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Sample records for ii nptii gene

  1. Cloning of the nptII gene of Escherichia coli and construction of a recombinant strain harboring functional recA and nptII antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, S

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to clone the ORF of the nptII gene of Escherichia coli K12 (ATCC 10798), two degenerate primers were designed based on the nptII sequence of its Tn5 transposon. The nptII ORF was placed under the control of the E. coli hybrid trc promoter, in the pKK388-1 vector, transformed into E. coli DH5α ΔrecA (recombinant, deficient strain). Transferred cells were tested for ampicillin, tetracycline, kanamycin, neomycin, geneticin, paromomycin, penicillin, and UV resistance. The neomycin phosphotransferase gene of E. coli was cloned successfully and conferred kanamycin, neomycin, geneticin, and paromomycin resistance to recombinant DH5α; this did not inhibit insertion of additional antibiotic resistance against ampicillin and tetracycline, meaning the trc promoter can express two different genes carried by two different plasmids harbored in the same cell. This resistance conferral process could be considered as an emulation of horizontal gene transfer occurring in nature and would be a useful tool for understanding mechanisms of evolution of multidrug-resistant strains.

  2. Heat-shock-mediated elimination of the nptII marker gene in transgenic apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Herzog, Katja; Flachowsky, Henryk; Deising, Holger B; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2012-04-25

    Production of marker-free genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the major challenges of molecular fruit breeding. Employing clean vector technologies, allowing the removal of undesired DNA sequences from GM plants, this goal can be achieved. The present study describes the establishment of a clean vector system in apple Malus×domestica Borkh., which is based on the use of the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (nptII) as selectable marker gene and kanamycin/paramomycin as selective agent. The nptII gene can be removed after selection of GM shoots via site-specific excision mediated by heat-shock-inducible expression of the budding yeast FLP recombinase driven by the soybean Gmhsp17.5-E promoter. We created a monitoring vector containing the nptII and the flp gene as a box flanked by two direct repeats of the flp recognition target (FRT) sites. The FRT-flanked box separates the gusA reporter gene from the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S (CaMV 35S) promoter. Consequently, GUS expression does only occur after elimination of the FRT-flanked box. Transformation experiments using the monitoring vector resulted in a total of nine transgenic lines. These lines were investigated for transgenicity by PCR, RT-PCR and Southern hybridization. Among different temperature regimes tested, exposure to 42 °C for 3.5 to 4h led to efficient induction of FLP-mediated recombination and removal of the nptII marker gene. A second round of shoot regeneration from leaf explants led to GM apple plants completely free of the nptII gene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Small RNAs were involved in homozygous state-associated silencing of a marker gene (Neomycin phosphotransferase II: nptII) in transgenic tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lei; Pan, Yu; Chen, Xuqing; Chen, Guoping; Hu, Zongli

    2013-07-01

    Homozygous state-associated co-suppression is not a very common phenomenon. In our experiments, two transgenic plants 3A29 and 1195A were constructed by being transformed with the constructs pBIN-353A and pBIN119A containing nptII gene as a marker respectively. The homozygous progeny from these two independent transgenic lines 3A29 and 1195A, displayed kanamycin-sensitivity and produced a short main root without any lateral roots as untransformed control (wild-type) seedlings when germinated on kanamycin media. For the seedlings derived from putative hemizygous plants, the percentage of the seedlings showing normal growth on kanamycin media was about 50% and lower than the expected percentage (75%). Southern analysis of the genomic DNA confirmed that the homozygous and hemizygous plants derived from the same lines contained the same multiple nptII transgenes, which were located on the same site of chromosome. Northern analysis suggested that the marker nptII gene was expressed in the primary and the hemizygous transformants, but it was silenced in the homozygous transgenic plants. Further Northern analysis indicated that antisense and sense small nptII-derived RNAs were present in the transgenic plants and the blotting signal of nptII-derived small RNA was much higher in the homozygous transgenic plants than that of hemizygous transgenic plants. Additionally, read-through transcripts from the TRAMP gene to the nptII gene were detected. These results suggest that the read-through transcripts may be involved in homozygous state-associated silencing of the nptII transgene in transgenic tomato plants and a certain threshold level of the nptII-derived small RNAs is required for the homozygous state-associated co-suppression of the nptII transgene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. HIGH FREQUENCY GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF CICHORIUM INTYBUS L. USING nptII GENE AS A SELECTIVE MARKER.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N; Shakhovsky, A; Kvasko, O; Kuchuk, N

    2015-01-01

    Cichorium intybus L. is an important vegetable crop used as salad (leaf form) and for the production of coffee substitutes (root form). At the same time these plants can also be used in biotechnologies for synthesis of pharmaceutical proteins. Here we report the possibility of high frequency Agrobacterium rhizogenes- or A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of C. intybus L. for construction of transgenic "hairy" roots and plants. The used plasmids contained target human interferonifn-α2b gene, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT6:Ag85B antigene esxA::fbpB(ΔTMD) fused gene and human telomerase reverse transcriptase h Tert gene. Using of nptII gene as a selective one was preferable to the bar gene for chicory. In this case the frequency of transgenic plants or "hairy" roots formation was significantly higher. Cultivation of explants on the medium with Basta in concentration 1-2 mg/l have led to plants death or to significant reduction of number of shoots formed. Frequency of "hairy" roots formation varied from 5.9 to 42.3% after A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Frequency of regeneration of transgenic plants varied from 10 to 86% after A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Both A. rhizogenes- and A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation frequency depended on the type of explants, roots or cotyledons, and vector used. Usage of A. tumefaciens carrying pCB064 plasmid (target esxA:fbpB(ΔTMD) fused gene and nptII selective gene) resulted in the most effective regeneration of transgenic plants with regeneration frequency up to 86%. In the case of chicory A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation the highest regeneration frequency up to 42.3% was demonstrated using p CB161 vector with ifn-α2b target gene and nptII selective gene.

  5. Consistent and stable expression of the nptII, uidA and bar genes in transgenic Pinus radiata after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation using nurse cultures.

    PubMed

    Charity, J A; Holland, L; Grace, L J; Walter, C

    2005-02-01

    An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol has been developed for embryogenic cell cultures of Pinus radiata. Transgenic lines were only produced when embryogenic tissue was placed on nurse tissue during the Agrobacterium co-cultivation and recovery stages of the procedure. Plantlets were regenerated via somatic embryogenesis from ten of the 11 transgenic lines tested and at least 20 of each line were planted in a GMO glasshouse. Expression of the nptII, uidA and bar genes in up to ten plants of each individual transgenic line was evaluated by molecular, biochemical and functional analysis. As expected, expression of the nptII gene varied among the ten lines, while within ten replicates of the same line, nptII expression appeared to be consistent, with the exception of one line, K3. Likewise, the level of GUS activity varied among transgenic lines, but was relatively consistent in plants derived from the same tissue, except for two lines, G4 and G5. Moreover, similar absolute values and pattern of gene expression of uidA was observed in the transgenic plants, for two consecutive years. Plantlets from eight lines survived a spray treatment with the equivalent of 2 kg/ha and 4 kg/ha of the commercial formulation Buster, whereas non-transformed controls died. Southern hybridisation analysis of embryogenic tissue and green needle tissue from putative transgenic lines demonstrated a relatively low number of gene insertions (from one to nine) of both the bar and nptII genes in the nine transgenic lines tested.

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of commercially elite rice restorer line using nptII gene as a plant selection marker.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, M; Sairam Reddy, P; Laxmi Narasu, M; Krishna, Gaurav; Rana, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    Transformation of commercially important indica cultivars remains challenging for the scientific community even though Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for a few indica rice lines have been well established. We report successful transformation of a commercially important restorer line JK1044R of indica rice hybrid JKRH 401. While following existing protocol, we optimized several parameters for callusing, regeneration and genetic transformation of JK1044R. Calli generated from the rice scutellum tissue were used for transformation by Agrobacterium harboring pCAMBIA2201. A novel two tire selection scheme comprising of Geneticin (G418) and Paramomycin were deployed for selection of transgenic calli as well as regenerated plantlets that expressed neomycin phosphotransferase-II gene encoded by the vector. One specific combination of G418 (30 mg l(-1)) and Paramomycin (70 mg l(-1)) was very effective for calli selection. Transformed and selected calli were detected by monitoring the expression of the reporter gene uidA (GUS). Regenerated plantlets were confirmed through PCR analysis of nptII and gus genes specific primers as well as dot blot using gus gene specific as probe.

  7. Survival of plant seeds, their UV screens, and nptII DNA for 18 months outside the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, David; Zalar, Andreja; Leach, Sydney

    2012-05-01

    The plausibility that life was imported to Earth from elsewhere can be tested by subjecting life-forms to space travel. Ultraviolet light is the major liability in short-term exposures (Horneck et al., 2001 ), and plant seeds, tardigrades, and lichens-but not microorganisms and their spores-are candidates for long-term survival (Anikeeva et al., 1990 ; Sancho et al., 2007 ; Jönsson et al., 2008 ; de la Torre et al., 2010 ). In the present study, plant seeds germinated after 1.5 years of exposure to solar UV, solar and galactic cosmic radiation, temperature fluctuations, and space vacuum outside the International Space Station. Of the 2100 exposed wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) seeds, 23% produced viable plants after return to Earth. Survival was lower in the Arabidopsis Wassilewskija ecotype and in mutants (tt4-8 and fah1-2) lacking UV screens. The highest survival occurred in tobacco (44%). Germination was delayed in seeds shielded from solar light, yet full survival was attained, which indicates that longer space travel would be possible for seeds embedded in an opaque matrix. We conclude that a naked, seed-like entity could have survived exposure to solar UV radiation during a hypothetical transfer from Mars to Earth. Chemical samples of seed flavonoid UV screens were degraded by UV, but their overall capacity to absorb UV was retained. Naked DNA encoding the nptII gene (kanamycin resistance) was also degraded by UV. A fragment, however, was detected by the polymerase chain reaction, and the gene survived in space when protected from UV. Even if seeds do not survive, components (e.g., their DNA) might survive transfer over cosmic distances.

  8. Lack of Detection of Bt Sugarcane Cry1Ab and NptII DNA and Proteins in Sugarcane Processing Products Including Raw Sugar

    PubMed Central

    Cheavegatti-Gianotto, Adriana; Gentile, Agustina; Oldemburgo, Danielle Angeloni; Merheb, Graciela do Amaral; Sereno, Maria Lorena; Lirette, Ron Peter; Ferreira, Thais Helena Silva; de Oliveira, Wladecir Salles

    2018-01-01

    Brazil is the largest sugarcane producer and the main sugar exporter in the world. The industrial processes applied by Brazilian mills are very efficient in producing highly purified sugar and ethanol. Literature presents evidence of lack of DNA/protein in these products, regardless of the nature of sugarcane used as raw material. Recently CTNBio, the Brazilian biosafety authority, has approved the first biotechnology-derived sugarcane variety for cultivation, event CTC175-A, which expresses the Cry1Ab protein to control the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis). The event also expresses neomycin-phosphotransferase type II (NptII) protein used as selectable marker during the transformation process. Because of the high purity of sugar and ethanol produced from genetically modified sugarcane, these end-products should potentially be classified as “pure substances, chemically defined,” by Brazilian Biosafety Law No. 11.105. If this classification is to be adopted, these substances are not considered as “GMO derivatives” and fall out of the scope of Law No. 11.105. In order to assess sugar composition and quality, we evaluate Cry1Ab and NptII expression in several sugarcane tissues and in several fractions from laboratory-scale processing of event CTC175-A for the presence of these heterologous proteins as well as for the presence of traces of recombinant DNA. The results of these studies show that CTC175-A presents high expression of Cry1Ab in leaves and barely detectable expression of heterologous proteins in stalks. We also evaluated the presence of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase protein and DNA in the fractions of the industrial processing of conventional Brazilian sugarcane cultivars. Results from both laboratory and industrial processing were concordant, demonstrating that DNA and protein are not detected in the clarified juice and downstream processed fractions, including ethanol and raw sugar, indicating that protein and DNA are

  9. Field performance of transgenic citrus trees: assessment of the long-term expression of uidA and nptII transgenes and its impact on relevant agronomic and phenotypic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pons, Elsa; Peris, Josep E; Peña, Leandro

    2012-07-15

    The future of genetic transformation as a tool for the improvement of fruit trees depends on the development of proper systems for the assessment of unintended effects in field-grown GM lines. In this study, we used eight transgenic lines of two different citrus types (sweet orange and citrange) transformed with the marker genes β-glucuronidase (uidA) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) as model systems to study for the first time in citrus the long-term stability of transgene expression and whether transgene-derived pleiotropic effects occur with regard to the morphology, development and fruit quality of orchard-grown GM citrus trees. The stability of the integration and expression of the transgenes was confirmed in 7-year-old, orchard-grown transgenic lines by Southern blot analysis and enzymatic assays (GUS and ELISA NPTII), respectively. Little seasonal variation was detected in the expression levels between plants of the same transgenic line in different organs and over the 3 years of analysis, confirming the absence of rearrangements and/or silencing of the transgenes after transferring the plants to field conditions. Comparisons between the GM citrus lines with their non-GM counterparts across the study years showed that the expression of these transgenes did not cause alterations of the main phenotypic and agronomic plant and fruit characteristics. However, when comparisons were performed between diploid and tetraploid transgenic citrange trees and/or between juvenile and mature transgenic sweet orange trees, significant and consistent differences were detected, indicating that factors other than their transgenic nature induced a much higher phenotypic variability. Our results indicate that transgene expression in GM citrus remains stable during long-term agricultural cultivation, without causing unexpected effects on crop characteristics. This study also shows that the transgenic citrus trees expressing the selectable marker genes that are most

  10. [Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with vectors bearing genes of bacterial antigenes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Marveeva, N A; Vasilenko, M Iu; Shakhovskiĭ, A M; Kuchuk, N V

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic plants of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. cv. Eralash, Sniezinka, Rubinovoje kruzevo with genes coding synthesis of tuberculosis antigenes have been obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Cotyledons of in vitro seedlings were used as the initial material for transformation with plasmids pCB063 (genes ESAT6, nptII) and pCB064 (genes ESAT6:AG85B(-TMD), nptII). PCR-analysis has shown the presence both selective and target genes in all plants analyzed. At the same time, the RT-PCR has shown that both the presence and the absence of a transcription of gene ESAT6 at a stable transcription of a gene nptII is possible.

  11. Antibiotic resistance marker genes as environmental pollutants in GMO-pristine agricultural soils in Austria.

    PubMed

    Woegerbauer, Markus; Zeinzinger, Josef; Gottsberger, Richard Alexander; Pascher, Kathrin; Hufnagl, Peter; Indra, Alexander; Fuchs, Reinhard; Hofrichter, Johannes; Kopacka, Ian; Korschineck, Irina; Schleicher, Corina; Schwarz, Michael; Steinwider, Johann; Springer, Burkhard; Allerberger, Franz; Nielsen, Kaare M; Fuchs, Klemens

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes may be considered as environmental pollutants if anthropogenic emission and manipulations increase their prevalence above usually occurring background levels. The prevalence of aph(3')-IIa/nptII and aph(3')-IIIa/nptIII - frequent marker genes in plant biotechnology conferring resistance to certain aminoglycosides - was determined in Austrian soils from 100 maize and potato fields not yet exposed to but eligible for GMO crop cultivation. Total soil DNA extracts were analysed by nptII/nptIII-specific TaqMan real time PCR. Of all fields 6% were positive for nptII (median: 150 copies/g soil; range: 31-856) and 85% for nptIII (1190 copies/g soil; 13-61600). The copy-number deduced prevalence of nptIII carriers was 14-fold higher compared to nptII. Of the cultivable kanamycin-resistant soil bacteria 1.8% (95% confidence interval: 0-3.3%) were positive for nptIII, none for nptII (0-0.8%). The nptII-load of the studied soils was low rendering nptII a typical candidate as environmental pollutant upon anthropogenic release into these ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene expression of beta carotene genes in transgenic biofortified cassava.

    PubMed

    Telengech, P K; Maling'a, J N; Nyende, A B; Gichuki, S T; Wanjala, B W

    2015-08-01

    Cassava is an important food for millions of people around the world. However, cassava is deficient in protein, iron, zinc, pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Cassava biofortified with pro-vitamin A can help reduce Vitamin A Deficiency among the undernourished communities that rely upon it for sustenance. BioCassava Plus project has developed transgenic cassava that expresses beta carotene in roots using root specific patatin promoter. This study aimed at confirming expression of nptII, crtB and DXS genes. Leaf and roots samples were obtained from confined field trial at KARI Alupe at 12 months after planting. RNA was isolated from cassava roots and leaves using a modified Dellaporta protocol, analyzed for expression of DXS, crtB and the selectable marker, nptII using the one step RT-PCR kit (Qiagen) and analyzed through gel electrophoresis. DXS, crtB and nptII genes were expressed in the roots as anticipated. On the contrary, DXS and crtB genes were also expressed in the leaves of the transgenic cassava despite the use of root specific patatin promoter. This finding indicates that the promoter confers expression in leaves too. Intensive molecular screening of the biofortified transgenic cassava is important for risk assessment that informs on integrity of the promoter gene and confirms expression of the beta carotene genes.

  13. Investigation on gene transfer from genetically modified corn (Zea mays L.) plants to soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ma, B L; Blackshaw, Robert E; Roy, Julie; He, Tianpei

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about the prevalence and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in soil bacteria communities is required to evaluate the possibility and ecological consequences of the transfer of these genes carried by genetically modified (GM) plants to soil bacteria. The neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) conferring resistance to kanamycin and neomycin is one of the antibiotic resistance genes commonly present in GM plants. In this study, we investigated kanamycin-resistant (Km(R)) and neomycin-resistant (Nm(R)) soil bacterial populations in a 3-year field trial using a commercial GM corn (Zea mays L.) carrying the nptII gene and its near isogenic line. The results showed that a portion (2.3 - 15.6 %) of cultivable soil bacteria was naturally resistant to kanamycin or neomycin. However, no significant difference in the population level of Km(R) or Nm(R) soil bacteria was observed between the GM and non-GM corn fields. The nptII gene was not detected in any of the total 3000 Km(R) or Nm(R) isolates screened by PCR. Further, total soil bacterial cells were collected through Nycodenz gradient centrifugation and bacterial community DNA was subjected to PCR. Detection limit was about 500 cells per gram of fresh soil. Our study suggests that the nptII gene was relatively rare in the soil bacterial populations and there was no evidence of gene transfer from a GM corn plant to soil bacteria based on the data from total soil bacterial communities.

  14. Transformation of Acinetobacter sp. Strain BD413(pFG4ΔnptII) with Transgenic Plant DNA in Soil Microcosms and Effects of Kanamycin on Selection of Transformants

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Kaare M.; van Elsas, Jan D.; Smalla, Kornelia

    2000-01-01

    Here we show that horizontal transfer of DNA, extracted from transgenic sugar beets, to bacteria, based on homologous recombination, can occur in soil. Restoration of a 317-bp-deleted nptII gene in Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413(pFG4) cells incubated in sterile soil microcosms was detected after addition of nutrients and transgenic plant DNA encoding a functional nptII gene conferring bacterial kanamycin resistance. Selective effects of the addition of kanamycin on the population dynamics of Acinetobacter sp. cells in soil were found, and high concentrations of kanamycin reduced the CFU of Acinetobacter sp. cells from 109 CFU/g of soil to below detection. In contrast to a chromosomal nptII-encoded kanamycin resistance, the pFG4-generated resistance was found to be unstable over a 31-day incubation period in vitro. PMID:10698801

  15. Pomelo II: finding differentially expressed genes

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Edward R.; Diaz-Uriarte, Ramón

    2009-01-01

    Pomelo II (http://pomelo2.bioinfo.cnio.es) is an open-source, web-based, freely available tool for the analysis of gene (and protein) expression and tissue array data. Pomelo II implements: permutation-based tests for class comparisons (t-test, ANOVA) and regression; survival analysis using Cox model; contingency table analysis with Fisher's exact test; linear models (of which t-test and ANOVA are especial cases) that allow additional covariates for complex experimental designs and use empirical Bayes moderated statistics. Permutation-based and Cox model analysis use parallel computing, which permits taking advantage of multicore CPUs and computing clusters. Access to, and further analysis of, additional biological information and annotations (PubMed references, Gene Ontology terms, KEGG and Reactome pathways) are available either for individual genes (from clickable links in tables and figures) or sets of genes. The source code is available, allowing for extending and reusing the software. A comprehensive test suite is also available, and covers both the user interface and the numerical results. The possibility of including additional covariates, parallelization of computation, open-source availability of the code and comprehensive testing suite make Pomelo II a unique tool. PMID:19435879

  16. Selectable Marker Gene Removal and Expression of Transgene by Inducible Promoter Containing FFDD Cis-Acting elements in Transgenic Plants.

    PubMed

    Hamzeh, Shiva; Motallebi, Mostafa; Zamani, Mohammad Reza; Moghaddassi Jahromi, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Selectable marker gene (SMG) systems are critical for generation of transgenic crops. Transgenic crop production without using SMG is not economically feasible. However, SMGs are non-essential once an intact transgenic plant has been established. Elimination of SMGs from transgenic crops both increases public acceptance of GM crops and prepares gene stacking possibility for improvement of complex traits. Synthetic inducible promoters provide an efficient and flexible strategy to regulate transgene expression. This study aimed to construct a transformation vector based on Cre/ loxP recombination system to enhance efficiency of SMG-free transgenic plant production followed by post-excision expression of gene of interest in transgenic plants by a pathogen inducible promoter. In pG-IPFFDD-cre int -gus int construct, cre recombinase and selectable marker gene ( nptII ) cassettes were placed between the two loxP recognition sites in direct orientation. Seed-specific Napin promoter was used for regulation of Cre expression in transgenic seeds. In the construct, loxP flanked sequence containing nptII and recombinase cassettes, located between a pathogen inducible promoter containing FFDD cis-acting elements and β-glucuronidase coding region. The cunstuct was transformed into Nicotiana tabaccum via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. The results showed that both cre and nptII excision occurs in T1 progeny tobacco plants through seed-specific cre expression. The excisions were confirmed by methods activation of the gus gene, germination test on kanamycin-containing medium and molecular analysis. Inducibility of gus expression by FFDD-containing promoter in T1 leaf tissues was confirmed by histochemical Gus staining assay. The established system is not only an efficient tool for marker gene elimination but also provides possibility for inducible expression of the transgene.

  17. Direct gene transfer study and transgenic plant regeneration after electroporation into mesophyll protoplasts of Pelargonium x hortorum, 'Panaché Sud'.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Anber; Hamama, Latifa; Loridon, Karine; Dorion, Noëlle

    2009-10-01

    Direct genetic transformation of mesophyll protoplasts was studied in Pelargonium x hortorum. Calcein and green-fluorescent protein (GFP) gene were used to set up the process. Electroporation (three electric pulses from a 33-microF capacitor in a 250-V cm(-1) electric field) was more efficient than PEG 6000 for membrane permeation, protoplast survival and cell division. Transient expression of GFP was detected in 33-36% of electroporated protoplasts after 2 days and further in colonies. A protoplast suspension conductivity of >1,500 microS cm(-1) allowed high colony formation and plant regeneration. Stable transformation was obtained using the plasmid FAJ3000 containing uidA and nptII genes. When selection (50 mg l(-1) kanamycin) was achieved 6 weeks after electroporation, regenerated shoots were able to grow and root on 100 mg l(-1) kanamycin. The maximum transformation efficiency was 4.5%, based on the number of colonies producing kanamycin-resistant rooted plants or 0.7% based on the number of cultured protoplasts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis on in vitro micropropagated plants showed that 18 clones out of 20 contained the nptII gene, while the uidA gene was absent. These results were confirmed after PCR analyses of five glasshouse-acclimatized clones.

  18. Norway spruce (Picea abies) genetic transformation with modified Cry3A gene of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Bříza, Jindřich; Pavingerová, Daniela; Vlasák, Josef; Niedermeierová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Modified versions of the Cry3A gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were transferred into Norway spruce (Picea abies). Both the biolistic approach and Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated procedure were employed for transformation of embryogenic tissue (ET) cultures. The latter method proved to be more efficient yielding 70 transgenic embryogenic tissue lines compared with 18 lines obtained by biolistics. The modified Cry3A genes were driven by a 35S promoter and the nptII screenable selection marker gene was used in all vectors. The transgenic ETs were molecularly characterized and converted into mature somatic embryos. Germinating embryos formed plantlets which were finally planted into perlite and their Cry3A gene transcription activities were demonstrated by RT-PCR.

  19. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Neomycin phosphotransferase II...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.521 Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) enzyme...

  20. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Neomycin phosphotransferase II...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.521 Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) enzyme...

  1. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Neomycin phosphotransferase II...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.521 Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) enzyme...

  2. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Neomycin phosphotransferase II...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.521 Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) enzyme...

  3. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Neomycin phosphotransferase II...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.521 Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) enzyme...

  4. Retargeting mobile group II introns to repair mutant genes.

    PubMed

    Jones, John Patrick; Kierlin, Monique N; Coon, Robert G; Perutka, Jiri; Lambowitz, Alan M; Sullenger, Bruce A

    2005-05-01

    Retroposable elements such as retroviral and lentiviral vectors have been employed for many gene therapy applications. Unfortunately, such gene transfer vectors integrate genes into many different DNA sequences and unintended integration of the vector near a growth-promoting gene can engender pathological consequences. For example, retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer induced leukemia in 2 of 11 children treated for severe combined immunodeficiency, raising significant safety issues for gene transfer strategies that cannot be targeted to specific sequences. Here, we examine the use of a mobile retroposable genetic element that can be targeted to introduce therapeutic sequences site specifically into mutant genes. The data demonstrate that the mobile group II intron from Lactococcus lactis can be targeted to insert into and repair mutant lacZ (approved gene symbol GLB1) and beta-globin (approved gene symbol HBB) genes with high efficiency and fidelity in model systems in bacteria. These results suggest that these mobile genetic elements represent a novel class of agents for performing targeted genetic repair.

  5. Evolution of chemical diversity by coordinated gene swaps in type II polyketide gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Hillenmeyer, Maureen E.; Vandova, Gergana A.; Berlew, Erin E.; Charkoudian, Louise K.

    2015-01-01

    Natural product biosynthetic pathways generate molecules of enormous structural complexity and exquisitely tuned biological activities. Studies of natural products have led to the discovery of many pharmaceutical agents, particularly antibiotics. Attempts to harness the catalytic prowess of biosynthetic enzyme systems, for both compound discovery and engineering, have been limited by a poor understanding of the evolution of the underlying gene clusters. We developed an approach to study the evolution of biosynthetic genes on a cluster-wide scale, integrating pairwise gene coevolution information with large-scale phylogenetic analysis. We used this method to infer the evolution of type II polyketide gene clusters, tracing the path of evolution from the single ancestor to those gene clusters surviving today. We identified 10 key gene types in these clusters, most of which were swapped in from existing cellular processes and subsequently specialized. The ancestral type II polyketide gene cluster likely comprised a core set of five genes, a roster that expanded and contracted throughout evolution. A key C24 ancestor diversified into major classes of longer and shorter chain length systems, from which a C20 ancestor gave rise to the majority of characterized type II polyketide antibiotics. Our findings reveal that (i) type II polyketide structure is predictable from its gene roster, (ii) only certain gene combinations are compatible, and (iii) gene swaps were likely a key to evolution of chemical diversity. The lessons learned about how natural selection drives polyketide chemical innovation can be applied to the rational design and guided discovery of chemicals with desired structures and properties. PMID:26499248

  6. STATE-OF-THE-ART HUMAN GENE THERAPY: PART II. GENE THERAPY STRATEGIES AND APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Guangping

    2015-01-01

    In Part I of this Review, we introduced recent advances in gene delivery technologies and explained how they have powered some of the current human gene therapy applications. In Part II, we expand the discussion on gene therapy applications, focusing on some of the most exciting clinical uses. To help readers to grasp the essence and to better organize the diverse applications, we categorize them under four gene therapy strategies: (1) gene replacement therapy for monogenic diseases, (2) gene addition for complex disorders and infectious diseases, (3) gene expression alteration targeting RNA, and (4) gene editing to introduce targeted changes in host genome. Human gene therapy started with the simple idea that replacing a faulty gene with a functional copy can cure a disease. It has been a long and bumpy road to finally translate this seemingly straightforward concept into reality. As many disease mechanisms unraveled, gene therapists have employed a gene addition strategy backed by a deep knowledge of what goes wrong in diseases and how to harness host cellular machinery to battle against diseases. Breakthroughs in other biotechnologies, such as RNA interference and genome editing by chimeric nucleases, have the potential to be integrated into gene therapy. Although clinical trials utilizing these new technologies are currently sparse, these innovations are expected to greatly broaden the scope of gene therapy in the near future. PMID:25227756

  7. Overview of BioCreative II gene mention recognition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Larry; Tanabe, Lorraine K; Ando, Rie Johnson nee; Kuo, Cheng-Ju; Chung, I-Fang; Hsu, Chun-Nan; Lin, Yu-Shi; Klinger, Roman; Friedrich, Christoph M; Ganchev, Kuzman; Torii, Manabu; Liu, Hongfang; Haddow, Barry; Struble, Craig A; Povinelli, Richard J; Vlachos, Andreas; Baumgartner, William A; Hunter, Lawrence; Carpenter, Bob; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Dai, Hong-Jie; Liu, Feng; Chen, Yifei; Sun, Chengjie; Katrenko, Sophia; Adriaans, Pieter; Blaschke, Christian; Torres, Rafael; Neves, Mariana; Nakov, Preslav; Divoli, Anna; Maña-López, Manuel; Mata, Jacinto; Wilbur, W John

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen teams presented results for the Gene Mention Task at the BioCreative II Workshop. In this task participants designed systems to identify substrings in sentences corresponding to gene name mentions. A variety of different methods were used and the results varied with a highest achieved F1 score of 0.8721. Here we present brief descriptions of all the methods used and a statistical analysis of the results. We also demonstrate that, by combining the results from all submissions, an F score of 0.9066 is feasible, and furthermore that the best result makes use of the lowest scoring submissions. PMID:18834493

  8. Generation of a Mouse Model for Arginase II Deficiency by Targeted Disruption of the Arginase II Gene

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ou; Morris, Sidney M.; Zoghbi, Huda; Porter, Carl W.; O'Brien, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Mammals express two isoforms of arginase, designated types I and II. Arginase I is a component of the urea cycle, and inherited defects in arginase I have deleterious consequences in humans. In contrast, the physiologic role of arginase II has not been defined, and no deficiencies in arginase II have been identified in humans. Mice with a disruption in the arginase II gene were created to investigate the role of this enzyme. Homozygous arginase II-deficient mice were viable and apparently indistinguishable from wild-type mice, except for an elevated plasma arginine level which indicates that arginase II plays an important role in arginine homeostasis. PMID:11154268

  9. RSC regulates nucleosome positioning at Pol II genes and density at Pol III genes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Timothy J; Huff, Jason T; Cairns, Bradley R

    2008-01-09

    Nucleosomes can restrict the access of transcription factors to chromatin. RSC is a SWI/SNF-family chromatin-remodeling complex from yeast that repositions and ejects nucleosomes in vitro. Here, we examined these activities and their importance in vivo. We utilized array-based methods to examine nucleosome occupancy and positioning at more than 200 locations in the genome following the controlled destruction of the catalytic subunit of RSC, Sth1. Loss of RSC function caused pronounced and general reductions in new transcription from Pol I, II, and III genes. At Pol III genes, Sth1 loss conferred a general reduction in RNA Pol III occupancy and a gain in nucleosome density. Notably at the one Pol III gene examined, histone restoration was partly replication-dependent. In contrast, at Pol II promoters we observed primarily single nucleosome changes, including movement. Importantly, alterations near the transcription start site were more common at RSC-occupied promoters than at non-occupied promoters. Thus, RSC action affects both nucleosome density and positioning in vivo, but applies these remodeling modes differently at Pol II and Pol III genes.

  10. RSC regulates nucleosome positioning at Pol II genes and density at Pol III genes

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Timothy J; Huff, Jason T; Cairns, Bradley R

    2008-01-01

    Nucleosomes can restrict the access of transcription factors to chromatin. RSC is a SWI/SNF-family chromatin-remodeling complex from yeast that repositions and ejects nucleosomes in vitro. Here, we examined these activities and their importance in vivo. We utilized array-based methods to examine nucleosome occupancy and positioning at more than 200 locations in the genome following the controlled destruction of the catalytic subunit of RSC, Sth1. Loss of RSC function caused pronounced and general reductions in new transcription from Pol I, II, and III genes. At Pol III genes, Sth1 loss conferred a general reduction in RNA Pol III occupancy and a gain in nucleosome density. Notably at the one Pol III gene examined, histone restoration was partly replication-dependent. In contrast, at Pol II promoters we observed primarily single nucleosome changes, including movement. Importantly, alterations near the transcription start site were more common at RSC-occupied promoters than at non-occupied promoters. Thus, RSC action affects both nucleosome density and positioning in vivo, but applies these remodeling modes differently at Pol II and Pol III genes. PMID:18059476

  11. Cloning and sequencing of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Conway, Tyrrell

    1992-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis has been cloned and sequenced. This gene can be expressed at high levels in other organisms to produce acetaldehyde or to convert acetaldehyde to ethanol.

  12. Characterization and expression of MHC class II alpha and II beta genes in mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyan; Tan, Shangjin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II plays a key role in adaptive immunity by presenting foreign peptides to CD4(+) T cells and by triggering the adaptive immune response. While the structure and function of MHC class II have been well characterized in mammalian, limited research has been done on fishes. In this study, we characterized the gene structure and expression of MHC class II α (Lunar-DAA) and II β (Lunar-DAB) of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Both genes shared, respectively, a high similarity and typical features with other vertebrate MHC class II α and II β. The phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptides revealed that both Lunar-DAA and Lunar-DAB were located in the teleost subclass. Western blotting analyses indicated that both MHC class II α and II β were expressed ubiquitously in immune-related cells, tissues and organs, and that MHC class II α and II β chains existed mainly as heterodimers. While it was highly expressed in gills, thymus, head kidney (HK), spleen, head kidney macrophage and spleen leucocytes, MHC class II β chain was expressed with a low abundance in skin, intestine, stomach and heart. The highest expression of MHC class II β in thymus confirmed the conclusion that thymus is one of the primary lymphoid organs in fishes. The detection of MHC class II αβ dimers in HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes indicated that HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes play a critical role in the adaptive immunity in fishes. All these results provide valuable information for understanding the structure of MHC class II α and II β and their function in immune responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Major histocompatibility complex class II genes and systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, D.; Welsh, K. I.

    1991-01-01

    susceptibility to the disease is conferred by neutral residues (Val, Ser, Ala), at position 57 of the DQ beta chain, while Asp at this position correlates with resistance. A similar phenomenon has been described in rheumatoid arthritis. Although DR4 in general is associated with rheumatoid arthritis, it is heterogeneous, but a subtype of DR4 which is characterised by positively charged residues at positions 70 and 71 of the beta chains is not found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (Wordsworth B P et al, unpublished data). A similar approach applied to the study of systemic sclerosis is likely to be similarly rewarding. The precise subtyping of the class II genes and the characterisation of their associated haplotypes is therefore required for a complete understanding of the contribution of the MHC to the disease. Additional genes linked to the MHC must not be overlooked, and are relevant to associations of haplotypes with the disease. Of particular interest are the recent reports of a new class of proteins, which are determined by genes in the MHC and which are considered to play a part in the assembly of the antigen peptide/MHC molecule complex. PMID:1750798

  14. Hairpin RNA derived from viral NIa gene confers immunity to wheat streak mosaic virus infection in transgenic wheat plants.

    PubMed

    Fahim, Muhammad; Ayala-Navarrete, Ligia; Millar, Anthony A; Larkin, Philip J

    2010-09-01

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vectored by Wheat curl mite, has been of great economic importance in the Great Plains of the United States and Canada. Recently, the virus has been identified in Australia, where it has spread quickly to all major wheat growing areas. The difficulties in finding adequate natural resistance in wheat prompted us to develop transgenic resistance based on RNA interference (RNAi). An RNAi construct was designed to target the nuclear inclusion protein 'a' (NIa) gene of WSMV. Wheat was stably cotransformed with two plasmids: pStargate-NIa expressing hairpin RNA (hpRNA) including WSMV sequence and pCMneoSTLS2 with the nptII selectable marker. When T(1) progeny were assayed against WSMV, ten of sixteen families showed complete resistance in transgenic segregants. The resistance was classified as immunity by four criteria: no disease symptoms were produced; ELISA readings were as in uninoculated plants; viral sequences could not be detected by RT-PCR from leaf extracts; and leaf extracts failed to give infections in susceptible plants when used in test-inoculation experiments. Southern blot hybridization analysis indicated hpRNA transgene integrated into the wheat genome. Moreover, accumulation of small RNAs derived from the hpRNA transgene sequence positively correlated with immunity. We also showed that the selectable marker gene nptII segregated independently of the hpRNA transgene in some transgenics, and therefore demonstrated that it is possible using these techniques, to produce marker-free WSMV immune transgenic plants. This is the first report of immunity in wheat to WSMV using a spliceable intron hpRNA strategy.

  15. Regulation of expression of human RNA polymerase II-transcribed snRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Shona

    2017-01-01

    In addition to protein-coding genes, RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcribes numerous genes for non-coding RNAs, including the small-nuclear (sn)RNA genes. snRNAs are an important class of non-coding RNAs, several of which are involved in pre-mRNA splicing. The molecular mechanisms underlying expression of human pol II-transcribed snRNA genes are less well characterized than for protein-coding genes and there are important differences in expression of these two gene types. Here, we review the DNA features and proteins required for efficient transcription of snRNA genes and co-transcriptional 3′ end formation of the transcripts. PMID:28615474

  16. [Construction of transgenic tobacco expressing tomato GGPS2 gene and analysis of its low light tolerance].

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiping; Dong, Weihua; Zhang, Xingguo

    2015-05-01

    To explore the influence of low light on the synthesis of carotenoids, chlorophyll and the adaptability of transgenic plants with tomato Solanum lycopersicon L. GGPS2 gene, we constructed a vector containing a GGPS2 gene with green fluorescent protein (GFP) as report gene under the control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and introduced it into tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Wisconsin 38 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PCR analysis of the DNA from kanamycin resistant tobacco indicated that the transgenic tobacco containing the nptII gene, SlaGGPS2 gene and without contamination of Agrobacterium. We also detected the root tip of kanamycin resistant tobacco showing characteristic fluorescence. The contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll and photosynthesis of transgenic tobacco increased in comparison with wild tobacco after low light treatment. In addition, leaf mass per unit area, total dry weight, ratio of root to shoot in transgenic tobacco were all higher than that of the wild tobacco, which proved that the transgenic tobacco could increase the accumulation of biomass and promote it transport to root. The transgenic tobacco with SlaGGPS2 gene can increase the contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll, enhance the photosynthetic rate, promote the biomass accumulation and its distribution to root. Hence, the transgenic tobacco with SlaGGPS2 gene had increased low light tolerance and the SlaGGPS2 gene maybe can be used in other crops.

  17. Transformation of somatic embryos of Prunus incisa ‘February Pink’ with a visible reporter gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for the ornamental cherry species Prunus incisa. This system uses both an antibiotic resistance gene (NPTII) and a visible selectable marker, the green fluorescent protein (GFP), to select plants. Cells from leaf and root explants were tr...

  18. Structure and Chromosomal Organization of Yeast Genes Regulated by Topoisomerase II.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ricky S; Nikolaou, Christoforos; Roca, Joaquim

    2018-01-03

    Cellular DNA topoisomerases (topo I and topo II) are highly conserved enzymes that regulate the topology of DNA during normal genome transactions, such as DNA transcription and replication. In budding yeast, topo I is dispensable whereas topo II is essential, suggesting fundamental and exclusive roles for topo II, which might include the functions of the topo IIa and topo IIb isoforms found in mammalian cells. In this review, we discuss major findings of the structure and chromosomal organization of genes regulated by topo II in budding yeast. Experimental data was derived from short (10 min) and long term (120 min) responses to topo II inactivation in top-2 ts mutants. First, we discuss how short term responses reveal a subset of yeast genes that are regulated by topo II depending on their promoter architecture. These short term responses also uncovered topo II regulation of transcription across multi-gene clusters, plausibly by common DNA topology management. Finally, we examine the effects of deactivated topo II on the elongation of RNA transcripts. Each study provides an insight into the particular chromatin structure that interacts with the activity of topo II. These findings are of notable clinical interest as numerous anti-cancer therapies interfere with topo II activity.

  19. A novel TBP-TAF complex on RNA polymerase II-transcribed snRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Zaborowska, Justyna; Taylor, Alice; Roeder, Robert G; Murphy, Shona

    2012-01-01

    Initiation of transcription of most human genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) requires the formation of a preinitiation complex comprising TFIIA, B, D, E, F, H and RNAP II. The general transcription factor TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein and up to 13 TBP-associated factors. During transcription of snRNA genes, RNAP II does not appear to make the transition to long-range productive elongation, as happens during transcription of protein-coding genes. In addition, recognition of the snRNA gene-type specific 3' box RNA processing element requires initiation from an snRNA gene promoter. These characteristics may, at least in part, be driven by factors recruited to the promoter. For example, differences in the complement of TAFs might result in differential recruitment of elongation and RNA processing factors. As precedent, it already has been shown that the promoters of some protein-coding genes do not recruit all the TAFs found in TFIID. Although TAF5 has been shown to be associated with RNAP II-transcribed snRNA genes, the full complement of TAFs associated with these genes has remained unclear. Here we show, using a ChIP and siRNA-mediated approach, that the TBP/TAF complex on snRNA genes differs from that found on protein-coding genes. Interestingly, the largest TAF, TAF1, and the core TAFs, TAF10 and TAF4, are not detected on snRNA genes. We propose that this snRNA gene-specific TAF subset plays a key role in gene type-specific control of expression.

  20. Regulated gene expression in cultured type II cells of adult human lung.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Philip L; Lee, Jae W; Fang, Xiaohui; Chapin, Cheryl; Allen, Lennell; Segal, Mark R; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Gonzales, Linda W; Kolla, Venkatadri; Matthay, Michael A

    2010-07-01

    Alveolar type II cells have multiple functions, including surfactant production and fluid clearance, which are critical for lung function. Differentiation of type II cells occurs in cultured fetal lung epithelial cells treated with dexamethasone plus cAMP and isobutylmethylxanthine (DCI) and involves increased expression of 388 genes. In this study, type II cells of human adult lung were isolated at approximately 95% purity, and gene expression was determined (Affymetrix) before and after culturing 5 days on collagen-coated dishes with or without DCI for the final 3 days. In freshly isolated cells, highly expressed genes included SFTPA/B/C, SCGB1A, IL8, CXCL2, and SFN in addition to ubiquitously expressed genes. Transcript abundance was correlated between fetal and adult cells (r = 0.88), with a subset of 187 genes primarily related to inflammation and immunity that were expressed >10-fold higher in adult cells. During control culture, expression increased for 8.1% of expressed genes and decreased for approximately 4% including 118 immune response and 10 surfactant-related genes. DCI treatment promoted lamellar body production and increased expression of approximately 3% of probed genes by > or =1.5-fold; 40% of these were also induced in fetal cells. Highly induced genes (> or =10-fold) included PGC, ZBTB16, DUOX1, PLUNC, CIT, and CRTAC1. Twenty-five induced genes, including six genes related to surfactant (SFTPA/B/C, PGC, CEBPD, and ADFP), also had decreased expression during control culture and thus are candidates for hormonal regulation in vivo. Our results further define the adult human type II cell molecular phenotype and demonstrate that a subset of genes remains hormone responsive in cultured adult cells.

  1. Tolerance to solid organ transplants through transfer of MHC class II genes

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, Kai-C.; Emery, David W.; Yasumoto, Akihiko; Haller, Gary; Germana, Sharon; Sablinski, Tomasz; Shimizu, Akira; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Hideaki; Arn, Scott; Sachs, David H.; LeGuern, Christian

    2001-01-01

    Donor/recipient MHC class II matching permits survival of experimental allografts without permanent immunosuppression, but is not clinically applicable due to the extensive polymorphism of this locus. As an alternative, we have tested a gene therapy approach in a preclinical animal model to determine whether expression of allogeneic class II transgenes (Tg’s) in recipient bone marrow cells would allow survival of subsequent Tg-matched renal allografts. Somatic matching between donor kidney class II and the recipient Tg’s, in combination with a short treatment of cyclosporine A, prolonged graft survival with DR and promoted tolerance with DQ. Class II Tg expression in the lymphoid lineage and the graft itself were sequentially implicated in this tolerance induction. These results demonstrate the potential of MHC class II gene transfer to permit tolerance to solid organ allografts. PMID:11134181

  2. Differential gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus exposed to Orange II and Sudan III azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongmiao; Xu, Joshua; Kweon, Oh-Gew; Zou, Wen; Feng, Jinhui; He, Gui-Xin; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong

    2015-05-01

    We previously demonstrated the effects of azo dyes and their reduction metabolites on bacterial cell growth and cell viability. In this report, the effects of Orange II and Sudan III on gene expression profiling in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA 1556 were analyzed using microarray and quantitative RT-PCR technology. Upon exposure to 6 μg/ml Orange II for 18 h, 21 genes were found to be differently expressed. Among them, 8 and 13 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively. Most proteins encoded by these differentially expressed genes involve stress response caused by drug metabolism, oxidation, and alkaline shock indicating that S. aureus could adapt to Orange II exposure through a balance between up and down regulated gene expression. Whereas, after exposure to 6 μg/ml Sudan III for 18 h, 57 genes were differentially expressed. In which, 51 genes were up-regulated and 6 were down-regulated. Most proteins encoded by these differentially expressed genes involve in cell wall/membrane biogenesis and biosynthesis, nutrient uptake, transport and metabolite, and stress response, suggesting that Sudan III damages the bacterial cell wall or/and membrane due to binding of the dye. Further analysis indicated that all differentially expressed genes encoded membrane proteins were up-regulated and most of them serve as transporters. The result suggested that these genes might contribute to survival, persistence and growth in the presence of Sudan III. Only one gene msrA, which plays an important role in oxidative stress resistance, was found to be down-regulated after exposure to both Orange II and Sudan III. The present results suggested that both these two azo dyes can cause stress in S. aureus and the response of the bacterium to the stress is mainly related to characteristics of the azo dyes.

  3. Resistance Genes of Aminocoumarin Producers: Two Type II Topoisomerase Genes Confer Resistance against Coumermycin A1 and Clorobiocin

    PubMed Central

    Schmutz, Elisabeth; Mühlenweg, Agnes; Li, Shu-Ming; Heide, Lutz

    2003-01-01

    The aminocoumarin resistance genes of the biosynthetic gene clusters of novobiocin, coumermycin A1, and clorobiocin were investigated. All three clusters contained a gyrBR resistance gene, coding for a gyrase B subunit. Unexpectedly, the clorobiocin and the coumermycin A1 clusters were found to contain an additional, similar gene, named parYR. Its predicted gene product showed sequence similarity with the B subunit of type II topoisomerases. Expression of gyrBR and likewise of parYR in Streptomyces lividans TK24 resulted in resistance against novobiocin and coumermycin A1, suggesting that both gene products are able to function as aminocoumarin-resistant B subunits of gyrase. Southern hybridization experiments showed that the genome of all three antibiotic producers and of Streptomyces coelicolor contained two additional genes which hybridized with either gyrBR or parYR and which may code for aminocoumarin-sensitive GyrB and ParY proteins. Two putative transporter genes, novA and couR5, were found in the novobiocin and the coumermycin A1 cluster, respectively. Expression of these genes in S. lividans TK24 resulted in moderate levels of resistance against novobiocin and coumermycin A1, suggesting that these genes may be involved in antibiotic transport. PMID:12604514

  4. Resistance genes of aminocoumarin producers: two type II topoisomerase genes confer resistance against coumermycin A1 and clorobiocin.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Elisabeth; Mühlenweg, Agnes; Li, Shu-Ming; Heide, Lutz

    2003-03-01

    The aminocoumarin resistance genes of the biosynthetic gene clusters of novobiocin, coumermycin A(1), and clorobiocin were investigated. All three clusters contained a gyrB(R) resistance gene, coding for a gyrase B subunit. Unexpectedly, the clorobiocin and the coumermycin A(1) clusters were found to contain an additional, similar gene, named parY(R). Its predicted gene product showed sequence similarity with the B subunit of type II topoisomerases. Expression of gyrB(R) and likewise of parY(R) in Streptomyces lividans TK24 resulted in resistance against novobiocin and coumermycin A(1), suggesting that both gene products are able to function as aminocoumarin-resistant B subunits of gyrase. Southern hybridization experiments showed that the genome of all three antibiotic producers and of Streptomyces coelicolor contained two additional genes which hybridized with either gyrB(R) or parY(R) and which may code for aminocoumarin-sensitive GyrB and ParY proteins. Two putative transporter genes, novA and couR5, were found in the novobiocin and the coumermycin A(1) cluster, respectively. Expression of these genes in S. lividans TK24 resulted in moderate levels of resistance against novobiocin and coumermycin A(1), suggesting that these genes may be involved in antibiotic transport.

  5. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—effects of selection and gene conversion

    PubMed Central

    Minias, P; Bateson, Z W; Whittingham, L A; Johnson, J A; Oyler-McCance, S; Dunn, P O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens. PMID:26860199

  6. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W.; Whittingham, Linda A.; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  7. Coordinate regulation of mouse metallothionein I and II genes by heavy metals and glucocorticoids.

    PubMed Central

    Yagle, M K; Palmiter, R D

    1985-01-01

    Regulation of the endogenous mouse metallothionein I and II (MT-I and MT-II) genes by heavy metals and glucocorticoids was studied in cultured mouse cells. Both mRNAs were measured simultaneously by solution hybridization with [3H]MT-I cDNA and [32P]MT-II cDNA, and the absolute amount of each mRNA was calculated by using a single-stranded M13 standard that contained both mRNA sequences. Both genes responded identically to different concentrations of metals (zinc, cadmium, and copper) and dexamethasone. Furthermore, the time courses of induction of both mRNAs were the same. However, under all conditions there was 1.2- to 1.9-fold more MT-I mRNA than MT-II mRNA. We conclude that both genes are regulated identically by receptors for glucocorticoids and metals but that the rate of transcription from the MT-I gene is slightly higher than from the MT-II gene. PMID:3838360

  8. Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, II: conditional technologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genome modification via transgenesis has allowed researchers to link genotype and phenotype as an alternative approach to the characterization of random mutations through evolution. The synergy of technologies from the fields of embryonic stem (ES) cells, gene knockouts, and protein-mediated recombi...

  9. DNA alkylating agents alleviate silencing of class II transactivator gene expression in L1210 lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Shawn P; Holtz, Renae; Lewandowski, Nicole; Tomasi, Thomas B; Fuji, Hiroshi

    2002-09-15

    MHC class II (Ia) Ag expression is inversely correlated with tumorigenicity and directly correlated with immunogenicity in clones of the mouse L1210 lymphoma (1 ). Understanding the mechanisms by which class II Ag expression is regulated in L1210 lymphoma may facilitate the development of immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of some types of lymphoma and leukemia. This study demonstrates that the variation in MHC class II Ag expression among clones of L1210 lymphoma is due to differences in the expression of the class II transactivator (CIITA). Analysis of stable hybrids suggests that CIITA expression is repressed by a dominant mechanism in class II-negative L1210 clones. DNA-alkylating agents such as ethyl methanesulfonate and the chemotherapeutic drug melphalan activate CIITA and class II expression in class II negative L1210 cells, and this effect appears to be restricted to transformed cell lines derived from the early stages of B cell ontogeny. Transient transfection assays demonstrated that the CIITA type III promoter is active in class II(-) L1210 cells, despite the fact that the endogenous gene is not expressed, which suggests that these cells have all of the transacting factors necessary for CIITA transcription. An inverse correlation between methylation of the CIITA transcriptional regulatory region and CIITA expression was observed among L1210 clones. Furthermore, 5-azacytidine treatment activated CIITA expression in class II-negative L1210 cells. Collectively, our results suggest that 1) CIITA gene expression is repressed in class II(-) L1210 cells by methylation of the CIITA upstream regulatory region, and 2) treatment with DNA-alkylating agents overcomes methylation-based silencing of the CIITA gene in L1210 cells.

  10. Pear transformed with a lytic peptide gene for disease control affects nontarget organism, pear psylla (Homoptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Puterka, Gary J; Bocchetti, Chris; Dang, Phat; Bell, R L; Scorza, Ralph

    2002-08-01

    The biology and behavior of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster, on a transgenic clone of 'Bartlett' pear, Pyrus communis L., containing a synthetic antimicrobial gene, D5C1, was compared with that of a nontransgenic parental clone to determine whether there were any nontarget effects. The gene construct also contained the marker gene nptII (aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase II) that encodes for antibiotic resistance to identify transformed plants. The purpose of the original transformation was to enhance pear resistance to the bacterial disease fireblight caused by Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al. The biology and behavior of pear psylla on a transgenic clone were compared with a nontransgenic parental pear clone in short- (< or = 7-d) and long-term (32-d) studies. Short-term studies indicated pear psylla adults preferred to settle and oviposit, and nymphs fed more and developed slightly faster, on transgenic pear compared with nontransgenic pear. In contrast, a long-term study on psylla colony development showed considerably fewer eggs, nymphs, and adults were produced on transgenic pear. Although adults reared on transgenic pear did not have weight affected, females produced fewer eggs and nymphal hatch was significantly reduced on the transgenic pear clone. Our results suggest that pear psylla biology and behavior are initially enhanced on this transgenic pear clone. However, chronic exposure of psylla populations to transformed pear plants that express the nptII marker and lytic peptide genes had detrimental effects on pear psylla reproductive biology. Field studies would be required to determine the specific effects of each gene on pear psylla biology and behavior and whether these effects would be expressed under natural conditions. The four-fold reduction in psylla population levels that resulted on this disease resistant transgenic pear line would be an added benefit to a pear integrated pest management (IPM) program. Overall, this study

  11. RNA Polymerase II Binding Patterns Reveal Genomic Regions Involved in MicroRNA Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guohua; Wang, Yadong; Shen, Changyu; Huang, Yi-wen; Huang, Kun; Huang, Tim H. M.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Li, Lang; Liu, Yunlong

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Due to the poor annotation of primary microRNA (pri-microRNA) transcripts, the precise location of promoter regions driving expression of many microRNA genes is enigmatic. This deficiency hinders our understanding of microRNA-mediated regulatory networks. In this study, we develop a computational approach to identify the promoter region and transcription start site (TSS) of pri-microRNAs actively transcribed using genome-wide RNA Polymerase II (RPol II) binding patterns derived from ChIP-seq data. Based upon the assumption that the distribution of RPol II binding patterns around the TSS of microRNA and protein coding genes are similar, we designed a statistical model to mimic RPol II binding patterns around the TSS of highly expressed, well-annotated promoter regions of protein coding genes. We used this model to systematically scan the regions upstream of all intergenic microRNAs for RPol II binding patterns similar to those of TSS from protein coding genes. We validated our findings by examining the conservation, CpG content, and activating histone marks in the identified promoter regions. We applied our model to assess changes in microRNA transcription in steroid hormone-treated breast cancer cells. The results demonstrate many microRNA genes have lost hormone-dependent regulation in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. MicroRNA promoter identification based upon RPol II binding patterns provides important temporal and spatial measurements regarding the initiation of transcription, and therefore allows comparison of transcription activities between different conditions, such as normal and disease states. PMID:21072189

  12. Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

    2012-01-01

    Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line. PMID:23136521

  13. Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

    2012-06-01

    Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line.

  14. Prognostic significance of gene amplification of ACTN4 in stage I and II oral tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Kakuya, T; Mori, T; Yoshimoto, S; Watabe, Y; Miura, N; Shoji, H; Onidani, K; Shibahara, T; Honda, K

    2017-08-01

    Despite complete resection of the early stage of oral tongue cancer by partial glossectomy, late cervical lymph node metastasis is frequently observed. Gene amplification of ACTN4 (protein name: actinin-4) is closely associated with the metastatic potential of various cancers. This retrospective study was performed to demonstrate the potential usefulness of ACTN4 gene amplification as a prognostic biomarker in patients with stage I/II oral tongue cancer. Fifty-four patients with stage I/II oral tongue cancer were enrolled retrospectively, in accordance with the reporting recommendations for tumour marker prognostic studies (REMARK) guidelines. The copy number of ACTN4 and the protein expression of actinin-4 were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. The overall survival time of patients with gene amplification of ACTN4 was significantly shorter than that of patients without gene amplification (P=0.0010, log-rank test). Gene amplification of ACTN4 was a significant independent risk factor for death in patients with stage I/II oral tongue cancer (hazard ratio 6.08, 95% confidence interval 1.66-22.27). Gene amplification of ACTN4 is a potential prognostic biomarker for overall survival in oral tongue cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Horticultural characteristics of transgenic tobacco expressing the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, R.; Zimmerman, T.W.; Cordts, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    Wisconsin 38 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf discs were transformed with the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101 carrying the rolC gene from A. rhizogenes and NPT II and GUS genes. Shoots that regenerated on kanamycin-containing medium were confirmed as transgenic through GUS assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot analyses, and transmission of the foreign genes through the sexual cycle. Transgenic plants were as short as half the height of control plants; were earlier flowering by up to 35 days; and had smaller leaves, shorter internodes, smaller seed capsules, fewer seeds, smaller flowers, and reduced pollen viability. The numbermore » of seed capsules, leaf number, and specific root length were similar between transgenic and control plants. Transgenic clones varied in the expression of the rolC-induced growth alterations as did the first generation of seedlings from these clones. Such differences suggested the potential for selecting for different levels of expression. Transformation with the rolC gene presents a potentially useful method of genetically modifying horticultural crops, particularly for flowering date, height, and leaf and flower size. Chemical names used: neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS).« less

  16. Inflammatory bowel disease associations with HLA Class II genes

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.; Yang, H.; Targan, S.

    1994-09-01

    A PCR-SSOP assay has been used to analyze HLA-Class II DRB1 and DQB1 alleles in 378 Caucasians from a population in Southern California. The data has been analyzed separately for the Ashkenasi Jews and non-Jewish patients (n=286) and controls (n=92). Two common clinical forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been studied: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn`s disease (CD). In CD, we observed a susceptible effect with the rare DR1 allele - DRB*0103 [O.R.=4.56; 95% CI (0.96, 42.97); p=0.03]; a trend for an increase in DRB1*0103 was also observed in UC patients. A susceptible effect with DRB1*1502 [O.R.=5.20; 95% CImore » (1.10, 48.99); p=0.02] was observed in non-Jewish UC patients. This susceptible effect was restricted to UC ANCA-positive (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) patients. In addition, a significant association with DRB1*1101-DQB1*0301 [O.R.=9.46; 95% CI (1.30, 413.87); p=0.01] was seen with UC among non-Jewish patients: this haplotype was increased with CD among non-Jewish patients. Two protective haplotypes were detected among CD non-Jewish patients: DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 [O.R.=0.34; 95% CI (0.09, 1.09); p=0.04], and DRB*0404-DQB1*0302 [O.R.=<0.08; 95% CI (0.0, 0.84); p=0.01]. When the same data were analyzed at the serology level, we observed a positive association in UC with DR2 [O.R.6.77; 95% CI (2.47, 22.95); p=2 x 10{sup -4}], and a positive association in CD with DR1 [O.R.=2.63; 95% CI (1.14, 6.62); p=0.01] consistent with previous reports. Thus, some IBD disease associations appear to be common to both UC and CD, while some are unique to one disease.« less

  17. DNA Topoisomerase II Is Involved in Regulation of Cyst Wall Protein Genes and Differentiation in Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bo-Chi; Pan, Yu-Jiao; Chan, Nei-Li; Li, Tsai-Kun; Wang, Hsin-Chih; Sun, Chin-Hung

    2013-01-01

    The protozoan Giardia lamblia differentiates into infectious cysts within the human intestinal tract for disease transmission. Expression of the cyst wall protein (cwp) genes increases with similar kinetics during encystation. However, little is known how their gene regulation shares common mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases maintain normal topology of genomic DNA. They are necessary for cell proliferation and tissue development as they are involved in transcription, DNA replication, and chromosome condensation. A putative topoisomerase II (topo II) gene has been identified in the G. lamblia genome. We asked whether Topo II could regulate Giardia encystation. We found that Topo II was present in cell nuclei and its gene was up-regulated during encystation. Topo II has typical ATPase and DNA cleavage activity of type II topoisomerases. Mutation analysis revealed that the catalytic important Tyr residue and cleavage domain are important for Topo II function. We used etoposide-mediated topoisomerase immunoprecipitation assays to confirm the binding of Topo II to the cwp promoters in vivo. Interestingly, Topo II overexpression increased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Microarray analysis identified up-regulation of cwp and specific vsp genes by Topo II. We also found that the type II topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide has growth inhibition effect on Giardia. Addition of etoposide significantly decreased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Our results suggest that Topo II has been functionally conserved during evolution and that Topo II plays important roles in induction of the cwp genes, which is key to Giardia differentiation into cysts. PMID:23696909

  18. An efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of salt tolerant transgenic wheat plants expressing the Arabidopsis AtNHX1 gene.

    PubMed

    Moghaieb, Reda E A; Sharaf, Ahmed N; Soliman, Mohamed H; El-Arabi, Nagwa I; Momtaz, Osama A

    2014-01-01

    We present an efficient method for the production of transgenic salt tolerant hexaploid wheat plants expressing the Arabidopsis AtNHX1 gene. Wheat mature zygotic embryos were isolated from two hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars (namely: Gemmeiza 9 and Gemmeiza 10) and were transformed with the A. tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring the pBI-121 vector containing the AtNHX1 gene. Transgenic wheat lines that express the gus intron was obtained and used as control. The results confirmed that npt-II gene could be transmitted and expressed in the T2 following 3:1 Mendelian segregation while the control plant couldn't. The data indicate that, the AtNHX1 gene was integrated in a stable manner into the wheat genome and the corresponding transcripts were expressed. The transformation efficiency was 5.7 and 7.5% for cultivars Gemmeiza 10 and Gemmeiza 9, respectively. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of AtNHX1 gene in wheat salt tolerance. The transgenic wheat lines could maintain high growth rate under salt stress condition (350 mM NaCl) while the control plant couldn't. The results confirmed that Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene AtNHX1 increased salt tolerance by increasing Na(+) accumulation and keeping K+/Na(+) balance. Thus, transgenic plants showed high tolerance to salt stress and can be considered as a new genetic resource in breeding programs.

  19. Conformational transition of DNA by dinuclear Pt(II) complexes causes cooperative inhibition of gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yuta; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Komeda, Seiji; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2017-06-01

    Recently, it was reported that a cationic tetrazolato-bridged dinuclear Pt(II) complex, 5-H-Y, is a promising anticancer drug candidate. Here, we investigated the effects of a series of tetrazolato-bridged dinuclear Pt(II) complexes on the higher-order structure of DNA by using fluorescence and atomic force microscopies. The results showed that these dinuclear Pt(II) complexes cause marked shrinkage on the conformation of genomic DNA. We also found highly cooperative inhibitory effects of these drugs on in vitro gene expression. The unique mechanism of action of these dinuclear Pt(II) complexes is discussed in terms of their bridging effect on DNA segments.

  20. Cloning and expression analysis in mature individuals of two chicken type-II GnRH (cGnRH-II) genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Li, Shuangfei; Hu, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2004-08-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a conservative neurodecapeptide family, which plays a crucial role in regulating the gonad development and in controlling the final sexual maturation in vertebrate. Two differing cGnRH-II cDNAs of common carp, namely cGnRH-II cDNA1 and cDNA2, were firstly cloned from the brain by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) and reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The length of cGnRH-II cDNA1 and cDNA2 was 622 and 578 base pairs (bp), respectively. The cGnRH-II precursors encoded by two cDNAs consisted of 86 amino acids, including a signal peptide, cGnRH-II decapeptide and a GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) linked by a Gly-Lys-Arg proteolytic site. The results of intron trapping and Southern blot showed that two differing cGnRH-II genes in common carp genome were further identified, and that two genes might exist as a single copy. The multi-gene coding of common carp cGnRH-II gene offered novel evidence for gene duplication hypothesis. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, expression and relative expression levels of cGnRH-II genes were detected in five dissected brain regions, pituitary and gonad of common carp. With the exception of no mRNA2 in ovary, two cGnRH-II genes could be expressed in all the detected tissues. However, expression levels showed an apparent difference in different brain regions, pituitary and gonad. According to the expression characterization of cGnRH-II genes in brain areas, it was presumed that cGnRH-II might mainly work as the neurotransmitter and neuromodulator and also operate in the regulation for the GnRH releasing. Then, the expression of cGnRH-II genes in pituitary and gonad suggested that cGnRH-II might act as the autocrine or paracrine regulator.

  1. Microbe-microbe interactions trigger Mn(II)-oxidizing gene expression.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsong; Bai, Yaohui; Men, Yujie; Qu, Jiuhui

    2017-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an important metal in geochemical cycles. Some microorganisms can oxidize Mn(II) to Mn oxides, which can, in turn, affect the global cycles of other elements by strong sorption and oxidation effects. Microbe-microbe interactions have important roles in a number of biological processes. However, how microbial interactions affect Mn(II) oxidation still remains unknown. Here, we investigated the interactions between two bacteria (Arthrobacter sp. and Sphingopyxis sp.) in a co-culture, which exhibited Mn(II)-oxidizing activity, although neither were able to oxidize Mn(II) in isolation. We demonstrated that the Mn(II)-oxidizing activity in co-culture was most likely induced via contact-dependent interactions. The expressed Mn(II)-oxidizing protein in the co-culture was purified and identified as a bilirubin oxidase belonging to strain Arthrobacter. Full sequencing of the bilirubin oxidase-encoding gene (boxA) was performed. The Mn(II)-oxidizing protein and the transcripts of boxA were detected in the co-culture, but not in either of the isolated cultures. This indicate that boxA was silent in Arthrobacter monoculture, and was activated in response to presence of Sphingopyxis in the co-culture. Further, transcriptomic analysis by RNA-Seq, extracellular superoxide detection and cell density quantification by flow cytometry indicate induction of boxA gene expression in Arthrobacter was co-incident with a stress response triggered by co-cultivation with Sphingopyxis. Our findings suggest the potential roles of microbial physiological responses to stress induced by other microbes in Mn(II) oxidation and extracellular superoxide production.

  2. Casein genes of Bos taurus. II. Isolation and characterization of the /beta/-casein gene

    SciTech Connect

    Gorodetskii, S.I.; Tkach, T.M.; Kapelinskaya, T.V.

    1988-11-01

    The expression of the casein genes in the cells of the mammary gland is regulated by peptide and steroid hormones. In order to study the controlling mechanisms we have isolated and characterized the /beta/-casein gene. The gene is 8.6 kb long and exceeds by a factor of 7.8 the length of the corresponding mRNA which is encoded by nine exons. The genomic clones incorporate in addition 8.5 kb and 4.5 kb of the 5/prime/- and 3/prime/-flanking regions. We have determined the sequence of the 5- and 3-terminals of the gene and have performed a comparative analysis of the corresponding regionsmore » of the rat /beta/-casein gene. Furthermore we have identified the conversed sequences identical or homologous to the potential sections of binding to the nuclear factor CTF/NF-1 by glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors. The regulatory region of the bovine casein gene contains two variants of the TATA signal, flanking the duplication section in the promoter region.« less

  3. Successive silencing of tandem reporter genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) over 5 years of vegetative propagation.

    PubMed

    Nocarova, Eva; Opatrny, Zdenek; Fischer, Lukas

    2010-10-01

    Transgenic plants represent an excellent tool for experimental plant biology and are an important component of modern agriculture. Fully understanding the stability of transgene expression is critical in this regard. Most changes in transgene expression occur soon after transformation and thus unwanted lines can be discarded easily; however, transgenes can be silenced long after their integration. To study the long-term changes in transgene expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum), the activity of two reporter genes, encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), was monitored in a set of 17 transgenic lines over 5 years of vegetative propagation in vitro. A decrease in transgene expression was observed mainly in lines with higher initial GFP expression and a greater number of T-DNA insertions. Complete silencing of the reporter genes was observed in four lines (nearly 25 %), all of which successively silenced the two reporter genes, indicating an interconnection between their silencing. The loss of GFP fluorescence always preceded the loss of kanamycin resistance. Treatment with the demethylation drug 5-azacytidine indicated that silencing of the NPTII gene, but probably not of GFP, occurred directly at the transcriptional level. Successive silencing of the two reporter genes was also reproduced in lines with reactivated expression of previously silenced transgenes. We suggest a hypothetical mechanism involving the successive silencing of the two reporter genes that involves the switch of GFP silencing from the post-transcriptional to transcriptional level and subsequent spreading of methylation to the NPTII gene.

  4. Dentin phosphoprotein gene locus is not associated with dentinogenesis imperfecta types II and III

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, M.; Zeichner-David, M.; Davis, A.

    1992-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) is an autosomal dominant inherited dental disease which affects dentin production and mineralization. Genetic linkage studies have been performed on several multigeneration informative kindreds. These studies determined linkage between DGI types II and III and group-specific component (vitamin D-binding protein). This gene locus has been localized to the long arm of human chromosome 4 in the region 4q11-q21. Although this disease has been mapped to chromosome 4, the defective gene product is yet to be determined. Biochemical studies have suggested abnormal levels of dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) associated with DGI type II. This highly acidic protein is themore » major noncollagenous component of dentin, being solely expressed by the ectomesenchymal derived odontoblast cells of the tooth. The purpose of the present study was to establish whether DPP is associated with DGI types II and III, by using molecular biology techniques. The results indicated that DPP is not localized to any region of human chromosome 4, thus suggesting that the DPP gene is not directly associated with DGI type II or DGI type III. The data do not exclude the possibility that other proteins associated with DPP posttranslational modifications might be responsible for this genetic disease.« less

  5. Molecular organization of the 5S rDNA gene type II in elasmobranchs

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Sergio I.; Hleap, Jose S.; Cárdenas, Heiber; Blouin, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 5S rDNA gene is a non-coding RNA that can be found in 2 copies (type I and type II) in bony and cartilaginous fish. Previous studies have pointed out that type II gene is a paralog derived from type I. We analyzed the molecular organization of 5S rDNA type II in elasmobranchs. Although the structure of the 5S rDNA is supposed to be highly conserved, our results show that the secondary structure in this group possesses some variability and is different than the consensus secondary structure. One of these differences in Selachii is an internal loop at nucleotides 7 and 112. These mutations observed in the transcribed region suggest an independent origin of the gene among Batoids and Selachii. All promoters were highly conserved with the exception of BoxA, possibly due to its affinity to polymerase III. This latter enzyme recognizes a dT4 sequence as stop signal, however in Rajiformes this signal was doubled in length to dT8. This could be an adaptation toward a higher efficiency in the termination process. Our results suggest that there is no TATA box in elasmobranchs in the NTS region. We also provide some evidence suggesting that the complexity of the microsatellites present in the NTS region play an important role in the 5S rRNA gene since it is significantly correlated with the length of the NTS. PMID:26488198

  6. Methylation of simian virus 40 Hpa II site affects late, but not early, viral gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Fradin, A; Manley, J L; Prives, C L

    1982-01-01

    DNA methylation has been correlated with reduced gene expression in a number of studies, although evidence for a casual link between the two events has been lacking. Because microinjection of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA into the nucleus of Xenopus laevis oocytes results in the synthesis of both early and late viral gene products, it was possible to test whether a specific methylation event can affect gene expression. The single SV40 Hpa II site at 0.72 SV40 map units was specifically methylated with Hpa II methylase. When this DNA was injected into oocytes, there was a marked reduction in the synthesis of the major late viral capsid protein VP-1, relative to the synthesis by an unmethylated control. However, production of the early proteins (the large and small tumor antigens) was not affected by Hpa II methylation. Therefore, methylation at a single site on the viral DNA located near the 5' end of the late region can specifically repress late gene expression. The possible mechanisms by which this repression is mediated are discussed. Images PMID:6291026

  7. Molecular organization of the 5S rDNA gene type II in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Castro, Sergio I; Hleap, Jose S; Cárdenas, Heiber; Blouin, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The 5S rDNA gene is a non-coding RNA that can be found in 2 copies (type I and type II) in bony and cartilaginous fish. Previous studies have pointed out that type II gene is a paralog derived from type I. We analyzed the molecular organization of 5S rDNA type II in elasmobranchs. Although the structure of the 5S rDNA is supposed to be highly conserved, our results show that the secondary structure in this group possesses some variability and is different than the consensus secondary structure. One of these differences in Selachii is an internal loop at nucleotides 7 and 112. These mutations observed in the transcribed region suggest an independent origin of the gene among Batoids and Selachii. All promoters were highly conserved with the exception of BoxA, possibly due to its affinity to polymerase III. This latter enzyme recognizes a dT4 sequence as stop signal, however in Rajiformes this signal was doubled in length to dT8. This could be an adaptation toward a higher efficiency in the termination process. Our results suggest that there is no TATA box in elasmobranchs in the NTS region. We also provide some evidence suggesting that the complexity of the microsatellites present in the NTS region play an important role in the 5S rRNA gene since it is significantly correlated with the length of the NTS.

  8. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Garman, Lori; Dumas, Eric K.; Kurella, Sridevi; Hunt, Jonathan J.; Crowe, Sherry R.; Nguyen, Melissa L.; Cox, Philip M.; James, Judith A.; Farris, A. Darise

    2012-01-01

    Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA) and Lethal Factor (LF), and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus), B6 (H-2b), and B6.H2k (H-2k). IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA. PMID:23342680

  9. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear.

    PubMed

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wiesław; Bojarska, Katarzyna; Sliwińska, Ewa B; Kindberg, Jonas; Taberlet, Pierre; Swenson, Jon E; Radwan, Jacek

    2012-10-02

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS) at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South-north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia.

  10. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. Results We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS) at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Conclusions Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South–north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia. PMID:23031405

  11. Class II cytokine receptor gene cluster is a major locus for hepatitis B persistence

    PubMed Central

    Frodsham, Angela J.; Zhang, Lyna; Dumpis, Uga; Taib, Nor Azizah Mohd; Best, Steve; Durham, Andrew; Hennig, Branwen J. W.; Hellier, Simon; Knapp, Susanne; Wright, Mark; Chiaramonte, Maria; Bell, John I.; Graves, Mary; Whittle, Hilton C.; Thomas, Howard C.; Thursz, Mark R.; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2006-01-01

    Persistent hepatitis B virus infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, the most frequent cancer in some developing countries. Up to 95% of those infected at birth and 15% of those infected after the neonatal period fail to clear hepatitis B virus, together resulting in ≈350 million persistent carriers worldwide. Via a whole genome scan in Gambian families, we have identified a major susceptibility locus as a cluster of class II cytokine receptor genes on chromosome 21q22. Coding changes in two of these genes, the type I IFN receptor gene, IFN-AR2, and the IL-10RB gene that encodes a receptor chain for IL-10-related cytokines including the IFN-λs, are associated with viral clearance (haplotype P value = 0.0003), and in vitro assays support functional roles for these variants in receptor signaling. PMID:16757563

  12. High expression of anti-apoptotic genes in grade I and II meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Tirapelli, Daniela Pretti; Menezes, Sarah Bomfim; Franco, Indira Maynart; Lustosa, Isis Lacrose; Rodrigues, Andressa Romualdo; Novais, Paulo Cézar; Santiago, Antônio César Mendes; Peria, Fernanda Maris; Serafini, Luciano Neder; Marinho, Alexandre Magno da Nóbrega; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Colli, Benedicto Oscar; Tirapelli, Luís Fernando

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the expression of c-FLIP, XIAP, Bcl-2, caspase 3, 8 and 9, cytochrome c, APAF 1 and Smac/DIABLO genes related to apoptosis pathways. The gene expression was evaluated in 30 meningiomas (WHO grades I and II) and in 10 normal samples (from arachnoid tissue) through PCR-RT. The results showed higher expression of anti-apoptotic genes in meningiomas when compared to the control group, which had a low expression of pro-apoptotic genes. There is a possible block in the activation of caspases through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in meningiomas. c-FLIP modulates caspase 8 and, by inhibiting its activation due to the lack of connection with the receiver, there is a block to the FAS activation of apoptosis by its extrinsic pathway.

  13. The roles of MHC class II genes and post-translational modification in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Sollid, Ludvig M

    2017-08-01

    Our increasing understanding of the etiology of celiac disease, previously considered a simple food hypersensitivity disorder caused by an immune response to cereal gluten proteins, challenges established concepts of autoimmunity. HLA is a chief genetic determinant, and certain HLA-DQ allotypes predispose to the disease by presenting posttranslationally modified (deamidated) gluten peptides to CD4 + T cells. The deamidation of gluten peptides is mediated by transglutaminase 2. Strikingly, celiac disease patients generate highly disease-specific autoantibodies to the transglutaminase 2 enzyme. The dual role of transglutaminase 2 in celiac disease is hardly coincidental. This paper reviews the genetic mapping and involvement of MHC class II genes in disease pathogenesis, and discusses the evidence that MHC class II genes, via the involvement of transglutaminase 2, influence the generation of celiac disease-specific autoantibodies.

  14. A Gene Coding for Tomato Fruit β-Galactosidase II Is Expressed during Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David L.; Starrett, David A.; Gross, Kenneth C.

    1998-01-01

    β-Galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23) constitute a widespread family of enzymes characterized by their ability to hydrolyze terminal, nonreducing β-d-galactosyl residues from β-d-galactosides. Several β-galactosidases, sometimes referred to as exo-galactanases, have been purified from plants and shown to possess in vitro activity against extracted cell wall material via the release of galactose from wall polymers containing β(1→4)-d-galactan. Although β-galactosidase II, a protein present in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit during ripening and capable of degrading tomato fruit galactan, has been purified, cloning of the corresponding gene has been elusive. We report here the cloning of a cDNA, pTomβgal 4 (accession no. AF020390), corresponding to β-galactosidase II, and show that its corresponding gene is expressed during fruit ripening. Northern-blot analysis revealed that the β-galactosidase II gene transcript was detectable at the breaker stage of ripeness, maximum at the turning stage, and present at decreasing levels during the later stages of normal tomato fruit ripening. At the turning stage of ripeness, the transcript was present in all fruit tissues and was highest in the outermost tissues (including the peel). Confirmation that pTomβgal 4 codes for β-galactosidase II was derived from matching protein and deduced amino acid sequences. Furthermore, analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of pTomβgal 4 suggested a high probability for secretion based on the presence of a hydrophobic leader sequence, a leader-sequence cleavage site, and three possible N-glycosylation sites. The predicted molecular mass and isoelectric point of the pTomβgal 4-encoded mature protein were similar to those reported for the purified β-galactosidase II protein from tomato fruit. PMID:9625694

  15. A class II KNOX gene, KNOX4, controls seed physical dormancy.

    PubMed

    Chai, Maofeng; Zhou, Chuanen; Molina, Isabel; Fu, Chunxiang; Nakashima, Jin; Li, Guifen; Zhang, Wenzheng; Park, Jongjin; Tang, Yuhong; Jiang, Qingzhen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2016-06-21

    Physical dormancy of seed is an adaptive trait that widely exists in higher plants. This kind of dormancy is caused by a water-impermeable layer that blocks water and oxygen from the surrounding environment and keeps embryos in a viable status for a long time. Most of the work on hardseededness has focused on morphological structure and phenolic content of seed coat. The molecular mechanism underlying physical dormancy remains largely elusive. By screening a large number of Tnt1 retrotransposon-tagged Medicago truncatula lines, we identified nondormant seed mutants from this model legume species. Unlike wild-type hard seeds exhibiting physical dormancy, the mature mutant seeds imbibed water quickly and germinated easily, without the need for scarification. Microscopic observations of cross sections showed that the mutant phenotype was caused by a dysfunctional palisade cuticle layer in the seed coat. Chemical analysis found differences in lipid monomer composition between the wild-type and mutant seed coats. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that a class II KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOXII) gene, KNOX4, was responsible for the loss of physical dormancy in the seeds of the mutants. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses identified CYP86A, a gene associated with cutin biosynthesis, as one of the downstream target genes of KNOX4 This study elucidated a novel molecular mechanism of physical dormancy and revealed a new role of class II KNOX genes. Furthermore, KNOX4-like genes exist widely in seed plants but are lacking in nonseed species, indicating that KNOX4 may have diverged from the other KNOXII genes during the evolution of seed plants.

  16. Efficient gene-targeting in rat embryonic stem cells by CRISPR/Cas and generation of human kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) knock-in rat.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Ooshima, Yuki; Nakata, Mitsugu; Yano, Takashi; Nishimura, Naoya; Nishigaki, Ryuuichi; Satomi, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Yoshio; Takeyama, Michiyasu

    2015-12-01

    The relative proportion of kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) I-IV activities in the brain is similar between humans and rats. Moreover, KAT II is considered to be the main enzyme for kynurenic acid production in the brain. Taken together, human KAT II knock-in (hKAT II KI) rats will become a valuable tool for the evaluation of KAT II targeted drugs as a human mimetic model. Although we initially tried the approach by conventional gene-targeting via embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to generate them, we had to give up the production because of no recombinant ESCs. Accordingly, we developed a method to improve the efficiency of homologous recombination (HR) in ESCs by the combination with the CRISPR/Cas system. Co-electroporation of Cas9 plasmid, single guide RNA plasmid and hKAT II KI vector increased the number of drug-resistant colonies and greatly enhanced the HR efficiency from 0 to 36 %. All the clones which we obtained showed the same sequence as designed. These recombinant clones resulted in chimeras that transmitted the hKAT II KI allele to their offspring. hKAT II KI rats showed no reduction of KATs mRNA expression and the amount of kynurenic acid was similar between the hKAT II KI rats and the wild type in their brains. These results indicate that the methodology presented in this report can overcome the problem encountered in conventional gene-targeting that prevented production of humanized rats.

  17. CDK9 inhibitors define elongation checkpoints at both ends of RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes.

    PubMed

    Laitem, Clélia; Zaborowska, Justyna; Isa, Nur F; Kufs, Johann; Dienstbier, Martin; Murphy, Shona

    2015-05-01

    Transcription through early-elongation checkpoints requires phosphorylation of negative transcription elongation factors (NTEFs) by the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 9. Using CDK9 inhibitors and global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq), we have mapped CDK9 inhibitor-sensitive checkpoints genome wide in human cells. Our data indicate that early-elongation checkpoints are a general feature of RNA polymerase (pol) II-transcribed human genes and occur independently of polymerase stalling. Pol II that has negotiated the early-elongation checkpoint can elongate in the presence of inhibitors but, remarkably, terminates transcription prematurely close to the terminal polyadenylation (poly(A)) site. Our analysis has revealed an unexpected poly(A)-associated elongation checkpoint, which has major implications for the regulation of gene expression. Interestingly, the pattern of modification of the C-terminal domain of pol II terminated at this new checkpoint largely mirrors the pattern normally found downstream of the poly(A) site, thus suggesting common mechanisms of termination.

  18. Persistent Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection occurs in the absence of functional major histocompatibility complex class II genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganta, Roman Reddy; Wilkerson, Melinda J.; Cheng, Chuanmin; Rokey, Aaron M.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2002-01-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia chaffeensis. We investigated the impact of two genes that control macrophage and T-cell function on murine resistance to E. chaffeensis. Congenic pairs of wild-type and toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4)- or major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-deficient mice were used for these studies. Wild-type mice cleared the infection within 2 weeks, and the response included macrophage activation and the synthesis of E. chaffeensis-specific Th1-type immunoglobulin G response. The absence of a functional tlr4 gene depressed nitric oxide and interleukin 6 secretion by macrophages and resulted in short-term persistent infections for > or =30 days. In the absence of MHC-II alleles, E. chaffeensis infections persisted throughout the entire 3-month evaluation period. Together, these data suggest that macrophage activation and cell-mediated immunity, orchestrated by CD4(+) T cells, are critical for conferring resistance to E. chaffeensis.

  19. TDP2 suppresses chromosomal translocations induced by DNA topoisomerase II during gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Herreros, Fernando; Zagnoli-Vieira, Guido; Ntai, Ioanna; Martínez-Macías, María Isabel; Anderson, Rhona M; Herrero-Ruíz, Andrés; Caldecott, Keith W

    2017-08-10

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by abortive topoisomerase II (TOP2) activity are a potential source of genome instability and chromosome translocation. TOP2-induced DNA double-strand breaks are rejoined in part by tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2)-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), but whether this process suppresses or promotes TOP2-induced translocations is unclear. Here, we show that TDP2 rejoins DSBs induced during transcription-dependent TOP2 activity in breast cancer cells and at the translocation 'hotspot', MLL. Moreover, we find that TDP2 suppresses chromosome rearrangements induced by TOP2 and reduces TOP2-induced chromosome translocations that arise during gene transcription. Interestingly, however, we implicate TDP2-dependent NHEJ in the formation of a rare subclass of translocations associated previously with therapy-related leukemia and characterized by junction sequences with 4-bp of perfect homology. Collectively, these data highlight the threat posed by TOP2-induced DSBs during transcription and demonstrate the importance of TDP2-dependent non-homologous end-joining in protecting both gene transcription and genome stability.DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by topoisomerase II (TOP2) are rejoined by TDP2-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) but whether this promotes or suppresses translocations is not clear. Here the authors show that TDP2 suppresses chromosome translocations from DSBs introduced during gene transcription.

  20. Human-leukocyte antigen class II genes in early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Natalia; Morer, Astrid; González-Navarro, E Azucena; Gassó, Patricia; Boloc, Daniel; Serra-Pagès, Carles; Lafuente, Amalia; Lazaro, Luisa; Mas, Sergi

    2017-05-31

    The exact aetiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unknown, although there is evidence to suggest a gene-environment interaction model. Several lines of evidence support a possible role of the immune system in this model. The present study explores the allele variability in HLA genes of class II (HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1) in a sample of 144 early-onset OCD compared with reference samples of general population in the same geographical area. None of the 39 alleles identified (allele frequency >1%) showed significant differences between OCD and reference populations. Pooling the different alleles that comprised HLA-DR4 (including DRB1*04:01, DRB1*04:04 and DRB1*04:05 alleles) we observed a significantly higher frequency (X 2 1  = 5.53, P = 0.018; OR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.08-2.48) of these alleles in the early-onset OCD sample (10.8%) than in the reference population (6.8%). Taking into account the role of HLA class II genes in the central nervous system, the results presented here support a role of the immune system in the pathophysiological model of OCD.

  1. Study on the association of the polymorphism of HLA-II gene with leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiang; Song, Yu; Chen, Fei; Xiao, Hui

    2017-01-01

    We explored the association between the HLA-II gene polymorphisms and the occurrence of leukemia. For this study, we selected 53 patients with leukemia treated at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from February 2014 to September 2015 and 46 healthy patients as the control group. We used polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific primers for DNA typing which was carried out to analyze the patients HLA-A/B gene polymorphism. We also used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting method to measure the protein expression of different genotypes and activity. Compared to the control group, HLA-A04, B08 gene frequencies were significantly lower than those of HLA-A04, B08 gene frequencies of the observation group; results were statistically significant (χ2=16.28, P<0.05; χ2=16.47, P<0.05). However, in the control group, the frequency of HLA-A09 gene was significantly higher than that of the observation group; there was a significant difference between the two groups (χ2=15.28, P<0.05). Through the measurement of the protein expression levels of the different genotypes in the control group and the observation group, it was found that in the observation group, HLA-A04, B08 protein contents (4.6 and 3.2 µg/l) were significantly higher than those of the control group (0.13 and 0.1 µg/l). While the control group HLA-A09 genotype protein content (3.7 µg/l) was significantly higher than that of the observation group (0.2 µg/l); there were significant differences between both (P<0.05). Therefore, there is a significant correlation between HLA-II gene polymorphism and leukemia that is higher than HLA-A04 and B08 gene frequency and can help promote the occurrence of leukemia. The higher frequency of HLA-A09 gene can help to suppress the occurrence of leukemia. PMID:28693157

  2. Alternative splicing of a group II intron in a surface layer protein gene in Clostridium tetani

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Bonnie A.; Simon, Dawn M.; Zimmerly, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Group II introns are ribozymes and retroelements found in bacteria, and are thought to have been the ancestors of nuclear pre-mRNA introns. Whereas nuclear introns undergo prolific alternative splicing in some species, group II introns are not known to carry out equivalent reactions. Here we report a group II intron in the human pathogen Clostridium tetani, which undergoes four alternative splicing reactions in vivo. Together with unspliced transcript, five mRNAs are produced, each encoding a distinct surface layer protein isoform. Correct fusion of exon reading frames requires a shifted 5′ splice site located 8 nt upstream of the canonical boundary motif. The shifted junction is accomplished by an altered IBS1-EBS1 pairing between the intron and 5′ exon. Growth of C. tetani under a variety of conditions did not result in large changes in alternative splicing levels, raising the possibility that alternative splicing is constitutive. This work demonstrates a novel type of gene organization and regulation in bacteria, and provides an additional parallel between group II and nuclear pre-mRNA introns. PMID:24214997

  3. Alternative splicing of a group II intron in a surface layer protein gene in Clostridium tetani.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Bonnie A; Simon, Dawn M; Zimmerly, Steven

    2014-02-01

    Group II introns are ribozymes and retroelements found in bacteria, and are thought to have been the ancestors of nuclear pre-mRNA introns. Whereas nuclear introns undergo prolific alternative splicing in some species, group II introns are not known to carry out equivalent reactions. Here we report a group II intron in the human pathogen Clostridium tetani, which undergoes four alternative splicing reactions in vivo. Together with unspliced transcript, five mRNAs are produced, each encoding a distinct surface layer protein isoform. Correct fusion of exon reading frames requires a shifted 5' splice site located 8 nt upstream of the canonical boundary motif. The shifted junction is accomplished by an altered IBS1-EBS1 pairing between the intron and 5' exon. Growth of C. tetani under a variety of conditions did not result in large changes in alternative splicing levels, raising the possibility that alternative splicing is constitutive. This work demonstrates a novel type of gene organization and regulation in bacteria, and provides an additional parallel between group II and nuclear pre-mRNA introns.

  4. Characterisation of four major histocompatibility complex class II genes of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Lau, Quintin; Jobbins, Sarah E; Belov, Katherine; Higgins, Damien P

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an integral role in the adaptive immune response, as they bind and present antigenic peptides to T helper lymphocytes. In this study of koalas, species-specific primers were designed to amplify exon 2 of the MHC class II DA and DB genes, which contain much of the peptide-binding regions of the α and β chains. A total of two DA α1 domain variants and eight DA β1 (DAB), three DB α1 and five DB β1 variants were amplified from 20 koalas from two free-living populations from South East Queensland and the Port Macquarie region in northern New South Wales. We detected greater variation in the β1 than in the α1 domains as well as evidence of positive selection in DAB. The present study provides a springboard to future investigation of the role of MHC in disease susceptibility in koalas.

  5. Adventitial gene transfer of catalase attenuates angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cun-Fei; Zhang, Jia; Shen, Kai; Gao, Ping-Jin; Wang, Hai-Ya; Jin, Xin; Meng, Chao; Fang, Ning-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Vascular adventitia and adventitia‑derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to vascular remodeling following vascular injury. A previous ex vivo study in adventitial fibroblasts showed that catalase, one of most important anti‑oxide enzymes, was downregulated by angiotensin II (AngII). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adventitial gene transfer of catalase affects AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in vivo. Adenoviruses co‑expressing catalase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or expressing eGFP only were applied to the adventitial surface of common carotid arteries of Sprague‑Dawley rats. Alzet minipumps administering AngII (0.75 mg/kg/day) were then implanted subcutaneously for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure and biological parameters of vascular remodeling were measured in each group. Adventitial fibroblasts were cultured and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was measured using western blot analysis. The results showed that adventitial gene transfer of catalase had no effect on AngII‑induced systolic blood pressure elevation. However, catalase adenovirus transfection significantly inhibited AngII‑induced media hypertrophy compared with that of the control virus (P<0.05). In addition, catalase transfection significantly attenuated AngII‑induced ROS generation, macrophage infiltration, collagen deposition and adventitial α‑smooth muscle actin expression. Furthermore, catalase transfection significantly inhibited the AngII‑induced increase in p38MAPK phosphorylation. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that adventitial gene transfer of catalase significantly attenuated AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in rats via inhibition of adventitial p38MAPK phosphorylation.

  6. [Cloning and analysis of three genes encoding type II CHH family neuropeptides from Fennropenaeus chinensis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zai-Zhao; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2003-10-01

    On the basis of sequence similarity, the crustean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family peptides have been classified into two types of hormones: type I and type II. Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) is a neuropeptide member of type II CHH family. Molting in shrimp is controlled by MIH and ecdysone. By inhibiting the synthesis of ecdysone in the Y-organ, MIH indirectly suppresses the molting activity of shrimp. In this study, we reported the cloning and characterization of 3 gene fragments encoding type II CHH family neuropeptides of the shrimp Fennropenaeus chinensis. According to the complementary DNA sequence of the mult-inhibiting hormone of Fennropenaeus chinensis, 3 primers were designed and synthesized. MP1 and MP2 are sense primers, and MP3 is anti-sense primer. Polymerase chain reaction was performed using genomic DNA of Fennropenaeus chinensis as template. Three PCR products were obtained using primers MP1 and MP3. Their sizes are about 600 bp, 850 bp, 1050 bp, respectively. A 580 bp PCR product was obtained using primers MP2 and MP3. All the 4 PCR products were cloned into pMD18-T vector. The recombinant clones were sequenced using ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer. After sequencing, all the DNA sequences were searched in the GenBank by Blast program to find similar gene sequences. The searching results revealed 3 DNA fragment sequences were of high similarity with CHH family neuropeptide genes from various crustean species. The 3 DNA fragments were named as NP1, NP2, and NP3. Their sizes were 540 bp, 601 bp, and 826 bp, respectively. Using the mRNA sequences with the most similarity to the 3 sequence fragments as reference, the gene structure of the 3 DNA fragment sequences was analyzed. The exons of 3 sequence fragments were aligned with their similar sequences by Clustal W program. Both NP1 and NP2 consisted of 1 intron and 2 exons. NP3 consisted of 2 introns and 3 exons. Sequence analysis suggested that these 3 products belonged to sequence fragments of neuropeptide

  7. The major histocompatibility complex in Old World camelids and low polymorphism of its class II genes.

    PubMed

    Plasil, Martin; Mohandesan, Elmira; Fitak, Robert R; Musilova, Petra; Kubickova, Svatava; Burger, Pamela A; Horin, Petr

    2016-03-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a genomic region containing genes with crucial roles in immune responses. MHC class I and class II genes encode antigen-presenting molecules expressed on the cell surface. To counteract the high variability of pathogens, the MHC evolved into a region of considerable heterogeneity in its organization, number and extent of polymorphism. Studies of MHCs in different model species contribute to our understanding of mechanisms of immunity, diseases and their evolution. Camels are economically important domestic animals and interesting biomodels. Three species of Old World camels have been recognized: the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and the wild camel (Camelus ferus). Despite their importance, little is known about the MHC genomic region, its organization and diversity in camels. The objectives of this study were to identify, map and characterize the MHC region of Old World camelids, with special attention to genetic variation at selected class MHC II loci. Physical mapping located the MHC region to the chromosome 20 in Camelus dromedarius. Cytogenetic and comparative analyses of whole genome sequences showed that the order of the three major sub-regions is "Centromere - Class II - Class III - Class I". DRA, DRB, DQA and DQB exon 2 sequences encoding the antigen binding site of the corresponding class II antigen presenting molecules showed high degree of sequence similarity and extensive allele sharing across the three species. Unexpectedly low extent of polymorphism with low numbers of alleles and haplotypes was observed in all species, despite different geographic origins of the camels analyzed. The DRA locus was found to be polymorphic, with three alleles shared by all three species. DRA and DQA sequences retrieved from ancient DNA samples of Camelus dromedarius suggested that additional polymorphism might exist. This study provided evidence that camels possess an MHC comparable to

  8. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P < 0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG. SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-II gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  9. Sequencing of cDNA and proximal promoter of equine hexokinase II gene.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tetsuo; Itou, Takuya; Sato, Go; Kobayashi, Yuki; Endo, Hideki; Sakai, Takeo

    2007-06-01

    In order to investigate the utilization of glucose in equine skeletal muscle, we determined the coding and proximal promoter sequences of the hexokinase type II (HKII) gene in thoroughbred horse, Grevy's zebra and Hartmann's mountain zebra. The deduced amino acid sequence of thoroughbred horse HKII showed 100, 100, 94.4, 92.7 and 92.6% identities with Grevy's zebra, Hartmann's mountain zebra, human, mouse and rat HKIIs, respectively. In equine HKIIs, specific amino acid substitutions, Ile 159 and Arg 610, were found in the potential binding site for glucose. In addition, the nucleotide sequence of the equine proximal promoter has a number of conserved putative binding sites for transcription factor.

  10. [Fosinopril up-regulates and ameliorates the Ang II induced down-expression of klotho gene in NRK-52E].

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Dian; Zhou, Qiao-Ling; Zhan, Feng; Chen, Dao-Jun; Li, Wen-Ning

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the effect of fosinopril (Fos) on regulating klotho gene expression and elucidate the mechanism of Fos regulating the Angiotensin II (AngII) -induced down-expression of klotho gene. Culture cells, NRK-52E, were incubated with media either AngII or Fos or both of all. Experimental groups incubated with Fos (10(-5) mol/L) were divided according to variant points of time for 0 (control), 3, 6, 12, 24 h. Different concentration of Fos was selected to incubated with culture cells for 0 (control), 10(-9) 10(-8), 10(-7), 10(-6), 10(-5) mol/L at the optimal time point (24 h). Five groups, which were A: control; B: AngII (10(-7) mol/L); C: Fos(10(-5) mol/L); D: AngII (10(-7) mol/L) + Fos(10(-5) mol/L) and E: Cells pretreated with Fos(10(-5) mol/L)12 h incubated with AngII (10(-7) mol/L) were divided to observe the effect of Fos on expression of klotho induced by AngII. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were applied to evaluate the klotho mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Fos up-regulated klotho mRNA in time-dependent manner, and independent of dose-dependent manner; AngII obviously decreased the levels of kloltho mRNA and protein expression in NRK-52E as compared to the control (P < 0.05), the down-regulating effect was reversed by incubating both with AngII and Fos (P < 0.05), and Fos could inhibit the down-regulated expression of klotho gene induced by Ang II in NRK-52E. Fosinopril up-regulates klotho mRNA in time-dependent manner, and inhibits the down-regulated expression of klotho gene induced by Ang II.

  11. DMA and DMB are the only genes in the class II region of the human MHC needed for class II-associated antigen processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ceman, S.; Rudersdorf, R.A.; Petersen, J.M.

    1995-03-15

    Previous studies have shown that homozygous mutations between the LMP2 and DNA loci in the human MHC cause class II molecules to be abnormally conformed and unstable in the presence of SDS at low temperature, and impede class II-associated Ag processing and presentation. These abnormalities result from impaired ability to form intracellular class II/peptide complexes that predominate in normal cells. We show in this work that this defect results from deficient expression of either the DMA or the DMB gene. Human B-LCL.174 (DR3) cells, which have a deletion of all known expressible genes in the class II region, express transgene-encodedmore » HLA-DR3, but have the abnormalities. Transfer of cosmid HA14, which contains the DMA and DMB genes, into .174 (DR3) cells restored normal DR3 conformation, stability in 0.4% SDS at 0{degrees}, and ability to process and present tetanus toxoid, but only when both DMA and DMB mRNAs were present. The requirement for both genetic expressions in engendering normal phenotypes was confirmed by transferring the cloned genes into .174 (DR3) cells separately or together. Because normal phenotypes were fully restored in transferent cells expressing DMA plus DMB, other genes in the {approximately} 1-mb homozygous class II region deletion in .174 (DR3) cells either do not participate in or are dispensable for apparently normal production of intracellular class II/peptide complexes. The properties of DM-deficient EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) suggest ways of identifying humans in whom DM deficiency contributes to congenital immunodeficiency and malignancy. 67 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  12. NASA's GeneLab Phase II: Federated Search and Data Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Tran, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    GeneLab is currently being developed by NASA to accelerate 'open science' biomedical research in support of the human exploration of space and the improvement of life on earth. Phase I of the four-phase GeneLab Data Systems (GLDS) project emphasized capabilities for submission, curation, search, and retrieval of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics ('omics') data from biomedical research of space environments. The focus of development of the GLDS for Phase II has been federated data search for and retrieval of these kinds of data across other open-access systems, so that users are able to conduct biological meta-investigations using data from a variety of sources. Such meta-investigations are key to corroborating findings from many kinds of assays and translating them into systems biology knowledge and, eventually, therapeutics.

  13. Expressed MHC class II genes in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from geographically disparate populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, L.; Aldridge, B.M.; Miles, A.K.; Stott, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is central to maintaining the immunologic vigor of individuals and populations. Classical MHC class II genes were targeted for partial sequencing in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from populations in California, Washington, and Alaska. Sequences derived from sea otter peripheral blood leukocyte mRNAs were similar to those classified as DQA, DQB, DRA, and DRB in other species. Comparisons of the derived amino acid compositions supported the classification of these as functional molecules from at least one DQA, DQB, and DRA locus and at least two DRB loci. While limited in scope, phylogenetic analysis of the DRB peptide-binding region suggested the possible existence of distinct clades demarcated by geographic region. These preliminary findings support the need for additional MHC gene sequencing and expansion to a comprehensive study targeting additional otters. ?? 2006 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  14. NASAs GeneLab Phase II: Federated Search and Data Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Costes, Sylvain; Tran, Peter

    2017-01-01

    GeneLab is currently being developed by NASA to accelerate open science biomedical research in support of the human exploration of space and the improvement of life on earth. Phase I of the four-phase GeneLab Data Systems (GLDS) project emphasized capabilities for submission, curation, search, and retrieval of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics (omics) data from biomedical research of space environments. The focus of development of the GLDS for Phase II has been federated data search for and retrieval of these kinds of data across other open-access systems, so that users are able to conduct biological meta-investigations using data from a variety of sources. Such meta-investigations are key to corroborating findings from many kinds of assays and translating them into systems biology knowledge and, eventually, therapeutics.

  15. [Detection of putative polysaccharide biosynthesis genes in Azospirillum brasilense strains from serogroups I and II].

    PubMed

    Petrova, L P; Prilipov, A G; Katsy, E I

    2017-01-01

    It is known that in Azospirillum brasilense strains Sp245 and SR75 included in serogroup I, the repeat units of their O-polysaccharides consist of five residues of D-rhamnose, and in strain SR15, of four; and the heteropolymeric O-polysaccharide of A. brasilense type strain Sp7 from serogroup II contains not less than five types of repeat units. In the present work, a complex of nondegenerate primers to the genes of A. brasilense Sp245 plasmids AZOBR_p6, AZOBR_p3, and AZOBR_p2, which encode putative enzymes for the biosynthesis of core oligosaccharide and O-polysaccharide of lipopolysaccharide, capsular polysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides, was proposed. By using the designed primers, products of the expected sizes were synthesized in polymerase chain reactions on genomic DNA of A. brasilense Sp245, SR75, SR15, and Sp7 in 36, 29, 23, and 12 cases, respectively. As a result of sequencing of a number of amplicons, a high (86–99%) level of identity of the corresponding putative polysaccharide biosynthesis genes in three A. brasilense strains from serogroup I was detected. In a blotting-hybridization reaction with the biotin-labeled DNA of the A. brasilense gene AZOBR_p60122 coding for putative permease of the ABC transporter of polysaccharides, localization of the homologous gene in ~120-MDa plasmids of the bacteria A. brasilense SR15 and SR75 was revealed.

  16. Association analysis of class II cytokine and receptor genes in vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Traks, Tanel; Karelson, Maire; Reimann, Ene; Rätsep, Ranno; Silm, Helgi; Vasar, Eero; Kõks, Sulev; Kingo, Külli

    2016-05-01

    The loss of melanocytes in vitiligo is mainly attributed to defective autoimmune mechanisms and lately autoinflammatory mediators have become more emphasized. Among these, a number of class II cytokines and their receptors have displayed altered expression patterns in vitiligo. Thus, we selected 30 SNPs from the regions of respective genes to be genotyped in Estonian case-control sample (109 and 328 individuals, respectively). For more precise analyses, patients were divided into subgroups based on vitiligo progression activity, age of onset, sex, occurrence of vitiligo among relatives, extent of depigmented areas, appearance of Köbner's phenomenon, existence of halo nevi, occurrence of spontaneous repigmentation, and amount of thyroid peroxidase antibodies. No associations appeared in whole vitiligo group. In subgroups, several allelic and haplotype associations were found. The strongest involved SNPs rs12301088 (near IL26 gene), that was associated with familial vitiligo and existence of halo nevi, and rs2257167 (IFNAR1 gene), that was associated with female vitiligo. Additionally, haplotypes consisting of rs12301088 and rs12321603 alleles (IL26-IL22 genes), that were associated with familial vitiligo and existence of halo nevi. In conclusion, several genetic associations with vitiligo subphenotypes were revealed and functional explanations to these remain to be determined in respective studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Characterization, polymorphism, and evolution of MHC class II B genes in birds of prey.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Miguel; Edwards, Scott V; Negro, Juan J

    2007-11-01

    During the last decade, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has received much attention in the fields of evolutionary and conservation biology because of its potential implications in many biological processes. New insights into the gene structure and evolution of MHC genes can be gained through study of additional lineages of birds not yet investigated at the genomic level. In this study, we characterized MHC class II B genes in five families of birds of prey (Accipitridae, Pandionidae, Strigidae, Tytonidae, and Falconidae). Using PCR approaches, we isolated genomic MHC sequences up to 1300 bp spanning exons 1 to 3 in 26 representatives of each raptor lineage, finding no stop codons or frameshift mutations in any coding region. A survey of diversity across the entirety of exon 2 in the lesser kestrel Falco naumanni reported 26 alleles in 21 individuals. Bayesian analysis revealed 21 positively selected amino acid sites, which suggests that the MHC genes described here are functional and probably expressed. Finally, through interlocus comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, we also discuss genetic evidence for concerted and transspecies evolution in the raptor MHC.

  18. Analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2) gene in giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    PubMed

    Ling, S S; Zhu, Y; Lan, D; Li, D S; Pang, H Z; Wang, Y; Li, D Y; Wei, R P; Zhang, H M; Wang, C D; Hu, Y D

    2017-01-23

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Ursidae), has a unique bamboo-based diet; however, this low-energy intake has been sufficient to maintain the metabolic processes of this species since the fourth ice age. As mitochondria are the main sites for energy metabolism in animals, the protein-coding genes involved in mitochondrial respiratory chains, particularly cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in electron transfer, could play an important role in giant panda metabolism. Therefore, the present study aimed to isolate, sequence, and analyze the COX2 DNA from individuals kept at the Giant Panda Protection and Research Center, China, and compare these sequences with those of the other Ursidae family members. Multiple sequence alignment showed that the COX2 gene had three point mutations that defined three haplotypes, with 60% of the sequences corresponding to haplotype I. The neutrality tests revealed that the COX2 gene was conserved throughout evolution, and the maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis, using homologous sequences from other Ursidae species, showed clustering of the COX2 sequences of giant pandas, suggesting that this gene evolved differently in them.

  19. Involvement of aph(3′)-IIa in the formation of mosaic aminoglycoside resistance genes in natural environments

    PubMed Central

    Woegerbauer, Markus; Kuffner, Melanie; Domingues, Sara; Nielsen, Kaare M.

    2015-01-01

    Intragenic recombination leading to mosaic gene formation is known to alter resistance profiles for particular genes and bacterial species. Few studies have examined to what extent aminoglycoside resistance genes undergo intragenic recombination. We screened the GenBank database for mosaic gene formation in homologs of the aph(3′)-IIa (nptII) gene. APH(3′)-IIa inactivates important aminoglycoside antibiotics. The gene is widely used as a selectable marker in biotechnology and enters the environment via laboratory discharges and the release of transgenic organisms. Such releases may provide opportunities for recombination in competent environmental bacteria. The retrieved GenBank sequences were grouped in three datasets comprising river water samples, duck pathogens and full-length variants from various bacterial genomes and plasmids. Analysis for recombination in these datasets was performed with the Recombination Detection Program (RDP4), and the Genetic Algorithm for Recombination Detection (GARD). From a total of 89 homologous sequences, 83% showed 99–100% sequence identity with aph(3′)-IIa originally described as part of transposon Tn5. Fifty one were unique sequence variants eligible for recombination analysis. Only a single recombination event was identified with high confidence and indicated the involvement of aph(3′)-IIa in the formation of a mosaic gene located on a plasmid of environmental origin in the multi-resistant isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA96. The available data suggest that aph(3′)-IIa is not an archetypical mosaic gene as the divergence between the described sequence variants and the number of detectable recombination events is low. This is in contrast to the numerous mosaic alleles reported for certain penicillin or tetracycline resistance determinants. PMID:26042098

  20. Genetic polymorphisms in β-defensin II gene in Amazon sheep from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, B B; Barbosa, E M; Azevedo, J S N; Campelo, J E G; Rodrigues, L F S; Pinheiro, L M L; Silva, S C B; Schierholt, A S; Souza, P H; Gonçalves, E C; Silva Filho, E

    2015-10-19

    The northern region of Brazil produces a large number of sheep, with Pará being the largest sheep breeding state in the region. In the Amazon region, livestock production is a challenge due to the high diversity of pathogens affecting humans and animals. Defensins are antimicrobial peptides acting as a first barrier against micro-organisms and present high variation in different organisms. The objective of this study was to detect polymorphisms in exon II in β-defensin II in Amazon sheep. The gene was amplified by PCR from DNA extracted from 47 sheep blood samples from the Santa Inês breed. Products were sequenced, aligned and analyzed. Three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) positions were observed with transition substitutions (A↔G) at positions 1643, 1659, and 1750. The 1643 and 1750 SNPs showed a low variability and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) (P < 0.05) meanwhile the SNP 1659 showed moderate absence of genetic variability and deviation from HWE (P > 0.05). Polymorphisms at 1643 and 1659 were predicted to modify amino acids in the peptide chain (isoleucine to valine and arginine to lysine, respectively) with no effects on protein function. Results from this study suggest that SNPs are important markers for β-defensin II efficiency studies on the immune system of sheep in the Brazilian Amazon.

  1. Localization of eight additional genes in the human major histocompatibility complex, including the gene encoding the casein kinase II {beta} subunit (CSNK2B)

    SciTech Connect

    Albertella, M.R.; Jones, H.; Thomson, W.

    1996-09-01

    A wide range of autoimmune and other diseases are known to be associated with the major histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility antigens in the class I and class II regions, but some appear to be more strongly associated with genes in the central 1100-kb class III region, making it important to characterize this region fully for the presence of novel genes. An {approximately}220-kb segment of DNA in the class III region separating the Hsp70 (HSPA1L) andmore » BAT1 (D6S8IE) genes, which was previously known to contain 14 genes. Genomic DNA fragments spanning the gaps between the known genes were used as probes to isolate cDNAs corresponding to five new genes within this region. Evidence from Northern blot analysis and exon trapping experiments that suggested the presence of at least two more new genes was also obtained. Partial cDNA and complete exonic genomic sequencing of one of the new genes has identified it as the casein kinase II{beta} subunit (CSNK2B). Two of the other novel genes lie within a region syntenic to that implicated in susceptibility to experimental allergic orchitis in the mouse, an autoimmune disease of the testis, and represent additional candidates for the Orch-1 locus associated with this disease. In addition, characterization of the 13-kb intergenic gap separating the RD (D6545) and G11 (D6S60E) genes has revealed the presence of a gene encoding a 1246-amino-acid polypeptide that shows significant sequence similarity to the yeast anti-viral Ski2p gene product. 49 refs., 8 figs.« less

  2. A mixed group II/group III twintron in the Euglena gracilis chloroplast ribosomal protein S3 gene: evidence for intron insertion during gene evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Copertino, D W; Christopher, D A; Hallick, R B

    1991-01-01

    The splicing of a 409 nucleotide intron from the Euglena gracilis chloroplast ribosomal protein S3 gene (rps3) was examined by cDNA cloning and sequencing, and northern hybridization. Based on the characterization of a partially spliced pre-mRNA, the intron was characterized as a 'mixed' twintron, composed of a 311 nucleotide group II intron internal to a 98 nucleotide group III intron. Twintron excision is via a 2-step sequential splicing pathway, with removal of the internal group II intron preceding excision of the external group III intron. Based on secondary structural analysis of the twintron, we propose that group III introns may represent highly degenerate versions of group II introns. The existence of twintrons is interpreted as evidence that group II introns were inserted during the evolution of Euglena chloroplast genes from a common ancestor with eubacteria, archaebacteria, cyanobacteria, and other chloroplasts. Images PMID:1721702

  3. Early diagnosis of and surgical strategy for adrenal medullary disease in MEN II gene carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, S.; Tisell, L.E.; Fjaelling, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen multiple endocrine neoplasia type II (MEN II) gene carriers--12 who had undergone thyroidectomy because of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and 4 whose thyroid glands had been removed because of C cell hyperplasia--were examined for the presence of pheochromocytomas. No patient had sought medical advice for pheochromocytoma symptoms. Fourteen patients had MEN IIa syndromes, one patient had a MEN IIb and another patient had a mixed syndrome of von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis and MEN II. Eight patients had undergone unilateral adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma 11 +/- 4 years before. The patients underwent clinical examination, determination of the urinary excretion of catecholaminesmore » and metabolites, and /sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (/sup 131/I-MIBG) and CAT scans. /sup 131/I-MIBG scanning was performed with images 1, 4, and 7 days after the radionuclide injection. In seven of eight patients who had undergone unilateral adrenalectomies, the /sup 131/I-MIBG scans showed accumulation of the radionuclide in the remaining adrenal gland. Bilateral adrenal accumulation of the radionuclide was demonstrated in seven of eight MEN IIa gene carriers who had not undergone adrenalectomy. Five patients, two of whom had undergone adrenalectomy, were found to have unilateral pheochromocytomas less than 2 cm in diameter. Only one of these five patients had an elevated excretion of urinary catecholamines. Between day 4 and day 7 after /sup 131/I-MIBG injection, adrenal glands with pheochromocytomas increased their relative accumulation of the radionuclide significantly more (p less than 0.02) than did adrenal glands without any demonstrable pheochromocytomas. All the pheochromocytomas were viewed by means of CAT scans.« less

  4. Identification and functional characterization of two Secretogranin II genes in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Shu, Hu; Yang, Lidong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran; Li, Shuisheng

    2018-02-24

    Secretoneurin (SN) is an important stimulator of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) synthesis and secretion in goldfish. It is unknown whether this neuropeptide performs the same role in other fish species. In this study, the full-length cDNAs encoding Secretogranin IIa (SgIIa) and b (SgIIb) were cloned from the brain of orange-spotted grouper. Sequence analysis showed that a 34-amino acid SN peptide (SNa) is present in SgIIa proprotein, and a 33-amino acid SN peptide (SNb) is present in SgIIb proprotein. The two SN peptides share a low degree of similarity but contain the signature YTPQ-X-LA-X 7 -EL sequence. Real-time PCR showed that two SgII genes are mainly expressed in the brain and pituitary. During ovarian development, the expression levels of two SgII genes in the hypothalamus and pituitary were significantly reduced at the stage when the ovary contained full-grown oocytes. The biological functions of the two SN peptides were further investigated in vitro and in vivo. Both SN peptides could significantly elevate the mRNA levels of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 1 (GnRH1) and 3 (GnRH3) in the hypothalamic fragments and upregulated the expression of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone beta (FSHb) and Luteinizing Hormone beta (LHb) in the pituitary cells. The stimulatory effects on the expression of GnRHs and Gonadotropins were also observed after intraperitoneal injection of SN peptides. Our study indicated that the SgII/SN system has stimulatory effects on the reproductive axis of orange-spotted grouper. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic diversity of the flagellin genes of Clostridium botulinum groups I and II.

    PubMed

    Woudstra, Cedric; Lambert, Dominic; Anniballi, Fabrizio; De Medici, Dario; Austin, John; Fach, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced by phenotypically and genetically different Clostridium species, including Clostridium botulinum and some strains of Clostridium baratii (serotype F) and Clostridium butyricum (serotype E). BoNT-producing clostridia responsible for human botulism encompass strains of group I (secreting proteases, producing toxin serotype A, B, or F, and growing optimally at 37°C) and group II (nonproteolytic, producing toxin serotype E, B, or F, and growing optimally at 30°C). Here we report the development of real-time PCR assays for genotyping C. botulinum strains of groups I and II based on flaVR (variable region sequence of flaA) sequences and the flaB gene. Real-time PCR typing of regions flaVR1 to flaVR10 and flaB was optimized and validated with 62 historical and Canadian C. botulinum strains that had been previously typed. Analysis of 210 isolates of European origin allowed the identification of four new C. botulinum flaVR types (flaVR11 to flaVR14) and one new flaVR type specific to C. butyricum type E (flaVR15). The genetic diversity of the flaVR among C. botulinum strains investigated in the present study reveals the clustering of flaVR types into 5 major subgroups. Subgroups 1, 3, and 4 contain proteolytic Clostridium botulinum, subgroup 2 is made up of nonproteolytic C. botulinum only, and subgroup 5 is specific to C. butyricum type E. The genetic variability of the flagellin genes carried by C. botulinum and the possible association of flaVR types with certain geographical areas make gene profiling of flaVR and flaB promising in molecular surveillance and epidemiology of C. botulinum.

  6. Genetic Diversity of the Flagellin Genes of Clostridium botulinum Groups I and II

    PubMed Central

    Woudstra, Cedric; Lambert, Dominic; Anniballi, Fabrizio; De Medici, Dario; Austin, John

    2013-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced by phenotypically and genetically different Clostridium species, including Clostridium botulinum and some strains of Clostridium baratii (serotype F) and Clostridium butyricum (serotype E). BoNT-producing clostridia responsible for human botulism encompass strains of group I (secreting proteases, producing toxin serotype A, B, or F, and growing optimally at 37°C) and group II (nonproteolytic, producing toxin serotype E, B, or F, and growing optimally at 30°C). Here we report the development of real-time PCR assays for genotyping C. botulinum strains of groups I and II based on flaVR (variable region sequence of flaA) sequences and the flaB gene. Real-time PCR typing of regions flaVR1 to flaVR10 and flaB was optimized and validated with 62 historical and Canadian C. botulinum strains that had been previously typed. Analysis of 210 isolates of European origin allowed the identification of four new C. botulinum flaVR types (flaVR11 to flaVR14) and one new flaVR type specific to C. butyricum type E (flaVR15). The genetic diversity of the flaVR among C. botulinum strains investigated in the present study reveals the clustering of flaVR types into 5 major subgroups. Subgroups 1, 3, and 4 contain proteolytic Clostridium botulinum, subgroup 2 is made up of nonproteolytic C. botulinum only, and subgroup 5 is specific to C. butyricum type E. The genetic variability of the flagellin genes carried by C. botulinum and the possible association of flaVR types with certain geographical areas make gene profiling of flaVR and flaB promising in molecular surveillance and epidemiology of C. botulinum. PMID:23603687

  7. Molecular cloning of the cowpea leghemoglobin II gene and expression of its cDNA in Escherichia coli. Purification and characterization of the recombinant protein.

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, R; Moran, J F; Sarath, G; Luan, P; Klucas, R V

    1997-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) nodules contain three leghemoglobins (LbI, LbII, and LbIII) that are encoded by at least two genes. We have cloned and sequenced the gene that encodes for LbII (lbII), the most abundant Lb in cowpea nodules, using total DNA as the template for PCR. Primers were designed using the sequence of the soybean lbc gene. The lbII gene is 679 bp in length and codes for a predicted protein of 145 amino acids. Using sequences of the cowpea lbII gene for the synthesis of primers and total nodule RNA as the template, we cloned a cDNA for LbII into a constitutive expression vector (pEMBL19+) and then expressed it in Escherichia coli. Recombinant LbII (rLbII) and native LbII (nLbII) from cowpea nodules were purified to homogeneity using standard techniques. Properties of rLbII were compared with nLbII by partially sequencing the proteins and by sodium dodecyl sulfate- and isoelectric focusing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western-blot analysis using anti-soybean Lba antibodies, tryptic and chymotryptic mapping, and spectrophotometric techniques. The data showed that the structural and spectral characteristics of rLbII and nLbII were similar. The rLbII was reversibly oxygenated/deoxygenated, showing that it is a functional hemoglobin. PMID:9193085

  8. Molecular cloning of the cowpea leghemoglobin II gene and expression of its cDNA in Escherichia coli. Purification and characterization of the recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Peter, R; Moran, J F; Sarath, G; Luan, P; Klucas, R V

    1997-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) nodules contain three leghemoglobins (LbI, LbII, and LbIII) that are encoded by at least two genes. We have cloned and sequenced the gene that encodes for LbII (lbII), the most abundant Lb in cowpea nodules, using total DNA as the template for PCR. Primers were designed using the sequence of the soybean lbc gene. The lbII gene is 679 bp in length and codes for a predicted protein of 145 amino acids. Using sequences of the cowpea lbII gene for the synthesis of primers and total nodule RNA as the template, we cloned a cDNA for LbII into a constitutive expression vector (pEMBL19+) and then expressed it in Escherichia coli. Recombinant LbII (rLbII) and native LbII (nLbII) from cowpea nodules were purified to homogeneity using standard techniques. Properties of rLbII were compared with nLbII by partially sequencing the proteins and by sodium dodecyl sulfate- and isoelectric focusing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western-blot analysis using anti-soybean Lba antibodies, tryptic and chymotryptic mapping, and spectrophotometric techniques. The data showed that the structural and spectral characteristics of rLbII and nLbII were similar. The rLbII was reversibly oxygenated/deoxygenated, showing that it is a functional hemoglobin.

  9. pSiM24 is a novel versatile gene expression vector for transient assays as well as stable expression of foreign genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha; Maiti, Indu Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed a small and highly efficient binary Ti vector pSiM24 for plant transformation with maximum efficacy. In the pSiM24 vector, the size of the backbone of the early binary vector pKYLXM24 (GenBank Accession No. HM036220; a derivative of pKYLX71) was reduced from 12.8 kb to 7.1 kb. The binary vector pSiM24 is composed of the following genetic elements: left and right T-DNA borders, a modified full-length transcript promoter (M24) of Mirabilis mosaic virus with duplicated enhancer domains, three multiple cloning sites, a 3'rbcsE9 terminator, replication functions for Escherichia coli (ColE1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (pRK2-OriV) and the replicase trfA gene, selectable marker genes for kanamycin resistance (nptII) and ampicillin resistance (bla). The pSiM24 plasmid offers a wide selection of cloning sites, high copy numbers in E. coli and a high cloning capacity for easily manipulating different genetic elements. It has been fully tested in transferring transgenes such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) both transiently (agro-infiltration, protoplast electroporation and biolistic) and stably in plant systems (Arabidopsis and tobacco) using both agrobacterium-mediated transformation and biolistic procedures. Not only reporter genes, several other introduced genes were also effectively expressed using pSiM24 expression vector. Hence, the pSiM24 vector would be useful for various plant biotechnological applications. In addition, the pSiM24 plasmid can act as a platform for other applications, such as gene expression studies and different promoter expressional analyses.

  10. pSiM24 Is a Novel Versatile Gene Expression Vector for Transient Assays As Well As Stable Expression of Foreign Genes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha; Maiti, Indu Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed a small and highly efficient binary Ti vector pSiM24 for plant transformation with maximum efficacy. In the pSiM24 vector, the size of the backbone of the early binary vector pKYLXM24 (GenBank Accession No. HM036220; a derivative of pKYLX71) was reduced from 12.8 kb to 7.1 kb. The binary vector pSiM24 is composed of the following genetic elements: left and right T-DNA borders, a modified full-length transcript promoter (M24) of Mirabilis mosaic virus with duplicated enhancer domains, three multiple cloning sites, a 3′rbcsE9 terminator, replication functions for Escherichia coli (ColE1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (pRK2-OriV) and the replicase trfA gene, selectable marker genes for kanamycin resistance (nptII) and ampicillin resistance (bla). The pSiM24 plasmid offers a wide selection of cloning sites, high copy numbers in E. coli and a high cloning capacity for easily manipulating different genetic elements. It has been fully tested in transferring transgenes such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) both transiently (agro-infiltration, protoplast electroporation and biolistic) and stably in plant systems (Arabidopsis and tobacco) using both agrobacterium-mediated transformation and biolistic procedures. Not only reporter genes, several other introduced genes were also effectively expressed using pSiM24 expression vector. Hence, the pSiM24 vector would be useful for various plant biotechnological applications. In addition, the pSiM24 plasmid can act as a platform for other applications, such as gene expression studies and different promoter expressional analyses. PMID:24897541

  11. Characterization and evolution of MHC class II B genes in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    PubMed

    Glaberman, Scott; Moreno, Maria A; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2009-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play a key role in the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Class II B genes appear to evolve in a very different manner in mammals and birds. Orthology is commonly observed among mammal loci, while genes tend to cluster phylogenetically within bird species. Here we present class II B data from a representative of another major group of amniotes, the squamates (i.e. lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians), with the ultimate goal of placing mammalian and avian MHC evolution into a broader context. In this study, eight class II B cDNA sequences were obtained from the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) which were divided into five locus groups, Amcr-DAB1 through -DAB5, based on similarities along most of the coding and noncoding portions of the transcribed gene. All marine iguana sequences were monophyletic with respect to class II genes from other vertebrates indicating that they originated from a common ancestral locus after squamates split from other reptiles. The beta-1 domain, which is involved in antigen binding, exhibited signatures of positive selection as well as interlocus gene conversion in both long and short tracts-a pattern also observed in birds and fish, but not in mammals. On the other hand, the beta-2 domain was divergent between gene groups, which is characteristic of mammals. Based on these results, we preliminarily show that squamate class II B genes have been shaped by a unique blend of evolutionary forces that have been observed in differing degrees in other vertebrates.

  12. Changes in RNA polymerase II progression influence somatic hypermutation of Ig-related genes by AID

    PubMed Central

    Kodgire, Prashant; Mukkawar, Priyanka; Ratnam, Sarayu; Martin, Terence E.

    2013-01-01

    Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Ig genes is initiated by the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), and requires target gene transcription. We previously proposed that AID may associate with the RNA polymerase II (Pol). Here, to determine aspects of the transcription process required for SHM, we knocked-in a transcription terminator into an Ig gene variable region in DT40 chicken B cell line. We found that the human β-globin terminator was an efficient inhibitor of downstream transcription in these cells. The terminator reduced mutations downstream of the poly(A) signal, suggesting that the process of transcription is essential for efficient SHM and that AID has better access to its target when Pol is in the elongating rather than terminating mode. Mutations upstream of the poly(A) site were almost doubled in the active terminator clones compared with an inactivated terminator, and this region showed more single-stranded DNA, indicating that Pol pausing assists SHM. Moreover, the nontranscribed DNA strand was the preferred SHM target upstream of the active terminator. Pol pausing during poly(A) site recognition may facilitate persistence of negative supercoils, exposing the coding single strand and possibly allowing the nascent RNA intermittent reannealing with the template strand, for prolonged access of AID. PMID:23752228

  13. Identification and characterization of a retinoid-induced class II tumor suppressor/growth regulatory gene

    PubMed Central

    DiSepio, Daniel; Ghosn, Corine; Eckert, Richard L.; Deucher, Anne; Robinson, Nancy; Duvic, Madeleine; Chandraratna, Roshantha A. S.; Nagpal, Sunil

    1998-01-01

    Retinoids, synthetic and natural analogs of retinoic acid, exhibit potent growth inhibitory and cell differentiation activities that account for their beneficial effects in treating hyperproliferative diseases such as psoriasis, actinic keratosis, and certain neoplasias. Tazarotene is a synthetic retinoid that is used in the clinic for the treatment of psoriasis. To better understand the mechanism of retinoid action in the treatment of hyperproliferative diseases, we used a long-range differential display–PCR to isolate retinoid-responsive genes from primary human keratinocytes. We have identified a cDNA, tazarotene-induced gene 3 (TIG3; Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder 3) showing significant homology to the class II tumor suppressor gene, H-rev 107. Tazarotene treatment increases TIG3 expression in primary human keratinocytes and in vivo in psoriatic lesions. Increased TIG3 expression is correlated with decreased proliferation. TIG3 is expressed in a number of tissues, and expression is reduced in cancer cell lines and some primary tumors. In breast cancer cell lines, retinoid-dependent TIG3 induction is observed in lines that are growth suppressed by retinoids but not in nonresponsive lines. Transient over-expression of TIG3 in T47D or Chinese hamster ovary cells inhibits colony expansion. Finally, studies in 293 cells expressing TIG3 linked to an inducible promoter demonstrated decreased proliferation with increased TIG3 levels. These studies suggest that TIG3 may be a growth regulator that mediates some of the growth suppressive effects of retinoids. PMID:9843971

  14. Zn(II)-dipicolylamine-based metallo-lipids as novel non-viral gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Su, Rong-Chuan; Liu, Qiang; Yi, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Zhi-Gang

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a series of Zn(II)-dipicolylamine (Zn-DPA) based cationic lipids bearing different hydrophobic tails (long chains, α-tocopherol, cholesterol or diosgenin) were synthesized. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these lipids was studied in detail by investigating the effects of several structural aspects including the type of hydrophobic tails, the chain length and saturation degree. In addition, several assays were used to study their interactions with plasmid DNA, and results reveal that these lipids could condense DNA into nanosized particles with appropriate size and zeta-potentials. MTT-based cell viability assays showed that lipoplexes 5 had low cytotoxicity. The in vitro gene transfection studies showed the hydrophobic tails clearly affected the TE, and hexadecanol-containing lipid 5b gives the best TE, which was 2.2 times higher than bPEI 25k in the presence of 10% serum. The results not only demonstrate that these lipids might be promising non-viral gene vectors, but also afford us clues for further optimization of lipidic gene delivery materials.

  15. Polymorphism of exon 3 of MHC class II B gene in Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Wu, Xiaobing; Yan, Peng; Jiang, Zhigang

    2007-10-01

    The polymorphism of MHC class II B gene in 14 Chinese alligators was analyzed, which came from three different areas: a wild population from Xuancheng, Anhui, a captive population from Changxing, Zhejiang, and a captive population from Anhui Research Center for Reproduction of Chinese Alligators. The gene fragment was amplified using a pair of specific primers designed from the MHC gene sequence of the spectacled caiman. A total of 34 sequence haplotypes of exon 3 were detected in the sampled Chinese alligators. The numbers of haplotypes of the 3 Chinese alligator populations were 15, 10, and 9, respectively. The overall estimation of the MHC polymorphism in the Chinese alligator population was higher than those in mammals and in cyprinid fish. The rates of nonsynonymous substitutions (d(N)) occurred at a significantly lower frequency than that of synonymous substitutions (d(S)), which were not consistent with the common rule. This result might suggest that the polymorphism of exon 3 seemed not to be maintained by the balancing selection. The neutrality test of Tajima excluded the null hypothesis that the polymorphism of exon 3 was generated by a random drift, and the fact that D = -0.401 indicated an excess of rare mutations in the Chinese alligator. The nucleotide diversity of the sequences and the phylogenetic relations were also analyzed, and the results suggested that there was no significant difference in genetic diversity among the 3 populations of Chinese alligator.

  16. Association of HLA class II genes with clinical hyporesponsiveness to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children.

    PubMed

    Narwaney, Komal J; Glanz, Jason M; Norris, Jill M; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Hokanson, John E; Rewers, Marian; Hambidge, Simon J

    2013-02-04

    The primary prevention measure for influenza infection has been the use of influenza vaccines. However, even when the vaccine and circulating strains are well-matched, some healthy children do not respond to the vaccine, likely due to a genetic basis for immune hyporesponsiveness. The primary objective of this study was to identify HLA class II genes associated with clinical hyporesponsiveness after trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in children. We conducted a case-control study nested within a retrospective cohort of children that were screened at birth for HLA-DR,DQ genotypes by the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) and were subsequently followed for up to 8 years by Kaiser Permanente, Colorado (KPCO). Hyporesponsiveness was clinically defined as the occurrence of influenza or influenza-like illness (ILI) in peak influenza weeks in children fully vaccinated with TIV. Each child with clinical hyporesponse (n=252) was matched to 4 randomly selected controls (n=1006) by age and season. Children with clinical hyporesponse to TIV were identified using the Kaiser electronic clinical and immunization databases. Fully vaccinated children within the KPCO-DAISY cohort who did not have a diagnosis of ILI during the entire influenza season were eligible to be controls for that season. Class II HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 genes were the primary exposure variables. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate the matched odds ratios. In non-Hispanic white children, HLA-DR7/4,DQB1 0302 genotype was significantly associated (OR=5.15; 95% CI=1.94, 13.67; p=0.001), while in Hispanic children, HLA-DRB1 15 or 16 allele (OR=0.31; 95% CI=0.14, 0.69; p=0.004) and HLA-DR7/Y (DRB1 11, DRB1 13 and DRB1 14) genotype (OR=5.84; 95% CI=1.68, 20.28; p=0.006) were significantly associated with clinical hyporesponsiveness after TIV. HLA class II genes are associated with clinical hyporesponsiveness to TIV. This finding is important as it may help identify a group of

  17. The zntA gene of Escherichia coli encodes a Zn(II)-translocating P-type ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Rensing, Christopher; Mitra, Bharati; Rosen, Barry P.

    1997-01-01

    The first Zn(II)-translocating P-type ATPase has been identified as the product of o732, a potential gene identified in the sequencing of the Escherichia coli genome. This gene, termed zntA, was disrupted by insertion of a kanamycin gene through homologous recombination. The mutant strain exhibited hypersensitivity to zinc and cadmium salts but not salts of other metals, suggesting a role in zinc homeostasis in E. coli. Everted membrane vesicles from a wild-type strain accumulated 65Zn(II) and 109Cd(II) by using ATP as an energy source. Transport was sensitive to vanadate, an inhibitor of P-type ATPases. Membrane vesicles from the zntA∷kan strain did not accumulate those metal ions. Both the sensitive phenotype and transport defect of the mutant were complemented by expression of zntA on a plasmid. PMID:9405611

  18. Expression of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) promoter-reporter fusion genes in multiple tissues of transgenic mice does not replicate normal patterns of expression indicating complexity of CA II regulation in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.P.; Grimes, J.; Venta, P.J.

    1995-12-01

    Although the proximal, 5{prime} 115 bp of the human carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) gene was sufficient for expression of a reporter gene in some transfected cell lines, we found previously that 1100 bp of this promoter (or 500 bp of the mouse CA II promoter) was not sufficient for expression in transgenic mice. We have now studied the expression of linked reporter genes in mice transgenic for either (1) 11 kb of the human 5{prime} promoter or (2) 8 kb of the human 5{prime} promoter with mouse sequences from the first exon, part of the first intron (since amore » CpG island spans this region), and the 3{prime} sequences of the gene. Expression was found in both cases, but the tissue specificity was not appropriate for CA II. Although there was a difference in the sensitivity of the assays used, the first construct led to expression in many tissues, while the second construct was expressed only in spleen. These findings indicate considerable complexity of DNA control regions for in vivo CA II expression. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  19. A temperature-tolerant multiplex elements and genes screening system for genetically modified organisms based on dual priming oligonucleotide primers and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Wei, Shuang; Wang, Chenguang; Du, Zhixin; Zhu, Pengyu; Wu, Xiyang; Wu, Gang; Zhu, Shuifang

    2017-08-15

    High throughput screening systems are the preferred solution to meet the urgent requirement of increasing number of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, we have successfully developed a multiplex GMO element screening system with dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) primers. This system can detect the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S), terminator of nopaline synthase gene (NOS), figwort mosaic virus 35S (FMV 35S) promoter, neomycin phosphotransferaseII (NPTII), Bt Cry 1Ab, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase genes (bar) and Streptomyces viridochromogenes (pat) simultaneously, which covers more than 90% of all authorized GMO species worldwide. This system exhibits a high tolerance to annealing temperatures, high specificity and a limit of detection equal to conventional PCR. A total of 214 samples from markets, national entry-exit agencies, the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM) and the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) were also tested for applicability. This screening system is therefore suitable for GMO screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic Contribution of MHC Class II Genes in Susceptibility to West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sarri, Constantina A.; Markantoni, Maria; Stamatis, Costas; Papa, Anna; Tsakris, Athanasios; Pervanidou, Danai; Baka, Agoritsa; Politis, Constantina; Billinis, Charalambos; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mamuris, Zissis

    2016-01-01

    WNV is a zoonotic neurotropic flavivirus that has recently emerged globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis. The last five years, 624 incidents of WNV infection have been reported in Greece. The risk for severe WNV disease increases among immunosuppressed individuals implying thus the contribution of the MHC locus to the control of WNV infection. In order to investigate a possible association of MHC class II genes, especially HLA-DPA1, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DRB1, we examined 105 WNV patients, including 68 cases with neuroinvasive disease and 37 cases with mild clinical phenotype, collected during the period from 2010 to2013, and 100 control individuals selected form the Greek population. Typing was performed for exon 2 for all three genes. DQA1*01:01 was considered to be "protective" against WNV infection (25.4% vs 40.1%, P = 0.004) while DQA1*01:02 was associated with increased susceptibility (48.0% vs 32.1%, P = 0.003). Protection against neuroinvasion was associated with the presence of DRB1*11:02 (4.99% vs 0.0%, P = 0.018). DRB1*16:02 was also absent from the control cohort (P = 0.016). Three additional population control groups were used in order to validate our results. No statistically significant association with the disease was found for HLA-DPA alleles. The results of the present study provide some evidence that MHC class II is involved in the response to WNV infection, outlining infection "susceptibility" and "CNS-high-risk" candidates. Furthermore, three new alleles were identified while the frequency of all alleles in the study was compared with worldwide data. The characterization of the MHC locus could help to estimate the risk for severe WNV cases in a country. PMID:27812212

  1. Variation of Metallothionein I and II Gene Expression in the Bank Vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) Under Environmental Zinc and Cadmium Exposure.

    PubMed

    Mikowska, Magdalena; Dziublińska, Barbara; Świergosz-Kowalewska, Renata

    2017-12-16

    The main idea of the study was to assess how environmental metal pollution activates defence responses at transcription levels in the tissues of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). For this purpose, the metallothioneine (MT) genes expression (a well known biomarker of exposure and response to various metals) was measured. The real-time PCR method was used for relative quantification of metallothionein I and metallothionein II expressions in the livers, kidneys and testes of bank voles from six populations exposed to different contaminants, mainly zinc, cadmium and iron. The assessment of Zn, Cu and Fe concentrations in the tissues allowed to study the MTs gene expression responses to these metals. ANOVA analysis showed differences between populations in terms of metal concentration in tissues, livers and kidneys. Student T test showed significant differences in metal concentration between unpolluted and polluted sites only for the liver tissue: significantly lower Zn levels and significantly higher Fe levels in the unpolluted sites. Kruskal-Wallis test performed on C T data shows differences in the gene expressions between populations for both MT genes for liver and testes. In the liver metallothionein I gene expression was upregulated in populations considered as more polluted (up to 7.5 higher expression in Miasteczko Śląskie comparing to Mikołajki). Expression of metallothionein II revealed a similar pattern. In kidneys, differences in expression of both MT genes were not that evident. In testes, MT upregulation in polluted sites was noted for metallothionein II. For metallothionein however, we found downregulation in populations from more contaminated sites. The expressions of both MTs were positively influenced by cadmium in kidney (concentration data from the previous study) and zinc and copper in liver, while cadmium had effects only on the liver MT II gene expression. Positive relationship was obtained for lead and metallothionein II expression in the

  2. Molecular Cloning of the Actinomycin Synthetase Gene Cluster from Streptomyces chrysomallus and Functional Heterologous Expression of the Gene Encoding Actinomycin Synthetase II

    PubMed Central

    Schauwecker, Florian; Pfennig, Frank; Schröder, Werner; Keller, Ullrich

    1998-01-01

    The actinomycin synthetases ACMS I, II, and III catalyze the assembly of the acyl peptide lactone precursor of actinomycin by a nonribosomal mechanism. We have cloned the genes of ACMS I (acmA) and ACMS II (acmB) by hybridization screening of a cosmid library of Streptomyces chrysomallus DNA with synthetic oligonucleotides derived from peptide sequences of the two enzymes. Their genes were found to be closely linked and are arranged in opposite orientations. Hybridization mapping and partial sequence analyses indicate that the gene of an additional peptide synthetase, most likely the gene of ACMS III (acmC), is located immediately downstream of acmB in the same orientation. The protein sequence of ACMS II, deduced from acmB, shows that the enzyme contains two amino acid activation domains, which are characteristic of peptide synthetases, and an additional epimerization domain. Heterologous expression of acmB from the mel promoter of plasmid PIJ702 in Streptomyces lividans yielded a functional 280-kDa peptide synthetase which activates threonine and valine as enzyme-bound thioesters. It also catalyzes the dipeptide formation of threonyl–l-valine, which is epimerized to threonyl–d-valine. Both of these dipeptides are enzyme bound as thioesters. This catalytic activity is identical to the in vitro activity of ACMS II from S. chrysomallus. PMID:9573200

  3. Molecular cloning of the actinomycin synthetase gene cluster from Streptomyces chrysomallus and functional heterologous expression of the gene encoding actinomycin synthetase II.

    PubMed

    Schauwecker, F; Pfennig, F; Schröder, W; Keller, U

    1998-05-01

    The actinomycin synthetases ACMS I, II, and III catalyze the assembly of the acyl peptide lactone precursor of actinomycin by a nonribosomal mechanism. We have cloned the genes of ACMS I (acmA) and ACMS II (acmB) by hybridization screening of a cosmid library of Streptomyces chrysomallus DNA with synthetic oligonucleotides derived from peptide sequences of the two enzymes. Their genes were found to be closely linked and are arranged in opposite orientations. Hybridization mapping and partial sequence analyses indicate that the gene of an additional peptide synthetase, most likely the gene of ACMS III (acmC), is located immediately downstream of acmB in the same orientation. The protein sequence of ACMS II, deduced from acmB, shows that the enzyme contains two amino acid activation domains, which are characteristic of peptide synthetases, and an additional epimerization domain. Heterologous expression of acmB from the mel promoter of plasmid PIJ702 in Streptomyces lividans yielded a functional 280-kDa peptide synthetase which activates threonine and valine as enzyme-bound thioesters. It also catalyzes the dipeptide formation of threonyl-L-valine, which is epimerized to threonyl-D-valine. Both of these dipeptides are enzyme bound as thioesters. This catalytic activity is identical to the in vitro activity of ACMS II from S. chrysomallus.

  4. Interfacial stress affects rat alveolar type II cell signaling and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Hobi, Nina; Ravasio, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Previous work from our group (Ravasio A, Hobi N, Bertocchi C, Jesacher A, Dietl P, Haller T. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 300: C1456–C1465, 2011.) showed that contact of alveolar epithelial type II cells with an air-liquid interface (IAL) leads to a paradoxical situation. It is a potential threat that can cause cell injury, but also a Ca2+-dependent stimulus for surfactant secretion. Both events can be explained by the impact of interfacial tensile forces on cellular structures. Here, the strength of this mechanical stimulus became also apparent in microarray studies by a rapid and significant change on the transcriptional level. Cells challenged with an IAL in two different ways showed activation/inactivation of cellular pathways involved in stress response and defense, and a detailed Pubmatrix search identified genes associated with several lung diseases and injuries. Altogether, they suggest a close relationship of interfacial stress sensation with current models in alveolar micromechanics. Further similarities between IAL and cell stretch were found with respect to the underlying signaling events. The source of Ca2+ was extracellular, and the transmembrane Ca2+ entry pathway suggests the involvement of a mechanosensitive channel. We conclude that alveolar type II cells, due to their location and morphology, are specific sensors of the IAL, but largely protected from interfacial stress by surfactant release. PMID:22610352

  5. CIITA Leucine-Rich Repeats Control Nuclear Localization, In Vivo Recruitment to the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class II Enhanceosome, and MHC Class II Gene Transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Hake, Sandra B.; Masternak, Krzysztof; Kammerbauer, Claudia; Janzen, Christian; Reith, Walter; Steimle, Viktor

    2000-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator CIITA plays a pivotal role in the control of the cellular immune response through the quantitative regulation of MHC class II expression. We have analyzed a region of CIITA with similarity to leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). CIITA LRR alanine mutations abolish both the transactivation capacity of full-length CIITA and the dominant-negative phenotype of CIITA mutants with N-terminal deletions. We demonstrate direct interaction of CIITA with the MHC class II promoter binding protein RFX5 and could also detect novel interactions with RFXANK, NF-YB, and -YC. However, none of these interactions is influenced by CIITA LRR mutagenesis. On the other hand, chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that in vivo binding of CIITA to the MHC class II promoter is dependent on LRR integrity. LRR mutations lead to an impaired nuclear localization of CIITA, indicating that a major function of the CIITA LRRs is in nucleocytoplasmic translocation. There is, however, evidence that the CIITA LRRs are also involved more directly in MHC class II gene transactivation. CIITA interacts with a novel protein of 33 kDa in a manner sensitive to LRR mutagenesis. CIITA is therefore imported into the nucleus by an LRR-dependent mechanism, where it activates transcription through multiple protein-protein interactions with the MHC class II promoter binding complex. PMID:11003667

  6. The ALDH2 and DRD2/ANKK1 genes interacted in bipolar II but not bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsieh; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Chen-Lin; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lu, Ru-Band

    2010-08-01

    Clarifying the association between bipolar I and bipolar II, the two most common subtypes of bipolar disorder, at the genetic level is essential for improving our understanding of these disorders. The dopaminergic system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. It may be important to investigate genes involved in metabolizing dopamine and encoding dopamine receptors, such as the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and dopamine D2 receptor/ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (DRD2/ANKK1) genes. We examined the association of the ALDH2 and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq IA polymorphisms with bipolar I and II disorders and possible interactions between these genes. Seven hundred and fifty participants were recruited: 207 with bipolar I disorder, 277 with bipolar II disorder, and 266 healthy controls. The genotypes of the ALDH2 and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant interaction for the A1/A1 genotype of the DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA, and the ALDH2*1*1 genotypes (P=0.009) could predict bipolar II patients compared with individuals without bipolar disorder. However, there was no association between the ALDH2 or DRD2/ANKK1 gene with neither bipolar I nor bipolar II disorder. Our findings may provide initial evidence that the ALDH2 and DRD2/ANKK1 genes interact in specific subtypes of bipolar disorders. Our findings also suggest a unique genetic distinction between bipolar I and bipolar II disorders.

  7. Differentially expressed genes in autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II osteoclasts reveal known and novel pathways for osteoclast biology.

    PubMed

    Coudert, Amélie E; Del Fattore, Andrea; Baulard, Céline; Olaso, Robert; Schiltz, Corinne; Collet, Corinne; Teti, Anna; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine

    2014-03-01

    Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADO II) is a rare, heritable bone disorder characterized by a high bone mass and insufficient osteoclast activity. Mutations in the CLCN7 gene have been reported to cause ADO II. To gain novel insights into the pathways dysregulated in ADOII osteoclasts, we identified changes in gene expression in osteoclasts from patients with a heterozygous mutation of CLCN7. To do this, we carried out a transcriptomic study comparing gene expression in the osteoclasts of patients with ADO II and healthy donors. Our data show that, according to our selection criteria, 182 genes were differentially expressed in osteoclasts from patients and controls. From the 18 displaying the highest change in microarray, we confirmed differential expression for seven by qPCR. Although two of them have previously been found to be expressed in osteoclasts (ITGB5 and SERPINE2), the other five (CES1 (carboxyl esterase 1), UCHL1 (ubiquitin carboxy-terminal esterase L1, also known as ubiquitin thiolesterase), WARS (tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase), GBP4 (guanylate-binding protein 4), and PRF1) are not yet known to have a role in this cell type. At the protein level, we confirmed elevated expression of ITGB5 and reduced expression of WARS, PRF1, and SERPINE2. Transfection of ClC-7 harboring the G215R mutation into osteoclasts resulted in an increased ITGB5 and reduced PRF1 expression of borderline significance. Finally, we observed that the ADO II patients presented a normal or increased serum level of bone formation markers, demonstrating a coupling between dysfunctional osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Sphingosine kinase 1 mRNA was expressed at the same level in ADO II and control osteoclasts. In conclusion, these data suggest that in addition to an acidification dysfunction caused by the CLCN7 mutation, a change in ITGB5, PRF1, WARS, and SERPINE2 expression could be part of the osteoclastic phenotype of ADO II.

  8. Trans-species polymorphism and selection in the MHC class II DRA genes of domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Ballingall, Keith T; Rocchi, Mara S; McKeever, Declan J; Wright, Frank

    2010-06-30

    Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201) differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901), which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T-cells and the

  9. Trans-Species Polymorphism and Selection in the MHC Class II DRA Genes of Domestic Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Ballingall, Keith T.; Rocchi, Mara S.; McKeever, Declan J.; Wright, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201) differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901), which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T-cells and the

  10. [Molecular pathogenesis of Waardenburg syndrome type II resulting from SOX10 gene mutation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Chen, Hongsheng; Feng, Yong; Qian, Minfei; Li, Jiping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Chun

    2016-08-01

    To explore the molecular mechanism of Waardenburg syndrome type II (WS2) resulting from SOX10 gene mutation E248fs through in vitro experiment. 293T cells were transiently transfected with wild type (WT) SOX10 and mutant type (MT) E248fs plasmids. The regulatory effect of WT/MT SOX10 on the transcriptional activity of MITF gene and influence of E248fs on WT SOX10 function were determined with a luciferase activity assay. The DNA binding capacity of the WT/MT SOX10 with the promoter of the MITF gene was determined with a biotinylated double-stranded oligonucleotide probe containing the SOX10 binding sequence cattgtc to precipitate MITF and E248fs, respectively. The stability of SOX10 and E248fs were also analyzed. As a loss-of-function mutation, the E248fs mutant failed to transactivate the MITF promoter as compared with the WT SOX10 (P<0.01), which also showed a dominant-negative effect on WT SOX10. The WT SOX10 and E248fs mutant were also able to bind specifically to the cattgtc motif in the MITF promoter, whereas E248fs had degraded faster than WT SOX10. Despite the fact that the E248fs has a dominant-negative effect on SOX10, its reduced stability may down-regulate the transcription of MITF and decrease the synthesis of melanin, which may result in haploinsufficiency of SOX10 protein and cause the milder WS2 phenotype.

  11. Incomplete synthesis of N-glycans in congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II caused by a defect in the gene encoding. alpha. -mannosidase II

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, M.N.; Masri, K.A.; Dell, A.

    1990-10-01

    Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II, or hereditary erythroblastic multinuclearity with a positive acidified-serum-lysis test (HEMPAS), is a genetic anemia in humans inherited by an autosomally recessive mode. The enzyme defect in most HEMPAS patients has previously been proposed as a lowered activity of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II, resulting in a lack of polylactosamine on proteins and leading to the accumulation of polylactosaminyl lipids. A recent HEMPAS case, G.C., has now been analyzed by cell-surface labeling, fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry of glycopeptides, and activity assay of glycosylation enzymes. Significantly decreased glycosylation of polylactosaminoglycan proteins and incompletely processed asparagine-linked oligosaccharides were detected in the erythrocytemore » membranes of G.C. These results suggest that G.C. cells contain a mutation in {alpha}-ManII-encoding gene that results in inefficient expression of {alpha}-ManII mRNA, either through reduced transcription or message instability. This report demonstrates that HEMPAS is caused by a defective gene encoding an enzyme necessary for the synthesis of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides.« less

  12. Storage time does not modify the gene expression profile of cryopreserved human metaphase II oocytes.

    PubMed

    Stigliani, Sara; Moretti, Stefano; Anserini, Paola; Casciano, Ida; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Scaruffi, Paola

    2015-11-01

    Does storage time have any impact on the transcriptome of slowly frozen cryopreserved human metaphase II (MII) oocytes? The length of cryostorage has no effect on the gene expression profile of human MII oocytes. Oocyte cryopreservation is a widely used technique in IVF for storage of surplus oocytes, as well as for fertility preservation (i.e. women undergoing gonadotoxic therapies) and oocyte donation programs. Although cryopreservation has negative impacts on oocyte physiology and it is associated with decrease of transcripts, no experimental data about the effect of storage time on the oocyte molecular profile are available to date. This study included 27 women, ≤38 years aged, without any ovarian pathology, undergoing IVF treatment. Surplus MII oocytes were donated after written informed consent. A total of 31 non-cryopreserved oocytes and 68 surviving slow-frozen/rapid-thawed oocytes (32 oocytes cryostored for 3 years and 36 cryostored for 6 years) were analyzed. Pools of ≈10 oocytes for each group were prepared. Total RNA was extracted from each pool, amplified, labeled and hybridized on oligonucleotide microarrays. Analyses were performed by R software using the limma package. Comparison of gene expression profiles between surviving thawed oocytes after 3 and 6 years of storage in liquid nitrogen found no differently expressed genes. The expression profiles of cryopreserved MII oocytes significantly differed from those of non-cryopreserved oocytes in 107 probe sets corresponding to 73 down-regulated and 29 up-regulated unique transcripts. Gene Ontology analysis by DAVID bioinformatics resource disclosed that cryopreservation deregulates genes involved in oocyte function and early embryo development, such as chromosome organization, RNA splicing and processing, cell cycle, cellular response to DNA damage and to stress, DNA repair, calcium ion binding, malate dehydrogenase activity and mitochondrial activity. Among the probes significantly up-regulated in

  13. Novel roles for metallothionein-I + II (MT-I + II) in defense responses, neurogenesis, and tissue restoration after traumatic brain injury: insights from global gene expression profiling in wild-type and MT-I + II knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Penkowa, Milena; Cáceres, Mario; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Poulsen, Christian Bjørn; Quintana, Albert; Molinero, Amalia; Carrasco, Javier; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Juan

    2006-11-15

    Traumatic injury to the brain is one of the leading causes of injury-related death or disability, especially among young people. Inflammatory processes and oxidative stress likely underlie much of the damage elicited by injury, but the full repertoire of responses involved is not well known. A genomic approach, such as the use of microarrays, provides much insight in this regard, especially if combined with the use of gene-targeted animals. We report here the results of one of these studies comparing wild-type and metallothionein-I + II knockout mice subjected to a cryolesion of the somatosensorial cortex and killed at 0, 1, 4, 8, and 16 days postlesion (dpl) using Affymetrix genechips/oligonucleotide arrays interrogating approximately 10,000 different murine genes (MG_U74Av2). Hierarchical clustering analysis of these genes readily shows an orderly pattern of gene responses at specific times consistent with the processes involved in the initial tissue injury and later regeneration of the parenchyma, as well as a prominent effect of MT-I + II deficiency. The results thoroughly confirmed the importance of the antioxidant proteins MT-I + II in the response of the brain to injury and opened new avenues that were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Data in KO, MT-I-overexpressing, and MT-II-injected mice strongly suggest a role of these proteins in postlesional activation of neural stem cells.

  14. Sequential transformation to pyramid two Bt genes in vegetable Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) and its potential for control of diamondback moth larvae.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Shelton, Anthony M; Earle, Elizabeth D

    2008-03-01

    Vegetable Indian mustard (Brassica juncea cv. "Green Wave") plants that control Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) (DBM) were produced by introduction of one or two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes. A cry1Ac Bt gene associated with the nptII gene for kanamycin selection or a cry1C Bt gene with the hpt gene for hygromycin selection was introduced individually through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of seedling explants. A cry1C line was then transformed with the cry1Ac gene to produce pyramided cry1Ac + cry1C plants. Sixteen cry1C, five cry1Ac, and six cry1Ac + cry1C plants were produced. PCR and Southern analyses confirmed the presence of the cry1C, cry1Ac or pyramided cry1Ac + cry1C genes in the Indian mustard genome. ELISA analysis showed that production of Bt proteins varied greatly among individual transgenic plants, ranging from undetectable to over 1,000 ng Bt/mg total soluble protein. The levels of the Bt proteins were correlated with the effectiveness of control of diamondback moth (DBM) larvae. Insect bioassays indicated that both the cry1C and cry1Ac plants were toxic to susceptible DBM. The cry1C plants also controlled Cry1A-resistant DBM while cry1Ac plants controlled Cry1C-resistant DBM, and the pyramided cry1Ac + cry1C plants effectively controlled all three types of DBM. These Bt-transgenic plants could be used either for direct control of DBM and other lepidopteran insect pests or for tests of "dead-end" trap crops as protection of high value non-transgenic crucifer vegetables such as cabbage.

  15. Molecular cloning, characterization and localization of chicken type II procollagen gene.

    PubMed

    Xi, Caixia; Liu, Nan; Liang, Fei; Guo, Siqi; Sun, Yuying; Yang, Fengtang; Xi, Yongzhi

    2006-01-17

    Chicken type II procollagen (ccol2a1) has become as an important oral tolerance protein for effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, its molecular identity remains unclear. Here, we reported the full-length cDNA and nearly complete genomic DNA encoding ccol2a1. We have determined the structural organization, evolutional characters, developmental expression and chromosomal mapping of the gene. The full-length cDNA sequence spans 4837 bp containing all the coding region of the ccol2a1 including 3' and 5' untranslation region. The deduced peptide of ccol2a1, composed of 1420 amino acids, can be divided into signal peptide, N-propeptide, N-telopeptide, triple helix, C-telopeptide and C-propeptide. The ccol2a1 genomic DNA sequence was determined to be 12,523 bp long containing 54 exons interrupted by 53 introns. Comparison of the ccol2a1 with its counterparts in human, mouse, canine, horse, rat, frog and newt revealed highly conserved sequence in the triple helix domain. Chromosomal mapping of ccol2a1 locates it on 4P2. While the ccol2a1 mRNA was expressed in multiple tissues, the protein was only detected in chondrogenic cartilage, vitreous body and cornea. The ccol2a1 was found to contain two isoforms detected by RT-PCR. The distribution of the ccol2a1 lacking exon 2wasfrequently detected in chondrogenic tissues, whereas the exon 2-containing isoform was more abundant in non-chondrogenic tissues. These results provide useful information for preparing recombinant chicken type II collagen and for a better understanding of normal cartilage development.

  16. A comparison of 12-gene colon cancer assay gene expression in African American and Caucasian patients with stage II colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Rangaswamy; Posey, James; Chao, Calvin Y; Lu, Ruixiao; Jadhav, Trafina; Javed, Ahmed Y; Javed, Awais; Mahmoud, Fade A; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Manne, Upender

    2016-06-18

    African American (AA) colon cancer patients have a worse prognosis than Caucasian (CA) colon cancer patients, however, reasons for this disparity are not well understood. To determine if tumor biology might contribute to differential prognosis, we measured recurrence risk and gene expression using the Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay (12-gene assay) and compared the Recurrence Score results and gene expression profiles between AA patients and CA patients with stage II colon cancer. We retrieved demographic, clinical, and archived tumor tissues from stage II colon cancer patients at four institutions. The 12-gene assay and mismatch repair (MMR) status were performed by Genomic Health (Redwood City, California). Student's t-test and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare Recurrence Score data and gene expression data from AA and CA patients (SAS Enterprise Guide 5.1). Samples from 122 AA and 122 CA patients were analyzed. There were 118 women (63 AA, 55 CA) and 126 men (59 AA, 67 CA). Median age was 66 years for AA patients and 68 for CA patients. Age, gender, year of surgery, pathologic T-stage, tumor location, the number of lymph nodes examined, lymphovascular invasion, and MMR status were not significantly different between groups (p = 0.93). The mean Recurrence Score result for AA patients (27.9 ± 12.8) and CA patients (28.1 ± 11.8) was not significantly different and the proportions of patients with high Recurrence Score values (≥41) were similar between the groups (17/122 AA; 15/122 CA). None of the gene expression variables, either single genes or gene groups (cell cycle group, stromal group, BGN1, FAP, INHBA1, Ki67, MYBL2, cMYC and GADD45B), was significantly different between the racial groups. After controlling for clinical and pathologic covariates, the means and distributions of Recurrence Score results and gene expression profiles showed no statistically significant difference between patient groups. The distribution of

  17. Selection and Trans-Species Polymorphism of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Genes in the Order Crocodylia

    PubMed Central

    Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Isberg, Sally R.; Higgins, Damien P.; Miles, Lee G.; Gongora, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II genes encode for molecules that aid in the presentation of antigens to helper T cells. MHC characterisation within and between major vertebrate taxa has shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the diversity within this genomic region, though little characterisation has been performed within the Order Crocodylia. Here we investigate the extent and effect of selective pressures and trans-species polymorphism on MHC class II α and β evolution among 20 extant species of Crocodylia. Selection detection analyses showed that diversifying selection influenced MHC class II β diversity, whilst diversity within MHC class II α is the result of strong purifying selection. Comparison of translated sequences between species revealed the presence of twelve trans-species polymorphisms, some of which appear to be specific to the genera Crocodylus and Caiman. Phylogenetic reconstruction clustered MHC class II α sequences into two major clades representing the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae. However, no further subdivision within these clades was evident and, based on the observation that most MHC class II α sequences shared the same trans-species polymorphisms, it is possible that they correspond to the same gene lineage across species. In contrast, phylogenetic analyses of MHC class II β sequences showed a mixture of subclades containing sequences from Crocodilidae and/or Alligatoridae, illustrating orthologous relationships among those genes. Interestingly, two of the subclades containing sequences from both Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae shared specific trans-species polymorphisms, suggesting that they may belong to ancient lineages pre-dating the divergence of these two families from the common ancestor 85–90 million years ago. The results presented herein provide an immunogenetic resource that may be used to further assess MHC diversity and functionality in Crocodylia. PMID:24503938

  18. Cloning and sequence determination of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe rpb1 gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Y; Yamagishi, M; Ueshima, R; Ishihama, A

    1991-01-01

    The gene, rpb1, encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II has been cloned from Schizosaccharomyces pombe using the corresponding gene, RPB1, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a cross-hybridization probe. We have determined the complete sequence of this gene, and parts of PCR-amplified rpb1 cDNA. The predicted coding sequence, interrupted by six introns, encodes a polypeptide of 1,752 amino acid residues in length with a molecular weight of 194 kilodaltons. This polypeptide contains eight conserved structural domains characteristic of the largest subunit of RNA polymerases from other eukaryotes and, in addition, 29 repetitions of the C-terminal heptapeptide found in all the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II largest subunits so far examined. Images PMID:2011520

  19. Characterization of genes encoding dimethyl sulfoxide reductase of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1T: an essential metabolic gene function encoded on chromosome II.

    PubMed

    Mouncey, N J; Choudhary, M; Kaplan, S

    1997-12-01

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1T is a purple nonsulfur facultative phototrophic bacterium which exhibits remarkable metabolic diversity as well as genomic complexity. Under anoxic conditions, in the absence of light and the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), R. sphaeroides 2.4.1T utilizes DMSO or TMAO as the terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration, which is mediated by the molybdoenzyme DMSO reductase. Sequencing of a 13-kb region of chromosome II revealed the presence of 10 putative open reading frames, of which 5 possess homology to genes encoding the TMAO reductase (the tor system) of Escherichia coli. The dorS and dorR genes encode a sensor-regulator pair of the two-component sensory transduction protein family, homologous to the torS and torR gene products. The dorC gene was shown to encode a 44-kDa DMSO-inducible c-type cytochrome. The dorB gene encodes a membrane protein of unknown function homologous to the torD gene product. The dorA gene encodes DMSO reductase, containing the molybdopterin active site. Mutations were constructed in each of these dor genes, and the resulting mutants were shown to be impaired for DMSO-dependent anaerobic growth in the dark. The mutant strains exhibited negligible levels of DMSO reductase activity compared to the wild-type strain under similar growth conditions. Further, no DorA protein was detected in DorS and DorR mutant strains with anti-DorA antisera, suggesting that the products of these genes are required for the positive regulation of dor expression in response to DMSO. This characterization of the dor gene cluster is the first evidence that genes of chromosome CII encode metabolic functions which are essential under particular growth conditions.

  20. Exonuclease III and the catalase hydroperoxidase II in Escherichia coli are both regulated by the katF gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Sak, B D; Eisenstark, A; Touati, D

    1989-01-01

    The levels of both exonuclease III (exo III, product of xthA) and hydroperoxidase II (HP-II, product of katE) activity in Escherichia coli were influenced by a functional katF gene. The katF gene product is also necessary for synthesis of HP-II. Mutations in either katF or xthA, but not katE, result in sensitivity to H2O2 and near-UV (300-400 nm) radiation. Exo III, encoded by the xthA locus, recognizes and removes nucleoside 5'-monophosphates near apurinic and apyrimidinic sites in damaged DNA. Extracts of katF mutant strains had little detectable exo III activity. When a katF+ plasmid was introduced into the katF mutant, exo III activity exceeded wild-type levels. We propose that the katF gene is a trans-acting positive regulator of exo III and HP-II enzymes, both of which are involved in cellular recovery from oxidative damage. Images PMID:2541439

  1. De novo dominant mutation of SOX10 gene in a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kaitian; Zong, Ling; Liu, Min; Zhan, Yuan; Wu, Xuan; Zou, Wenting; Jiang, Hongyan

    2014-06-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The condition is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigment disturbances of the hair, skin, and iris. The de novo mutation in the SOX10 gene, responsible for Waardenburg syndrome type II, is rarely seen. The present study aimed to identify the genetic causes of Waardenburg syndrome type II in a Chinese family. Clinical and molecular evaluations were conducted in a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type II. A novel SOX10 heterozygous c.259-260delCT mutation was identified. Heterozygosity was not observed in the parents and sister of the proband, indicating that the mutation has arisen de novo. The novel frameshift mutation, located in exon 3 of the SOX10 gene, disrupted normal amino acid coding from Leu87, leading to premature termination at nucleotide 396 (TGA). The high mobility group domain of SOX10 was inferred to be partially impaired. The novel heterozygous c.259-260delCT mutation in the SOX10 gene was considered to be the cause of Waardenburg syndrome in the proband. The clinical and genetic characterization of this family would help elucidate the genetic heterogeneity of SOX10 in Waardenburg syndrome type II. Moreover, the de novo pattern expanded the mutation data of SOX10. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Three Classes of Plasmid (47–63 kb) Carry the Type B Neurotoxin Gene Cluster of Group II Clostridium botulinum

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Andrew T.; Austin, John W.; Weedmark, Kelly A.; Corbett, Cindi; Peck, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA sequence analysis of 26 strains of Group II (nonproteolytic) Clostridium botulinum type B4 showed that 23 strains carried their neurotoxin gene cluster on a 47–63 kb plasmid (three strains lacked any hybridization signal for the neurotoxin gene, presumably having lost their plasmid). Unexpectedly, no neurotoxin genes were found on the chromosome. This apparent constraint on neurotoxin gene transfer to the chromosome stands in marked contrast to Group I C. botulinum, in which neurotoxin gene clusters are routinely found in both locations. The three main classes of type B4 plasmid identified in this study shared different regions of homology, but were unrelated to any Group I or Group III plasmid. An important evolutionary aspect firmly links plasmid class to geographical origin, with one class apparently dominant in marine environments, whereas a second class is dominant in European terrestrial environments. A third class of plasmid is a hybrid between the other two other classes, providing evidence for contact between these seemingly geographically separated populations. Mobility via conjugation has been previously demonstrated for the type B4 plasmid of strain Eklund 17B, and similar genes associated with conjugation are present in all type B4 plasmids now described. A plasmid toxin–antitoxin system pemI gene located close to the neurotoxin gene cluster and conserved in each type B4 plasmid class may be important in understanding the mechanism which regulates this unique and unexpected bias toward plasmid-borne neurotoxin genes in Group II C. botulinum type B4. PMID:25079343

  3. Identification and Characterization of als Genes Involved in D-Allose Metabolism in Lineage II Strain of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Wang, Yan; Liu, Dongxin; Luo, Lijuan; Wang, Yi; Ye, Changyun

    2018-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes , an important food-borne pathogen, causes listeriosis and is widely distributed in many different environments. In a previous study, we developed a novel enrichment broth containing D-allose that allows better isolation of L. monocytogenes from samples. However, the mechanism of D-allose utilization by L. monocytogenes remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the metabolism of D-allose in L. monocytogenes and found that lineage II strains of L. monocytogenes can utilize D-allose as the sole carbon source for growth, but lineage I and III strains cannot. Transcriptome analysis and sequence alignment identified six genes ( lmo0734 to 0739 ) possibly related to D-allose metabolism that are only present in the genomes of lineage II strains. Recombinant strain ICDC-LM188 containing these genes showed utilization of D-allose by growth assays and Biolog phenotype microarrays. Moreover, lmo0734 to 0736 were verified to be essential for D-allose metabolism, lmo0737 and 0738 affected the growth rate of L. monocytogenes in D-allose medium, while lmo0739 was dispensable in the metabolism of D-allose in L. monocytogenes . This is the first study to identify the genes related to D-allose metabolism in L. monocytogenes , and their distribution in lineage II strains. Our study preliminarily determined the effects of these genes on the growth of L. monocytogenes , which will benefit the isolation and epidemiological research of L. monocytogenes .

  4. ins-7 Gene expression is partially regulated by the DAF-16/IIS signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans under celecoxib intervention.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shanqing; Liao, Sentai; Zou, Yuxiao; Qu, Zhi; Liu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    DAF-16 target genes are employed as reporters of the insulin/IGF-1 like signal pathway (IIS), and this is notably true when Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is used to study the action of anti-aging compounds on IIS activity. However, some of these genes may not be specific to DAF-16, even if their expression levels are altered when DAF-16 is activated. Celecoxib was reported to extend the lifespan of C. elegans through activation of DAF-16. Our results confirmed the function of celecoxib on aging; however, we found that the expression of ins-7, a DAF-16 target gene, was abnormally regulated by celecoxib. ins-7 plays an important role in regulating aging, and its expression is suppressed in C. elegans when DAF-16 is activated. However, we found that celecoxib upregulated the expression of ins-7 in contrast to its role in DAF-16 activation. Our subsequent analysis indicated that the expression level of ins-7 in C. elegans was negatively regulated by DAF-16 activity. Additionally, its expression was also positively regulated by DAF-16-independent mechanisms, at least following external pharmacological intervention. Our study suggests that ins-7 is not a specific target gene of DAF-16, and should not be chosen as a reporter for IIS activity. This conclusion is important in the study of INSs on aging in C. elegans, especially under the circumstance of drug intervention.

  5. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Neutrophilic Iron(II) Oxidizer Genomes for Candidate Genes in Extracellular Electron Transfer

    PubMed Central

    He, Shaomei; Barco, Roman A.; Emerson, David; Roden, Eric E.

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is recognized as a key biochemical process in circumneutral pH Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). In this study, we searched for candidate EET genes in 73 neutrophilic FeOB genomes, among which 43 genomes are complete or close-to-complete and the rest have estimated genome completeness ranging from 5 to 91%. These neutrophilic FeOB span members of the microaerophilic, anaerobic phototrophic, and anaerobic nitrate-reducing FeOB groups. We found that many microaerophilic and several anaerobic FeOB possess homologs of Cyc2, an outer membrane cytochrome c originally identified in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The “porin-cytochrome c complex” (PCC) gene clusters homologous to MtoAB/PioAB are present in eight FeOB, accounting for 19% of complete and close-to-complete genomes examined, whereas PCC genes homologous to OmbB-OmaB-OmcB in Geobacter sulfurreducens are absent. Further, we discovered gene clusters that may potentially encode two novel PCC types. First, a cluster (tentatively named “PCC3”) encodes a porin, an extracellular and a periplasmic cytochrome c with remarkably large numbers of heme-binding motifs. Second, a cluster (tentatively named “PCC4”) encodes a porin and three periplasmic multiheme cytochromes c. A conserved inner membrane protein (IMP) encoded in PCC3 and PCC4 gene clusters might be responsible for translocating electrons across the inner membrane. Other bacteria possessing PCC3 and PCC4 are mostly Proteobacteria isolated from environments with a potential niche for Fe(II) oxidation. In addition to cytochrome c, multicopper oxidase (MCO) genes potentially involved in Fe(II) oxidation were also identified. Notably, candidate EET genes were not found in some FeOB, especially the anaerobic ones, probably suggesting EET genes or Fe(II) oxidation mechanisms are different from the searched models. Overall, based on current EET models, the search extends our understanding of bacterial EET and provides

  6. Development of an efficient transformation method by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and high throughput spray assay to identify transgenic plants for woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) using NPTII selection.

    PubMed

    Pantazis, Christopher J; Fisk, Sarah; Mills, Kerri; Flinn, Barry S; Shulaev, Vladimir; Veilleux, Richard E; Dan, Yinghui

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We developed an efficient Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method using an Ac/Ds transposon tagging construct for F. vesca and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to identify its transformants for strawberry functional genomics. Genomic resources for Rosaceae species are now readily available, including the Fragaria vesca genome, EST sequences, markers, linkage maps, and physical maps. The Rosaceae Genomic Executive Committee has promoted strawberry as a translational genomics model due to its unique biological features and transformability for fruit trait improvement. Our overall research goal is to use functional genomic and metabolic approaches to pursue high throughput gene discovery in the diploid woodland strawberry. F. vesca offers several advantages of a fleshy fruit typical of most fruit crops, short life cycle (seed to seed in 12-16 weeks), small genome size (206 Mbb/C), small plant size, self-compatibility, and many seeds per plant. We have developed an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated strawberry transformation method using kanamycin selection, and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to efficiently identify transgenic strawberry plants. Using our kanamycin transformation method, we were able to produce up to 98 independent kanamycin resistant insertional mutant lines using a T-DNA construct carrying an Ac/Ds transposon Launchpad system from a single transformation experiment involving inoculation of 22 leaf explants of F. vesca accession 551572 within approx. 11 weeks (from inoculation to soil). Transgenic plants with 1-2 copies of a transgene were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Using our paromomycin spray assay, transgenic F. vesca plants were rapidly identified within 10 days after spraying.

  7. An insulator blocks spreading of histone acetylation and interferes with RNA polymerase II transfer between an enhancer and gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Dean, Ann

    2004-01-01

    We studied the mechanism by which an insulator interrupts enhancer signaling to a gene using stably replicated chromatin templates containing the human β-globin locus control region HS2 enhancer and a target globin gene. The chicken β-globin 5′ HS4 (cHS4) insulator acted as a positional enhancer blocker, inhibiting promoter remodeling and transcription activation only when placed between the enhancer and gene. Enhancer blocking by cHS4 reduced histone hyperacetylation across a zone extending from the enhancer to the gene and inhibited recruitment of CBP and p300 to HS2. Enhancer blocking also led to accumulation of RNA polymerase II at HS2 and within cHS4, accompanied by its diminution at the gene promoter. The enhancer blocking effects were completely attributable to the CTCF binding site in cHS4. These findings provide experimental evidence for the involvement of spreading in establishment of a broad zone of histone modification by an enhancer, as well as for blocking by an insulator of the transfer of RNA polymerase II from an enhancer to a promoter. PMID:15371553

  8. HLA non-class II genes may confer type I diabetes susceptibility in a Mapuche (Amerindian) affected family.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Martin-Villa, Jose M; Moscoso, Juan; Moreno, Almudena; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Zamora, Jorge; Asenjo, Silvia; Gleisner, Andrea; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of type I diabetes is studied in an Amerindian (Mapuche) family from Chile, analyzing glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet-cell autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. The affected sib is the only one that has one specific HLA haplotype combination that differs from the other sibs only in the HLA class I genes. It is concluded that HLA diabetes susceptibility factors may be placed outside the class II region or even that susceptibility factors do not exist in the HLA region in this Amerindian family.

  9. The great diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in Philippine native cattle

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, S.N.; Miyasaka, T.; Polat, M.; Kikuya, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Mingala, C.N.; Villanueva, M.A.; Salces, A.J.; Onuma, M.; Aida, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-based typing (SBT). Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman) than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle). A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle. PMID:25606401

  10. The great diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in Philippine native cattle.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, S N; Miyasaka, T; Polat, M; Kikuya, M; Matsumoto, Y; Mingala, C N; Villanueva, M A; Salces, A J; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2014-12-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-based typing (SBT). Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman) than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle). A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle.

  11. Characterization of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    PubMed

    Lian, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xi-He; Dai, Zheng-Xi; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2017-12-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been identified as an independent species from the pig-tailed macaque group. The species is a promising animal model for HIV/AIDS pathogenesis and vaccine studies due to susceptibility to HIV-1. However, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genetics in northern pig-tailed macaques remains poorly understood. We have previously studied the MHC class I genes in northern pig-tailed macaques and identified 39 novel alleles. Here, we describe the MHC class II alleles in all six classical loci (DPA, DPB, DQA, DQB, DRA, and DRB) from northern pig-tailed macaques using a sequence-based typing method for the first time. A total of 60 MHC-II alleles were identified of which 27 were shared by other macaque species. Additionally, northern pig-tailed macaques expressed a single DRA and multiple DRB genes similar to the expression in humans and other macaque species. Polymorphism and positive selection were detected, and phylogenetic analysis suggested the presence of a common ancestor in human and northern pig-tailed macaque MHC class II allelic lineages at the DQA, DQB, and DRB loci. The characterization of full-length MHC class II alleles in this study significantly improves understanding of the immunogenetics of northern pig-tailed macaques and provides the groundwork for future animal model studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An RNA polymerase II-associated TFIIF-like complex is indispensable for SL RNA gene transcription in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ankita; Badjatia, Nitika; Lee, Ju Huck; Hao, Bing; Günzl, Arthur

    2018-02-28

    Trypanosomes are protistan parasites that diverged early in evolution from most eukaryotes. Their streamlined genomes are packed with arrays of tandemly linked genes that are transcribed polycistronically by RNA polymerase (pol) II. Individual mRNAs are processed from pre-mRNA by spliced leader (SL) trans splicing and polyadenylation. While there is no strong evidence that general transcription factors are needed for transcription initiation at these gene arrays, a RNA pol II transcription pre-initiation complex (PIC) is formed on promoters of SLRNA genes, which encode the small nuclear SL RNA, the SL donor in trans splicing. The factors that form the PIC are extremely divergent orthologues of the small nuclear RNA-activating complex, TBP, TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIIH, TFIIE and Mediator. Here, we functionally characterized a heterodimeric complex of unannotated, nuclear proteins that interacts with RNA pol II and is essential for PIC formation, SL RNA synthesis in vivo, SLRNA transcription in vitro, and parasite viability. These functional attributes suggest that the factor represents TFIIF although the amino acid sequences are too divergent to firmly make this conclusion. This work strongly indicates that early-diverged trypanosomes have orthologues of each and every general transcription factor, requiring them for the synthesis of SL RNA.

  13. [Mutational frequencies in usherin(USH2A gene) in 26 Colombian individuals with Usher syndrome type II].

    PubMed

    López, Greizy; Gelvez, Nancy Yaneth; Tamayo, Martalucía

    2011-03-01

    Usher syndrome is a disorder characterized by progressive retinitis pigmentosa, prelingual sensory hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. It is the most frequent cause of deaf-blindness in humans. Three clinical types and twelve genetic subtypes have been characterized. Type II is the most common, and among these cases, nearly 80% have mutations in the USH2A gene. The aim of the study was to establish the mutational frequencies for the short isoform of USH2A gene in Usher syndrome type II. Twenty-six Colombian individuals with Usher syndrome type II were included. SSCP analysis for 20 exons of the short isoform was performed and abnormal patterns were sequenced. Sequencing of exon 13 of the USH2A gene was performed for all the individuals because the most frequent mutation is located in this exon. The most frequent mutation was c.2299delG, identified in the 27% (n=8) of the sample. The second mutation, p.R334W, showed a frequency of 15%. A new variant identified in the 5’UTR region, g.129G>T, was present in 1 individual (4%). Four polymorphisms were identified; one of them is a new deletion in exon 20, first reported in this study. Mutations in the usherin short isoform were identified in 38% of a sample of 26 USH2 cases. Molecular diagnosis was established in 7 of the 26.

  14. Expression level of risk genes of MHC class II is a susceptibility factor for autoimmunity: New insights.

    PubMed

    Gianfrani, Carmen; Pisapia, Laura; Picascia, Stefania; Strazzullo, Maria; Del Pozzo, Giovanna

    2018-05-01

    To date, the study of the impact of major hystocompatibility complex on autoimmunity has been prevalently focused on structural diversity of MHC molecules in binding and presentation of (auto)antigens to cognate T cells. Recently, a number of experimental evidences suggested new points of view to investigate the complex relationships between MHC gene expression and the individual predisposition to autoimmune diseases. Irrespective of the nature of the antigen, a threshold of MHC-peptide complexes needs to be reached, as well as a threshold of T cell receptors engaged is required, for the activation and proliferation of autoantigen-reactive T cells. Moreover, it is well known that increased expression of MHC class II molecules may alter the T cell receptor repertoire during thymic development, and affect the survival and expansion of mature T cells. Many evidences confirmed that the level of both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation are involved in the modulation of the expression of MHC class II genes and that both contribute to the predisposition to autoimmune diseases. Here, we aim to focus some of these regulative aspects to better clarify the role of MHC class II genes in predisposition and development of autoimmunity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. NUCLEAR MYOSIN II REGULATES THE ASSEMBLY OF PREINITIATION COMPLEX FOR ICAM-1 GENE TRANSCRIPTION

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Actin-myosin II motor converts chemical energy into force/motion in muscle and non-muscle cells. The phosphorylation of regulatory light chain (MLC20) is critical to the cytoplasmic functions of these motors. We do not know whether myosin II and actins in the nucleus function as motors to generate relative motion, such as that between RNA polymerase II holoenzyme and DNA, for assembly of the preinitiation complex. Methods The experiments were performed on primary cultures of human colonic circular smooth muscle cells (HCCSMCs) and rat colonic circular muscle strips. Results We show that myosin II and α- and β-actins are present in the nuclei of colonic smooth muscle cells. The nuclear myosin II is tethered to recognition sequence AGCTCC (−39/−34) in the ICAM-1 core promoter region. The actins are known to complex with RNA polymerase II and they are tethered to the nucleoskeleton. The dephosphorylation of MLC20 increases the transcription of ICAM-1, whereas its phosphorylation decreases it. Colonic inflammation suppresses nuclear MLCK, which increases the unphosphorylated form of nuclear MLC20, resulting in enhanced transcription of ICAM-1. Conclusions 1) Myosin II is a core transcription factor; 2) the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of nuclear MLC20 results in the sliding of myosin and actin molecules past each other producing relative motion between the DNA bound to the myosin II and RNA polymerase II holoenzyme bound to actins and nucleoskeleton. PMID:19328794

  16. Functional Gene-Guided Discovery of Type II Polyketides from Culturable Actinomycetes Associated with Soft Coral Scleronephthya sp

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Peng, Chongsheng; Zhao, Yunyu; Li, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Compared with the actinomycetes in stone corals, the phylogenetic diversity of soft coral-associated culturable actinomycetes is essentially unexplored. Meanwhile, the knowledge of the natural products from coral-associated actinomycetes is very limited. In this study, thirty-two strains were isolated from the tissue of the soft coral Scleronephthya sp. in the East China Sea, which were grouped into eight genera by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis: Micromonospora, Gordonia, Mycobacterium, Nocardioides, Streptomyces, Cellulomonas, Dietzia and Rhodococcus. 6 Micromonospora strains and 4 Streptomyces strains were found to be with the potential for producing aromatic polyketides based on the analysis of KSα (ketoacyl-synthase) gene in the PKS II (type II polyketides synthase) gene cluster. Among the 6 Micromonospora strains, angucycline cyclase gene was amplified in 2 strains (A5-1 and A6-2), suggesting their potential in synthesizing angucyclines e.g. jadomycin. Under the guidance of functional gene prediction, one jadomycin B analogue (7b, 13-dihydro-7-O-methyl jadomycin B) was detected in the fermentation broth of Micromonospora sp. strain A5-1. This study highlights the phylogenetically diverse culturable actinomycetes associated with the tissue of soft coral Scleronephthya sp. and the potential of coral-derived actinomycetes especially Micromonospora in producing aromatic polyketides. PMID:22880121

  17. The pag Gene of pXO1 Is Involved in Capsule Biosynthesis of Bacillus anthracis Pasteur II Strain.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xudong; Zhu, Jin; Zhao, Zhongzhi; Zheng, Feng; Zhang, Huijuan; Wei, Jianchun; Ji, Yon; Ji, Yinduo

    2017-01-01

    The poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule and anthrax toxins are major virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis . Genes responsible for capsule biosynthesis are located on pXO2, whereas genes encoding the toxins, which are composed of edema factors, lethal factors, and protective antigens (PA), are located on pXO1. In this study, we found that the pag null mutation not only eliminated the production of the protective antigen, it also eliminated the ability of the B. anthracis Pasteur II strain to form capsules. qPCR analysis revealed that the deletion of pag decreased the transcription levels of the capABCD operon and its regulatory genes acpA and acpB . The introduction of the acpA or acpB plasmid complemented the effect of the pag null mutation on capsule formation. Taken together, the above results suggest that PA probably affects capsule biosynthesis by altering the expression of acpA and acpB . In addition, we found that the deletion mutation of pag remarkably attenuated bacterial pathogenicity in a mouse model of infection. Our results indicate that besides encoding the protective antigen, the pag gene of pXO1 is also involved in the modulation of capsule biosynthesis. Our findings provide new insight into the regulation mechanisms of capsule formation in B. anthracis Pasteur II strain.

  18. The pag Gene of pXO1 Is Involved in Capsule Biosynthesis of Bacillus anthracis Pasteur II Strain

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xudong; Zhu, Jin; Zhao, Zhongzhi; Zheng, Feng; Zhang, Huijuan; Wei, Jianchun; Ji, Yon; Ji, Yinduo

    2017-01-01

    The poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule and anthrax toxins are major virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis. Genes responsible for capsule biosynthesis are located on pXO2, whereas genes encoding the toxins, which are composed of edema factors, lethal factors, and protective antigens (PA), are located on pXO1. In this study, we found that the pag null mutation not only eliminated the production of the protective antigen, it also eliminated the ability of the B. anthracis Pasteur II strain to form capsules. qPCR analysis revealed that the deletion of pag decreased the transcription levels of the capABCD operon and its regulatory genes acpA and acpB. The introduction of the acpA or acpB plasmid complemented the effect of the pag null mutation on capsule formation. Taken together, the above results suggest that PA probably affects capsule biosynthesis by altering the expression of acpA and acpB. In addition, we found that the deletion mutation of pag remarkably attenuated bacterial pathogenicity in a mouse model of infection. Our results indicate that besides encoding the protective antigen, the pag gene of pXO1 is also involved in the modulation of capsule biosynthesis. Our findings provide new insight into the regulation mechanisms of capsule formation in B. anthracis Pasteur II strain. PMID:28603695

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of the core histone doublet and DNA topo II genes of Marseilleviridae: evidence of proto-eukaryotic provenance.

    PubMed

    Erives, Albert J

    2017-11-28

    While the genomes of eukaryotes and Archaea both encode the histone-fold domain, only eukaryotes encode the core histone paralogs H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. With DNA, these core histones assemble into the nucleosomal octamer underlying eukaryotic chromatin. Importantly, core histones for H2A and H3 are maintained as neofunctionalized paralogs adapted for general bulk chromatin (canonical H2 and H3) or specialized chromatin (H2A.Z enriched at gene promoters and cenH3s enriched at centromeres). In this context, the identification of core histone-like "doublets" in the cytoplasmic replication factories of the Marseilleviridae (MV) is a novel finding with possible relevance to understanding the origin of eukaryotic chromatin. Here, we analyze and compare the core histone doublet genes from all known MV genomes as well as other MV genes relevant to the origin of the eukaryotic replisome. Using different phylogenetic approaches, we show that MV histone domains encode obligate H2B-H2A and H4-H3 dimers of possible proto-eukaryotic origin. MV core histone moieties form sister clades to each of the four eukaryotic clades of canonical and variant core histones. This suggests that MV core histone moieties diverged prior to eukaryotic neofunctionalizations associated with paired linear chromosomes and variant histone octamer assembly. We also show that MV genomes encode a proto-eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase II enzyme that forms a sister clade to eukaryotes. This is a relevant finding given that DNA topo II influences histone deposition and chromatin compaction and is the second most abundant nuclear protein after histones. The combined domain architecture and phylogenomic analyses presented here suggest that a primitive origin for MV histone genes is a more parsimonious explanation than horizontal gene transfers + gene fusions + sufficient divergence to eliminate relatedness to eukaryotic neofunctionalizations within the H2A and H3 clades without loss of relatedness to each of

  20. RNA pol II transcript abundance controls condensin accumulation at mitotically up-regulated and heat-shock-inducible genes in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Norihiko; Sajiki, Kenichi; Xu, Xingya; Villar-Briones, Alejandro; Arakawa, Orie; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2015-06-01

    Condensin plays fundamental roles in chromosome dynamics. In this study, we determined the binding sites of condensin on fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) chromosomes at the level of nucleotide sequences using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq). We found that condensin binds to RNA polymerase I-, II- and III-transcribed genes during both mitosis and interphase, and we focused on pol II constitutive and inducible genes. Accumulation sites for condensin are distinct from those of cohesin and DNA topoisomerase II. Using cell cycle stage and heat-shock-inducible genes, we show that pol II-mediated transcripts cause condensin accumulation. First, condensin's enrichment on mitotically activated genes was abolished by deleting the sep1(+) gene that encodes an M-phase-specific forkhead transcription factor. Second, by raising the temperature, condensin accumulation was rapidly induced at heat-shock protein genes in interphase and even during mid-mitosis. In interphase, condensin accumulates preferentially during the postreplicative phase. Pol II-mediated transcription was neither repressed nor activated by condensin, as levels of transcripts per se did not change when mutant condensin failed to associate with chromosomal DNA. However, massive chromosome missegregation occurred, suggesting that abundant pol II transcription may require active condensin before proper chromosome segregation. © 2015 The Authors. Genes to Cells published by Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Role of Fosinopril and Valsartan on Klotho Gene Expression Induced by Angiotensin II in Rat Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Q; Lin, S; Tang, R; Veeraragoo, P; Peng, W; Wu, R

    2010-01-01

    Klotho gene, a new anti-aging gene, is mainly expressed in the kidney tubules. Several studies have found the relationship between klotho and emergence and development of renal diseases. This study set out to explore the role of fosinopril (Fos) and valsartan (Val) on klotho expression induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in rat renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E). NRK-52E cells were divided into five groups according to the treatment of Ang II, Fos and Val. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), p38, phospho-p38 (p-p38), p53, and Sp1 protein expression were determined by immunohistochemical and Western blotting analysis. Klotho expression was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis. Ang II upregulated TGF-β1, p-p38 and p53 expression, and inhibited Sp1 and klotho expression in NRK-52E cells. After the intervention of Fos and/or Val, TGF-β1, p-p38 and p53 expression were downregulated, Sp1 and klotho expression were upregulated. TGF-β1 and p53, Sp1 and klotho expression exhibited a positive linear correlation, respectively. We conclude that Fos and Val have a protective role in Ang II-induced renal damage, and it may be through mechanism of inhibiting TGF-β1, p-p38 and p53 expression, thus upregulating Sp1 and klotho expression. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Transformation of miniature potted rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Linda) with P( SAG12 )-ipt gene delays leaf senescence and enhances resistance to exogenous ethylene.

    PubMed

    Zakizadeh, Hedayat; Lütken, Henrik; Sriskandarajah, Sridevy; Serek, Margrethe; Müller, Renate

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : The P ( SAG12 ) -ipt gene was transferred to miniature rose, as the first woody species, resulting in increased ethylene resistance due to specific up-regulation of the ipt gene under senescence promoting conditions. Transgenic plants of Rosa hybrida 'Linda' were obtained via transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring the binary vector pSG529(+) containing the P( SAG12 )-ipt construct. A. tumefaciens strains AGL1, GV3850 and LBA4404 (containing P(35S)-INTGUS gene) were used for transformation of embryogenic callus, but transgenic shoots were obtained only when AGL1 was applied. The highest transformation frequency was 10 % and it was achieved when half MS medium was used for the dilution of overnight culture of Agrobacterium. Southern blot confirmed integration of 1-6 copies of the nptII gene into the rose genome in the tested lines. Four transgenic lines were obtained which were morphologically true-to-type and indistinguishable from Wt shoots while they were in in vitro cultures. Adventitious root induction was more difficult in transgenic shoots compared to the Wt shoots, however, one of the transgenic lines (line 6) was rooted and subsequently analyzed phenotypically. The ipt expression levels were determined in this line after exposure to exogenous ethylene (3.5 μl l(-1)) and/or darkness. Darkness resulted in twofold up-regulation of ipt expression, whereas darkness combined with ethylene caused eightfold up-regulation in line 6 compared to Wt plants. The transgenic line had significantly higher content of chlorophyll at the end of the treatment period compared to Wt plants.

  3. Mucolipidosis types II and III and non-syndromic stuttering are associated with different variants in the same genes.

    PubMed

    Raza, M Hashim; Domingues, Carlos E F; Webster, Ronald; Sainz, Eduardo; Paris, Emily; Rahn, Rachel; Gutierrez, Joanne; Chow, Ho Ming; Mundorff, Jennifer; Kang, Chang-Soo; Riaz, Naveeda; Basra, Muhammad A R; Khan, Shaheen; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Braun, Allen; Drayna, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Homozygous mutations in GNPTAB and GNPTG are classically associated with mucolipidosis II (ML II) alpha/beta and mucolipidosis III (ML III) alpha/beta/gamma, which are rare lysosomal storage disorders characterized by multiple pathologies. Recently, variants in GNPTAB, GNPTG, and the functionally related NAGPA gene have been associated with non-syndromic persistent stuttering. In a worldwide sample of 1013 unrelated individuals with non-syndromic persistent stuttering we found 164 individuals who carried a rare non-synonymous coding variant in one of these three genes. We compared the frequency of these variants with those in population-matched controls and genomic databases, and their location with those reported in mucolipidosis. Stuttering subjects displayed an excess of non-synonymous coding variants compared to controls and individuals in the 1000 Genomes and Exome Sequencing Project databases. We identified a total of 81 different variants in our stuttering cases. Virtually all of these were missense substitutions, only one of which has been previously reported in mucolipidosis, a disease frequently associated with complete loss-of-function mutations. We hypothesize that rare non-synonymous coding variants in GNPTAB, GNPTG, and NAGPA may account for as much as 16% of persistent stuttering cases, and that variants in GNPTAB and GNPTG are at different sites and may in general, cause less severe effects on protein function than those in ML II alpha/beta and ML III alpha/beta/gamma.

  4. Molecular basis and functional significance of Angiotensin II-induced increase in Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 gene expression in cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    George, Mereena; Vijayakumar, Anupama; Dhanesh, Sivadasan Bindu; James, Jackson; Shivakumar, K

    2016-01-01

    Delineation of mechanisms underlying the regulation of fibrosis-related genes in the heart is an important clinical goal as cardiac fibrosis is a major cause of myocardial dysfunction. This study probed the regulation of Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) gene expression and the regulatory links between Angiotensin II, DDR2 and collagen in Angiotensin II-stimulated cardiac fibroblasts. Real-time PCR and western blot analyses showed that Angiotensin II enhances DDR2 mRNA and protein expression in rat cardiac fibroblasts via NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species induction. NF-κB activation, demonstrated by gel shift assay, abolition of DDR2 expression upon NF-κB inhibition, and luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed transcriptional control of DDR2 by NF-κB in Angiotensin II-treated cells. Inhibitors of Phospholipase C and Protein kinase C prevented Angiotensin II-dependent p38 MAPK phosphorylation that in turn blocked NF-κB activation. Angiotensin II also enhanced collagen gene expression. Importantly, the stimulatory effects of Angiotensin II on DDR2 and collagen were inter-dependent as siRNA-mediated silencing of one abolished the other. Angiotensin II promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation whose inhibition attenuated Angiotensin II-stimulation of collagen but not DDR2. Furthermore, DDR2 knockdown prevented Angiotensin II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, indicating that DDR2-dependent ERK1/2 activation enhances collagen expression in cells exposed to Angiotensin II. DDR2 knockdown was also associated with compromised wound healing response to Angiotensin II. To conclude, Angiotensin II promotes NF-κB activation that up-regulates DDR2 transcription. A reciprocal regulatory relationship between DDR2 and collagen, involving cross-talk between the GPCR and RTK pathways, is central to Angiotensin II-induced increase in collagen expression in cardiac fibroblasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comprehensive analysis of MHC class II genes in teleost fish genomes reveals dispensability of the peptide-loading DM system in a large part of vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play an essential role in presenting peptide antigens to CD4+ T lymphocytes in the acquired immune system. The non-classical class II DM molecule, HLA-DM in the case of humans, possesses critical function in assisting the classical MHC class II molecules for proper peptide loading and is highly conserved in tetrapod species. Although the absence of DM-like genes in teleost fish has been speculated based on the results of homology searches, it has not been definitively clear whether the DM system is truly specific for tetrapods or not. To obtain a clear answer, we comprehensively searched class II genes in representative teleost fish genomes and analyzed those genes regarding the critical functional features required for the DM system. Results We discovered a novel ancient class II group (DE) in teleost fish and classified teleost fish class II genes into three major groups (DA, DB and DE). Based on several criteria, we investigated the classical/non-classical nature of various class II genes and showed that only one of three groups (DA) exhibits classical-type characteristics. Analyses of predicted class II molecules revealed that the critical tryptophan residue required for a classical class II molecule in the DM system could be found only in some non-classical but not in classical-type class II molecules of teleost fish. Conclusions Teleost fish, a major group of vertebrates, do not possess the DM system for the classical class II peptide-loading and this sophisticated system has specially evolved in the tetrapod lineage. PMID:24279922

  6. Chromatin features, RNA polymerase II and the comparative expression of lens genes encoding crystallins, transcription factors, and autophagy mediators

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Rockowitz, Shira; Chauss, Daniel; Wang, Ping; Kantorow, Marc; Zheng, Deyou

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Gene expression correlates with local chromatin structure. Our studies have mapped histone post-translational modifications, RNA polymerase II (pol II), and transcription factor Pax6 in lens chromatin. These data represent the first genome-wide insights into the relationship between lens chromatin structure and lens transcriptomes and serve as an excellent source for additional data analysis and refinement. The principal lens proteins, the crystallins, are encoded by predominantly expressed mRNAs; however, the regulatory mechanisms underlying their high expression in the lens remain poorly understood. Methods The formaldehyde-assisted identification of regulatory regions (FAIRE-Seq) was employed to analyze newborn lens chromatin. ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data published earlier (GSE66961) have been used to assist in FAIRE-seq data interpretation. RNA transcriptomes from murine lens epithelium, lens fibers, erythrocytes, forebrain, liver, neurons, and pancreas were compared to establish the gene expression levels of the most abundant mRNAs versus median gene expression across other differentiated cells. Results Normalized RNA expression data from multiple tissues show that crystallins rank among the most highly expressed genes in mammalian cells. These findings correlate with the extremely high abundance of pol II all across the crystallin loci, including crystallin genes clustered on chromosomes 1 and 5, as well as within regions of “open” chromatin, as identified by FAIRE-seq. The expression levels of mRNAs encoding DNA-binding transcription factors (e.g., Foxe3, Hsf4, Maf, Pax6, Prox1, Sox1, and Tfap2a) revealed that their transcripts form “clusters” of abundant mRNAs in either lens fibers or lens epithelium. The expression of three autophagy regulatory mRNAs, encoding Tfeb, FoxO1, and Hif1α, was found within a group of lens preferentially expressed transcription factors compared to the E12.5 forebrain. Conclusions This study reveals novel features of

  7. Chromatin features, RNA polymerase II and the comparative expression of lens genes encoding crystallins, transcription factors, and autophagy mediators.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Rockowitz, Shira; Chauss, Daniel; Wang, Ping; Kantorow, Marc; Zheng, Deyou; Cvekl, Ales

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression correlates with local chromatin structure. Our studies have mapped histone post-translational modifications, RNA polymerase II (pol II), and transcription factor Pax6 in lens chromatin. These data represent the first genome-wide insights into the relationship between lens chromatin structure and lens transcriptomes and serve as an excellent source for additional data analysis and refinement. The principal lens proteins, the crystallins, are encoded by predominantly expressed mRNAs; however, the regulatory mechanisms underlying their high expression in the lens remain poorly understood. The formaldehyde-assisted identification of regulatory regions (FAIRE-Seq) was employed to analyze newborn lens chromatin. ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data published earlier (GSE66961) have been used to assist in FAIRE-seq data interpretation. RNA transcriptomes from murine lens epithelium, lens fibers, erythrocytes, forebrain, liver, neurons, and pancreas were compared to establish the gene expression levels of the most abundant mRNAs versus median gene expression across other differentiated cells. Normalized RNA expression data from multiple tissues show that crystallins rank among the most highly expressed genes in mammalian cells. These findings correlate with the extremely high abundance of pol II all across the crystallin loci, including crystallin genes clustered on chromosomes 1 and 5, as well as within regions of "open" chromatin, as identified by FAIRE-seq. The expression levels of mRNAs encoding DNA-binding transcription factors (e.g., Foxe3, Hsf4, Maf, Pax6, Prox1, Sox1, and Tfap2a) revealed that their transcripts form "clusters" of abundant mRNAs in either lens fibers or lens epithelium. The expression of three autophagy regulatory mRNAs, encoding Tfeb, FoxO1, and Hif1α, was found within a group of lens preferentially expressed transcription factors compared to the E12.5 forebrain. This study reveals novel features of lens chromatin, including the remarkably

  8. Fcp1 Dephosphorylation of the RNA Polymerase II C-Terminal Domain Is Required for Efficient Transcription of Heat Shock Genes

    PubMed Central

    Fuda, Nicholas J.; Buckley, Martin S.; Wei, Wenxiang; Core, Leighton J.; Waters, Colin T.; Reinberg, Danny

    2012-01-01

    Fcp1 dephosphorylates the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to recycle it into a form that can initiate a new round of transcription. Previously, we identified Drosophila Fcp1 as an important factor in optimal Hsp70 mRNA accumulation after heat shock. Here, we examine the role of Fcp1 in transcription of heat shock genes in vivo. We demonstrate that Fcp1 localizes to active sites of transcription including the induced Hsp70 gene. The reduced Hsp70 mRNA accumulation seen by RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of Fcp1 in S2 cells is a result of a loss of Pol II in the coding region of highly transcribed heat shock-induced genes: Hsp70, Hsp26, and Hsp83. Moreover, Fcp1 depletion dramatically increases phosphorylation of the non-chromatin-bound Pol II. Reexpression of either wild-type or catalytically dead versions of Fcp1 demonstrates that both the reduced Pol II levels on heat shock genes and the increased levels of phosphorylated free Pol II are dependent on the catalytic activity of Fcp1. Our results indicate that Fcp1 is required to maintain the pool of initiation-competent unphosphorylated Pol II, and this function is particularly important for the highly transcribed heat shock genes. PMID:22733996

  9. Assignment of the human casein kinase II [alpha][prime] subunit gene (CSNK2A1) to chromosome 16p13. 2-p13. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Yang-Feng, T.L.; Naiman, T.; Kopatz, I.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have previously mapped the CK II-[beta] gene (CSNK2B) to chromosome 6p12-p21 and the CK II-[alpha] sequence to two sites, chromosomes 11p15.5-p15.4 and 20p13, the latter having been verified by other investigators. The sequencing of a genomic human DNA fragment has shown that the CK II-[alpha] gene (CSNK2A) localized to chromosome 11 is a processed (pseudo) gene and therefore the active gene is presumably on chromosome 20. The other catalytic subunit gene CK II-[alpha][prime] was localized to chromosome 16 by somatic cell hybrid analysis. The authors now report the regional mapping of the CK II-[alpha][prime] gene (CSNK2A1) to chromosomemore » 16p13.2-p13.3. The probe used was a 414-bp fragment from the 3[prime] nontranslated region of the human CK II-[alpha][prime] cDNA. Chromosomal localization was carried out by in situ hybridization as previously described. Of 128 grains scored in 75 cells, 13 (10.2%) were located on the distal short arm of chromosome 16, bands p13.2-p13.3. No other sites were labeled above background. 7 refs., 1 fig.« less

  10. RNA pol II transcript abundance controls condensin accumulation at mitotically up-regulated and heat-shock-inducible genes in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, Norihiko; Sajiki, Kenichi; Xu, Xingya; Villar-Briones, Alejandro; Arakawa, Orie; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Condensin plays fundamental roles in chromosome dynamics. In this study, we determined the binding sites of condensin on fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) chromosomes at the level of nucleotide sequences using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq). We found that condensin binds to RNA polymerase I-, II- and III-transcribed genes during both mitosis and interphase, and we focused on pol II constitutive and inducible genes. Accumulation sites for condensin are distinct from those of cohesin and DNA topoisomerase II. Using cell cycle stage and heat-shock-inducible genes, we show that pol II-mediated transcripts cause condensin accumulation. First, condensin's enrichment on mitotically activated genes was abolished by deleting the sep1+ gene that encodes an M-phase-specific forkhead transcription factor. Second, by raising the temperature, condensin accumulation was rapidly induced at heat-shock protein genes in interphase and even during mid-mitosis. In interphase, condensin accumulates preferentially during the postreplicative phase. Pol II-mediated transcription was neither repressed nor activated by condensin, as levels of transcripts per se did not change when mutant condensin failed to associate with chromosomal DNA. However, massive chromosome missegregation occurred, suggesting that abundant pol II transcription may require active condensin before proper chromosome segregation. PMID:25847133

  11. Identification of flavone phytoalexins and a pathogen-inducible flavone synthase II gene (SbFNSII) in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Du, Yegang; Chu, Hung; Wang, Mingfu; Chu, Ivan K; Lo, Clive

    2010-02-01

    Following inoculation with the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum sublineolum, seedlings of the sorghum resistant cultivar SC748-5 showed more rapid and elevated accumulation of luteolin than the susceptible cultivar BTx623. On the other hand, apigenin was the major flavone detected in infected BTx623 seedlings. Luteolin was demonstrated to show stronger inhibition of spore germination of C. sublineolum than apigenin. Because of their pathogen-inducible and antifungal nature, both flavone aglycones are considered sorghum phytoalexins. The key enzyme responsible for flavone biosynthesis has not been characterized in monocots. A sorghum pathogen-inducible gene encoding a cytochrome P450 protein (CYP93G3) in the uncharacterized CYP93G subfamily was identified. Transgenic expression of the P450 gene in Arabidopsis demonstrated that the encoded protein is a functional flavone synthase (FNS) II in planta. The sorghum gene was then termed SbFNSII. It is a single-copy gene located on chromosome 2 and the first FNSII gene characterized in a monocot. Metabolite analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in precursor ion scan mode revealed the accumulation of 2-hydroxynaringenin and 2-hydroxyeriodictyol hexosides in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Hence, SbFNSII appears to share a similar catalytic mechanism with the licorice and Medicago truncatula FNSIIs (CYP93B subfamily) by converting flavanones to flavone through the formation of 2-hydroxyflavanones.

  12. A gene for the mouse pink-eyed dilution locus and for human type II oculocutaneous albinism.

    PubMed

    Rinchik, E M; Bultman, S J; Horsthemke, B; Lee, S T; Strunk, K M; Spritz, R A; Avidano, K M; Jong, M T; Nicholls, R D

    1993-01-07

    The mouse pink-eyed dilution (p) locus on chromosome 7 is associated with defects of skin, eye and coat pigmentation. Mutations at p cause a reduction of eumelanin (black-brown) pigment and altered morphology of black pigment granules (eumelanosomes), but have little effect on pheomelanin (yellow-red) pigment. We show here that the human complementary DNA DN10, linked to the p locus in mice, identifies the human homologue (P) of the mouse p gene, and appears to encode an integral membrane transporter protein. The expression pattern of this gene in various p mutant mice correlates with the pigmentation phenotype; moreover, an abnormally sized messenger RNA is detected in one mutant, p(un), which reverts to the normal size in p(un) revertants. The human P gene corresponds to the D15S12 locus within the chromosome segment 15q11-q13, which is typically deleted in patients with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome (see ref. 5 for review). These disorders are phenotypically distinct, depending on the parent of origin of the deleted chromosome, but both syndromes are often associated with hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eyes (see ref. 8 for review), and deletion of the P gene may be responsible for this hypopigmentation. In addition, we report a mutation in both copies of the human P gene in one case of tyrosinase-positive (type II) oculocutaneous albinism, recently linked to 15q11-q13 (ref. 9).

  13. Cloning and analysis of the genes encoding the type IIS restriction-modification system HphI from Haemophilus parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Lubys, A; Lubienè, J; Kulakauskas, S; Stankevicius, K; Timinskas, A; Janulaitis, A

    1996-07-15

    The genomic region encoding the type IIS restriction-modification (R-M) system HphI (enzymes recognizing the asymmetric sequence 5'-GGTGA-3'/5'-TCACC-3') from Haemophilus parahaemolyticus were cloned into Escherichia coli and sequenced. Sequence analysis of the R-M HphI system revealed three adjacent genes aligned in the same orientation: a cytosine 5 methyltransferase (gene hphIMC), an adenine N6 methyltransferase (hphIMA) and the HphI restriction endonuclease (gene hphIR). Either methyltransferase is capable of protecting plasmid DNA in vivo against the action of the cognate restriction endonuclease. hphIMA methylation renders plasmid DNA resistant to R.Hindill at overlapping sites, suggesting that the adenine methyltransferase modifies the 3'-terminal A residue on the GGTGA strand. Strong homology was found between the N-terminal part of the m6A methyltransferasease and an unidentified reading frame interrupted by an incomplete gaIE gene of Neisseria meningitidis. The HphI R-M genes are flanked by a copy of a 56 bp direct nucleotide repeat on each side. Similar sequences have also been identified in the non-coding regions of H.influenzae Rd DNA. Possible involvement of the repeat sequences in the mobility of the HphI R-M system is discussed.

  14. Cloning and analysis of the genes encoding the type IIS restriction-modification system HphI from Haemophilus parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed Central

    Lubys, A; Lubienè, J; Kulakauskas, S; Stankevicius, K; Timinskas, A; Janulaitis, A

    1996-01-01

    The genomic region encoding the type IIS restriction-modification (R-M) system HphI (enzymes recognizing the asymmetric sequence 5'-GGTGA-3'/5'-TCACC-3') from Haemophilus parahaemolyticus were cloned into Escherichia coli and sequenced. Sequence analysis of the R-M HphI system revealed three adjacent genes aligned in the same orientation: a cytosine 5 methyltransferase (gene hphIMC), an adenine N6 methyltransferase (hphIMA) and the HphI restriction endonuclease (gene hphIR). Either methyltransferase is capable of protecting plasmid DNA in vivo against the action of the cognate restriction endonuclease. hphIMA methylation renders plasmid DNA resistant to R.Hindill at overlapping sites, suggesting that the adenine methyltransferase modifies the 3'-terminal A residue on the GGTGA strand. Strong homology was found between the N-terminal part of the m6A methyltransferasease and an unidentified reading frame interrupted by an incomplete gaIE gene of Neisseria meningitidis. The HphI R-M genes are flanked by a copy of a 56 bp direct nucleotide repeat on each side. Similar sequences have also been identified in the non-coding regions of H.influenzae Rd DNA. Possible involvement of the repeat sequences in the mobility of the HphI R-M system is discussed. PMID:8759008

  15. Mutational spectrum in congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II: Identification of 19 novel variants in SEC23B gene

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Roberta; Esposito, Maria Rosaria; Asci, Roberta; Gambale, Antonella; Perrotta, Silverio; Ramenghi, Ugo; Forni, Gian Luca; Uygun, Vedat; Delaunay, Jean; Iolascon, Achille

    2010-01-01

    SEC23B gene encodes an essential component of the coat protein complex II (COPII)-coated vesicles. Mutations in this gene cause the vast majority the congenital dyserythropoietic anemia Type II (CDA II), a rare disorder resulting from impaired erythropoiesis. Here, we investigated 28 CDA II patients from 21 unrelated families enrolled in the CDA II International Registry. Overall, we found 19 novel variants [c.2270 A>C p.H757P; c.2149−2 A>G; c.1109+1 G>A; c.387(delG) p.L129LfsX26; c.1858 A>G p.M620V; c.1832 G>C p.R611P; c.1735 T>A p.Y579N; c.1254 T>G p.I418M; c.1015 C>T p.R339X; c.1603 C>T p.R535X; c.1654 C>T p.L552F; c.1307 C>T p.S436L; c.279+3 A>G; c. 2150(delC) p.A717VfsX7; c.1733 T>C p.L578P; c.1109+5 G>A; c.221+31 A>G; c.367 C>T p.R123X; c.1857_1859delCAT; p.I619del] in the homozygous or the compound heterozygous state. Homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for two nonsense mutations was never found. In four cases the sequencing analysis has failed to find two mutations. To discuss the putative functional consequences of missense mutations, computational analysis and sequence alignment were performed. Our data underscore the high allelic heterogeneity of CDA II, as the most of SEC23B variations are inherited as private mutations. In this mutation update, we also provided a tool to improve and facilitate the molecular diagnosis of CDA II by defining the frequency of mutations in each exon. Am. J. Hematol., 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20941788

  16. Length of guanosine homopolymeric repeats modulates promoter activity of subfamily II tpr genes of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum

    PubMed Central

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Lukehart, Sheila; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    In Treponema pallidum, homopolymeric guanosine repeats of varying length are present upstream of both Subfamily I (tprC, D, F and I) and II (tprE, G and J) tpr genes, a group of potential virulence factors, immediately upstream of the +1 nucleotide. To investigate the influence of these poly-G sequences on promoter activity, tprE, G, J, F and I promoter regions containing homopolymeric tracts with different numbers of Gs, the ribosomal binding site and start codon were cloned in frame with the green fluorescent protein reporter gene (GFP), and promoter activity was measured both as fluorescence emission from Escherichia coli cultures transformed with the different plasmid constructs and using quantitative RT-PCR. For tprJ, G and E-derived clones, fluorescence was significantly higher with constructs containing eight Gs or fewer, while plasmids containing the same promoters with none or more Gs gave modest or no signal above the background. In contrast, tprF/I-derived clones induced similar levels of fluorescence regardless of the number of Gs within the promoter. GFP mRNA quantification showed that all of the promoters induced measurable transcription of the GFP gene; however, only for Subfamily II promoters was message synthesis inversely correlated to the number of Gs in the construct. PMID:17683506

  17. Molecular characterization of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II genes in outbred pig populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genes are one of the most important determinants in swine immune, disease and vaccine responses. Thus, understanding how SLA gene polymorphism affects immunity, especially in outbred pig populations with a diverse genetic background, requires accu...

  18. Lichen Biosynthetic Gene Clusters Part II: Homology Mapping Suggests a Functional Diversity.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Robert L; Abdel-Hameed, Mona; Sorensen, John L

    2018-02-27

    Lichens are renowned for their diverse natural products though little is known of the genetic programming dictating lichen natural product biosynthesis. We sequenced the genome of Cladonia uncialis and profiled its secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. Through a homology searching approach, we can now propose specific functions for gene products as well as the biosynthetic pathways that are encoded in several of these gene clusters. This analysis revealed that the lichen genome encodes the required enzymes for patulin and betaenones A-C biosynthesis, fungal toxins not known to be produced by lichens. Within several gene clusters, some (but not all) genes are genetically similar to genes devoted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Fungi. These lichen clusters also contain accessory tailoring genes without such genetic similarity, suggesting that the encoded tailoring enzymes perform distinct chemical transformations. We hypothesize that C. uncialis gene clusters have evolved by shuffling components of ancestral fungal clusters to create new series of chemical steps, leading to the production of hitherto undiscovered derivatives of fungal secondary metabolites.

  19. Trans-species polymorphism of the Mhc class II DRB-like gene in banded penguins (genus Spheniscus).

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Eri F; Tsuda, Tomi T; Sumiyama, Daisuke; Naruse, Taeko K; Fukuda, Michio; Kurita, Masanori; Wilson, Rory P; LeMaho, Yvon; Miller, Gary D; Tsuda, Michio; Murata, Koichi; Kulski, Jerzy K; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2009-05-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (Mhc) class II DRB locus of vertebrates is highly polymorphic and some alleles may be shared between closely related species as a result of balancing selection in association with resistance to parasites. In this study, we developed a new set of PCR primers to amplify, clone, and sequence overlapping portions of the Mhc class II DRB-like gene from the 5'UTR end to intron 3, including exons 1, 2, and 3 and introns 1 and 2 in four species (20 Humboldt, six African, five Magellanic, and three Galapagos penguins) of penguin from the genus Spheniscus (Sphe). Analysis of gene sequence variation by the neighbor-joining method of 21 Sphe sequences and 20 previously published sequences from four other penguin species revealed overlapping clades within the Sphe species, but species-specific clades for the other penguin species. The overlap of the DRB-like gene sequence variants between the four Sphe species suggests that, despite their allopatric distribution, the Sphe species are closely related and that some shared DRB1 alleles may have undergone a trans-species inheritance because of balancing selection and/or recent rapid speciation. The new primers and PCR assays that we have developed for the identification of the DRB1 DNA and protein sequence variations appear to be useful for the characterization of the molecular evolution of the gene in closely related Penguin species and might be helpful for the assessment of the genetic health and the management of the conservation and captivity of these endangered species.

  20. Association Analysis of Urotensin II Gene (UTS2) and Flanking Regions with Biochemical Parameters Related to Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, María E.; Smani, Tarik; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Díaz, Ignacio; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel; Ruiz, Agustín; Ordoñez, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Background Urotensin II (UII) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, which signals through a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) known as GPR14 or urotensin receptor (UTR). UII exerts a broad spectrum of actions in several systems such as vascular cell, heart muscle or pancreas, where it inhibits insulin release. Objective Given the reported role of UII in insulin secretion, we have performed a genetic association analysis of the UTS2 gene and flanking regions with biochemical parameters related to insulin resistance (fasting glucose, glucose 2 hours after a glucose overload, fasting insulin and insulin resistance estimated as HOMA). Results and Conclusions We have identified several polymorphisms associated with the analysed clinical traits, not only at the UTS2 gene, but also in thePER3 gene, located upstream from UTS2. Our results are compatible with a role for UII in glucose homeostasis and diabetes although we cannot rule out the possibility that PER3 gene may underlie the reported associations. PMID:21559414

  1. Induced mutations in the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) genes increase amylose and resistant starch content in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Uauy, Cristobal; Beckles, Diane M.; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the largest component of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain and consists of approximately 70-80% amylopectin and 20-30% amylose. Amylopectin is a highly-branched, readily digested polysaccharide, whereas amylose has few branches and forms complexes that resist digestion and mimic dietary fiber (resistant starch). Down-regulation of the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) gene by RNA interference (RNAi) was previously shown to increase amylose content in both hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We generated ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mutants for the SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B homoeologs in the tetraploid durum wheat variety Kronos (T. turgidum ssp. durum L.). Single-gene mutants showed non-significant increases in amylose and resistant starch content, but a double mutant combining a SBEIIa-A knock-out mutation with a SBEIIa-B splice-site mutation showed a 22% increase in amylose content (P<0.0001) and a 115% increase in resistant starch content (P<0.0001). In addition, we obtained mutants for the A and B genome copies of the paralogous SBEIIb gene, mapped them 1-2 cM from SBEIIa, and generated double SBEIIa-SBEIIb mutants to study the effect of the SBEIIb gene in the absence of SBEIIa. These mutants are available to those interested in increasing amylose content and resistant starch in durum wheat. PMID:26924849

  2. Heterozygous deletion at the SOX10 gene locus in two patients from a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Wenzhi, He; Ruijin, Wen; Jieliang, Li; Xiaoyan, Ma; Haibo, Liu; Xiaoman, Wang; Jiajia, Xian; Shaoying, Li; Shuanglin, Li; Qing, Li

    2015-10-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare disease characterized by sensorineural deafness and pigment disturbance. To date, almost 100 mutations have been reported, but few reports on cases with SOX10 gene deletion. The inheritance pattern of SOX10 gene deletion is still unclear. Our objective was to identify the genetic causes of Waardenburg syndrome type II in a two-generation Chinese family. Clinical evaluations were conducted in both of the patients. Microarray analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were performed to identify disease-related copy number variants (CNVs). DNA sequencing of the SOX10, MITF and SNAI2 genes was performed to identify the pathogenic mutation responsible for WS2. A 280kb heterozygous deletion at the 22q13.1 chromosome region (including SOX10) was detected in both of the patients. No mutation was found in the patients, unaffected family members and 30 unrelated healthy controls. This report is the first to describe SOX10 heterozygous deletions in Chinese WS2 patients. Our result conform the thesis that heterozygous deletions at SOX10 is an important pathogenicity for WS, and present as autosomal dominant inheritance. Nevertheless, heterozygous deletion of the SOX10 gene would be worth investigating to understand their functions and contributions to neurologic phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gene expression profiling reveals a regulatory role for ROR alpha and ROR gamma in phase I and phase II metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hong Soon; Angers, Martin; Beak, Ju Youn; Wu, Xiying; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Wada, Taira; Xie, Wen; Collins, Jennifer B; Grissom, Sherry F; Jetten, Anton M

    2007-10-22

    Retinoid-related orphan receptors alpha (ROR alpha) and gamma (ROR gamma) are both expressed in liver; however, their physiological functions in this tissue have not yet been clearly defined. The ROR alpha1 and ROR gamma 1 isoforms, but not ROR alpha 4, show an oscillatory pattern of expression during circadian rhythm. To obtain insight into the physiological functions of ROR receptors in liver, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of livers from WT, ROR alpha-deficient staggerer (sg) mice (ROR alpha(sg/sg)), ROR gamma(-/-), and ROR alpha(sg/sg)ROR gamma(-/-) double knockout (DKO) mice by microarray analysis. DKO mice were generated to study functional redundancy between ROR alpha and ROR gamma. These analyses demonstrated that ROR alpha and ROR gamma affect the expression of a number of genes. ROR alpha and ROR gamma are particularly important in the regulation of genes encoding several phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes, including several 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, cytochrome P450 enzymes, and sulfotransferases. In addition, our results indicate that ROR alpha and ROR gamma each affect the expression of a specific set of genes but also exhibit functional redundancy. Our study shows that ROR alpha and ROR gamma receptors influence the regulation of several metabolic pathways, including those involved in the metabolism of steroids, bile acids, and xenobiotics, suggesting that RORs are important in the control of metabolic homeostasis.

  4. Individual letters of the RNA polymerase II CTD code govern distinct gene expression programs in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Schwer, Beate; Bitton, Danny Asher; Sanchez, Ana M.; Bähler, Jürg; Shuman, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    The primary structure and phosphorylation pattern of the tandem Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7 repeats of the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) comprise an informational code that coordinates transcription, chromatin modification, and RNA processing. To gauge the contributions of individual CTD coding “letters” to gene expression, we analyzed the poly(A)+ transcriptomes of fission yeast mutants that lack each of the four inessential CTD phosphoacceptors: Tyr1, Ser2, Thr4, and Ser7. There was a hierarchy of CTD mutational effects with respect to the number of dysregulated protein-coding RNAs, with S2A (n = 227) >> Y1F (n = 71) > S7A (n = 58) >> T4A (n = 7). The majority of the protein-coding RNAs affected in Y1F cells were coordinately affected by S2A, suggesting that Tyr1-Ser2 constitutes a two-letter code “word.” Y1F and S2A elicited increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in iron uptake (Frp1, Fip1, Fio1, Str3, Str1, Sib1), without affecting the expression of the genes that repress the iron regulon, implying that Tyr1-Ser2 transduces a repressive signal. Y1F and S2A cells had increased levels of ferric reductase activity and were hypersensitive to phleomycin, indicative of elevated intracellular iron. The T4A and S7A mutations had opposing effects on the phosphate response pathway. T4A reduced the expression of two genes encoding proteins involved in phosphate acquisition (the Pho1 acid phosphatase and the phosphate transporter SPBC8E4.01c), without affecting the expression of known genes that regulate the phosphate response pathway, whereas S7A increased pho1+ expression. These results highlight specific cellular gene expression programs that are responsive to distinct CTD cues. PMID:24591591

  5. Analysis of the sfaX(II) locus in the Escherichia coli meningitis isolate IHE3034 reveals two novel regulatory genes within the promoter-distal region of the main S fimbrial operon.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, Annika E; Sondén, Berit; Müller, Claudia; Rydström, Anna; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

    2009-03-01

    We describe the expression and regulation of the gene sfaX(II) located near the Sfa(II) fimbrial determinant in the newborn meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC) isolate IHE3034. sfaX(II) belongs to a gene family, the 17-kDa genes, typically located downstream (300-3000bp) of different fimbrial operons found in E. coli isolates of uropathogenic and newborn meningitis origin. Using transcriptional sfaX(II) reporter gene fusions we found that different environmental conditions commonly affecting expression of fimbrial genes also affected sfaX(II) expression. Analysis of the sfaX(II) transcripts showed that the gene is part of the main fimbrial operon as it is transcribed together with the rest of the fimbrial genes. In addition, the sfaX(II) gene can be expressed from a more proximal promoter and is found to be subject to strong down-regulation by the nucleoid protein H-NS. Studies with an sfaX(II) mutant derivative of IHE3034 did not reveal effects on Sfa(II) fimbrial biogenesis as monitored by e.g. immunofluorescence microscopy. Nevertheless, a mutation in sfaX(II) resulted in altered expression of other surface components. Moreover, we define a new gene, sfaY(II), coding for a putative phosphodiesterase that is located in between the sfaX(II) gene and the fimbrial biogenesis genes. Our studies by ectopic expression of sfaY(II) in Vibrio cholerae showed that the gene product caused reduced biofilm formation and it is proposed that sfaY(II) can influence cyclic-di-GMP turnover in the bacteria. Our findings demonstrate that the operons typical for S-fimbriae of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli include previously unrecognized novel regulatory genes.

  6. Sequence, distribution and chromosomal context of class I and class II pilin genes of Neisseria meningitidis identified in whole genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neisseria meningitidis expresses type four pili (Tfp) which are important for colonisation and virulence. Tfp have been considered as one of the most variable structures on the bacterial surface due to high frequency gene conversion, resulting in amino acid sequence variation of the major pilin subunit (PilE). Meningococci express either a class I or a class II pilE gene and recent work has indicated that class II pilins do not undergo antigenic variation, as class II pilE genes encode conserved pilin subunits. The purpose of this work was to use whole genome sequences to further investigate the frequency and variability of the class II pilE genes in meningococcal isolate collections. Results We analysed over 600 publically available whole genome sequences of N. meningitidis isolates to determine the sequence and genomic organization of pilE. We confirmed that meningococcal strains belonging to a limited number of clonal complexes (ccs, namely cc1, cc5, cc8, cc11 and cc174) harbour a class II pilE gene which is conserved in terms of sequence and chromosomal context. We also identified pilS cassettes in all isolates with class II pilE, however, our analysis indicates that these do not serve as donor sequences for pilE/pilS recombination. Furthermore, our work reveals that the class II pilE locus lacks the DNA sequence motifs that enable (G4) or enhance (Sma/Cla repeat) pilin antigenic variation. Finally, through analysis of pilin genes in commensal Neisseria species we found that meningococcal class II pilE genes are closely related to pilE from Neisseria lactamica and Neisseria polysaccharea, suggesting horizontal transfer among these species. Conclusions Class II pilins can be defined by their amino acid sequence and genomic context and are present in meningococcal isolates which have persisted and spread globally. The absence of G4 and Sma/Cla sequences adjacent to the class II pilE genes is consistent with the lack of pilin subunit variation in these

  7. Variation in MHC class II B genes in marbled murrelets: implications for delineating conservation units

    Treesearch

    C. Vásquez-Carrillo; V. Friesen; L. Hall; M.Z. Peery

    2013-01-01

    Conserving genetic variation is critical for maintaining the evolutionary potential and viability of a species. Genetic studies seeking to delineate conservation units, however, typically focus on characterizing neutral genetic variation and may not identify populations harboring local adaptations. Here, variation at two major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II...

  8. Elimination of manganese(II,III) oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 by a double knockout of two putative multicopper oxidase genes.

    PubMed

    Geszvain, Kati; McCarthy, James K; Tebo, Bradley M

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial manganese(II) oxidation impacts the redox cycling of Mn, other elements, and compounds in the environment; therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms of and enzymes responsible for Mn(II) oxidation. In several Mn(II)-oxidizing organisms, the identified Mn(II) oxidase belongs to either the multicopper oxidase (MCO) or the heme peroxidase family of proteins. However, the identity of the oxidase in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 has long remained unknown. To identify the P. putida GB-1 oxidase, we searched its genome and found several homologues of known or suspected Mn(II) oxidase-encoding genes (mnxG, mofA, moxA, and mopA). To narrow this list, we assumed that the Mn(II) oxidase gene would be conserved among Mn(II)-oxidizing pseudomonads but not in nonoxidizers and performed a genome comparison to 11 Pseudomonas species. We further assumed that the oxidase gene would be regulated by MnxR, a transcription factor required for Mn(II) oxidation. Two loci met all these criteria: PputGB1_2447, which encodes an MCO homologous to MnxG, and PputGB1_2665, which encodes an MCO with very low homology to MofA. In-frame deletions of each locus resulted in strains that retained some ability to oxidize Mn(II) or Mn(III); loss of oxidation was attained only upon deletion of both genes. These results suggest that PputGB1_2447 and PputGB1_2665 encode two MCOs that are independently capable of oxidizing both Mn(II) and Mn(III). The purpose of this redundancy is unclear; however, differences in oxidation phenotype for the single mutants suggest specialization in function for the two enzymes.

  9. MHC class I and MHC class II DRB gene variability in wild and captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Ina; Sharma, Reeta; Goyal, Surendra Prakash; Mishra, Sudanshu; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2010-10-01

    Bengal tigers are highly endangered and knowledge on adaptive genetic variation can be essential for efficient conservation and management. Here we present the first assessment of allelic variation in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II DRB genes for wild and captive tigers from India. We amplified, cloned, and sequenced alpha-1 and alpha-2 domain of MHC class I and beta-1 domain of MHC class II DRB genes in 16 tiger specimens of different geographic origin. We detected high variability in peptide-binding sites, presumably resulting from positive selection. Tigers exhibit a low number of MHC DRB alleles, similar to other endangered big cats. Our initial assessment-admittedly with limited geographic coverage and sample size-did not reveal significant differences between captive and wild tigers with regard to MHC variability. In addition, we successfully amplified MHC DRB alleles from scat samples. Our characterization of tiger MHC alleles forms a basis for further in-depth analyses of MHC variability in this illustrative threatened mammal.

  10. The Class II Trehalose 6-phosphate Synthase Gene PvTPS9 Modulates Trehalose Metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Barraza, Aarón; Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Estrada-Navarrete, Georgina; Reyes, José L.; Juárez-Verdayes, Marco A.; Avonce, Nelson; Quinto, Carmen; Díaz-Camino, Claudia; Sanchez, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Legumes form symbioses with rhizobia, producing nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of the plant host. The network of plant signaling pathways affecting carbon metabolism may determine the final number of nodules. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway regulates carbon metabolism and plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development, as well as in plant-microbe interactions. The expression of genes for trehalose synthesis during nodule development suggests that this metabolite may play a role in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. In this work, PvTPS9, which encodes a Class II trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), was silenced by RNA interference in transgenic nodules. The silencing of PvTPS9 in root nodules resulted in a reduction of 85% (± 1%) of its transcript, which correlated with a 30% decrease in trehalose contents of transgenic nodules and in untransformed leaves. Composite transgenic plants with PvTPS9 silenced in the roots showed no changes in nodule number and nitrogen fixation, but a severe reduction in plant biomass and altered transcript profiles of all Class II TPS genes. Our data suggest that PvTPS9 plays a key role in modulating trehalose metabolism in the symbiotic nodule and, therefore, in the whole plant. PMID:27847509

  11. ASTRAL-II: coalescent-based species tree estimation with many hundreds of taxa and thousands of genes

    PubMed Central

    Mirarab, Siavash; Warnow, Tandy

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The estimation of species phylogenies requires multiple loci, since different loci can have different trees due to incomplete lineage sorting, modeled by the multi-species coalescent model. We recently developed a coalescent-based method, ASTRAL, which is statistically consistent under the multi-species coalescent model and which is more accurate than other coalescent-based methods on the datasets we examined. ASTRAL runs in polynomial time, by constraining the search space using a set of allowed ‘bipartitions’. Despite the limitation to allowed bipartitions, ASTRAL is statistically consistent. Results: We present a new version of ASTRAL, which we call ASTRAL-II. We show that ASTRAL-II has substantial advantages over ASTRAL: it is faster, can analyze much larger datasets (up to 1000 species and 1000 genes) and has substantially better accuracy under some conditions. ASTRAL’s running time is O(n2k|X|2), and ASTRAL-II’s running time is O(nk|X|2), where n is the number of species, k is the number of loci and X is the set of allowed bipartitions for the search space. Availability and implementation: ASTRAL-II is available in open source at https://github.com/smirarab/ASTRAL and datasets used are available at http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~phylo/datasets/astral2/. Contact: smirarab@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26072508

  12. Characterization of a putative cis-regulatory element that controls transcriptional activity of the pig uroplakin II gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Deug-Nam; Park, Mi-Ryung; Park, Jong-Yi

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} The sequences of -604 to -84 bp of the pUPII promoter contained the region of a putative negative cis-regulatory element. {yields} The core promoter was located in the 5F-1. {yields} Transcription factor HNF4 can directly bind in the pUPII core promoter region, which plays a critical role in controlling promoter activity. {yields} These features of the pUPII promoter are fundamental to development of a target-specific vector. -- Abstract: Uroplakin II (UPII) is a one of the integral membrane proteins synthesized as a major differentiation product of mammalian urothelium. UPII gene expression is bladder specific and differentiation dependent, butmore » little is known about its transcription response elements and molecular mechanism. To identify the cis-regulatory elements in the pig UPII (pUPII) gene promoter region, we constructed pUPII 5' upstream region deletion mutants and demonstrated that each of the deletion mutants participates in controlling the expression of the pUPII gene in human bladder carcinoma RT4 cells. We also identified a new core promoter region and putative negative cis-regulatory element within a minimal promoter region. In addition, we showed that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) can directly bind in the pUPII core promoter (5F-1) region, which plays a critical role in controlling promoter activity. Transient cotransfection experiments showed that HNF4 positively regulates pUPII gene promoter activity. Thus, the binding element and its binding protein, HNF4 transcription factor, may be involved in the mechanism that specifically regulates pUPII gene transcription.« less

  13. Heme regulates the expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of chimaeric genes containing 5'-flanking soybean leghemoglobin sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A; Villadsen, I S

    1986-01-01

    The TM1 yeast mutant was transformed with a 2 micron-derived plasmid (YEp24) which carries a chimaeric gene containing the Escherichia coli chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene fused to the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions of the soybean leghemoglobin (Lb) c3 gene. Expression of the chimaeric CAT gene is controlled specifically by heme at a post-transcriptional level, most likely by regulating the efficiencies of translation. Expression of another chimaeric gene consisting of the neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) gene fused to only the 5'-flanking region of the Lbc3 gene is regulated by heme in a similar way. Thus, in yeast, heme modulates the translation of the chimaeric mRNAs through interactions with the 5' Lbc3 non-coding region. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3013619

  14. Expression of tobacco class II catalase gene activates the endogenous homologous gene and is associated with disease resistance in transgenic potato plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, D; Xie, Z; Chen, C; Fan, B; Chen, Z

    1999-02-01

    We have previously shown that healthy potato plants respond poorly to salicylic acid (SA) for activating disease resistance against the late blight fungal pathogen Phytophthora infestans. However, SA is essential for the establishment of potato systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against P. infestans after treatment with the fungal elicitor arachidonic acid (AA). To understand the molecular mechanisms through which AA induces SA-dependent SAR in potato, we have recently studied the expression of potato class II catalase (Cat2St) in comparison with its tobacco homologue, Cat2Nt, which has previously been shown to bind SA. In the present study, we show that tobacco Cat2Nt is expressed at high levels and accounts for almost half of total SA-binding activity detected in tobacco leaves. In contrast, potato Cat2St is not expressed in healthy leaves, which is associated with the low SA responsiveness of potato plants for activation of disease resistance mechanisms. Upon treatment with AA, expression of potato Cat2St is induced not only in AA-treated leaves, but also in the upper untreated parts of the plants, concomitant with the establishment of SA-dependent SAR to P. infestans. Moreover, expression of the tobacco Cat2Nt gene in transgenic potato plants leads to constitutive expression of the endogenous potato Cat2St gene and is associated with enhanced resistance to P. infestans. These results collectively indicate that plant SA-binding class II catalases may play an important role in the development of disease resistance, possibly by serving as biological targets of SA.

  15. Molecular Cloning of α-Amylase Genes from DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. II. Clone Organization and Verification

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jack N.; Gemmill, Robert M.; Doane, Winifred W.

    1985-01-01

    Restriction maps of an α-amylase structural gene clone, λDm65, and of four putative α-amylase pseudogene clones are presented. Two α-amylase structural genes, inverted with respect to each other, are contained in λDm65. Subregions of internal DNA sequence homology within λDm65 and of cross-homology between the presumptive pseudogene clones and λDm65 were determined. Subregions of cross-homology between the Drosophila clones and the mouse α-amylase cDNA clone, pMSa104, were also determined. The presence of functional α-amylase structural genes in λDm65 was verified by injection of appropriate subclones into the germinal vesicle of Xenopus oocytes, followed by incubation of the oocytes under conditions that allowed coupled transcription and translation of injected genes to occur. Subclones of the 3.8- and 5.6- kb EcoRI fragments of λDm65 were shown to code for α-amylase isozymes 1 and 3, respectively, of Drosophila melanogaster Canton-S. Both subclones are homologous to RNA of a size sufficient to accommodate the α-amylase-coding information. No RNA species homologous to other subcloned EcoRI fragments of λDm65 was detected. PMID:2989084

  16. Differential gene expression for glutamic acid decarboxylase and type II calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in basal ganglia, thalamus, and hypothalamus of the monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.L.; Isackson, P.J.; Hendry, S.H.

    1991-06-01

    In situ hybridization histochemistry, using cRNA probes, revealed a complementarity in the distributions of cells in the basal ganglia, basal nucleus of Meynert, thalamus, hypothalamus, and rostral part of the midbrain that showed gene expression for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) or the alpha-subunit of type II calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAM II kinase-alpha). Cells in certain nuclei such as the thalamic reticular nucleus, globus pallidus, and pars reticulata of the substantia nigra show GAD gene expression only; others in nuclei such as the basal nucleus of Meynert, medial mamillary nuclei, and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei show CAM II kinase-alpha gene expression only.more » A few nuclei, for example, the pars compacta of the substantia nigra and the greater part of the subthalamic nucleus, display gene expression for neither GAD nor CAM II kinase-alpha. In other nuclei, notably those of the dorsal thalamus, and possibly in the striatum, GAD- and CAM II kinase-expressing cells appear to form two separate populations that, in most thalamic nuclei, together account for the total cell population. In situ hybridization reveals large amounts of CAM II kinase-alpha mRNA in the neuropil of most nuclei containing CAM II kinase-alpha-positive cells, suggesting its association with dendritic polyribosomes. The message may thus be translated at those sites, close to the synapses with which the protein is associated. The in situ hybridization results, coupled with those from immunocytochemical staining for CAM II kinase-alpha protein, indicate that CAM II kinase-alpha is commonly found in certain non-GABAergic afferent fiber systems but is not necessarily present in the postsynaptic cells on which they terminate. It appears to be absent from most GABAergic fiber systems but can be present in the cells on which they terminate.« less

  17. Disruption of six novel yeast genes located on chromosome II reveals one gene essential for vegetative growth and two required for sporulation and conferring hypersensitivity to various chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kucharczyk, R; Gromadka, R; Migdalski, A; Slonimski, P P; Rytka, J

    1999-07-01

    A PCR-based method for targeted gene deletion by kanMX4 module was used to construct complete deletion mutants of six individual open reading frames from chromosome II: YBR128c, YBR131w, YBR133c, YBR137w, YBR138c and YBR142w. The ORFs were deleted in two diploid strains, FY1679 and W303. Sporulation and tetrad analysis revealed that only one ORF, YBR142w, encoding a putative DEAD-box RNA helicase, is an essential gene. A systematic phenotypic analysis of the deleted mutants was carried out. Homozygous diploids ybr128cDelta/ybr128cDelta and ybr131wDelta/ybr131wDelta did not sporulate. The ybr131cDelta mutant whether haploid or homozygous diploid, in addition displayed an increased sensitivity to Caffeine, Calcium and Zinc, and to emphasize this phenotype we named the gene CCZ1. ORF YBR133c was independently reported by others as Histone Synthetic Lethal (HSL7) (Ma et al., 1996). We found that the aberrant morphology characteristic for ybr133cDelta (hsl7Delta) cells was observed in W303 but not in FY1679 genetic background. Furthermore, we observed that deletion of YBR133c had a pleiotropic effect under a wide range of conditions, including increased sensitivity to calcium, caffeine, calcofluor white, vanadate and verapamil. The effects of the deletion were reinforced in W303 background. We found no phenotypic effects of the two remaining deletions, ybr137wDelta and ybr138cDelta. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Molecular evidence of RNA polymerase II gene reveals the origin of worldwide cultivated barley

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Ren, Xifeng; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

    2016-01-01

    The origin and domestication of cultivated barley have long been under debate. A population-based resequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the single copy of RPB2 gene was used to address barley domestication, to explore genetic differentiation of barley populations on the worldwide scale, and to understand gene-pool exchanges during the spread and subsequent development of barley cultivation. Our results revealed significant genetic differentiation among three geographically distinct wild barley populations. Differences in haplotype composition among populations from different geographical regions revealed that modern cultivated barley originated from two major wild barley populations: one from the Near East Fertile Crescent and the other from the Tibetan Plateau, supporting polyphyletic origin of cultivated barley. The results of haplotype frequencies supported multiple domestications coupled with widespread introgression events that generated genetic admixture between divergent barley gene pools. Our results not only provide important insight into the domestication and evolution of cultivated barley, but also enhance our understanding of introgression and distinct selection pressures in different environments on shaping the genetic diversity of worldwide barley populations, thus further facilitating the effective use of the wild barley germplasm. PMID:27786300

  19. The Limits to Parapatric Speciation II: Strengthening a Preexisting Genetic Barrier to Gene Flow in Parapatry.

    PubMed

    Blanckaert, Alexandre; Hermisson, Joachim

    2018-03-01

    By encompassing the whole continuum between allopatric and sympatric scenarios, parapatric speciation includes many potential scenarios for the evolution of new species. Here, we investigate how a genetic barrier to gene flow, that relies on a single postzygotic genetic incompatibility, may further evolve under ongoing migration. We consider a continent island model with three loci involved in pairwise Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities (DMIs). Using an analytic approach, we derive the conditions for invasion of a new mutation and its consequences for the strength and stability of the initial genetic barrier. Our results show that the accumulation of genetic incompatibilities in the presence of gene flow is under strong selective constraints. In particular, preexisting incompatibilities do not always facilitate the invasion of further barrier genes. If new mutations do invade, they will often weaken or destroy the barrier rather than strengthening it. We conclude that migration is highly effective to disrupt the so-called snowball effect, the accelerated accumulation of DMIs that has been described for allopatric populations en route to reproductive isolation. Copyright © 2018, Genetics.

  20. JH6 downstream intronic sequence is dispensable for RNA polymerase II accumulation and somatic hypermutation of the variable gene in Ramos cells.

    PubMed

    Castiblanco, Diana P; Norton, Darrell D; Maul, Robert W; Gearhart, Patricia J

    2018-05-01

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) introduces nucleotide substitutions within the variable region of immunoglobulin genes to promote antibody diversity. This activity, which is limited to 1.5 kb downstream of the variable gene promoter, mutates both the coding exon and downstream intronic sequences. We recently reported that RNA polymerase II accumulates in these regions during transcription in mice. This build-up directly correlates with the area that is accessible to AID, and manipulation of RNA polymerase II levels alters the mutation frequency. To address whether the intronic DNA sequence by itself can regulate RNA polymerase II accumulation and promote mutagenesis, we deleted 613 bp of DNA downstream of the J H 6 intron in the human Ramos B cell line. The loss of this sequence did not alter polymerase abundance or mutagenesis in the variable gene, suggesting that most of the intronic sequence is dispensable for somatic hypermutation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Association of variants in genes related to the immune response and obesity with BPH in CLUE II.

    PubMed

    Lopez, D S; Peskoe, S B; Tsilidis, K K; Hoffman-Bolton, J; Helzlsouer, K J; Isaacs, W B; Smith, M W; Platz, E A

    2014-12-01

    Chronic inflammation and obesity may contribute to the genesis or progression of BPH and BPH-associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The influence of variants in genes related to these states on BPH has not been studied extensively. Thus, we evaluated the association of 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes (IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNF, CRP, TLR4 and RNASEL) and genes involved in obesity, including insulin regulation (LEP, ADIPOQ, PPARG and TCF7L2), with BPH. BPH cases (N = 568) and age-frequency matched controls (N=568) were selected from among adult male CLUE II cohort participants who responded in 2000 to a mailed questionnaire. BPH was defined as BPH surgery, use of BPH medications or symptomatic BPH (American Urological Association Symptom Index Score ⩾ 15). Controls were men who had not had BPH surgery, did not use BPH medications and whose symptom score was ⩽ 7. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. None of the candidate SNPs was statistically significantly associated with BPH. However, we could not rule out possible weak associations for CRP rs1205 (1082C>T), ADIPOQ rs1501299 (276C>A), PPARG rs1801282 (-49C>G) and TCF7L2 rs7903146 (47833T>C). After summing risk alleles, men with ⩾ 4 had an increased BPH risk compared with those with ⩽ 1 (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.10-2.89; P(trend) = 0.006). SNPs in genes related to immune response and obesity, especially in combination, may be associated with BPH.

  2. Transcriptional up-regulation of antioxidant genes by PPAR{delta} inhibits angiotensin II-induced premature senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Ham, Sun Ah; Paek, Kyung Shin

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Activation of PPAR{delta} by GW501516 significantly inhibited Ang II-induced premature senescence in hVSMCs. {yields} Agonist-activated PPAR{delta} suppressed generation of Ang II-triggered ROS with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. {yields} GW501516 up-regulated expression of antioxidant genes, such as GPx1, Trx1, Mn-SOD and HO-1. {yields} Knock-down of these antioxidant genes abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence. -- Abstract: This study evaluated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {delta} as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in Ang II-induced senescence in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs). Activation of PPAR{delta} by GW501516, a specific agonist ofmore » PPAR{delta}, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced premature senescence of hVSMCs. Agonist-activated PPAR{delta} suppressed the generation of Ang II-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. Notably, GW501516 up-regulated the expression of antioxidant genes, such as glutathione peroxidase 1, thioredoxin 1, manganese superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase 1. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of these antioxidant genes almost completely abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence in hVSMCs treated with Ang II. Taken together, the enhanced transcription of antioxidant genes is responsible for the PPAR{delta}-mediated inhibition of premature senescence through sequestration of ROS in hVSMCs treated with Ang II.« less

  3. Estrogen-Responsive Genes Encoding Egg Yolk Proteins Vitellogenin and Apolipoprotein II in Chicken are differentially regulated by Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Ratna, Warren N.; Bhatt, Vrushank D.; Chaudhary, Kawshik; Ariff, Ammar Bin; Bavadekar, Supriya A.; Ratna, Haran N.

    2015-01-01

    In a hen, large quantities of the egg yolk proteins apolipoprotein (apo) II and vitellogenin (VG), are expressed in the liver and transported to the oviduct during egg production. Estrogenic stimulation of the hepatic expression of apo II and VG is due to both transcriptional increase and mRNA stabilization. The nucleolytic degradation of apo II mRNA is prevented by estrogen-regulated mRNA stabilizing factor (E-RmRNASF). Gene-specific effects of a select panel of SERMs on the hepatic expression of the estrogen-responsive genes encoding apo II, VG and E-RmRNASF in the chicken liver were investigated. In the present study, 6-week-old roosters were treated with the vehicle, estrogen, the SERMs genistein, resveratrol, tamoxifen, pterostilbene, raloxifene, catechin and clomiphene or a combination of estrogen and a 200-fold excess of each of the SERMs. Results from mRNA stabilization studies, conducted to investigate the stimulation of expression of E-RmRNASF in the liver by these agents showed that the expression of E-RmRNASF in the liver, was stimulated by estrogen, and the SERMs genistein, resveratrol, tamoxifen, pterostilbene, and catechin, but not by the vehicle, clomiphene or raloxifene. The expression of apo II and VG from the above treatments was determined by Northern blot analysis, RNase protection assays and Western blot analysis. The transcription and protein expression of both apo II and VG genes were seen in response to treatment with estrogen but not with the SERMs or combinations of estrogen and each of the SERMs. The SERMs that stimulated the expression of E-RmRNASF, antagonized the stimulation of the expression of both apo II and VG by estrogen, demonstrating a gene-specific, selective regulation of the above genes in the chicken liver by the SERMs. The above panel of SERMs may likely have adverse effects on egg production. PMID:26452509

  4. --RNA Polymerase II Transcription Attenuation at the Yeast DNA Repair Gene, DEF1, Involves Sen1-Dependent and Polyadenylation Site-Dependent Termination.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Courtney; Tuohy, Christine; Tallo, Thomas; Kaufman, James W; Moore, Claire; Kuehner, Jason N

    2018-04-23

    Termination of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) activity serves a vital cellular function by separating ubiquitous transcription units and influencing RNA fate and function. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Pol II termination is carried out by cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPF-CF) and Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 (NNS) complexes, which operate primarily at mRNA and non-coding RNA genes, respectively. Premature Pol II termination (attenuation) contributes to gene regulation, but there is limited knowledge of its prevalence and biological significance. In particular, it is unclear how much crosstalk occurs between CPF-CF and NNS complexes and how Pol II attenuation is modulated during stress adaptation. In this study, we have identified an attenuator in the DEF1 DNA repair gene, which includes a portion of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and upstream open reading frame (ORF). Using a plasmid-based reporter gene system, we conducted a genetic screen of 14 termination mutants and their ability to confer Pol II read-through defects. The DEF1 attenuator behaved as a hybrid terminator, relying heavily on CPF-CF and Sen1 but without Nrd1 and Nab3 involvement. Our genetic selection identified 22 cis -acting point mutations that clustered into four regions, including a polyadenylation site efficiency element that genetically interacts with its cognate binding-protein Hrp1. Outside of the reporter gene context, a DEF1 attenuator mutant increased mRNA and protein expression, exacerbating the toxicity of a constitutively active Def1 protein. Overall, our data support a biologically significant role for transcription attenuation in regulating DEF1 expression, which can be modulated during the DNA damage response. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  5. Generation of null alleles for the functional analysis of six genes from the right arm of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome II.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, E; Vazquez de Aldana, C R; de Cos, T; Castro, C; Henar Valdivieso, M

    1999-05-01

    Using PCR-ligated long flanking homology cassettes, null alleles of six open reading frames (ORFs) from chromosome II have been created in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletants were constructed in three genetic backgrounds: FY1679, W303 and CEN.PK2. Tetrad analysis of heterozygous deletants revealed that none of the ORFs is essential for vegetative growth. Basic phenotypic analysis of haploid deletants showed that deletion of the YBR283c ORF causes a slight growth defect at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C on glycerol-complete, glucose-complete, and glucose-minimal media only in the FY1679 and W303 backgrounds. Transformation of these deletants with the corresponding cognate gene in a centromeric plasmid complements the defects. Deletion of the YBR287w ORF leads to poor growth on glucose-minimal medium at 15 degrees C in the FY 1679 background. None of the six ORFs seems to be involved in mating or sporulation.

  6. The effect of a nuclear localization sequence on transfection efficacy of genes delivered by cobalt(II)-polybenzimidazole complexes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Meng, Xianggao; Zhang, Shibing; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Li; Liu, Changlin

    2012-11-01

    We have demonstrated that the metal complexes of polybenzimidazoles are emerging likely as a new type of gene-delivery systems based on their strong DNA-condensing ability. However, the in vitro transfection efficacy of the DNA condensates formed with the metal complexes was relatively low. The positively charged peptides, such as cell-penetrating peptides and nuclear localization sequences (NLSs), have been reported to be capable of enhancing expression of the transgenes, likely as they promote entrance of their electrostatic complexes with DNA into the nuclear through nuclear pores. Here, we explored expression of the genes transferred by a series of Co(II) complexes in the presence of NLS (PKKKRKV) in normal and cancer cell lines. The results showed that the Co(II) complexes lead to the more pronounced DNA condensation in the presence of NLS than that in the absence of NLS. The binding of NLS prior to addition of the Co complexes can significantly reduce both the size and the population of the condensates at the given Co complexes/DNA ratios, compared with the NLS-free condensates. Meanwhile, the binding of NLS can considerably increase surface positive charges on the DNA nanoparticles. The suitable sizes and high surface positive charges facilitate the entrance of the nanoparticles into cells. Luciferase activity assay indicated that the transfection efficacy of the NLS-bound condensates was five-fold of that of the NLS-free ones in different cell lines, and comparable to that of the condensate formed with the commercially available carrier PEI. Moreover, cell viability assay of the NLS-bound condensates showed lower cytotoxicity than the NLS-free ones. Thus, the combination of NLS and cationic metal complexes might offer a new type of ternary delivery systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential gene expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, and toll-like receptors 3 and 5 during embryogenesis in hybrid (channel x blue) and channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Brian C; Bosworth, Brian G; Bilodeau, A Lelania

    2005-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factors-I and-II (IGF-I and IGF-II) play important roles in growth and development of mammals. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition molecules that orchestrate the induction of early innate immune response by recognition of specific sequences. Evidence is growing that suggests a relationship between growth and immune function. The objective of the study was to examine changes in gene expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, TLR3, and TLR5 during embryogenesis and early larval development in hybrid (channel catfishxblue catfish) and channel catfish. Egg samples were taken pre- and post-fertilization; embryos were collected at two stages of embryogenesis, at hatch, and at swim-up. All genes were detected in unfertilized catfish eggs. Expression levels of TLR5 and IGF-I mRNA in channel catfish and expression levels of TLR3, IGF-I, and IGF-II mRNA in hybrids increased over time (P<0.01). Effect of time was not significant for expression of IGF-II or TLR3 mRNA in channel catfish and for TLR5 mRNA in hybrid catfish. Results of this study suggest growth (IGF-I and IGF-II) and immune (TLR3 and TLR5) associated genes could be functional and play important roles during embryogenesis and early development of hybrid and channel catfish.

  8. Identification and Construction of Combinatory Cancer Hallmark-Based Gene Signature Sets to Predict Recurrence and Chemotherapy Benefit in Stage II Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shanwu; Tibiche, Chabane; Zou, Jinfeng; Zaman, Naif; Trifiro, Mark; O'Connor-McCourt, Maureen; Wang, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Decisions regarding adjuvant therapy in patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) have been among the most challenging and controversial in oncology over the past 20 years. To develop robust combinatory cancer hallmark-based gene signature sets (CSS sets) that more accurately predict prognosis and identify a subset of patients with stage II CRC who could gain survival benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy. Thirteen retrospective studies of patients with stage II CRC who had clinical follow-up and adjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. Respective totals of 162 and 843 patients from 2 and 11 independent cohorts were used as the discovery and validation cohorts, respectively. A total of 1005 patients with stage II CRC were included in the 13 cohorts. Among them, 84 of 416 patients in 3 independent cohorts received fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Identification of CSS sets to predict relapse-free survival and identify a subset of patients with stage II CRC who could gain substantial survival benefits from fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Eight cancer hallmark-based gene signatures (30 genes each) were identified and used to construct CSS sets for determining prognosis. The CSS sets were validated in 11 independent cohorts of 767 patients with stage II CRC who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The CSS sets accurately stratified patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. Five-year relapse-free survival rates were 94%, 78%, and 45%, respectively, representing 60%, 28%, and 12% of patients with stage II disease. The 416 patients with CSS set-defined high-risk stage II CRC who received fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy showed a substantial gain in survival benefits from the treatment (ie, recurrence reduced by 30%-40% in 5 years). The CSS sets substantially outperformed other prognostic predictors of stage 2 CRC. They are more accurate and robust for prognostic predictions and facilitate the identification of patients with stage

  9. DNA methylation of angiotensin II receptor gene in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Asada, Kiyoshi; Aihara, Yosuke; Takaya, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Ryuichi; Namisaki, Tadashi; Moriya, Kei; Uejima, Masakazu; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Mashitani, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Kosuke; Kawaratani, Hideto; Okura, Yasushi; Kaji, Kosuke; Douhara, Akitoshi; Sawada, Yasuhiko; Nishimura, Norihisa; Seki, Kenichiro; Mitoro, Akira; Yamao, Junichi; Yoshiji, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To clarify whether Agtr1a methylation is involved in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related liver fibrosis in adult rats. METHODS A choline-deficient amino acid (CDAA) diet model was employed for methylation analysis of NASH-related liver fibrosis. Agtr1a methylation levels were measured in the livers of CDAA- and control choline-sufficient amino acid (CSAA)-fed rats for 8 and 12 wk using quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were isolated by collagenase digestion of the liver, followed by centrifugation of the crude cell suspension through a density gradient. Agtr1a methylation and its gene expression were also analyzed during the activation of HSCs. RESULTS The mean levels of Agtr1a methylation in the livers of CDAA-fed rats (11.5% and 18.6% at 8 and 12 wk, respectively) tended to be higher (P = 0.06 and 0.09, respectively) than those in the livers of CSAA-fed rats (2.1% and 5.3% at 8 and 12 wk, respectively). Agtr1a was not methylated at all in quiescent HSCs, but was clearly methylated in activated HSCs (13.8%, P < 0.01). Interestingly, although Agtr1a was hypermethylated, the Agtr1a mRNA level increased up to 2.2-fold (P < 0.05) in activated HSCs compared with that in quiescent HSCs, suggesting that Agtr1a methylation did not silence its expression but instead had the potential to upregulate its expression. These findings indicate that Agtr1a methylation and its upregulation of gene expression are associated with the development of NASH-related liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION This is the first study to show that DNA methylation is potentially involved in the regulation of a renin-angiotensin system-related gene expression during liver fibrosis. PMID:27729955

  10. DNA methylation of angiotensin II receptor gene in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Asada, Kiyoshi; Aihara, Yosuke; Takaya, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Ryuichi; Namisaki, Tadashi; Moriya, Kei; Uejima, Masakazu; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Mashitani, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Kosuke; Kawaratani, Hideto; Okura, Yasushi; Kaji, Kosuke; Douhara, Akitoshi; Sawada, Yasuhiko; Nishimura, Norihisa; Seki, Kenichiro; Mitoro, Akira; Yamao, Junichi; Yoshiji, Hitoshi

    2016-10-08

    To clarify whether Agtr1a methylation is involved in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related liver fibrosis in adult rats. A choline-deficient amino acid (CDAA) diet model was employed for methylation analysis of NASH-related liver fibrosis. Agtr1a methylation levels were measured in the livers of CDAA- and control choline-sufficient amino acid (CSAA)-fed rats for 8 and 12 wk using quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were isolated by collagenase digestion of the liver, followed by centrifugation of the crude cell suspension through a density gradient. Agtr1a methylation and its gene expression were also analyzed during the activation of HSCs. The mean levels of Agtr1a methylation in the livers of CDAA-fed rats (11.5% and 18.6% at 8 and 12 wk, respectively) tended to be higher ( P = 0.06 and 0.09, respectively) than those in the livers of CSAA-fed rats (2.1% and 5.3% at 8 and 12 wk, respectively). Agtr1a was not methylated at all in quiescent HSCs, but was clearly methylated in activated HSCs (13.8%, P < 0.01). Interestingly, although Agtr1a was hypermethylated, the Agtr1a mRNA level increased up to 2.2-fold ( P < 0.05) in activated HSCs compared with that in quiescent HSCs, suggesting that Agtr1a methylation did not silence its expression but instead had the potential to upregulate its expression. These findings indicate that Agtr1a methylation and its upregulation of gene expression are associated with the development of NASH-related liver fibrosis. This is the first study to show that DNA methylation is potentially involved in the regulation of a renin-angiotensin system-related gene expression during liver fibrosis.

  11. Giant panda genomic data provide insight into the birth-and-death process of mammalian major histocompatibility complex class II genes.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qiu-Hong; Zeng, Chang-Jun; Ni, Xiao-Wei; Pan, Hui-Juan; Fang, Sheng-Guo

    2009-01-01

    To gain an understanding of the genomic structure and evolutionary history of the giant panda major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, we determined a 636,503-bp nucleotide sequence spanning the MHC class II region. Analysis revealed that the MHC class II region from this rare species contained 26 loci (17 predicted to be expressed), of which 10 are classical class II genes (1 DRA, 2 DRB, 2 DQA, 3 DQB, 1 DYB, 1 DPA, and 2 DPB) and 4 are non-classical class II genes (1 DOA, 1 DOB, 1 DMA, and 1 DMB). The presence of DYB, a gene specific to ruminants, prompted a comparison of the giant panda class II sequence with those of humans, cats, dogs, cattle, pigs, and mice. The results indicated that birth and death events within the DQ and DRB-DY regions led to major lineage differences, with absence of these regions in the cat and in humans and mice respectively. The phylogenetic trees constructed using all expressed alpha and beta genes from marsupials and placental mammals showed that: (1) because marsupials carry loci corresponding to DR, DP, DO and DM genes, those subregions most likely developed before the divergence of marsupials and placental mammals, approximately 150 million years ago (MYA); (2) conversely, the DQ and DY regions must have evolved later, but before the radiation of placental mammals (100 MYA). As a result, the typical genomic structure of MHC class II genes for the giant panda is similar to that of the other placental mammals and corresponds to BTNL2 approximately DR1 approximately DQ approximately DR2 approximately DY approximately DO_box approximately DP approximately COL11A2. Over the past 100 million years, there has been birth and death of mammalian DR, DQ, DY, and DP genes, an evolutionary process that has brought about the current species-specific genomic structure of the MHC class II region. Furthermore, facing certain similar pathogens, mammals have adopted intra-subregion (DR and DQ) and inter-subregion (between DQ and DP) convergent

  12. Type II thioesterase gene (ECO-orf27) from Amycolatopsis orientalis influences production of the polyketide antibiotic, ECO-0501 (LW01).

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Huang, He; Zhu, Li; Luo, Minyu; Chen, Daijie

    2012-11-01

    ECO-orf27 associated with the cluster of ECO-0501 (LW01) from Amycolatopsis orientalis is deduced to encode a type II thioesterase. Disruption of ECO-orf27 reduced LW01 production by 95 %. Complementation of the disrupted mutant with intact ECO-orf27 restored the production of LW01 suggesting that ECO-orf27 is crucial for LW01 biosynthesis. ECO-TE I, the gene encoding type I thioesterase from LW01 polyketide synthases, cannot complement ECO-orf27 deficient mutant distinguishing ECO-orf27 from type I thioesterase gene. Type II thioesterase gene pikAV from Streptomyces venezuelae could complement ECO-orf27 in A. orientalis indicating that the two genes are equivalent in their function. Overexpression of ECO-orf27 resulted in a 20 % increase in LW01 production providing an alternative approach for yield improvement.

  13. Evaluation of CAAX prenyl protease II of Leishmania donovani as potential drug target: Infectivity and growth of the parasite is significantly lowered after the gene knockout.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Ruchika; Das, Mousumi; Singh, Shalini; Chiranjivi, Adarsh Kumar; Prabhu, Sitraraau Vijaya; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Prenylation pathway is responsible for post translational modification of various signal proteins, including proteins of Ras superfamily. CAAX prenyl proteases are known to be key players in prenylation pathway. In the current study, we have evaluated CAAX prenyl protease II as a possible drug target against Leishmania donovani parasite, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Gene knockout strategy was employed to target CAAX prenyl protease II and subsequent effects were studied. CAAX prenyl protease II knockout resulted in significant decrease in growth and infectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon nanotubes part II: a remarkable carrier for drug and gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Mahdi; Solati, Navid; Ghasemi, Amir; Estiar, Mehrdad Asghari; Hashemkhani, Mahshid; Kiani, Parnian; Mohamed, Elmira; Saeidi, Ahad; Taheri, Mahdiar; Avci, Pinar; Aref, Amir R; Amiri, Mohammad; Baniasadi, Fazel; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have recently been studied as novel and versatile drug and gene delivery vehicles. When CNT are suitably functionalized, they can interact with various cell types and are taken up by endocytosis. Areas covered Anti-cancer drugs cisplatin and doxorubicin have been delivered by CNT, as well as methotrexate, taxol and gemcitabine. The delivery of the antifungal compound amphotericin B and the oral administration of erythropoietin have both been assisted using CNT. Frequently, targeting moieties such as folic acid, epidermal growth factor or various antibodies are attached to the CNT-drug nanovehicle. Different kinds of functionalization (e.g., polycations) have been used to allow CNT to act as gene delivery vectors. Plasmid DNA, small interfering RNA and micro-RNA have all been delivered by CNT vehicles. Significant concerns are raised about the nanotoxicology of the CNT and their potentially damaging effects on the environment. Expert opinion CNT-mediated drug delivery has been studied for over a decade, and both in vitro and in vivo studies have been reported. The future success of CNTs as vectors in vivo and in clinical application will depend on achievement of efficacious therapy with minimal adverse effects and avoidance of possible toxic and environmentally damaging effects. PMID:25613837

  15. Detection of Tn5-like sequences in kanamycin-resistant stream bacteria and environmental DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Leff, L.G.; McArthur, J.V.; Dana, J.R.

    1993-02-01

    This study investigates the occurrence of kanamycin and neomycin resistance in the culturable portion of the bacterial assemblage of a South Carolina stream. The constitutively expressed nptII gene was used to determine resistance. Spartial differences in the relative abundances of nptII taken from different locations and habitats in the stream were investigated. Results suggest that multiple probes will probably be necessary to assess kanamycin resistance potential of stream bacteria. At the largest patial scale there are not significant difference among the sites in abundances of nptII genes, though there were some differences in habitats. The authors conclude DNA hybridization appearsmore » to be a useful technique for assessing the abundance of genes in mixtures of nonculturable organisms.« less

  16. A Novel Frameshift Mutation of the USH2A Gene in a Korean Patient with Usher Syndrome Type II.

    PubMed

    Boo, Sung Hyun; Song, Min-Jung; Kim, Hee-Jin; Cho, Yang-Sun; Chu, Hosuk; Ko, Moon-Hee; Chung, Won-Ho; Kim, Jong-Won; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2013-03-01

    Usher syndrome type II (USH2) is the most common form of Usher syndrome, characterized by moderate to severe hearing impairment and progressive visual loss due to retinitis pigmentosa. It has been shown that mutations in the USH2A gene are responsible for USH2. The authors herein describe a 34-year-old Korean woman with the typical clinical manifestation of USH2; she had bilateral hearing disturbance and progressive visual deterioration, without vestibular dysfunction. Molecular genetic study of the USH2A gene revealed a novel frameshift mutation (c.2310delA; Glu771LysfsX17). She was heterozygous for this mutation, and no other mutation was found in USH2A, suggesting the possibility of an intronic or large genomic rearrangement mutation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a genetically confirmed case of USH2 in Korea. More investigations are needed to delineate genotype-phenotype correlations and ethnicity-specific genetic background of Usher syndrome.

  17. Live-cell Imaging of Pol II Promoter Activity to Monitor Gene expression with RNA IMAGEtag reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Ilchung; Ray, Judhajeet; Gupta, Vinayak

    2014-04-20

    We describe a ribonucleic acid (RNA) reporter system for live-cell imaging of gene expression to detect changes in polymerase II activity on individual promoters in individual cells. The reporters use strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags) that can be expressed from a promoter of choice. For imaging, the cells are incubated with their ligands that are separately conjugated with one of the FRET pair, Cy3 and Cy5. The IMAGEtags were expressed in yeast from the GAL1, ADH1 or ACT1 promoters. Transcription from all three promoters was imaged in live cells and transcriptional increases from themore » GAL1 promoter were observed with time after adding galactose. Expression of the IMAGEtags did not affect cell proliferation or endogenous gene expression. Advantages of this method are that no foreign proteins are produced in the cells that could be toxic or otherwise influence the cellular response as they accumulate, the IMAGEtags are short lived and oxygen is not required to generate their signals. The IMAGEtag RNA reporter system provides a means of tracking changes in transcriptional activity in live cells and in real time.« less

  18. Gene expression in the DpnI and DpnII restriction enzyme systems of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, S.A.; Sabelnikov, A.G.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1992-12-31

    Although a number of bacterial species are naturally transformable, that is, their cells are able to take up external DNA in substantial amounts and integrate it into the chromosome without artificial manipulation of the cell surface, Streptococcus pneumoniae, the first species in which this phenomenon was detected, remains a prototype of such transformation. Cells of S. pneumonias also contain potent restriction endonucleases able to severely restrict DNA introduced during viral infection. Our current understanding of the genetic basis of the complementary DpnI and DpnII restriction systems and of the biochemistry of their component enzymes are briefly reviewed. The manner inmore » which these enzymes impinge on the transfer of chromosomal genes and of plasmeds will be examined in detail. It will be seen that far from acting against foreign DNA in general, the restriction systems seem to be designed to exclude only infecting viral DNA The presence of complementary restriction systems in different cells of S. pneumonias enhances their effectiveness in blocking viral infection and promoting species survival. This enhanced effectiveness requires the expression of alternative restriction systems. Therefore, the ability of the cells to transfer the restriction enzyme genes and to regulate their expression are important for survival of the species.« less

  19. Sccmec type II gene is common among clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Jakarta, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Community Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a strain of MRSA that can cause infections in patients in the community, in which these patients had no previous risk factors for MRSA infection and the patient received 72 hours prior to infection when admitted to hospital. This study aims to determine and compare the characteristics of epidemiological, clinical, and molecular biology of CA-MRSA with HA-MRSA. Methods A total of 11 clinical strains of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-sensitive Stapylococcus aureus (MSSA) were collected from 2 hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia in 2012. SCCmec typing was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the presence of six genes (vraR, vraG, vraA, vraF,fruA, and fruB) associated with vancomycin resistance was examined by simple PCR analysis. Results We found three strains of community-acquired MRSA with SCCmec type II and one strain of hospital-acquired MRSA with SCCmec type IV. The other seven strains did not contain mecA genes and SCCmec. Plasmid pUB110 was found in one strain of community-acquired MRSA and two strains of hospital-acquired MRSA. vraA genes were present in 9 of the 11 strains, vraF in 4, vraG in 5, and vraR in 4. Note worthily, three quarters of strains without pUB110 contained vraR and vraF, and 70% contained vraA, whereas 60% of strains with pUB110 contained vraG. Conclusion Based on these results, we should be concerned about the possibility of transition from MRSA strains sensitive to vancomycin in VISA strains of MRSA strains obtained in clinical trials. But first we need to look the existence of natural VISA or hVISA among these MRSA strains. PMID:23522081

  20. Alteration of topoisomerase II-alpha gene in human breast cancer: association with responsiveness to anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Press, Michael F; Sauter, Guido; Buyse, Marc; Bernstein, Leslie; Guzman, Roberta; Santiago, Angela; Villalobos, Ivonne E; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Pienkowski, Tadeusz; Martin, Miguel; Robert, Nicholas; Crown, John; Bee, Valerie; Taupin, Henry; Flom, Kerry J; Tabah-Fisch, Isabelle; Pauletti, Giovanni; Lindsay, Mary-Ann; Riva, Alessandro; Slamon, Dennis J

    2011-03-01

    Approximately 35% of HER2-amplified breast cancers have coamplification of the topoisomerase II-alpha (TOP2A) gene encoding an enzyme that is a major target of anthracyclines. This study was designed to evaluate whether TOP2A gene alterations may predict incremental responsiveness to anthracyclines in some breast cancers. A total of 4,943 breast cancers were analyzed for alterations in TOP2A and HER2. Primary tumor tissues from patients with metastatic breast cancer treated in a trial of chemotherapy plus/minus trastuzumab were studied for amplification/deletion of TOP2A and HER2 as a test set followed by evaluation of malignancies from two separate, large trials for changes in these same genes as a validation set. Association between these alterations and clinical outcomes was determined. Test set cases containing HER2 amplification treated with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) plus trastuzumab, demonstrated longer progression-free survival compared to those treated with AC alone (P = .0002). However, patients treated with AC alone whose tumors contain HER2/TOP2A coamplification experienced a similar improvement in survival (P = .004). Conversely, for patients treated with paclitaxel, HER2/TOP2A coamplification was not associated with improved outcomes. These observations were confirmed in a larger validation set, where HER2/TOP2A coamplification was again associated with longer survival when only anthracycline-containing chemotherapy was used for treatment compared with outcome in HER2-positive cancers lacking TOP2A coamplification. In a study involving nearly 5,000 breast malignancies, both test set and validation set demonstrate that TOP2A coamplification, not HER2 amplification, is the clinically useful predictive marker of an incremental response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Absence of HER2/TOP2A coamplification may indicate a more restricted efficacy advantage for breast cancers than previously thought.

  1. Repeated stress in combination with pyridostigmine Part II: changes in cerebral gene expression.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Laure; Diserbo, Michel; Lamproglou, Ioannis; Amourette, Christine; Peinnequin, André; Fauquette, William

    2009-02-11

    Organophosphates (OP) represent a potential threat in terrorism or during military conflicts. Due to its faculty to protect cholinesterase (ChE) activity against irreversible inactivation by OP, pyridostigmine bromide (PB) was used as a prophylaxis treatment during the first Persian Gulf War. To explain dysfunctions reported by Gulf War Veterans (GWV), it was suggested a potentiation of the operational stress effects by PB given to soldiers. Our companion paper (see part 1 in the same journal issue) describes that PB treatment administered in repeated stress conditions results in long-term perturbations of learning and social behaviour. The present paper examines, in adult male Wistar rats, consequences of the association of repeated stress and PB treatment on gene expression in hypothalamus and hippocampus. PB treatment (1.5 mg/kg/day) was orally administered 30 min before each stress session to inhibit 40% of blood ChE as recommended by NATO. 10 days of stress alone induce a decrease in hypothalamic Il-1alpha expression. Treatment with PB alone increases mineralocorticoid receptor expression in hypothalamus which means that PB may thus modify stress perception by animals. Stressed-PB animals showed increase in hippocampal expression of BDNF, TrkB and CamKIIalpha, three genes implicated in memory development. As a supplement to previous studies showing behavioural and biochemical effects of the association of stress with PB, our data reveal that behavioural effects of this association may be linked with genomic changes in hippocampus. Mechanisms underlying these modifications and their link with memory disturbances reported by GWV remain to be further determined.

  2. Horizontal gene transfer of chromosomal Type II toxin-antitoxin systems of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ramisetty, Bhaskar Chandra Mohan; Santhosh, Ramachandran Sarojini

    2016-02-01

    Type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) are small autoregulated bicistronic operons that encode a toxin protein with the potential to inhibit metabolic processes and an antitoxin protein to neutralize the toxin. Most of the bacterial genomes encode multiple TAs. However, the diversity and accumulation of TAs on bacterial genomes and its physiological implications are highly debated. Here we provide evidence that Escherichia coli chromosomal TAs (encoding RNase toxins) are 'acquired' DNA likely originated from heterologous DNA and are the smallest known autoregulated operons with the potential for horizontal propagation. Sequence analyses revealed that integration of TAs into the bacterial genome is unique and contributes to variations in the coding and/or regulatory regions of flanking host genome sequences. Plasmids and genomes encoding identical TAs of natural isolates are mutually exclusive. Chromosomal TAs might play significant roles in the evolution and ecology of bacteria by contributing to host genome variation and by moderation of plasmid maintenance. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Angiotensinogen gene M235T and angiotensin II-type 1 receptor gene A/C1166 polymorphisms in chronic obtructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Ayada, Ceylan; Toru, Ümran; Genç, Osman; Şahin, Server; Turgut, Sebahat; Turgut, Günfer

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) occurs irreversibly and is characterized by progressive airflow obstruction. Renin angiotensin system (RAS) has many different key enzymes and receptors that have a role for different systemic processes. We aimed to determine genotype and allele frequencies of angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T and angiotensin II-type 1 receptor (AT1-R) A/C1166 polymorphisms in patients with COPD. This study was performed on 56 unrelated COPD patients and 29 healthy subjects. DNA samples for each individual were isolated from peripheral blood by phenol/chloroform method, analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic digestion methodologies. The distribution for each of AGT genotypes were 23.2% for MM (13), 75.0% for MT (42) and 1.8% for TT (1) in the COPD group; 37.9% for MM (11), 34.5% for MT (10) and 27.6% for TT (8) in the control group. The distribution of AGT genotypes was found significantly different between groups (X2 = 18.604; df = 2; P = 0.000). The frequencies for each of the AT1-R genotypes were found as 53.6% for AA (30), 42.9% for AC (24), 3.6% for CC (2) in the COPD group; 55.2% for AA (16), 41.4% for AC (12) and 3.4% for CC (1) in the control group. The distribution of AT1-R genotypes did not change significantly between groups. Allele frequencies of interested genes were not significantly different between groups. We suggest that AGT polymorphism may play a role for the development of COPD. We believe these data can be served for large scale population genetics research, considering the frequency of AGT and AT1-R genes and alleles in COPD patients in the Turkish population. PMID:26064378

  4. Sensitization to mouse and cockroach allergens and asthma morbidity in urban minority youth: Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino American (GALA-II) and Study of African-Americans, Asthma, Genes, and Environments (SAGE-II).

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Anna B; Lee, Todd A; Cai, Miao; Oh, Sam S; Eng, Celeste; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Serebrisky, Denise; Silverberg, Jonathan; Williams, L Keoki; Seibold, Max A; Sen, Saunak; Borrell, Luisa N; Avila, Pedro; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Burchard, Esteban G; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    Pest allergen sensitization is associated with asthma morbidity in urban youth but minimally explored in Latino populations. Specifically, the effect of mouse sensitization on the risk of asthma exacerbation has been unexplored in Latino subgroups. To evaluate whether pest allergen sensitization is a predictor of asthma exacerbations and poor asthma control in urban minority children with asthma. Latino and African American children (8-21 years old) with asthma were recruited from 4 sites across the United States. Logistic regression models evaluated the association of mouse or cockroach sensitization with asthma-related acute care visits or hospitalizations. A total of 1,992 children with asthma in the Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino American (GALA-II) and Study of African-Americans, Asthma, Genes, and Environments (SAGE-II) cohorts were studied. Asthmatic children from New York had the highest rate of pest allergen sensitization (42% mouse, 56% cockroach), with the lowest rate in San Francisco (4% mouse, 8% cockroach). Mouse sensitization, more than cockroach, was associated with increased odds of acute care visits (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.47; 95% CI, 1.07-2.03) or hospitalizations (aOR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.81-5.18), even after controlling for self-reported race and site of recruitment. In stratified analyses, Mexican youth sensitized to mouse allergen did not have higher odds of asthma exacerbation. Other Latino and Puerto Rican youth sensitized to mouse had higher odds of hospitalization for asthma (aORs, 4.57 [95% CI, 1.86-11.22] and 10.01 [95% CI, 1.77-56.6], respectively) but not emergency department visits. Pest allergen sensitization is associated with a higher odds of asthma exacerbations in urban minority youth. Puerto Rican and Other Latino youth sensitized to mouse were more likely to have asthma-related hospitalizations than Mexican youth. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  5. Ketide Synthase (KS) Domain Prediction and Analysis of Iterative Type II PKS Gene in Marine Sponge-Associated Actinobacteria Producing Biosurfactants and Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Selvin, Joseph; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Lipton, Anuj N.; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kiran, George S.

    2016-01-01

    The important biological macromolecules, such as lipopeptide and glycolipid biosurfactant producing marine actinobacteria were analyzed and their potential linkage between type II polyketide synthase (PKS) genes was explored. A unique feature of type II PKS genes is their high amino acid (AA) sequence homology and conserved gene organization. These enzymes mediate the biosynthesis of polyketide natural products with enormous structural complexity and chemical nature by combinatorial use of various domains. Therefore, deciphering the order of AA sequence encoded by PKS domains tailored the chemical structure of polyketide analogs still remains a great challenge. The present work deals with an in vitro and in silico analysis of PKS type II genes from five actinobacterial species to correlate KS domain architecture and structural features. Our present analysis reveals the unique protein domain organization of iterative type II PKS and KS domain of marine actinobacteria. The findings of this study would have implications in metabolic pathway reconstruction and design of semi-synthetic genomes to achieve rational design of novel natural products. PMID:26903957

  6. Expression of a partially deleted gene of human type II procollagen (COL2A1) in transgenic mice produces a chondrodysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenberg, P.; Khillan, J.S.; Prockop, D.J.

    1991-09-01

    A minigene version of the human gene for type II procollagen (COL2AI) was prepared that lacked a large central region containing 12 of the 52 exons and therefore 291 of the 1523 codons of the gene. The construct was modeled after sporadic in-frame deletions of collagen genes that cause synthesis of shortened pro{alpha} chains that associate with normal pro{alpha} chains and thereby cause degradation of the shortened and normal pro{alpha} chains through a process called procollagen suicide. The gene construct was used to prepare five lines of transgenic mice expressing the minigene. A large proportion of the mice expressing themore » minigene developed a phenotype of a chondrodysplasia with dwarfism, short and thick limbs, a short snout, a cranial bulge, a cleft palate, and delayed mineralization of bone. A number of mice died shortly after birth. Microscopic examination of cartilage revealed decreased density and organization of collagen fibrils. In cultured chondrocytes from the transgenic mice, the minigene was expressed as shortened pro{alpha}1(II) chains that were disulfide-linked to normal mouse pro{alpha}1(II) chains. Therefore, the phenotype is probably explained by depletion of the endogenous mouse type II procollagen through the phenomenon of procollagen suicide.« less

  7. Ketide Synthase (KS) Domain Prediction and Analysis of Iterative Type II PKS Gene in Marine Sponge-Associated Actinobacteria Producing Biosurfactants and Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Selvin, Joseph; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Lipton, Anuj N; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kiran, George S

    2016-01-01

    The important biological macromolecules, such as lipopeptide and glycolipid biosurfactant producing marine actinobacteria were analyzed and their potential linkage between type II polyketide synthase (PKS) genes was explored. A unique feature of type II PKS genes is their high amino acid (AA) sequence homology and conserved gene organization. These enzymes mediate the biosynthesis of polyketide natural products with enormous structural complexity and chemical nature by combinatorial use of various domains. Therefore, deciphering the order of AA sequence encoded by PKS domains tailored the chemical structure of polyketide analogs still remains a great challenge. The present work deals with an in vitro and in silico analysis of PKS type II genes from five actinobacterial species to correlate KS domain architecture and structural features. Our present analysis reveals the unique protein domain organization of iterative type II PKS and KS domain of marine actinobacteria. The findings of this study would have implications in metabolic pathway reconstruction and design of semi-synthetic genomes to achieve rational design of novel natural products.

  8. Polymorphism of the MHC class II Eb gene determines the protection against collagen-induced arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; Zanelli, E.; Krco, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an animal model of auto immune polyarthritis, sharing similarities with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Paradoxally, susceptibility to mouse CIA is controlled by the H2A loci (DQ homologous) while RA is linked to HLA.DR genes (H2E homologous). We recently showed that the E{beta}{sup d} molecule prevents CIA development in susceptible H2{sup q} mice. We addressed the question of whether H2Eb polymorphism will influence CIA incidence as HLA.DRB1 polymorphism does in RA. In F{sub 1} mice, only H2Eb{sup d} and H2Eb{sup s} molecules showed protection. Using recombinant B10.RDD (Eb{sup d/b}) mice, we found that CIA protection was mediated bymore » the first domain of the E{beta}{sup d} molecule. Using peptides covering the third hypervariable region of the E{beta} chain, we found a perfect correlation between presentation of E{beta} peptides by the H2A{sup q} molecule and protection on CIA. Therefore, the mechanism by which H2Eb protects against CIA seems to rely on the affinity of E{beta} peptides for the H2A{sup q} molecule. 35 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  9. Identification of two novel critical mutations in PCNT gene resulting in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei-Feng; Wang, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Min-Wei; Lou, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Qiong; Zhu, Chun-Yu; Feng, Hong-Lin; Lin, Zhi-Guo; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is a highly detrimental human autosomal inherited recessive disorder. The hallmark characteristics of this disease are intrauterine and postnatal growth restrictions, with some patients also having cerebrovascular problems such as cerebral aneurysms. The genomic basis behind most clinical features of MOPD II remains largely unclear. The aim of this work was to identify the genetic defects in a Chinese family with MOPD II associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms. The patient had typical MOPD II syndrome, with subarachnoid hemorrhage and multiple intracranial aneurysms. We identified three novel mutations in the PCNT gene, including one single base alteration (9842A>C in exon 45) and two deletions (Del-C in exon 30 and Del-16 in exon 41). The deletions were co-segregated with the affected individual in the family and were not present in the control population. Computer modeling demonstrated that the deletions may cause drastic changes on the secondary and tertiary structures, affecting the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the mutant proteins. In conclusion, we identified two novel mutations in the PCNT gene associated with MOPD II and intracranial aneurysms, and the mutations were expected to alter the stability and functioning of the protein by computer modeling.

  10. A plasmid containing the human metallothionein II gene can function as an antibody-assisted electrophoretic biosensor for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Dennis C; Starr, Clarise R; Lyon, Wanda J

    2016-01-01

    Different forms of heavy metals affect biochemical systems in characteristic ways that cannot be detected with typical metal analysis methods like atomic absorption spectrometry. Further, using living systems to analyze interaction of heavy metals with biochemical systems can be laborious and unreliable. To generate a reliable easy-to-use biologically-based biosensor system, the entire human metallothionein-II (MT-II) gene was incorporated into a plasmid (pUC57-MT) easily replicated in Escherichia coli. In this system, a commercial polyclonal antibody raised against human metal-responsive transcription factor-1 protein (MTF-1 protein) could modify the electrophoretic migration patterns (i.e. cause specific decreases in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility) of the plasmid in the presence or absence of heavy metals other than zinc (Zn). In the study here, heavy metals, MTF-1 protein, and polyclonal anti-MTF-1 antibody were used to assess pUC57-MT plasmid antibody-assisted electrophoretic mobility. Anti-MTF-1 antibody bound both MTF-1 protein and pUC57-MT plasmid in a non-competitive fashion such that it could be used to differentiate specific heavy metal binding. The results showed that antibody-inhibited plasmid migration was heavy metal level-dependent. Zinc caused a unique mobility shift pattern opposite to that of other metals tested, i.e. Zn blocked the antibody ability to inhibit plasmid migration, despite a greatly increased affinity for DNA by the antibody when Zn was present. The Zn effect was reversed/modified by adding MTF-1 protein. Additionally, antibody inhibition of plasmid mobility was resistant to heat pre-treatment and trypsinization, indicating absence of residual DNA extraction-resistant bacterial DNA binding proteins. DNA binding by anti-DNA antibodies may be commonly enhanced by xenobiotic heavy metals and elevated levels of Zn, thus making them potentially effective tools for assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in aqueous solutions and

  11. Schisandra Chinensis Baillon regulates the gene expression of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes in hepatic damage induced rats.

    PubMed

    Jang, Han I; Do, Gyeong-Min; Lee, Hye Min; Ok, Hyang Mok; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kwon, Oran

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective effects of Schisandra chinensis Baillon extract (SCE) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative hepatic damage in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were pretreated with SCE (300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg BW) or saline once daily for 14 consecutive days. On day 14, each animal, except those belonging to the normal control group, were injected with t-BHP (0.8 mmol/kg BW/i.p.), and all of the rats were sacrificed 16 h after t-BHP injection. Although no significant differences in AST and ALT levels were observed among the TC and SCE groups, the high-dose SCE group showed a decreasing tendency compared to the TC group. However, erythrocyte SOD activity showed a significant increase in the low-dose SCE group compared with the TC group. On the other hand, no significant differences in hepatic total glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were observed among the TC and SCE groups. Hepatic histopathological evaluation revealed that pretreatment with SCE resulted in reduced t-BHP-induced incidence of lesions, such as neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In particular, treatment with a high dose of SCE resulted in induction of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme expression, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC). Based on these results, we conclude that SCE exerts protective effects against t-BHP induced oxidative hepatic damage through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In addition, SCE regulates the gene expression of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes independent of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity.

  12. Genetic transformation and gene expression in white pine (pinus strobus)

    SciTech Connect

    Minocha, R.

    1987-10-01

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop protocols for transformation of white pine (Pinus strobus) embryonic tissue; and (2) to analyze the regulation of foreign gene expression in Pinus strobus. A number of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing chimeric genes for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII for kanamycin resistance) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) under the control of either a constitutive promoter (NOS-nopaline synthase) or light-inducible promoters (RuBisCO small subunit and chlorophyll a/b binding protein) were used. A variety of tissues from white pine seedlings and mature trees was used. The techniques for transformation were modified from those used for tobaccomore » transformation. The results show that white pine tissue from young seedlings is high suitable for transformation by A. tumefaciens. Whereas the normal tissues are very sensitive to kanamycin, transformed callus was quite resistant to this antibiotic.« less

  13. Multiple parasites mediate balancing selection at two MHC class II genes in the fossorial water vole: insights from multivariate analyses and population genetics.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, C; Bryja, J; Galan, M; Cadet, P; Deter, J; Chaval, Y; Berthier, K; Ribas Salvador, A; Voutilainen, L; Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the factors mediating selection acting on two MHC class II genes (DQA and DRB) in water vole (Arvicola scherman) natural populations in the French Jura Mountains. Population genetics showed significant homogeneity in allelic frequencies at the DQA1 locus as opposed to neutral markers (nine microsatellites), indicating balancing selection acting on this gene. Moreover, almost exhaustive screening for parasites, including gastrointestinal helminths, brain coccidia and antibodies against viruses responsible for zoonoses, was carried out. We applied a co-inertia approach to the genetic and parasitological data sets to avoid statistical problems related to multiple testing. Two alleles, Arte-DRB-11 and Arte-DRB-15, displayed antagonistic associations with the nematode Trichuris arvicolae, revealing the potential parasite-mediated selection acting on DRB locus. Selection mechanisms acting on the two MHC class II genes thus appeared different. Moreover, overdominance as balancing selection mechanism was showed highly unlikely in this system.

  14. [Phototrophic microorganisms in the symbiotic communities of Baikal sponges: Diversity of psbA gene (encoding D1 protein of photosystem II) sequences].

    PubMed

    Kaluzhnaya, O V; Itskovich, V B

    2017-01-01

    The psbA gene, which encodes a major photosystem II protein (protein II or D1), is a marker for the presence of phototrophic organisms in water communities. We have pioneered the use of this marker for studying the diversity of phototrophic microflora of freshwater invertebrates. The object of the study is the microbial associations accompanying the endemic Baikal sponge Baikalospongia intermedia and the surrounding aquatic microbial community. Analysis of the psbA gene sequences in the examined microbiomes demonstrates the presence of various phototrophic groups, such as Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta, Heterokonta, Haptophyta, and Ochrophyta algae, as well as cyanophages. A total of 35 unique psbA gene sequences have been distinguished in the microbial communities of the endemic sponge B. intermedia and 32 unique sequences in the water community surrounding the sponge. These data demonstrate the involvement of sponge symbiotic communities in the accumulation of primary production and carbon cycle in the Lake Baikal ecosystem.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of phase II drug metabolizing/antioxidant enzymes gene response by anticancer agent sulforaphane in rat lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hu; Khor, Tin Oo; Yang, Qian; Huang, Ying; Wu, Tien-Yuan; Saw, Constance Lay-Lay; Lin, Wen; Androulakis, Ioannis P; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2012-10-01

    This study assesses the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of Nrf2-mediated increased expression of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) and antioxidant enzymes which represents an important component of cancer chemoprevention in rat lymphocytes following intravenous (iv) administration of an anticancer phytochemical sulforaphane (SFN). SFN was administered intravenously to four groups of male Sprague-Dawley JVC rats each group comprising four animals. Blood samples were drawn at selected time points. Plasma were obtained from half of each of the blood samples and analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Lymphocytes were collected from the remaining blood samples using Ficoll-Paque Plus centrifuge medium. Lymphocyte RNAs were extracted and converted to cDNA, quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed, and fold changes were calculated against those at time zero for the relative expression of Nrf2-target genes of phase II DME/antioxidant enzymes. PK-PD modeling was conducted based on Jusko's indirect response model (IDR) using GastroPlus and bootstrap method. SFN plasma concentration declined biexponentially and the pharmacokinetic parameters were generated. Rat lymphocyte mRNA expression levels showed no change for GSTM1, SOD, NF-κB, UGT1A1, or UGT1A6. Moderate increases (2-5-fold) over the time zero were seen for HO-1, Nrf2, and NQO1, and significant increases (>5-fold) for GSTT1, GPx1, and Maf. PK-PD analyses using GastroPlus and the bootstrap method provided reasonable fitting for the PK and PD profiles and parameter estimates. Our present study shows that SFN could induce Nrf2-mediated phase II DME/antioxidant mRNA expression for NQO1, GSTT1, Nrf2, GPx, Maf, and HO-1 in rat lymphocytes after iv administration, suggesting that Nrf2-mediated mRNA expression in lymphocytes may serve as surrogate biomarkers. The PK-PD IDR model simultaneously linking the plasma concentrations of SFN and the PD response of lymphocyte mRNA expression is

  16. Improvement in the range of joint motion in seven patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II during experimental gene expression-targeted isoflavone therapy (GET IT).

    PubMed

    Marucha, Jolanta; Tylki-Szymańska, Anna; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Piotrowska, Ewa; Kloska, Anna; Czartoryska, Barbara; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2011-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II, Hunter disease) is an X chromosome-linked inherited metabolic disease caused by mutations resulting in deficiency of activity of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) and accumulation of undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. Previous experiments with cell cultures and studies on animal model of MPS II suggested that gene expression-targeted isoflavone therapy (GET IT), based on genistein-mediated reduction of efficiency of GAG synthesis, might be a suitable therapy for this disease. In this report, we demonstrate efficacy of GET IT in connective tissue elasticity, particularly in improving the range of joint motion in seven patients with MPS II after 26 weeks of treatment with an isoflavone extract at the dose corresponding to 5 mg/kg/day of genistein. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Quantification of phase I / II metabolizing enzyme gene expression and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adduct levels in human prostate

    PubMed Central

    John, Kaarthik; Ragavan, Narasimhan; Pratt, M. Margaret; Singh, Paras B.; Al-Buheissi, Salah; Matanhelia, Shyam S.; Phillips, David H.; Poirier, Miriam C.; Martin, Francis L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies of migrant populations suggest that dietary and/or environmental factors play a crucial role in the aetiology of prostatic adenocarcinoma (CaP). The human prostate consists of the peripheral zone (PZ), transition zone (TZ) and central zone (CZ); CaP occurs most often in the PZ. METHODS To investigate the notion that an underlying differential expression of phase I/II genes, and/or the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts might explain the elevated PZ susceptibility, we examined prostate tissues (matched tissue sets consisting of PZ and TZ) from men undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy for CaP (n=26) or cystoprostatectomy (n=1). Quantitative gene expression analysis was employed for cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP1A2, as well as N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). RESULTS CYP1B1, NAT1 and COMT were expressed in all tissue sets; levels of CYP1B1 and NAT1 were consistently higher in the PZ compared to TZ. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of CYP1B1 (nuclear-associated and primarily in basal epithelial cells) and NAT1. Tissue sections from 23 of these aforementioned 27 matched tissue sets were analyzed for PAH-DNA adduct levels using antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7, t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPDE). PAH-DNA adduct levels were highest in glandular epithelial cells, but a comparison of PZ and TZ showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION Although expression of activating and/or detoxifying enzymes may be higher in the PZ, PAH-DNA adduct levels appear to be similar in both zones. Therefore, factors other than PAH-DNA adducts may be responsible for promotion of tumour formation in the human prostate. PMID:19143007

  18. Mutations in the VLGR1 Gene Implicate G-Protein Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Usher Syndrome Type II

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Michael D.; Luijendijk, Mirjam W. J.; Humphrey, Kurt D.; Möller, Claes; Kimberling, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Usher syndrome type II (USH2) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder with at least three genetic subtypes (USH2A, USH2B, and USH2C) and is classified phenotypically as congenital hearing loss and progressive retinitis pigmentosa. The VLGR1 (MASS1) gene in the 5q14.3-q21.1 USH2C locus was considered a likely candidate on the basis of its protein motif structure and expressed-sequence-tag representation from both cochlear and retinal subtracted libraries. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing of polymerase-chain-reaction products amplified from 10 genetically independent patients with USH2C and 156 other patients with USH2 identified four isoform-specific VLGR1 mutations (Q2301X, I2906FS, M2931FS, and T6244X) from three families with USH2C, as well as two sporadic cases. All patients with VLGR1 mutations are female, a significant deviation from random expectations. The ligand(s) for the VLGR1 protein is unknown, but on the basis of its potential extracellular and intracellular protein-protein interaction domains and its wide mRNA expression profile, it is probable that VLGR1 serves diverse cellular and signaling processes. VLGR1 mutations have been previously identified in both humans and mice and are associated with a reflex-seizure phenotype in both species. The identification of additional VLGR1 mutations to test whether a phenotype/genotype correlation exists, akin to that shown for other Usher syndrome disease genes, is warranted. PMID:14740321

  19. Functional characterization of two novel splicing mutations in the OCA2 gene associated with oculocutaneous albinism type II.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, Valeria; Straniero, Letizia; Asselta, Rosanna; Mauri, Lucia; Manfredini, Emanuela; Penco, Silvana; Gesu, Giovanni P; Del Longo, Alessandra; Piozzi, Elena; Soldà, Giulia; Primignani, Paola

    2014-03-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is characterized by hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eye, and by ophthalmologic abnormalities caused by a deficiency in melanin biosynthesis. OCA type II (OCA2) is one of the four commonly-recognized forms of albinism, and is determined by mutation in the OCA2 gene. In the present study, we investigated the molecular basis of OCA2 in two siblings and one unrelated patient. The mutational screening of the OCA2 gene identified two hitherto-unknown putative splicing mutations. The first one (c.1503+5G>A), identified in an Italian proband and her affected sibling, lies in the consensus sequence of the donor splice site of OCA2 intron 14 (IVS14+5G>A), in compound heterozygosity with a frameshift mutation, c.1450_1451insCTGCCCTGACA, which is predicted to determine the premature termination of the polypeptide chain (p.I484Tfs*19). In-silico prediction of the effect of the IVS14+5G>A mutation on splicing showed a score reduction for the mutant splice site and indicated the possible activation of a newly-created deep-intronic acceptor splice site. The second mutation is a synonymous transition (c.2139G>A, p.K713K) involving the last nucleotide of exon 20. This mutation was found in a young African albino patient in compound heterozygosity with a previously-reported OCA2 missense mutation (p.T404M). In-silico analysis predicted that the mutant c.2139G>A allele would result in the abolition of the splice donor site. The effects on splicing of these two novel mutations were investigated using an in-vitro hybrid-minigene approach that led to the demonstration of the causal role of the two mutations and to the identification of aberrant transcript variants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of InuR, a new Zn(II)2Cys6 transcriptional activator involved in the regulation of inulinolytic genes in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Lian; Roubos, Johannes A; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; Ram, Arthur F J

    2008-01-01

    The expression of inulinolytic genes in Aspergillus niger is co-regulated and induced by inulin and sucrose. We have identified a positive acting transcription factor InuR, which is required for the induced expression of inulinolytic genes. InuR is a member of the fungal specific class of transcription factors of the Zn(II)2Cys6 type. Involvement of InuR in inulin and sucrose metabolism was suspected because of the clustering of inuR gene with sucB, which encodes an intracellular invertase with transfructosylation activity and a putative sugar transporter encoding gene (An15g00310). Deletion of the inuR gene resulted in a strain displaying a severe reduction in growth on inulin and sucrose medium. Northern analysis revealed that expression of inulinolytic and sucrolytic genes, e.g., inuE, inuA, sucA, as well as the putative sugar transporter gene (An15g00310) is dependent on InuR. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed, three additional putative sugar transporters encoding genes (An15g04060, An15g03940 and An17g01710), which were strongly induced by sucrose in an InuR dependent way. In silico analysis of the promoter sequences of strongly InuR regulated genes suggests that InuR might bind as dimer to two CGG triplets, which are separated by eight nucleotides.

  1. Biosynthesis of riboflavin in plants. The ribA gene of Arabidopsis thaliana specifies a bifunctional GTP cyclohydrolase II/3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Herz, S; Eberhardt, S; Bacher, A

    2000-04-01

    A cDNA segment from Arabidopsis thaliana with similarity to the ribA gene of Bacillus subtilis was sequenced. A similar gene was cloned from tomato. The open reading frame of A. thaliana was fused to the malE gene of Escherichia coli and was expressed in a recombinant E. coli strain. The recombinant fusion protein was purified and shown to have GTP cyclohydrolase II activity as well as 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase activity. The cognate gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from chromosomal Arabidopsis DNA and was shown to contain six introns. Intron 4 is located in the region connecting the GTP cyclohydrolase II and 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase domain of the putative domains catalyzing the two reaction steps. By comparison with the bacterial ribA gene, the Arabidopsis gene contains an additional 5' element specifying about 120 amino acid residues. This segment contains numerous serine and threonine residues and does not show similarity with other known sequences. The N-terminal segment is not required for catalytic activity and is likely to serve as signal sequence for import into chloroplasts.

  2. Mutation profile of the GAA gene in 40 Italian patients with late onset glycogen storage disease type II.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, A L E; Bembi, B; Donnarumma, M; Filocamo, M; Parenti, G; Rossi, M; Merlini, L; Buratti, E; De Filippi, P; Dardis, A; Stroppiano, M; Ciana, G; Pittis, M G

    2006-10-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) is a recessively inherited disorder due to the deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) that results in impaired glycogen degradation and its accumulation in the lysosomes. We report here the complete molecular analysis of the GAA gene performed on 40 Italian patients with late onset GSDII. Twelve novel alleles have been identified: missense mutations were functionally characterized by enzyme activity and protein processing in a human GAA-deficient cell line while splicing mutations were studied by RT-PCR and in silico analysis. A complex allele was also identified carrying three different alterations in cis. The c.-32-13T > G was the most frequent mutation, present as compound heterozygote in 85% of the patients (allele frequency 42.3%), as described in other late onset GSDII Caucasian populations. Interestingly, the c.-32-13T > G was associated with the c.2237G > A (p.W746X) in nine of the 40 patients. Genotype-phenotype correlations are discussed with particular emphasis on the subgroup carrying the c.-32-13T > G/c.2237G > A genotype.

  3. Ectopic expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice causes obesity, features of type II diabetes, and yellow fur

    SciTech Connect

    Klebig, M.L.; Woychik, R.P.; Wilkinson, J.E.

    1995-05-23

    Mice that carry the lethal yellow (A{sup y}) or viable yellow (A{sup vy}) mutation, two dominant mutations of the agouti (a) gene in mouse chromosome 2, exhibit a phenotype that includes yellow fur, marked obesity, a form of type II diabetes associated with insulin resistance, and an increased susceptibility to tumor development. Molecular analyses of these and several other dominant {open_quotes}obese yellow{close_quotes} a-locus mutations suggested that ectopic expression of the normal agouti protein gives rise to this complex pleiotropic phenotype. We have now tested this hypothesis directly by generating transgenic mice that ectopically express an agouti cDNA clone encoding themore » normal agouti protein in all tissues examined. Transgenic mice of both sexes have yellow fur, become obese, and develop hyperinsulinemia. In addition, male transgenic mice develop hyperglycemia by 12-20 weeks of age. These results demonstrate conclusively that the ectopic agouti expression is responsible for most, if not all, of the phenotypic traits of the dominant, obese yellow mutants. 42 refs., 5 figs.« less

  4. CNS-directed gene therapy for the treatment of neurologic and somatic mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Motas, Sandra; Haurigot, Virginia; Garcia, Miguel; Marcó, Sara; Ribera, Albert; Roca, Carles; Sánchez, Víctor; Molas, Maria; Bertolin, Joan; Maggioni, Luca; León, Xavier; Ruberte, Jesús; Bosch, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease characterized by severe neurologic and somatic disease caused by deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), an enzyme that catabolizes the glycosaminoglycans heparan and dermatan sulphate. Intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) currently constitutes the only approved therapeutic option for MPSII. However, the inability of recombinant IDS to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits ERT efficacy in treating neurological symptoms. Here, we report a gene therapy approach for MPSII through direct delivery of vectors to the CNS. Through a minimally invasive procedure, we administered adeno-associated virus vectors encoding IDS (AAV9-Ids) to the cerebrospinal fluid of MPSII mice with already established disease. Treated mice showed a significant increase in IDS activity throughout the encephalon, with full resolution of lysosomal storage lesions, reversal of lysosomal dysfunction, normalization of brain transcriptomic signature, and disappearance of neuroinflammation. Moreover, our vector also transduced the liver, providing a peripheral source of therapeutic protein that corrected storage pathology in visceral organs, with evidence of cross-correction of nontransduced organs by circulating enzyme. Importantly, AAV9-Ids-treated MPSII mice showed normalization of behavioral deficits and considerably prolonged survival. These results provide a strong proof of concept for the clinical translation of our approach for the treatment of Hunter syndrome patients with cognitive impairment. PMID:27699273

  5. Group II Intron-Mediated Trans-Splicing in the Gene-Rich Mitochondrial Genome of an Enigmatic Eukaryote, Diphylleia rotans.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Miyashita, Hideaki; Roger, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    Although mitochondria have evolved from a single endosymbiotic event, present day mitochondria of diverse eukaryotes display a great range of genome structures, content and features. Group I and group II introns are two features that are distributed broadly but patchily in mitochondrial genomes across branches of the tree of eukaryotes. While group I intron-mediated trans-splicing has been reported from some lineages distantly related to each other, findings of group II intron-mediated trans-splicing has been restricted to members of the Chloroplastida. In this study, we found the mitochondrial genome of the unicellular eukaryote Diphylleia rotans possesses currently the second largest gene repertoire. On the basis of a probable phylogenetic position of Diphylleia, which is located within Amorphea, current mosaic gene distribution in Amorphea must invoke parallel gene losses from mitochondrial genomes during evolution. Most notably, although the cytochrome c oxidase subunit (cox) 1 gene was split into four pieces which located at a distance to each other, we confirmed that a single mature mRNA that covered the entire coding region could be generated by group II intron-mediated trans-splicing. This is the first example of group II intron-mediated trans-splicing outside Chloroplastida. Similar trans-splicing mechanisms likely work for bipartitely split cox2 and nad3 genes to generate single mature mRNAs. We finally discuss origin and evolution of this type of trans-splicing in D. rotans as well as in eukaryotes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C: a novel target gene of miR-214-3p in suppressing angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun-Mei; Liu, Fang-Zhou; Zhu, Jie-Ning; Fu, Yong-Heng; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Deng, Chun-Yu; Hu, Zhi-Qin; Yang, Hui; Zheng, Xi-Long; Cheng, Jian-Ding; Wu, Shu-Lin; Shan, Zhi-Xin

    2016-10-31

    The role of microRNA-214-3p (miR-214-3p) in cardiac hypertrophy was not well illustrated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and potential target of miR-214-3p in angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced mouse cardiac hypertrophy. In mice with either Ang-II infusion or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model, miR-214-3p expression was markedly decreased in the hypertrophic myocardium. Down-regulation of miR-214-3p was observed in the myocardium of patients with cardiac hypertrophy. Expression of miR-214-3p was upregulated in Ang-II-induced hypertrophic neonatal mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes. Cardiac hypertrophy was attenuated in Ang-II-infused mice by tail vein injection of miR-214-3p. Moreover, miR-214-3p inhibited the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and β-myosin heavy chain (MHC) in Ang-II-treated mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro. Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C), which was increased in Ang-II-induced hypertrophic mouse myocardium and cardiomyocytes, was identified as a target gene of miR-214-3p. Functionally, miR-214-3p mimic, consistent with MEF2C siRNA, inhibited cell size increase and protein expression of ANP and β-MHC in Ang-II-treated mouse cardiomyocytes. The NF-κB signal pathway was verified to mediate Ang-II-induced miR-214-3p expression in cardiomyocytes. Taken together, our results revealed that MEF2C is a novel target of miR-214-3p, and attenuation of miR-214-3p expression may contribute to MEF2Cexpressionin cardiac hypertrophy.

  7. Identification and characterization of the reptilian GnRH-II gene in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, and its evolutionary considerations.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Tadahiro; Park, Min Kyun

    2003-10-16

    To elucidate the molecular phylogeny and evolution of a particular peptide, one must analyze not the limited primary amino acid sequences of the low molecular weight mature polypeptide, but rather the sequences of the corresponding precursors from various species. Of all the structural variants of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), GnRH-II (chicken GnRH-II, or cGnRH-II) is remarkably conserved without any sequence substitutions among vertebrates, but its precursor sequences vary considerably. We have identified and characterized the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the GnRH-II precursor and determined its genomic structure, consisting of four exons and three introns, in a reptilian species, the leopard gecko Eublepharis macularius. This is the first report about the GnRH-II precursor cDNA/gene from reptiles. The deduced leopard gecko prepro-GnRH-II polypeptide had the highest identities with the corresponding polypeptides of amphibians. The GnRH-II precursor mRNA was detected in more than half of the tissues and organs examined. This widespread expression is consistent with the previous findings in several species, though the roles of GnRH outside the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis remain largely unknown. Molecular phylogenetic analysis combined with sequence comparison showed that the leopard gecko is more similar to fishes and amphibians than to eutherian mammals with respect to the GnRH-II precursor sequence. These results strongly suggest that the divergence of the GnRH-II precursor sequences seen in eutherian mammals may have occurred along with amniote evolution.

  8. A genetic marker of the ACKR1 gene is present in patients with Type II congenital smell loss who have type I hyposmia and hypogeusia

    PubMed Central

    Stateman, William A.; Knöppel, Alexandra B.; Flegel, Willy A.; Henkin, Robert I.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Our previous study of Type II congenital smell loss patients revealed a statistically significant lower prevalence of an FY (ACKR1, formerly DARC) haplotype compared to controls. The present study correlates this genetic feature with subgroups of patients defined by specific smell and taste functions. METHODS Smell and taste function measurements were performed by use of olfactometry and gustometry to define degree of abnormality of smell and taste function. Smell loss was classified as anosmia or hyposmia (types I, II or III). Taste loss was similarly classified as ageusia or hypogeusia (types I, II or III). Based upon these results patient erythrocyte antigen expression frequencies were categorized by smell and taste loss with results compared between patients within the Type II group and published controls. RESULTS Comparison of antigen expression frequencies revealed a statistically significant decrease in incidence of an Fyb haplotype only among patients with type I hyposmia and any form of taste loss (hypogeusia). In all other patient groups erythrocyte antigens were expressed at normal frequencies. CONCLUSIONS Data suggest that Type II congenital smell loss patients who exhibit both type I hyposmia and hypogeusia are genetically distinct from all other patients with Type II congenital smell loss. This distinction is based on decreased Fyb expression which correlated with abnormalities in two sensory modalities (hyposmia type I and hypogeusia). Only patients with these two specific sensory abnormalities expressed the Fyb antigen (encoded by the ACKR1 gene on the long arm of chromosome 1) at frequencies different from controls. PMID:27968956

  9. A potentially critical Hpa II site of the X chromosome-linked PGK1 gene is unmethylated prior to the onset of meiosis of human oogenic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singer-Sam, J.; Dai, A.; Riggs, A.D.

    1992-02-15

    Hpa II site H8 is in the CpG-rich 5{prime} untranslated region of the human X chromosome-linked gene for phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1). It is the only Hpa II site in the CpG island' whose methylation pattern is perfectly correlated with transcriptional silence of this gene. The authors measured DNA methylation at site H8 in fetal oogonia and oocytes and found, using a quantitative assay based on the polymerase chain reaction, that purified germ cells isolated by micromanipulation were unmethylated in 47-day to 110-day fetuses, whereas ovaries depleted of germ cells and non-ovary tissues were methylated. They conclude that site H8more » is the unmethylated in germ cells prior to the onset of meiosis and reactivation of the X chromosome.« less

  10. Detection and characterization of recombinant DNA expressing vip3A-type insecticidal gene in GMOs--standard single, multiplex and construct-specific PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chandra K; Ojha, Abhishek; Bhatanagar, Raj K; Kachru, Devendra N

    2008-01-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip), a unique class of insecticidal protein, is now part of transgenic plants for conferring resistance against lepidopteron pests. In order to address the imminent regulatory need for detection and labeling of vip3A carrying genetically modified (GM) products, we have developed a standard single PCR and a multiplex PCR assay. As far as we are aware, this is the first report on PCR-based detection of a vip3A-type gene (vip-s) in transgenic cotton and tobacco. Our assay involves amplification of a 284-bp region of the vip-s gene. This assay can possibly detect as many as 20 natural wild-type isolates bearing a vip3A-like gene and two synthetic genes of vip3A in transgenic plants. The limit of detection as established by our assay for GM trait (vip-s) is 0.1%. Spiking with nontarget DNA originating from diverse plant sources had no inhibitory effect on vip-s detection. Since autoclaving of vip-s bearing GM leaf samples showed no deterioration/interference in detection efficacy, the assay seems to be suitable for processed food products as well. The vip-s amplicon identity was reconfirmed by restriction endonuclease assay. The primer set for vip-s was equally effective in a multiplex PCR assay format (duplex, triplex and quadruplex), used in conjunction with the primer sets for the npt-II selectable marker gene, Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and nopaline synthetase terminator, enabling concurrent detection of the transgene, regulatory sequences and marker gene. Further, the entire transgene construct was amplified using the forward primer of the promoter and the reverse primer of the terminator. The resultant amplicon served as a template for nested PCR to confirm the construct integrity. The method is suitable for screening any vip3A-carrying GM plant and food. The availability of a reliable PCR assay method prior to commercial release of vip3A-based transgenic crops and food would facilitate rapid and efficient regulatory

  11. Characterization of a distinct subpopulation of striatal projection neurons expressing the Dlx genes in the basal ganglia through the activity of the I56ii enhancer.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Noël; Yu, Man; Poitras, Luc; Rubenstein, John L R; Ekker, Marc

    2008-10-15

    Regulation of region-specific neuronal differentiation and migration in the embryonic forebrain is a complex mechanism that involves a variety of transcription factors such as the Dlx genes. At least four cis-acting regulatory elements (CREs) are responsible for the Dlx transcriptional regulation in the subcortical telencephalon and the rostral diencephalon. These include I12b and URE2 in the Dlx1/2 bigene cluster, and, I56i and I56ii in the Dlx5/6 cluster. We previously reported that URE2, I12b, and I56i, mark different progenitor cell populations in the ganglionic eminences as well as different subtypes of adult cortical interneurons. Here, we carried out a detailed spatial and temporal analysis of the I56ii CRE activity in the developing telencephalon between E10.5 and E15.5, and compared its activity with the other three Dlx CREs using lacZ reporter genes in transgenic mice. We show that I56ii marks distinct group(s) of neurons located in the superficial mantle of the LGE and MGE between E11.5 and E13.5. The I56ii-positive cells are Dlx- and GABA-immunoreactive. However, unlike the other CREs, I56ii does not label interneuron progenitors in the basal ganglia, nor tangentially migrating cells to the cortex at E13.5. Instead, I56ii-positive cells mark a subpopulation(s) of post-mitotic projection neurons that tangentially migrate from the LGE to the deep mantle of the MGE and reside between the subventricular zone and the globus pallidus during midgestation. The majority of these neurons express the striatal markers Meis2 and Islet1. Moreover, both Meis2 and Islet1 activate transcription of a reporter gene containing the I56ii sequence in co-transfection assays, indicating that these transcriptional factors may be potential upstream modulators of the Dlx genes in vivo.

  12. Phase II multicenter study of gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy as adjuvant to surgical resection for newly diagnosed malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Lee A; Manzanera, Andrea G; Bell, Susan D; Cavaliere, Robert; McGregor, John M; Grecula, John C; Newton, Herbert B; Lo, Simon S; Badie, Behnam; Portnow, Jana; Teh, Bin S; Trask, Todd W; Baskin, David S; New, Pamela Z; Aguilar, Laura K; Aguilar-Cordova, Estuardo; Chiocca, E Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Despite aggressive standard of care (SOC) treatment, survival of malignant gliomas remains very poor. This Phase II, prospective, matched controlled, multicenter trial was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of aglatimagene besadenovec (AdV-tk) plus valacyclovir (gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy [GMCI]) in combination with SOC for newly diagnosed malignant glioma patients. Treatment cohort patients received SOC + GMCI and were enrolled at 4 institutions from 2006 to 2010. The preplanned, matched-control cohort included all concurrent patients meeting protocol criteria and SOC at a fifth institution. AdV-tk was administered at surgery followed by SOC radiation and temozolomide. Subset analyses were preplanned, based on prognostic factors: pathological diagnosis (glioblastoma vs others) and extent of resection. Forty-eight patients completed SOC + GMCI, and 134 met control cohort criteria. Median overall survival (OS) was 17.1 months for GMCI + SOC versus 13.5 months for SOC alone (P = .0417). Survival at 1, 2, and 3 years was 67%, 35%, and 19% versus 57%, 22%, and 8%, respectively. The greatest benefit was observed in gross total resection patients: median OS of 25 versus 16.9 months (P = .0492); 1, 2, and 3-year survival of 90%, 53%, and 32% versus 64%, 28% and 6%, respectively. There were no dose-limiting toxicities; fever, fatigue, and headache were the most common GMCI-related symptoms. GMCI can be safely combined with SOC in newly diagnosed malignant gliomas. Survival outcomes were most notably improved in patients with minimal residual disease after gross total resection. These data should help guide future immunotherapy studies and strongly support further evaluation of GMCI for malignant gliomas. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00589875. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Promoter IV of the class II transactivator gene is essential for positive selection of CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Waldburger, Jean-Marc; Rossi, Simona; Hollander, Georg A; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Reith, Walter; Acha-Orbea, Hans

    2003-05-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) expression is regulated by the transcriptional coactivator CIITA. Positive selection of CD4(+) T cells is abrogated in mice lacking one of the promoters (pIV) of the Mhc2ta gene. This is entirely due to the absence of MHCII expression in thymic epithelia, as demonstrated by bone marrow transfer experiments between wild-type and pIV(-/-) mice. Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) are also MHCII(-) in pIV(-/-) mice. Bone marrow-derived, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) retain normal MHCII expression in pIV(-/-) mice, including those believed to mediate negative selection in the thymic medulla. Endogenous retroviruses thus retain their ability to sustain negative selection of the residual CD4(+) thymocytes in pIV(-/-) mice. Interestingly, the passive acquisition of MHCII molecules by thymocytes is abrogated in pIV(-/-) mice. This identifies thymic epithelial cells as the source of this passive transfer. In peripheral lymphoid organs, the CD4(+) T-cell population of pIV(-/-) mice is quantitatively and qualitatively comparable to that of MHCII-deficient mice. It comprises a high proportion of CD1-restricted natural killer T cells, which results in a bias of the V beta repertoire of the residual CD4(+) T-cell population. We have also addressed the identity of the signal that sustains pIV expression in cortical epithelia. We found that the Jak/STAT pathways activated by the common gamma chain (CD132) or common beta chain (CDw131) cytokine receptors are not required for MHCII expression in thymic cortical epithelia.

  14. Regulation of the human T-cell leukemia virus gene expression depends on the localization of regulatory proteins Tax, Rex and p30II in specific nuclear subdomains.

    PubMed

    Baydoun, Hicham; Duc-Dodon, Madeleine; Lebrun, Sylvie; Gazzolo, Louis; Bex, Françoise

    2007-01-15

    The human T-cell leukemia virus HTLV-1 encodes regulatory proteins, Tax, Rex and p30(II), which are involved in the control of viral gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Tax localizes in unique nuclear bodies that contain components of the transcription and splicing complexes. In this work, we studied the relative intracellular localizations of Tax, Rex and p30(II). Run-on transcription assays and immunocytochemistry at light and electron microscopy levels indicated that the Tax nuclear bodies included both de novo transcribed RNA and the RNA polymerase II form that is phosphorylated on its carboxy-terminal domain whereas contacts with chromatin were observed at the periphery of these nuclear bodies. Rex first accumulated in nucleolar foci and then spread across the whole nucleus to display a diffuse and punctuate nucleoplasmic distribution. This distribution of Rex was observed in HTLV-1 transformed lymphocytes and in COS cells expressing the HTLV-1 provirus. Rex colocalized with the cellular export factor CRM-1 in the nucleolar foci as well as in the nucleoplasmic foci that did not overlap with Tax nuclear bodies but were found at the boundaries of the Tax bodies. In addition, we demonstrate that p30(II) interacts with Rex and colocalizes with the Rex/CRM-1 complexes in the nucleoli leading to their clearance from the nucleoplasm. Our results suggest that transcripts originating from Tax-induced activation of gene expression at the boundaries of the Tax bodies are transported out of the nucleus by nucleoplasmic Rex/CRM-1 complexes that are first assembled in nucleolar foci. In addition, p30(II) might exert its negative effect on viral RNA transport by preventing the release of the Rex/CRM-1 complexes from sequestration in nucleolar foci. These data support the idea that the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of HTLV-1 gene expression depends on the concentration of select regulatory complexes at specific area of

  15. Identification of two major histocompatibility (MH) class II A genes and their association to Vibrio anguillarum infection in half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunmei; Wang, Xubo; Zhang, Quanqi; Wang, Zhigang; Qi, Jie; Yi, Qilin; Liu, Zhipeng; Wang, Yanan; Yu, Haiyang

    2012-03-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II antigens are important in vertebrate immune system. In the present study, the full cDNA sequence of class II A gene was synthesized by RACE-PCR from half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis), and its open reading frame (ORF) polymorphism was studied. The whole cDNA sequence was 992 bp in length, including the ORF with 717 bp. Twenty-five alleles were identified and clustered into two distinct groups according to the specific nucleotides/ amino acids in specific positions. Eleven alleles belonged to Cyse-DAA while fourteen alleles belonged to Cyse-DBA. Four Cyse-DAA alleles were observed in one individual, and three to five Cyse-DBA alleles were observed in each of the three detected individuals, which indicated that at least two loci existed in each gene. Moreover, in order to study the function of the alleles in resistance to infection, 200 individuals were intraperitoneally injected with Vibrio anguillarum and the first 20 dead individuals and 20 surviving ones were selected for genotype analysis. Fifty-six alleles were identified among the 40 individuals. Twenty-nine alleles belonged to Cyse-DAA and the other 27 alleles belonged to Cyse-DBA. Eighteen alleles were selected for studying their function in resistance to infection. Alleles Cyse-DAA*0201, Cyse-DAA*1101, Cyse-DBA*0401, Cyse-DBA*1102, Cyse-DBA*1801 and Cyse-DBA*2201 were identified only in surviving individuals, while alleles Cyse- DAA*0901, Cyse-DBA*1101 and Cyse-DBA*1401 occurred more frequently in dead individuals. This study confirmed the existence and polymorphism of two class II A genes as well as the relationship between alleles of class II A genes and disease susceptibility/ resistance in half-smooth tongue sole.

  16. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene II genotype protects against the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Qaisar; Javaid, Amara; Bilal, Nighat; Ismail, Muhammad

    2012-09-01

      Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that decreases the quality of life of T2DM patients. Very few studies have found an association between the development and progression of DPN in T2DM and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms.   Using gene-specific primers in a polymerase chain reaction, the presence of ACE I/D polymorphisms was screened for in 276 T2DM patients with DPN, 496 T2DM patients without DPN, and 331 control (non-diabetic) subjects.   The distribution of the I/D genotypes was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The II genotype was significantly more prevalent in T2DM patients without DPN than the DD genotype (P < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of the II and DD genotypes in T2DM patients with DPN (P = 0.78).   The II genotype of the ACE gene has a protective effect against the development of DPN in T2DM patients. This suggests a role for the renin-angiotensin system in modulating neuropathy in T2DM. © 2012 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Molecular analysis of 42 patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II: new mutations in the SEC23B gene and a search for a genotype-phenotype relationship

    PubMed Central

    Iolascon, Achille; Russo, Roberta; Esposito, Maria Rosaria; Asci, Roberta; Piscopo, Carmelo; Perrotta, Silverio; Fénéant-Thibault, Madeleine; Garçon, Loïc; Delaunay, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Background The most frequent form of congenital dyserythropoietic anemia is the type II form. Recently it was shown that the vast majority of patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II carry mutations in the SEC23B gene. Here we established the molecular basis of 42 cases of congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II and attempted to define a genotype-phenotype relationship. Design and Methods SEC23B gene sequencing analysis was performed to assess the diversity and incidence of each mutation in 42 patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II (25 described exclusively in this work), from the Italian and the French Registries, and the relationship of these mutations with the clinical presentation. To this purpose, we divided the patients into two groups: (i) patients with two missense mutations and (ii) patients with one nonsense and one missense mutation. Results We found 22 mutations of uneven frequency, including seven novel mutations. Compound heterozygosity for a missense and a nonsense mutation tended to produce a more severe clinical presentation, a lower reticulocyte count, a higher serum ferritin level, and, in some cases, more pronounced transfusion needs, than homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for two missense mutations. Homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for two nonsense mutations was never found. Conclusions This study allowed us to determine the most frequent mutations in patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II. Correlations between the mutations and various biological parameters suggested that the association of one missense mutation and one nonsense mutation was significantly more deleterious that the association of two missense mutations. However, there was an overlap between the two categories. PMID:20015893

  18. Use of meta-analysis to combine candidate gene association studies: application to study the relationship between the ESR PvuII polymorphism and sow litter size

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, Leopoldo

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates the application of meta-analysis on livestock candidate gene effects. The PvuII polymorphism of the ESR gene is used as an example. The association among ESR PvuII alleles with the number of piglets born alive and total born in the first (NBA1, TNB1) and later parities (NBA, TNB) is reviewed by conducting a meta-analysis of 15 published studies including 9329 sows. Under a fixed effects model, litter size values were significantly lower in the "AA" genotype groups when compared with "AB" and "BB" homozygotes. Under the random effects model, the results were similar although differences between "AA" and "AB" genotype groups were not clearly significant for NBA and TNB. Nevertheless, the most noticeable result was the high and significant heterogeneity estimated among studies. This heterogeneity could be assigned to error sampling, genotype by environment interaction, linkage or epistasis, as referred to in the literature, but also to the hypothesis of population admixture/stratification. It is concluded that meta-analysis can be considered as a helpful analytical tool to synthesise and discuss livestock candidate gene effects. The main difficulty found was the insufficient information on the standard errors of the estimated genotype effects in several publications. Consequently, the convenience of publishing the standard errors or the concrete P-values instead of the test significance level should be recommended to guarantee the quality of candidate gene effect meta-analyses. PMID:15943920

  19. Arabidopsis Pol II-Dependent in Vitro Transcription System Reveals Role of Chromatin for Light-Inducible rbcS Gene Transcription1

    PubMed Central

    Ido, Ayaka; Iwata, Shinya; Iwata, Yuka; Igarashi, Hisako; Hamada, Takahiro; Sonobe, Seiji; Sugiura, Masahiro; Yukawa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    In vitro transcription is an essential tool to study the molecular mechanisms of transcription. For over a decade, we have developed an in vitro transcription system from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)-cultured cells (BY-2), and this system supported the basic activities of the three RNA polymerases (Pol I, Pol II, and Pol III). However, it was not suitable to study photosynthetic genes, because BY-2 cells have lost their photosynthetic activity. Therefore, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in vitro transcription systems were developed from green and etiolated suspension cells. Sufficient in vitro Pol II activity was detected after the minor modification of the nuclear soluble extracts preparation method; removal of vacuoles from protoplasts and L-ascorbic acid supplementation in the extraction buffer were particularly effective. Surprisingly, all four Arabidopsis Rubisco small subunit (rbcS-1A, rbcS-1B, rbcS-2B, and rbcS-3B) gene members were in vitro transcribed from the naked DNA templates without any light-dependent manner. However, clear light-inducible transcriptions were observed using chromatin template of rbcS-1A gene, which was prepared with a human nucleosome assembly protein 1 (hNAP1) and HeLa histones. This suggested that a key determinant of light-dependency through the rbcS gene transcription was a higher order of DNA structure (i.e. chromatin). PMID:26662274

  20. Differential expression of the Trichoderma reesei beta-xylanase II (xyn2) gene in the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Den Haan, R; Van Zyl, W H

    2001-11-01

    The transcriptional control of two native promoters and one heterologous promoter and the production of a heterologous protein from these promoters were evaluated in the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis cultivated on xylose and glucose as carbon sources, using the beta-xylanase II xyn2 gene of Trichoderma reesei. The xyn2 gene open reading frame was fused to the P. stipitis xylose reductase gene (XYL1) promoter, the P. stipitis transketolase gene (TKL) promoter and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGKI) promoter DNA sequences on episomal plasmids. The plasmids were transformed into Pichia stipitis and gene expression and beta-xylanase production monitored. The XYL1 promoter was shown to be inducible in the presence of xylose, as xyn2 transcription and beta-xylanase activity could be measured when the recombinant strain was cultivated on xylose but not when it was cultivated on glucose. TKL promoter expression was found to be constitutive when either glucose or xylose was used as sole carbon source. The PGK1 promoter did not promote xyn2 transcription in P. stipitis. The molecular size of the recombinant Xyn2 protein produced by P. stipitis was 20.7 kDa, which is similar to that of the native T. reesei Xyn2 protein. This indicates no or minimal glycosylation of the recombinant protein. The recombinant xyn2-expressing strain also yielded twice the amount of biomass yielded by the control strain when cultivated in medium containing 1% birchwood xylan as sole carbon source.

  1. An efficient method for sonication assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of coat protein (CP) coding genes into papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Maoka, Tetsuo; Komori, Sadao; Fukamachi, Hiroshi; Kato, Hidenori; Ogawa, Kazunori

    2004-06-01

    An efficient method for the production of transgenic papaya was developed via Sonication Assisted Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation (SAAT) of somatic embryos. The plasmid pGA482G was modified to contain gene PTi-Epj-TL-PLDMV with CP coding sequence of PLDMV Japan strain and chimeric gene PTi-NP-YKT with multiple CP coding sequences from PRSV Taiwan strain, PRSV Hawaii strain and PRSV Thailand strain, respectively. Disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying the binary plasmid pGA482G with the CP genes and nptII gene was used to transform embryo calli of papaya variety Sunset to produce transgenic papaya plants. The experiment was focused on the screening of effective transformation method. The engineered Agrobacterium grown overnight was diluted with an infection media of high osmotic pressure (1/2 MS medium contain 6% sucrose and 1% glucose, pH 5.7) and adjusted to optical density OD600nm = 0.15-0.20, embryonic calli were immerged in it for 30 min and treated with 5 s, 15 s, and 20 s sonication respectively during the infection. Results indicated that 15 s sonication treatment improved the transformation efficiency dramatically. After 15 s sonication treatment on embryo calli loaded in 15 ml sterile plastic tubes, 21 putative transgenic lines were produced from 80 pieces embryonic calli (26.3%) transformed by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPG] and 8 putative transgenic lines was produced from 48 pieces embryonic calli (16.7%) transferred by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPB], while only a single line came out of 64 pieces embryonic calli (1.6%) transformed by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPG] and none from 25 pieces embryonic calli transformed by Agrobacterium [pGA482G/CPB] in the non-treatment control. Results also showed that the best concentration of selection antibiotic was 120 mg/L kanamycin. A total of 42 resistant shoots were produced from 421 pieces of original embryonic calli in 9 months. The presence of the CP genes in the transgenic plants and their

  2. Terminal Oxidase Diversity and Function in “Metallosphaera yellowstonensis”: Gene Expression and Protein Modeling Suggest Mechanisms of Fe(II) Oxidation in the Sulfolobales▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kozubal, M. A.; Dlakić, M.; Macur, R. E.; Inskeep, W. P.

    2011-01-01

    “Metallosphaera yellowstonensis” is a thermoacidophilic archaeon isolated from Yellowstone National Park that is capable of autotrophic growth using Fe(II), elemental S, or pyrite as electron donors. Analysis of the draft genome sequence from M. yellowstonensis strain MK1 revealed seven different copies of heme copper oxidases (subunit I) in a total of five different terminal oxidase complexes, including doxBCEF, foxABCDEFGHIJ, soxABC, and the soxM supercomplex, as well as a novel hypothetical two-protein doxB-like polyferredoxin complex. Other genes found in M. yellowstonensis with possible roles in S and or Fe cycling include a thiosulfate oxidase (tqoAB), a sulfite oxidase (som), a cbsA cytochrome b558/566, several small blue copper proteins, and a novel gene sequence coding for a putative multicopper oxidase (Mco). Results from gene expression studies, including reverse transcriptase (RT) quantitative PCR (qPCR) of cultures grown autotrophically on either Fe(II), pyrite, or elemental S showed that the fox gene cluster and mco are highly expressed under conditions where Fe(II) is an electron donor. Metagenome sequence and gene expression studies of Fe-oxide mats confirmed the importance of fox genes (e.g., foxA and foxC) and mco under Fe(II)-oxidizing conditions. Protein modeling of FoxC suggests a novel lysine-lysine or lysine-arginine heme B binding domain, indicating that it is likely the cytochrome component of a heterodimer complex with foxG as a ferredoxin subunit. Analysis of mco shows that it encodes a novel multicopper blue protein with two plastocyanin type I copper domains that may play a role in the transfer of electrons within the Fox protein complex. An understanding of metabolic pathways involved in aerobic iron and sulfur oxidation in Sulfolobales has broad implications for understanding the evolution and niche diversification of these thermophiles as well as practical applications in fields such as bioleaching of trace metals from pyritic

  3. Effects of alien and intraspecies cytoplasms on manifestation of nuclear genes for wheat resistance to brown rust: II. Specificity of cytoplasm influence on different Lr genes

    SciTech Connect

    Voluevich, E.A.; Buloichik, A.A.; Palilova, A.N.

    1995-04-01

    Specificity of expression of the major nuclear genes Lr to two brown rust clones in hybrids with the same maternal cytoplasm was analyzed. It was evaluated by a resistant: susceptible ratio in the F{sub 2}. Reciprocal hybrids were obtained from the cross between the progeny of homozygous susceptible plants of the cultivar Penjamo 62 and its alloplasmatic lines carrying cytoplasms of Triticum dicoccoides var. fulvovillosum, Aegilops squarrosa var. typical, Agropyron trichophorum, and isogenic lines of the cultivar Thatcher (Th) with the Lr1, Lr9, Lr15, and Lr19 genes. It was shown that the effect of the Lr1 gene in the cytoplasmmore » of cultivar Thatcher and in eu-, and alloplasmatic forms of Penjamo 62 was less expressed than that of other Lr genes. Cytoplasm of the alloplasmatic line (dicoccoides)-Penjamo 62 was the only exception: in the F{sub 2}, hybrids with Th (Lr1) had a higher yield of resistant forms than those with Th (Lr15). In the hybrid combinations studied, expression and/or transmission of the Lr19 gene was more significant than that of other genes. This gene had no advantages over Lr15 and Lr19 only in cytoplasm of the alloplasmatic line (squarrosa)-Penjamo 62. In certain hybrid cytoplasms, the display of the Lr1, Lr15, and Lr19 genes, in contrast to Lr9, varied with the virulence of the pathogen clones. 15 refs., 5 tabs.« less

  4. A murine Ig light chain transgene reveals IGKV3 gene contributions to anti-collagen types IV and II specificities.

    PubMed

    Clark, Amy G; Worni-Schudel, Inge M; Korte, Francesca M; Foster, Mary H

    2017-11-01

    A subset of autoimmune diseases result from autoantibodies targeting epitopes on matrix collagen. The most extensively studied are anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (or its systemic counterpart Goodpasture's disease) that destroys kidneys and lungs, and rheumatoid arthritis that leads to disabling arthritis. Autoantibodies in these disorders bind evolutionarily conserved conformational epitopes on the noncollagenous domain 1 (NC1) of the alpha3 chain of type IV [alpha3(IV)NC1] collagen in glomerular and alveolar basement membranes, and on native or citrullinated type II collagen (CII) in joint cartilage, respectively. The genetic origins of pathogenic anti-collagen B cells in these diseases is unknown, but observations from murine models raise the possibility that they overlap despite distinct in vivo immunopathologies. Monoclonal autoantibodies isolated from mice immunized with alpha3(IV)NC1 collagen or CII show a biased use of Ig light chains (LC) encoded by genes of the IGKV3 subgroup (previously Vk21 family), paired with diverse Ig heavy chains. To further explore this relationship and determine if a single murine IGKV3 LC independently predisposes to both anti-collagen responses, we generated a novel transgenic (Tg) C57BL/6 mouse that expresses a productively rearranged IGKV3-encoded LC, termed mLCV3-Tg, in conjunction with endogenously rearranged Ig heavy chains. Tg mice are also genetically deficient in endogenous kappa chains to permit tracking of the mLCV3 transgene. We show that mLCV3-Tg mice are susceptible to humoral autoimmunity against both collagen chains. Anti-alpha3(IV)NC1 collagen, but not anti-CII, mLCV3-encoded Ig are detected in serum of unmanipulated Tg mice, while Toll-like receptor ligands induce secretion of mLCV3-Tg autoantibodies of both collagen specificities from splenocytes ex vivo. This indicates developmental survival of mLCV3-Tg B cells reactive with each antigen, and is consistent with production of the two anti

  5. RNAP-II transcribes two small RNAs at the promoter and terminator regions of the RNAP-I gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mayán, Maria D

    2013-01-01

    Three RNA polymerases coexist in the ribosomal DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RNAP-I transcribes the 35S rRNA, RNAP-III transcribes the 5S rRNA and RNAP-II is found in both intergenic non-coding regions. Previously, we demonstrated that RNAP-II molecules bound to the intergenic non-coding regions (IGS) of the ribosomal locus are mainly found in a stalled conformation, and the stalled polymerase mediates chromatin interactions, which isolate RNAP-I from the RNAP-III transcriptional domain. Besides, RNAP-II transcribes both IGS regions at low levels, using different cryptic promoters. This report demonstrates that RNAP-II also transcribes two sequences located in the 5'- and 3'-ends of the 35S rRNA gene that overlap with the sequences of the 35S rRNA precursor transcribed by RNAP-I. The sequence located at the promoter region of RNAP-I, called the p-RNA transcript, binds to the transcription termination-related protein, Reb1p, while the T-RNA sequence, located in the termination sites of RNAP-I gene, contains the stem-loop recognized by Rtn1p, which is necessary for proper termination of RNAP-I. Because of their location, these small RNAs may play a key role in the initiation and termination of RNAP-I transcription. To correctly synthesize proteins, eukaryotic cells may retain a mechanism that connects the three main polymerases. This report suggests that cryptic transcription by RNAP-II may be required for normal transcription by RNAP-I in the ribosomal locus of S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Expression of a higher plant psbA gene in Synechocystis 6803 yields a functional hybrid photosystem II reaction center complex.

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, P J; Rögner, M; Diner, B A

    1991-01-01

    The psbA gene codes for the D1 polypeptide of the photosystem II reaction center complex and is found in all photosynthetic organisms that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. Here we describe the construction and characterization of a strain of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 in which the three endogenous psbA genes are replaced by a single psbA gene from the chloroplast genome of the higher plant Poa annua. The resulting chimeric strain, KWPAS, grows photoautotrophically with a doubling time of 26 hours compared with 20 hours for wild-type Synechocystis 6803. The mutant oxidizes water to oxygen at light-saturated rates comparable with wild type, despite differences in 15% of the primary structure of D1 between these species. RNA gel blot analysis indicates the presence in KWPAS of a psbA transcript of approximately 1.25 kilobases, consistent with the chloroplast promoter also acting as a promoter in Synechocystis. By using antibodies specific for the carboxyl-terminal extension of the D1 polypeptide of higher plants, we showed that the D1 polypeptide synthesized by KWPAS is post-translationally modified at the carboxyl terminus, probably through processing. A detailed biophysical analysis of the chimeric photosystem II complex indicated that the rates of forward electron transfer are similar to wild type. The rates of charge recombination between the donor and acceptor sides of the reaction center are, however, accelerated by as much as a factor of nine (QA- to S2) and are the most likely explanation for the lower rate of photoautotrophic growth in the mutant. We conclude that the psbA gene from a higher plant can be expressed in cyanobacteria and its product processed and assembled into a functional chimeric photosystem II reaction center. PMID:1840918

  7. Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water-saving in Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenxian; Shi, Zhanliang; Zhang, Aimin; Guo, Jinkao

    2015-03-01

    Functional markers (FMs) developed from sequence polymorphisms are present in allelic variants of a functional gene at a locus and are directly associated with phenotypic variations. In this study, FM linked to Rht-B1, Rht-D1, TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B, TaGW2-6A and Dreb-B1 genes conferring to yield potential and water-saving were selected to analyse the distribution in 102 wheat varieties, most of which were authorized in the past decade and adapted to grow in Zone II of China. First, the semidwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b (mutant alleles) conferring to grain yield were analysed. The frequencies of favourable alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b were 32.4 and 58.8%, respectively. Comparing with the previous report, the frequency of Rht-B1b among cultivars in this study is similar to the frequency among cultivars released in the 1990s, while the frequency of Rht-D1b is slightly lower than the previous report 63.9%. Twelve (11.8%) cultivars neither contained Rht-B1b nor Rht-D1b, while only Yumai 66 contained both semidwarfing genes. Linyuan8 and Xinong 928 are heterozygous at RhtB1 locus and Zhengmai 9023 is heterozygous at both RhtB1 and Rht-D1 loci. Second, the TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B and TaGW2-6A genes considered as candidate genes related to grain weight were detected. We found that the frequencies of the favourable alleles were 76.5, 56.9 and 69.6%, respectively. Among the 102 wheat varieties, 30 contained all the three favourable genes, 45 contained two of the three favourable genes and 27 contained only one. There are eight wheat varieties (7.8%) in hybrid state at the TaCWI-A1 locus. Third, the designed FM linked to water-saving gene Dreb-B1 were validated on 102 wheat varieties. The results showed that the haplotypes of 47 wheat varieties at the Dreb-B1 locus were same as that of Opata 85, and 55 wheat varieties showed the signal expected for W7984 (Opata 85 and W7984 are parents of the ITMI mapping population). This information will be useful for the wheat breeding

  8. Selection system and co-cultivation medium are important determinants of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Priya; Kuwahata, Melissa; Turner, Nicole; Lakshmanan, Prakash

    2010-02-01

    A reproducible method for transformation of sugarcane using various strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) (AGL0, AGL1, EHA105 and LBA4404) has been developed. The selection system and co-cultivation medium were the most important factors determining the success of transformation and transgenic plant regeneration. Plant regeneration at a frequency of 0.8-4.8% occurred only when callus was transformed with A. tumefaciens carrying a newly constructed superbinary plasmid containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and beta-glucuronidase (gusA) genes, both driven by the maize ubiquitin (ubi-1) promoter. Regeneration was successful in plants carrying the nptII gene but not the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) gene. NptII gene selection was imposed at a concentration of 150 mg/l paromomycin sulphate and applied either immediately or 4 days after the co-cultivation period. Co-cultivation on Murashige and Skoog (MS)-based medium for a period of 4 days produced the highest number of transgenic plants. Over 200 independent transgenic lines were created using this protocol. Regenerated plants appeared phenotypically normal and contained both gusA and nptII genes. Southern blot analysis revealed 1-3 transgene insertion events that were randomly integrated in the majority of the plants produced.

  9. Genetic variation in angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene influences extent of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy independent of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Nadia; van der Merwe, Lize; Revera, Miriam; Heradien, Marshall; Goosen, Althea; Brink, Paul A; Moolman-Smook, Johanna C

    2011-09-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), an inherited primary cardiac disorder mostly caused by defective sarcomeric proteins, serves as a model to investigate left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). HCM manifests extreme variability in the degree and distribution of LVH, even in patients with the same causal mutation. Genes coding for renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system components have been studied as hypertrophy modifiers in HCM, with emphasis on the angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R). However, Ang II binding to Ang II type 2 receptors (AT(2)R) also has hypertrophy-modulating effects. We investigated the effect of the functional +1675 G/A polymorphism (rs1403543) and additional single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3' untranslated region of the AT(2)R gene (AGTR2) on a heritable composite hypertrophy score in an HCM family cohort in which HCM founder mutations segregate. We find significant association between rs1403543 and hypertrophy, with each A allele decreasing the average wall thickness by ~0.5 mm, independent of the effects of the primary HCM causal mutation, blood pressure and other hypertrophy covariates (p = 0.020). This study therefore confirms a hypertrophy-modulating effect for AT(2)R also in HCM and implies that +1675 G/A could potentially be used in a panel of markers that profile a genetic predisposition to LVH in HCM.

  10. Genes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Together, they make up the blueprint for the human body and how it works. A person's genetic makeup is called a genotype. Information Genes are made of DNA. Strands of DNA make up part of your chromosomes . Chromosomes have matching pairs of 1 copy of ...

  11. Pharmacodynamics of dietary phytochemical indoles I3C and DIM: Induction of Nrf2-mediated Phase II drug metabolizing and antioxidant genes and synergism with isothiocyanates

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Constance Lay-Lay; Cintron, Melvilí; Wu, Tien-Yuan; Guo, Yue; Huang, Ying; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant response element (ARE) is a critical regulatory element for the expression of many phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (DME), phase III transporters, and anti-oxidant enzymes, mediated by the transcription factor Nrf2. The aim of this study was to examine the potential activation and synergism of Nrf2-ARE-mediated transcriptional activity between four common phytochemicals present in cruciferous vegetables, the indoles; indole-3-carbinol (I3C), 3,3’-diindolylmethane (DIM), and the isothiocyanates (ITCs); phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN). The cytotoxicity of the compounds was determined in human liver hepatoma cell line (HepG2-C8). The combination index was calculated to assess the synergistic effects on the induction of ARE-mediated gene expressions. qPCR was employed to measure the mRNA expressions of Nrf2 and Nrf2-mediated genes. I3C and DIM showed less cytotoxicity than SFN and PEITC. Compared to I3C, DIM was found to be a stronger inducer of ARE. Synergism was observed after combined treatments of I3C 6.25 µM + SFN 1 µM, I3C 6.25 µM + PEITC 1 µM and DIM 6.25 µM + PEITC 1 µM, while additive effect was observed for DIM 6.25 µM + SFN 1 µM. Induction of endogenous Nrf2, phase II genes (GSTm2, UGT1A1, and NQO1) and antioxidant genes (HO-1 and SOD1) was also observed. In summary, the indole I3C or DIM alone could induce or syngergistically induce in combination with the ITCs SFN or PEITC, Nrf2-ARE-mediated gene expression, which could potentially enhance cancer chemopreventive activity. PMID:21656528

  12. Pharmacodynamics of dietary phytochemical indoles I3C and DIM: Induction of Nrf2-mediated phase II drug metabolizing and antioxidant genes and synergism with isothiocyanates.

    PubMed

    Saw, Constance Lay-Lay; Cintrón, Melvilí; Wu, Tien-Yuan; Guo, Yue; Huang, Ying; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2011-07-01

    The antioxidant response element (ARE) is a critical regulatory element for the expression of many phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (DME), phase III transporters and antioxidant enzymes, mediated by the transcription factor Nrf2. The aim of this study was to examine the potential activation and synergism of Nrf2-ARE-mediated transcriptional activity between four common phytochemicals present in cruciferous vegetables; the indoles: indole-3-carbinol (I3C), 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM); and the isothiocyanates (ITCs): phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN). The cytotoxicity of the compounds was determined in a human liver hepatoma cell line (HepG2-C8). The combination index was calculated to assess the synergistic effects on the induction of ARE-mediated gene expressions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was employed to measure the mRNA expressions of Nrf2 and Nrf2-mediated genes. I3C and DIM showed less cytotoxicity than SFN and PEITC. Compared with I3C, DIM was found to be a stronger inducer of ARE. Synergism was observed after combined treatments of 6.25 µm I3C + 1 µm SFN, 6.25 µm I3C + 1 µm PEITC and 6.25 µm DIM + 1 µm PEITC, while an additive effect was observed for 6.25 µm DIM + 1 µm SFN. Induction of endogenous Nrf2, phase II genes (GSTm2, UGT1A1 and NQO1) and antioxidant genes (HO-1 and SOD1) was also observed. In summary, the indole I3C or DIM alone could induce or syngergistically induce in combination with the ITCs SFN or PEITC, Nrf2-ARE-mediated gene expression, which could potentially enhance cancer chemopreventive activity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A missense mutation in the arginine-vasopressin neurophysin-II gene causes autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dan; Dong, FengQin; Lu, WeiQin; Zhang, Zhe; Lu, XunLiang; Li, ChengJiang; Liu, YanNing

    2013-06-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, an autosomal dominant disorder, is mostly caused by mutations in the genes that encode AVP or its intracellular binding protein, neurophysin-II. The mutations lead to aberrant preprohormone processing and progressive destruction of AVP-secreting cells, which gradually manifests a progressive polyuria and polydipsia during early childhood, and a disorder of water homeostasis. We characterized the clinical and biochemical features, and sequenced the AVP neurophysin-II(AVP-NPII) gene of the affected individuals with autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus(ADNDI)to determine whether this disease was genetically determined. We obtained the histories of eight affected and four unaffected family individuals. The diagnosis of ADNDI was established using a water deprivation test and exogenous AVP administration. For molecular analysis, genomic DNA was extracted and the AVP-NPII gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The eight affected individuals showed different spectra of age of onsets (7-15 years) and urine volumes (132-253 ml/kg/24 h). All affected individuals responded to vasopressin administration, with a resolution of symptoms and an increase in urine osmolality by more than 50%. The characteristic hyperintense signal in the posterior pituitary on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was absent in six family members and present in one. Sequencing analysis revealed a missense heterozygous mutation 1516G > T (Gly17Val) in exon 2 of the AVP-NPII gene among the ADNDI individuals. We identified a missense mutation in the AVP-NPII gene and the same mutation showed different spectra of age of onsets and urine volumes in a new Chinese family with ADNDI. The mutation may provide a molecular basis for understanding the characteristics of NPII and add to our knowledge of the pathogenesis of ADNDI, which would allow the presymptomatic diagnosis of asymptomatic subjects. © 2012 John Wiley

  14. A nonsense nucleotide substitution in the oculocutaneous albinism II gene underlies the original pink-eyed dilution allele (Oca2(p)) in mice.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Haruka; Kiniwa, Yukiko; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Yang, Mu; Higuchi, Keiichi; Mori, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The original pink-eyed dilution (p) on chromosome 7 is a very old spontaneous mutation in mice. The oculocutaneous albinism II (Oca2) gene has previously been identified as the p gene. Oca2 transcripts have been shown to be absent in the skin of SJL/J mice with the original p mutant allele (Oca2(p)); however, the molecular genetic lesion underlying the original Oca2(p) allele has never been reported. The NCT mouse (commonly known as Nakano cataract mouse) has a pink-eyed dilution phenotype, which prompted us to undertake a molecular genetic analysis of the Oca2 gene of this strain. Our genetic linkage analysis suggests that the locus for the pink-eyed dilution phenotype of NCT is tightly linked to the Oca2 locus. PCR cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the NCT mouse has a nonsense nucleotide substitution at exon 7 of the Oca2 gene. Examination of three mouse strains (NZW/NSlc, SJL/J, and 129X1/SvJJmsSlc) with the original Oca2(p) allele revealed the presence of a nonsense nucleotide substitution identical to that in the NCT strain. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the Oca2 transcripts were absent in the skin of NCT mice, suggesting intervention of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Collectively, the data in this study indicate that the nonsense nucleotide substitution in the Oca2 gene underlies the Oca2(p) allele. Our data also indicate that the NCT mouse can be used not only as a cataract model, but also as a model for human type II oculocutaneous albinism.

  15. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... The cause of MEN II is a defect in a gene called RET. This defect causes many tumors to appear in the same ...

  16. The effect of light quality on the pro-/antioxidant balance, activity of photosystem II, and expression of light-dependent genes in Eutrema salsugineum callus cells.

    PubMed

    Pashkovskiy, P P; Soshinkova, T N; Korolkova, D V; Kartashov, A V; Zlobin, I E; Lyubimov, V Yu; Kreslavski, V D; Kuznetsov, Vl V

    2018-05-01

    The antioxidant balance, photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII), and photosynthetic pigment content, as well as the expression of genes involved in the light signalling of callus lines of Eutrema salsugineum plants (earlier Thellungiella salsuginea) under different spectral light compositions were studied. Growth of callus in red light (RL, maximum 660 nm), in contrast to blue light (BL, maximum 450 nm), resulted in a lower H 2 O 2 content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The BL increased the activities of key antioxidant enzymes in comparison with the white light (WL) and RL and demonstrated the minimum level of PSII photochemical activity. The activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) had the highest values in BL, which, along with the increased H 2 O 2 and TBARS content, indicate a higher level of oxidative stress in the cells. The expression levels of the main chloroplast protein genes of PSII (PSBA and PSBD), the NADPH-dependent oxidase gene of the plasma membrane (RbohD), the protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase genes (POR B, C) involved in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll, and the key photoreceptor signalling genes (CIB1, CRY2, PhyB, PhyA, and PIF3) were determined. Possible mechanisms of light quality effects on the physiological parameters of callus cells are discussed.

  17. Construction of a YAC contig and STS map spanning at least 10 cM in 1q41, the critical region of Usher II gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.Y.; Zhen, D.K.; Li, B.F.

    1994-09-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder causing congenital hearing loss, progressive retinitis pigmentosa and vestibular dysfunction. The Usher syndrome is both clinically and genetically heterogeneous. At least three genetic types of Usher syndrome are know to exist. The Usher II (USH2) syndrome has originally been linked to 1q41 between D1S70 and D1S81. more recently its location was refined and placed between D1S217 and D1S229. We have constructed a YAC contig containing 23 clones and a minimum of 10 Mbp of human DNA. A total of three NotI linking clones, fourteen polymorphic microsatelite markers, eight YAC end clones and twentymore » lambda and cosmid subclones have been used to order the YACs and assess their integrity. The YAC subclones were used to reassess the location of the USH2 gene. Seven CpG islands have already been identified in the region. Several potential exons have been identified by exon amplification in the cosmid subclones. This map of overlapping clones, the set of densely spaced physical markers and potential exons will promote our understanding of the 1q1 region, its associated genes and eventually the gene mutated in Usher syndrome type II.« less

  18. A horizontally acquired group II intron in the chloroplast psbA gene of a psychrophilic Chlamydomonas: in vitro self-splicing and genetic evidence for maturase activity.

    PubMed

    Odom, Obed W; Shenkenberg, David L; Garcia, Joshua A; Herrin, David L

    2004-07-01

    The majority of known group II introns are from chloroplast genomes, yet the first self-splicing group II intron from a chloroplast gene was reported only recently, from the psbA gene of the euglenoid, Euglena myxocylindracea. Herein, we describe a large (2.6-kb) group II intron from the psbA gene (psbA1) of a psychrophilic Chlamydomonas sp. from Antarctica that self-splices accurately in vitro. Remarkably, this intron, which also encodes an ORF with putative reverse transcriptase, maturase, and endonuclease domains, is in the same location, and is related to the E. myxocylindracea intron, as well as to group IIB2 introns from cyanobacteria. In vitro self-splicing of Chs.psbA1 occurred via a lariat, and required Mg(2+) (>12 mM) and NH(4)(+). Self-splicing was improved by deleting most of the ORF and by using pre-RNAs directly from transcription reactions, suggestive of a role for folding during transcription. Self-splicing of Chs.psbA1 pre-RNAs showed temperature optima of ~44 degrees C, but with a broad shoulder on the low side of the peak; splicing was nearly absent at 50 degrees C, indicative of thermolability. Splicing of wild-type Chs.psbA1 also occurred in Escherichia coli, but not when the ORF was disrupted by mutations, providing genetic evidence that it has maturase activity. This work provides the first description of a ribozyme from a psychrophilic organism. It also appears to provide a second instance of interkingdom horizontal transfer of this group IIB2 intron (or a close relative) from cyanobacteria to chloroplasts.

  19. Novel Nuclear Signaling Pathway Mediates Activation of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Gene by Type 1 and Type 2 Angiotensin II Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hu; Moffett, John; Myers, Jason; Fang, Xiaohong; Stachowiak, Ewa K.; Maher, Pamela; Kratz, Erica; Hines, John; Fluharty, Steven J.; Mizukoshi, Eiichi; Bloom, David C.; Stachowiak, Michal K.

    2001-01-01

    In bovine adrenal medullary cells synergistically acting type 1 and type 2 angiotensin II (AII) receptors activate the fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) gene through a unique AII-responsive promoter element. Both the type 1 and type 2 AII receptors and the downstream cyclic adenosine 1′,3′-monophosphate- and protein kinase C-dependent signaling pathways activate the FGF-2 promoter through a novel signal-transducing mechanism. This mechanism, which we have named integrative nuclear FGF receptor-1 signaling, involves the nuclear translocation of FGF receptor-1 and its subsequent transactivation of the AII-responsive element in the FGF-2 promoter. PMID:11179427

  20. Use of computer-designed group II introns to disrupt Escherichia coli DExH/D-box protein and DNA helicase genes.

    PubMed

    Perutka, Jiri; Wang, Wenjun; Goerlitz, David; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2004-02-13

    Mobile group II introns are site-specific retroelements that use a novel mobility mechanism in which the excised intron RNA inserts directly into a DNA target site and is then reverse transcribed by the associated intron-encoded protein. Because the DNA target site is recognized primarily by base-pairing of the intron RNA with only a small number of positions recognized by the protein, it has been possible to develop group II introns into a new type of gene targeting vector ("targetron"), which can be reprogrammed to insert into desired DNA targets simply by modifying the intron RNA. Here, we used databases of retargeted Lactococcus lactis Ll.LtrB group II introns and a compilation of nucleotide frequencies at active target sites to develop an algorithm that predicts optimal Ll.LtrB intron-insertion sites and designs primers for modifying the intron to insert into those sites. In a test of the algorithm, we designed one or two targetrons to disrupt each of 28 Escherichia coli genes encoding DExH/D-box and DNA helicase-related proteins and tested for the desired disruptants by PCR screening of 100 colonies. In 21 cases, we obtained disruptions at frequencies of 1-80% without selection, and in six other cases, where disruptants were not identified in the initial PCR screen, we readily obtained specific disruptions by using the same targetrons with a retrotransposition-activated selectable marker. Only one DExH/D-box protein gene, secA, which was known to be essential, did not give viable disruptants. The apparent dispensability of DExH/D-box proteins in E.coli contrasts with the situation in yeast, where the majority of such proteins are essential. The methods developed here should permit the rapid and efficient disruption of any bacterial gene, the computational analysis provides new insight into group II intron target site recognition, and the set of E.coli DExH/D-box protein and DNA helicase disruptants should be useful for analyzing the function of these proteins.

  1. An elderly Japanese patient with adult-onset type II citrullinemia with a novel D493G mutation in the SLC25A13 gene.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshimi; Koyama, Shingo; Tanaka, Hidetomo; Arawaka, Shigeki; Wada, Manabu; Kawanami, Toru; Haga, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Hisayoshi; Toyota, Kentaro; Numakura, Chikahiko; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Kato, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the SLC25A13 gene lead to neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency and/or adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). A 62-year-old man presented with recurrent episodes of neuropsychiatric manifestations. On admission, he had disorientation and flapping tremor. Laboratory data showed hyperferritinemia in addition to postprandial hyperammonemia and citrullinemia. A liver biopsy specimen revealed moderate hemosiderin deposits and hepatocytes with macrovesicular fat droplets. Genetic analysis of the SLC25A13 gene identified the previously reported p.S225X mutation and a novel p.D493G mutation. Hyperferritinemia might also be a characteristic finding of CTLN2-related fatty changes of the liver.

  2. Genomic organization of the human osteopontin gene: Exclusion of the locus from a causative role in the pathogenesis of dentinogenesis imperfecta type II.

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, A.H.; Edwards, S.J.; Murray, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    Osteopontin (SPP1) is the principal phosphorylated glycoprotein of bone that is also expressed in a limited number of other tissues including dentine. In the current investigation the authors report the genomic organization of the SPP1 gene, which comprises seven exons, six of which contain coding sequence. The splice sites for exon donor and acceptor positions are in close agreement with previously published consensus sequences. Comparison of the human gene with its murine and bovine counterparts revealed a highly homologous organization. A highly informative short tandem repeat polymorphism isolated at the SPP1 locus showed no recombination with the autosomal dominant disordermore » dentinogenesis imperfecta type II. Nevertheless, sequencing of each exon in individuals affected by this disorder failed to reveal any disease-specific mutations. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  3. Assignment of Etfdh, Etfb, and Etfa to chromosomes 3, 7, and 13: The mouse homologs of genes respondible for glutaric acidemia type II in human

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.A.; Dowler, L.L.; Angeloni, S.V.

    1996-04-01

    Electron transfer flavoprotein (composed of {alpha} and {beta} subunits) is an obligatory electron acceptor for several dehydrogenases and is located in the mitochondrial matrix. Electrons accepted by electron transfer flavo-protein (ETF) are transferred to the main mitochondrial respiratory chain by the way of ETF dehydrogenase (ETFDH). In humans, deficiency of ETF or ETFDH leads to glutaric acidemia type II, an inherited metabolic disorder that can be fatal in its neonatal form and is characterized by severe hypoketotic hypoglycemia and acidosis. We used cDNA probes for the Etfdh, Etfb, and Etfa genes to determine localization of these mouse genes to chromosomesmore » 3, 7, and 13. 18 refs., 3 figs.« less

  4. Fowlpoxvirus recombinants coding for the CIITA gene increase the expression of endogenous MHC-II and Fowlpox Gag/Pro and Env SIV transgenes

    PubMed Central

    Zanotto, Carlo; Tosi, Giovanna; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Accolla, Roberto S.

    2018-01-01

    A complete eradication of an HIV infection has never been achieved by vaccination and the search for new immunogens that can induce long-lasting protective responses is ongoing. Avipoxvirus recombinants are host-restricted for replication to avian species and they do not have the undesired side effects induced by vaccinia recombinants. In particular, Fowlpox (FP) recombinants can express transgenes over long periods and can induce protective immunity in mammals, mainly due to CD4-dependent CD8+ T cells. In this context, the class II transactivator (CIITA) has a pivotal role in triggering the adaptive immune response through induction of the expression of class-II major histocompatibility complex molecule (MHC-II), that can present antigens to CD4+ T helper cells. Here, we report on construction of novel FPgp and FPenv recombinants that express the highly immunogenic SIV Gag-pro and Env structural antigens. Several FP-based recombinants, with single or dual genes, were also developed that express CIITA, driven from H6 or SP promoters. These recombinants were used to infect CEF and Vero cells in vitro and determine transgene expression, which was evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Subcellular localisation of the different proteins was evaluated by confocal microscopy, whereas HLA-DR or MHC-II expression was measured by flow cytometry. Fowlpox recombinants were also used to infect syngeneic T/SA tumour cells, then injected into Balb/c mice to elicit MHC-II immune response and define the presentation of the SIV transgene products in the presence or absence of FPCIITA. Antibodies to Env were measured by ELISA. Our data show that the H6 promoter was more efficient than SP to drive CIITA expression and that CIITA can enhance the levels of the gag/pro and env gene products only when infection is performed by FP single recombinants. Also, CIITA expression is higher when carried by FP single recombinants than when combined with FPgp or FPenv constructs and can

  5. Fowlpoxvirus recombinants coding for the CIITA gene increase the expression of endogenous MHC-II and Fowlpox Gag/Pro and Env SIV transgenes.

    PubMed

    Bissa, Massimiliano; Forlani, Greta; Zanotto, Carlo; Tosi, Giovanna; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Accolla, Roberto S; Radaelli, Antonia

    2018-01-01

    A complete eradication of an HIV infection has never been achieved by vaccination and the search for new immunogens that can induce long-lasting protective responses is ongoing. Avipoxvirus recombinants are host-restricted for replication to avian species and they do not have the undesired side effects induced by vaccinia recombinants. In particular, Fowlpox (FP) recombinants can express transgenes over long periods and can induce protective immunity in mammals, mainly due to CD4-dependent CD8+ T cells. In this context, the class II transactivator (CIITA) has a pivotal role in triggering the adaptive immune response through induction of the expression of class-II major histocompatibility complex molecule (MHC-II), that can present antigens to CD4+ T helper cells. Here, we report on construction of novel FPgp and FPenv recombinants that express the highly immunogenic SIV Gag-pro and Env structural antigens. Several FP-based recombinants, with single or dual genes, were also developed that express CIITA, driven from H6 or SP promoters. These recombinants were used to infect CEF and Vero cells in vitro and determine transgene expression, which was evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Subcellular localisation of the different proteins was evaluated by confocal microscopy, whereas HLA-DR or MHC-II expression was measured by flow cytometry. Fowlpox recombinants were also used to infect syngeneic T/SA tumour cells, then injected into Balb/c mice to elicit MHC-II immune response and define the presentation of the SIV transgene products in the presence or absence of FPCIITA. Antibodies to Env were measured by ELISA. Our data show that the H6 promoter was more efficient than SP to drive CIITA expression and that CIITA can enhance the levels of the gag/pro and env gene products only when infection is performed by FP single recombinants. Also, CIITA expression is higher when carried by FP single recombinants than when combined with FPgp or FPenv constructs and can

  6. Acinetobacter baumannii clonal lineages I and II harboring different carbapenem-hydrolyzing-β-lactamase genes are widespread among hospitalized burn patients in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Mahdian, Somayeh; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Pakzad, Iraj; Ghanbari, Fatemeh; Soroush, Setareh; Azimi, Lila; Rastegar-Lari, Abdolaziz; Giannouli, Maria; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze antimicrobial resistance patterns and their encoding genes and genotypic diversity of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from burn patients in Tehran, Iran. The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- and blaOXA-encoding genes among 37 multidrug resistant (MDR) A. baumannii strains isolated from patients hospitalized in a teaching hospital in Tehran was evaluated. Susceptibility to 7 antibiotics was tested by disk agar diffusion and to polymyxin B and colistin was tested by E-test, according to CLSI guidelines. All isolates were then analyzed by PCR for the presence of blaIMP, blaVIM, blaSIMblaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, and blaOXA-58-like carbapenemase genes, and blaOXA-51-like, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaPER, blaVEB, and blaGIM genes. Genotyping of A. baumannii strains was performed by repetitive sequence-based (REP)-PCR and cluster analysis of REP-PCR profiles. A. baumannii isolates were assigned to international clones by multiplex PCR sequence group analysis. Twenty-five A. baumannii isolates were classified as MDR, and 12 were classified as extensively drug resistant. All isolates were susceptible to colistin and polymyxin B. Eighty-one percent of the isolates was resistant to imipenem or meropenem and harbored at least one or both of the blaOXA-23-like or blaOXA-24-like carbapenemase genes. Co-existence of different resistance genes was found among carbapenem-resistant isolates. Multiplex PCR sequence group analysis most commonly assigned A. baumannii isolates to international clones I (18/37; 48.6%) and II (18/37; 48.6%). An alarming increase in resistance to carbapenems and the spread of blaOXA-23-like and/or blaOXA-24-like carbapenemase genes was observed among A. baumannii strains belonging to clonal lineages I and II, isolated from burn patients in Tehran. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The QTL within the H2 Complex Involved in the Control of Tuberculosis Infection in Mice Is the Classical Class II H2-Ab1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Logunova, Nadezhda; Korotetskaya, Maria; Polshakov, Vladimir; Apt, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The level of susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) infection depends upon allelic variations in numerous interacting genes. In our mouse model system, the whole-genome quantitative trait loci (QTLs) scan revealed three QTLs involved in TB control on chromosomes 3, 9, and in the vicinity of the H2 complex on chromosome 17. For the present study, we have established a panel of new congenic, MHC-recombinant mouse strains bearing differential small segments of chromosome 17 transferred from the TB-susceptible I/St (H2 j) strain onto the genetic background of TB-resistant C57BL/6 (B6) mice (H2 b). This allowed narrowing the QTL interval to 17Ch: 33, 77–34, 34 Mb, containing 36 protein-encoding genes. Cloning and sequencing of the H2 j allelic variants of these genes demonstrated profound polymorphic variations compare to the H2 b haplotype. In two recombinant strains, B6.I-249.1.15.100 and B6.I-249.1.15.139, recombination breakpoints occurred in different sites of the H2-Aβ 1 gene (beta-chain of the Class II heterodimer H2-A), providing polymorphic variations in the domain β1 of the Aβ-chain. These variations were sufficient to produce different TB-relevant phenotypes: the more susceptible B6.I-249.1.15.100 strain demonstrated shorter survival time, more rapid body weight loss, higher mycobacterial loads in the lungs and more severe lung histopathology compared to the more resistant B6.I-249.1.15.139 strain. CD4+ T cells recognized mycobacterial antigens exclusively in the context of the H2-A Class II molecule, and the level of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells in the lungs was significantly higher in the resistant strain. Thus, we directly demonstrated for the first time that the classical H2- Ab1 Class II gene is involved in TB control. Molecular modeling of the H2-Aj product predicts that amino acid (AA) substitutions in the Aβ-chain modify the motif of the peptide–MHC binding groove. Moreover, unique AA substitutions in both α- and β-chains of the H2-Aj molecule

  8. Genotyping of major histocompatibility complex Class II DRB gene in Rohilkhandi goats by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Kush; Kumar, Pushpendra; Sahoo, Nihar Ranjan; Kumar, Amod; Khan, Mohd Faheem; Kumar, Amit; Prasad, Arvind; Patel, B H M; Nasir, A; Bhushan, Bharat; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-10-01

    To study the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II DRB1 gene polymorphism in Rohilkhandi goat using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and nucleotide sequencing techniques. DNA was isolated from 127 Rohilkhandi goats maintained at sheep and goat farm, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly. A 284 bp fragment of exon 2 of DRB1 gene was amplified and digested using BsaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. Population genetic parameters were calculated using Popgene v 1.32 and SAS 9.0. The genotypes were then sequenced using Sanger dideoxy chain termination method and were compared with related breeds/species using MEGA 6.0 and Megalign (DNASTAR) software. TaqI locus showed three and BsaI locus showed two genotypes. Both the loci were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), however, population genetic parameters suggest that heterozygosity is still maintained in the population at both loci. Percent diversity and divergence matrix, as well as phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MHC Class II DRB1 gene of Rohilkhandi goats was found to be in close cluster with Garole and Scottish blackface sheep breeds as compared to other goat breeds included in the sequence comparison. The PCR-RFLP patterns showed population to be in HWE and absence of one genotype at one locus (BsaI), both the loci showed excess of one or the other homozygote genotype, however, effective number of alleles showed that allelic diversity is present in the population. Sequence comparison of DRB1 gene of Rohilkhandi goat with other sheep and goat breed assigned Rohilkhandi goat in divergence with Jamanupari and Angora goats.

  9. RNA polymerase II phosphorylation at serine 2 and histone H3 tri-methylation at lysine 36 are key steps for thyroid hormone receptor β gene activation by thyroid hormone in Rana catesbeiana tadpole liver.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Ishihara, Akinori; Goda, Toshinao; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-20

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for amphibian metamorphosis, during which the expression of many genes is controlled directly or indirectly through TH receptors (TRs). Thyroid hormone binding to TRs induces coregulator switching on regulatory regions of TH-inducible genes: corepressors complexed with unliganded TRs are replaced by coactivators complexed with liganded TR resulting in transcriptionally active states. The coregulator switching is linked to histone acetylation. In our study, we have investigated the acetylation and methylation states of histones H3 and H4 using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays on the 5' coding region of the TRβ gene, a primary TH-response gene, in the liver from Rana catesbeiana tadpoles either treated with or not treated with 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3). 3,3',5-Triiodothyronine treatment for 3 days increased the amount of TRβ transcript by 19-fold. This increase was associated with increases in the acetylation of histone H4 and lysine 9 in histone H3 (H3-K9), and tri-methylation of lysine 36 in histone H3 (H3-K36). In addition, the amounts of RNA polymerase II (PolII) and serine 2 phosphorylation in PolII (PolII-S2) increased. These results suggest that T3 treatment enhances the elongation activity of PolII on the TRβ gene in the liver by increasing histone H3-K36 tri-methylation through PolII-S2 phosphorylation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Extensive polymorphism and evidence of selection pressure on major histocompatibility complex DLA-DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 class II genes in Croatian grey wolves.

    PubMed

    Arbanasić, H; Huber, Đ; Kusak, J; Gomerčić, T; Hrenović, J; Galov, A

    2013-01-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are a key component of the mammalian immune system and have become important molecular markers for measuring fitness-related genetic variation in wildlife populations. Because of human persecution and habitat fragmentation, the grey wolf has become extinct from a large part of Western and Central Europe, and remaining populations have become isolated. In Croatia, the grey wolf population, part of the Dinaric-Balkan population, shrank nearly to extinction during the 20th century, and is now legally protected. Using the cloning-sequencing method, we investigated the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of exon 2 of MHC class II DLA-DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 genes in 77 individuals. We identified 13 DRB1, 7 DQA1 and 11 DQB1 highly divergent alleles, and 13 DLA-DRB1/DQA1/DQB1 haplotypes. Selection analysis comparing the relative rates of non-synonymous to synonymous mutations (d(N)/d(S)) showed evidence of positive selection pressure acting on all three loci. Trans-species polymorphism was found, suggesting the existence of balancing selection. Evolutionary codon models detected considerable difference between alpha and beta chain gene selection patterns: DRB1 and DQB1 appeared to be under stronger selection pressure, while DQA1 showed signs of moderate selection. Our results suggest that, despite the recent contraction of the Croatian wolf population, genetic variability in selectively maintained immune genes has been preserved. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Cell-Type-Specific Profiling of Gene Expression and Chromatin Binding without Cell Isolation: Assaying RNA Pol II Occupancy in Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Southall, Tony D.; Gold, Katrina S.; Egger, Boris; Davidson, Catherine M.; Caygill, Elizabeth E.; Marshall, Owen J.; Brand, Andrea H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cell-type-specific transcriptional profiling often requires the isolation of specific cell types from complex tissues. We have developed “TaDa,” a technique that enables cell-specific profiling without cell isolation. TaDa permits genome-wide profiling of DNA- or chromatin-binding proteins without cell sorting, fixation, or affinity purification. The method is simple, sensitive, highly reproducible, and transferable to any model system. We show that TaDa can be used to identify transcribed genes in a cell-type-specific manner with considerable temporal precision, enabling the identification of differential gene expression between neuroblasts and the neuroepithelial cells from which they derive. We profile the genome-wide binding of RNA polymerase II in these adjacent, clonally related stem cells within intact Drosophila brains. Our data reveal expression of specific metabolic genes in neuroepithelial cells, but not in neuroblasts, and highlight gene regulatory networks that may pattern neural stem cell fates. PMID:23792147

  12. Identification of a novel gene (HSN2) causing hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II through the Study of Canadian Genetic Isolates.

    PubMed

    Lafreniere, Ronald G; MacDonald, Marcia L E; Dube, Marie-Pierre; MacFarlane, Julie; O'Driscoll, Mary; Brais, Bernard; Meilleur, Sebastien; Brinkman, Ryan R; Dadivas, Owen; Pape, Terry; Platon, Christele; Radomski, Chris; Risler, Jenni; Thompson, Jay; Guerra-Escobio, Ana-Maria; Davar, Gudarz; Breakefield, Xandra O; Pimstone, Simon N; Green, Roger; Pryse-Phillips, William; Goldberg, Y Paul; Younghusband, H Banfield; Hayden, Michael R; Sherrington, Robin; Rouleau, Guy A; Samuels, Mark E

    2004-05-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) type II is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impairment of pain, temperature, and touch sensation owing to reduction or absence of peripheral sensory neurons. We identified two large pedigrees segregating the disorder in an isolated population living in Newfoundland and performed a 5-cM genome scan. Linkage analysis identified a locus mapping to 12p13.33 with a maximum LOD score of 8.4. Haplotype sharing defined a candidate interval of 1.06 Mb containing all or part of seven annotated genes, sequencing of which failed to detect causative mutations. Comparative genomics revealed a conserved ORF corresponding to a novel gene in which we found three different truncating mutations among five families including patients from rural Quebec and Nova Scotia. This gene, termed "HSN2," consists of a single exon located within intron 8 of the PRKWNK1 gene and is transcribed from the same strand. The HSN2 protein may play a role in the development and/or maintenance of peripheral sensory neurons or their supporting Schwann cells.

  13. Identification of a Novel Gene (HSN2) Causing Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type II through the Study of Canadian Genetic Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Lafrenière, Ronald G.; MacDonald, Marcia L. E.; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; MacFarlane, Julie; O’Driscoll, Mary; Brais, Bernard; Meilleur, Sébastien; Brinkman, Ryan R.; Dadivas, Owen; Pape, Terry; Platon, Christèle; Radomski, Chris; Risler, Jenni; Thompson, Jay; Guerra-Escobio, Ana-Maria; Davar, Gudarz; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Pimstone, Simon N.; Green, Roger; Pryse-Phillips, William; Goldberg, Y. Paul; Younghusband, H. Banfield; Hayden, Michael R.; Sherrington, Robin; Rouleau, Guy A.; Samuels, Mark E.

    2004-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) type II is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impairment of pain, temperature, and touch sensation owing to reduction or absence of peripheral sensory neurons. We identified two large pedigrees segregating the disorder in an isolated population living in Newfoundland and performed a 5-cM genome scan. Linkage analysis identified a locus mapping to 12p13.33 with a maximum LOD score of 8.4. Haplotype sharing defined a candidate interval of 1.06 Mb containing all or part of seven annotated genes, sequencing of which failed to detect causative mutations. Comparative genomics revealed a conserved ORF corresponding to a novel gene in which we found three different truncating mutations among five families including patients from rural Quebec and Nova Scotia. This gene, termed “HSN2,” consists of a single exon located within intron 8 of the PRKWNK1 gene and is transcribed from the same strand. The HSN2 protein may play a role in the development and/or maintenance of peripheral sensory neurons or their supporting Schwann cells. PMID:15060842

  14. Early-onset central diabetes insipidus is associated with de novo arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II or Wolfram syndrome 1 gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Silverio; Di Iorgi, Natascia; Ragione, Fulvio Della; Scianguetta, Saverio; Borriello, Adriana; Allegri, Anna Elsa Maria; Ferraro, Marcella; Santoro, Claudia; Napoli, Flavia; Calcagno, Annalisa; Giaccardi, Marta; Cappa, Marco; Salerno, Maria Carolina; Cozzolino, Domenico; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2015-04-01

    Idiopathic early-onset central diabetes insipidus (CDI) might be due to mutations of arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII (AVP)) or wolframin (WFS1) genes. Sequencing of AVP and WFS1 genes was performed in nine children with CDI, aged between 9 and 68 months, and negative family history for polyuria and polydipsia. Two patients carried a mutation in the AVP gene: a heterozygous G-to-T transition at nucleotide position 322 of exon 2 (c.322G>T) resulting in a stop codon at position 108 (p.Glu108X), and a novel deletion from nucleotide 52 to 54 (c.52_54delTCC) producing a deletion of a serine at position 18 (p.Ser18del) of the AVP pre-prohormone signal peptide. A third patient carried two heterozygous mutations in the WFS1 gene localized on different alleles. The first change was A-to-G transition at nucleotide 997 in exon 8 (c.997A>G), resulting in a valine residue at position 333 in place of isoleucine (p.Ile333Val). The second novel mutation was a 3 bp insertion in exon 8, c.2392_2393insACG causing the addition of an aspartate residue at position 797 and the maintenance of the correct open reading frame (p. Asp797_Val798insAsp). While similar WFS1 protein levels were detected in fibroblasts from healthy subjects and from the patient and his parents, a major sensitivity to staurosporine-induced apoptosis was observed in the patient fibroblasts as well as in patients with Wolfram syndrome. Early-onset CDI is associated with de novo mutations of the AVP gene and with hereditary WFS1 gene changes. These findings have valuable implications for management and genetic counseling. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Impaired growth and development of Colorado potato beetle larvae on potato plants overexpressing the oryzacystatin II gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant proteinase inhibitors are attractive tools for crop improvement and their heterologous expression can enhance insect resistance in transgenic plants. Oryzacystatins I and II (OCI and OCII) show potential in controlling pests that utilize cysteine proteinases for protein digestion. To evaluate ...

  16. Analysis of P gene mutations in patients with type II (tyrosinase-positive) oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.T.; Nicholls, R.D.; Schnur, R.

    1994-09-01

    OCA2 is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is greatly reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. Recently, we showed that OCA2 results from mutations of the P gene, in chromosome segment 15q11-q13. In addition to OCA2, mutations of P account for OCA associated with the Prader-Willi syndrome and some cases of {open_quotes}autosomal recessive ocular albinism{close_quotes} (AROA). We have now studied 38 unrelated patients with various forms of OCA2 or AROA from a variety of different ethnic groups. None of these patients had detectable abnormalities of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene. Among 8 African-American patients withmore » OCA2 we observed apparent locus homogeneity. We detected abnormalities of the P gene in all 8 patients, including 12 different mutations and deletions, most of which are unique to this group and none of which is predominant. In contrast, OCA2 in other populations appears to be genetically heterogeneous. Among 21 Caucasian patients we detected abnormalities of the P gene in only 8, comprising 9 different point mutations and deletions, some of which also occurred among the African-American patients. Among 3 Middle-Eastern, 3 Indo-Pakistani, and 3 Asian patients we detected mutations of the P gene in only one from each group. In a large Indo-Pakistani kindred with OCA2 we have excluded both the TYR and P genes on the basis of genetic linkage. The prevalence of mutations of the P gene thus appears to be much higher among African-Americans with OCA2 than among patients from other ethnic groups. The incidence of OCA2 in some parts of equatorial Africa is extremely high, as frequent as 1 per 1100, and the disease has been linked to P in South African Bantu. The eventual characterization of P gene mutations in Africans will be informative with regard to the origins of P gene mutations in African-American patients.« less

  17. Biotechnological applications of mobile group II introns and their reverse transcriptases: gene targeting, RNA-seq, and non-coding RNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Enyeart, Peter J; Mohr, Georg; Ellington, Andrew D; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2014-01-13

    Mobile group II introns are bacterial retrotransposons that combine the activities of an autocatalytic intron RNA (a ribozyme) and an intron-encoded reverse transcriptase to insert site-specifically into DNA. They recognize DNA target sites largely by base pairing of sequences within the intron RNA and achieve high DNA target specificity by using the ribozyme active site to couple correct base pairing to RNA-catalyzed intron integration. Algorithms have been developed to program the DNA target site specificity of several mobile group II introns, allowing them to be made into 'targetrons.' Targetrons function for gene targeting in a wide variety of bacteria and typically integrate at efficiencies high enough to be screened easily by colony PCR, without the need for selectable markers. Targetrons have found wide application in microbiological research, enabling gene targeting and genetic engineering of bacteria that had been intractable to other methods. Recently, a thermostable targetron has been developed for use in bacterial thermophiles, and new methods have been developed for using targetrons to position recombinase recognition sites, enabling large-scale genome-editing operations, such as deletions, inversions, insertions, and 'cut-and-pastes' (that is, translocation of large DNA segments), in a wide range of bacteria at high efficiency. Using targetrons in eukaryotes presents challenges due to the difficulties of nuclear localization and sub-optimal magnesium concentrations, although supplementation with magnesium can increase integration efficiency, and directed evolution is being employed to overcome these barriers. Finally, spurred by new methods for expressing group II intron reverse transcriptases that yield large amounts of highly active protein, thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases from bacterial thermophiles are being used as research tools for a variety of applications, including qRT-PCR and next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). The

  18. Retroviral gene therapy for X-linked chronic granulomatous disease: results from phase I/II trial.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyoung Jin; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Paruzynski, Anna; Arens, Anne; Kim, Sujeong; Yu, Seung Shin; Hong, Youngtae; Joo, Chang-Wan; Yoon, Nam-Kyung; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Kim, Joong Gon; Von Kalle, Christof; Schmidt, Manfred; Kim, Sunyoung; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2011-11-01

    X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency caused by a defect in the gp91(phox) gene. In an effort to treat X-CGD, we investigated the safety and efficacy of gene therapy using a retroviral vector, MT-gp91. Two X-CGD patients received autologous CD34(+) cells transduced with MT-gp91 after a conditioning regimen consisting of fludarabine and busulfan. The level of gene-marked cells was highest at day 21 (8.3 and 11.7% in peripheral blood cells) but decreased to 0.08 and 0.5%, respectively, 3 years after gene transfer. The level of functionally corrected cells, as determined by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase assay, reached a peak at day 17 (6.5% patient 1 (P1) and 14.3% patient 2 (P2) of total granulocytes) and declined to 0.05% (P1) and 0.21% (P2), 3 years later. Some retroviral vectors were found to have integrated within or close to the proto-oncogenes MDS1-EVI1, PRDM16, and CCND2; however, no abnormal cell expansion or related hematological malignancy was observed. Overall, the gene transfer procedure did not produce any serious adverse effects and was able to convert a significant fraction of blood cells to biologically functional cells, albeit for a short period of time.

  19. Transcription of Nearly All Yeast RNA Polymerase II-Transcribed Genes Is Dependent on Transcription Factor TFIID.

    PubMed

    Warfield, Linda; Ramachandran, Srinivas; Baptista, Tiago; Devys, Didier; Tora, Laszlo; Hahn, Steven

    2017-10-05

    Previous studies suggested that expression of most yeast mRNAs is dominated by either transcription factor TFIID or SAGA. We re-examined the role of TFIID by rapid depletion of S. cerevisiae TFIID subunits and measurement of changes in nascent transcription. We find that transcription of nearly all mRNAs is strongly dependent on TFIID function. Degron-dependent depletion of Taf1, Taf2, Taf7, Taf11, and Taf13 showed similar transcription decreases for genes in the Taf1-depleted, Taf1-enriched, TATA-containing, and TATA-less gene classes. The magnitude of TFIID dependence varies with growth conditions, although this variation is similar genome-wide. Many studies have suggested differences in gene-regulatory mechanisms between TATA and TATA-less genes, and these differences have been attributed in part to differential dependence on SAGA or TFIID. Our work indicates that TFIID participates in expression of nearly all yeast mRNAs and that differences in regulation between these two gene categories is due to other properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Waardenburg syndrome type II in a Chinese patient caused by a novel nonsense mutation in the SOX10 gene.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Tie-Song; Lin, Ken; Sun, Hao; Jiang, Hong-Chao; Yang, Yan-Li; Low, Fan; Gao, Ying-Qin; Ruan, Biao

    2016-06-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a congenital genetic disorder. It is the most common type of syndromic hearing impairment with highly genetic heterogeneity and proved to be related by 6 genes as follows: PAX3, MITF, SNAI2, EDN3, EDNRB and SOX10. This article aims to identify the genetic causes of a Chinese WS child patient. A Chinese WS child was collected for clinical data collection by questionnaire survey. DNA samples of proband and his parents were extracted from peripheral blood samples. Six candidate genes were sequenced by the Trusight One sequencing panel on the illumina NextSeq 500 platform. A novel nonsense heterozygous mutation was found in the coding region of exon 2 in the SOX10 gene of proband. The novel nonsense heterozygous mutation could cause the replacement of the 55th lysine codon by stop codon (484T > C, C142R) and further more possibly cause terminating the protein translation in advance. However, both proband's parents had no mutation of genes above mentioned. The gene mutation of SOX10 [NM_006941.3 c.163A > T] is a novel nonsense mutation. No record of this mutation has been found in dbSNP, HGMD, 1000 Genomes Project, ClinVar and ESP6500 databases. It meets the condition of PS2 of strong evidence in 2015 ACMG Standards and Guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of Azorhizobium caulinodans glnB and glnA genes: involvement of the P(II) protein in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Michel-Reydellet, N; Desnoues, N; Elmerich, C; Kaminski, P A

    1997-06-01

    The nucleotide sequence and transcriptional organization of Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 glnA, the structural gene for glutamine synthetase (GS), and glnB, the structural gene for the P(II) protein, have been determined. glnB and glnA are organized as a single operon transcribed from the same start site, under conditions of both nitrogen limitation and nitrogen excess. This start site may be used by two different promoters since the expression of a glnB-lacZ fusion was high in the presence of ammonia and enhanced under conditions of nitrogen limitation in the wild-type strain. The increase was not observed in rpoN or ntrC mutants. In addition, this fusion was overexpressed under both growth conditions, in the glnB mutant strain, suggesting that P(II) negatively regulates its own expression. A DNA motif, similar to a sigma54-dependent promoter consensus, was found in the 5' nontranscribed region. Thus, the glnBA operon seems to be transcribed from a sigma54-dependent promoter that operates under conditions of nitrogen limitation and from another uncharacterized promoter in the presence of ammonia. Both glnB and glnBA mutant strains derepress their nitrogenase in the free-living state, but only the glnBA mutant, auxotrophic for glutamine, does not utilize molecular nitrogen for growth. The level of GS adenylylation is not affected in the glnB mutant as compared to that in the wild type. Under symbiotic conditions, the glnB and glnBA mutant strains induced Fix- nodules on Sesbania rostrata roots. P(II) is the first example in A. caulinodans of a protein required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation but dispensable in bacteria growing in the free-living state.

  2. Characterization of Azorhizobium caulinodans glnB and glnA genes: involvement of the P(II) protein in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed Central

    Michel-Reydellet, N; Desnoues, N; Elmerich, C; Kaminski, P A

    1997-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence and transcriptional organization of Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 glnA, the structural gene for glutamine synthetase (GS), and glnB, the structural gene for the P(II) protein, have been determined. glnB and glnA are organized as a single operon transcribed from the same start site, under conditions of both nitrogen limitation and nitrogen excess. This start site may be used by two different promoters since the expression of a glnB-lacZ fusion was high in the presence of ammonia and enhanced under conditions of nitrogen limitation in the wild-type strain. The increase was not observed in rpoN or ntrC mutants. In addition, this fusion was overexpressed under both growth conditions, in the glnB mutant strain, suggesting that P(II) negatively regulates its own expression. A DNA motif, similar to a sigma54-dependent promoter consensus, was found in the 5' nontranscribed region. Thus, the glnBA operon seems to be transcribed from a sigma54-dependent promoter that operates under conditions of nitrogen limitation and from another uncharacterized promoter in the presence of ammonia. Both glnB and glnBA mutant strains derepress their nitrogenase in the free-living state, but only the glnBA mutant, auxotrophic for glutamine, does not utilize molecular nitrogen for growth. The level of GS adenylylation is not affected in the glnB mutant as compared to that in the wild type. Under symbiotic conditions, the glnB and glnBA mutant strains induced Fix- nodules on Sesbania rostrata roots. P(II) is the first example in A. caulinodans of a protein required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation but dispensable in bacteria growing in the free-living state. PMID:9171403

  3. Metabolic Phase I (CYPs) and Phase II (GSTs) Gene Polymorphisms and Their Interaction with Environmental Factors in Nasopharyngeal Cancer from the Ethnic Population of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Seram Anil; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2017-09-26

    Multiple genetic and environmental factors and their interaction are believed to contribute in the pathogenesis of Nasopharyngeal Cancer (NPC). We investigate the role of Metabolic Phase I (CYPs) and Phase II (GSTs) gene polymorphisms, gene-gene and gene-environmental interaction in modulating the susceptibility to NPC in Northeast India. To determine the association of metabolic gene polymorphisms and environmental habits, 123 cases and 189 controls blood/swab samples were used for PCR and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Analysis for GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphism was done by multiplex PCR. The T3801C in the 3'- flanking region of CYP1A1 gene was detected by PCR-RFLP method. The Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The GSTM1 null genotype alone (OR = 2.76) was significantly associated with NPC risk (P < 0.0001). The combinations of GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null genotypes also higher, 3.77 fold (P < 0.0001), risk of NPC, while GSTM1 null genotype along with CYP1A1 T3801C TC + CC genotype had 3.22 (P = 0.001) fold risk. The most remarkable risk was seen among individual carrying GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null genotypes and CYP1A1 T3801C TC + CC genotypes (OR = 5.71, P = 0.001). Further; analyses demonstrate an enhanced risk of NPC in smoked meat (OR = 5.56, P < 0.0001) and fermented fish consumers (OR = 5.73, P < 0.0001) carrying GSTM1 null genotype. An elevated risk of NPC was noted in smokers (OR = 12.67, P < 0.0001) and chewers (OR = 5.68, P < 0.0001) with GSTM1 null genotype. However, smokers had the highest risk of NPC among individuals carrying GSTT1 null genotype (OR = 4.46, P = 0.001) or CYP1A1 T3801C TC + CC genotype (OR = 7.13, P < 0.0001). The association of null genotypes and mutations of metabolic neutralizing genes along with the environmental habits (tobacco smokers and chewers, smoke meat, fermented fishes) can be used as a possible biomarker for

  4. Biotechnology and genetic engineering in the new drug development. Part II. Monoclonal antibodies, modern vaccines and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Stryjewska, Agnieszka; Kiepura, Katarzyna; Librowski, Tadeusz; Lochyński, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies, modern vaccines and gene therapy have become a major field in modern biotechnology, especially in the area of human health and fascinating developments achieved in the past decades are impressive examples of an interdisciplinary interplay between medicine, biology and engineering. Among the classical products from cells one can find viral vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and interferons, as well as recombinant therapeutic proteins. Gene therapy opens up challenging new areas. In this review, a definitions of these processes are given and fields of application and products, as well as the future prospects, are discussed.

  5. Deciphering the fine nucleotide diversity of full HLA class I and class II genes in a well-documented population from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Goeury, T; Creary, L E; Brunet, L; Galan, M; Pasquier, M; Kervaire, B; Langaney, A; Tiercy, J-M; Fernández-Viña, M A; Nunes, J M; Sanchez-Mazas, A

    2018-01-01

    With the aim to understand how next-generation sequencing (NGS) improves both our assessment of genetic variation within populations and our knowledge on HLA molecular evolution, we sequenced and analysed 8 HLA loci in a well-documented population from sub-Saharan Africa (Mandenka). The results of full-gene NGS-MiSeq sequencing compared with those obtained by traditional typing techniques or limited sequencing strategies showed that segregating sites located outside exon 2 are crucial to describe not only class I but also class II population diversity. A comprehensive analysis of exons 2, 3, 4 and 5 nucleotide diversity at the 8 HLA loci revealed remarkable differences among these gene regions, notably a greater variation concentrated in the antigen recognition sites of class I exons 3 and some class II exons 2, likely associated with their peptide-presentation function, a lower diversity of HLA-C exon 3, possibly related to its role as a KIR ligand, and a peculiar molecular diversity of HLA-A exon 2, revealing demographic signals. Based on full-length HLA sequences, we also propose that the most frequent DRB1 allele in the studied population, DRB1*13:04, emerged from an allelic conversion involving 3 potential alleles as donors and DRB1*11:02:01 as recipient. Finally, our analysis revealed a high occurrence of the DRB1*13:04-DQA1*05:05:01-DQB1*03:19 haplotype, possibly resulting from a selective sweep due to protection to Onchorcerca volvulus, a prevalent pathogen in West Africa. This study unveils highly relevant information on the molecular evolution of HLA genes in relation to their immune function, calling for similar analyses in other populations living in contrasting environments. © 2017 The Authors HLA: Immune Response Genetics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Therapeutic effect of a novel recombinant vaccine encoding chicken collagen type II procollagen gene on collagen-induced arthritis in rat].

    PubMed

    Song, Xin-qiang; Luo, Yuan; Wang, Dan; Liu, Shu-guang; Liu, Jin-feng; Yuan, Fang; Xue, Hong; Liu, Nan; Liang, Fei; Sun, Yu-ying; Xi, Yong-zhi

    2006-08-08

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of gene vaccine encoding chicken collagen type II (CC II) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) comprehensively. Three groups (CIA) were given a single intravenous injection of plasmid pcDNA-CCOL2A1 (20 microg/kg, 200 microg/kg, 400 microg/kg) respectively and one group (CIA) was injected 200 microg/kg pcDNA3.1 as a control. The effect of gene vaccine (pcDNA-CCOL2A1) was evaluated according to the arthritis score, radiological and histological examinations. The severity of arthritis of CIA rats which were administered 200 microg/kg pcDNA-CCOL2A1 was significantly reduced from the fifth day. According to the radiological and histological examinations, the articular cartilage as well as subchondral bone trabeculae are similar to those of the normal groups, so the bone and articular cartilage structure were protected after treatment with 200 microg/kg pcDNA-CCOL2A1 with a little synovial hyperplasia. The therapeutic effect of 200 microg/kg pcDNA-CCOL2A1 group has significant difference in comparison with that of the pcDNA3.1 group (P < 0.05) and the arthritis scores are reduced to about 50% of those in control groups, but 20 microg/kg group and 400 microg/kg group has no therapeutic effect in our observation (P > 0.05). The new gene vaccine pcDNA-CCOL2A1 has significant therapeutic effect on CIA rats, and the treatment may therefore be an effective strategy for RA patient clinically.

  7. Identification of three new mutations in the NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase gene responsible for recessive congenital methemoglobinemia type II

    SciTech Connect

    Mota-Vieira, L.; Kaplan, J.C.; Kahn, A.

    1994-09-01

    Recessive congenital methemoglobinemia (RCM; McKusick N{degrees}25800) due to NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (cytb5r) deficiency leads to two different types of diseases: in type I form, cyanosis is the only symptom and the enzyme is only defective in red blood cells; in type II form, cyanosis is associated with severe mental retardation and neurological impairment and the enzyme defect is systemic. We have identified three new molecular defects in two unrelated patients with type II RCM. A homozygous C{r_arrow}T transition in codon 218 (Arg) was detected in the cDNA of one patient, resulting in a premature stop codon (TGA) in exon 8.more » Restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA confirmed the homozygosity of the propositus and heterozygosity for an identical defect in both parents. The second patient was found to be a compound heterozygote, carrying two different mutant alleles in the cyb5r gene. One allele presented a missense mutation (T{r_arrow}C) with substitution of Cys-203 (TGC) by Arg (CGC) in exon 7. The second allele showed a 3 bp deletion of nucleotides 815-817 of the cDNA. The CTG ATG sequence at position 814-819 in exon 9 coding for Leu-271 and Met-272 was replaced by the CTG triplet, with conservation of the Leu-271 and loss of the Met-272. To our knowledge, these are the first examples of a homozygous nonsense mutation and of a compound heterozygous mutation detected in the cytb5r gene. This finding supports the diversity of genetic defects in the cytb5r gene leading to the severe form of the disease.« less

  8. New data from basal Australian songbird lineages show that complex structure of MHC class II β genes has early evolutionary origins within passerines.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Shandiya; Bray, Rebecca D; Mulder, Raoul A; Sunnucks, Paul; Pavlova, Alexandra; Melville, Jane

    2016-05-21

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the adaptive immune system and has been extensively studied across vertebrate taxa. Although the function of MHC genes appears to be conserved across taxa, there is great variation in the number and organisation of these genes. Among avian species, for instance, there are notable differences in MHC structure between passerine and non-passerine lineages: passerines typically have a high number of highly polymorphic MHC paralogs whereas non-passerines have fewer loci and lower levels of polymorphism. Although the occurrence of highly polymorphic MHC paralogs in passerines is well documented, their evolutionary origins are relatively unexplored. The majority of studies have focussed on the more derived passerine lineages and there is very little empirical information on the diversity of the MHC in basal passerine lineages. We undertook a study of MHC diversity and evolutionary relationships across seven species from four families (Climacteridae, Maluridae, Pardalotidae, Meliphagidae) that comprise a prominent component of the basal passerine lineages. We aimed to determine if highly polymorphic MHC paralogs have an early evolutionary origin within passerines or are a more derived feature of the infraorder Passerida. We identified 177 alleles of the MHC class II β exon 2 in seven basal passerine species, with variation in numbers of alleles across individuals and species. Overall, we found evidence of multiple gene loci, pseudoalleles, trans-species polymorphism and high allelic diversity in these basal lineages. Phylogenetic reconstruction of avian lineages based on MHC class II β exon 2 sequences strongly supported the monophyletic grouping of basal and derived passerine species. Our study provides evidence of a large number of highly polymorphic MHC paralogs in seven basal passerine species, with strong similarities to the MHC described in more derived passerine lineages rather than the simpler MHC

  9. Deletion of angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene or scavenge of superoxide prevents chronic alcohol-induced aortic damage and remodelling.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Tan, Yi; Wang, Bo; Miao, Xiao; Chen, Qiang; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Lu

    2012-10-01

    To investigate whether chronic alcohol consumption induces vascular injury via angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor-dependent superoxide generation, male transgenic mice with knockout of AT1 gene (AT1-KO) and age-matched wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were pair-fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli alcohol or isocaloric maltose dextrin control liquid diet for 2 months. Ethanol content (%, W/V) in the diet was 4.8 (34% of total calories) at initiation, and gradually increased up to 5.4 (38% of total calories). For some WT mice with and without alcohol treatment, superoxide dismutase mimetic (MnTMPyP) was given simultaneously by intraperitoneal injection at 5 mg/kg body weight daily for 2 months. At the end of studies, aortas were harvested for histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. Significant increases in the wall thickness and structural disarrangement of aorta were found in alcohol group, along with significant increases in aortic oxidative and/or nitrosative damage, expressions of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), inflammatory response, cell death and proliferation, and remodelling (fibrosis). However, these pathological changes were completely attenuated in alcohol-treated AT1-KO mice or in alcohol-treated WT mice that were also simultaneously treated with MnTMPyP for 2 months. These results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption may activate NOX via Ang II/AT1 receptor, to generate superoxide and associated peroxynitrite that in turn causes aortic nitrosative damage, inflammation, cell death and proliferation, and remodelling. Therefore, blocking Ang II/AT1 system or scavenging superoxide may become a potential preventive and/therapeutic approach to alcoholic vascular damage. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2012 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) shoot apex with a fungal phytase gene improves phosphorus acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiying; Liu, Jianfeng; Wang, Xingfen

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is an important world economic crop plant. It is considered that cotton is recalcitrant to in vitro proliferation. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration has been successful by using hypocotyl, whereas it is highly genotype dependent. Here, a genotype-independent cotton regeneration protocol from shoot apices is presented. Shoot apices from 3- to 5-day-old seedlings of cotton are infected with an Agrobacterium strain, EHA105, carrying the binary vector pC-KSA contained phytase gene (phyA) and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), and directly regenerated as shoots in vitro. Rooted shoots can be obtained within 6-8 weeks. Plants that survived by leaf painting kanamycin (kan) were -further analyzed by DNA and RNA blottings. The transgenic plants with increased the phosphorus (P) acquisition efficiency were obtained following the transformation method.

  11. Heroin self-administration: II. CNS gene expression following withdrawal and cue-induced drug-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Kara L; Patel, Kruti M; Grigson, Patricia S; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E

    2008-09-01

    In the accompanying paper, we described incubation of heroin-seeking behavior in rats following 14 days of abstinence. To gain an understanding of genomic changes that accompany this behavioral observation, we measured the expression of genes previously reported to respond to drugs of abuse. Specifically, after 1 or 14 days of abstinence, mRNA expression was measured for 11 genes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) immediately following a single 90 min extinction session. Additionally, the role of contingency was examined in control rats that received yoked, response-independent heroin administration. Gene expression was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Expression of five genes (Arc, EGR1, EGR2, Fos, and Homer1b/c) was changed in the mPFC. EGR1 and EGR2 expression was increased following the 90 min extinction session in a contingency-specific manner and this increase persisted through the 14 days of abstinence. Fos expression was also increased after 1 and 14 days of abstinence, but at 14 days this increase was response-independent (i.e., it occurred in both the rats with a history of heroin self-administration and in the yoked controls). Arc expression increased following the extinction session only in rats with a history of heroin self-administration and only when tested following 1, but not 14, days of abstinence. Homer 1 b/c decreased after 14 days of enforced abstinence in rats that received non-contingent heroin. Expression of only a single gene (EGR2) was increased in the NAc. These data demonstrate that behavioral incubation is coincident with altered levels of specific transcripts and that this response is contingently-specific. Moreover, EGR1 and EGR2 are specifically upregulated in self-administering rats following extinction and this finding persists through 14 days of abstinence, suggesting that these genes are particularly associated with the incubation phenomenon. These latter observations of persistent changes

  12. Detection of a novel point mutation in the p53 gene in grade II astrocytomas by PCR-SSCP analysis with additional Klenow treatment.

    PubMed

    Chawengchao, B; Petmitr, S; Ponglikitmongkol, M; Chanyavanich, V; Sangruji, T; Theerapuncharoen, V; Hayashi, K; Thangnipon, W

    2001-01-01

    Using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) with additional Klenow treatment and direct sequencing mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene were analyzed from 21 cases of human astrocytomas. Three cases had p53 gene mutations: two of them were glioblastomas showing a point mutation, one in exon 5 and the other in 6. The last one was a gemistocytic astrocytoma showing a point mutation in exon 5. The frequency of p53 gene mutations in the astrocytomas examined was 14.3% (3 out of 21). No SSCP alterations were observed in any of the p53 fragments amplified from WHO grade I pilocytic astrocytomas and WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytomas. Further examination by direct sequencing showed that two mutations of glioblastomas had single-base substitutions resulting in silent and missense mutations, whereas one of the gemistocytic astrocytomas had a double-base substitution resulting in a missense mutation. The present studies revealed that all mutations were located outside the hot spots and, interestingly, one of them disclosed a missense mutation in exon 5 at codon 166, which was first detected in a grade II astrocytoma (gemistocytic type). It is possible that the missense mutation at this codon may be associated with special risk factors for the development of astrocytic tumors in Thai patients.

  13. The human gene (CSNK2A1) coding for the casein kinase II subunit [alpha] is located on chromosome 20 and contains tandemly arranged Alu repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Wirkner, U.; Lichter, P.; Pyerin, W.

    1994-01-15

    The authors have isolated and characterized an 18.9-kb genomic clone representing a central portion of the human casein kinase II (CKII) subunit [alpha] gene (CSNK2A1). Using the whole clone as a probe, the gene was localized on chromosome 20p13. The clone contains eight exons whose sequences comprise bases 102 to 824 of the coding region of the human CKII[alpha]. The exon/intron splice junctions conform to the gt/ag rule. Three of the nine introns are located at positions corresponding to those in the CKII[alpha] gene of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The introns contain eight complete and eight incomplete Alu repeats. Somemore » of the Alu sequences are arranged in tandems of two or three, which seem to originate from insertions of younger Alu sequences into the poly(A) region of previously integrated Alu sequences, as indicated by flanking direct repeats. 50 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  14. MicroRNAs and zinc metabolism-related gene expression in prostate cancer cell lines treated with zinc(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Hlavna, Marian; Raudenska, Martina; Hudcova, Kristyna; Gumulec, Jaromir; Sztalmachova, Marketa; Tanhäuserova, Veronika; Babula, Petr; Adam, Vojtech; Eckschlager, Tomas; Kizek, Rene; Masarik, Michal

    2012-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large class of single-stranded RNA molecules involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing. miRNAs not only regulate various developmental and physiological processes but also are involved in cancer development. Additionally, they can be considered as biomarkers of some pathological processes. The aim of this study was to determine the expression levels of selected miRNA and zinc(II)-related genes (ZIP-1, BAX, MT2A and MT1A) in the non-tumor PNT1A prostate cell line in comparison with the prostate cancer cell lines 22Rv1, PC-3 and LNCaP after zinc(II) treatment. Using bioinformatic approaches we selected miRNAs with putative binding sites in the 3'UTR regions in Metallothionein 1A and 2A as miRNA 23a, 141, 224, 296-3p, 320, 375 and 376. We observed significantly higher expression of miRNA 23a in all tumor lines compared to non-tumor PNT1A (13.6-fold in 22Rv1, 7.3-fold in PC-3, 8.3-fold in LNCaP, p<0.01). We also observed that the 22Rv1 cell line has significantly higher expression of miRNA 224 in comparison to other cell lines. In addition, all tumor cell lines expressed significantly higher levels of miRNA 375 in comparison to non-tumor PNT1A (87.1‑fold in 22Rv1, nearly 2,000-fold in PC-3, 56.3‑fold in LNCaP, p<0.01). Nevertheless, miRNA 375 and 23a expression levels strongly suggest their potential to contribute to the diagnosis of prostate cancer and miRNA 224 eventually may be suitable for classification of primary tumors. The expression of miRNA 224 in 22Rv1 cell line was negatively correlated with increasing zinc(II) concentration only. Our experiments revealed significant negative correlation of miRNA 376 and MT2A in 22Rv1 and a negative correlation between miRNA 224 and MT1A in PC-3 cells which may denote possible direct regulation of MT genes by specific miRNAs in prostate cancer.

  15. Selective pressures on MHC class II genes in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as inferred by hierarchical analysis of population structure.

    PubMed

    Herdegen, M; Babik, W; Radwan, J

    2014-11-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex, which are the most polymorphic of all vertebrate genes, are a pre-eminent system for the study of selective pressures that arise from host-pathogen interactions. Balancing selection capable of maintaining high polymorphism should lead to the homogenization of MHC allele frequencies among populations, but there is some evidence to suggest that diversifying selection also operates on the MHC. However, the pattern of population structure observed at MHC loci is likely to depend on the spatial and/or temporal scale examined. Here, we investigated selection acting on MHC genes at different geographic scales using Venezuelan guppy populations inhabiting four regions. We found a significant correlation between MHC and microsatellite allelic richness across populations, which suggests the role of genetic drift in shaping MHC diversity. However, compared to microsatellites, more MHC variation was explained by differences between populations within larger geographic regions and less by the differences between the regions. Furthermore, among proximate populations, variation in MHC allele frequencies was significantly higher compared to microsatellites, indicating that selection acting on MHC may increase population structure at small spatial scales. However, in populations that have significantly diverged at neutral markers, the population-genetic signature of diversifying selection may be eradicated in the long term by that of balancing selection, which acts to preserve rare alleles and thus maintain a common pool of MHC alleles. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II modulates mPer1 and mPer2 gene induction and influences phase shifts of the circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Oster, Henrik; Werner, Claudia; Magnone, Maria Chiara; Mayser, Helmut; Feil, Robert; Seeliger, Mathias W; Hofmann, Franz; Albrecht, Urs

    2003-04-29

    In mammals, the master circadian clock that drives many biochemical, physiological, and behavioral rhythms is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Generation and maintenance of circadian rhythmicity rely on complex interlocked transcriptional/translational feedback loops involving a set of clock genes. Among the molecular components driving the mammalian circadian clock are the Period 1 and 2 (mPer1 and mPer2) genes. Because the periodicity of the clock is not exactly 24 hr, it has to be adjusted periodically. The major stimulus for adjustment (resetting) of the clock is nocturnal light. It evokes activation of signaling pathways in the SCN that ultimately lead to expression of mPer1 and mPer2 genes conveying adjustment of the clock. We show that mice deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII, also known as PKGII), despite regular retinal function, are defective in resetting the circadian clock, as assessed by changes in the onset of wheel running activity after a light pulse. At the molecular level, light induction of mPer2 in the SCN is strongly reduced in the early period of the night, whereas mPer1 induction is elevated in cGKII-deficient mice. Additionally, we show that light induction of cfos and light-dependent phosphorylation of CREB at serine 133 are not affected in these animals. cGKII plays a role in the clock-resetting mechanism. In particular, the ability to delay clock phase is affected in cGKII-deficient mice. It seems that the signaling pathway involving cGKII influences in an opposite manner the light-induced induction of mPer1 and mPer2 genes and thereby influences the direction of a phase shift of the circadian clock.

  17. The form II fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and phosphoribulokinase genes form part of a large operon in Rhodobacter sphaeroides: primary structure and insertional mutagenesis analysis.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J L; Chen, J H; Tower, P A; Tabita, F R

    1990-09-04

    Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) are two key enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate pathway or Calvin cycle of photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation. Early studies had indicated that the properties of enzymes isolated from photosynthetic bacteria were clearly distinct from those of enzymes obtained from the chloroplasts of higher plants [for a review, see Tabita (1988)]. The eucaryotic enzymes, which are light activated by the thioredoxin/ferredoxin system (Buchanan, 1980), were each shown to contain a putative regulatory amino acid sequence (Marcus et al., 1988; Porter et al., 1988). The enzymes from photosynthetic bacteria are not controlled by the thioredoxin/ferredoxin system but exhibit complex kinetic properties and, in the case of PRK, there is an absolute requirement of NADH for activity. In the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, the structural genes of the Calvin cycle, including the genes that encode FBPase (fbp) and PRK (prk), are found in two distinct clusters, and the fbp and prk genes are closely associated in each cluster. In the present investigation, we have determined the nucleotide sequence of the fbpB and prkB genes of the form II cluster and have compared the deduced amino acid sequences to previously determined sequences of light-activated enzymes from higher plants and from other eucaryotic and procaryotic sources. In the case of FBPase, there are several regions that are conserved in the R. sphaeroides enzymes, including a protease-sensitive area located in a region equivalent to residues 51-71 of mammalian FBPase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Riproximin: A type II ribosome inactivating protein with anti-neoplastic potential induces IL24/MDA-7 and GADD genes in colorectal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pervaiz, Asim; Adwan, Hassan; Berger, Martin R

    2015-09-01

    Riproximin (Rpx) is a type II ribosome inactivating protein, which was extracted and purified from the seeds of Ximenia americana. Previous studies demonstrated cytotoxicity of Rpx against a variety of cell lines originating from solid and non-solid cancers. In this study, we investigated the mechanistic aspects of Rpx in selected human and rat colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Cytotoxic levels of Rpx were determined by MTT assay, while cytostatic and apoptotic effects were investigated by flow cytometry and nuclear staining procedures. Effects of Rpx exposure on colony formation/migration of CRC cells and expressional modulations in anticancer/stress-related genes were also studied. Rpx showed significant and comparable levels of cytotoxicity in CRC cells as determined by inhibitory concentration (IC) values. Similar inhibitory effects were found for clonogenicity, while more pronounced inhibition of migration was observed in response to Rpx exposure. Profound arrest in S phases of the cell cycle was noted especially in primary CRC cells. Apoptotic effects were more prominent in rat CRC cells as indicated by Annexin V-FITC assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining. Rpx exposure induced significantly increased levels of the IL24/MDA-7, a well characterized anticancer gene, in all CRC cells. In addition, following Rpx treatment, high expression levels of growth arrest and DNA damage (GADD family) genes were also observed. Increased expression of two additional GADD genes (34 and 153) only in rat CRC cells (CC531) conferred higher sensitivity towards Rpx and subsequent anti-proliferative/apoptotic effects as compared to human CRC cells (SW480 and SW620). The present investigation indicates the anticancer potential of Rpx in CRC and favor further evaluation of this natural compound as therapeutic agent.

  19. Increased Angiotensin II AT1 receptor mRNA and binding in spleen and lung of AT2 receptor gene disrupted mice

    PubMed Central

    Pavel, Jaroslav; Terrón, José A.; Benicky, Julius; Falcón-Neri, Alicia; Rachakonda, Amita; Inagami, Tadashi; Saavedra, Juan M.

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between Angiotensin II AT1 and AT2 receptors, we studied AT1 receptor mRNA and binding expression in tissues from AT2 receptor gene-disrupted (AT2 −/−) female mice, where AT2 receptors are not expressed in vivo, using in situ hybridization and quantitative autoradiography. Wild type mice expressed AT1A receptor mRNA and AT1 receptor binding in lung parenchyma, the spleen, predominantly in the red pulp, and in liver parenchyma. In wild type mice, lung AT2 receptors were expressed in lung bronchial epithelium and smooth muscle, and were not present in the lung parenchyma, the spleen or the liver. This indicates that AT1 and AT2 receptors were not expressed in the same cells. In AT2 −/− mice, we found higher AT1A receptor mRNA and AT1 receptor binding in lung parenchyma and in the red pulp of the spleen, but not in the liver, when compared to littermate wild-type controls. Our results suggest that impaired AT2 receptor function upregulates AT1 receptor transcription and expression in a tissue-specific manner and in cells not expressing AT2 receptors. AT1 upregulation explains the increased sensitivity to Angiotensin II characteristic of the AT2 −/− phenotype, consistent with enhanced AT1 receptor activation in a number of tissues. PMID:19766151

  20. Type II hereditary angioneurotic edema that may result from a single nucleotide change in the codon for alanine-436 in the C1 inhibitor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, N.J.; Ramesh, N.; Daviss, A.E. III

    1990-01-01

    Identical single-base changes in the C1 inhibitor gene that may result in dysfunctional inhibitor proteins are described in two different families with type II hereditary angioneurotic edema. Initially, a restriction fragment length polymorphism was defined that resulted from loss of a Pst I site within exon VIII, which encodes the region containing the reactive center. Exon VIII from the normal and abnormal allelles was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. Amplified DNA product was cloned into plasmid pUC18; clones representing normal and mutant allelles were distinguished by the presence and absence, respectively of the Pst I restriction site. DNA sequencemore » analysis revealed a G {yields} A mutation in the codon for alanine-436, which would result in replacement with a threonine residue. This position is nine amino acid residues amino-terminal to the reactive-center arginylthreonine peptide bond. In contrast, previously defined mutations in type II hereditary angioneurotic edema result in replacement of the reactive-center arginine.« less

  1. Inversin, the gene product mutated in nephronophthisis type II, functions as a molecular switch between Wnt signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Matias; Gloy, Joachim; Ganner, Athina; Bullerkotte, Axel; Bashkurov, Mikhail; Krönig, Corinna; Schermer, Bernhard; Benzing, Thomas; Cabello, Olga A; Jenny, Andreas; Mlodzik, Marek; Polok, Bozena; Driever, Wolfgang; Obara, Tomoko; Walz, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Cystic renal diseases are caused by mutations of proteins that share a unique subcellular localization: the primary cilium of tubular epithelial cells1. Mutations of the ciliary protein inversin cause nephronophthisis type II, an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease characterized by extensive renal cysts, situs inversus and renal failure2. Here we report that inversin acts as a molecular switch between different Wnt signaling cascades. Inversin inhibits the canonical Wnt pathway by targeting cytoplasmic dishevelled (Dsh or Dvl1) for degradation; concomitantly, it is required for convergent extension movements in gastrulating Xenopus laevis embryos and elongation of animal cap explants, both regulated by noncanonical Wnt signaling. In zebrafish, the structurally related switch molecule diversin ameliorates renal cysts caused by the depletion of inversin, implying that an inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling is required for normal renal development. Fluid flow increases inversin levels in ciliated tubular epithelial cells and seems to regulate this crucial switch between Wnt signaling pathways during renal development. PMID:15852005

  2. Changes in protein and gene expression of angiotensin II receptors (AT1 and AT2) in aorta of diabetic and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Romero-Nava, R; Rodriguez, J E; Reséndiz-Albor, A A; Sánchez-Muñoz, F; Ruiz-Hernandéz, A; Huang, F; Hong, E; Villafaña, S

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and hypertension have been associated with cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Some reports have related the coexistence of hypertension and diabetes with increase in the risk of developing vascular complications. Recently some studies have shown results suggesting that in the early stages of diabetes and hypertension exist a reduced functional response to vasopressor agents like angiotensin II (Ang II), which plays an important role in blood pressure regulation mechanism through the activation of its AT1 and AT2 receptors. For that reason, the aim of this work was to study the gene and protein expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors in aorta of diabetic SHR and WKY rats. Diabetes was induced by the administration of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg i.p.). After 4 weeks of the onset of diabetes, the protein expression was obtained by western blot and the mRNA expression by RT-PCR. Our results showed that the hypertensive rats have a higher mRNA and protein expression of AT1 receptors than normotensive rats while the AT2 expression remained unchanged. On the other hand, the combination of diabetes and hypertension increased the mRNA and protein expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors significantly. In conclusion, our results suggest that diabetes with hypertension modifies the mRNA and protein expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors. However, the overexpression of AT2 could be associated with the reduction in the response to Ang II in the early stage of diabetes.

  3. CO2 induced seawater acidification impacts sea urchin larval development II: gene expression patterns in pluteus larvae.

    PubMed

    Stumpp, M; Dupont, S; Thorndyke, M C; Melzner, F

    2011-11-01

    Extensive use of fossil fuels is leading to increasing CO(2) concentrations in the atmosphere and causes changes in the carbonate chemistry of the oceans which represents a major sink for anthropogenic CO(2). As a result, the oceans' surface pH is expected to decrease by ca. 0.4 units by the year 2100, a major change with potentially negative consequences for some marine species. Because of their carbonate skeleton, sea urchins and their larval stages are regarded as likely to be one of the more sensitive taxa. In order to investigate sensitivity of pre-feeding (2 days post-fertilization) and feeding (4 and 7 days post-fertilization) pluteus larvae, we raised Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos in control (pH 8.1 and pCO(2) 41 Pa e.g. 399 μatm) and CO(2) acidified seawater with pH of 7.7 (pCO(2) 134 Pa e.g. 1318 μatm) and investigated growth, calcification and survival. At three time points (day 2, day 4 and day 7 post-fertilization), we measured the expression of 26 representative genes important for metabolism, calcification and ion regulation using RT-qPCR. After one week of development, we observed a significant difference in growth. Maximum differences in size were detected at day 4 (ca. 10% reduction in body length). A comparison of gene expression patterns using PCA and ANOSIM clearly distinguished between the different age groups (two-way ANOSIM: Global R=1) while acidification effects were less pronounced (Global R=0.518). Significant differences in gene expression patterns (ANOSIM R=0.938, SIMPER: 4.3% difference) were also detected at day 4 leading to the hypothesis that differences between CO(2) treatments could reflect patterns of expression seen in control experiments of a younger larva and thus a developmental artifact rather than a direct CO(2) effect. We found an up regulation of metabolic genes (between 10%and 20% in ATP-synthase, citrate synthase, pyruvate kinase and thiolase at day 4) and down regulation of calcification related genes

  4. Regulation of mRNA gene expression of members of the NF-κB transcription factor gene family by angiotensin II and relaxin 2 in normal and cancer prostate cell lines.

    PubMed

    Domińska, Kamila; Kowalska, Karolina; Matysiak, Zuzanna Elżbieta; Płuciennik, Elżbieta; Ochędalski, Tomasz; Piastowska-Ciesielska, Agnieszka Wanda

    2017-06-01

    An increasing number of researchers are focusing on the influence of local peptide hormones such as angiotensin II (Ang II) and relaxin 2 (RLN2) in the regulation of inflammation and carcinogenesis. The interaction between the renin‑angiotensin system (RAS) and relaxin family peptide system (RFPS) is known to influence the proliferation, adhesion and migration of normal and cancer prostate cell lines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the expression of nuclear factor‑κB subunit 1 (NFKB1), nuclear factor‑κB subunit 2 (NFKB2), REL proto‑oncogene nuclear factor‑κB p65 subunit (REL), RELA proto‑oncogene nuclear factor‑κB subunit (RELA) and RELB proto‑oncogene nuclear factor‑κB subunit (RELB) mRNA caused by Ang II and RLN2. The members of NF‑kB family are involved in many processes associated with cancer development and metastasis. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis identified that both peptide hormones have an influence on the relative expression of nuclear factor‑κB. Following treatment with either peptide, NFKB1 expression was downregulated in all prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DU‑145 and PC3), but not in normal epithelial cells (PNT1A). Conversely, RELB mRNA was enhanced only in non‑cancerous prostate cells. RELA expression was strongly stimulated in the most aggressive cell line, whereas REL mRNA was unchanged. In many cases, the effect was strictly dependent on the cell line and/or the type of peptide: Ang II increased expression of both RELA and REL genes in the androgen‑dependent cell line while RLN2 enhanced NFKB2 and RELA mRNA in androgen‑independent cells (DU‑145). Further research is needed to understand the regulation of NF‑κB family members by key renin‑angiotensin system and RFPS peptides in prostate cancer cells; however, prostate carcinogenesis appears to be influenced by the balance between the cross‑regulation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF

  5. Synergistic co-operation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B with activator protein 1 in angiotensin II-induced angiotensinogen gene activation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; Li, Ai-Ying; Meng, Fang; Dong, Li-Hua; Zheng, Bin; Hu, Hai-Juan; Nie, Lei; Wen, Jin-Kun

    2009-03-01

    The binding sequences for signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and activator protein 1 have been found in the promoter region of the angiotensinogen gene. We examined whether the elements for activator protein 1 and STAT5B function in angiotensinogen gene activation induced by angiotensin II in vascular smooth muscle cells. Stimulation with angiotensin II increased the level of angiotensinogen mRNA by 2.1-fold in vascular smooth muscle cells. The increased level of angiotensinogen mRNA occurred with concurrent elevations in the levels of STAT5B and c-Jun phosphorylation after stimulation with angiotensin II. Likewise, angiotensin II resulted in similar enhancements of the DNA-binding activity of STAT5B and c-Jun in angiotensin II-induced angiotensinogen expression. Notably, the STAT5B-DNA complex interacted with the c-Jun-DNA complex by forming a stable quaternary complex in angiotensin II-induced angiotensinogen expression. Our findings support a model in which co-operative interaction of STAT5B and activator protein 1 bound to the the promoter region provides maximal activation of angiotensinogen expression by angiotensin II in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  6. Group II intron-mediated deletion of lactate dehydrogenase gene in an isolated 1,3-propanediol producer Hafnia alvei AD27.

    PubMed

    Celińska, Ewelina; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Wita, Agnieszka; Juzwa, Wojciech; Białas, Wojciech; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2017-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that glycerol fermentation by Hafnia alvei AD27 strain was accompanied by formation of high quantities of lactate. The ultimate aim of this work was the elimination of excessive lactate production in the 1,3-propanediol producer cultures. Group II intron-mediated deletion of ldh (lactate dehydrogenase) gene in an environmental isolate of H. alvei AD27 strain was conducted. The effect of the Δldh genotype in H. alvei AD27 strain varied depending on the culture medium applied. Under lower initial glycerol concentration (20 gL -1 ), lactate and 1,3-propanediol production was fully abolished, and the main carbon flux was directed to ethanol synthesis. On the other hand, at higher initial glycerol concentrations (40 gL -1 ), 1,3-propanediol and lactate production was recovered in the recombinant strain. The final titers of 1,3-propanediol and ethanol were similar for the recombinant and the WT strains, while the Δldh genotype displayed significantly decreased lactate titer. The by-products profile was altered upon ldh gene deletion, while glycerol utilization and biomass accumulation remained unaltered. As indicated by flow-cytometry analyses, the internal pH was not different for the WT and the recombinant Δldh strains over the culture duration, however, the WT strain was characterized by higher redox potential.

  7. Can tumor necrosis factor receptor II gene 676T>G polymorphism predict the response grading to anti-TNFalpha therapy in rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Ongaro, Alessia; De Mattei, Monica; Pellati, Agnese; Caruso, Angelo; Ferretti, Stefano; Masieri, Federica Francesca; Fotinidi, Maria; Farina, Ilaria; Trotta, Francesco; Padovan, Melissa

    2008-07-01

    In this study we analyzed whether the polymorphisms 676T>G in the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) II gene and -308G>A in the TNFalpha promoter gene may influence the response grading to anti-TNFalpha therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. We enrolled and genotyped 105 RA patients treated with etanercept (n = 55), infliximab (n = 40) and adalimumab (n = 10) for 1 year. The clinical response was evaluated according to the ACR criteria every 3 months. Patients with TNFRII 676TG genotype was significantly associated with lower ACR response compared with 676TT genotype, at 3 (OR 3.78 95% CI 1.07-13.31) and 12 months (OR 4.30 95% CI 1.16-15.99) of treatment. No significant association between TNFalpha -308G>A polymorphism and the clinical response was found. TNFRII 676TG genotype is associated with a lower response to anti-TNFalpha therapy, independently from the specific agent used. This polymorphism could become a useful genetic marker for predicting the different response grading to anti-TNFalpha therapy.

  8. An H3K9/S10 methyl-phospho switch modulates Polycomb and Pol II binding at repressed genes during differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sabbattini, Pierangela; Sjoberg, Marcela; Nikic, Svetlana; Frangini, Alberto; Holmqvist, Per-Henrik; Kunowska, Natalia; Carroll, Tom; Brookes, Emily; Arthur, Simon J; Pombo, Ana; Dillon, Niall

    2014-03-01

    Methylated histones H3K9 and H3K27 are canonical epigenetic silencing modifications in metazoan organisms, but the relationship between the two modifications has not been well characterized. H3K9me3 coexists with H3K27me3 in pluripotent and differentiated cells. However, we find that the functioning of H3K9me3 is altered by H3S10 phosphorylation in differentiated postmitotic osteoblasts and cycling B cells. Deposition of H3K9me3/S10ph at silent genes is partially mediated by the mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK1/2) and the Aurora B kinase. Acquisition of H3K9me3/S10ph during differentiation correlates with loss of paused S5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, which is present on Polycomb-regulated genes in embryonic stem cells. Reduction of the levels of H3K9me3/S10ph by kinase inhibition results in increased binding of RNAPIIS5ph and the H3K27 methyltransferase Ezh1 at silent promoters. Our results provide evidence of a novel developmentally regulated methyl-phospho switch that modulates Polycomb regulation in differentiated cells and stabilizes repressed states.

  9. ANG II receptor subtype 1a gene knockdown in the subfornical organ prevents increased drinking behavior in bile duct-ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Walch, Joseph D.; Nedungadi, T. Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Bile duct ligation (BDL) causes congestive liver failure that initiates hemodynamic changes, resulting in dilutional hyponatremia due to increased water intake and vasopressin release. This project tested the hypothesis that angiotensin signaling at the subfornical organ (SFO) augments drinking behavior in BDL rats. A genetically modified adeno-associated virus containing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for ANG II receptor subtype 1a (AT1aR) gene was microinjected into the SFO of rats to knock down expression. Two weeks later, BDL or sham surgery was performed. Rats were housed in metabolic chambers for measurement of fluid and food intake and urine output. The rats were euthanized 28 days after BDL surgery for analysis. A group of rats was perfused for immunohistochemistry, and a second group was used for laser-capture microdissection for analysis of SFO AT1aR gene expression. BDL rats showed increased water intake that was attenuated in rats that received SFO microinjection of AT1aR shRNA. Among BDL rats treated with scrambled (control) and AT1aR shRNA, we observed an increased number of vasopressin-positive cells in the supraoptic nucleus that colocalized with ΔFosB staining, suggesting increased vasopressin release in both groups. These results indicate that angiotensin signaling through the SFO contributes to increased water intake, but not dilutional hyponatremia, during congestive liver failure. PMID:25009217

  10. Updates from the Sixth International Congress 'Psoriasis: from Gene to Clinic', the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre, London, U.K., 1-3 December 2011.

    PubMed

    Shams, K; Burden, A D

    2012-10-01

    The 15 years between the First International Congress 'Psoriasis: from Gene to Clinic' and the Sixth Congress held in London from 1 to 3 December 2011 have seen extraordinary progress in the sciences that are relevant to psoriasis and therapeutics that have transformed its treatment. Over this time, 'Psoriasis: from Gene to Clinic' has emerged as the premier conference for clinicians and scientists interested in this field. Its popularity is attested to by the 450 registered delegates from the U.K. and around the world, which necessitated a change of venue to the excellent facilities of the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre. Although the content has evolved over the years, the structure of this 3-day conference has remained similar. The first day was given to genetics, comorbidities and outcome measures. Immunology and immunity were covered on the second day and therapeutics on the third. The stature of the three keynote lecturers and eight invited speakers was truly world class and their presentations were interspersed with 23 free communications. Here we review highly selected personal highlights of the meeting that we hope will be of general interest. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of hatching enzyme-like geneII (BmHELII) in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shunming; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Xinhui; Wang, Huanying; Qiu, Zhiyong; Shen, Xingjia; Guo, Xijie

    2012-03-09

    Hatching enzyme (HE) is an enzyme that digests an egg envelop at the time of embryo hatching. Previously, we have reported a kind of Bombyx mori hatching enzyme-like gene (BmHEL). In this paper, the full length of another BmHEL cDNA sequence (BmHELII, GenBank ID: JN627443) was cloned from bluish-silkworm-eggs. The cDNA was 977 bp in length with an open reading frame of 885 bp which encodes a polypeptide of 294 amino acids including a putative signal peptide of 16 amino acid residues and a mature protein of 278 amino acids. The deduced BmHELII had a predicted molecular mass of 33.62 kDa, isoelectric point of 5.44 and two conserved signature sequences of astacin family. Bioinformatic analysis results showed that the deduced protease domain amino acid sequence of BmHELII had 29.5-87.0% identities to that of HE identified in the other species. The BmHELII gene structure was 6-exon-5-intron, and the promoter region harbored some basal promoter elements and some embryo development related transcription factor binding sites. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the relative level of BmHELII transcripts at different stages during egg incubation increased with the development of embryos and reached to a maximum just before hatching, hence declined gradually after hatching. The spatio-temporal expression pattern of BmHELII basically resembled that of hatching enzyme gene. Moreover, the BmHELII transcript was detected in testis of the silkworm, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that it kept at the high level in testis of silkworm from larvae to moth, which suggested that BmHELII might take part in the development of sperm. These results will be helpful to provide a molecular basis for understanding the mechanism underlying silkworm hatching as well as spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. IIS--Integrated Interactome System: a web-based platform for the annotation, analysis and visualization of protein-metabolite-gene-drug interactions by integrating a variety of data sources and tools.

    PubMed

    Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; de Carvalho, Lucas Miguel; Slepicka, Hugo Henrique; Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Kobarg, Jörg; Meirelles, Gabriela Vaz

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput screening of physical, genetic and chemical-genetic interactions brings important perspectives in the Systems Biology field, as the analysis of these interactions provides new insights into protein/gene function, cellular metabolic variations and the validation of therapeutic targets and drug design. However, such analysis depends on a pipeline connecting different tools that can automatically integrate data from diverse sources and result in a more comprehensive dataset that can be properly interpreted. We describe here the Integrated Interactome System (IIS), an integrative platform with a web-based interface for the annotation, analysis and visualization of the interaction profiles of proteins/genes, metabolites and drugs of interest. IIS works in four connected modules: (i) Submission module, which receives raw data derived from Sanger sequencing (e.g. two-hybrid system); (ii) Search module, which enables the user to search for the processed reads to be assembled into contigs/singlets, or for lists of proteins/genes, metabolites and drugs of interest, and add them to the project; (iii) Annotation module, which assigns annotations from several databases for the contigs/singlets or lists of proteins/genes, generating tables with automatic annotation that can be manually curated; and (iv) Interactome module, which maps the contigs/singlets or the uploaded lists to entries in our integrated database, building networks that gather novel identified interactions, protein and metabolite expression/concentration levels, subcellular localization and computed topological metrics, GO biological processes and KEGG pathways enrichment. This module generates a XGMML file that can be imported into Cytoscape or be visualized directly on the web. We have developed IIS by the integration of diverse databases following the need of appropriate tools for a systematic analysis of physical, genetic and chemical-genetic interactions. IIS was validated with yeast two

  13. The type II secretion pathway in Vibrio cholerae is characterized by growth phase-dependent expression of exoprotein genes and is positively regulated by σE.

    PubMed

    Zielke, Ryszard A; Simmons, Ryan S; Park, Bo R; Nonogaki, Mariko; Emerson, Sarah; Sikora, Aleksandra E

    2014-07-01

    Vibrio cholerae, an etiological agent of cholera, circulates between aquatic reservoirs and the human gastrointestinal tract. The type II secretion (T2S) system plays a pivotal role in both stages of the lifestyle by exporting multiple proteins, including cholera toxin. Here, we studied the kinetics of expression of genes encoding the T2S system and its cargo proteins. We have found that under laboratory growth conditions, the T2S complex was continuously expressed throughout V. cholerae growth, whereas there was growth phase-dependent transcriptional activity of genes encoding different cargo proteins. Moreover, exposure of V. cholerae to different environmental cues encountered by the bacterium in its life cycle induced transcriptional expression of T2S. Subsequent screening of a V. cholerae genomic library suggested that σ(E) stress response, phosphate metabolism, and the second messenger 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) are involved in regulating transcriptional expression of T2S. Focusing on σ(E), we discovered that the upstream region of the T2S operon possesses both the consensus σ(E) and σ(70) signatures, and deletion of the σ(E) binding sequence prevented transcriptional activation of T2S by RpoE. Ectopic overexpression of σ(E) stimulated transcription of T2S in wild-type and isogenic ΔrpoE strains of V. cholerae, providing additional support for the idea that the T2S complex belongs to the σ(E) regulon. Together, our results suggest that the T2S pathway is characterized by the growth phase-dependent expression of genes encoding cargo proteins and requires a multifactorial regulatory network to ensure appropriate kinetics of the secretory traffic and the fitness of V. cholerae in different ecological niches. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Isolation and Functional Validation of Salinity and Osmotic Stress Inducible Promoter from the Maize Type-II H+-Pyrophosphatase Gene by Deletion Analysis in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; He, Qiuxia; Xu, Changzheng; Ding, Zhaohua; Zhang, Kewei; Li, Kunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Salinity and drought severely affect both plant growth and productivity, making the isolation and characterization of salinity- or drought-inducible promoters suitable for genetic improvement of crop resistance highly desirable. In this study, a 1468-bp sequence upstream of the translation initiation codon ATG of the promoter for ZmGAPP (maize Type-II H+-pyrophosphatase gene) was cloned. Nine 5´ deletion fragments (D1–D9) of different lengths of the ZmGAPP promoter were fused with the GUS reporter and translocated into tobacco. The deletion analysis showed that fragments D1–D8 responded well to NaCl and PEG stresses, whereas fragment D9 and CaMV 35S did not. The D8 segment (219 bp; -219 to -1 bp) exhibited the highest promoter activity of all tissues, with the exception of petals among the D1–D9 transgenic tobacco, which corresponds to about 10% and 25% of CaMV 35S under normal and NaCl or PEG stress conditions, respectively. As such, the D8 segment may confer strong gene expression in a salinity and osmotic stress inducible manner. A 71-bp segment (-219 to -148 bp) was considered as the key region regulating ZmGAPP response to NaCl or PEG stress, as transient transformation assays demonstrated that the 71-bp sequence was sufficient for the salinity or osmotic stress response. These results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating ZmGAPP expression, and that the D8 promoter would be an ideal candidate for moderating expression of drought and salinity response genes in transgenic plants. PMID:27101137

  15. Purifying selection and birth-and-death evolution in the class II hydrophobin gene families of the ascomycete Trichoderma/Hypocrea

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Hydrophobins are proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues that occur uniquely in mycelial fungi. Their main function is to confer hydrophobicity to fungal surfaces in contact with air or during attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces of hosts, symbiotic partners or themselves resulting in morphogenetic signals. Based on their hydropathy patterns and solubility characteristics, hydrophobins are divided into two classes (I and II), the latter being found only in ascomycetes. Results We have investigated the mechanisms driving the evolution of the class II hydrophobins in nine species of the mycoparasitic ascomycetous genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea, using three draft sequenced genomes (H. jecorina = T. reesei, H. atroviridis = T. atroviride; H. virens = T. virens) an additional 14,000 ESTs from six other Trichoderma spp. (T. asperellum, H. lixii = T. harzianum, T. aggressivum var. europeae, T. longibrachiatum, T. cf. viride). The former three contained six, ten and nine members, respectively. Ten is the highest number found in any ascomycete so far. All the hydrophobins we examined had the conserved four beta-strands/one helix structure, which is stabilized by four disulfide bonds. In addition, a small number of these hydrophobins (HFBs)contained an extended N-terminus rich in either proline and aspartate, or glycine-asparagine. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a mosaic of terminal clades containing duplicated genes and shows only three reasonably supported clades. Calculation of the ratio of differences in synonymous vs. non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions provides evidence for strong purifying selection (KS/Ka >> 1). A genome database search for class II HFBs from other ascomycetes retrieved a much smaller number of hydrophobins (2–4) from each species, and most were from Sordariomycetes. A combined phylogeny of these sequences with those of Trichoderma showed that the Trichoderma HFBs mostly formed their own clades, whereas those of

  16. Purifying Selection and Birth-and-Death Evolution in the Class II Hydrophobin Gene Families of the Ascomycete Trichoderma/Hypocrea

    SciTech Connect

    kubicek, Christian P.; Baker, Scott E.; Gamauf, Christian

    2008-01-10

    Hydrophobins are proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues that occur uniquely in mycelial fungi, where their main function is to confer hydrophobicity to fungal surfaces in contact with air and during attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces of hosts, symbiotic partners or of themselves resulting in morphogenetic signals. Based on their hydropathy patterns and their solubility characteristics, they are classified in class I and class II hydrophobins, the latter being found only in ascomycetes. Here we have investigated the mechanisms driving the evolution of the class II hydrophobins in nine species of the mycoparasitic ascomycetous genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea, using three fullymore » sequenced genomes (H. jecorina=T. reesei, H. atroviridis=T. atroviride; H. virens=T. virens) and a total of 14.000 ESTs of six others (T. asperellum, H. lixii=T. harzianum, T. aggressivum var. europeae, T. longibrachiatum, T. cf. viride). The former three contained six, ten and nine members, which is the highest number found in any other ascomycete so far. They all showed the conserved four beta-strands/one helix structure, which is stabilized by four disulfide bonds. In addition, a small number of these HFBs contained an extended N-terminus rich in either praline and aspartate, or glycine-asparagine. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a mosaic of terminal clades contain duplicated genes and shows only three reasonably supported clades. Calculation of the ratio of differences in synonymous vs. non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions provides evidence for strong purifying selection (KS/Ka >> 1). A genome database search for class II HFBs from other ascomycetes retrieved a much smaller number of hydrophobins (2-4) from each species, and most of them were from Pyrenomycetes. A combined phylogeny of these sequences with those of Trichoderma showed that the Trichoderma HFBs mostly formed their own clades, whereas those of other pyrenomycetes occured in shared clades. Our study

  17. Identification of the Structural Gene for the TDP-Fuc4NAc:Lipid II Fuc4NAc Transferase Involved in Synthesis of Enterobacterial Common Antigen in Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Arifur; Barr, Kathleen; Rick, Paul D.

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccharide chains of enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) are comprised of the trisaccharide repeat unit Fuc4NAc-ManNAcA-GlcNAc, where Fuc4NAc is 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-d-galactose, ManNAcA is N-acetyl-d-mannosaminuronic acid, and GlcNAc is N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. Individual trisaccharide repeat units are assembled as undecaprenyl-linked intermediates in a sequence of reactions that culminate in the transfer of Fuc4NAc from TDP-Fuc4NAc to ManNAcA-GlcNAc-pyrophosphorylundecaprenol (lipid II) to yield Fuc4NAc-ManNAcA-GlcNAc-pyrophosphorylundecaprenol (lipid III), the donor of trisaccharide repeat units for ECA polysaccharide chain elongation. Most of the genes known to be involved in ECA assembly are located in the wec gene cluster located at ca. 85.4 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome. The available data suggest that the structural gene for the TDP-Fuc4NAc:lipid II Fuc4NAc transferase also resides in the wec gene cluster; however, the location of this gene has not been unequivocally defined. Previous characterization of the nucleotide sequence of the wec gene cluster in the region between o416 and wecG revealed that it contained three open reading frames: o74, o204, and o450. In contrast, the results of experiments described in the current investigation revealed that it contains only two open reading frames, o359 and o450. Mutants of E. coli possessing null mutations in o359 were unable to synthesize ECA, and they accumulated lipid II. In addition, the in vitro incorporation of [3H]FucNAc from TDP-[3H]Fuc4NAc into lipid II was not observed in reaction mixtures using cell extracts obtained from these mutants as a source of enzyme. The ECA-negative phenotype of these mutants was complemented by plasmid constructs containing the wild-type o359 allele, and Fuc4NAc transferase activity was demonstrated by using cell extracts obtained from the complemented mutants. Furthermore, partially purified o359 gene product, expressed as recombinant C-terminal His

  18. Gene-Culture Coevolution and Sex Ratios: II. Sex-Chromosomal Distorters and Cultural Preferences for Offspring Sex

    PubMed

    Kumm; Feldman

    1997-08-01

    Cultural preferences for the sex of offspring may produce behavior, such as female infanticide, sex-selective abortion and sex-selective parental investment, which alter the sex ratio in a population. Empirical evidence suggests that some genetic sex-ratio distorters are located on the sex chromosomes. Interactions between cultural preferences and sex-linked sex-ratio distorters are examined. Criteria for the spread of cultural preferences and sex-chromosomal distorter alleles are derived analytically, and the coevolution of preferences and distorters is examined through numerical iteration. Evolutionary equilibria and trajectories of gene-culture interactions involving sex-chromosomal distorter alleles may produce severely male- or female-biased primary sex ratios and adult sex ratios in populations. Adult sex ratios, primary sex ratios, allele frequencies and the prevalence of cultural preferences in the population are sensitive to initial conditions and cultural transmission parameters. During the coevolutionary process phenoallelic association is observed in many cases and is associated with unusual dynamics. Copyright 1997 Academic Press

  19. Gene-culture coevolution and sex ratios: II. Sex-chromosomal distorters and cultural preferences for offspring sex.

    PubMed

    Kumm, J; Feldman, M W

    1997-08-01

    Cultural preferences for the sex of offspring may produce behavior, such as female infanticide, sex-selective abortion and sex-selective parental investment, which alter the sex ratio in a population. Empirical evidence suggests that some genetic sex-ratio distorters are located on the sex chromosomes. Interactions between cultural preferences and sex-linked sex-ratio distorters are examined. Criteria for the spread of cultural preferences and sex-chromosomal distorter alleles are derived analytically, and the coevolution of preferences and distorters is examined through numerical iteration. Evolutionary equilibria and trajectories of gene-culture interactions involving sex-chromosomal distorter alleles may produce severely male- or female-biased primary sex ratios and adult sex ratios in populations. Adult sex ratios, primary sex ratios, allele frequencies and the prevalence of cultural preferences in the population are sensitive to initial conditions and cultural transmission parameters. During the coevolutionary process phenoallelic association is observed in many cases and is associated with unusual dynamics.

  20. MHC class I and class II phenotype, gene, and haplotype frequencies in Greeks using molecular typing data.

    PubMed

    Papassavas, E C; Spyropoulou-Vlachou, M; Papassavas, A C; Schipper, R F; Doxiadis, I N; Stavropoulos-Giokas, C

    2000-06-01

    In the present study, DNA typing for HLA-A, C, B, DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 was performed for 246 healthy, unrelated Greek volunteers of 20-59 years of age. Phenotype, genotype frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium fit, and 3-locus haplotype frequencies for HLA-A, C, B, HLA-A, B, DRB1, HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and HLA-DRB1, DQB1, DPB1 were calculated. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium, deltas, relative deltas and p-values for significance of the deltas were defined. The population studied is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and many MHC haplotypes are in linkage disequilibrium. The most frequent specificities were HLA-A*02 (phenotype frequency = 44.3%) followed by HLA-A*24 (27.2%), HLA-B*51 (28.5%), HLA-B*18 (26.8%) and HLA-B*35 (26.4%) and HLA-Cw*04 (30.1%) and HLA-Cw*12 (26.8%). The most frequent MHC class II alleles were HLA-DRB1*1104 (34.1%), HLA-DQB1*0301 (54.5%) and HLA-DPB1*0401 with a phenotype frequency of 59.8%. The most prominent HLA-A, C, B haplotypes were HLA-A*24, Cw*04, B*35, and HLA-A*02, Cw*04, B*35, each of them observed in 21/246 individuals. The most frequent HLA-A, B, DRB1 haplotype was HLA-A*02, B*18, DRB1*1104 seen in 20/246 individuals, while the haplotype HLA-DRB1*1104, DQB1*0301, DPB1*0401 was found in 49/246 individuals. Finally, the haplotype DRB1*1104, DQA1*0501, DQB1*0301 was observed in 83/246 individuals. These results can be used for the estimation of the probability of finding a suitable haplotypically identical related or unrelated stem cell donor for patients of Greek ancestry. In addition, they can be used for HLA and disease association studies, genetic distance studies in the Balkan and Mediterranean area, paternity cases, and matching probability calculations for the optimal allocation of kidneys in Greece.

  1. Classic Pars Planitis: strong correlation of class II genes with gender and some clinical features in Mexican Mestizos.

    PubMed

    Alaez, Carmen; Arellanes, Lourdes; Vazquez, Alejandra; Flores, Hilario; Navarro, Patricia; Vazquez-García, Miriam; Gorodezky, Clara

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was the investigation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes in Mexicans with classical Pars Planitis (CPP). Seventy-nine unrelated patients and 204 healthy controls were studied. HLA-A, -B, and -C typing was done on T cells isolated with immunomagnetic beads. HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 loci were typed by polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. The significance and strength of HLA associations were assessed. Stratification analyses were performed to analyze correlations between HLA alleles and clinical manifestations or gender. The mean age of CPP patients was 10 years old. The disease was recurrent (21.3%); 58% were males and 89.6% were bilaterally affected. A 3-year follow-up demonstrated no other associated disease. DRB1*0802 was significantly increased (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8, etiologic fraction [EF] = 18.96%). In females, HLA-B51 (OR = 9.8) was associated with nonsymmetrical onset and HLA-Cw1 (OR = 4.7) with symmetrical onset; DRB1*0802 was increased in males (OR = 3.9, p =5.0 E-05, EF = 38.3%) and contributed to their symmetrical onset (OR = 4.6, p =4.6 E-06, EF = 29.4%). Corneal peripheral endotheliopathy correlated with DQB1*0602 in females (OR = 17, EF = 47.1%). A susceptibility allele of Amerindian ancestry is responsible for juvenile CPP in Mexicans; HLA-B locus contributes to severity in females and DRB1*0802 in males. CPP should be classified as an heterogeneous illness taking into account ethnicity, and clinical and genetic characteristics.

  2. Building and validating a prediction model for paediatric type 1 diabetes risk using next generation targeted sequencing of class II HLA genes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lue Ping; Carlsson, Annelie; Larsson, Helena Elding; Forsander, Gun; Ivarsson, Sten A; Kockum, Ingrid; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Marcus, Claude; Persson, Martina; Samuelsson, Ulf; Örtqvist, Eva; Pyo, Chul-Woo; Bolouri, Hamid; Zhao, Michael; Nelson, Wyatt C; Geraghty, Daniel E; Lernmark, Åke

    2017-11-01

    It is of interest to predict possible lifetime risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in young children for recruiting high-risk subjects into longitudinal studies of effective prevention strategies. Utilizing a case-control study in Sweden, we applied a recently developed next generation targeted sequencing technology to genotype class II genes and applied an object-oriented regression to build and validate a prediction model for T1D. In the training set, estimated risk scores were significantly different between patients and controls (P = 8.12 × 10 -92 ), and the area under the curve (AUC) from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was 0.917. Using the validation data set, we validated the result with AUC of 0.886. Combining both training and validation data resulted in a predictive model with AUC of 0.903. Further, we performed a "biological validation" by correlating risk scores with 6 islet autoantibodies, and found that the risk score was significantly correlated with IA-2A (Z-score = 3.628, P < 0.001). When applying this prediction model to the Swedish population, where the lifetime T1D risk ranges from 0.5% to 2%, we anticipate identifying approximately 20 000 high-risk subjects after testing all newborns, and this calculation would identify approximately 80% of all patients expected to develop T1D in their lifetime. Through both empirical and biological validation, we have established a prediction model for estimating lifetime T1D risk, using class II HLA. This prediction model should prove useful for future investigations to identify high-risk subjects for prevention research in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Phenotype-genotype profiles in Crohn's disease predicted by genetic markers in autophagy-related genes (GOIA study II).

    PubMed

    Durães, Cecília; Machado, José C; Portela, Francisco; Rodrigues, Susana; Lago, Paula; Cravo, Marília; Ministro, Paula; Marques, Margarida; Cremers, Isabelle; Freitas, João; Cotter, José; Tavares, Lurdes; Matos, Leopoldo; Medeiros, Isabel; Sousa, Rui; Ramos, Jaime; Deus, João; Caldeira, Paulo; Chagas, Cristina; Duarte, Maria A; Gonçalves, Raquel; Loureiro, Rui; Barros, Luísa; Bastos, Isabel; Cancela, Eugénia; Moraes, Mário C; Moreira, Maria J; Vieira, Ana I; Magro, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    About 70 loci are associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD), particularly in pathways of innate immunity, autophagy, and pathogen recognition. Phenotype-genotype associations are inconsistent. CD susceptibility polymorphisms ATG16L1 rs2241880, ICAM1 rs5498, IL4 rs2070874, IL17F rs763780, IRGM rs13361189, ITLN1 rs2274910, LRRK2 rs11175593, and TLR4 rs4986790 were genotyped in a Portuguese population (511 CD patients, 626 controls) and assessed for association with CD clinical characteristics. There is a significant association of CD with the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ATG16L1 (odds ratio [OR] 1.36 [1.15-1.60], P = 2.7 × 10(-6) for allele G), IRGM (OR 1.56 [1.21-1.93], P = 3.9 × 10(-4) for allele C), and ITLN1 (OR 1.55 [1.28-1.88], P = 4.9 × 10(-4) for allele C). These SNPs are associated with ileal location (OR, respectively, 1.49, 1.52, and 1.70), ileocolonic location (OR, respectively, 1.31, 1.57, and 1.68), and involvement of the upper digestive tract (OR, respectively for ATG16L1 and IRGM, 1.96 and 1.95). The risk genotype GG in ATG16L1 is associated with patients who respond to steroids (OR 1.89), respond to immunosuppressants (OR 1.77), and to biologic therapy (OR 1.89). The SNPs in ITLN1 and IRGM are both associated with a positive response to biologic therapy. The risk for ileal, ileocolonic, and upper digestive tract locations increases with the number of risk alleles (OR for three alleles, respectively, 7.10, 3.54, and 12.07); the OR for positive response to biologic therapy is 3.66. A multilocus approach using autophagy-related genes provides insight into CD phenotype-genotype associations and genetic markers for predicting therapeutic responses.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Phase II Drug Metabolizing/Antioxidant Enzymes Gene Response by Anti-cancer Agent Sulforaphane in Rat Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hu; Khor, Tin Oo; Yang, Qian; Huang, Ying; Wu, Tien-yuan; Saw, Constance Lay-Lay; Lin, Wen; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE This study assesses the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of Nrf2-mediated increased expression of Phase II drug metabolizing enzyme (DME) and antioxidant enzymes which represents an important component of cancer chemoprevention in rat lymphocytes following intravenous (i.v.) administration of an anti-cancer phytochemical sulforaphane (SFN) METHODS SFN was administered intravenously to four groups of male Sprague-Dawley JVC rats each group comprising four animals. Blood samples were drawn at selected time points. Plasma were obtained from half of the blood samples and analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Lymphocytes were collected from the remaining blood samples using Ficoll-Paque™ Plus centrifuge medium. Lymphocyte RNAs were extracted, converted to cDNA, and quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed and fold changes were calculated against those at time zero for the relative expression of Nrf2-target genes of phase II DME/antioxidant enzymes. PK-PD modeling was conducted based on Jusko’s indirect response model (IDR) using GastroPlus™ and Bootstrap Method. RESULTS SFN plasma concentration declined biexponentially and the pharmacokinetic parameters were generated. Rat lymphocyte mRNA expression levels showed no change for GSTM1, SOD, NF-κB, UGT1A1, or UGT1A6. Moderate increases (2-5 folds) over the time zero were seen for HO-1, Nrf2, and NQO1, and significant increase (> 5 folds) for GSTT1, GPx1, and Maf. PK-PD analyses using GastroPlus™ and Bootstrap method provided reasonable fitting for the PK and PD profiles and parameter estimates. CONCLUSION Our present study shows that SFN could induce Nrf2-mediated phase II DME/antioxidant mRNA expression for NQO1, GSTT1, Nrf2, GPx, Maf, and HO-1 in rat lymphocytes after i.v. administration, suggesting that Nrf2-mediated mRNA expression in lymphocytes may serve as surrogate biomarkers. The PK-PD IDR model simultaneously linking the plasma concentrations of SFN and the PD

  5. Limited polymorphism of the functional MHC class II B gene in the black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) identified by locus-specific genotyping.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Yi; Xue, Fei; Gong, Jie; Wan, Qiu-Hong; Fang, Sheng-Guo

    2017-12-01

    Amphibians can be more vulnerable to environmental changes and diseases than other species because of their complex life cycle and physiological requirements. Therefore, understanding the adaptation of amphibians to environmental changes is crucial for their conservation. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presents an excellent tool for the investigation of adaptive variations and the assessment of adaptive potential because it can be under strong diversifying selection. Here, we isolated the MHC class II B (MHCIIB) gene from cDNA sequences of the black-spotted frog ( Pelophylax nigromaculatus ), a widespread amphibian species in China, and designed locus-specific primers to characterize adaptive variability of this amphibian. Ten alleles were identified from 67 individual frogs of three populations and no more than two alleles were present in each individual animal. Furthermore, none of the sequences had indels or/and stop codons, which is in good agreement with locus-specific amplification of a functional gene. However, we found low polymorphism at both nucleotide and amino acid levels, even in the antigen-binding region. Purifying selection acting at this locus was supported by the findings that the d N / d S ratio across all alleles was below 1 and that negatively selected sites were detected by different methods. Allele frequency distributions were significantly different among geographic populations, indicating that physiographic factors may have strong effect on the genetic structure of the black-spotted frog. This study revealed limited polymorphism of three adjacent black-spotted frog populations at the functional MHCIIB locus, which may be attributed to region-specific differences. The locus-specific genotyping technique developed in this study would provide a foundation for future studies on adaptive divergence among different frog populations.

  6. The effect of copy number variation (CNV) in the phase II detoxification genes, UGT2B17 and UGT2B28, on colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Angstadt, Andrea Y.; Berg, Arthur; Zhu, Junjia; Miller, Paige; Hartman, Terryl J.; Lesko, Samuel M.; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lazarus, Philip; Gallagher, Carla J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic polymorphisms in combination with the Western-style diet, physical inactivity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and obesity have been hypothesized to affect colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Metabolizers of environmental carcinogenic and endogenous compounds affecting CRC risk include phase II detoxification enzymes, UGT2B17 and UGT2B28, which are two of the most commonly deleted genes in the genome. Methods To study the effect of UGT2B17 and UGT2B28 copy number variation (CNV) on CRC risk we genotyped 665 Caucasian CRC cases and 621 Caucasian controls that had completed extensive demographics and lifestyle questionnaires. Results A significant association between the UGT2B17 deletion genotype (0/0) and decreased CRC risk was found when analyzing the entire population (p = 0.044). Stratification by sex yielded a decreased risk (p = 0.020) in men with the UGT2B17 (0/0), but no association was observed in women (p = 0.724). A significant association between UGT2B17 (0/0) and decreased risk for rectal (p = 0.0065) but not colon cancer was found. No significant association was found between UGT2B28 CNV and CRC risk. Conclusions The UGT2B17 deletion genotype (0/0) was associated with a decreased CRC risk in a Caucasian population. After sex stratification, the association was observed in men not women, which is consistent with previous findings that men have higher UGT2B17 expression and activity than women. As UGT2B17 metabolizes certain NSAIDs and flavonoids with antioxidative properties, individuals with a gene deletion may have higher levels of these protective dietary components. PMID:23575887

  7. Tobacco streak virus (strain dahlia) suppresses post-transcriptional gene silencing of flavone synthase II in black dahlia cultivars and causes a drastic flower color change.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Ayumi; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Doi, Motoaki; Ohno, Sho

    2015-09-01

    Tobacco streak virus suppressed post-transcriptional gene silencing and caused a flower color change in black dahlias, which supported the role of cyanidin-based anthocyanins for black flower appearance. Black flower color of dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) has been attributed, in part, to the high accumulation of cyanidin-based anthocyanins that occurs when flavone synthesis is reduced because of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of flavone synthase II (DvFNS). There are also purple-flowering plants that have emerged from a black cultivar 'Kokucho'. We report that the purple color is not caused by a mutation, as previously thought, but by infection with tobacco streak virus (TSVdahlia), which suppresses the PTGS of DvFNS. When TSVdahlia was eliminated from the purple-flowering 'Kokucho' by leaf primordia-free shoot apical meristem culture, the resulting flowers were black. TSVdahlia-infected purple flowers had lower numbers of siRNAs to DvFNS than black flowers, suggesting that TSVdahlia has a silencing suppressor. The graft inoculation of other black cultivars with TSVdahlia altered their flower color drastically except for 'Fidalgo Blacky', a very deep black cultivar with the highest amount of cyanidin-based anthocyanins. The flowers of all six TSVdahlia-infected cultivars accumulated increased amounts of flavones and reduced amounts of cyanidin-based anthocyanins. 'Fidalgo Blacky' remained black despite the change in pigment accumulation, and the amounts of cyanidin-based anthocyanins in its TSVdahlia-infected plants were still higher than those of other cultivars. We propose that black flower color in dahlia is controlled by two different mechanisms that increase the amount of cyanidin-based anthocyanins: DvFNS PTGS-dependent and -independent mechanisms. If both mechanisms occur simultaneously, the flower color will be blacker than if only a single mechanism is active.

  8. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the human class II alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH4) gene affect both transcriptional activity and ethanol metabolism in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yukiko; Nishimura, Fusae T; Abe, Shuntaro; Fukunaga, Tatsushige; Tanii, Hideji; Saijoh, Kiyofumi

    2009-02-01

    Class II alcohol dehydrogenase (pi-ADH), encoded by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH4), is considered to contribute to ethanol (EtOH) oxidation in the liver at high concentration. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the promoter region of this gene. Analysis of genotype distribution in 102 unrelated Japanese subjects revealed that four loci were in strong linkage disequilibrium and could be classified into three haplotypes. The effects of these polymorphisms on transcriptional activity were investigated in HepG2 cells. Transcriptional activity was significantly higher in cells with the -136A allele than in those with the -136C allele. To investigate whether this difference in transcriptional activity caused a difference in EtOH elimination, previous data on blood EtOH changes after 0.4 g/kg body weight alcohol ingestion were analyzed. When analyzed based on aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 gene (ALDH2) (487)Glu/Lys genotype, the significantly lower level of EtOH at peak in subjects with -136C/A and -136A/A genotype compared with subjects with -136C/C genotype indicated that -136 bp was a suggestive locus for differences in EtOH oxidation. This effect was observed only in subjects with ALDH2 (487)Glu/Glu. These results suggested that the SNP at -136bp in the ADH4 promoter had an effect on transcriptional regulation, and that the higher activity of the -136A allele compared with the -136C allele caused a lower level of blood EtOH after alcohol ingestion; that is, individuals with the -136A allele may consume more EtOH and might have a higher risk for development of alcohol dependence than those without the -136A allele.

  9. [Involvement of the receptor component protein in the regulation of vascular peroxidase-1 expression induced by calcitonin gene-related peptide and angiotensin II in vascular smooth muscle cell].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Mei; Peng, Hong-Yan; Guo, Feng; Quan, Hai-Yan; Luo, Jing-Fei; Qin, Xu-Ping

    2015-04-25

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) play important roles in vascular injury and protection. In order to determine the role of CGRP receptor component protein (RCP) in signal transduction whereby CGRP and Ang II mediate the expression of vascular peroxidase-1 (VPO1) in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), mouse derived A10 vascular smooth muscle cell line (A10VSMC) was cultured with CGRP or/and Ang II in vitro. RCP-specific small interference RNA (siRNA-RCP) was used to silence oligonucleotide sequence. Western blot and RT-PCR were used to determine the protein and mRNA expressions of RCP and VPO1, respectively. The results showed that the expressions of RCP and VPO1 were increased in the presence of CGRP or Ang II in the quiescent A10VSMC. But the protein expressions of RCP and VPO1 induced by Ang II were decreased by pretreatment of CGRP (P < 0.05). The expressions of VPO1 were decreased in all the groups treated with siRNA-RCP, compared with those of wide-type counterparts. Meanwhile, the expression of VPO1 was significantly induced by CGRP but not Ang II in the siRNA-RCP treated A10VSMCs. Ang II in combination with CGRP increased the protein expression of VPO1 in the siRNA-RCP-transfected cells, compared with Ang II alone, and this effect could be abolished by catalase. The results suggest that RCP may play an important role in the integration of signal transduction whereby CGRP and Ang II receptors jointly regulate VPO1 expression in VSMC.

  10. X-ray crystallographic and biochemical characterizations of a mutant photosystem II complex from Thermosynechococcus vulcanus with the psbTc gene inactivated by an insertion mutation.

    PubMed

    Henmi, Takahiro; Iwai, Masako; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Kawakami, Keisuke; Shen, Jian Ren; Kamiya, Nobuo

    2008-05-01

    The crystal structure of a photosystem II (PSII) dimer from Thermosynechococcus vulcanus with its psbTc gene inactivated by insertion mutation of an antibiotic cassette in a site in the C-terminal region was analyzed at 3.8 A resolution. In the crystal structure of the mutant PSII, the transmembrane helix of PsbTc remains, whereas the C-terminal loop of PsbTc has disappeared. In addition, the PsbM subunit, which seemed to be lost in a PsbTc-deletion mutant PSII of T. elongatus, is still present. The deletion of the C-terminal loop of PsbTc in the mutant PSII was verified by mass spectrometry. Thus, the insertion mutation of psbTc eliminated only the C-terminal loop of this subunit. Nevertheless, some features of the mutant PSII, namely a destabilization of the dimeric form and a slight decrease of the oxygen-evolving activity, were observed in the mutant, indicating that the C-terminal loop of PsbTc functions to maintain the stability of the PSII dimer and the activity of oxygen evolution.

  11. Low genetic variation in the MHC class II DRB gene and MHC-linked microsatellites in endangered island populations of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saka, Toshinori; Nishita, Yoshinori; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2018-02-01

    Isolated populations of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) on Tsushima and Iriomote islands in Japan are classified as subspecies P. b. euptilurus and P. b. iriomotensis, respectively. Because both populations have decreased to roughly 100, an understanding of their genetic diversity is essential for conservation. We genotyped MHC class II DRB exon 2 and MHC-linked microsatellite loci to evaluate the diversity of MHC genes in the Tsushima and Iriomote cat populations. We detected ten and four DRB alleles in these populations, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis showed DRB alleles from both populations to be closely related to those in other felid DRB lineages, indicating trans-species polymorphism. The MHC-linked microsatellites were more polymorphic in the Tsushima than in the Iriomote population. The MHC diversity of both leopard cat populations is much lower than in the domestic cat populations on these islands, probably due to inbreeding associated with founder effects, geographical isolation, or genetic drift. Our results predict low resistance of the two endangered populations to new pathogens introduced to the islands.

  12. RNA polymerase II components and Rrn7 form a preinitiation complex on the HomolD box to promote ribosomal protein gene expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Montes, Matías; Moreira-Ramos, Sandra; Rojas, Diego A; Urbina, Fabiola; Käufer, Norbert F; Maldonado, Edio

    2017-02-01

    In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, ribosomal protein gene (RPG) promoters contain a TATA box analog, the HomolD box, which is bound by the Rrn7 protein. Despite the importance of ribosome biogenesis for cell survival, the mechanisms underlying RPG transcription remain unknown. In this study, we found that components of the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) system, consisting of the initiation or general transcription factors (GTFs) TFIIA, IIB, IIE, TATA-binding protein (TBP) and the RNAPII holoenzyme, interacted directly with Rrn7 in vitro, and were able to form a preinitiation complex (PIC) on the HomolD box. PIC complex formation follows an ordered pathway on these promoters. The GTFs and RNAPII can also be cross-linked to HomolD-containing promoters in vivo. In an in vitro reconstituted transcription system, RNAPII components and Rrn7 were necessary for HomolD-directed transcription. The Mediator complex was required for basal transcription from those promoters in whole cell extract (WCE). The Med17 subunit of Mediator also can be cross-linked to the promoter region of HomolD-containing promoters in vivo, suggesting the presence of the Mediator complex on HomolD box-containing promoters. Together, these data show that components of the RNAPII machinery and Rrn7 participate in the PIC assembly on the HomolD box, thereby directing RPG transcription. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  13. Mapping of the human dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein gene (DMP1) to the dentinogenesis imperfecta type II critical region at chromosome 4q21

    SciTech Connect

    Aplin, H.M.; Hirst, K.L.; Crosby, A.H.

    1995-11-20

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI1) is an autosomal dominant disorder of dentin formation, which has been mapped to human chromosome 4q12-q21. The region most likely to contain the DGI1 locus is a 3.2-cM region surrounding the osteopontin (SPP1) locus. Recently, a novel dentin-specific acidic phosphoprotein (dmp1) has been cloned in the rat and mapped to mouse chromosome 5q21. In the current investigation, we have isolated a cosmid containing the human DMP1 gene. The isolation of a short tandem repeat polymorphism at this locus has allowed us to map the DMP1 locus to human chromosome 4q21 and demonstrate that it ismore » tightly linked to DGI1 in two families (Z{sub max} = 11.01, {theta} = 0.001). The creation of a yeast artificial chromosome contig around SPP1 has further allowed us to demonstrate that DMP1 is located within 150 kb of the bone sialoprotein and 490 kb of the SPP1 loci, respectively. DMP1 is therefore a strong candidate for the DGI1 locus. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  14. Clock genes and salt-sensitive hypertension: a new type of aldosterone-synthesizing enzyme controlled by the circadian clock and angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Hitoshi; Doi, Masao; Goto, Kaoru; Kojima, Rika

    2016-10-01

    With the current societal norm of shiftwork and long working hours, maintaining a stable daily life is becoming very difficult. An irregular lifestyle disrupts circadian rhythms, resulting in the malfunction of body physiology and ultimately leading to lifestyle-related diseases, including hypertension. By analyzing completely arrhythmic Cry1/Cry2 double-knockout (Cry-null) mice, we found salt-sensitive hypertension accompanied by hyperaldosteronism. On the basis of a DNA microarray analysis of the adrenal gland and subsequent biochemical analyses, we discovered that Hsd3b6/HSD3B1, a subtype of 3β-HSD, is markedly overexpressed in aldosterone-producing cells in the Cry-null adrenal cortex. In addition, we found that Hsd3b6/HSD3B1, which converts pregnenolone to progesterone, is a clock-controlled gene and might also be a key enzyme for the regulation of aldosterone biosynthesis, in addition to the previously established CYP11B2, which synthesizes aldosterone from deoxycorticosterone. Importantly, angiotensin II induces HSD3B1 via the transcription factor NGFIB in human adrenocortical H295R cells, similarly to CYP11B2. As HSD3B1 levels are abnormally high in the adrenal aldosterone-producing cells of idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA), the temporal component of this system in the pathophysiology of IHA is a promising area for future research.

  15. A new mutation of the PCNT gene in a Colombian patient with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pachajoa, Harry; Ruiz-Botero, Felipe; Isaza, Carolina

    2014-06-13

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism is a syndrome characterized by the presence of intrauterine growth restriction, post-natal growth deficiency and microcephaly. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II is the most distinctive syndrome in this group of entities. Individuals affected by this disease present at an adult height of less than 100 cm, a post-pubertal head circumference of 40 cm or less, mild mental retardation, an outgoing personality and bone dysplasia. We report the first case of a five-year-old Colombian boy of mixed race ancestry (mestizo), with clinical features of microcephaly, prominent and narrow nose, arched palate, amelogenesis imperfecta, short stature, tall and narrow pelvis, disproportionate shortening of fore-arms and legs, and mild coxa vara. Analysis of the PCNT gene by sequencing showed the presence of a nucleotide change in exon 10, c. 1468C>T, evidencing a new mutation not reported in the literature for microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism. The new mutation identified in this case could be associated with the severity of the phenotypic expression of the disease, resulting in the extreme short stature of the patient. Further studies are required to reach an explanation that can justify such findings, and it is vital to emphasize the importance of detection and follow-up by the epidemiological surveillance groups in birth defects and rare diseases.

  16. Combined deletion of two Condensin II system genes (NCAPG2 and MCPH1) in a case of severe microcephaly and mental deficiency.

    PubMed

    Perche, Olivier; Menuet, Arnaud; Marcos, Mélanie; Liu, Luyan; Pâris, Arnaud; Utami, Kagistia H; Kervran, Dominique; Cacheux, Valere; Laudier, Béatrice; Briault, Sylvain

    2013-11-01

    7qter deletion syndrome includes prenatal and/or postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, psychomotor delay or mental retardation and a characteristic dysmorphism. If clinical features are well described, the molecular mechanisms underlying the 7qter deletion syndrome remain unknown. Those deletions usually arise de novo. Here, we describe a young boy with an abnormal phenotype consistent with a 7qter deletion syndrome. High resolution genomic analysis (Affymetrix Human Genome Wide SNP 6.0) revealed a 7q36.3 deletion encompassing NCAPG2, ESYT2, WDR60 and VIPR2, inherited from his asymptomatic father and paternal grandfather. In addition, the patient also harbored a MCPH1 deletion inherited from his healthy mother. Combined NCAPG2 and MCPH1 deletions were correlated with low mRNA levels and protein expression in the patient. MCPH1 and NCAPG2 proteins interaction is known to control chromosome structure and we thus propose that double heterozygosity for null mutations of those two genes of the Condensin II system contribute to mental deficiency with severe microcephaly phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Topoisomerase II α Status in Breast Cancer by Quantitative PCR, Gene Expression Microarrays, Immunohistochemistry, and Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Atocha; Martín, Miguel; Cheang, Maggie C.U.; López García-Asenjo, José Antonio; Oliva, Belén; He, Xiaping; de la Hoya, Miguel; García Sáenz, Jose Ángel; Arroyo Fernández, Manuel; Díaz Rubio, Eduardo; Perou, Charles M.; Llopis, Trinidad Caldés

    2011-01-01

    Anthracyclines are frequently used for the treatment of breast cancer and topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) is considered to be the molecular target. Numerous studies have evaluated the predictive value of TOP2A using different methodological approaches and inconsistent results have been reported. Indeed, the correlation between techniques for the assessment of TOP2A status has not been well evaluated. In this study, we determined TOP2A status in 61 breast tumor samples by real-time PCR, DNA microarrays, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and then evaluated these results with clinical-pathological features and breast cancer intrinsic subtypes. First, we observed a statistical significant correlation of TOP2A gene expression between real-time PCR and microarrays (Pearson coefficient, 0.816; P < 0.001), and both predicted TOP2A IHC results fairly well (area under the curve > 0.74). In contrast, poor agreement between FISH and IHC data was observed (k: 0.134). Secondly, TOP2A expression was found significantly associated with cell proliferation, and with the highly proliferative Luminal B, Her2-enriched and Basal-like intrinsic subtypes. In conclusion, TOP2A expression in breast cancer was associated with high proliferation and aggressive tumor subtypes and appears to be independent of its amplification status. All of these features should be taken into consideration when assessing the predictive value of TOP2A for anthracycline-based chemotherapy. PMID:21435434

  18. Stage-specific IFN-induced and IFN gene expression reveal convergence of type I and type II IFN and highlight their role in both acute and chronic stage of pathogenic SIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Echebli, Nadia; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Dupuy, Stéphanie; Bruel, Timothée; Peireira Bittencourt Passaes, Caroline; Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger; Bourgeois, Christine; Favier, Benoit; Cheynier, Rémi; Lambotte, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) play a major role in controlling viral infections including HIV/SIV infections. Persistent up-regulation of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) is associated with chronic immune activation and progression in SIV/HIV infections, but the respective contribution of different IFNs is unclear. We analyzed the expression of IFN genes and ISGs in tissues of SIV infected macaques to understand the respective roles of type I and type II IFNs. Both IFN types were induced in lymph nodes during early stage of primary infection and to some extent in rectal biopsies but not in PBMCs. Induction of Type II IFN expression persisted during the chronic phase, in contrast to undetectable induction of type I IFN expression. Global gene expression analysis with a major focus on ISGs revealed that at both acute and chronic infection phases most differentially expressed ISGs were inducible by both type I and type II IFNs and displayed the highest increases, indicating strong convergence and synergy between type I and type II IFNs. The analysis of functional signatures of ISG expression revealed temporal changes in IFN expression patterns identifying phase-specific ISGs. These results suggest that IFN-γ strongly contribute to shape ISG upregulation in addition to type I IFN. PMID:29324751

  19. Characterization of a type II chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene (Lhcb2*Pp1) in peach. II. mRNA abundance in developing leaves exposed to sun or shade.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Carole L; Callahan, Ann M

    2003-05-01

    Leaf development of shoots exposed to full sunlight and shoots shaded by the canopy was followed in field-grown, mature peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, cv. Loring) during the first half of the 1995 growing season. The architecture and size of shaded shoots and sun-exposed shoots differed significantly. Total number of leaves produced on shaded shoots was significantly less than on sun-exposed shoots throughout the season, and differences in leaf number between light conditions increased as the season progressed. The overall patterns of leaf development along sun-exposed and shaded shoots were qualitatively similar. The expression pattern of the type II chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene, Lhcb2*Pp1, determined by RNA abundance in leaves at different positions along the shoot, was also similar between the two light conditions. The major difference between sun-exposed and shaded leaves was a lower abundance of Lhcb2*Pp1 RNA in mature, shaded leaves compared with sun-exposed leaves. Although the number of fruit per shoot was significantly lower on shaded shoots than on sun-exposed shoots, the rate of fruit drop was not substantially different during the growing season, indicating that quantitative differences in leaf initiation and growth caused by differences in light exposure did not adversely affect fruit retention. However, based on comparison with a previous study of leaf development in non-fruiting trees, reproductive development slowed the rate of vegetative growth without affecting the overall pattern of leaf development along the shoots.

  20. Relationship Between Tumor Gene Expression and Recurrence in Four Independent Studies of Patients With Stage II/III Colon Cancer Treated With Surgery Alone or Surgery Plus Adjuvant Fluorouracil Plus Leucovorin

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Michael J.; Lavery, Ian; Yothers, Greg; Paik, Soonmyung; Clark-Langone, Kim M.; Lopatin, Margarita; Watson, Drew; Baehner, Frederick L.; Shak, Steven; Baker, Joffre; Cowens, J. Wayne; Wolmark, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose These studies were conducted to determine the relationship between quantitative tumor gene expression and risk of cancer recurrence in patients with stage II or III colon cancer treated with surgery alone or surgery plus fluorouracil (FU) and leucovorin (LV) to develop multigene algorithms to quantify the risk of recurrence as well as the likelihood of differential treatment benefit of FU/LV adjuvant chemotherapy for individual patients. Patients and Methods We performed quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) on RNA extracted from fixed, paraffin-embedded (FPE) tumor blocks from patients with stage II or III colon cancer who were treated with surgery alone (n = 270 from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project [NSABP] C-01/C-02 and n = 765 from Cleveland Clinic [CC]) or surgery plus FU/LV (n = 308 from NSABP C-04 and n = 508 from NSABP C-06). Overall, 761 candidate genes were studied in C-01/C-02 and C-04, and a subset of 375 genes was studied in CC/C-06. Results A combined analysis of the four studies identified 48 genes significantly associated with risk of recurrence and 66 genes significantly associated with FU/LV benefit (with four genes in common). Seven recurrence-risk genes, six FU/LV-benefit genes, and five reference genes were selected, and algorithms were developed to identify groups of patients with low, intermediate, and high likelihood of recurrence and benefit from FU/LV. Conclusion RT-qPCR of FPE colon cancer tissue applied to four large independent populations has been used to develop multigene algorithms for estimating recurrence risk and benefit from FU/LV. These algorithms are being independently validated, and their clinical utility is being evaluated in the Quick and Simple and Reliable (QUASAR) study. PMID:20679606

  1. Contribution of deletion in angiotensin-converting enzyme but not A1166C angiotensin II type-1 receptor gene polymorphisms to clinical outcomes in atherothrombotic disease.

    PubMed

    Le Hello, Claire; Fradin, Sabine; Morello, Rémy; Coffin, Olivier; Maïza, Dominique; Hamon, Martial

    2011-04-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (rs4340) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C (rs5186) gene polymorphisms may be involved in coronary heart disease (CHD). This study was designed to evaluate potential relationships between these polymorphisms and the risk of long-term all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients requiring revascularization for atherothrombotic disease (ATD) lesions. This prospective observational study concerned patients referred for supra-aortic vessel disease (SVD), CHD, peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) or visceral artery disease (VAD). Collected data included ATD referral site, ATD symptoms, personal and familial medical histories, ATD extent, vascular risk factors, biological values, medication use and rs4340 and rs5186 polymorphisms. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. The secondary end point, MACE, included cardiovascular death, clinical ischemic event related to SVD, CHD, PAOD or VAD. The cohort comprised 956 patients of whom 872 (91.2%) were genotyped and followed for 21.1 ± 9.9 months. Patients were referred for SVD (25.9%), CHD (42.3%), PAOD (35.2%) or VAD (1.6%). All-cause mortality and MACE rates were 7.6 and 27.2%, respectively. When comparing I/D + D/D vs. I/I genotypes, rs4340 polymorphism was associated with higher all-cause mortality rates according to uni- and multivariate analyses (p=0.008 and 0.011, respectively). Other differences were not significant (rs4340 polymorphism and MACE, rs5186 polymorphism and all-cause mortality and MACE). No interaction was found between the polymorphisms. Other independent predictors of all-cause mortality included PAOD history, SVD history, body mass index <25 kg/m(2), HbA(1c) ≥6.5%, absence of dyslipidemia and no use of aspirin. rs4340 polymorphism is associated with long-term all-cause mortality in advanced ATD patients requiring revascularization, whereas rs5186 polymorphism does not. Copyright © 2011 IMSS

  2. [Association of transcobalamine II gene polymorphisms and serum homocysteine, vitamin B12and folate levels with ulcerative colitis among Chinese patients].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuzi; Wu, Hao; Ye, Fangpeng; Xia, Xuanping; Xia, Shenglong; Lin, Xiuqing; Wu, Xiaoli; Jiang, Lijia; Ding, Ran; Jiang, Yi

    2017-10-10

    To assess the association of transcobalamine II (TCN2) gene polymorphisms and serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B 12 and folate with ulcerative colitis (UC) among Chinese patients. For 397 UC patients and 574 controls, two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the TCN2 gene (rs1801198, rs9606756) were tested with an improved multiple ligase detection reaction method. Serum Hcy, vitamin B 12 and folate were measured with an enzymatic cycling assay and an chemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively. The allelic and genotypic frequencies of rs1801198 and rs9606756 did not differ significantly between the two groups (all P> 0.05). Compared with those of the control group, the frequencies of G allele and CG+GG genotype of rs1801198 were greater in patients with moderate and severe UC (both P< 0.05). The same conclusion may also be drawn for the G allele and AG genotype of rs9606756 (both P< 0.05). Compared with the controls, average Hcy level was enhanced in UC patients (P< 0.01), whereas average vitamin B 12 and folate levels were decreased in UC patients (both P< 0.01). In both groups, the average level of Hcy was lower in individuals carrying CC of (rs1801198) than in those with CG+GG (both P< 0.05). A similar conclusion was also drawn for individuals with AA of rs9606756 when compared with those carrying AG(both P< 0.05). Compared with patients with mild UC, average Hcy level was increased in those with moderate and severe UC (P< 0.01), while average vitamin B 12 and folate levels were decreased in those with moderate and severe UC (both P< 0.01). The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia(HHcy), vitamin B 12 deficiency and folate deficiency was greater in UC patients than in controls (all P< 0.01). In UC patients, the level of Hcy was negatively correlated with those of vitamin B 12 (P< 0.01), albumin(P< 0.01), red blood cells(P< 0.01) and platelet (P< 0.05), but positively correlated with white blood cells(P< 0.01) and Mayo score (P< 0.01). Both HHcy and folate

  3. Do Biochemical Markers and Apa I Polymorphism in IGF-II Gene Play a Role in the Association of Birth Weight and Later BMI?

    PubMed

    Wu, Junqing; Ren, Jingchao; Li, Yuyan; Wu, Yinjie; Gao, Ersheng

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the mechanisms underlying the association of birth weight with later body mass index (BMI) from the biochemical markers related to metabolism and the Apa I polymorphism in IGF-II gene. A total of 300 children were selected randomly from the Macrosomia Birth Cohort in Wuxi, China. The height and weight were measured and blood samples were collected. Plasma concentrations of 8 biochemical markers were detected. Apa I polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Biochemical markers were detected for 296 subjects and 271 subjects were genotyped for the Apa I polymorphism. No association was found between birth weight and 8 biochemical markers. In boys, the BMIs of AA, AG and GG genotypes were 16.10 ± 2.24 kg/m(2), 17.40 ± 3.20 kg/m(2), 17.65 ± 2.66 kg/m(2). And there was statistical difference among the three genotypes. But in girls, there was no statistical difference. The birth weights of AA, AG and GG genotypes were 3751.13 ± 492.43 g, 3734.00 ± 456.88 g, 3782.00 ± 461.78 g. And there was no statistical difference among the three genotypes. Biochemical markers are not associated with birth weight. Apa I polymorphism may be related to childhood BMI, but it may be not associated with birth weight. Therefore, biochemical markers and Apa I polymorphism might not play a role in the association of birth weight and BMI.

  4. Development of transgenic CryIA(c) + GNA cotton plants via pollen tube pathway method confers resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Aphis gossypii Glover.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Zhu, Zhen; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Elite cotton cultivar Sumian16 was transformed with p7RPSBK-mGNA-NPTII containing Bt (CryIA(c)), Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) resistance genes and selectable marker NptII gene via the pollen tube pathway method and two fertile transgenic Bt + GNA plants were obtained in the present study. The integration and expression of the Bt and GNA genes were confirmed by molecular biology techniques and insect bioassays. Insect bioassays showed that the transformed plants were highly toxic to bollworm larvae as well as obviously retarding development of aphid populations. PCR analyses and identification of resistance to Kanamycin and bollworm showed that the resistance to bollworm for the two transgenic plants was dominantly inherited in a Mendelian manner and the two resistance genes and selectable marker co-segregated from primary transformed parents to the first self-fertilized progeny plants.

  5. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibition and angiotensin II converting inhibition in mice with cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Muchir, Antoine, E-mail: a.muchir@institut-myologie.org; Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY; Wu, Wei

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Both ACE and MEK1/2 inhibition are beneficial on cardiac function in Lmna cardiomyopathy. • MEK1/2 inhibitor has beneficial effects beyond ACE inhibition for Lmna cardiomyopathy. • These results provide further preclinical rationale for a clinical trial of a MEK1/2 inhibitor. - Abstract: Background: Mutations in the LMNA gene encoding A-type nuclear lamins can cause dilated cardiomyopathy with or without skeletal muscular dystrophy. Previous studies have shown abnormally increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity in hearts of Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice, a small animal model. Inhibition of this abnormal signaling activity with a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitormore » has beneficial effects on heart function and survival in these mice. However, such treatment has not been examined relative to any standard of care intervention for dilated cardiomyopathy or heart failure. We therefore examined the effects of an angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor on left ventricular function in Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice and assessed if adding a MEK1/2 inhibitor would provide added benefit. Methods: Male Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice were treated with the ACE inhibitor benazepril, the MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib or both. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure left ventricular diameters and fractional shortening was calculated. Results: Treatment of Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice with either benazepril or selumetinib started at 8 weeks of age, before the onset of detectable left ventricular dysfunction, lead to statistically significantly increased fractional shortening compared to placebo at 16 weeks of age. There was a trend towards a great value for fractional shortening in the selumetinib-treated mice. When treatment was started at 16 weeks of age, after the onset of left ventricular dysfunction, the addition of selumetinib treatment to benazepril lead to a statistically significant increase in

  6. Association of ulcerative colitis with transcobalamin II gene polymorphisms and serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate levels in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuzi; Yang, Wei; Wu, Chaoqun; Sun, Liang; Lin, Daopo; Lin, Xiuqing; Jiang, Lijia; Ding, Ran; Jiang, Yi

    2017-07-01

    It has been reported that abnormal elevation of homocysteine is quite prevalent in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. We attempted to explore the relationship of UC with transcobalamin II (TCN2) gene polymorphisms and serum homocysteine, vitamin B 12 , and folate levels in Chinese patients. TCN2 (rs1801198, rs9606756) genotypes were detected by the improved multiple ligase detection reaction (iMLDR) technique in 527 UC patients and 574 controls. Moreover, 128 UC patients and 138 controls were randomly selected for the measurement of homocysteine, vitamin B 12 , and folate levels by enzymatic cycling assay or chemiluminescence immunoassay. For TCN2 (rs1801198), the frequency of allele G and combined frequencies of CG and GG genotypes were increased in patients with mild, moderate, and severe UC compared with those with remission UC (all P < 0.001). The average homocysteine level was elevated (10.78 ± 3.33 vs 9.91 ± 2.88 μmol/L, P = 0.024), whereas the average vitamin B 12 and folate levels were reduced (408.66 ± 185.00 vs 457.42 ± 206.47 pg/mL, P = 0.044; 6.81 ± 3.06 vs 8.17 ± 2.58 ng/mL, P < 0.001, respectively) in UC patients than in controls. Compared with controls, the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy >15.0 μmol/L), vitamin B 12 deficiency (<203.0 pg/mL), and folate deficiency (<4.0 ng/mL) was higher in UC patients (all P < 0.05). Both HHcy and folate deficiency were shown to be independent risk factors for UC (95% CI = 1.206-12.293, P = 0.023; 95% CI = 1.910-11.129, P = 0.001, respectively). TCN2 (rs1801198, rs9606756) mutations might aggravate the severity of UC. HHcy and folate deficiency are independent risk factors for UC.

  7. Association of angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene A1166C polymorphism with the presence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome in patients with documented coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Assali, Akram; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Hassani, Mitra; Kasaian, Jamal; Tatari, Farnoosh; Moohebati, Mohsen; Paydar, Roghayeh; Oladi, Mohammadreza; Esmaeili, Habib A; Tavallaie, Shima; Tehrani, Shahireh Omidvar; Ferns, Gordon A A; Behravan, Javad

    2011-06-01

    There are relatively limited data available on the genetic susceptibility to diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome in the Iranian population. We have therefore investigated the association between the angiotensin II type I receptor gene polymorphism (AT(1)R/A1166C) and the presence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome in a well defined group of patients. Patients with angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD) (n=309) were evaluated for the presence of AT(1)R/A1166C polymorphism. These patients were classified into subgroups with (n=164, M/F: 109/55) and without (n=145, M/F: 84/61) diabetes mellitus. The AT(1)R polymorphism was assessed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based method. There was a higher frequency of polymorphic genotypes (AC+CC) in the diabetic compared with the non-diabetic group (p=0.01). When determined for each gender separately, this difference remained significant in the males (p=0.04) but not in females (p=0.09). With regard to the allele frequencies, the C allele was significantly higher and the A allele frequency was lower in the diabetic group (p=0.01). This remained significant after gender segregation for males (p=0.01) but not females. In the binary logistic regression analysis, only serum fasting glucose was found as the independent predictor for the presence of diabetes in the CAD patients (β=1.16, p<0.001 for total population and β=1.29, p<0.001 for male subjects). There was no significant difference in genotype or allele frequencies between subgroups with and without metabolic syndrome, this being unaffected by gender or the definition of metabolic syndrome used apart from a significantly lower frequency of C allele in male subjects with metabolic syndrome defined by the NCEP ATP III criteria (p=0.04). The AT(1)R/A1166C polymorphism may be associated with the presence of diabetes mellitus in male subjects with documented CAD. Copyright © 2010 European

  8. Expression pattern of the pre-prothaumatin II gene under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in transgenic cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) flower buds and fruits.

    PubMed

    Szwacka, M; Siedlecka, E; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R; Wiśniewski, Ł; Malepszy, S

    2009-01-01

    Thaumatin II is an extremely sweet-tasting protein produced by fruits of the West African shrub Thaumatococcus daniellii Benth, so it can be used in biotechnology to improve the tastes of various plant products. This study is concerned with the spatial and temporal aspects of expression of the 35S-pre-prothaumatin II chimeric gene in flower buds and fruits of transgenic cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) line 225. The activity of the 35S promoter in organs of line 225 was compared with its activity in 2 other transgenic lines. The accumulation of recombinant thaumatin varied spatially in flower bud tissues of transgenic lines. We found that these differences in the spatial accumulation of transgenic protein concerned the ovary of female buds and the perianth of male buds. In contrast to flower parts, recombinant thaumatin was found in nearly all parts of the young fruit from the transgenic plants. The pre-prothaumatin II gene expression was detected at a very early developmental stage in male buds, and its pattern was rather conserved as the buds aged. The expression of the transgene was also detected in vascular tissues of examined organs but was undetectable in pollen grains, in agreement with the generally held view that the CaMV 35S promoter is virtually silent in pollen. Immunocytochemical analyses of sections of control organs revealed endogenous homolog(s) of thaumatin when using polyclonal antisera, but not when using monoclonal antibodies for recombinant thaumatin detection in transgenic cucumber.

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Fraxinus pennsylvanica hypocotyls and plant regeneration.

    PubMed

    Du, Ningxia; Pijut, Paula M

    2009-06-01

    A genetic transformation protocol for green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) hypocotyl explants was developed. Green ash hypocotyls were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring binary vector pq35GR containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion gene, and an enhanced green fluorescent protein gene. Pre-cultured hypocotyl explants were transformed in the presence of 100 microM acetosyringone using 90 s sonication plus 10 min vacuum-infiltration. Kanamycin at 20 mg l(-1) was used for selecting transformed cells. Adventitious shoots regenerated on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 13.3 microM 6-benzylaminopurine, 4.5 microM thidiazuron, 50 mg l(-1) adenine sulfate, and 10% coconut water. GUS- and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive shoots from the cut ends of hypocotyls were produced via an intermediate callus stage. Presence of the GUS and nptII genes in GUS-positive shoots were confirmed by PCR and copy number of the nptII gene in PCR-positive shoots was determined by Southern blotting. Three transgenic plantlets were acclimatized to the greenhouse. This transformation and regeneration system using hypocotyls provides a foundation for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of green ash. Studies are underway using a construct containing the Cry8Da protein of Bacillus thuringiensis for genetic transformation of green ash.

  10. ArrayXPath II: mapping and visualizing microarray gene-expression data with biomedical ontologies and integrated biological pathway resources using Scalable Vector Graphics

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hee-Joon; Park, Chan Hee; Han, Mi Ryung; Lee, Seokho; Ohn, Jung Hun; Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Jihun; Kim, Ju Han

    2005-01-01

    Summary: ArrayXPath () is a web-based service for mapping and visualizing microarray gene-expression data with integrated biological pathway resources using Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG). Deciphering the crosstalk among pathways and integrating biomedical ontologies and knowledge bases may help biological interpretation of microarray data. ArrayXPath is empowered by integrating gene-pathway, disease-pathway, drug-pathway and pathway–pathway correlations with integrated Gene Ontology, Medical Subject Headings and OMIM Morbid Map-based annotations. We applied Fisher's exact test and relative risk to evaluate the statistical significance of the correlations. ArrayXPath produces Javascript-enabled SVGs for web-enabled interactive visualization of gene-expression profiles integrated with gene-pathway-disease interactions enriched by biomedical ontologies. PMID:15980549

  11. A Nuclear Gene Encoding the Iron-Sulfur Subunit of Mitochondrial Complex II Is Regulated by B3 Domain Transcription Factors during Seed Development in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Fuentes, Ignacia; Vásquez, Marcos; Corvalán, Claudia; León, Gabriel; Gómez, Isabel; Araya, Alejandro; Holuigue, Loreto; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús; Jordana, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex II (succinate dehydrogenase) is part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory chain. Three nuclear genes encode its essential iron-sulfur subunit in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). One of them, SUCCINATE DEHYDROGENASE2-3 (SDH2-3), is specifically expressed in the embryo during seed maturation, suggesting that SDH2-3 may have a role as the complex II iron-sulfur subunit during embryo maturation and/or germination. Here, we present data demonstrating that three abscisic acid-responsive elements and one RY-like enhancer element, present in the SDH2-3 promoter, are involved in embryo-specific SDH2-3 transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, we show that ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and LEAFY COTYLEDON2, three key B3 domain transcription factors involved in gene expression during seed maturation, control SDH2-3 expression. Whereas ABI3 and FUS3 interact with the RY element in the SDH2-3 promoter, the abscisic acid-responsive elements are shown to be a target for bZIP53, a member of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family of transcription factors. We show that group S1 bZIP53 protein binds the promoter as a heterodimer with group C bZIP10 or bZIP25. To the best of our knowledge, the SDH2-3 promoter is the first embryo-specific promoter characterized for a mitochondrial respiratory complex protein. Characterization of succinate dehydrogenase activity in embryos from two homozygous sdh2-3 mutant lines permits us to conclude that SDH2-3 is the major iron-sulfur subunit of mature embryo complex II. Finally, the absence of SDH2-3 in mutant seeds slows down their germination, pointing to a role of SDH2-3-containing complex II at an early step of germination. PMID:19261733

  12. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces the expression of chondrogenesis-related genes through TGF-β receptor II (TGFRII)-AKT-mTOR signaling in primary cultured mouse precartilaginous stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Jun-Fang

    2014-07-18

    Precartilaginous stem cells (PSCs) are adult stem cells which could initiate chondrocytes and bone growth. In the current study, we purified PSCs from the neonate mice' perichondrial mesenchyme through immunomagnetic beads with the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR-3) antibody. Mouse PSCs were seeded and cultured, and their phenotype was confirmed by FGFR-3 over-expression. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was added to induce PSCs differentiation. TGF-β increased mRNA expression of chondrogenesis-related genes (collagen type II, Sox 9, and aggrecan) in the cultured PSCs, which was abolished by TGF-β receptor II (TGFRII) lentiviral shRNA depletion. TGF-β induced AKT activation in mouse PSCs, while the PI3K/AKT inhibitor (LY294002) and the AKT specific inhibitors (perifosine and MK-2206) largely suppressed TGF-β-induced collagen II, Sox 9, and aggrecan mRNA expression. Meanwhile, the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) blocker RAD001 or the mTORC1/2 dual inhibitor AZD-2014 also alleviated TGF-β-induced chondrogenesis-associated genes expression. Further, lentiviral shRNA depletion of SIN1 (a mTORC2 component) or mTOR inhibited TGF-β's effect in the mouse PSCs. In conclusion, our evidence suggests that TGF-β induces the expression of chondrogenesis-related genes through TGFRII-AKT-mTOR signaling in cultured mouse PSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Roles for common MLL/COMPASS subunits and the 19S proteasome in regulating CIITA pIV and MHC class II gene expression and promoter methylation.

    PubMed

    Koues, Olivia I; Mehta, Ninad T; Truax, Agnieszka D; Dudley, R Kyle; Brooks, Jeanne K; Greer, Susanna F

    2010-02-04

    Studies indicate that the 19S proteasome contributes to chromatin reorganization, independent of the role the proteasome plays in protein degradation. We have previously shown that components of the 19S proteasome are crucial for regulating inducible histone activation events in mammalian cells. The 19S ATPase Sug1 binds to histone-remodeling enzymes, and in the absence of Sug1, a subset of activating epigenetic modifications including histone H3 acetylation, H3 lysine 4 trimethylation and H3 arginine 17 dimethylation are inhibited at cytokine-inducible major histocompatibilty complex (MHC)-II and class II transactivator (CIITA) promoters, implicating Sug1 in events required to initiate mammalian transcription. Our previous studies indicate that H3 lysine 4 trimethylation at cytokine-inducible MHC-II and CIITA promoters is dependent on proteolytic-independent functions of 19S ATPases. In this report, we show that multiple common subunits of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL)/complex of proteins associated with Set I (COMPASS) complexes bind to the inducible MHC-II and CIITA promoters; that overexpressing a single common MLL/COMPASS subunit significantly enhances promoter activity and MHC-II HLA-DRA expression; and that these common subunits are important for H3 lysine 4 trimethylation at MHC-II and CIITA promoters. In addition, we show that H3 lysine 27 trimethylation, which is inversely correlated with H3 lysine 4 trimethylation, is significantly elevated in the presence of diminished 19S ATPase Sug1. Taken together, these experiments suggest that the 19S proteasome plays a crucial role in the initial reorganization of events enabling the relaxation of the repressive chromatin structure surrounding inducible promoters.

  14. COL5A1: Fine genetic mapping, intron/exon organization, and exclusion as candidate gene in families with tuberous sclerosis complex 1, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, D.S.; Papenberg, K.A.; Marchuk, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    Type V collagen is the only fibrillar collagen which has yet to be implicated in the pathogenesis of genetic diseases in humans or mice. To begin examining the possible role of type V collagen in genetic disease, we have previously mapped COL5A1, the gene for the {alpha}1 chain of type V collagen, to 9q23.2{r_arrow}q34.3 and described two restriction site polymorphisms which allowed us to exclude COL5A1 as candidate gene for nail-patella syndrome. We have now used these polymorphisms to exclude COL5A1 as candidate gene for tuberous sclerosis complex 1 and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II. In addition, we describe a CAmore » repeat, with observed heterozygosity of about 0.5, in a COL5A1 intron, which has allowed us to exclude COL5A1 as a candidate gene in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and to place COL5A1 on the CEPH family genetic map between markers D9S66 and D9S67. We have also determined the entire intron/exon organization of COL5A1, which will facilitate characterization of mutations in genetic diseases with which COL5A1 may be linked in future studies.« less

  15. A novel gateway-compatible binary vector series (PC-GW) for flexible cloning of multiple genes for genetic transformation of plants.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Jyoti; Yalamanchili, Roopa; La Hovary, Christophe; Ji, Mikyoung; Rodriguez-Welsh, Maria; Aslett, Denise; Ganapathy, Sowmya; Grunden, Amy; Sederoff, Heike; Qu, Rongda

    2015-09-01

    The rapidly advancing field of plant synthetic biology requires transforming plants with multiple genes. This has sparked a growing interest in flexible plant transformation vectors, which can be used for multi-gene transformations. We have developed a novel binary vector series, named the PC-GW series (GenBank: KP826769-KP826773), for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. The PC-GW vectors use the pCAMBIA vector backbone, and contain NPTII, hpt, bar, mCherry or egfp genes as selectable markers for plant transformation. In a modified multiple cloning site (MCS) of the T-DNA region, we have placed the attR1, attR2 and ccdB sequences for rapid cloning of one to four genes by Gateway™-assisted recombination. In addition, we have introduced four meganuclease sites, and other restriction sites for multi-gene vector construction. Finally, we have placed a CaMV 35S promoter and a 35S terminator on the 5' and 3' ends of the MCS. The CaMV 35S promoter is flanked by PstI restriction sites that can be used to replace it with another promoter sequence if needed. The PC-GW vectors provide choices for selectable markers, cloning methods, and can accommodate up to eight gene constructs in a single T-DNA, thereby significantly reducing the number of transformations or crosses needed to generate multi-transgene expressing plants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Global analysis of gene expression in maize leaves treated with low temperature. II. Combined effect of severe cold (8 °C) and circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Jończyk, M; Sobkowiak, A; Trzcinska-Danielewicz, J; Skoneczny, M; Solecka, D; Fronk, J; Sowiński, P

    2017-10-01

    In maize seedlings, severe cold results in dysregulation of circadian pattern of gene expression causing profound modulation of transcription of genes related to photosynthesis and other key biological processes. Plants live highly cyclic life and their response to environmental stresses must allow for underlying biological rhythms. To study the interplay of a stress and a rhythmic cue we investigated transcriptomic response of maize seedlings to low temperature in the context of diurnal gene expression. Severe cold stress had pronounced effect on the circadian rhythm of a substantial proportion of genes. Their response was strikingly dual, comprising either flattening (partial or complete) of the diel amplitude or delay of expression maximum/minimum by several hours. Genes encoding central oscillator components behaved in the same dual manner, unlike their Arabidopsis counterparts reported earlier to cease cycling altogether upon cold treatment. Also numerous genes lacking circadian rhythm responded to the cold by undergoing up- or down-regulation. Notably, the transcriptome changes preceded major physiological manifestations of cold stress. In silico analysis of metabolic processes likely affected by observed gene expression changes indicated major down-regulation of photosynthesis, profound and multifarious modulation of plant hormone levels, and of chromatin structure, transcription, and translation. A role of trehalose and stachyose in cold stress signaling was also suggested. Meta-analysis of published transcriptomic data allowed discrimination between general stress response of maize and that unique to severe cold. Several cis- and trans-factors likely involved in the latter were predicted, albeit none of them seemed to have a major role. These results underscore a key role of modulation of diel gene expression in maize response to severe cold and the unique character of the cold-response of the maize circadian clock.

  17. Darwin's legacy II: why biology is not physics, or why it has taken a century to see the dependence of genes on the environment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rama S

    2015-01-01

    Genes and environment make the organism. Darwin stood firm in his denial of any direct role of environment in the modification of heredity. His theory of evolution heralded two debates: one about the importance and adequacy of natural selection as the main mechanism of evolution, and the other about the role of genes versus environment in the modification of phenotype and evolution. Here, I provide an overview of the second debate and show that the reasons for the gene versus environment battle were twofold: first, there was confusion about the role of environment in modifying the inheritance of a trait versus the evolution of that trait, and second, there was misunderstanding about the meaning of environment and its interaction with genes in the production of phenotypes. It took nearly a century to see that environment does not directly affect the inheritance of a phenotype (i.e., its heredity), but it is nevertheless the primary mover of phenotypic evolution. Effects of genes and environment are not separate but interdependent. One cannot separate the effect of genes from that of environment, or nature from nurture. To answer the question posed in the title, it is partly because the 20th century has been a century of unending progress in genetics. But also because unlike physics, biology is not colorblind; progress in biology has often been delayed beyond the Kuhnian paradigm change due to built-in interest in negating the influence of environment. Those who are against evolution, of course, cannot be expected to understand the role of environment in evolution. Those for it, many biologists included, believing in the supremacy of genes empowers them by giving adaptation a solely gene-directed (self-driven) "teleological" interpretation.

  18. Testicular gonadotropin-releasing hormone II receptor (GnRHR-II) knockdown constitutively impairs diurnal testosterone secretion in the boar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The second mammalian GnRH isoform (GnRH-II) and its specific receptor (GnRHR-II) are highly expressed in the testis, suggesting an important role in testis biology. Gene coding errors prevent the production of GnRH-II and GnRHR-II in many species, but both genes are functional in swine. We have demo...

  19. Characterization of the thrombospondin (TSP)-II gene in Penaeus monodon and a novel role of TSP-like proteins in an induction of shrimp sperm acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Magerd, Sirilug; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana

    2013-05-01

    We have recently shown that water-soluble materials from the egg extracellular cortical rods (wsCRs) exert the ability to induce the sperm acrosome reaction in Penaeus monodon. In this study, we further demonstrated that the thrombospondin protein family (TSP) existed in wsCRs, and that their mRNA transcripts were detected in developing oocytes as early as stage I. Full sequence analysis revealed that our pmTSP sequence was considerably different from the recently reported pmTSP in the 5' nonconserved region and in many TSP signature domains, hence, the name pmTSP-II was given to our variant. The transcripts of pmTSP-II were detected only in early developing oocytes (stage-I and -II) while TSP-like proteins were detected in all developing oocytes, particularly at the outer rim of cortical rods situated in the extracellular crypts of the mature, stage-IV oocytes. In addition, wsCRs contained anti-TSP-reactive proteins, suggesting that TSP-like proteins are dissolved in and are part of the egg water during spawning. The functional importance of TSP-like proteins was evident by the interference of a wsCR-induced acrosome reaction response with anti-TSP in a concentration-dependent manner. In summary, we found that pmTSP-II transcripts were present in the developing oocytes and pmTSP-II protein accumulated in cortical rods, which are partly secreted and thus solubilized to produce dissolved TSP-like proteins that participate in induction of the sperm acrosome reaction-a novel reproductive role for TSP protein family. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An RNA-splicing mutation (G{sup +51VS20}) in the Type II collagen gene (COL2A1) in a family with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, G.E.; Polumbo, P.A.; Weis, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    Defects in type II collagen have been demonstrated in a phenotypic continuum of chondrodysplasias that includes achondrogenesis II, hypochondrogenesis, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC), Kniest dysplasia, and Stickler syndrome. We have determined that cartilage from a terminated fetus with an inherited form of SEDC contained both normal {alpha}1(II) collagen chains and chains that lacked amino acids 256-273 of the triple-helical domain. PCR amplification of this region of COL2A1, from genomic DNA, yielded products of normal size, while amplification of cDNA yielded a normal sized species and a shorter fragment missing exon 20. Sequence analysis of genomic DNA from the fetus revealedmore » a G{yields}T transversion at position +5 of intron 20; the affected father was also heterozygous for the mutation. Allele-specific PCR and heteroduplex analysis of a VNTR in COL2A1 independently confirmed the unaffected status of a fetus in a subsequent pregnancy. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the mutation prevents normal splicing of exon 20 by interfering with binding of U{sub 1} small-nuclear RNA to pre-mRNA, thus leading to skipping of exon 20 in transcripts from the mutant allele. Electron micrographs of diseased cartilage showed intracellular inclusion bodies, which were stained by an antibody to {alpha}1(II) procollagen. Our findings support the hypothesis that {alpha}-chain length alterations that preserve the Gly-X-Y repeat motif of the triple helix result in partial intracellular retention of {alpha}1(II) procollagen and produce mild to moderate chondrodysplasia phenotypes. 50 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.« less

  1. An investigation of the association of the prothrombin G20210A gene mutation and inflammatory bowel disease: Factor II and IBD.

    PubMed

    Haslam, N; Standen, G R; Probert, C S

    2001-05-01

    A thrombotic etiology for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been proposed as a result of its association with thromboembolic complications, smoking, the oral contraceptive pill, and the response of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients to heparin. We have previously demonstrated an increased prevalence of the Factor V Leiden mutation in UC and wished to investigate the frequency of the recently discovered prothrombin G20210A gene mutation in IBD. The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that the prothrombic state associated with the prothrombin G20210A gene mutation is involved in the etiology of IBD. A prospective cohort study of patients attending the Bristol Royal Infirmary and Gloucestershire Royal Hospital's IBD clinics was performed. Thirty-nine patients with IBD (24 with Crohn's disease and 15 with UC) and 100 historical controls were screened for the presence of the prothrombin gene mutation using a heteroduplex-based polymerase chain reaction technique. None of the patients with IBD had a personal history of thromboembolism, while three of them had a family history. No IBD patients had the prothrombin gene mutation compared with four (4%) controls (allelic frequency 2%). There does not appear to be an association of the prothrombin gene mutation with IBD and therefore it is unlikely to be involved in the etiology of IBD.

  2. Identification and Characterization of an Androgen-responsive Kap Promoter Enhancer Located in the Intron II Region of human Angiotensinogen Gene

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li-qiang; Hardy, Dianne O.; Catterall, James F; Zhao, Jian; Li, Su-xia

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic expression of the human angiotensinogen (HAGT) gene directed by the mouse kidney androgen-regulated protein (Kap) gene promoter is proximal tubule cell-specific and androgen-regulated in vivo. The same Kap promoter fragment did not support similar regulation of other genes, but a transgene based on the original chimeric KAP-hAGT construct successfully directed NHE3 to kidney, suggesting that sequences within the HAGT gene fragment of the construct contributed to the regulation of its expression in vivo. In the present study, androgen-responsive regulatory sequences in the HAGT gene portions of the transgene were examined in transfected renal cells. A 1.4 kb enhancer between exons 2 and 3 was identified that increased the basal expression of Kap promoter 1.5 to 2-fold, its induction by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) 2 to 3-fold and its induction by dexamethasone (Dex) 4 to 5-fold. Sequence analysis revealed two potential hormone responsive elements. Mutational assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed one of these elements was androgen-specific. These findings may influence future strategies for the design of inducible, cell-specific transgenes. PMID:20153828

  3. Association of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene to changes into serum lipid profile of post-menopausal women: Effects of aging, body mass index and breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Felix; Souza, Letícia Soncini; Tommasi, Bruno Otoni; Pedrosa, Diego França; Eis, Sérgio Ragi; Fin, Irani do Carmo Francischetto; Vieira, Fernando Luiz Herkenhoff; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; Rangel, Letícia Batista Azevedo; Silva, Ian Victor

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroidal hormone involved in several physiological functions in the female body including regulation of serum lipid metabolism and breast cancer (BC). Estrogen actions on serum lipids mostly occur through its binding to intracellular Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalpha) isoform, expressed in most of tissues. This gene (ESR1) exhibit many polymorphic sites (SNPs) located either on translated and non-translated regions that regulate ERalpha protein expression and function. This paper aimed to investigate the association of two intronic SNPs of ESR1 gene, namely c454-397T>C (PvuII) and c454-351A>G (XbaI) to alterations in serum levels of total cholesterol (T-chol), total lipid (TL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) in a cohort of post-menopausal women. In addition, we aimed to associate presence of these SNPs to development of BC along 5 years period. To do so, a group of healthy 499, highly miscigenated, post-menopausal Brazilian women, were carried using PCR-FRLP technique and further confirmed by automatic sequence analysis as well followed through 5 years for BC incidence. Measurements of serum lipid profile by standard commercial methods were carried individually whereas Dual Energy X-ray Absorciometry (DXA) measured Body Mass Indexes (BMI), Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM), and Body Water Content (BWC). No effects of PvuII SNP on ESR1 gene were observed on patient´s serum T-chol, TL, LDL, HDL, and TG. However, c454-397T>C PvuII SNP is associated to lower body fat and higher levels of lean mass and body water and lower incidence of BC. On the other hand, statistically significant effect of XbaI c454-351A>G SNP on serum TG and TL levels. Patients homozygous for X allele were followed up from 2010-2015. They showed higher incidence of breast cancer (BC) when compared to either heterozygous and any P allele combination. Moreover, the increasing of TG and TL serum concentrations

  4. Association of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene to changes into serum lipid profile of post-menopausal women: Effects of aging, body mass index and breast cancer incidence

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Felix; Souza, Letícia Soncini; Tommasi, Bruno Otoni; Pedrosa, Diego França; Fin, Irani do Carmo Francischetto; Vieira, Fernando Luiz Herkenhoff; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; Rangel, Letícia Batista Azevedo; Silva, Ian Victor

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroidal hormone involved in several physiological functions in the female body including regulation of serum lipid metabolism and breast cancer (BC). Estrogen actions on serum lipids mostly occur through its binding to intracellular Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalpha) isoform, expressed in most of tissues. This gene (ESR1) exhibit many polymorphic sites (SNPs) located either on translated and non-translated regions that regulate ERalpha protein expression and function. This paper aimed to investigate the association of two intronic SNPs of ESR1 gene, namely c454-397T>C (PvuII) and c454-351A>G (XbaI) to alterations in serum levels of total cholesterol (T-chol), total lipid (TL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) in a cohort of post-menopausal women. In addition, we aimed to associate presence of these SNPs to development of BC along 5 years period. To do so, a group of healthy 499, highly miscigenated, post-menopausal Brazilian women, were carried using PCR-FRLP technique and further confirmed by automatic sequence analysis as well followed through 5 years for BC incidence. Measurements of serum lipid profile by standard commercial methods were carried individually whereas Dual Energy X-ray Absorciometry (DXA) measured Body Mass Indexes (BMI), Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM), and Body Water Content (BWC). No effects of PvuII SNP on ESR1 gene were observed on patient´s serum T-chol, TL, LDL, HDL, and TG. However, c454-397T>C PvuII SNP is associated to lower body fat and higher levels of lean mass and body water and lower incidence of BC. On the other hand, statistically significant effect of XbaI c454-351A>G SNP on serum TG and TL levels. Patients homozygous for X allele were followed up from 2010–2015. They showed higher incidence of breast cancer (BC) when compared to either heterozygous and any P allele combination. Moreover, the increasing of TG and TL serum concentrations

  5. Genome-wide analysis of the Zn(II)2Cys6 zinc cluster-encoding gene family in Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proteins with a Zn(II)2Cys6 domain, Cys-X2-Cys-X6-Cys-X5-12-Cys-X2-Cys-X6-9-Cys (hereafter, referred to as the C6 domain), form a subclass of zinc finger proteins found exclusively in fungi and yeast. Genome sequence databases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans have provided an overvie...

  6. Plant regeneration and stable transformation in the floricultural plant Cleome spinosa, a C₃ plant closely related to the C₄ plant C. gynandra.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yung-Ting; Chen, Po-Yen; To, Kin-Ying

    2012-07-01

    Cleome spinosa is widely used as a garden ornamental in many countries. Here we determined the optimal conditions for plant regeneration from different tissue explants grown in vitro. Induction medium containing MS salts, MS vitamins, 3% sucrose, 1 mg l⁻¹ BA, 200 mg l⁻¹ timentin, and 0.8% agar was sufficient for shoot regeneration of all the tissue explants examined, including leaf, hypocotyl, and cotyledon. Subsequently, an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method was developed to transform the vector pCHS, which carries the transgenes Petunia chalcone synthase (chs) and selection marker neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII), into C. spinosa. From a total of 368 cotyledon explants, 13 putative transgenic lines were regenerated from selection medium supplemented with 50 mg l⁻¹ kanamycin and 200 mg l⁻¹ timentin, and transferred to the greenhouse. Genomic PCR and Southern blot analyses revealed that the nptII transgene was present in all 13 transgenic plants. Similarly, when the Petunia chs transgene was used as a probe in Southern blot analysis, single or multiple hybridization bands were detected in 12 out of the 13 transgenic plants. In addition, T₁ progeny assay from selected transformants showed that the nptII transgene can be transmitted in a Mendelian manner from transgenic parents into their progeny. This is the first report of stable transformation of the C₃ dicotyledon C. spinosa, which will facilitate functional comparison of cell-type specific genes with counterpart C₄ dicotyledon C. gynandra using transgenic approaches.

  7. Constitutive Expression of the Maize Genes B1 and C1 in Transgenic Hi II Maize Results in Differential Tissue Pigmentation and Generates Resistance to Helicoverpa zea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anthocyanin biosynthesis in maize protects tissues from biotic and abiotic stresses. Constitutive expression of the maize B1 and C1 genes, which induces anthocyanin biosynthesis, resulted in transgenic plants with varied phenotypes. Some colored leaves were substantially resistant to thrips damage...

  8. Identification of a Novel De Novo Heterozygous Deletion in the SOX10 Gene in Waardenburg Syndrome Type II Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Haonan; Jin, Peng; Hao, Qian; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Xia; Wang, Ping

    2017-11-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder associated with pigmentation abnormalities and sensorineural hearing loss. In this study, we investigated the genetic cause of WSII in a patient and evaluated the reliability of the targeted next-generation exome sequencing method for the genetic diagnosis of WS. Clinical evaluations were conducted on the patient and targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify the candidate genes responsible for WSII. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were performed to confirm the targeted NGS results. Targeted NGS detected the entire deletion of the coding sequence (CDS) of the SOX10 gene in the WSII patient. MLPA results indicated that all exons of the SOX10 heterozygous deletion were detected; no aberrant copy number in the PAX3 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) genes was found. Real-time qPCR results identified the mutation as a de novo heterozygous deletion. This is the first report of using a targeted NGS method for WS candidate gene sequencing; its accuracy was verified by using the MLPA and qPCR methods. Our research provides a valuable method for the genetic diagnosis of WS.

  9. The botrydial biosynthetic gene cluster of Botrytis cinerea displays a bipartite genomic structure and is positively regulated by the putative Zn(II)2Cys6 transcription factor BcBot6.

    PubMed

    Porquier, Antoine; Morgant, Guillaume; Moraga, Javier; Dalmais, Bérengère; Luyten, Isabelle; Simon, Adeline; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Amselem, Joëlle; Collado, Isidro González; Viaud, Muriel

    2016-11-01

    Botrydial (BOT) is a non-host specific phytotoxin produced by the polyphagous phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. The genomic region of the BOT biosynthetic gene cluster was investigated and revealed two additional genes named Bcbot6 and Bcbot7. Analysis revealed that the G+C/A+T-equilibrated regions that contain the Bcbot genes alternate with A+T-rich regions made of relics of transposable elements that have undergone repeat-induced point mutations (RIP). Furthermore, BcBot6, a Zn(II) 2 Cys 6 putative transcription factor was identified as a nuclear protein and the major positive regulator of BOT biosynthesis. In addition, the phenotype of the ΔBcbot6 mutant indicated that BcBot6 and therefore BOT are dispensable for the development, pathogenicity and response to abiotic stresses in the B. cinerea strain B05.10. Finally, our data revealed that B. pseudocinerea, that is also polyphagous and lives in sympatry with B. cinerea, lacks the ability to produce BOT. Identification of BcBot6 as the major regulator of BOT synthesis is the first step towards a comprehensive understanding of the complete regulation network of BOT synthesis and of its ecological role in the B. cinerea life cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mobile group II introns.

    PubMed

    Lambowitz, Alan M; Zimmerly, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Mobile group II introns, found in bacterial and organellar genomes, are both catalytic RNAs and retrotransposable elements. They use an extraordinary mobility mechanism in which the excised intron RNA reverse splices directly into a DNA target site and is then reverse transcribed by the intron-encoded protein. After DNA insertion, the introns remove themselves by protein-assisted, autocatalytic RNA splicing, thereby minimizing host damage. Here we discuss the experimental basis for our current understanding of group II intron mobility mechanisms, beginning with genetic observations in yeast mitochondria, and culminating with a detailed understanding of molecular mechanisms shared by organellar and bacterial group II introns. We also discuss recently discovered links between group II intron mobility and DNA replication, new insights into group II intron evolution arising from bacterial genome sequencing, and the evolutionary relationship between group II introns and both eukaryotic spliceosomal introns and non-LTR-retrotransposons. Finally, we describe the development of mobile group II introns into gene-targeting vectors, "targetrons," which have programmable target specificity.

  11. Characterisation of the nicotianamine aminotransferase and deoxymugineic acid synthase genes essential to Strategy II iron uptake in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alexander A. T.

    2017-01-01

    Iron (Fe) uptake in graminaceous plant species occurs via the release and uptake of Fe-chelating compounds known as mugineic acid family phytosiderophores (MAs). In the MAs biosynthetic pathway, nicotianamine aminotransferase (NAAT) and deoxymugineic acid synthase (DMAS) enzymes catalyse the formation of 2’-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) from nicotianamine (NA). Here we describe the identification and characterisation of six TaNAAT and three TaDMAS1 genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The coding sequences of all six TaNAAT homeologs consist of seven exons with ≥88.0% nucleotide sequence identity and most sequence variation present in the first exon. The coding sequences of the three TaDMAS1 homeologs consist of three exons with ≥97.8% nucleotide sequence identity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the TaNAAT and TaDMAS1 proteins are most closely related to the HvNAAT and HvDMAS1 proteins of barley and that there are two distinct groups of TaNAAT proteins—TaNAAT1 and TaNAAT2 –that correspond to the HvNAATA and HvNAATB proteins, respectively. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that the TaNAAT2 genes are expressed at highest levels in anther tissues whilst the TaNAAT1 and TaDMAS1 genes are expressed at highest levels in root tissues of bread wheat. Furthermore, the TaNAAT1, TaNAAT2 and TaDMAS1 genes were differentially regulated by plant Fe status and their expression was significantly upregulated in root tissues from day five onwards during a seven-day Fe deficiency treatment. The identification and characterization of the TaNAAT1, TaNAAT2 and TaDMAS1 genes provides a valuable genetic resource for improving bread wheat growth on Fe deficient soils and enhancing grain Fe nutrition. PMID:28475636

  12. 35S Promoter Methylation in Kanamycin-Resistant Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe pinnata L.) Plants Expressing the Antimicrobial Peptide Cecropin P1 Transgene.

    PubMed

    Shevchuk, T V; Zakharchenko, N S; Tarlachkov, S V; Furs, O V; Dyachenko, O V; Buryanov, Y I

    2016-09-01

    Transgenic kalanchoe plants (Kalanchoe pinnata L.) expressing the antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 gene (cecP1) under the control of the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter and the selective neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene under the control of the nopaline synthase gene promoter were studied. The 35S promoter methylation and the cecropin P1 biosynthesis levels were compared in plants growing on media with and without kanamycin. The low level of active 35S promoter methylation further decreases upon cultivation on kanamycin-containing medium, while cecropin P1 synthesis increases.

  13. Distribución Espacial de Ancho Equivalente del Triplete del CaII a partir de Imágenes GMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. J.; Mast, D.

    Using Gemini+GMOS imagery obtained through the filters i, z and CaT, we developed a technique for estimating the value of the Ca II triplet (CaT) equivalent width (EW). The map generated through arithmetic operations with the near infrared images was calibrated with long slit spectra obtained with REOSC spectrograph at CASLEO. We apply this technique to the study of M 83 central region and present the preliminary results on the spatial distribution of the EW(CaT) within an area of 40 per 40 square arcsec around the double nucleus of M 83, with a spatial resolution of 0.8 arcsec. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH.

  14. The mapping of the human 52-kD Ro/SSA autoantigen gene to human chromosome II, and its polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.B.; Itoh, Kazuko; Fujisaku, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the ribonucleoprotein Ro/SSA occur in nearly half of the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and are associated with lymphopenia, photosensitive dermatitis, and pulmonary and renal disease, which suggests that they have an immunopathologic role. The majority of Ro/SSA precipitin-positive patients produce serum antibodies that bind to the 60-kD and 52-kD Ro/SSA proteins. The authors previously isolated and determined the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone that encodes the 52-kD form of the human Ro/SSA protein. In the present study, they have determined the chromosomal location of the gene by in situ hybridization to the end of the shortmore » arm of chromosome 11. Hybridization of portions of the cDNA probe to restriction enzyme-digested DNA indicated the gene is composed of at least three exons. The exon encoding the putative zinc fingers of this protein was found to be distinct from that which encodes the leucine zipper. An RFLP of this gene was identified and is associated with the presence of lupus, primarily in black Americans. 60 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  15. Trm1p, a Zn(II)₂Cys₆-type transcription factor, is essential for the transcriptional activation of genes of methanol utilization pathway, in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Umakant; Krishna Rao, Kamisetty; Rangarajan, Pundi N

    2014-08-15

    The zinc finger transcription factors Mxr1p and Rop are key regulators of methanol metabolism in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, while Trm1p and Trm2p regulate methanol metabolism in Candida boidinii. Here, we demonstrate that Trm1p is essential for the expression of genes of methanol utilization (mut) pathway in P. pastoris as well. Expression of AOXI and other genes of mut pathway is severely compromised in P. pastoris ΔTrm1 strain resulting in impaired growth on media containing methanol as the sole source of carbon. Trm1p localizes to the nucleus of cells cultured on glucose or methanol. The zinc finger domain of Mxr1p but not Trm1p binds to AOXI promoter sequences in vitro, indicating that these two positive regulators act by different mechanisms. We conclude that both Trm1p and Mxr1p are essential for the expression of genes of mut pathway in P. pastoris and the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of mut pathway may be similar in P. pastoris and C. boidinii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Citrus phenylpropanoids and defence against pathogens. Part II: gene expression and metabolite accumulation in the response of fruits to Penicillium digitatum infection.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Teresa Lafuente, M; González-Candelas, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The effect of infection of Citrus sinensis (var. Navelina) fruits with Penicillium digitatum was studied at gene expression and metabolite levels. In this study, expression of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway was studied in the flavedo (outer coloured part of the peel) and albedo (inner white part) in response to pathogen infection. Results of the time-course experiment showed that maximal expression of 10 out of 17 phenylpropanoid genes analysed occurred at 48h post-inoculation, when decay symptoms started to appear, and mRNA levels either kept constant or decreased after 72h post-inoculation. To further investigate the putative involvement of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the defence of citrus fruit, changes in the metabolic profile of both tissues infected with P. digitatum was studied by means of HPLC-PDA-FD. Metabolite accumulation levels along the time course suggest that flavanones, flavones, polymethoxylated flavones and scoparone are induced in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, although with different trends depending on the tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Degradation of Xylan to d-Xylose by Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Coexpressing the Aspergillus niger β-Xylosidase (xlnD) and the Trichoderma reesei Xylanase II (xyn2) Genes

    PubMed Central

    La Grange, D. C.; Pretorius, I. S.; Claeyssens, M.; van Zyl, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    The β-xylosidase-encoding xlnD gene of Aspergillus niger 90196 was amplified by the PCR technique from first-strand cDNA synthesized on mRNA isolated from the fungus. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA fragment was verified to contain a 2,412-bp open reading frame that encodes a 804-amino-acid propeptide. The 778-amino-acid mature protein, with a putative molecular mass of 85.1 kDa, was fused in frame with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating factor α1 signal peptide (MFα1s) to ensure correct posttranslational processing in yeast. The fusion protein was designated Xlo2. The recombinant β-xylosidase showed optimum activity at 60°C and pH 3.2 and optimum stability at 50°C. The Ki(app) value for d-xylose and xylobiose for the recombinant β-xylosidase was determined to be 8.33 and 6.41 mM, respectively. The XLO2 fusion gene and the XYN2 β-xylanase gene from Trichoderma reesei, located on URA3-based multicopy shuttle vectors, were successfully expressed and coexpressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene (ADH2) promoter and terminator. These recombinant S. cerevisiae strains produced 1,577 nkat/ml of β-xylanase activity when expressing only the β-xylanase and 860 nkat/ml when coexpressing the β-xylanase with the β-xylosidase. The maximum β-xylosidase activity was 5.3 nkat/ml when expressed on its own and 3.5 nkat/ml when coexpressed with the β-xylanase. Coproduction of the β-xylanase and β-xylosidase enabled S. cerevisiae to degrade birchwood xylan to d-xylose. PMID:11722900

  18. Performance of HLA allele prediction methods in African Americans for class II genes HLA-DRB1, −DQB1, and –DPB1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The expense of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele genotyping has motivated the development of imputation methods that use dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data and the region’s haplotype structure, but the performance of these methods in admixed populations (such as African Americans) has not been adequately evaluated. We compared genotype-based—derived from both genome-wide genotyping and targeted sequencing—imputation results to existing allele data for HLA–DRB1, −DQB1, and –DPB1. Results In European Americans, the newly-developed HLA Genotype Imputation with Attribute Bagging (HIBAG) method outperformed HLA*IMP:02. In African Americans, HLA*IMP:02 performed marginally better than HIBAG pre-built models, but HIBAG models constructed using a portion of our African American sample with both SNP genotyping and four-digit HLA class II allele typing had consistently higher accuracy than HLA*IMP:02. However, HIBAG was significantly less accurate in individuals heterozygous for local ancestry (p ≤0.04). Accuracy improved in models with equal numbers of African and European chromosomes. Variants added by targeted sequencing and SNP imputation further improved both imputation accuracy and the proportion of high quality calls. Conclusion Combining the HIBAG approach with local ancestry and dense variant data can produce highly-accurate HLA class II allele imputation in African Americans. PMID:24935557

  19. Genes and Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  20. New polymorphisms of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene and their associations with myocardial infarction and blood pressure: the ECTIM study. Etude Cas-Témoin de l'Infarctus du Myocarde.

    PubMed

    Poirier, O; Georges, J L; Ricard, S; Arveiler, D; Ruidavets, J B; Luc, G; Evans, A; Cambien, F; Tiret, L

    1998-10-01

    In an earlier report, we suggested that a polymorphism located in the 3' untranslated region of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (AT1R+1166 A/C) might interact with the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism to increase the risk of myocardial infarction. Since the AT1R+1166 A/C polymorphism does not appear to be functional, we postulated that it might be in linkage disequilibrium with an unidentified functional variant which would affect the regulation of the gene in response to angiotensin II. The present study was conducted to identify new polymorphisms of the AT1R gene that might be responsible for this interaction. The first four exons, which are untranslated, and 2.2 kb in the 5' flanking region of the AT1R gene were explored by polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformation polymorphism. Seven polymorphisms were detected in the 5' region at positions -1424, -810, -713, -521, -214, -213 and -153 upstream from the start of transcription. The genotypes of the -810, -713, -214, -213 and -153 polymorphisms were completely concordant. One substitution was detected at the 55th nucleotide of exon 4. These polymorphisms, together with the +1166 A/C polymorphism and a previously described T/C substitution at the 573th nucleotide of exon 5, were genotyped in the Etude Cas-Témoin de l'Infarctus du Myocarde (ECTIM) study, a multicentre study comparing 651 patients who had survived a myocardial infarction and 728 controls from Belfast (United Kingdom) and Lille, Strasbourg and Toulouse (France). The newly identified polymorphisms were not in linkage disequilibrium with the +1166 A/C polymorphism and therefore could not explain the interaction observed with ACE I/D. None of the polymorphisms was associated with blood pressure levels in control subjects. In the four populations, the A allele of the -810 polymorphism was associated with a lower risk of myocardial infarction (population-adjusted odds ratio of 0.80, confidence

  1. Sequence variation in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I and II genes of two commonly found blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Siew Hwa; Aris, Edah Mohd; Surin, Johari; Omar, Baharudin; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Mohamed, Zulqarnain

    2009-08-01

    The mitochondiral DNA region encompassing the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) genes of two Malaysian blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were studied. This region, which spans 2303bp and includes the COI, tRNA leucine and partial COII was sequenced from adult fly and larval specimens, and compared. Intraspecific variations were observed at 0.26% for Ch. megacephala and 0.17% for Ch. rufifacies, while sequence divergence between the two species was recorded at a minimum of 141 out of 2303 sites (6.12%). Results obtained in this study are comparable to published data, and thus support the use of DNA sequence to facilitate and complement morphology-based species identification.

  2. [OBSERVANT II: OBservational Study of Effectiveness of transcatheter aortic valve implantation with new geneRation deVices for severe Aortic steNosis Treatment. Study protocol].

    PubMed

    Seccareccia, Fulvia; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Bedogni, Francesco; Berti, Sergio; Santoro, Gennaro; Tamburino, Corrado; Ussia, Gian Paolo; Barbanti, Marco; Baiocchi, Massimo; Ranucci, Marco; D'Errigo, Paola; Rosato, Stefano; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    The rapid spread of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for the treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis in the last decade in Italy has led to a gradually increasing use of TAVI procedures also in patients potentially eligible for aortic valve replacement (AVR). For this subset of patients, the OBSERVANT study (2011-2012) evaluated the short- and medium term outcome of TAVI vs AVR, at least for the first generations of TAVI devices, but failed to gather information on all the technological innovations occurred in recent years. The launch of a phase II of the study will allow to recruit a new series of TAVI, with different risk profiles compared with the historical OBSERVANT TAVI cohort, in order to assess whether and how much the use of new-generation devices mitigate the differences in outcomes recorded in the OBSERVANT study. OBSERVANT II is an observational multicenter, prospective, cohort study collecting data on patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI in Italian hospitals since December 15, 2016, for at least 12 months. For each patient, data on demographic characteristics, health status, type of intervention and presence of comorbidities will be collected. Mortality and incidence of in-hospital major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) within 36 months of intervention will be the primary adverse outcome. Secondary outcomes will include 30-day mortality and the incidence of MACCE at 12 and 24 months. The statistical hypotheses were formulated considering the results from the OBSERVANT study. Testing these hypotheses will require the recruitment of at least 823 new TAVI. The risk/propensity-adjustment techniques will be used to comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of TAVI vs AVR. Safety and efficacy profiles of the new-generation TAVI prosthesis; comparative effectiveness of the new TAVI prosthesis as compared to TAVI procedures of the OBSERVANT historical cohort; comparative effectiveness of the

  3. N6-adenine DNA methylation is associated with the linker DNA of H2A.Z-containing well-positioned nucleosomes in Pol II-transcribed genes in Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xiao; Sheng, Yalan; Liu, Yifan; Gao, Shan

    2017-11-16

    DNA N6-methyladenine (6mA) is newly rediscovered as a potential epigenetic mark across a more diverse range of eukaryotes than previously realized. As a unicellular model organism, Tetrahymena thermophila is among the first eukaryotes reported to contain 6mA modification. However, lack of comprehensive information about 6mA distribution hinders further investigations into its function and regulatory mechanism. In this study, we provide the first genome-wide, base pair-resolution map of 6mA in Tetrahymena by applying single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. We provide evidence that 6mA occurs mostly in the AT motif of the linker DNA regions. More strikingly, these linker DNA regions with 6mA are usually flanked by well-positioned nucleosomes and/or H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes. We also find that 6mA is exclusively associated with RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-transcribed genes, but is not an unambiguous mark for active transcription. These results support that 6mA is an integral part of the chromatin landscape shaped by adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling and transcription. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. N6-adenine DNA methylation is associated with the linker DNA of H2A.Z-containing well-positioned nucleosomes in Pol II-transcribed genes in Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xiao; Sheng, Yalan; Liu, Yifan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract DNA N6-methyladenine (6mA) is newly rediscovered as a potential epigenetic mark across a more diverse range of eukaryotes than previously realized. As a unicellular model organism, Tetrahymena thermophila is among the first eukaryotes reported to contain 6mA modification. However, lack of comprehensive information about 6mA distribution hinders further investigations into its function and regulatory mechanism. In this study, we provide the first genome-wide, base pair-resolution map of 6mA in Tetrahymena by applying single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. We provide evidence that 6mA occurs mostly in the AT motif of the linker DNA regions. More strikingly, these linker DNA regions with 6mA are usually flanked by well-positioned nucleosomes and/or H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes. We also find that 6mA is exclusively associated with RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-transcribed genes, but is not an unambiguous mark for active transcription. These results support that 6mA is an integral part of the chromatin landscape shaped by adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling and transcription. PMID:29036602

  5. A biotin-regulated locus, bioS, in a possible survival operon of Rhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Streit, W R; Phillips, D A

    1997-09-01

    A novel biotin-inducible DNA locus, bioS, was found in Rhizobium meliloti 1021 by mutation with a transposable promoter probe. The promoterless nptII reporter responded to 40 nM biotin with a sixfold increase in NPTII protein. Stationary-phase mutant cells accumulated 50% more 14C-biotin than corresponding wild-type cells. The prototrophic mutant competed equally with the wild type in biotin-free medium but poorly when 40 nM biotin was present. The 588-bp bioS is located among three genes showing homology to survival operons of other bacteria, and it may be part of a system that R. meliloti uses to respond to plant biotin signals.

  6. Human YKL39 (chitinase 3-like protein 2), an osteoarthritis-associated gene, enhances proliferation and type II collagen expression in ATDC5 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyatake, Kazumasa; Tsuji, Kunikazu, E-mail: ktsuji.gcoe@tmd.ac.jp; Yamaga, Mika

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► hYKL-39 expression is increased in osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes. ► To examine the molecular functions of hYKL-39 in chondrocytes, we overexpressed hYKL-39 in chondrocytic ATDC5 cells. ► hYKL-39 enhanced proliferation and colony formation in ATDC5 cells. ► hYKL-39 increased type II collagen expression in ATDC5 cells treated with chondrogenic medium. -- Abstract: Human YKL39 (chitinase 3-like protein 2/CHI3L2) is a secreted 39 kDa protein produced by articular chondrocytes and synoviocytes. Recent studies showed that hYKL-39 expression is increased in osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes suggesting the involvement of hYKL-39 in the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). However little is known regarding themore » molecular function of hYKL-39 in joint homeostasis. Sequence analyses indicated that hYKL-39 has significant identity with the human chitotorisidase family molecules, although it is considered that hYKL-39 has no enzymatic activity since it lacks putative chitinase catalytic motif. In this study, to examine the molecular function of hYKL-39 in chondrocytes, we overexpressed hYKL-39 in ATDC5 cells. Here we report that hYKL-39 enhances colony forming activity, cell proliferation, and type II collagen expression in these cells. These data suggest that hYKL-39 is a novel growth and differentiation factor involved in cartilage homeostasis.« less

  7. Identification of 13 new mutations in the vasopressin-neurophysin II gene in 17 kindreds with familial autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    SciTech Connect

    Rittig, S.; Siggaard, C.; Pedersen, E.B.

    1996-01-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by progressive postnatal deficiency of arginine vasopressin as a result of mutation in the gene that encodes the hormone. To determine the extent of mutations in the coding region that produce the phenotype, we studied members of 17 unrelated kindreds with the disorder. We sequenced all 3 exons of the gene by using a rapid, direct dye-terminator method and found the causative mutation in each kindred. In four kindreds, the mutations were each identical to mutations described in other affected families. In the other 13 kindreds each mutation wasmore » unique. There were two missense mutations that altered the cleavage region of the signal peptide, seven missense mutations in exon 2, which codes for the conserved portion of the protein, one nonsense mutation in exon 2, and three nonsense mutations in exon 3. These findings, together with the clinical features of FNDI, suggest that each of the mutations exerts an effect by directing the production of a pre-prohormone that cannot be folded, processed, or degraded properly and eventually destroys vasopressinergic neurons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.« less

  8. Acrylamide-induced carcinogenicity in mouse lung involves mutagenicity: cII gene mutations in the lung of big blue mice exposed to acrylamide and glycidamide for up to 4 weeks.

    PubMed

    Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Guo, Li-Wu; Shelton, Sharon D; Doerge, Daniel R

    2015-06-01

    Potential health risks for humans from exposure to acrylamide (AA) and its epoxide metabolite glycidamide (GA) have garnered much attention lately because substantial amounts of AA are present in a variety of fried and baked starchy foods. AA is tumorigenic in rodents, and a large number of in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that AA is genotoxic. A recent cancer bioassay on AA demonstrated that the lung was one of the target organs for tumor induction in mice; however, the mutagenicity of AA in this tissue is unclear. Therefore, to investigate whether or not gene mutation is involved in the etiology of AA- or GA-induced mouse lung carcinogenicity, we screened for cII mutant frequency (MF) in lungs from male and female Big Blue (BB) mice administered 0, 1.4, and 7.0 mM AA or GA in drinking water for up to 4 weeks (19-111 mg/kg bw/days). Both doses of AA and GA produced significant increases in cII MFs, with the high doses producing responses 2.7-5.6-fold higher than the corresponding controls (P ≤ 0.05; control MFs = 17.2 ± 2.2 and 15.8 ± 3.5 × 10(-6) in males and females, respectively). Molecular analysis of the mutants from high doses indicated that AA and GA produced similar mutation spectra and that these spectra were significantly different from the spectra in control mice (P ≤ 0.01). The predominant types of mutations in the lung cII gene from AA- and GA-treated mice were A:T → T:A, and G:C → C:G transversions, and -1/+1 frameshifts at a homopolymeric run of Gs. The MFs and types of mutations induced by AA and GA in the lung are consistent with AA exerting its genotoxicity via metabolism to GA. These results suggest that AA is a mutagenic carcinogen in mouse lungs and therefore further studies on its potential health risk to humans are warranted. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:446-456, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Missing Link in Epstein-Barr Virus Immune Evasion: the BDLF3 Gene Induces Ubiquitination and Downregulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I (MHC-I) and MHC-II

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Laura L.; Williams, Luke R.; White, Claire; Forrest, Calum; Rowe, Martin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to spread and persist in human populations relies on a balance between host immune responses and EBV immune evasion. CD8+ cells specific for EBV late lytic cycle antigens show poor recognition of target cells compared to immediate early and early antigen-specific CD8+ cells. This phenomenon is due in part to the early EBV protein BILF1, whose immunosuppressive activity increases with lytic cycle progression. However, published data suggest the existence of a hitherto unidentified immune evasion protein further enhancing protection against late EBV antigen-specific CD8+ cells. We have now identified the late lytic BDLF3 gene as the missing link accounting for efficient evasion during the late lytic cycle. Interestingly, BDLF3 also contributes to evasion of CD4+ cell responses to EBV. We report that BDLF3 downregulates expression of surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules in the absence of any effect upon other surface molecules screened, including CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD71 (transferrin receptor). BDLF3 both enhanced internalization of surface MHC molecules and reduced the rate of their appearance at the cell surface. The reduced expression of surface MHC molecules correlated with functional protection against CD8+ and CD4+ T cell recognition. The molecular mechanism was identified as BDLF3-induced ubiquitination of MHC molecules and their subsequent downregulation in a proteasome-dependent manner. IMPORTANCE Immune evasion is a necessary feature of viruses that establish lifelong persistent infections in the face of strong immune responses. EBV is an important human pathogen whose immune evasion mechanisms are only partly understood. Of the EBV immune evasion mechanisms identified to date, none could explain why CD8+ T cell responses to late lytic cycle genes are so infrequent and, when present, recognize lytically infected target cells so poorly relative to CD8+ T cells specific for

  10. The Missing Link in Epstein-Barr Virus Immune Evasion: the BDLF3 Gene Induces Ubiquitination and Downregulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I (MHC-I) and MHC-II.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Laura L; Williams, Luke R; White, Claire; Forrest, Calum; Zuo, Jianmin; Rowe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to spread and persist in human populations relies on a balance between host immune responses and EBV immune evasion. CD8(+) cells specific for EBV late lytic cycle antigens show poor recognition of target cells compared to immediate early and early antigen-specific CD8(+) cells. This phenomenon is due in part to the early EBV protein BILF1, whose immunosuppressive activity increases with lytic cycle progression. However, published data suggest the existence of a hitherto unidentified immune evasion protein further enhancing protection against late EBV antigen-specific CD8(+) cells. We have now identified the late lytic BDLF3 gene as the missing link accounting for efficient evasion during the late lytic cycle. Interestingly, BDLF3 also contributes to evasion of CD4(+) cell responses to EBV. We report that BDLF3 downregulates expression of surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules in the absence of any effect upon other surface molecules screened, including CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD71 (transferrin receptor). BDLF3 both enhanced internalization of surface MHC molecules and reduced the rate of their appearance at the cell surface. The reduced expression of surface MHC molecules correlated with functional protection against CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell recognition. The molecular mechanism was identified as BDLF3-induced ubiquitination of MHC molecules and their subsequent downregulation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Immune evasion is a necessary feature of viruses that establish lifelong persistent infections in the face of strong immune responses. EBV is an important human pathogen whose immune evasion mechanisms are only partly understood. Of the EBV immune evasion mechanisms identified to date, none could explain why CD8(+) T cell responses to late lytic cycle genes are so infrequent and, when present, recognize lytically infected target cells so poorly relative to CD8(+) T cells specific for

  11. Cytoplasmic male sterility of rice with boro II cytoplasm is caused by a cytotoxic peptide and is restored by two related PPR motif genes via distinct modes of mRNA silencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhonghua; Zou, Yanjiao; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Qunyu; Chen, Letian; Wu, Hao; Su, Dihua; Chen, Yuanling; Guo, Jingxin; Luo, Da; Long, Yunming; Zhong, Yang; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2006-03-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and nucleus-controlled fertility restoration are widespread plant reproductive features that provide useful tools to exploit heterosis in crops. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this kind of cytoplasmic-nuclear interaction remains unclear. Here, we show in rice (Oryza sativa) with Boro II cytoplasm that an abnormal mitochondrial open reading frame, orf79, is cotranscribed with a duplicated atp6 (B-atp6) gene and encodes a cytotoxic peptide. Expression of orf79 in CMS lines and transgenic rice plants caused gametophytic male sterility. Immunoblot analysis showed that the ORF79 protein accumulates specifically in microspores. Two fertility restorer genes, Rf1a and Rf1b, were identified at the classical locus Rf-1 as members of a multigene cluster that encode pentatricopeptide repeat proteins. RF1A and RF1B are both targeted to mitochondria and can restore male fertility by blocking ORF79 production via endonucleolytic cleavage (RF1A) or degradation (RF1B) of dicistronic B-atp6/orf79 mRNA. In the presence of both restorers, RF1A was epistatic over RF1B in the mRNA processing. We have also shown that RF1A plays an additional role in promoting the editing of atp6 mRNAs, independent of its cleavage function.

  12. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility of Rice with Boro II Cytoplasm Is Caused by a Cytotoxic Peptide and Is Restored by Two Related PPR Motif Genes via Distinct Modes of mRNA Silencing[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhonghua; Zou, Yanjiao; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Qunyu; Chen, Letian; Wu, Hao; Su, Dihua; Chen, Yuanling; Guo, Jingxin; Luo, Da; Long, Yunming; Zhong, Yang; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and nucleus-controlled fertility restoration are widespread plant reproductive features that provide useful tools to exploit heterosis in crops. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this kind of cytoplasmic–nuclear interaction remains unclear. Here, we show in rice (Oryza sativa) with Boro II cytoplasm that an abnormal mitochondrial open reading frame, orf79, is cotranscribed with a duplicated atp6 (B-atp6) gene and encodes a cytotoxic peptide. Expression of orf79 in CMS lines and transgenic rice plants caused gametophytic male sterility. Immunoblot analysis showed that the ORF79 protein accumulates specifically in microspores. Two fertility restorer genes, Rf1a and Rf1b, were identified at the classical locus Rf-1 as members of a multigene cluster that encode pentatricopeptide repeat proteins. RF1A and RF1B are both targeted to mitochondria and can restore male fertility by blocking ORF79 production via endonucleolytic cleavage (RF1A) or degradation (RF1B) of dicistronic B-atp6/orf79 mRNA. In the presence of both restorers, RF1A was epistatic over RF1B in the mRNA processing. We have also shown that RF1A plays an additional role in promoting the editing of atp6 mRNAs, independent of its cleavage function. PMID:16489123

  13. A Diphenol Oxidase Gene Is Part of a Cluster of Genes Involved in Catecholamine Metabolism and Sclerotization in Drosophila. II. Molecular Localization of the Dox-A2 Coding Region

    PubMed Central

    Pentz, Ellen Steward; Wright, Theodore R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Mutations at the Dox-A2 (2-53.9) locus alter the A2 component of diphenol oxidase, an enzyme having an important role in cuticle formation. This locus is in the dopa decarboxylase, Df( 2L)TW130 region, which contains a cluster of at least 14 genes involved in catecholamine metabolism and the formation, sclerotization and melanization of cuticle in Drosophila. The region is subdivided by deficiencies, and localization of breakpoints in cloned DNA reveals a dense subcluster of six genes in the 23 kb proximal to Ddc. Five lethal loci distal to Ddc comprise a second such subcluster. The proximal breakpoints of deficiencies Df(2L)hk18 and Df(2L)OD15 define a 14.3- to 16.8-kb region containing Dox-A2 and l(2 )37Bb, and those of Df(2L)OD15 and Df(2L)TW203 define a 9.3- to 12.1-kb region containing l(2)37Ba, l(2)37Bc and l( 2)37Be.—Southern blots show two of the Dox-A2 mutations are small deletions (0.1 and 1.1 kb). The Dox-A2 locus mRNA is 1.7 kb. cDNA clones indicate that the 3' end is centromere proximal and that the coding region contains at least one small intron. The Dox-A2 locus is within 3.4 to 4.4 kb of the Df(2L)OD15 breakpoint, placing four of the vital loci within a maximum of 15.5 kb. The location of Dox-A2 in a cluster of genes affecting cuticle formation is discussed. PMID:3007281

  14. Apoptosis and the Bcl-2 gene family -- patterns of expression and prognostic value in stage I and II follicular center lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M D; Meyn, R E; Besa, P C; Pugh, W C; Stephens, L C; Peters, L J; Milas, L; Cox, J D; Cabanillas, F; Brisbay, S; Andersen, M; McDonnell, T J

    1999-04-01

    The prognostic significance of spontaneous levels of apoptosis and Bcl-2, Bax, and Bcl-x protein expression in follicular center lymphoma (FCL) is unknown. The objectives of this retrospective study were (1) to investigate the relationship between pretreatment apoptosis levels and long-term treatment outcome in patients with Stage I and II FCL; (2) to define the incidence and patterns of Bax and Bcl-x protein expression in human FC; and (3) to determine the relationship of Bcl-2, Bax, and Bcl-x expression with spontaneous apoptosis levels and clinical outcome in localized FCL. Between 1974 and 1988, 144 patients with Stage I or II FCL were treated. Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stained tissue sections of pretreatment specimens were retrieved for 96 patients. Treatment consisted of regional radiation therapy (XRT) for 25 patients, combined modality therapy (CMT) consisting of combination chemotherapy and XRT for 57 patients, and other treatments for 14 patients. Median follow-up for living patients was nearly 12 years. The apoptotic index (AI) was calculated by dividing the number of apoptotic cells by the total number of cells counted and multiplying by 100. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and Bcl-x proteins was assessed using immunohistochemistry. The mean and median AI values for the entire group were 0.53 and 0.4, respectively (range: 0-5.2). The AI strongly correlated with cytologic grade, with mean AI values of 0.25 for grade 1, 0.56 for grade 2, and 0.84 for grade 3 (p < 0.0005; Kendall correlation). A positive correlation was present between grouped AI and grouped mitotic index (MI) (p = 0.014). For patients treated with CMT, an AI < 0.4 correlated with improved freedom from relapse (FFR) p = 0.0145) and overall survival (OS) (p = 0.0081). An AI < 0.4 did not correlate with clinical outcome for the entire cohort or for patients receiving XRT only. Staining of tumor follicles for the Bcl-2 protein was positive, variable, and negative in 73%, 15%, and 12% of cases

  15. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047576 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  16. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047582 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  17. Allelic diversity of the MHC class II DRB genes in brown bears (Ursus arctos) and a comparison of DRB sequences within the family Ursidae.

    PubMed

    Goda, N; Mano, T; Kosintsev, P; Vorobiev, A; Masuda, R

    2010-11-01

    The allelic diversity of the DRB locus in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes was analyzed in the brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the Hokkaido Island of Japan, Siberia, and Kodiak of Alaska. Nineteen alleles of the DRB exon 2 were identified from a total of 38 individuals of U. arctos and were highly polymorphic. Comparisons of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions in the antigen-binding sites of deduced amino acid sequences indicated evidence for balancing selection on the bear DRB locus. The phylogenetic analysis of the DRB alleles among three genera (Ursus, Tremarctos, and Ailuropoda) in the family Ursidae revealed that DRB allelic lineages were not separated according to species. This strongly shows trans-species persistence of DRB alleles within the Ursidae. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II represses cardiac transcription of the L-type calcium channel alpha(1C)-subunit gene (Cacna1c) by DREAM translocation.

    PubMed

    Ronkainen, Jarkko J; Hänninen, Sandra L; Korhonen, Topi; Koivumäki, Jussi T; Skoumal, Reka; Rautio, Sini; Ronkainen, Veli-Pekka; Tavi, Pasi

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that changes in the activity of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) induce a unique cardiomyocyte phenotype through the regulation of specific genes involved in excitation-contraction (E-C)-coupling. To explain the transcriptional effects of CaMKII we identified a novel CaMKII-dependent pathway for controlling the expression of the pore-forming α-subunit (Cav1.2) of the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) in cardiac myocytes. We show that overexpression of either cytosolic (δC) or nuclear (δB) CaMKII isoforms selectively downregulate the expression of the Cav1.2. Pharmacological inhibition of CaMKII activity induced measurable changes in LTCC current density and subsequent changes in cardiomyocyte calcium signalling in less than 24 h. The effect of CaMKII on the α1C-subunit gene (Cacna1c) promoter was abolished by deletion of the downstream regulatory element (DRE), which binds transcriptional repressor DREAM/calsenilin/KChIP3. Imaging DREAM-GFP (green fluorescent protein)-expressing cardiomyocytes showed that CaMKII potentiates the calcium-induced nuclear translocation of DREAM. Thereby CaMKII increases DREAM binding to the DRE consensus sequence of the endogenous Cacna1c gene. By mathematical modelling we demonstrate that the LTCC downregulation through the Ca2+-CaMKII-DREAM cascade constitutes a physiological feedback mechanism enabling cardiomyocytes to adjust the calcium intrusion through LTCCs to the amount of intracellular calcium detected by CaMKII.

  19. Ca2+–calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II represses cardiac transcription of the L-type calcium channel α1C-subunit gene (Cacna1c) by DREAM translocation

    PubMed Central

    Ronkainen, Jarkko J; Hänninen, Sandra L; Korhonen, Topi; Koivumäki, Jussi T; Skoumal, Reka; Rautio, Sini; Ronkainen, Veli-Pekka; Tavi, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have demonstrated that changes in the activity of calcium–calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) induce a unique cardiomyocyte phenotype through the regulation of specific genes involved in excitation–contraction (E–C)-coupling. To explain the transcriptional effects of CaMKII we identified a novel CaMKII-dependent pathway for controlling the expression of the pore-forming α-subunit (Cav1.2) of the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) in cardiac myocytes. We show that overexpression of either cytosolic (δC) or nuclear (δB) CaMKII isoforms selectively downregulate the expression of the Cav1.2. Pharmacological inhibition of CaMKII activity induced measurable changes in LTCC current density and subsequent changes in cardiomyocyte calcium signalling in less than 24 h. The effect of CaMKII on the α1C-subunit gene (Cacna1c) promoter was abolished by deletion of the downstream regulatory element (DRE), which binds transcriptional repressor DREAM/calsenilin/KChIP3. Imaging DREAM–GFP (green fluorescent protein)-expressing cardiomyocytes showed that CaMKII potentiates the calcium-induced nuclear translocation of DREAM. Thereby CaMKII increases DREAM binding to the DRE consensus sequence of the endogenous Cacna1c gene. By mathematical modelling we demonstrate that the LTCC downregulation through the Ca2+–CaMKII–DREAM cascade constitutes a physiological feedback mechanism enabling cardiomyocytes to adjust the calcium intrusion through LTCCs to the amount of intracellular calcium detected by CaMKII. PMID:21486818

  20. Human mtDNA hypervariable regions, HVR I and II, hint at deep common maternal founder and subsequent maternal gene flow in Indian population groups.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Swarkar; Saha, Anjana; Rai, Ekta; Bhat, Audesh; Bamezai, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    We have analysed the hypervariable regions (HVR I and II) of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in individuals from Uttar Pradesh (UP), Bihar (BI) and Punjab (PUNJ), belonging to the Indo-European linguistic group, and from South India (SI), that have their linguistic roots in Dravidian language. Our analysis revealed the presence of known and novel mutations in both hypervariable regions in the studied population groups. Median joining network analyses based on mtDNA showed extensive overlap in mtDNA lineages despite the extensive cultural and linguistic diversity. MDS plot analysis based on Fst distances suggested increased maternal genetic proximity for the studied population groups compared with other world populations. Mismatch distribution curves, respective neighbour joining trees and other statistical analyses showed that there were significant expansions. The study revealed an ancient common ancestry for the studied population groups, most probably through common founder female lineage(s), and also indicated that human migrations occurred (maybe across and within the Indian subcontinent) even after the initial phase of female migration to India.

  1. The Drosophila SSL gene is expressed in larvae, pupae, and adults, exhibits sexual dimorphism, and mimics properties of the beta subunit of casein kinase II.

    PubMed

    Karandikar, Umesh; Anderson, Stacey; Mason, Neil; Trott, Regina L; Bishop, Clifton P; Bidwai, Ashok P

    2003-02-21

    Drosophila melanogaster casein kinase II (CKII) is composed of catalytic alpha and regulatory beta subunits that generate the alpha2beta2 holoenzyme. A two-hybrid screen of a Drosophila embryo library using CKIIalpha as bait has resulted in the isolation of multiple cDNAs encoding SSL, a CKIIbeta-like polypeptide. We demonstrate that CKIIbeta, beta', and SSL exhibit robust and comparable interaction with CKIIalpha. Residues in SSL that mediate interaction with CKIIalpha appear similar to those in CKIIbeta, and SSL forms homodimers and heterodimers with CKIIbeta or beta' as well. We have tested all known Drosophila CKIIbeta-like proteins for rescue of the ion-homeostasis defect of yeast lacking beta subunits and find that CKIIbeta and SSL complement, beta' has marginal function, and Stellate appears non-functional. We have used real-time RT-PCR to assess developmental expression, and find that CKIIbeta is robust and ubiquitous, whereas SSL is restricted to males (third-instar-larvae, pupae, and adults), but is nondetectable in females of the corresponding stages. These results indicate that SSL expression encompasses a greater developmental window than that previously suggested and may confer distinct functions to CKII in a sex-specific manner.

  2. A randomized phase I/II trial of HQK-1001, an oral fetal globin gene inducer, in β-thalassaemia intermedia and HbE/β-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Inati, Adlette; Siritanaratku, Noppadol; Thein, Swee L; Wargin, William C; Koussa, Suzanne; Taher, Ali; Chaneim, Nattawara; Boosalis, Michael; Berenson, Ronald; Perrine, Susan P

    2013-05-01

    β-thalassaemia intermedia (BTI) syndromes cause haemolytic anaemia, ineffective erythropoiesis, and widespread complications. Higher fetal globin expression within genotypes reduces globin imbalance and ameliorates anaemia. Sodium 2,2 dimethylbutyrate (HQK-1001), an orally bioavailable short-chain fatty acid derivative, induces γ-globin expression experimentally and is well-tolerated in normal subjects. Accordingly, a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, Phase I/II trial was performed in 21 adult BTI patients (14 with HbE/β(0) thalassaemia and seven with β(+)/β(0) thalassaemia intermedia, to determine effective doses for fetal globin induction, safety, and tolerability. HQK-1001 or placebo were administered once daily for 8 weeks at four dose levels (10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg per day), and subjects were monitored for laboratory and clinical events. Pharmacokinetic profiles demonstrated a t(1/2) of 10-12 h. Adverse events with HQK-1001 treatment were not significantly different from placebo treatment. The 20 mg/kg treatment doses increased median HbF above baseline levels by 6·6% and 4·4 g/l (P < 0·01) in 8/9 subjects; total haemoglobin (Hb) increased by a mean of 11 g/l in 4/9 subjects. These findings identified a safe oral therapeutic which induces fetal globin in BTI. Further investigation of HQK-1001 with longer dosing to definitively evaluate its haematological potential appears warranted. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Shark class II invariant chain reveals ancient conserved relationships with cathepsins and MHC class II.

    PubMed

    Criscitiello, Michael F; Ohta, Yuko; Graham, Matthew D; Eubanks, Jeannine O; Chen, Patricia L; Flajnik, Martin F

    2012-03-01

    The invariant chain (Ii) is the critical third chain required for the MHC class II heterodimer to be properly guided through the cell, loaded with peptide, and expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells. Here, we report the isolation of the nurse shark Ii gene, and the comparative analysis of Ii splice variants, expression, genomic organization, predicted structure, and function throughout vertebrate evolution. Alternative splicing to yield Ii with and without the putative protease-protective, thyroglobulin-like domain is as ancient as the MHC-based adaptive immune system, as our analyses in shark and lizard further show conservation of this mechanism in all vertebrate classes except bony fish. Remarkable coordinate expression of Ii and class II was found in shark tissues. Conserved Ii residues and cathepsin L orthologs suggest their long co-evolution in the antigen presentation pathway, and genomic analyses suggest 450 million years of conserved Ii exon/intron structure. Other than an extended linker preceding the thyroglobulin-like domain in cartilaginous fish, the Ii gene and protein are predicted to have largely similar physiology from shark to man. Duplicated Ii genes found only in teleosts appear to have become sub-functionalized, as one form is predicted to play the same role as that mediated by Ii mRNA alternative splicing in all other vertebrate classes. No Ii homologs or potential ancestors of any of the functional Ii domains were found in the jawless fish or lower chordates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polymorphisms in Phase I and Phase II genes and breast cancer risk and relations to persistent organic pollutant exposure: a case–control study in Inuit women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously reported that chemicals belonging to the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as perfluorinated compounds (PFAS) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are risk factors in Breast Cancer (BC) development in Greenlandic Inuit women. The present case–control study aimed to investigate the main effect of polymorphisms in genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and estrogen biosynthesis, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, COMT and CYP17, CYP19 and the BRCA1 founder mutation in relation to BC risk and to explore possible interactions between the gene polymorphisms and serum POP levels on BC risk in Greenlandic Inuit women. Methods The study population consisted of 31 BC cases and 115 matched controls, with information on serum levels of POPs. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1A1 (Ile462Val; rs1048943), CYP1B1 (Leu432Val; rs1056836), COMT (Val158Met; rs4680), CYP17A1 (A1> A2; rs743572); CYP19A1 (C> T; rs10046) and CYP19A1 ((TTTA)n repeats) polymorphisms and BRCA1 founder mutation using TaqMan allelic discrimination method and polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism. The χ2 –test was used to compare categorical variables between cases and controls and the odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression models. Results We found an independent association of CYP1A1 (Val) and CYP17 (A1) with BC risk. Furthermore, an increased BC risk was observed for women with high serum levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and carriers of at least: one CYP1A1 variant Val allele; one variant COMT Met allele; or the common CYP17 A1 allele. No combined effects were seen between PFAS exposure and CYP1B1 and CYP19 polymorphisms. The risk of BC was not found significantly associated with exposure to PCBs and OCPs, regardless of genotype for all investigated SNPs. The frequency of the Greenlandic founder mutation in BRCA1 was as expected higher in cases than in controls. Conclusions The

  5. Cilengitide with metronomic temozolomide, procarbazine, and standard radiotherapy in patients with glioblastoma and unmethylated MGMT gene promoter in ExCentric, an open-label phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Khasraw, Mustafa; Lee, Adrian; McCowatt, Sally; Kerestes, Zoltan; Buyse, Marc E; Back, Michael; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; Ackland, Stephen; Wheeler, Helen

    2016-05-01

    Newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme with unmethylated MGMT promoter has a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 12 months. This phase II study investigated the efficacy and safety of combining the selective integrin inhibitor cilengitide with a combination of metronomic temozolomide and procarbazine for these patients. Eligible patients (newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed supratentorial glioblastoma with unmethylated MGMT promoter) were entered into this multicentre study. Cilengitide (2000 mg IV twice weekly) was commenced 1 week prior to radiotherapy combined with daily temozolomide (60 mg/m(2)) and procarbazine (50 or 100 mg) and, after 4 weeks' break, followed by six adjuvant cycles of temozolomide (50-60 mg/m(2)) and procarbazine (50 or 100 mg) on days 1-20, every 28 days. Cilengitide was continued for up to 12 months or until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint for efficacy was a 12-month overall survival rate of 65 %. Twenty-nine patients completed study treatment. Sixteen patients survived for 12 months or more, an overall survival rate of 55 %. The median overall survival was 14.5 months (95 % CI 11.1-19.6) and the median progression-free survival was 7.4 months (95 % CI 6.1-8). Cilengitide combined with metronomic temozolomide and procarbazine in MGMT-promoter unmethylated glioblastoma did not improve survival compared with historical data and does not warrant further investigation.

  6. Daily rhythms of urotensin I and II gene expression and hormone secretion in the caudal neurosecretory system of the euryhaline flounder (Platichthys flesus).

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiqun; Zhang, Ying; Xiong, Jianghong; Balment, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) is a unique neuroendocrine structure for environmental adaptation in fish, and is the major site of expression and secretion of urotensin I (UI) and II (UII). This study examined daily changes in mRNA expression and the secretion profile of UI and UII in the CNSS. Daily rhythms were observed in mRNA level of CNSS UI, urophysis UI, plasma UII, glucose, potassium and sodium. No statistically significant (Cosinor, P>0.05) diel rhythmicity in mRNA level of CNSS UII, urophysis UII, cortisol, lactate, osmolality and chloride were detected. The calculated acrophase of sodium, cortisol, plasma UII, urophysis UII, urophysis UI and mRNA level of CNSS UI rhythms were recorded at 13:04 h, 13:39 h, 14:45 h, 15:27 h, 14:41 h and 14:39 h, respectively and a positive relationship was evident among them. The acrophase of glucose and potassium rhythms were recorded at 18:57 h and 22:35 h, respectively. The glucose levels increased progressively at the onset of the UII surge at 15:00 h and reached peak values at dusk. The results support the hypothesis that the CNSS may play a role in the control of co-ordinated daily changes in energy mobilization, nutritional behavior and osmoregulatory systems in euryhaline flounder. Our findings described for the first time the existence of daily rhythms of CNSS hormone expression and secretion in Platichthys flesus. These results reveal the importance of taking into account the time of day when assessing stress responses and evaluating UI and UII as physiological indicators of stress in this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Yaounde, Cameroon II. Baseline frequency of point mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase gene of Plasmodium falciparum.<