasonal changes in aerosols, provide data on stratospheric circulation and the behavior of transient events such as volcanic particulate injections, and to investigate atmospheric chemistry. The mmeasurements are centered on extinctions due to aerosols, NO2, O3 and water vapor.

  20. NSLS-II Radio Frequency Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rose J.; Gao F.; Goel, A.; Holub, B.; Kulpin, J.; Marques, C.; Yeddulla, M.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II is a 3 GeV X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The NSLS-II RF system consists of the master oscillator, digital low level RF controllers, linac, booster and storage ring RF sub-systems, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system.

  1. Mechanisms of angiotensin II natriuresis and antinatriuresis.

    PubMed

    Olsen, M E; Hall, J E; Montani, J P; Guyton, A C; Langford, H G; Cornell, J E

    1985-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of changes in renal arterial pressure (RAP), renal hemodynamics, and tubular reabsorption in mediating the natriuretic and antinatriuretic actions of angiotensin II (ANG II). In seven anesthetized dogs, endogenous ANG II formation was blocked with captopril, and ANG II was infused intravenously at rates of 5-1,215 ng X kg-1 X min-1 while RAP was either servo-controlled at the preinfusion level or permitted to increase. When RAP was servo-controlled, ANG II infusion at all rates from 5-1,215 ng X kg-1 X min-1 decreased urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) and fractional sodium excretion (FENa) while increasing fractional reabsorption of lithium (FRLi) (an index of proximal tubular fractional sodium reabsorption) and causing no change in calculated distal tubule fractional sodium reabsorption (FRDNa). When RAP was permitted to increase, ANG II infusion rates up to 45 ng X kg-1. min-1 also decreased UNaV and FENa while increasing FRLi and causing no change in FRDNa. However, at 135 ng X kg-1 X min-1 and above, UNaV and FENa increased while FRLi and FRDNa decreased when RAP was allowed to rise, even though renal blood flow and filtration fraction were not substantially different from the values observed when RAP was servo-controlled. Filtered sodium load was slightly higher when RAP was permitted to increase during ANG II infusion compared with when RAP was servo-controlled, although the differences were not statistically significant. Thus, even very large doses of ANG II cause antinatriuresis when RAP is prevented from increasing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. TFOS DEWS II Report Executive Summary.

    PubMed

    Craig, Jennifer P; Nelson, J Daniel; Azar, Dimitri T; Belmonte, Carlos; Bron, Anthony J; Chauhan, Sunil K; de Paiva, Cintia S; Gomes, José A P; Hammitt, Katherine M; Jones, Lyndon; Nichols, Jason J; Nichols, Kelly K; Novack, Gary D; Stapleton, Fiona J; Willcox, Mark D P; Wolffsohn, James S; Sullivan, David A

    2017-10-01

    This article presents an Executive Summary of the conclusions and recommendations of the 10-chapter TFOS DEWS II report. The entire TFOS DEWS II report was published in the July 2017 issue of The Ocular Surface. A downloadable version of the document and additional material, including videos of diagnostic and management techniques, are available on the TFOS website: www.TearFilm.org. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Ssart of Run II at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Marco Rescigno

    2002-10-29

    After a hiatus of almost 6 years and an extensive upgrade, Tevatron, the world largest proton-antiproton collider, has resumed the operation for the so called RUN II. In this paper we give a brief overview of the many new features of the Tevatron complex and of the upgraded CDF experiment, and show the presently achieved detector performances as well as highlights of the RUN II physics program in the beauty and electroweak sector.

  4. NSLS-II Beam Diagnostics Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,O.; Alforque, R.; Bacha, B.; Blednykh, A.; Cameron, P.; Cheng, W.; Dalesio, L. B.; Della Penna, A. J.; doom, L.; Fliller, R. P.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H-C.; Johnson, E. D.; Kosciuk, b. N.; Kramer, S. L.; Krinsky, S.; Mead, J.; Ozaki, S.; Padrazo, D.; Pinayev, I.; Ravindranath, R. V.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.; Sharma, S.; Skaritka, J.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, Y.; Willeke, F. J.; Yu, L-H.

    2009-05-04

    A new 3rd generation light source (NSLS-II) is in the early stages of construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux with exceptional beam stability. It presents several challenges for diagnostics and instrumentation, related to the extremely small emittance. In this paper, we present an overview of all planned instrumentation systems, results from research and development activities; and then focus on other challenging aspects.

  5. Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) by hematite nanoparticles: effect of sorbent concentration, pH, temperature, and exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Heather J; Engates, Karen E; Grover, Valerie A

    2013-03-01

    Nanoparticles offer the potential to improve environmental treatment technologies due to their unique properties. Adsorption of metal ions (Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Zn(II)) to nanohematite was examined as a function of sorbent concentration, pH, temperature, and exhaustion. Adsorption experiments were conducted with 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g/L nanoparticles in a pH 8 solution and in spiked San Antonio tap water. The adsorption data showed the ability of nanohematite to remove Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn species from solution with adsorption increasing as the nanoparticle concentration increased. At 0.5 g/L nanohematite, 100 % Pb species adsorbed, 94 % Cd species adsorbed, 89 % Cu species adsorbed and 100 % Zn species adsorbed. Adsorption kinetics for all metals tested was described by a pseudo second-order rate equation with lead having the fastest rate of adsorption. The effect of temperature on adsorption showed that Pb(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) underwent an endothermic reaction, while Zn(II) underwent an exothermic reaction. The nanoparticles were able to simultaneously remove multiple metals species (Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu) from both a pH 8 solution and spiked San Antonio tap water. Exhaustion experiments showed that at pH 8, exhaustion did not occur for the nanoparticles but adsorption does decrease for Cd, Cu, and Zn species but not Pb species. The strong adsorption coupled with the ability to simultaneously remove multiple metal ions offers a potential remediation method for the removal of metals from water.

  6. Antenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis type II.

    PubMed

    Kodandapani, S; Ramkumar, V

    2009-01-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia, small thorax and polyhydramnios. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis). Prenatal ultrasonography at 22-weeks gestation revealed a fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs. Pregnancy was terminated. Radiologic examination of neonate revealed features of achondrogenesis type II. Routine ultrasound screening made early detection and timely management possible.

  7. EXODUS II: A finite element data model

    SciTech Connect

    Schoof, L.A.; Yarberry, V.R.

    1994-09-01

    EXODUS II is a model developed to store and retrieve data for finite element analyses. It is used for preprocessing (problem definition), postprocessing (results visualization), as well as code to code data transfer. An EXODUS II data file is a random access, machine independent, binary file that is written and read via C, C++, or Fortran library routines which comprise the Application Programming Interface (API).

  8. Nickel(II) biosorption by Rhodotorula glutinis.

    PubMed

    Suazo-Madrid, Alicia; Morales-Barrera, Liliana; Aranda-García, Erick; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports the feasibility of using Rhodotorula glutinis biomass as an alternative low-cost biosorbent to remove Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Acetone-pretreated R. glutinis cells showed higher Ni(II) biosorption capacity than untreated cells at pH values ranging from 3 to 7.5, with an optimum pH of 7.5. The effects of other relevant environmental parameters, such as initial Ni(II) concentration, shaking contact time and temperature, on Ni(II) biosorption onto acetone-pretreated R. glutinis were evaluated. Significant enhancement of Ni(II) biosorption capacity was observed by increasing initial metal concentration and temperature. Kinetic studies showed that the kinetic data were best described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Among the two-, three-, and four-parameter isotherm models tested, the Fritz-Schluender model exhibited the best fit to experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters (activation energy, and changes in activation enthalpy, activation entropy, and free energy of activation) revealed that the biosorption of Ni(II) ions onto acetone-pretreated R. glutinis biomass is an endothermic and non-spontaneous process, involving chemical sorption with weak interactions between the biosorbent and Ni(II) ions. The high sorption capacity (44.45 mg g(-1) at 25°C, and 63.53 mg g(-1) at 70°C) exhibited by acetone-pretreated R. glutinis biomass places this biosorbent among the best adsorbents currently available for removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous effluents.

  9. Status of the CDF II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S. Rolli

    2002-08-14

    The status of the CDF II experiment is described. Since operations start-up for run II data taking in March 2001, the CDF detector has been commissioned using about 20 pb{sup -1} of data provided by the Tevatron (utilized about 4-8). Most detector components are ready for physics quality data. The goal is to present the first physics results by summer-fall 2002.

  10. Performance of dipole magnets in helium II

    SciTech Connect

    Althaus, R.; Caspi, S.; Gilbert, W.S.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meuser, R.; Rechen, J.; Taylor, C.; Warren, R.

    1981-03-01

    Data from tests in He II of four 1-meter-long magnets are presented. The maximum quench current is increased up to 30 percent, compared with tests in He I. Data from calorimetric measurements of heat generated during cyclic operation are presented. Quenches were induced by heaters placed near the conductor, and the energy required to induce quenches in He II and in He I are compared.

  11. Coordination chemistry of a bis(benzimidazole) disulfide: eleven membered chelate ring in cobalt(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) halide compounds; oxidative disulfide cleavage when coordinated to nickel(II).

    PubMed

    Esparza-Ruiz, Adriana; González-Gómez, Guadalupe; Mijangos, Edgar; Peña-Hueso, Adrián; López-Sandoval, Horacio; Flores-Parra, Angelina; Contreras, Rosalinda; Barba-Behrens, Norah

    2010-07-21

    Herein we report the synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization of coordination compounds with bis[2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)phenyl]disulfide [bis-(2phSbz)] (1) and cobalt(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) halides (2-7). Their X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the metal ions present similar distorted tetrahedral structures, with the disulfide ligand coordinated through the imidazolic nitrogen atoms, forming a twisted eleven membered chelate ring. Structures of nickel(II) compounds 8 and 9, showed that the disulfide bond in the ligand was cleaved forming six membered chelates. In 8, the two ligands are sulfides, however in 9 one of them was oxidized to a sulfone. In both compounds the nickel(II) has a distorted square planar geometry and the sulfur atoms are in cis positions. The oxidation reaction of bis-(2phSbz) was performed in KMnO4/NaOH, giving the 2-(1H,3H-benzimidazolium-2-yl)-benzene sulfonate (10). The solid state structure of compounds 2-5 and 7-10 was determined by X-ray diffraction analyses.

  12. Preferred crystallographic orientation in the ice I ← II transformation and the flow of ice II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, K.; Wenk, H.-R.; Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    The preferred crystallographic orientation developed during the ice I ← II transformation and during the plastic flow of ice II was measured in polycrystalline deuterium oxide (D2O) specimens using low-temperature neutron diffraction. Samples partially transformed from ice I to II under a non-hydrostatic stress developed a preferred crystallographic orientation in the ice II. Samples of pure ice II transformed from ice I under a hydrostatic stress and then when compressed axially, developed a strong preferred orientation of compression axes parallel to (1010). A match to the observed preferred orientation using the viscoplastic self-consistent theory was obtained only when (1010) [0001] was taken as the predominant slip system in ice II.

  13. Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal from aqueous solutions by olive cake.

    PubMed

    Doyurum, Sabriye; Celik, Ali

    2006-11-02

    The removal of heavy metals from wastewater using olive cake as an adsorbent was investigated. The effect of the contact time, pH, temperature, and concentration of adsorbate on adsorption performance of olive cake for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were examined by batch method. Adsorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in aqueous solution onto olive cake was studied in single component. After establishing the optimum conditions, elution of these ions from the adsorbent surface was also examined. The optimum sorption conditions were determined for two elements. Maximum desorption of the Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were found to be 95.92 and 53.97% by 0.5M HNO(3) and 0.2M HCl, respectively. The morphological analysis of the olive cake was performed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  14. Differential effect of solution conditions on the conformation of the actinoporins Sticholysin II and Equinatoxin II.

    PubMed

    Fauth, Edson V F; Cilli, Eduardo M; Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Verli, Hugo

    2014-12-01

    Actinoporins are a family of pore-forming proteins with hemolytic activity. The structural basis for such activity appears to depend on their correct folding. Such folding encompasses a phosphocholine binding site, a tryptophan-rich region and the activity-related N-terminus segment. Additionally, different solution conditions are known to be able to influence the pore formation by actinoporins, as for Sticholysin II (StnII) and Equinatoxin II (EqtxII). In this context, the current work intends to characterize the influence of distinct solution conditions in the conformational behavior of these proteins through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The obtained data offer structural insights into actinoporins dynamics in solution, characterizing its conformational behavior at the atomic level, in accordance with previous experimental data on StnII and EqtxII hemolytic activities.

  15. Radiation Chemical Effects in the Near Field of a Final Disposal Site - II: Simulation of the Radiolytic Processes in Concentrated NaCl Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kelm, M.; Bohnert, E.

    2000-01-15

    The radiation chemical reactions in gamma-irradiated 2 to 5.3 mol/l NaCl solutions were mathematically modeled by elementary reactions proceeding in parallel. The calculations showed that if all radiolytic gases could escape from the solution, only three final compounds would be formed proportional to the dose and independent from the dose rate: H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and chlorate. All other products and intermediates reached a steady-state concentration after {approx}1 kGy. Within certain limits, the yields of final radiolytic products were determined solely by the primary G values of H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The results of the corresponding irradiation experiments carried out in glass ampoules up to {approx}1 MGy were in good agreement with the calculations. The simulation of the radiolysis under the condition that all gaseous products remain dissolved in the solution showed a nearly constant formation rate for hydrogen and oxygen. As opposed to this, the experiments conducted in autoclaves resulted in nearly steady-state conditions for the gases at some 100 kGy at a pressure of {approx}35 bars. For chlorate, the experiments and the calculation gave a constant concentration of a few micromoles per litre in 5.3 mol/l NaCl solution. A better correspondence between experiments and the simulation was achieved for the gases when the reaction model was extended for interaction of corrosion products from the autoclaves.

  16. Adsorption of acetanilide herbicides on soil and its components. II. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of diethatyl-ethyl on saturated Na(+)-, K(+)-, Ca(2+)-, and Mg(2+)-montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Liu, W P; Fang, Z; Liu, H J; Yang, W C

    2001-04-01

    Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of the herbicide diethatyl-ethyl [N-chloroacetyl-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)glycine ethyl ester] on homoionic Na(+)-, K(+)-, Ca(2+)-, and Mg(2+)-montmorillonite clays were investigated in water solution. The Freundlich adsorption coefficient, Ki, got from isotherms on clay followed the order of Na+ approximately K+ > Mg2+ approximately Ca2+. Analysis of FT-IR spectra of diethatyl-ethyl adsorbed on clay suggests probable bonding at the carboxyl and amide carbonyl groups of the herbicide. The rate of herbicide hydrolysis in homoionic clay suspensions followed the same order as that for adsorption, indicating that adsorption may have preceded and thus caused hydrolysis. Preliminary product identification showed that hydrolysis occurred via nucleophilic substitution at the carboxyl carbon, causing the cleavage of the ester bond and formation of diethatyl and its dechlorinated derivative, and at the amide carbon, yielding an ethyl ester derivative and its acid. These pathways also suggest that hydrolysis of diethatyl-ethyl was catalyzed by adsorption on the clay surface.

  17. Group II Introns and Their Protein Collaborators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solem, Amanda; Zingler, Nora; Pyle, Anna Marie; Li-Pook-Than, Jennifer

    Group II introns are an abundant class of autocatalytic introns that excise themselves from precursor mRNAs. Although group II introns are catalytic RNAs, they require the assistance of proteins for efficient splicing in vivo. Proteins that facilitate splicing of organellar group II introns fall into two main categories: intron-encoded maturases and host-encoded proteins. This chapter will focus on the host proteins that group II introns recruited to ensure their function. It will discuss the great diversity of these proteins, define common features, and describe different strategies employed to achieve specificity. Special emphasis will be placed on DEAD-box ATPases, currently the best studied example of host-encoded proteins with a role in group II intron splicing. Since the exact mechanisms by which splicing is facilitated is not known for any of the host proteins, general mechanistic strategies for protein-mediated RNA folding are described and assessed for their potential role in group II intron splicing.

  18. Genetic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II.

    PubMed Central

    Pieke Dahl, S; Kimberling, W J; Gorin, M B; Weston, M D; Furman, J M; Pikus, A; Möller, C

    1993-01-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by retinitis pigmentosa and congenital sensorineural hearing loss. A gene for Usher syndrome type II (USH2) has been localised to chromosome 1q32-q41. DNA from a family with four of seven sibs affected with clinical characteristics of Usher syndrome type II was genotyped using markers spanning the 1q32-1q41 region. These included D1S70 and D1S81, which are believed to flank USH2. Genotypic results and subsequent linkage analysis indicated non-linkage of this family to these markers. The A test analysis for heterogeneity with this family and 32 other Usher type II families was statistically significant at p < 0.05. Further clinical evaluation of this family was done in light of the linkage results to determine if any phenotypic characteristics would allow for clinical identification of the unlinked type. No clear phenotypic differences were observed; however, this unlinked family may represent a previously unreported subtype of Usher type II characterised by a milder form of retinitis pigmentosa and mild vestibular abnormalities. Heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II complicates efforts to isolate and clone Usher syndrome genes using linkage analysis and limits the use of DNA markers in early detection of Usher type II. Images PMID:7901420

  19. [Analysis of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) in Chinese medicine by the system of porphyrin complexes and sulfhydryl cotton fiber].

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Zheng, Huai-li

    2004-02-01

    The reaction of alpha beta gamma delta-tetra(p-sulfophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS4) with Pb(II), Cd(II) or Cu(II) has been studied in this article, and the spectra of the Pb(II)-TPPS4, Cd(II)-TPPS4 and Cu(II)-TPPS4 show the spectral absorption of these complexes with high sensitivity. The molar absorptivities of Pb(II)-TPPS4, Cd(II)-TPPS4 and Cu(II)-TPPS4 are 2.5 x 10(5) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1), 5.2 x 10(5) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1) and 4.2 x 10(5) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1), respectively. With the sulfhydryl cotton fiber separation-enrichment method, this analytical system of porphyrin complexes has been successfully applied to determining the trace amounts of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) in Ginkgo bilobal leaves and tea leaves. The RSD of determining 10(-6)-10(-7) g x g(-1) Pb(II), Cd(II) or Cu(II) in samples lies between 3.3%-9.6%, and the recovery of added standard lies between 90%-103%. The proposed analytical method has the advantage of high sensitivity, simplicity and high efficiency of interfere-resisting.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles impregnated on apple pomace to enhanced adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chand, Piar; Pakade, Yogesh B

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized, and impregnated onto apple pomace surface (HANP@AP) for efficient removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions from water. HANP@AP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and surface area analysis. Batch sorption studies were carried out to investigate the influence of different parameters as amount of dose (g), pH, time (min), and initial concentration (mg L(-1)) on adsorption process. Experimental kinetic data followed pseudo-second-order model and equilibrium data well fitted to Langmuir adsorption model with maximum adsorption capacities of 303, 250, and 100 mg g(-1) for Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions, respectively. Competitive adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions in presences of each other was studied to evaluate the removal efficiency of HANP@AP against multi metal-loaded water. HANP@AP was successfully applied to real industrial wastewater with 100 % removal of all three metal ions even at high concentration. HANP@AP could be recycled for four, four, and three cycles in case of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II), respectively. The study showed that HANP@AP is fast, cost effective, and environmental friendly adsorbent for removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions from real industrial wastewater.

  1. Luminescence of the elpasolite series M{sup I}{sub 2}M{sup II}MCl{sub 6} (M{sup I}=Cs, Rb; M{sup II}=Li, Na; M=Lu, Y, Sc, In) doped with europium using synchrotron radiation excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, Peter A.; Duan Changkui; Jia Guohua; Cheng, Bing-Ming

    2012-04-15

    The excitation and emission spectra of a series of cubic hexachloroelpasolites doped with europium have been investigated using synchrotron radiation at 10 K. Besides the Eu{sup 3+} emission from {sup 5}D{sub J} (J=0-3) multiplets, emission from {sup 5}H{sub 3} is also observed for Cs{sub 2}NaIn{sub 0.995}Eu{sub 0.005}Cl{sub 6}, since the gap to the next lowest level is spanned by seven phonons. The excitation spectra of samples indicate impurities due to oxygen and divalent europium. Broad band emission from Eu{sup 2+} is reported from the crystalline samples grown in vacuum by the Bridgman process, with the maximum wavelength shifting to the red with increasing lattice parameter for the series Cs{sub 2}NaMCl{sub 6}:Eu{sup 2+} (M=Lu, Y, Eu). - Graphical abstract: Luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 2+} in elpasolite hosts under synchrotron radiation is observed and assigned. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of M{sup I}{sub 2}M{sup II}MCl{sub 6}-doped with europium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 10 K spectra indicate broad bands due to Eu-O CT, Eu-Cl CT and Eu{sup 2+} transitions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultraviolet emission from the {sup 3}H{sub 5} level of Eu{sup 3+}, not only restricted to fluorides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation between Eu{sup 2+} emission maximum and host lattice parameter.

  2. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) procedure for mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) by intraventricular administration (IVA) in murine MPS II.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiromi; Fukuda, Takahiro; Kawagoe, Shiho; Matsumoto, Juri; Shimada, Yohta; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ida, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Toya; Morimoto, Hideto; Hirato, Tohru; Nishino, Katsuya; Eto, Yoshikatsu

    2012-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), or Hunter syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) and is characterized by the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS II has been treated by hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT)/enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), but its effectiveness in the central nervous system (CNS) is limited because of poor enzyme uptake across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To increase the efficacy of ERT in the brain, we tested an intraventricular ERT procedure consisting of repeated administrations of IDS (20 μg/mouse/3 weeks) in IDS-knockout, MPS II model mice. The IDS enzyme activity and the accumulation of total GAGs were measured in mouse brains. The IDS activity was significantly increased, and the accumulation of total GAGs was decreased in the MPS II mouse brains treated with multiple administrations of IDS via intraventricular ERT. Additionally, a high level of IDS enzyme activity was appreciated in other MPS II mouse tissues, such as the liver, spleen, testis and others. A Y-maze was used to test learning and memory after repeated intraventricular ERT with IDS. The IDS-treated mouse groups recovered the capacity for short-term memory and activity. Although large and small vacuoles were found at the margin of the cerebellar Purkinje cells in the disease-control mice, these vacuoles disappeared upon treated with IDS. Loss of vacuoles was also observed in other tissues (liver, kidney and testis). These results demonstrate the possible efficacy of an ERT procedure with intraventricular administration of IDS for the treatment of MPS II. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart II of... - General Provisions of Applicability to Subpart II

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Reference Applies to subpart II Comment 63.1(a)(1)-(3) Yes. 63.1(a)(4) Yes Subpart II clarifies the applicability of each paragraph in subpart A to sources subject to subpart II. 63.1(a)(5)-(7) Yes 63.1(a)(8) No Discusses State programs. 63.1(a)(9)-(14) Yes 63.1(b)(1) Yes § 63.781 specifies applicability in more detail...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart II of... - General Provisions of Applicability to Subpart II

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Reference Applies to subpart II Comment 63.1(a)(1)-(3) Yes. 63.1(a)(4) Yes Subpart II clarifies the applicability of each paragraph in subpart A to sources subject to subpart II. 63.1(a)(5)-(7) Yes 63.1(a)(8) No Discusses State programs. 63.1(a)(9)-(14) Yes 63.1(b)(1) Yes § 63.781 specifies applicability in more detail...

  5. Weightlessness experiments on Biosatellite II.

    PubMed

    Edwards, B F

    1969-01-01

    Four experiments in the aft compartment of Biosatellite II investigated the broad question of the effect of nearly zero gravity on the development, morphology and metabolism of plants and animals. The fertilization and development of the egg of a vertebrate (the frog, Rana pipiens), the feeding and growth of a protozoan (the giant amoeba, Pelomyxa carolinensis), the orientation of leaves and petioles of a young dicotyledon (pepper plants, Capsicum annuum) and the morphogenesis, orientation, histochemistry and biochemistry of a monocotyledon seedling (wheat, Triticum vulgare) gave a broad scope. All are known to have specific responses to normal gravity and changes in them might be expected to reflect the effects of orbital flight on living organisms. No differences in development of the frog eggs could be detected. Unfortunately, the 3 1/2 hour delay in launch allowed the first cleavage (the stage most sensitive to inversion) to appear before launch. Although the orbited embryos were somewhat slower to reach certain stages of development, recovered embryos developed just as did the controls. The amoebae fed normally while in orbit, and specimens fixed in orbit retained the ordinary heteropodal shape. Growth rates of orbited amoebae, both fed and starved, were slower than controls following reentry and recovery procedures. In continuous-fed organisms there was little or no effect of flight detectable in growth rate or actual number of divisions. Electron micrographs showed no abnormalities and few differences between flight and control organisms. The pepper plants were photographed in orbit at ten-minute intervals, as were the clinostat and erect controls. The subsequent measurement of photographs showed that in the orbited plants all leaves showed epinasty, the interaxial angle decreasing by 20-60 degrees C. Plants on the horizontal clinostat behaved comparably, but recovered more rapidly than orbited plants when returned to the normal erect position. Although the

  6. Modeling Topaz-II system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.H.; Klein, A.C. )

    1993-01-01

    The US acquisition of the Topaz-11 in-core thermionic space reactor test system from Russia provides a good opportunity to perform a comparison of the Russian reported data and the results from computer codes such as MCNP (Ref. 3) and TFEHX (Ref. 4). The comparison study includes both neutronic and thermionic performance analyses. The Topaz II thermionic reactor is modeled with MCNP using actual Russian dimensions and parameters. The computation of the neutronic performance considers several important aspects such as the fuel enrichment and location of the thermionic fuel elements (TFES) in the reactor core. The neutronic analysis included the calculation of both radial and axial power distribution, which are then used in the TFEHX code for electrical performance. The reactor modeled consists of 37 single-cell TFEs distributed in a 13-cm-radius zirconium hydride block surrounded by 8 cm of beryllium metal reflector. The TFEs use 90% enriched [sup 235]U and molybdenum coated with a thin layer of [sup 184]W for emitter surface. Electrons emitted are captured by a collector surface with a gap filled with cesium vapor between the collector and emitter surfaces. The collector surface is electrically insulated with alumina. Liquid NaK provides the cooling system for the TFEs. The axial thermal power distribution is obtained by dividing the TFE into 40 axial nodes. Comparison of the true axial power distribution with that produced by electrical heaters was also performed.

  7. Determination of circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) in swine.

    PubMed

    Buonomo, F C; Grohs, D L; Baile, C A; Campion, D R

    1988-10-01

    A heterologous radioimmunoassay system was developed for the determination of circulating IGF-II concentrations in swine. The assay utilized a monoclonal antibody against human IGF-II (Amano Intl. Ez, VA) and bovine IGF-II (Monsanto Co., MO) as the cold standard and iodinated ligand. Serial dilutions of acid-ethanol extracted normal swine sera resulted in a curve which was parallel to the bovine IGF-II standard curve. Recovery of unlabeled standard added to extracted swine sera was 101%. Neither IGF-I nor insulin were capable of cross-reacting in this assay at levels up to 100-fold excess. Using this assay, serum IGF-II levels were determined to be significantly lower when subnormal growth hormone (GH) levels existed such as in hypophysectomized swine. However, in contrast to serum IGF-I concentrations, supranormal levels of porcine GH (pGH) did not elevate serum IGF-II concentrations after 13 wk of treatment in 25 kg hogs (initial body wt). In addition, serum IGF-II levels were reduced in fasted swine, despite a significant increase in circulating GH concentrations. Thus, although normal concentrations of GH are required for maintenance of physiological levels of IGF-II in swine, the mechanism for stimulation of IGF-II secretion is less GH-dependent than IGF-I.

  8. Phosphate effects on copper(II) and lead(II) sorption to ferrihydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberg, Charlotta; Sjöstedt, Carin; Persson, Ingmar; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2013-11-01

    Transport of lead(II) and copper(II) ions in soil is affected by the soil phosphorus status. Part of the explanation may be that phosphate increases the adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) to iron (hydr)oxides in soil, but the details of these interactions are poorly known. Knowledge about such mechanisms is important, for example, in risk assessments of contaminated sites and development of remediation methods. We used a combination of batch experiments, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and surface complexation modeling with the three-plane CD-MUSIC model to study the effect of phosphate on sorption of copper(II) and lead(II) to ferrihydrite. The aim was to identify the surface complexes formed and to derive constants for the surface complexation reactions. In the batch experiments phosphate greatly enhanced the adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) to ferrihydrite at pH < 6. The largest effects were seen for lead(II).

  9. Adsorption character for removal Cu(II) by magnetic Cu(II) ion imprinted composite adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yueming; Wei, Xizhu; Zhang, Milin

    2008-10-01

    A novel magnetic Cu(II) ion imprinted composite adsorbent (Cu(II)-MICA) was synthesized, characterized and applied for the selective removal Cu(II) from aqueous solution in the batch system. The adsorption-desorption and selectivity characteristics were investigated. The maximum adsorption occurred at pH 5-6. The equilibrium time was 6.0h, and a pseudo-second-order model could best describe adsorption kinetics. The adsorption equilibrium data fit Langmuir isotherm equation well with a maximum adsorption capacity of 46.25mg/g and Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant of 0.0956L/mg at 298K. Thermodynamic parameters analysis predicted an exothermic nature of adsorption and a spontaneous and favourable process that could be mainly governed by physisorption mechanism. The relative selectivity coefficients of Cu(II)-MICA for Cu(II)/Zn(II) and Cu(II)/Ni(II) were 2.31, 2.66 times greater than the magnetic non-imprinted composite adsorbent (MNICA). Results suggested that Cu(II)-MICA was a material of efficient, low-cost, convenient separation under magnetic field and could be reused five times with about 14% regeneration loss.

  10. RNA Polymerase II transcription elongation and Pol II CTD Ser2 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Elizabeth A; Kelly, William G

    2014-01-01

    The transition between initiation and productive elongation during RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) transcription is a well-appreciated point of regulation across many eukaryotes. Elongating Pol II is modified by phosphorylation of serine 2 (Ser2) on its carboxy terminal domain (CTD) by two kinases, Bur1/Ctk1 in yeast and Cdk9/Cdk12 in metazoans. Here, we discuss the roles and regulation of these kinases and their relationship to Pol II elongation control, and focus on recent data from work in C. elegans that point out gaps in our current understand of transcription elongation. PMID:24879308

  11. Cu(II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity of three different clay liner materials.

    PubMed

    Musso, T B; Parolo, M E; Pettinari, G; Francisca, F M

    2014-12-15

    Sorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) on three natural clays meeting the international requirements for use as liners was evaluated by means of batch tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the retention capacities of the clays for metal cations commonly present in urban solid waste leachates. The pH and ionic strength conditions were set at values frequently found in real leachates. The changes observed in the XRD patterns and FTIR spectra upon adsorption can be considered an evidence of clay-metal electrostatic interaction. The Langmuir model was found to best describe the sorption processes, offering maximum sorption capacities from 8.16 to 56.89 mg/g for Cu(II) and from 49.59 to 103.83 mg/g for Zn(II). All samples remove more Zn(II) than Cu(II), which may be related to the different geometry of the hydrated Cu(II) cation. The total amount of metal sorption was strongly influenced by the total specific surface area, the presence of carbonates and the smectite content of the clays. In addition to their known quality as physical barriers, the adsorbed amounts obtained indicate the suitability of the tested clays to contribute to the retardation of Cu(II) and Zn(II) transport through clay liners.

  12. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES. II. H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schombert, James; McGaugh, Stacy; Maciel, Tamela E-mail: stacy.mcgaugh@case.edu

    2013-08-01

    The luminosities, colors, and H{alpha} emission for 429 H II regions in 54 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are presented. While the number of H II regions per galaxy is lower in LSB galaxies compared to star-forming irregulars and spirals, there is no indication that the size or luminosity function of H II regions differs from other galaxy types. The lower number of H II regions per galaxy is consistent with their lower total star formation rates. The fraction of the total L{sub H{alpha}} contributed by H II regions varies from 10% to 90% in LSB galaxies (the rest of the H{alpha} emission being associated with a diffuse component) with no correlation with galaxy stellar or gas mass. Bright H II regions have bluer colors, similar to the trend in spirals; their number and luminosities are consistent with the hypothesis that they are produced by the same H II luminosity function as spirals. Comparison with stellar population models indicates that the brightest H II regions in LSB galaxies range in cluster mass from a few 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} (e.g., {rho} Oph) to globular-cluster-sized systems (e.g., 30 Dor) and that their ages are consistent with clusters from 2 to 15 Myr old. The faintest H II regions are comparable to those in the LMC powered by a single O or B star. Thus, star formation in LSB galaxies covers the full range of stellar cluster mass.

  13. Radiative lifetimes, branching rations, and absolute transition probabilities in Cr II and Zn II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeson, S. D.; Lawler, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    New absolute atomic transition probability measurements are reported for 12 transitions in Cr II and two transitions in Zn II. These transition probabilities are determined by combining branching ratios measured by classical techniques and radiative lifetimes measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence. The measurements are compared with branching fractions, radiative lifetimes, and transition probabilities in the literature. The 206 nm resonance multiplets in Cr II and Zn II are included in this work. These multiplets are very useful in determining the distribution of the elements in the gas versus grain phases in the interstellar medium.

  14. Competitive sorption of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) on carbonaceous nanofibers: A spectroscopic and modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Ding, Congcong; Cheng, Wencai; Wang, Xiangxue; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Sun, Yubing; Chen, Changlun; Wang, Xiangke; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-08-05

    The competitive sorption of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) on the uniform carbonaceous nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated in binary/ternary-metal systems. The pH-dependent sorption of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) on CNFs was independent of ionic strength, indicating that inner-sphere surface complexation dominated sorption Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) on CNFs. The maximum sorption capacities of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) on CNFs in single-metal systems at a pH 5.5±0.2 and 25±1°C were 3.84 (795.65mg/g), 3.21 (204.00mg/g) and 2.67 (156.70mg/g)mmol/g, respectively. In equimolar binary/ternary-metal systems, Pb(II) exhibited greater inhibition of the sorption of Cu(II) and Ni(II), demonstrating the stronger affinity of CNFs for Pb(II). The competitive sorption of heavy metals in ternary-metal systems was predicted quite well by surface complexation modeling derived from single-metal data. According to FTIR, XPS and EXAFS analyses, Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) were specifically adsorbed on CNFs via covalent bonding. These observations should provide an essential start in simultaneous removal of multiple heavy metals from aquatic environments by CNFs, and open the doorways for the application of CNFs.

  15. Excitation Power Modulates Energy-Transfer Dynamics in a Supramolecular Ru(II) -Fe(II) -Ru(II) Triad.

    PubMed

    Kübel, Joachim; Wächtler, Maria; Dietzek, Benjamin

    2017-08-11

    Multichromophoric arrays are key to light harvesting in natural and artificial photosynthesis. A trinuclear, symmetric Ru(II) -Fe(II) -Ru(II) triad may resemble a light-harvesting model system in which excitation energy from donor units (Ru-terpyridine fragments) is efficiently transferred to the acceptor (the Fe-terpyridine fragment). The photoinduced dynamics after simultaneous excitation of more than a single chromophoric unit (donor/acceptor) at varying excitation fluence is investigated in this contribution. Data suggests that energy transfer is decelerated if the acceptor states (on the Fe(II) unit) are not depopulated fast enough. As a consequence, the lifetime of a high-lying excited state (centered on either of the Ru(II) units) is prolonged. A kinetic model is suggested to account for this effect. Although the proposed model is specifically adopted to account for the experimental data reported here, it might be generalized to other situations in which multiple energy or electron donors are covalently linked to a single acceptor site, a situation of interest in contemporary artificial photosynthesis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Ax(H3O)2-xMn5(HPO3)6 (A = Li, Na, K and NH4): open-framework manganese(ii) phosphites templated by mixed cationic species.

    PubMed

    Orive, Joseba; Fernández de Luis, Roberto; Fernández, Jesús Rodríguez; Lezama, Luis; Arriortua, María I

    2016-07-26

    Ax(H3O)2-xMn5(HPO3)6 (A = Li, x = 0.55 (1-Li); A = Na, x = 0.72 (2-Na); A = K, x = 0.30 (3-K); A = NH4, x = 0.59 (4-NH4)) phases were synthesized by employing mild hydrothermal conditions. 1-Li was studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction, while sodium, potassium and ammonium containing analogues were obtained as polycrystalline samples and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The four compounds were characterized by ICP-Q-MS, thermal analysis and XPS, IR, UV/Vis and EPR spectroscopy. Single crystal data indicate that 1-Li crystallizes in the P3[combining macron]c1 space group with lattice parameters a = 10.3764(1) Å and c = 9.4017(1) Å with Z = 2. The crystal structure of these phases is constituted by a three-dimensional [Mn(ii)5(HPO3)6](2-) anionic skeleton templated by alkali metal and ammonium cations together with protonated water molecules. Such an inorganic framework is formed by layers of edge-sharing MnO6 octahedra placed in the ab plane and joined along the c direction through phosphite pseudotetrahedra. The sheets display 12-membered ring channels parallel to the c-axis, ca. 5 Å in diameter, where the extraframework species display a strong disorder. EPR measurements point to the existence of short range ferromagnetic interactions around 12 K. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements show that all the compounds exhibit long range antiferromagnetic order below circa 4 K, with a significant magnetocaloric effect around the Neel temperature.

  17. Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of the distribution and chemical shifts of xenon in the cages of zeolite NaA. II. Structure of the adsorbed fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, Cynthia J.; Jameson, A. Keith; Lim, Hyung-Mi; Baello, Bernoli I.

    1994-04-01

    The quantitative agreement between the results of a grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation and the various direct experimental measures of the distribution of the Xe atoms between adsorbed phase and gas phase, of intrazeolitic xenon among the alpha cages, and of the distribution of n Xe atoms in a Xen cluster within one alpha cage permit us to consider the structure of the adsorbed fluid in the GCMC simulation as a reasonable description of the actual structure. We provide here the adsorption sites for a single Xe atom in the alpha cage of zeolite NaA, the transition states between these adsorption sites, the one-body distribution functions for the individual clusters Xen inside the alpha cage, the Xe-Xe pair distribution functions for Xe2 through Xe8 at two temperatures, and some of the local minima in the configuration space of the clusters Xe2 through Xe8, i.e., some of the minimum energy configurations of the clusters.

  18. Angiotensin II: role in skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Córdova, Gonzalo; Salas, José Diego

    2012-09-01

    Skeletal muscle, the main protein reservoir in the body, is a tissue that exhibits high plasticity when exposed to changes. Muscle proteins can be mobilized into free amino acids when skeletal muscle wasting occurs, a process called skeletal muscle atrophy. This wasting is an important systemic or local manifestation under disuse conditions (e.g., bed rest or immobilization), in starvation, in older adults, and in several diseases. The molecular mechanisms involved in muscle wasting imply the activation of specific signaling pathways which ultimately manage muscle responses to modulate biological events such as increases in protein catabolism, oxidative stress, and cell death by apoptosis. Many factors have been involved in the generation and maintenance of atrophy in skeletal muscle, among them angiotensin II (Ang-II), the main peptide of renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Together with Ang-II, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the Ang-II receptor type 1 (AT-1 receptor) are expressed in skeletal muscle, forming an important local axis that can regulate its function. In many of the conditions that lead to muscle wasting, there is an impairment of RAS in a global or local fashion. At this point, there are several pieces of evidence that suggest the participation of Ang-II, ACE, and AT-1 receptor in the generation of skeletal muscle atrophy. Interestingly, the Ang-II participation in muscle atrophy is strongly ligated to the regulation of hypertrophic activity of factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). In this article, we reviewed the current state of Ang-II and RAS function on skeletal muscle wasting and its possible use as a therapeutic target to improve skeletal muscle function under atrophic conditions.

  19. [Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: different or equivalent?].

    PubMed

    Mounier-Vehier, C; Devos, P

    ARA-II: Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA-II) belong to a recent class of antihypertensive drugs whose mechanism of action is similar to converting enzyme inhibitors (CEI). ARA-II are particularly interesting due to the excellent clinical and biological tolerance, similar to placebo, and their antihypertensive efficacy, comparable with classical drug classes. PUBLISHED TRIALS: A meta-analysis, published by Conlin in the American Journal of Hypertension, suggests that ARA-II, specifically losartan, valsartan, irbesartan and candesartan, have an equipotent blood pressure lowering effect. The careful lecture of this meta-analysis however discloses a faulty methodology from which no valid conclusion can be drawn. Since this early publication, several other comparative studies have been published. These multicentric, randomized double-blind studies enrolled a sufficient number of patients and demonstrated a clinical difference between certain ARA-II at usual dosages. CLINICAL PRACTICE: These studies do have an impact on everyday practice. For the practitioner, the goal is to obtain and then maintain a long-term and optimal reduction in the blood pressure level (reduction or prevention of target-organ disorders and cardiovascular complications of high blood pressure). This reduction in the cardiovascular risk will also depend directly on tolerance and compliance to the antihypertensive treatment. This element must also be considered in assessing treatment efficacy, independent of the blood pressure lowering effect. The results of several other studies will be published in 2001-2003. These large-scale studies on ARA-II related morbidity and mortality will be most useful in determining the role of these drugs in different therapeutic strategies compared with other drug classes.

  20. Ion paired chromatography of iron (II,III), nickel (II) and copper (II) as their 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline chelates.

    PubMed

    Mudasir; Yoshioka, N; Inoue, H

    1997-07-01

    A reversed phase ion-paired chromatographic method that can be used to determine trace amounts of iron (II,III), nickel (II) and copper (II) was developed and applied to the determination of iron (II) and iron (III) levels in natural water. The separation of these metal ions as their 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline) chelates on an Inertsil ODS column was investigated by using acetonitrile-water (80/20, v/v) containing 0.06 M perchloric acid as mobile phase and diode array spectrophotometric detection at 250-650 nm. Chromatographic parameters such as composition of mobile phase and concentration of perchloric acid in mobile phase were optimized. The calibration graphs of iron (II), nickel (II) and copper (II) ions were linear (r > 0.991) in the concentration range 0-0.5, 0-2.0 and 0-4.0 mug ml(-1), respectively. The detection limit of iron (II), nickel (II) and copper (II) were 2.67, 5.42 and 18.2 ng ml(-1) with relative standard deviation (n = 5) of 3.11, 5.81 and 7.16% at a concentration level of 10 ng ml(-1) for iron (II) and nickel (II) and 25 ng ml(-1) for copper (II), respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of iron(II) and iron(III) in tap water and sea water samples without any interference from other common metal ions.