Science.gov

Sample records for ii plantas frutales

  1. Hyperthermophilic endoglucanase for in planta lignocellulose conversion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a crucial step in the sustainable and environmentally friendly production of biofuels. However, a major drawback of enzymes from mesophilic sources is their suboptimal activity under established pretreatment conditions, e.g. high temperatures, extreme pH values and high salt concentrations. Enzymes from extremophiles are better adapted to these conditions and could be produced by heterologous expression in microbes, or even directly in the plant biomass. Results Here we show that a cellulase gene (sso1354) isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus can be expressed in plants, and that the recombinant enzyme is biologically active and exhibits the same properties as the wild type form. Since the enzyme is inactive under normal plant growth conditions, this potentially allows its expression in plants without negative effects on growth and development, and subsequent heat-inducible activation. Furthermore we demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme acts in high concentrations of ionic liquids and can therefore degrade α-cellulose or even complex cell wall preparations under those pretreatment conditions. Conclusion The hyperthermophilic endoglucanase SSO1354 with its unique features is an excellent tool for advanced biomass conversion. Here we demonstrate its expression in planta and the possibility for post harvest activation. Moreover the enzyme is suitable for combined pretreatment and hydrolysis applications. PMID:22928996

  2. In-planta Sporulation Capacity Enhances Infectivity and Rhizospheric Competitiveness of Frankia Strains.

    PubMed

    Cotin-Galvan, Laetitia; Pozzi, Adrien C; Schwob, Guillaume; Fournier, Pascale; Fernandez, Maria P; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Frankia Sp+ strains maintain their ability to sporulate in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, producing abundant sporangia inside host plant cells, in contrast to Sp- strains, which are unable to perform in-planta sporulation. We herein examined the role of in-planta sporulation in Frankia infectivity and competitiveness for root infection. Fifteen strains belonging to different Sp+ and Sp- phylogenetic lineages were inoculated on seedlings of Alnus glutinosa (Ag) and A. incana (Ai). Strain competitiveness was investigated by performing Sp-/Sp+ co-inoculations. Plant inoculations were standardized using crushed nodules obtained under laboratory-controlled conditions (same plant species, age, and environmental factors). Specific oligonucleotide primers were developed to identify Frankia Sp+ and/or Sp- strains in the resulting nodules. Single inoculation experiments showed that (i) infectivity by Sp+ strains was significantly greater than that by Sp- strains, (ii) genetically divergent Sp+ strains exhibited different infective abilities, and (iii) Sp+ and Sp- strains showed different host preferences according to the origin (host species) of the inocula. Co-inoculations of Sp+ and Sp- strains revealed the greater competitiveness of Sp+ strains (98.3 to 100% of Sp+ nodules, with up to 15.6% nodules containing both Sp+ and Sp- strains). The results of the present study highlight differences in Sp+/Sp- strain ecological behaviors and provide new insights to strengthen the obligate symbiont hypothesis for Sp+ strains. PMID:26726131

  3. In-planta Sporulation Capacity Enhances Infectivity and Rhizospheric Competitiveness of Frankia Strains

    PubMed Central

    Cotin-Galvan, Laetitia; Pozzi, Adrien C.; Schwob, Guillaume; Fournier, Pascale; Fernandez, Maria P.; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Frankia Sp+ strains maintain their ability to sporulate in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, producing abundant sporangia inside host plant cells, in contrast to Sp− strains, which are unable to perform in-planta sporulation. We herein examined the role of in-planta sporulation in Frankia infectivity and competitiveness for root infection. Fifteen strains belonging to different Sp+ and Sp− phylogenetic lineages were inoculated on seedlings of Alnus glutinosa (Ag) and A. incana (Ai). Strain competitiveness was investigated by performing Sp−/Sp+ co-inoculations. Plant inoculations were standardized using crushed nodules obtained under laboratory-controlled conditions (same plant species, age, and environmental factors). Specific oligonucleotide primers were developed to identify Frankia Sp+ and/or Sp− strains in the resulting nodules. Single inoculation experiments showed that (i) infectivity by Sp+ strains was significantly greater than that by Sp− strains, (ii) genetically divergent Sp+ strains exhibited different infective abilities, and (iii) Sp+ and Sp− strains showed different host preferences according to the origin (host species) of the inocula. Co-inoculations of Sp+ and Sp− strains revealed the greater competitiveness of Sp+ strains (98.3 to 100% of Sp+ nodules, with up to 15.6% nodules containing both Sp+ and Sp− strains). The results of the present study highlight differences in Sp+/Sp− strain ecological behaviors and provide new insights to strengthen the obligate symbiont hypothesis for Sp+ strains. PMID:26726131

  4. In planta passive sampling devices for assessing subsurface chlorinated solvents.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Mikhil K; Limmer, Matt A; Waltermire, Kendra; Morrison, Glenn C; Burken, Joel G

    2014-06-01

    Contaminant concentrations in trees have been used to delineate groundwater contaminant plumes (i.e., phytoscreening); however, variability in tree composition hinders accurate measurement of contaminant concentrations in planta, particularly for long-term monitoring. This study investigated in planta passive sampling devices (PSDs), termed solid phase samplers (SPSs) to be used as a surrogate tree core. Characteristics studied for five materials included material-air partitioning coefficients (Kma) for chlorinated solvents, sampler equilibration time and field suitability. The materials investigated were polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM) and plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Both PDMS and LLDPE samplers demonstrated high partitioning coefficients and diffusivities and were further tested in greenhouse experiments and field trials. While most of the materials could be used for passive sampling, the PDMS SPSs performed best as an in planta sampler. Such a sampler was able to accurately measure trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentrations while simultaneously incorporating simple operation and minimal impact to the surrounding property and environment.

  5. In planta passive sampling devices for assessing subsurface chlorinated solvents.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Mikhil K; Limmer, Matt A; Waltermire, Kendra; Morrison, Glenn C; Burken, Joel G

    2014-06-01

    Contaminant concentrations in trees have been used to delineate groundwater contaminant plumes (i.e., phytoscreening); however, variability in tree composition hinders accurate measurement of contaminant concentrations in planta, particularly for long-term monitoring. This study investigated in planta passive sampling devices (PSDs), termed solid phase samplers (SPSs) to be used as a surrogate tree core. Characteristics studied for five materials included material-air partitioning coefficients (Kma) for chlorinated solvents, sampler equilibration time and field suitability. The materials investigated were polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM) and plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Both PDMS and LLDPE samplers demonstrated high partitioning coefficients and diffusivities and were further tested in greenhouse experiments and field trials. While most of the materials could be used for passive sampling, the PDMS SPSs performed best as an in planta sampler. Such a sampler was able to accurately measure trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentrations while simultaneously incorporating simple operation and minimal impact to the surrounding property and environment. PMID:24268175

  6. In planta transient expression analysis of monoterpene synthases.

    PubMed

    Green, Sol A; Chen, Xiuyin; Matich, Adam J

    2012-01-01

    In vitro-based analyses of monoterpene synthase (mono-TPS) enzymes have led to a wealth of knowledge regarding their catalytic behavior, the mechanistic principles governing their product specificity, and the molecular basis for their evolution. However, the efficient production of active enzymes in Escherichia coli or yeast can be challenging. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in tobacco leaves is increasingly being used as a viable alternative to in vitro-based approaches for the production and functional analysis of a wide range of plant proteins. Transient expression is well suited for qualitative and semiquantitative analyses of mono-TPS enzyme product specificity and, in conjunction with standard volatile analysis techniques, provides an efficient tool for screening mono-TPS function in planta. The primary advantages of this system for mono-TPS analysis are that both mono-TPS genomic clones and cDNAs can be cloned directly into plant expression vectors without modification and expressed enzymes can be analyzed without the need for purification or endogenous precursor addition. Here, we describe a simple and cost-effective method for the in planta functional analysis of plant mono-TPS enzymes. This method can accommodate both the analysis of single genes and the scaling for more high-throughput functional screening of mono-TPS gene families or mutant libraries.

  7. In-planta sporulation phenotype: a major life history trait to understand the evolution of Alnus-infective Frankia strains.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Adrien C; Bautista-Guerrero, Hector H; Nouioui, Imen; Cotin-Galvan, Laëtitia; Pepin, Régis; Fournier, Pascale; Menu, Frédéric; Fernandez, Maria P; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude

    2015-09-01

    Two major types of Frankia strains are usually recognized, based on the ability to sporulate in-planta: spore-positive (Sp+) and spore-negative (Sp-). We carried out a study of Sp+ and Sp- Frankia strains based on nodules collected on Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana and Alnus viridis. The nodules were phenotyped using improved histology methods, and endophytic Frankia strain genotype was determined using a multilocus sequence analysis approach. An additional sampling was done to assess the relation between Sp+ phenotype frequency and genetic diversity of Frankia strains at the alder stand scale. Our results revealed that (i) Sp+ and Sp- Alnus-infective Frankia strains are genetically different even when sampled from the same alder stand and the same host-plant species; (ii) there are at least two distinct phylogenetic lineages of Sp+ Frankia that cluster according to the host-plant species and without regard of geographic distance and (iii) genetic diversity of Sp+ strains is very low at the alder stand scale compared with Sp- strains. Difference in evolutionary history and genetic diversity between Sp+ and Sp- Frankia allows us to discuss the possible ecological role of in-planta sporulation. PMID:25335453

  8. Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

  9. Plantas crucíferas y la prevención del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que resume los resultados de estudios sobre las plantas crucíferas y el cáncer. Incluye una lista de plantas crucíferas y las guías alimentarias recomendadas para el consumo de verduras.

  10. In planta Agrobacterium-mediated transformation by vacuum infiltration.

    PubMed

    Tague, Brian W; Mantis, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    In planta Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using vacuum infiltration results in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana without the use of sterile conditions or plant regeneration. Plants are grown in pots, in standard potting mix. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, carrying an appropriate plant transformation vector, is suspended in an infiltration medium that contains, at a minimum, sucrose and the surfactant Silwet L-77. Flower buds are immersed in the suspension of A. tumefaciens. The application of a vacuum drives the bacteria into the intercellular air spaces. A portion of the Agrobacterium Ti plasmid known as the T-DNA region, which has been engineered to carry a selectable marker, becomes integrated into the plant genomic DNA. Plants are allowed to set seed. Seeds are germinated in selective conditions to recover transformants. PMID:16739579

  11. Physiology of ex planta nitrogenase activity in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.K.; Keister, D.L.

    1983-05-01

    Thirty-nine wild-type strains of Rhizobium japonicum have been studied for their ability to synthesize nitrogenase ex planta in defined liquid media under microaerobic conditions. Twenty-one produced more than trace amounts of acetylene reduction activity, but only a few of these yielded high activity. The oxygen response curves were similar for most of the nitrogenase-positive strains. The strains derepressible for activity had several phenotypic characteristics different from non-derepressible strains. These included slower growth and lower oxygen consumption under microaerobic conditions and lower extracellular polysaccharide production. Extracellular polysaccharide production during growth on gluconate in every nitrogenase-positive strain assayed was lower under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions than the non-depressible strains. These phenotypic characteristics may be representative of a genotype of a subspecies of R. japonicum. These studies were done in part to enlarge the base number of strains available for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of nitrogen fixation. (35 Refs.)

  12. Pentahydroxyscirpene—Producing Strains, Formation In Planta, and Natural Occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Elisabeth; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Fruhmann, Philipp; Malachová, Alexandra; Svoboda, Thomas; Lemmens, Marc; Adam, Gerhard; Berthiller, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Trichothecenes are a class of structurally diverse mycotoxins with more than 200 naturally occurring compounds. Previously, a new compound, pentahydroxyscirpene (PHS), was reported as a byproduct of a nivalenol producing Fusarium strain, IFA189. PHS contains a hydroxy group at C-8 instead of the keto group of type B trichothecenes. In this work, we demonstrate that IFA189 belongs to the species Fusarium kyushuense using molecular tools. Production of PHS in vitro was also observed for several isolates of other Fusarium species producing nivalenol. Furthermore, we report the formation of 4-acetyl-PHS by F. kyushuense on inoculated rice. Wheat ears of the variety Remus were infected with IFA189 and the in planta production of PHS was confirmed. Natural occurrence of PHS was verified in barley samples from the Czech Republic using a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method validated for this purpose. Toxicity of PHS to wheat ribosomes was evaluated with a coupled in vitro transcription and translation assay, which showed that PHS inhibits protein biosynthesis slightly less than nivalenol and deoxynivalenol. PMID:27754401

  13. Time Gating of Chloroplast Autofluorescence Allows Clearer Fluorescence Imaging In Planta.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast, an organelle facilitating photosynthesis, exhibits strong autofluorescence, which is an undesired background signal that restricts imaging experiments with exogenous fluorophore in plants. In this study, the autofluorescence was characterized in planta under confocal laser microscopy, and it was found that the time-gated imaging technique completely eliminates the autofluorescence. As a demonstration of the technique, a clearer signal of fluorescent protein-tagged phototropin, a blue-light photoreceptor localized at the chloroplast periphery, was visualized in planta. PMID:27027881

  14. Time Gating of Chloroplast Autofluorescence Allows Clearer Fluorescence Imaging In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast, an organelle facilitating photosynthesis, exhibits strong autofluorescence, which is an undesired background signal that restricts imaging experiments with exogenous fluorophore in plants. In this study, the autofluorescence was characterized in planta under confocal laser microscopy, and it was found that the time-gated imaging technique completely eliminates the autofluorescence. As a demonstration of the technique, a clearer signal of fluorescent protein-tagged phototropin, a blue-light photoreceptor localized at the chloroplast periphery, was visualized in planta. PMID:27027881

  15. In planta Transformed Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Plants, Overexpressing the SbNHX1 Gene Showed Enhanced Salt Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sonika; Patel, Manish Kumar; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Cumin is an annual, herbaceous, medicinal, aromatic, spice glycophyte that contains diverse applications as a food and flavoring additive, and therapeutic agents. An efficient, less time consuming, Agrobacterium-mediated, a tissue culture-independent in planta genetic transformation method was established for the first time using cumin seeds. The SbNHX1 gene, cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata was transformed in cumin using optimized in planta transformation method. The SbNHX1 gene encodes a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter and is involved in the compartmentalization of excess Na+ ions into the vacuole and maintenance of ion homeostasis Transgenic cumin plants were confirmed by PCR using gene (SbNHX1, uidA and hptII) specific primers. The single gene integration event and overexpression of the gene were confirmed by Southern hybridization and competitive RT-PCR, respectively. Transgenic lines L3 and L13 showed high expression of the SbNHX1 gene compared to L6 whereas moderate expression was detected in L5 and L10 transgenic lines. Transgenic lines (L3, L5, L10 and L13), overexpressing the SbNHX1 gene, showed higher photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid), and lower electrolytic leakage, lipid peroxidation (MDA content) and proline content as compared to wild type plants under salinity stress. Though transgenic lines were also affected by salinity stress but performed better compared to WT plants. The ectopic expression of the SbNHX1 gene confirmed enhanced salinity stress tolerance in cumin as compared to wild type plants under stress condition. The present study is the first report of engineering salt tolerance in cumin, so far and the plant may be utilized for the cultivation in saline areas. PMID:27411057

  16. In planta Transformed Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Plants, Overexpressing the SbNHX1 Gene Showed Enhanced Salt Endurance.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sonika; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Cumin is an annual, herbaceous, medicinal, aromatic, spice glycophyte that contains diverse applications as a food and flavoring additive, and therapeutic agents. An efficient, less time consuming, Agrobacterium-mediated, a tissue culture-independent in planta genetic transformation method was established for the first time using cumin seeds. The SbNHX1 gene, cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata was transformed in cumin using optimized in planta transformation method. The SbNHX1 gene encodes a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter and is involved in the compartmentalization of excess Na+ ions into the vacuole and maintenance of ion homeostasis Transgenic cumin plants were confirmed by PCR using gene (SbNHX1, uidA and hptII) specific primers. The single gene integration event and overexpression of the gene were confirmed by Southern hybridization and competitive RT-PCR, respectively. Transgenic lines L3 and L13 showed high expression of the SbNHX1 gene compared to L6 whereas moderate expression was detected in L5 and L10 transgenic lines. Transgenic lines (L3, L5, L10 and L13), overexpressing the SbNHX1 gene, showed higher photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid), and lower electrolytic leakage, lipid peroxidation (MDA content) and proline content as compared to wild type plants under salinity stress. Though transgenic lines were also affected by salinity stress but performed better compared to WT plants. The ectopic expression of the SbNHX1 gene confirmed enhanced salinity stress tolerance in cumin as compared to wild type plants under stress condition. The present study is the first report of engineering salt tolerance in cumin, so far and the plant may be utilized for the cultivation in saline areas.

  17. In planta Transformed Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Plants, Overexpressing the SbNHX1 Gene Showed Enhanced Salt Endurance.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sonika; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Cumin is an annual, herbaceous, medicinal, aromatic, spice glycophyte that contains diverse applications as a food and flavoring additive, and therapeutic agents. An efficient, less time consuming, Agrobacterium-mediated, a tissue culture-independent in planta genetic transformation method was established for the first time using cumin seeds. The SbNHX1 gene, cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata was transformed in cumin using optimized in planta transformation method. The SbNHX1 gene encodes a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter and is involved in the compartmentalization of excess Na+ ions into the vacuole and maintenance of ion homeostasis Transgenic cumin plants were confirmed by PCR using gene (SbNHX1, uidA and hptII) specific primers. The single gene integration event and overexpression of the gene were confirmed by Southern hybridization and competitive RT-PCR, respectively. Transgenic lines L3 and L13 showed high expression of the SbNHX1 gene compared to L6 whereas moderate expression was detected in L5 and L10 transgenic lines. Transgenic lines (L3, L5, L10 and L13), overexpressing the SbNHX1 gene, showed higher photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid), and lower electrolytic leakage, lipid peroxidation (MDA content) and proline content as compared to wild type plants under salinity stress. Though transgenic lines were also affected by salinity stress but performed better compared to WT plants. The ectopic expression of the SbNHX1 gene confirmed enhanced salinity stress tolerance in cumin as compared to wild type plants under stress condition. The present study is the first report of engineering salt tolerance in cumin, so far and the plant may be utilized for the cultivation in saline areas. PMID:27411057

  18. Antifreeze proteins modify the freezing process in planta.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Marilyn; Lumb, Chelsey; Wiseman, Steven B; Wisniewski, Michael; Johnson, Robert W; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2005-05-01

    During cold acclimation, winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) plants accumulate antifreeze proteins (AFPs) in the apoplast of leaves and crowns. The goal of this study was to determine whether these AFPs influence survival at subzero temperatures by modifying the freezing process or by acting as cryoprotectants. In order to inhibit the growth of ice, AFPs must be mobile so that they can bind to specific sites on the ice crystal lattice. Guttate obtained from cold-acclimated winter rye leaves exhibited antifreeze activity, indicating that the AFPs are free in solution. Infrared video thermography was used to observe freezing in winter rye leaves. In the absence of an ice nucleator, AFPs had no effect on the supercooling temperature of the leaves. However, in the presence of an ice nucleator, AFPs lowered the temperature at which the leaves froze by 0.3 degrees C to 1.2 degrees C. In vitro studies showed that apoplastic proteins extracted from cold-acclimated winter rye leaves inhibited the recrystallization of ice and also slowed the rate of migration of ice through solution-saturated filter paper. When we examined the possible role of winter rye AFPs in cryoprotection, we found that lactate dehydrogenase activity was higher after freezing in the presence of AFPs compared with buffer, but the same effect was obtained by adding bovine serum albumin. AFPs had no effect on unstacked thylakoid volume after freezing, but did inhibit stacking of the thylakoids, thus indicating a loss of thylakoid function. We conclude that rye AFPs have no specific cryoprotective activity; rather, they interact directly with ice in planta and reduce freezing injury by slowing the growth and recrystallization of ice.

  19. Chlamydiae Has Contributed at Least 55 Genes to Plantae with Predominantly Plastid Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2008-01-01

    Background The photosynthetic organelle (plastid) originated via primary endosymbiosis in which a phagotrophic protist captured and harnessed a cyanobacterium. The plastid was inherited by the common ancestor of the red, green (including land plants), and glaucophyte algae (together, the Plantae). Despite the critical importance of primary plastid endosymbiosis, its ancient derivation has left behind very few “footprints” of early key events in organelle genesis. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain insights into this process, we conducted an in-depth phylogenomic analysis of genomic data (nuclear proteins) from 17 Plantae species to identify genes of a surprising provenance in these taxa, Chlamydiae bacteria. Previous studies show that Chlamydiae contributed many genes (at least 21 in one study) to Plantae that primarily have plastid functions and were postulated to have played a fundamental role in organelle evolution. Using our comprehensive approach, we identify at least 55 Chlamydiae-derived genes in algae and plants, of which 67% (37/55) are putatively plastid targeted and at least 3 have mitochondrial functions. The remainder of the proteins does not contain a bioinformatically predicted organelle import signal although one has an N-terminal extension in comparison to the Chlamydiae homolog. Our data suggest that environmental Chlamydiae were significant contributors to early Plantae genomes that extend beyond plastid metabolism. The chlamydial gene distribution and protein tree topologies provide evidence for both endosymbiotic gene transfer and a horizontal gene transfer ratchet driven by recurrent endoparasitism as explanations for gene origin. Conclusions/Significance Our findings paint a more complex picture of gene origin than can easily be explained by endosymbiotic gene transfer from an organelle-like point source. These data significantly extend the genomic impact of Chlamydiae on Plantae and show that about one-half (30/55) of the transferred

  20. In vitro and in planta compatibility of insecticides and the endophytic entomopathogen, Lecanicillium lecanii.

    PubMed

    Gurulingappa, Pampapathy; Mc Gee, Peter; Sword, Gregory A

    2011-08-01

    In an attempt to clarify the potential role of endophytic fungi in integrated pest management, the compatibility of an endophytic isolate of Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmermann) Gams & Zare (Hyphomycetes) with nine insecticides used against Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera : Aphididae) was examined both in vitro over 14 days and in planta. In the laboratory, most insecticides partially or completely inhibited the germination of conidia and growth of hyphae in nutrient-rich conditions. Endosulfan completely inhibited the germination of conidia and hyphal growth. In contrast, all insecticides were compatible with L. lecanii in planta, and the fungus was readily recovered from inoculated, colonized leaves. These data support the hypothesis that endophytic L. lecanii will be unaffected by insecticides and could be integrated in the management of pests in cotton. PMID:21424605

  1. Screening for in planta protein-protein interactions combining bimolecular fluorescence complementation with flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Understanding protein and gene function requires identifying interaction partners using biochemical, molecular or genetic tools. In plants, searching for novel protein-protein interactions is limited to protein purification assays, heterologous in vivo systems such as the yeast-two-hybrid or mutant screens. Ideally one would be able to search for novel protein partners in living plant cells. We demonstrate that it is possible to screen for novel protein-protein interactions from a random library in protoplasted Arabidopsis plant cells and recover some of the interacting partners. Our screen is based on capturing the bi-molecular complementation of mYFP between an YN-bait fusion partner and a completely random prey YC-cDNA library with FACS. The candidate interactions were confirmed using in planta BiFC assays and in planta FRET-FLIM assays. From this work, we show that the well characterized protein Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase 3 (CPK3) interacts with APX3, HMGB5, ORP2A and a ricin B-related lectin domain containing protein At2g39050. This is one of the first randomin planta screens to be successfully employed. PMID:22789293

  2. In planta anthocyanin degradation by a vacuolar class III peroxidase in Brunfelsia calycina flowers.

    PubMed

    Zipor, Gadi; Duarte, Patrícia; Carqueijeiro, Inês; Shahar, Liat; Ovadia, Rinat; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Eshel, Dani; Levin, Yishai; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Sottomayor, Mariana; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to detailed knowledge regarding the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, the largest group of plant pigments, little is known about their in planta degradation. It has been suggested that anthocyanin degradation is enzymatically controlled and induced when beneficial to the plant. Here we investigated the enzymatic process in Brunfelsia calycina flowers, as they changed color from purple to white. We characterized the enzymatic process by which B. calycina protein extracts degrade anthocyanins. A candidate peroxidase was partially purified and characterized and its intracellular localization was determined. The transcript sequence of this peroxidase was fully identified. A basic peroxidase, BcPrx01, is responsible for the in planta degradation of anthocyanins in B. calycina flowers. BcPrx01 has the ability to degrade complex anthocyanins, it co-localizes with these pigments in the vacuoles of petals, and both the mRNA and protein levels of BcPrx01 are greatly induced parallel to the degradation of anthocyanins. Both isoelectric focusing (IEF) gel analysis and 3D structure prediction indicated that BcPrx01 is cationic. Identification of BcPrx01 is a significant breakthrough both in the understanding of anthocyanin catabolism in plants and in the field of peroxidases, where such a consistent relationship between expression levels, in planta subcellular localization and activity has seldom been demonstrated.

  3. Discovery of Phytophthora infestans Genes Expressed in Planta through Mining of cDNA Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Diego; Pinzón, Andrés; Grajales, Alejandro; Rojas, Alejandro; Mutis, Gabriel; Cárdenas, Martha; Burbano, Daniel; Jiménez, Pedro; Bernal, Adriana; Restrepo, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary causes late blight of potato and tomato, and has a broad host range within the Solanaceae family. Most studies of the Phytophthora – Solanum pathosystem have focused on gene expression in the host and have not analyzed pathogen gene expression in planta. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe in detail an in silico approach to mine ESTs from inoculated host plants deposited in a database in order to identify particular pathogen sequences associated with disease. We identified candidate effector genes through mining of 22,795 ESTs corresponding to P. infestans cDNA libraries in compatible and incompatible interactions with hosts from the Solanaceae family. Conclusions/Significance We annotated genes of P. infestans expressed in planta associated with late blight using different approaches and assigned putative functions to 373 out of the 501 sequences found in the P. infestans genome draft, including putative secreted proteins, domains associated with pathogenicity and poorly characterized proteins ideal for further experimental studies. Our study provides a methodology for analyzing cDNA libraries and provides an understanding of the plant – oomycete pathosystems that is independent of the host, condition, or type of sample by identifying genes of the pathogen expressed in planta. PMID:20352100

  4. Tyrosinaemia II.

    PubMed

    Colditz, P B; Yu, J S; Billson, F A; Rogers, M; Molloy, H F; O'Halloran, M; Wilcken, B

    1984-08-18

    Four cases of tyrosinaemia type II (Richner-Hanhart syndrome) are reported. This syndrome consists of corneal erosions, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, and sometimes mental retardation. Presentation with photophobia and dendritic corneal ulceration or circumscribed palmoplantar keratoderma should alert the physician to the possible diagnosis of tyrosinaemia II. Early diagnosis is important, as the clinical picture can be modified by dietary restriction.

  5. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  6. Highly Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Wheat Via In Planta Inoculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risacher, Thierry; Craze, Melanie; Bowden, Sarah; Paul, Wyatt; Barsby, Tina

    This chapter details a reproducible method for the transformation of spring wheat using Agrobacterium tumefaciens via the direct inoculation of bacteria into immature seeds in planta as described in patent WO 00/63398(1. Transformation efficiencies from 1 to 30% have been obtained and average efficiencies of at least 5% are routinely achieved. Regenerated plants are phenotypically normal with 30-50% of transformation events carrying introduced genes at single insertion sites, a higher rate than is typically reported for transgenic plants produced using biolistic transformation methods.

  7. In planta cloning of geminiviral DNA: the true Sida micrantha mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Jeske, Holger; Gotthardt, Diether; Kober, Sigrid

    2010-02-01

    The circular single-stranded DNAs of geminiviruses are multiplied efficiently and preferentially by rolling circle amplification (RCA), and can be diagnosed readily by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and direct sequencing of the RCA product. Two strategies are described for cloning geminiviruses from plants harboring mixed infections by using RCA and RFLP with plant-derived nucleic acids without the need for bacterial amplification. By combining both these approaches, the true Sida micrantha mosaic virus was identified. The advantages of maintaining the quasispecies nature of a virus during in planta cloning is discussed with respect to reliable virus identification and resistance breeding.

  8. Bcmimp1, a Botrytis cinerea Gene Transiently Expressed in planta, Encodes a Mitochondrial Protein

    PubMed Central

    Benito-Pescador, David; Santander, Daniela; Arranz, M.; Díaz-Mínguez, José M.; Eslava, Arturo P.; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Benito, Ernesto P.

    2016-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a widespread necrotrophic fungus which infects more than 200 plant species. In an attempt to characterize the physiological status of the fungus in planta and to identify genetic factors contributing to its ability to infect the host cells, a differential gene expression analysis during the interaction B. cinerea-tomato was carried out. Gene Bcmimp1 codes for a mRNA detected by differential display in the course of this analysis. During the interaction with the host, it shows a transient expression pattern with maximal expression levels during the colonization and maceration of the infected tissues. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that BCMIMP1 is an integral membrane protein located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Co-localization experiments with a BCMIMP1-GFP fusion protein confirmed that the protein is targeted to the mitochondria. ΔBcmimp1 mutants do not show obvious phenotypic differences during saprophytic growth and their infection ability was unaltered as compared to the wild-type. Interestingly, the mutants produced increased levels of reactive oxygen species, likely as a consequence of disturbed mitochondrial function. Although Bcmimp1 expression is enhanced in planta it cannot be considered a pathogenicity factor. PMID:26952144

  9. A method for obtaining RNA from Hemileia vastatrix appressoria produced in planta, suitable for transcriptomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Andreia; Gil Azinheira, Helena; do Céu Silva, Maria; Talhinhas, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    Appressoria are the first infection structures developed by rust fungi and require specific topographic signals from the host for their differentiation. The ease in obtaining appressoria in vitro for these biotrophic fungi led to studies concerning gene expression and gene discovery at appressorial level, avoiding the need to distinguish plant and fungal transcripts. However, in some pathosystems, it was observed that gene expression in appressoria seems to be influenced by host-derived signals, suggesting that transcriptomic analyses performed from in planta differentiated appressoria would be potentially more informative than those from in vitro differentiated appressoria. Nevertheless analysing appressorial RNA obtained from in planta samples is often hampered by an excessive dilution of fungal RNA within plant RNA, besides uncertainty regarding the fungal or plant origin of RNA from highly conserved genes. To circumvent these difficulties, we have recovered Hemileia vastatrix appressoria from Arabica coffee leaf surface using a film of nitrocellulose dissolved in butyl and ethyl acetates (nail polish), and extracted fungal RNA from the polish peel. RNA thus obtained is of good quality and usable for cDNA synthesis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR) studies. This method could provide the means to investigate specific host-induced appressoria-related fungal pathogenicity factors. PMID:26466882

  10. Comparative analysis of the in vitro and in planta secretomes from Mycosphaerella fijiensis isolates.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Tovar, Lina; Guzmán-Quesada, Mauricio; Sandoval-Fernández, Jorge A; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2015-06-01

    Black Sigatoka, a devastating disease of bananas and plantains worldwide, is caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Several banana cultivars such as 'Yangambi Km 5' and Calcutta IV, have been known to be resistant to the fungus, but the resistance has been broken in 'Yangambi Km 5' in Costa Rica. Since the resistance of this variety still persists in Mexico, the aim of this study was to compare the in vitro and in planta secretomes from two avirulent and virulent M. fijiensis isolates using proteomics and bioinformatics approaches. We aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in fungal isolates that differ in pathogenicity and that might be responsible for breaking the resistance in 'Yangambi Km 5'. We were able to identify 90 protein spots in the secretomes of fungal isolates encoding 42 unique proteins and 35 differential spots between them. Proteins involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism were more prevalent. Several proteases, pathogenicity-related, ROS detoxification and unknown proteins were also highly or specifically expressed by the virulent isolate in vitro or during in planta infection. An unknown protein representing a virulence factor candidate was also identified. These results demonstrated that the secretome reflects major differences between both M. fijiensis isolates. PMID:25986542

  11. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  12. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  13. BORE II

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migratemore » upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.« less

  14. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  15. Mexican papita viroid and tomato planta macho viroid belong to a single species in the genus Pospiviroid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) and Mexican papita viroid (MPVd) are two closely-related (>90% sequence identity) members of the genus Pospiviroid. Their current status as separate species is based upon the reported ability of TPMVd to replicate in Gomphrena globosa and the inability of this viro...

  16. Single, ancient origin of a plastid metabolite translocator family in Plantae from an endomembrane-derived ancestor.

    PubMed

    Weber, Andreas P M; Linka, Marc; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2006-03-01

    Phylogenetic analyses show the single origin of a plastid metabolite translocator family in the Plantae from a gene encoding an existing endomembrane-derived protein. Red algal secondary endosymbiosis has spread a translocator gene into the ancestor of the "chromalveolate" protists, where it has diversified into a novel clade of proteins.

  17. High-Throughput Fluorescent Tagging of Full-Length Arabidopsis Gene Products in Planta1

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Guo-Wei; Mohanty, Amitabh; Chary, S. Narasimha; Li, Shijun; Paap, Brigitte; Drakakaki, Georgia; Kopec, Charles D.; Li, Jianxiong; Ehrhardt, David; Jackson, David; Rhee, Seung Y.; Raikhel, Natasha V.; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2004-01-01

    We developed a high-throughput methodology, termed fluorescent tagging of full-length proteins (FTFLP), to analyze expression patterns and subcellular localization of Arabidopsis gene products in planta. Determination of these parameters is a logical first step in functional characterization of the approximately one-third of all known Arabidopsis genes that encode novel proteins of unknown function. Our FTFLP-based approach offers two significant advantages: first, it produces internally-tagged full-length proteins that are likely to exhibit native intracellular localization, and second, it yields information about the tissue specificity of gene expression by the use of native promoters. To demonstrate how FTFLP may be used for characterization of the Arabidopsis proteome, we tagged a series of known proteins with diverse subcellular targeting patterns as well as several proteins with unknown function and unassigned subcellular localization. PMID:15141064

  18. In Planta Microsphere-Based Lateral Flow Leaf Biosensor in Maize.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jessica T; Castro, Carlos; Tsutsui, Hideaki

    2015-08-01

    Low-cost and quick detection of biotic stresses is critically important for protection of staple food crops such as maize in smallholder farms in developing countries, where access to improved seed varieties, fertilizers, and pesticides is limited due to financial and geographical reasons. Here, we report a new lateral flow detection technology directly integrated in a maize leaf, in which microspheres conjugated with analyte-specific capture antibodies are non-invasively injected. The antibody-conjugated microspheres capture and detect an analyte in a concentration-specific manner. In this study, we optimized microsphere size for effective infiltration and immobilization in the leaf, and further demonstrated detection of a fluorescent mock biomarker, fluorescein, in a live maize plant. This in planta lateral flow biosensor is the first of its kind and is expected to provide a low-cost and user-friendly detection method for biotic stresses in the field. PMID:25271045

  19. Microbial secondary metabolites ameliorate growth, in planta contents and lignification in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, Rupali; Srivastava, Madhumita; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-04-01

    In the present investigation, metabolites of Streptomyces sp. MTN14 and Trichoderma harzianum ThU significantly enhanced biomass yield (3.58 and 3.48 fold respectively) in comparison to the control plants. The secondary metabolites treatments also showed significant augmentation (0.75-2.25 fold) in withanolide A, a plant secondary metabolite. Lignin deposition, total phenolic and flavonoid content in W. somnifera were maximally induced in treatment having T. harzianum metabolites. Also, Trichoderma and Streptomyces metabolites were found much better in invoking in planta contents and antioxidants compared with their live culture treatments. Therefore, identification of new molecular effectors from metabolites of efficient microbes may be used as biopesticide and biofertilizer for commercial production of W. somnifera globally. PMID:27436916

  20. In Planta Localization of Stilbenes within Picea abies Phloem1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Pranovich, Andrey; Roig-Juan, Sílvia; Aoki, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic stilbene glucosides (astringin, isorhapontin, and piceid) and their aglycons commonly accumulate in the phloem of Norway spruce (Picea abies). However, current knowledge about the localization and accumulation of stilbenes within plant tissues and cells remains limited. Here, we used an innovative combination of novel microanalytical techniques to evaluate stilbenes in a frozen-hydrated condition (i.e. in planta) and a freeze-dried condition across phloem tissues. Semiquantitative time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry imaging in planta revealed that stilbenes were localized in axial parenchyma cells. Quantitative gas chromatography analysis showed the highest stilbene content in the middle of collapsed phloem with decreases toward the outer phloem. The same trend was detected for soluble sugar and water contents. The specimen water content may affect stilbene composition; the glucoside-to-aglycon ratio decreased slightly with decreases in water content. Phloem chemistry was correlated with three-dimensional structures of phloem as analyzed by microtomography. The outer phloem was characterized by a high volume of empty parenchyma, reduced ray volume, and a large number of axial parenchyma with porous vacuolar contents. Increasing porosity from the inner to the outer phloem was related to decreasing compactness of stilbenes and possible secondary oxidation or polymerization. Our results indicate that aging-dependent changes in phloem may reduce cell functioning, which affects the capacity of the phloem to store water and sugar, and may reduce the defense potential of stilbenes in the axial parenchyma. Our results highlight the power of using a combination of techniques to evaluate tissue- and cell-level mechanisms involved in plant secondary metabolite formation and metabolism. PMID:27531441

  1. In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko

    2014-03-01

    Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro∷PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1α2 pro∷GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.

  2. Mexican papita viroid and tomato planta macho viroid belong to a single species in the genus Pospiviroid.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, J Th J; Roenhorst, J W; Owens, R A

    2011-08-01

    Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) and Mexican papita viroid (MPVd) are two closely related (>90% sequence identity) members of the genus Pospiviroid. Their current status as members of separate species is based upon the reported ability of TPMVd to replicate in Gomphrena globosa and the inability of this viroid to evoke flower break in N. glutinosa. Characterization of a viroid recently isolated from diseased tomato plants grown in Mexico (identical to GenBank accession GQ131573) casts doubt on this earlier report and indicates that these viroids should be classified as members of a single species. Giving priority to the older name, we propose including both of these viroids in the current species Tomato planta macho viroid.

  3. Cloning of immunodominant membrane protein genes of phytoplasmas and their in planta expression.

    PubMed

    Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Oshima, Kenro; Ishii, Yoshiko; Hoshi, Ayaka; Maejima, Kensaku; Jung, Hee-Young; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2009-04-01

    Phytoplasmas are plant pathogenic bacteria that cause devastating yield losses in diverse crops worldwide. Although the understanding of the pathogen biology is important in agriculture, the inability to culture phytoplasmas has hindered their full characterization. Previous studies demonstrated that immunodominant membrane proteins could be classified into three types, immunodominant membrane protein (Imp), immunodominant membrane protein A (IdpA), and antigenic membrane protein (Amp), and they are nonhomologous to each other. Here, cloning and sequencing of imp-containing genomic fragments were performed for several groups of phytoplasma including the aster yellows and rice yellow dwarf groups, for which an imp sequence has not previously been reported. Sequence comparison analysis revealed that Imps are highly variable among phytoplasmas, and clear positive selection was observed in several Imps, suggesting that Imp has important roles in host-phytoplasma interactions. As onion yellows (OY) phytoplasma was known to have Amp as the immunodominant membrane protein, the protein accumulation level of Imp in planta was measured compared with that of Amp. The resulting accumulation of Imp was calculated as approximately one-tenth that of Amp, being consistent with the immunodominant property of Amp in OY. It is suggested that an ancestral type of immunodominant membrane protein could be Imp, and subsequently the expression level of Amp or IdpA is increased in several phytoplasma groups. PMID:19222574

  4. Analysis of in planta Expressed Orphan Genes in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Sadat, Abu; Jeon, Junhyun; Mir, Albely Afifa; Kim, Seongbeom; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Genomes contain a large number of unique genes which have not been found in other species. Although the origin of such “orphan” genes remains unclear, they are thought to be involved in species-specific adaptive processes. Here, we analyzed seven orphan genes (MoSPC1 to MoSPC7) prioritized based on in planta expressed sequence tag data in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. Expression analysis using qRT-PCR confirmed the expression of four genes (MoSPC1, MoSPC2, MoSPC3 and MoSPC7) during plant infection. However, individual deletion mutants of these four genes did not differ from the wild-type strain for all phenotypes examined, including pathogenicity. The length, GC contents, codon adaptation index and expression during mycelial growth of the four genes suggest that these genes formed during the evolutionary history of M. oryzae. Synteny analyses using closely related fungal species corroborated the notion that these genes evolved de novo in the M. oryzae genome. In this report, we discuss our inability to detect phenotypic changes in the four deletion mutants. Based on these results, the four orphan genes may be products of de novo gene birth processes, and their adaptive potential is in the course of being tested for retention or extinction through natural selection. PMID:25506301

  5. Characterization of VIP1 activity as a transcriptional regulator in vitro and in planta

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Benoît; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    VIP1 (VirE2 interacting protein 1), initially discovered as a host protein involved in Agrobacterium-plant cell DNA transfer, is a transcription factor of the basic leucine-zipper (bZIP) domain family that regulates several defence-related genes in Arabidopsis. We have developed assays to assess VIP1 binding to its DNA target in vitro and transcriptional activation efficiency in planta. Several point mutations in the VIP1 response element VRE affected the VIP1 activity, and a strong correlation between VIP1-VRE binding and transcriptional activation levels was observed. Promoter activation by VIP1 was influenced by bacterial and plant proteins known to interact with VIP1 during Agrobacterium infection, i.e., VirE2, VirF and VIP2. VirF, an F-box protein, strongly decreased VIP1 transcriptional activation ability, but not its binding to VRE in vitro, most likely by triggering proteasomal degradation of VIP1. Finally, activation of a VRE-containing promoter was observed in dividing cells, probably resulting from activation of endogenous VIP1. PMID:23942522

  6. "Agrolistic" transformation of plant cells: integration of T-strands generated in planta.

    PubMed

    Hansen, G; Chilton, M D

    1996-12-10

    We describe a novel plant transformation technique, termed "agrolistic," that combines the advantages of the Agrobacterium transformation system with the high efficiency of biolistic DNA delivery. Agrolistic transformation allows integration of the gene of interest without undesired vector sequence. The virulence genes virD1 and virD2 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens that are required in bacteria for excision of T-strands from the tumor-inducing plasmid were placed under the control of the CaMV35S promoter and codelivered with a target plasmid containing border sequences flanking the gene of interest. Transient expression assays in tobacco and in maize cells indicated that vir gene products caused strand-specific nicking in planta at the right border sequence, similar to VirD1/VirD2-catalyzed T-strand excision observed in Agrobacterium. Agrolistically transformed tobacco calli were obtained after codelivery of virD1 and virD2 genes together with a selectable marker flanked by border sequences. Some inserts exhibited right junctions with plant DNA that corresponded precisely to the sequence expected for T-DNA (portion of the tumor-inducing plasmid that is transferred to plant cells) insertion events. We designate these as "agrolistic" inserts, as distinguished from "biolistic" inserts. Both types of inserts were found in some transformed lines. The frequency of agrolistic inserts was 20% that of biolistic inserts. PMID:8962167

  7. In planta selfing and oospore production of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the presence of Acacia pulchella.

    PubMed

    Jayasekera, Arunodini U; McComb, Jen A; Shearer, Bryan L; Hardy, Giles E St J

    2007-03-01

    This paper provides the first evidence of A2 type 1 and type 2 isolates of Phytophthora cinnamomi producing selfed oospores in planta in an Australian soil and in a potting mix. Oospores were observed in infected lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) roots incubated for 7d either in the substrate under potted Acacia pulchella plants, or in soils collected from under and near varieties of A. pulchella in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest. The A2 type isolates varied in their ability to produce selfed oospores and none were produced by A1 isolates. The gametangial association was amphigynous and spores were predominantly spherical with diameters from 13-40 microm. The oospores were viable but dormant. Two A2 type isolates produced small numbers of selfed oospores with amphigynous antheridia axenically in Ribeiro's liquid medium within 30 d, and one A2 type 2 isolate produced oospores after mating with an A1 strain. Evidence is presented that the presence of roots of Acacia pulchella, and particularly A. pulchella var. glaberrima and var. goadbyi, enhances the production of oospores. PMID:17350243

  8. In planta production of flock house virus transencapsidated RNA and its potential use as a vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiyang; Maharaj, Payal D; Mallajosyula, Jyothi K; McCormick, Alison A; Kearney, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a transencapsidated vaccine delivery system based on the insect virus, Flock House virus (FHV). FHV is attractive due to its small genome size, simple organization, and nonpathogenic characteristics. With the insertion of a Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) origin of assembly (Oa), the independently replicating FHV RNA1 can be transencapsidated by TMV coat protein. In this study, we demonstrated that the Oa-adapted FHV RNA1 transencapsidation process can take place in planta, by using a bipartite plant expression vector system, where TMV coat protein is expressed by another plant virus vector, Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV). Dual infection in the same cell by both FHV and FoMV was observed. Though an apparent classical coat protein-mediated resistance repressed FHV expression, this was overcome by delaying inoculation of the TMV coat protein vector by 3 days after FHV vector inoculation. Expression of the transgene marker in animals by these in vivo-generated transencapsidated nanoparticles was confirmed by mouse vaccination, which also showed an improved vaccine response compared to similar in vitro-produced vaccines.

  9. Development of 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI)-caged auxins which are extremely stable in planta

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kusaka, Naoyuki; Yamasaki, Soma; Zhao, Yunde; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormone auxin is a master regulator in plant growth and development. Regulation of cellular auxin level plays a central role in plant development. Auxin polar transport system modulates an auxin gradient that determines plant developmental process in response to environmental conditions and developmental programs. Photolabile caged auxins allow optical control of artificial auxin gradients at cellular resolution. Especially, two-photon uncaging system achieves high spatiotemporal control of photolysis reaction at two-photon cross-section. However, the development of caged versions of auxin has been limited by the instability of the caged auxins to higher plant metabolic activities. Here, we describe the synthesis and application of highly stable caged auxins, 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI)-caged auxins. Natural auxin, indole 3-acetic acid, and two synthetic auxins, 1-NAA and 2,4-D were caged by MNI caging group. MNI-caged auxins showed a high stability in planta and a rapid release the original auxin when photolyzed. We demonstrated that optical control of auxin-responsive gene expression and auxin-related physiological responses by using MNI-caged auxins. We anticipate that MNI-caged auxins will be an effective tool for high-resolution control of endogenous auxin level. PMID:26364943

  10. Bacterial evolution by genomic island transfer occurs via DNA transformation in planta.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Helen C; Mansfield, John W; Godfrey, Scott A C; Jackson, Robert W; Hancock, John T; Arnold, Dawn L

    2009-09-29

    Our understanding of the evolution of microbial pathogens has been advanced by the discovery of "islands" of DNA that differ from core genomes and contain determinants of virulence. The acquisition of genomic islands (GIs) by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is thought to have played a major role in microbial evolution. There are, however, few practical demonstrations of the acquisition of genes that control virulence, and, significantly, all have been achieved outside the animal or plant host. Loss of a GI from the bean pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) is driven by exposure to the stress imposed by the plant's resistance response. Here, we show that the complete episomal island, which carries pathogenicity genes including the effector avrPphB, transfers between strains of Pph by transformation in planta and inserts at a specific att site in the genome of the recipient. Our results show that the evolution of bacterial pathogens by HGT may be achieved via transformation, the simplest mechanism of DNA exchange. This process is activated by exposure to plant defenses, when the pathogen is in greatest need of acquiring new genetic traits to alleviate the antimicrobial stress imposed by plant innate immunity.

  11. Native-sized spider silk proteins synthesized in planta via intein-based multimerization.

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, Valeska; Weichert, Nicola; Menzel, Matthias; Knoch, Dominic; Paege, Norman; Scheller, Jürgen; Spohn, Uwe; Conrad, Udo; Gils, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The synthesis of native-sized proteins is a pre-requisite for exploiting the potential of spider silk as a bio-based material. The unique properties of spider silk, such as extraordinary tensile strength and elasticity, result from the highly repetitive nature of spider silk protein motifs. The present report describes the combination of spider silk flagelliform protein (FLAG) production in the endoplasmic reticulum of tobacco plant leaf cells with an intein-based posttranslational protein fusion technology. The repeated ligation of FLAG monomers resulted in the formation of large multimers. This method avoids the need for highly repetitive transgenes, which may result in a higher genetic and transcriptional stability. Here we show, for the first time, the production of synthetic, high molecular weight spider silk proteins larger than 250 kDa based on the assembly of protein monomers via intein-mediated trans-splicing in planta. The resulting multimeric structures form microfibers, thereby demonstrating their great potential as a biomaterial. PMID:23001519

  12. Phytomonitoring of chlorinated ethenes in trees: a four-year study of seasonal chemodynamics in planta.

    PubMed

    Limmer, Matt A; Holmes, Amanda J; Burken, Joel G

    2014-09-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) of groundwater remedial projects is costly and time-consuming, particularly when using phytoremediation, a long-term remedial approach. The use of trees as sensors of groundwater contamination (i.e., phytoscreening) has been widely described, although the use of trees to provide long-term monitoring of such plumes (phytomonitoring) has been more limited due to unexplained variability of contaminant concentrations in trees. To assess this variability, we developed an in planta sampling method to obtain high-frequency measurements of chlorinated ethenes in oak (Quercus rubra) and baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) trees growing above a contaminated plume during a 4-year trial. The data set revealed that contaminant concentrations increased rapidly with transpiration in the spring and decreased in the fall, resulting in perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) sapwood concentrations an order of magnitude higher in late summer as compared to winter. Heartwood PCE and TCE concentrations were more buffered against seasonal effects. Rainfall events caused negligible dilution of contaminant concentrations in trees after precipitation events. Modeling evapotranspiration potential from meteorological data and comparing the modeled uptake and transport with the 4 years of high frequency data provides a foundation to advance the implementation of phytomonitoring and improved understanding of plant contaminant interactions.

  13. Phytomonitoring of chlorinated ethenes in trees: a four-year study of seasonal chemodynamics in planta.

    PubMed

    Limmer, Matt A; Holmes, Amanda J; Burken, Joel G

    2014-09-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) of groundwater remedial projects is costly and time-consuming, particularly when using phytoremediation, a long-term remedial approach. The use of trees as sensors of groundwater contamination (i.e., phytoscreening) has been widely described, although the use of trees to provide long-term monitoring of such plumes (phytomonitoring) has been more limited due to unexplained variability of contaminant concentrations in trees. To assess this variability, we developed an in planta sampling method to obtain high-frequency measurements of chlorinated ethenes in oak (Quercus rubra) and baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) trees growing above a contaminated plume during a 4-year trial. The data set revealed that contaminant concentrations increased rapidly with transpiration in the spring and decreased in the fall, resulting in perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) sapwood concentrations an order of magnitude higher in late summer as compared to winter. Heartwood PCE and TCE concentrations were more buffered against seasonal effects. Rainfall events caused negligible dilution of contaminant concentrations in trees after precipitation events. Modeling evapotranspiration potential from meteorological data and comparing the modeled uptake and transport with the 4 years of high frequency data provides a foundation to advance the implementation of phytomonitoring and improved understanding of plant contaminant interactions. PMID:25140854

  14. Root internalization, transport and in-planta survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport in sweet basil.

    PubMed

    Gorbatsevich, Elena; Sela Saldinger, Shlomo; Pinto, Riky; Bernstein, Nirit

    2013-02-01

    It is now acknowledged that food-borne pathogens present in the irrigation water or soil can become associated with crop plants in the field, penetrate internal plant tissues via the root, translocate and survive inside plants. Only little information is available concerning interaction between enteric pathogens and plants. The present study evaluated the potential for contamination of the aromatic plant, sweet basil during cultivation, by Salmonella enterica serovar Newport. Root internalization was plant-age-dependent, with the highest susceptibility occurring at the beginning of the rapid growth phase of the root. Higher incidence of internalization was detected in vegetative than reproductive plant organs, pointing at bacterial transport in the transpiration stream. Internalized Salmonella survived only < 30 h in the phyllosphere. In contrast, survival of Salmonella on the leaf surface was much pronounced (at least 8 days), and the initial decay rate was lower at the abaxial (lower) compared with the adaxial (upper) side of the leaf. Although the experiments were conducted with high concentration of Salmonella unlikely to happen in the field, internalization occurred at a low frequency and in-planta survival was limited to less than 30 h. These findings imply that leaf surface contamination, rather than root internalization, may pose higher risk for human infection following consumption of contaminated basil. PMID:23757144

  15. Advances in alfalfa mosaic virus-mediated expression of anthrax antigen in planta

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzik, R.; Bandurska, K.; Deka, D.; Golovkin, M.; Koprowski, H. . E-mail: h_koprowski@jefferson.edu

    2005-12-16

    Plant viruses show great potential for production of pharmaceuticals in plants. Such viruses can harbor a small antigenic peptide(s) as a part of their coat proteins (CP) and elicit an antigen-specific immune response. Here, we report the high yield and consistency in production of recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) particles for specific presentation of the small loop 15 amino acid epitope from domain-4 of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA-D4s). The epitope was inserted immediately after the first 25 N-terminal amino acids of AlMV CP to retain genome activation and binding of CP to viral RNAs. Recombinant AlMV particles were efficiently produced in tobacco, easily purified for immunological analysis, and exhibited extended stability and systemic proliferation in planta. Intraperitional injections of mice with recombinant plant virus particles harboring the PA-D4s epitope elicited a distinct immune response. Western blotting and ELISA analysis showed that sera from immunized mice recognized both native PA antigen and the AlMV CP.

  16. TYLCV-Is movement in planta does not require V2 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Hak, Hagit; Levy, Yael; Chandran, Sam A.; Belausov, Eduard; Loyter, Abraham; Lapidot, Moshe; Gafni, Yedidya

    2015-03-15

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a major tomato pathogen causing extensive crop losses, is a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus. V2 mutants of TYLCV-Is and related viruses tend to induce symptomless infection with attenuated viral DNA levels, while accumulating close to wild-type DNA levels in protoplasts, suggesting V2 as a movement protein. The discovery of plant-silencing mechanisms and viral silencing suppressors, V2 included, led us to reconsider V2's involvement in viral movement. We studied two mutant versions of the virus, one impaired in V2 silencing-suppression activity, and another carrying a non-translatable V2. While both mutant viruses spread in the infected plant to newly emerged leaves at the same rate as the wild-type virus, their DNA-accumulation levels were tenfold lower than in the wild-type virus. Thus, we suggest that the setback in virus proliferation, previously ascribed to a movement impediment, is due to lack of silencing-suppression activity. - Highlights: • TYLCV-Is V2 protein is localized in distinct microbodies throughout the cell cytoplasm, around the nucleus and in association with cytoplasmic strands but is not associated with the plasmodesmata. • Disruption of RNA-silencing suppression activity of TYLCV-Is V2 protein causes low titer of the virus in the infected plants. • The movement of TYLCV-Is in planta does not require a functional V2 protein.

  17. Assessment of factors influencing the Agrobacterium-mediated in planta seed transformation of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Rajesh, Manoharan; Jaganath, Balusamy; Vasuki, Amirthalingam; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Elayaraja, Dhandapani; Karthik, Sivabalan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2013-09-01

    An efficient and reproducible in planta transformation method was developed for brinjal using seed as an explant. The brinjal seeds were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 harbouring pCAMBIA 1301-bar plasmid, and the transformants were selected against BASTA®. Several parameters influencing the in planta seed transformation such as pre-culture duration, acetosyringone concentration, surfactants, duration of sonication, vacuum pressure and vacuum duration have been evaluated. The putatively transformed (T 0) brinjal plants were screened by GUS histochemical analysis. Among the different combinations and concentrations tested, when the 18-h pre-cultured brinjal seeds were sonicated for 20 min and vacuum infiltered for 3 min at 500 mm of Hg in Agrobacterium suspension containing 100 μM acetosyringone, 0.2 % Silwett L-77 favoured the Agrobacterium infection and showed maximum transformation efficiency. Among the five brinjal varieties evaluated, Arka Samhitha showed maximum transformation efficiency at 45.66 %. The transgene was successfully transmitted to progeny plants (T 1) which was evidenced by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridisation. The in planta protocol developed in the present study would be beneficial to transfer the economically and nutritionally important genes into different varieties of brinjal, and the transgenic brinjal plants can be produced in less time (approximately 27 days).

  18. In planta comparative transcriptomics of host-adapted strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Ailloud, Florent; Lowe, Tiffany M.; Robène, Isabelle; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Allen, Caitilyn

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ralstonia solanacearum is an economically important plant pathogen with an unusually large host range. The Moko (banana) and NPB (not pathogenic to banana) strain groups are closely related but are adapted to distinct hosts. Previous comparative genomics studies uncovered very few differences that could account for the host range difference between these pathotypes. To better understand the basis of this host specificity, we used RNAseq to profile the transcriptomes of an R. solanacearum Moko strain and an NPB strain under in vitro and in planta conditions. Results. RNAs were sequenced from bacteria grown in rich and minimal media, and from bacteria extracted from mid-stage infected tomato, banana and melon plants. We computed differential expression between each pair of conditions to identify constitutive and host-specific gene expression differences between Moko and NPB. We found that type III secreted effectors were globally up-regulated upon plant cell contact in the NPB strain compared with the Moko strain. Genes encoding siderophore biosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation genes were highly up-regulated in the NPB strain during melon pathogenesis, while denitrification genes were up-regulated in the Moko strain during banana pathogenesis. The relatively lower expression of oxidases and the denitrification pathway during banana pathogenesis suggests that R. solanacearum experiences higher oxygen levels in banana pseudostems than in tomato or melon xylem. Conclusions. This study provides the first report of differential gene expression associated with host range variation. Despite minimal genomic divergence, the pathogenesis of Moko and NPB strains is characterized by striking differences in expression of virulence- and metabolism-related genes. PMID:26788428

  19. In planta comparative transcriptomics of host-adapted strains of Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Ailloud, Florent; Lowe, Tiffany M; Robène, Isabelle; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Allen, Caitilyn; Prior, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ralstonia solanacearum is an economically important plant pathogen with an unusually large host range. The Moko (banana) and NPB (not pathogenic to banana) strain groups are closely related but are adapted to distinct hosts. Previous comparative genomics studies uncovered very few differences that could account for the host range difference between these pathotypes. To better understand the basis of this host specificity, we used RNAseq to profile the transcriptomes of an R. solanacearum Moko strain and an NPB strain under in vitro and in planta conditions. Results. RNAs were sequenced from bacteria grown in rich and minimal media, and from bacteria extracted from mid-stage infected tomato, banana and melon plants. We computed differential expression between each pair of conditions to identify constitutive and host-specific gene expression differences between Moko and NPB. We found that type III secreted effectors were globally up-regulated upon plant cell contact in the NPB strain compared with the Moko strain. Genes encoding siderophore biosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation genes were highly up-regulated in the NPB strain during melon pathogenesis, while denitrification genes were up-regulated in the Moko strain during banana pathogenesis. The relatively lower expression of oxidases and the denitrification pathway during banana pathogenesis suggests that R. solanacearum experiences higher oxygen levels in banana pseudostems than in tomato or melon xylem. Conclusions. This study provides the first report of differential gene expression associated with host range variation. Despite minimal genomic divergence, the pathogenesis of Moko and NPB strains is characterized by striking differences in expression of virulence- and metabolism-related genes. PMID:26788428

  20. Plant vaccination: stimulation of defense system by caffeine production in planta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Soo; Choi, Yong-Eui; Sano, Horishi

    2010-05-01

    Plants produce up to 100,000 secondary metabolites. One of their biological functions is self-denfese, and it is referred as chemical defense, directly and/or indirectly counteracting biotic and abiotic stresses. Alkaloids constitute 12% of total secondary metabolites, and some of them exhibit detrimental effects on living organisms. Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a member of purine alkaloids, and its exogenous application to plants at relatively high concentrations (0.01-0.1%) effectively repelled herbivores and pathogenic microbes. This allowed the construction of transgenic crops that endogenously produce caffeine to tolerate stresses. Experimentally, tobacco and chrysanthemum were successfully transformed with three distinct N-methyltranferases involved in the caffeine biosynthesis pathway. They produced 0.4-5 mug caffeine/g tissue (5 x 10(-4)%), this being three magnitudes lower than values found in caffeine-producing plants and in vitro experiments. Nevertheless, they exhibited strong repellence against pest insects, and high resistance to virus and bacterial infection. They also exhibited accelerated self-defense, as estimated by constitutive expression of defense-related genes, and by elevated production of salicylic acid, a critical signaling molecule for defense response. Since caffeine content was low in transgenic lines, observed effects might not be direct, but rather indirect. We presume that, as endogenously produced caffeine could be toxic, the host plants activated its own self-defense system, which commonly occurs regarding other stresses. Eventually the host became on standby to cope with a broad range of biotic stresses. The procedure resembles mammalian vaccination, in which antigen-antibody system is critical. We propose that plants can also be vaccinated as far as proper "antigenic" chemicals are expressed in planta.

  1. Floral benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases: From in vitro to in planta function

    PubMed Central

    Effmert, Uta; Saschenbrecker, Sandra; Ross, Jeannine; Negre, Florence; Fraser, Chris M.; Noel, Joseph P.; Dudareva, Natalia; Piechulla, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases synthesize methyl esters (e.g., methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate), which are constituents of aromas and scents of many plant species and play important roles in plant communication with the surrounding environment. Within the past five years, eleven such carboxyl methyltransferases were isolated and most of them were comprehensively investigated at the biochemical, molecular and structural level. Two types of enzymes can be distinguished according to their substrate preferences: the SAMT-type enzymes isolated from Clarkia breweri, Stephanotis floribunda, Antirrhinum majus, Hoya carnosa, and Petunia hybrida, which have a higher catalytic efficiency and preference for salicylic acid, while BAMT-type enzymes from A. majus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Nicotiana suaveolens prefer benzoic acid. The elucidation of C. breweri SAMT’s three-dimensional structure allowed a detailed modelling of the active sites of the carboxyl methyltransferases and revealed that the SAM binding pocket is highly conserved among these enzymes while the methyl acceptor binding site exhibits some variability, allowing a classification into SAMT-type and BAMT-type enzymes. The analysis of expression patterns coupled with biochemical characterization showed that these carboxyl methyltransferases are involved either in floral scent biosynthesis or in plant defense responses. While the latter can be induced by biotic or abiotic stress, the genes responsible for floral scent synthesis exhibit developmental and rhythmic expression pattern. The nature of the product and efficiency of its formation in planta depend on the availability of substrates, the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward benzoic acid and/or salicylic acid, and the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation at the enzyme level. The biochemical properties of benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases suggest that the genes involved in plant defenses

  2. Label-free chemically specific imaging in planta with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Jessica C; Littlejohn, George R; Seymour, Mark P; Lind, Rob J; Perfect, Sarah; Moger, Julian

    2013-05-21

    The growing world population puts ever-increasing demands on the agricultural and agrochemical industries to increase agricultural yields. This can only be achieved by investing in fundamental plant and agrochemical research and in the development of improved analytical tools to support research in these areas. There is currently a lack of analytical tools that provide noninvasive structural and chemical analysis of plant tissues at the cellular scale. Imaging techniques such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy provide label-free chemically specific image contrast based on vibrational spectroscopy. Over the past decade, these techniques have been shown to offer clear advantages for a vast range of biomedical research applications. The intrinsic vibrational contrast provides label-free quantitative functional analysis, it does not suffer from photobleaching, and it allows near real-time imaging in 3D with submicrometer spatial resolution. However, due to the susceptibility of current detection schemes to optical absorption and fluorescence from pigments (such as chlorophyll), the plant science and agrochemical research communities have not been able to benefit from these techniques and their application in plant research has remained virtually unexplored. In this paper, we explore the effect of chlorophyll fluorescence and absorption in CARS and SRS microscopy. We show that with the latter it is possible to use phase-sensitive detection to separate the vibrational signal from the (electronic) absorption processes. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of SRS for a range of in planta applications by presenting in situ chemical analysis of plant cell wall components, epicuticular waxes, and the deposition of agrochemical formulations onto the leaf surface.

  3. A real-time fluorogenic assay for the visualization of glycoside hydrolase activity in planta.

    PubMed

    Ibatullin, Farid M; Banasiak, Alicja; Baumann, Martin J; Greffe, Lionel; Takahashi, Junko; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Brumer, Harry

    2009-12-01

    There currently exists a diverse array of molecular probes for the in situ localization of polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins in plant cells, including reporter enzyme strategies (e.g. protein-glucuronidase fusions). In contrast, however, there is a paucity of methods for the direct analysis of endogenous glycoside hydrolases and transglycosidases responsible for cell wall remodeling. To exemplify the potential of fluorogenic resorufin glycosides to address this issue, a resorufin beta-glycoside of a xylogluco-oligosaccharide (XXXG-beta-Res) was synthesized as a specific substrate for in planta analysis of XEH activity. The resorufin aglycone is particularly distinguished for high sensitivity in muro assays due to a low pK(a) (5.8) and large extinction coefficient (epsilon 62,000 M(-1) cm(-1)), long-wavelength fluorescence (excitation 571 nm/emission 585 nm), and high quantum yield (0.74) of the corresponding anion. In vitro analyses demonstrated that XXXG-beta-Res is hydrolyzed by the archetypal plant XEH, nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) NXG1, with classical Michaelis-Menten substrate saturation kinetics and a linear dependence on both enzyme concentration and incubation time. Further, XEH activity could be visualized in real time by observing the localized increase in fluorescence in germinating nasturtium seeds and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescent stems by confocal microscopy. Importantly, this new in situ XEH assay provides an essential complement to the in situ xyloglucan endotransglycosylase assay, thus allowing delineation of the disparate activities encoded by xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase genes directly in plant tissues. The observation that XXXG-beta-Res is also hydrolyzed by diverse microbial XEHs indicates that this substrate, and resorufin glycosides in general, may find broad applicability for the analysis of wall restructuring by polysaccharide hydrolases during morphogenesis and plant-microbe interactions.

  4. In planta comparative transcriptomics of host-adapted strains of Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Ailloud, Florent; Lowe, Tiffany M; Robène, Isabelle; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Allen, Caitilyn; Prior, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ralstonia solanacearum is an economically important plant pathogen with an unusually large host range. The Moko (banana) and NPB (not pathogenic to banana) strain groups are closely related but are adapted to distinct hosts. Previous comparative genomics studies uncovered very few differences that could account for the host range difference between these pathotypes. To better understand the basis of this host specificity, we used RNAseq to profile the transcriptomes of an R. solanacearum Moko strain and an NPB strain under in vitro and in planta conditions. Results. RNAs were sequenced from bacteria grown in rich and minimal media, and from bacteria extracted from mid-stage infected tomato, banana and melon plants. We computed differential expression between each pair of conditions to identify constitutive and host-specific gene expression differences between Moko and NPB. We found that type III secreted effectors were globally up-regulated upon plant cell contact in the NPB strain compared with the Moko strain. Genes encoding siderophore biosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation genes were highly up-regulated in the NPB strain during melon pathogenesis, while denitrification genes were up-regulated in the Moko strain during banana pathogenesis. The relatively lower expression of oxidases and the denitrification pathway during banana pathogenesis suggests that R. solanacearum experiences higher oxygen levels in banana pseudostems than in tomato or melon xylem. Conclusions. This study provides the first report of differential gene expression associated with host range variation. Despite minimal genomic divergence, the pathogenesis of Moko and NPB strains is characterized by striking differences in expression of virulence- and metabolism-related genes.

  5. Bioinspired engineering study of Plantae vascules for self-healing composite structures

    PubMed Central

    Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first conceptual study into creating a Plantae-inspired vascular network within a fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminate, which provides an ongoing self-healing functionality without incurring a mass penalty. Through the application of a ‘lost-wax’ technique, orthogonal hollow vascules, inspired by the ‘ray cell’ structures found in ring porous hardwoods, were successfully introduced within a carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite laminate. The influence on fibre architecture and mechanical behaviour of single vascules (located on the laminate centreline) when aligned parallel and transverse to the local host ply was characterized experimentally using a compression-after-impact test methodology. Ultrasonic C-scanning and high-resolution micro-CT X-ray was undertaken to identify the influence of and interaction between the internal vasculature and impact damage. The results clearly show that damage morphology is influenced by vascule orientation and that a 10 J low-velocity impact damage event is sufficient to breach the vasculature; a prerequisite for any subsequent self-healing function. The residual compressive strength after a 10 J impact was found to be dependent upon vascule orientation. In general, residual compressive strength decreased to 70 per cent of undamaged strength when vasculature was aligned parallel to the local host ply and a value of 63 per cent when aligned transverse. This bioinspired engineering study has illustrated the potential that a vasculature concept has to offer in terms of providing a self-healing function with minimum mass penalty, without initiating premature failure within a composite structure. PMID:19955122

  6. In planta gene expression analysis of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae, African strain MAI1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacterial leaf blight causes significant yield losses in rice crops throughout Asia and Africa. Although both the Asian and African strains of the pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), induce similar symptoms, they are nevertheless genetically different, with the African strains being more closely related to the Asian X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc). Results Changes in gene expression of the African Xoo strain MAI1 in the susceptible rice cultivar Nipponbare were profiled, using an SSH Xoo DNA microarray. Microarray hybridization was performed comparing bacteria recovered from plant tissues at 1, 3, and 6 days after inoculation (dai) with bacteria grown in vitro. A total of 710 bacterial genes were found to be differentially expressed, with 407 up-regulated and 303 down-regulated. Expression profiling indicated that less than 20% of the 710 bacterial transcripts were induced in the first 24 h after inoculation, whereas 63% were differentially expressed at 6 dai. The 710 differentially expressed genes were one-end sequenced. 535 sequences were obtained from which 147 non-redundant sequences were identified. Differentially expressed genes were related to metabolism, secretion and transport, pathogen adherence to plant tissues, plant cell-wall degradation, IS elements, and virulence. In addition, various other genes encoding proteins with unknown function or showing no similarity to other proteins were also induced. The Xoo MAI1 non-redundant set of sequences was compared against several X. oryzae genomes, revealing a specific group of genes that was present only in MAI1. Numerous IS elements were also found to be differentially expressed. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed 86% of the identified profile on a set of 14 genes selected according to the microarray analysis. Conclusions This is the first report to compare the expression of Xoo genes in planta across different time points during infection. This work shows that as-yet-unidentified and

  7. Nodularin, a cyanobacterial toxin, is synthesized in planta by symbiotic Nostoc sp.

    PubMed

    Gehringer, Michelle M; Adler, Lewis; Roberts, Alexandra A; Moffitt, Michelle C; Mihali, Troco K; Mills, Toby J T; Fieker, Claus; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    The nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Nostoc, is a commonly occurring cyanobacterium often found in symbiotic associations. We investigated the potential of cycad cyanobacterial endosymbionts to synthesize microcystin/nodularin. Endosymbiont DNA was screened for the aminotransferase domain of the toxin biosynthesis gene clusters. Five endosymbionts carrying the gene were screened for bioactivity. Extracts of two isolates inhibited protein phosphatase 2A and were further analyzed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS. Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' both contained nodularin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) HESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of nodularin at 9.55±2.4 ng μg-1 chlorophyll a in Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and 12.5±8.4 ng μg-1 Chl a in Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' extracts. Further scans indicated the presence of the rare isoform [L-Har(2)] nodularin, which contains L-homoarginine instead of L-arginine. Nodularin was also present at 1.34±0.74 ng ml(-1) (approximately 3 pmol per g plant ww) in the methanol root extracts of M. riedlei MZ65, while the presence of [L-Har(2)] nodularin in the roots of M. serpentina MZ73 was suggested by HPLC HESI-MS/MS analysis. The ndaA-B and ndaF genomic regions were sequenced to confirm the presence of the hybrid polyketide/non-ribosomal gene cluster. A seven amino-acid insertion into the NdaA-C1 domain of N. spumigena NSOR10 protein was observed in all endosymbiont-derived sequences, suggesting the transfer of the nda cluster from N. spumigena to terrestrial Nostoc species. This study demonstrates the synthesis of nodularin and [L-Har(2)] nodularin in a non-Nodularia species and the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin by a symbiont in planta. PMID:22456448

  8. FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-26

    FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) II ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Relevant Documents:  FIRE Project Guide FIRE II - Cirrus Home Page FIRE II - Cirrus Mission Summaries ...

  9. A single base pair in the right terminal domain of Tomato planta macho viroid is a virulence determinant factor on tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd), including isolates previously designated as Mexican papita viroid (MPVd), causes serious disease on tomatoes in North America. Two predominant variants, sharing 93.8% sequence identity, incited distinct severe (MPVd-S) or mild (MPVd-M) symptoms on tomato. To ide...

  10. Chitin synthesis during in planta growth and asexual propagation of the cellulosic oomycete and obligate biotrophic grapevine pathogen Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Werner, Stefan; Steiner, Ulrike; Becher, Rayko; Kortekamp, Andreas; Zyprian, Eva; Deising, Holger B

    2002-03-01

    PCR amplification of two CHS gene fragments of the obligate biotroph Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew of grapevine, is described. While one fragment shows homology to fungal class IV chitin synthases, the other fragment groups with other oomycete chitin synthases to form a novel class of chitin synthases most closely related to class I-III. RT-PCR experiments indicate that PvCHS1 is constitutively expressed, whereas PvCHS2 is specifically transcribed in sporangiophores and sporangia. Analyses of wheat germ agglutinin labeling patterns by confocal laser scanning microscopy show that chitin is present on the surface of hyphal cell walls during in planta growth, and of sporangiophores and sporangia.

  11. Plastid-localized amino acid biosynthetic pathways of Plantae are predominantly composed of non-cyanobacterial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Moustafa, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Studies of photosynthetic eukaryotes have revealed that the evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria involved the recruitment of non-cyanobacterial proteins. Our phylogenetic survey of >100 Arabidopsis nuclear-encoded plastid enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis identified only 21 unambiguous cyanobacterial-derived proteins. Some of the several non-cyanobacterial plastid enzymes have a shared phylogenetic origin in the three Plantae lineages. We hypothesize that during the evolution of plastids some enzymes encoded in the host nuclear genome were mistargeted into the plastid. Then, the activity of those foreign enzymes was sustained by both the plastid metabolites and interactions with the native cyanobacterial enzymes. Some of the novel enzymatic activities were favored by selective compartmentation of additional complementary enzymes. The mosaic phylogenetic composition of the plastid amino acid biosynthetic pathways and the reduced number of plastid-encoded proteins of non-cyanobacterial origin suggest that enzyme recruitment underlies the recompartmentation of metabolic routes during the evolution of plastids. PMID:23233874

  12. In planta expression of A. cellulolyticus Cel5A endocellulase reduces cell wall recalcitrance in tobacco and maize

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The glycoside hydrolase family 5 endocellulase, E1 (Cel5A), from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was transformed into both Nicotiana tabacum and Zea mays with expression targeted to the cell wall under a constitutive promoter. Here we explore the possibility that in planta expression of endocellulases will allow these enzymes to access their substrates during cell wall construction, rendering cellulose more amenable to pretreatment and enzyme digestion. Tobacco and maize plants were healthy and developed normally compared with the wild type (WT). After thermochemical pretreatment and enzyme digestion, transformed plants were clearly more digestible than WT, requiring lower pretreatment severity to achieve comparable conversion levels. Furthermore, the decreased recalcitrance was not due to post-pretreatment residual E1 activity and could not be reproduced by the addition of exogenous E1 to the biomass prior to pretreatment, indicating that the expression of E1 during cell wall construction altered the inherent recalcitrance of the cell wall. PMID:21269444

  13. Bioimaging techniques for subcellular localization of plant hemoglobins and measurement of hemoglobin-dependent nitric oxide scavenging in planta.

    PubMed

    Hebelstrup, Kim H; Østergaard-Jensen, Erik; Hill, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins are ubiquitous in all plant families. They are expressed at low levels in specific tissues. Several studies have established that plant hemoglobins are scavengers of nitric oxide (NO) and that varying the endogenous level of hemoglobin in plant cells negatively modulates bioactivity of NO generated under hypoxic conditions or during cellular signaling. Earlier methods for determination of hemoglobin-dependent scavenging in planta were based on measuring activity in whole plants or organs. Plant hemoglobins do not contain specific organelle localization signals; however, earlier reports on plant hemoglobin have demonstrated either cytosolic or nuclear localization, depending on the method or cell type investigated. We have developed two bioimaging techniques: one for visualization of hemoglobin-catalyzed scavenging of NO in specific cells and another for visualization of subcellular localization of green fluorescent protein-tagged plant hemoglobins in transformed Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

  14. Development of fiber optic spectroscopy for in-vitro and in-planta detection of fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Oi Wah; Chen, Jun-Wei; Asundi, Anand K.

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this project is to apply photonics technology to bio-safety management of genetically modified (GM) plants. The conventional method for screening GM plants is through selection using antibiotic resistance markers. There is public concern with such approaches and these are associated with food safety issues, escape of antibiotic resistance genes to pathogenic microorganisms and interference with antibiotic therapy. Thus, the strategy taken in this project is to replace antibiotic resistance markers with fluorescent protein markers that allow for rapid and non-invasive optical screening of genetically modified plants. In this paper, fibre optic spectroscopy was developed to detect and quantify recombinant green (EGFP) and red (DsRED) fluorescent proteins in vitro and in planta. In vitro detection was first carried out to optimize the sensitivity of the optical system. The bacterial expression vectors carrying the coding regions of EGFP and DsRED were introduced into Escherichia coli host cells and fluorescent proteins were produced following induction with IPTG. Soluble EGFP and DsRED proteins were isolated from lysed bacterial cells and serially diluted for quantitative analysis by fibre optic spectroscopy using different light sources, namely, blue LED (475 nm), tungsten halogen (350 - 1000 nm) and double frequency Nd:YAG green laser (532 nm). Fluorescence near the expected emission wavelengths could be detected up to 320X dilution for EGFP and DsRED with blue LED and 532 nm green laser, respectively, as the excitation source. Tungsten halogen was found to be unsuitable for excitation of both EGFP and DsRED. EGFP was successfully purified by size separation under non-denaturing electrophoretic conditions and quantified. The minimum concentration of EGFP detectable with blue LED excitation was 5 mg/ml. To determine the capability of spectroscopy detection in planta, transgenic potato hairy roots and whole modified plant lines expressing the

  15. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Triplett, Barbara A; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Stelly, David M; Yeater, Kathleen M; Moon, Hong S; Gilbert, Matthew K; Thyssen, Gregory N; Turley, Rickie B; Fang, David D

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta. PMID:25927364

  16. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Triplett, Barbara A; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Stelly, David M; Yeater, Kathleen M; Moon, Hong S; Gilbert, Matthew K; Thyssen, Gregory N; Turley, Rickie B; Fang, David D

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta.

  17. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  18. Angiotensin II receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Derek; Yee, Daniel K; Fluharty, Steven J

    2007-05-01

    Angiotensin II plays a key role in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis. To correct body fluid deficits that occur during hypovolaemia, an animal needs to ingest both water and electrolytes. Thus, it is not surprising that angiotensin II, which is synthesized in response to hypovolaemia, acts centrally to increase both water and NaCl intake. Here, we review findings relating to the properties of angiotensin II receptors that give rise to changes in behaviour. Data are described to suggest that divergent signal transduction pathways are responsible for separable behavioural responses to angiotensin II, and a hypothesis is proposed to explain how this divergence may map onto neural circuits in the brain.

  19. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  20. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... The cause of MEN II is a defect in a gene called RET. This defect causes many tumors to appear in the same ...

  2. Network II Database

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  3. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation). Factor II is also known as prothrombin. ... blood clots form. This process is called the coagulation cascade. It involves special proteins called coagulation, or ...

  4. A toolset of aequorin expression vectors for in planta studies of subcellular calcium concentrations in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mehlmer, Norbert; Parvin, Nargis; Hurst, Charlotte H; Knight, Marc R; Teige, Markus; Vothknecht, Ute C

    2012-02-01

    Calcium has long been acknowledged as one of the most important signalling components in plants. Many abiotic and biotic stimuli are transduced into a cellular response by temporal and spatial changes in cellular calcium concentration and the calcium-sensitive protein aequorin has been exploited as a genetically encoded calcium indicator for the measurement of calcium in planta. The objective of this work was to generate a compatible set of aequorin expression plasmids for the generation of transgenic plant lines to measure changes in calcium levels in different cellular subcompartments. Aequorin was fused to different targeting peptides or organellar proteins as a means to localize it to the cytosol, the nucleus, the plasma membrane, and the mitochondria. Furthermore, constructs were designed to localize aequorin in the stroma as well as the inner and outer surface of the chloroplast envelope membranes. The modular set-up of the plasmids also allows the easy replacement of targeting sequences to include other compartments. An additional YFP-fusion was included to verify the correct subcellular localization of all constructs by laser scanning confocal microscopy. For each construct, pBin19-based binary expression vectors driven by the 35S or UBI10 promoter were made for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Stable Arabidopsis lines were generated and initial tests of several lines confirmed their feasibility to measure calcium signals in vivo.

  5. In Planta Single-Molecule Pull-Down Reveals Tetrameric Stoichiometry of HD-ZIPIII:LITTLE ZIPPER Complexes[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Husbands, Aman Y.; Aggarwal, Vasudha; Ha, Taekjip; Timmermans, Marja C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering complex biological processes markedly benefits from approaches that directly assess the underlying biomolecular interactions. Most commonly used approaches to monitor protein-protein interactions typically provide nonquantitative readouts that lack statistical power and do not yield information on the heterogeneity or stoichiometry of protein complexes. Single-molecule pull-down (SiMPull) uses single-molecule fluorescence detection to mitigate these disadvantages and can quantitatively interrogate interactions between proteins and other compounds, such as nucleic acids, small molecule ligands, and lipids. Here, we establish SiMPull in plants using the HOMEODOMAIN LEUCINE ZIPPER III (HD-ZIPIII) and LITTLE ZIPPER (ZPR) interaction as proof-of-principle. Colocalization analysis of fluorophore-tagged HD-ZIPIII and ZPR proteins provides strong statistical evidence of complex formation. In addition, we use SiMPull to directly quantify YFP and mCherry maturation probabilities, showing these differ substantially from values obtained in mammalian systems. Leveraging these probabilities, in conjunction with fluorophore photobleaching assays on over 2000 individual complexes, we determined HD-ZIPIII:ZPR stoichiometry. Intriguingly, these complexes appear as heterotetramers, comprising two HD-ZIPIII and two ZPR molecules, rather than heterodimers as described in the current model. This surprising result raises new questions about the regulation of these key developmental factors and is illustrative of the unique contribution SiMPull is poised to make to in planta protein interaction studies. PMID:27385814

  6. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale.

  7. Construction of EGFP-labeling system for visualizing the infection process of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in planta.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Ping; Deng, Zi-Niu; Qu, Jin-Wang; Yan, Jia-Wen; Catara, Vittoria; Li, Da-Zhi; Long, Gui-You; Li, Na

    2012-09-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker, an economically important disease to world citrus industry. To monitor the infection process of Xac in different citrus plants, the enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP) visualizing system was constructed to visualize the propagation and localization in planta. First, the wild-type Xac was isolated from the diseased leaves of susceptible 'Bingtang' sweet orange, and then the isolated Xac was labeled with EGFP by triparental mating. After PCR identification, the growth kinetics and pathogenicity of the transformants were analyzed in comparison with the wild-type Xac. The EGFP-labeled bacteria were inoculated by spraying on the surface and infiltration in the mesophyll of 'Bingtang' sweet orange leaves. The bacterial cell multiplication and diffusion processes were observed directly under confocal laser scanning microscope at different intervals after inoculation. The results indicated that the EGFP-labeled Xac releasing clear green fluorescence light under fluorescent microscope showed the infection process and had the same pathogenicity as the wild type to citrus. Consequently, the labeled Xac demonstrated the ability as an efficient tool to monitor the pathogen infection. PMID:22674174

  8. Cell wall targeted in planta iron accumulation enhances biomass conversion and seed iron concentration in Arabidopsis and rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haibing; Wei, Hui; Ma, Guojie; Antunes, Mauricio S; Vogt, Stefan; Cox, Joseph; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Xiping; Bu, Lintao; Gleber, S Charlotte; Carpita, Nicholas C; Makowski, Lee; Himmel, Michael E; Tucker, Melvin P; McCann, Maureen C; Murphy, Angus S; Peer, Wendy A

    2016-10-01

    Conversion of nongrain biomass into liquid fuel is a sustainable approach to energy demands as global population increases. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a catalyst to enhance the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. However, direct addition of iron catalysts to biomass pretreatment is diffusion-limited, would increase the cost and complexity of biorefinery unit operations and may have deleterious environmental impacts. Here, we show a new strategy for in planta accumulation of iron throughout the volume of the cell wall where iron acts as a catalyst in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. We engineered CBM-IBP fusion polypeptides composed of a carbohydrate-binding module family 11 (CBM11) and an iron-binding peptide (IBP) for secretion into Arabidopsis and rice cell walls. CBM-IBP transformed Arabidopsis and rice plants show significant increases in iron accumulation and biomass conversion compared to respective controls. Further, CBM-IBP rice shows a 35% increase in seed iron concentration and a 40% increase in seed yield in greenhouse experiments. CBM-IBP rice potentially could be used to address iron deficiency, the most common and widespread nutritional disorder according to the World Health Organization.

  9. In Planta Single-Molecule Pull-Down Reveals Tetrameric Stoichiometry of HD-ZIPIII:LITTLE ZIPPER Complexes.

    PubMed

    Husbands, Aman Y; Aggarwal, Vasudha; Ha, Taekjip; Timmermans, Marja C P

    2016-08-01

    Deciphering complex biological processes markedly benefits from approaches that directly assess the underlying biomolecular interactions. Most commonly used approaches to monitor protein-protein interactions typically provide nonquantitative readouts that lack statistical power and do not yield information on the heterogeneity or stoichiometry of protein complexes. Single-molecule pull-down (SiMPull) uses single-molecule fluorescence detection to mitigate these disadvantages and can quantitatively interrogate interactions between proteins and other compounds, such as nucleic acids, small molecule ligands, and lipids. Here, we establish SiMPull in plants using the HOMEODOMAIN LEUCINE ZIPPER III (HD-ZIPIII) and LITTLE ZIPPER (ZPR) interaction as proof-of-principle. Colocalization analysis of fluorophore-tagged HD-ZIPIII and ZPR proteins provides strong statistical evidence of complex formation. In addition, we use SiMPull to directly quantify YFP and mCherry maturation probabilities, showing these differ substantially from values obtained in mammalian systems. Leveraging these probabilities, in conjunction with fluorophore photobleaching assays on over 2000 individual complexes, we determined HD-ZIPIII:ZPR stoichiometry. Intriguingly, these complexes appear as heterotetramers, comprising two HD-ZIPIII and two ZPR molecules, rather than heterodimers as described in the current model. This surprising result raises new questions about the regulation of these key developmental factors and is illustrative of the unique contribution SiMPull is poised to make to in planta protein interaction studies.

  10. Functional characterisation of metal(loid) processes in planta through the integration of synchrotron techniques and plant molecular biology

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Erica; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lombi, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    Functional characterisation of the genes regulating metal(loid) homeostasis in plants is a major focus of crop biofortification, phytoremediation, and food security research. This paper focuses on the potential for advancing plant metal(loid) research by combining molecular biology and synchrotron-based techniques. Recent advances in x-ray focussing optics and fluorescence detection have greatly improved the potential of synchrotron techniques for plant science research, allowing metal(loids) to be imaged in vivo in hydrated plant tissues at sub-micron resolution. Laterally resolved metal(loid) speciation can also be determined. By using molecular techniques to probe the location of gene expression and protein localisation and combining it with this synchrotron-derived data, functional information can be effectively and efficiently assigned to specific genes. This paper provides a review of the state of the art in this field, and provides examples as to how synchrotron-based methods can be combined with molecular techniques to facilitate functional characterisation of genes in planta. PMID:22200921

  11. Construction of EGFP-labeling system for visualizing the infection process of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in planta.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Ping; Deng, Zi-Niu; Qu, Jin-Wang; Yan, Jia-Wen; Catara, Vittoria; Li, Da-Zhi; Long, Gui-You; Li, Na

    2012-09-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker, an economically important disease to world citrus industry. To monitor the infection process of Xac in different citrus plants, the enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP) visualizing system was constructed to visualize the propagation and localization in planta. First, the wild-type Xac was isolated from the diseased leaves of susceptible 'Bingtang' sweet orange, and then the isolated Xac was labeled with EGFP by triparental mating. After PCR identification, the growth kinetics and pathogenicity of the transformants were analyzed in comparison with the wild-type Xac. The EGFP-labeled bacteria were inoculated by spraying on the surface and infiltration in the mesophyll of 'Bingtang' sweet orange leaves. The bacterial cell multiplication and diffusion processes were observed directly under confocal laser scanning microscope at different intervals after inoculation. The results indicated that the EGFP-labeled Xac releasing clear green fluorescence light under fluorescent microscope showed the infection process and had the same pathogenicity as the wild type to citrus. Consequently, the labeled Xac demonstrated the ability as an efficient tool to monitor the pathogen infection.

  12. In planta transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using TPS1 gene for enhancing tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Yellisetty, Varalaxmi; Reddy, L A; Mandapaka, Maheswari

    2015-09-01

    An in planta transformation protocol for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using shoot apical meristem of germinating seedlings is reported in this study. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, LBA4404 with pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1 were individually used for transformation. Since, the transgene is integrated into the cells of already differentiated tissues, the T 0 plants were chimeric and stable integration was observed in T1 generation. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression in the seedlings and spikelets of emerging cob was the first indication of transformability in T0 generation which was further confirmed by PCR analysis using hpt and TPS1 gene-specific primers. Screening on 25 mg/L hygromycin combined with PCR analysis was used for selection of transformants in the T1 generation. Transformation efficiencies ranged between 34-38% and 26-34% using pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1, respectively. Molecular characterization of the T2 transgenics using PCR, RT-PCR and Southern blot analyses further revealed the integration, expression and inheritance of the transgene. These results indicate the feasibility of the method to generate transgenics with pCAM-BIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1. The abiotic stress tolerance of TPS1 transgenics developed in the present study was evident by the ability of the transformants to tolerate 200 mM NaCl as well as higher root growth and biomass. PMID:26440081

  13. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  14. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  15. PEP-II Status

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.; Bertsche, K.; Browne, M.; Cai, Y.; Cheng, W.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fisher, A.S.; Fox, J.; Heifets, S.; Himel, T.; Iverson, R.; Kulikov, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Pacak, V.; Pivi, M.; Rivetta, C.; Ross, M.; /SLAC /Saclay /Frascati

    2008-07-25

    PEP-II and BaBar have just finished run 7, the last run of the SLAC B-factory. PEP-II was one of the few high-current e+e- colliding accelerators and holds the present world record for stored electrons and stored positrons. It has stored 2.07 A of electrons, nearly 3 times the design current of 0.75 A and it has stored 3.21 A of positrons, 1.5 times more than the design current of 2.14 A. High-current beams require careful design of several systems. The feedback systems that control instabilities, the RF system stability loops, and especially the vacuum systems have to handle the higher power demands. We present here some of the accomplishments of the PEP-II accelerator and some of the problems we encountered while running high-current beams.

  16. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  17. About APPLE II Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  18. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  19. Efficient In Planta Detection and Dissection of De Novo Mutation Events in the Arabidopsis thaliana Disease Resistance Gene UNI.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tomohiko; Mori, Akiko; Igari, Kadunari; Morita, Miyo Terao; Tasaka, Masao; Uchida, Naoyuki

    2016-06-01

    Plants possess disease resistance (R) proteins encoded by R genes, and each R protein recognizes a specific pathogen factor(s) for immunity. Interestingly, a remarkably high degree of polymorphisms in R genes, which are traces of past mutation events during evolution, suggest the rapid diversification of R genes. However, little is known about molecular aspects that facilitate the rapid change of R genes because of the lack of tools that enable us to monitor de novo R gene mutations efficiently in an experimentally feasible time scale, especially in living plants. Here we introduce a model assay system that enables efficient in planta detection of de novo mutation events in the Arabidopsis thaliana R gene UNI in one generation. The uni-1D mutant harbors a gain-of-function allele of the UNI gene. uni-1D heterozygous individuals originally exhibit dwarfism with abnormally short stems. However, interestingly, morphologically normal stems sometimes emerge spontaneously from the uni-1D plants, and the morphologically reverted tissues carry additional de novo mutations in the UNI gene. Strikingly, under an extreme condition, almost half of the examined population shows the reversion phenomenon. By taking advantage of this phenomenon, we demonstrate that the reversion frequency is remarkably sensitive to a variety of fluctuations in DNA stability, underlying a mutable tendency of the UNI gene. We also reveal that activities of the salicylic acid pathway and DNA damage sensor pathway are involved in the reversion phenomenon. Thus, we provide an experimentally feasible model tool to explore factors and conditions that significantly affect the R gene mutation phenomenon. PMID:27016096

  20. Positive-selection and ligation-independent cloning vectors for large scale in planta expression for plant functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Kim, Saet-Byul; Yeom, Seon-In; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Doil

    2010-12-01

    Transient expression is an easy, rapid and powerful technique for producing proteins of interest in plants. Recombinational cloning is highly efficient but has disadvantages, including complicated, time consuming cloning procedures and expensive enzymes for large-scale gene cloning. To overcome these limitations, we developed new ligation-independent cloning (LIC) vectors derived from binary vectors including tobacco mosaic virus (pJL-TRBO), potato virus X (pGR106) and the pBI121 vector-based pMBP1. LIC vectors were modified to enable directional cloning of PCR products without restriction enzyme digestion or ligation reactions. In addition, the ccdB gene, which encodes a potent cell-killing protein, was introduced between the two LIC adapter sites in the pJL-LIC, pGR-LIC, and pMBP-LIC vectors for the efficient selection of recombinant clones. This new vector does not require restriction enzymes, alkaline phosphatase, or DNA ligase for cloning. To clone, the three LIC vectors are digested with SnaBI and treated with T4 DNA polymerase, which includes 3' to 5' exonuclease activity in the presence of only one dNTP (dGTP for the inserts and dCTP for the vector). To make recombinants, the vector plasmid and the insert PCR fragment were annealed at room temperature for 20 min prior to transformation into the host. Bacterial transformation was accomplished with 100% efficiency. To validate the new LIC vector systems, we were used to coexpressed the Phytophthora AVR and potato resistance (R) genes in N. benthamiana by infiltration of Agrobacterium. Coexpressed AVR and R genes in N. benthamiana induced the typical hypersensitive cell death resulting from in vivo interaction of the two proteins. These LIC vectors could be efficiently used for high-throughput cloning and laboratory-scale in planta expression. These vectors could provide a powerful tool for high-throughput transient expression assays for functional genomic studies in plants. PMID:21340673

  1. In planta analysis of a cis-regulatory cytokinin response motif in Arabidopsis and identification of a novel enhancer sequence.

    PubMed

    Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Brenner, Wolfram G; Pfeifer, Andreas; Heyl, Alexander; Schmülling, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The phytohormone cytokinin plays a key role in regulating plant growth and development, and is involved in numerous physiological responses to environmental changes. The type-B response regulators, which regulate the transcription of cytokinin response genes, are a part of the cytokinin signaling system. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 11 type-B response regulators (type-B ARRs), and some of them were shown to bind in vitro to the core cytokinin response motif (CRM) 5'-(A/G)GAT(T/C)-3' or, in the case of ARR1, to an extended motif (ECRM), 5'-AAGAT(T/C)TT-3'. Here we obtained in planta proof for the functionality of the latter motif. Promoter deletion analysis of the primary cytokinin response gene ARR6 showed that a combination of two extended motifs within the promoter is required to mediate the full transcriptional activation by ARR1 and other type-B ARRs. CRMs were found to be over-represented in the vicinity of ECRMs in the promoters of cytokinin-regulated genes, suggesting their functional relevance. Moreover, an evolutionarily conserved 27 bp long T-rich region between -220 and -193 bp was identified and shown to be required for the full activation by type-B ARRs and the response to cytokinin. This novel enhancer is not bound by the DNA-binding domain of ARR1, indicating that additional proteins might be involved in mediating the transcriptional cytokinin response. Furthermore, genome-wide expression profiling identified genes, among them ARR16, whose induction by cytokinin depends on both ARR1 and other specific type-B ARRs. This together with the ECRM/CRM sequence clustering indicates cooperative action of different type-B ARRs for the activation of particular target genes. PMID:23620480

  2. The Eutelsat II programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgio, Claude; Dumesnil, Jean-Jacques

    Eutelsat II is designed to provide Europe with Ku-band communication and TV services with 16 active channels of 50 W power output. In-orbit reconfigurable antenna feed networks permit customized transmission offering either medium-gain over the whole of Europe or high-gain over tailored geographic areas, allowing TV reception on dishes as small as 60 cm. The payload design makes use of only two antennas, each comprising a dual dish reflector and two reconfigurable primary feed arrays. This paper gives an overview of the Eutelsat II mission, and presents a technical description of the satellite, the program schedule, and future prospects.

  3. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  4. College Algebra II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Carl; And Others

    Presented are student performance objectives, a student progress chart, and assignment sheets with objective and diagnostic measures for the stated performance objectives in College Algebra II. Topics covered include: differencing and complements; real numbers; factoring; fractions; linear equations; exponents and radicals; complex numbers,…

  5. Listen & Learn II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Building Resources, Spruce Grove (Alberta).

    Six community builders in Edmonton, Alberta, planned, developed, and implemented Listen and Learn II, a reflective research project in asset-based community building, over a 6-month period in 1998. They met regularly over 2 months to plan the research and design a method that was open to participation at any stage, encouraged exchange of…

  6. Instant Insanity II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tom; Young, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    "Instant Insanity II" is a sliding mechanical puzzle whose solution requires the special alignment of 16 colored tiles. We count the number of solutions of the puzzle's classic challenge and show that the more difficult ultimate challenge has, up to row permutation, exactly two solutions, and further show that no…

  7. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the American…

  8. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  9. Development of a TaqMan Probe-Based Insulated Isothermal Polymerase Chain Reaction (iiPCR) Assay for Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race 4.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Hong; Lin, Yi-Jia; Chang, Tsai-De; Hong, Li-Ling; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Chang, Pi-Fang Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a novel and inexpensive detection method based on a TaqMan probe-based insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) method for the rapid detection of Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) race 4, which is currently among the most serious fungal vascular diseases worldwide. By using the portable POCKIT™ device with the novel primer set iiFoc-1/iiFoc-2, the Foc race 4 iiPCR assay (including DNA amplification and signal monitoring) could be completed within one hour. The developed Foc race 4 iiPCR assay is thus a user-friendly and efficient platform designed specifically for the detection of Foc race 4. The detection limit of this optimized Foc iiPCR system was estimated to be 1 copy of the target standard DNA as well as 1 fg of the Foc genomic DNA. This approach can serve as a rapid detection method for in planta detection of Foc race 4 in field-infected banana. It was concluded that this molecular detection procedure based on iiPCR has good potential for use as an efficient detection method. PMID:27448242

  10. Development of a TaqMan Probe-Based Insulated Isothermal Polymerase Chain Reaction (iiPCR) Assay for Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race 4

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Jia; Chang, Tsai-De; Hong, Li-Ling; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Chang, Pi-Fang Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a novel and inexpensive detection method based on a TaqMan probe-based insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) method for the rapid detection of Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) race 4, which is currently among the most serious fungal vascular diseases worldwide. By using the portable POCKIT™ device with the novel primer set iiFoc-1/iiFoc-2, the Foc race 4 iiPCR assay (including DNA amplification and signal monitoring) could be completed within one hour. The developed Foc race 4 iiPCR assay is thus a user-friendly and efficient platform designed specifically for the detection of Foc race 4. The detection limit of this optimized Foc iiPCR system was estimated to be 1 copy of the target standard DNA as well as 1 fg of the Foc genomic DNA. This approach can serve as a rapid detection method for in planta detection of Foc race 4 in field-infected banana. It was concluded that this molecular detection procedure based on iiPCR has good potential for use as an efficient detection method. PMID:27448242

  11. Role of Bound Zn(II) in the CadC Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II)-Responsive Repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kandegedara, A.; Thiyagarajan, S; Kondapalli, K; Stemmler, T; Rosen, B

    2009-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 cadCA operon encodes a P-type ATPase, CadA, that confers resistance to Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II). Expression is regulated by CadC, a homodimeric repressor that dissociates from the cad operator/promoter upon binding of Cd(II), Pb(II), or Zn(II). CadC is a member of the ArsR/SmtB family of metalloregulatory proteins. The crystal structure of CadC shows two types of metal binding sites, termed Site 1 and Site 2, and the homodimer has two of each. Site 1 is the physiological inducer binding site. The two Site 2 metal binding sites are formed at the dimerization interface. Site 2 is not regulatory in CadC but is regulatory in the homologue SmtB. Here the role of each site was investigated by mutagenesis. Both sites bind either Cd(II) or Zn(II). However, Site 1 has higher affinity for Cd(II) over Zn(II), and Site 2 prefers Zn(II) over Cd(II). Site 2 is not required for either derepression or dimerization. The crystal structure of the wild type with bound Zn(II) and of a mutant lacking Site 2 was compared with the SmtB structure with and without bound Zn(II). We propose that an arginine residue allows for Zn(II) regulation in SmtB and, conversely, a glycine results in a lack of regulation by Zn(II) in CadC. We propose that a glycine residue was ancestral whether the repressor binds Zn(II) at a Site 2 like CadC or has no Site 2 like the paralogous ArsR and implies that acquisition of regulatory ability in SmtB was a more recent evolutionary event.

  12. Fruta Planta label

    Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

    ... Pf! JL.~!!o ¡ l'l!!!f,"" J 1. Æiim;~ß~, 'È~ji11l ni!l¡B, ¡;ilB. 'l'Iß~Jlo 2, AjEJ. ilfiì¡;Rß~JI iii Jl. HjJliii'H*.&lito 3. jj1 il i* l*diUij ,I1HB 1'j!!jjj, §iWIJAAo 4. .1¡HtU:¡. ...

  13. Introducing CAML II

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Tom; Boyes, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Channel Access Markup Language (CAML) is a XML based markup language and implementation for displaying EPICS channel access controls within a web browser. The CAML II project expanded upon the work of CAML I adding more features and greater integration with other web technologies. The most dramatic new feature introduced in CAML II is the introduction of a namespace so CAML controls can be embedded within XHTML documents. A repetition template with macro substitution allows for rapid coding of arbitrary XHTML repetitions. Enhancements have been made to several controls including more powerful plotting options. Advanced formatting options were introduced for text controls. Virtual process variables allow for custom calculations. An EDL to CAML translator eases the transition from EDM screens to CAML pages.

  14. RADTRAN II user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M M; Wilmot, E L; Taylor, J M

    1983-02-01

    RADTRAN II is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population subgroups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Groundshine, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloudshine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN II can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable.

  15. Results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66{sub -13}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73{sub -16}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup 5} (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69{sub -11}{sup +11} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  16. TARN II project

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, T.

    1985-04-01

    On the basis of the achievement of the accelerator studies at present TARN, it is decided to construct the new ring TARN II which will be operated as an accumulator, accelerator, cooler and stretcher. It has the maximum magnetic rigidity of 7 Txm corresponding to the proton energy 1.3 GeV and the ring diameter is around 23 m. Light and heavy ions from the SF cyclotron will be injected and accelerated to the working energy where the ring will be operated as a desired mode, for example a cooler ring mode. At the cooler ring operation, the strong cooling devices such as stochastic and electron beam coolings will work together with the internal gas jet target for the precise nuclear experiments. TARN II is currently under the contruction with the schedule of completion in 1986. In this paper general features of the project are presented.

  17. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  18. RISTA II trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John R.

    1998-11-01

    Northrop Grumman Corporation has developed an advanced 2nd generation IR sensor system under the guidance of the US Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) as part of an Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) called Counter Mobile Rocket Launcher (CMRL). Designed to support rapid counter fire against mobile targets from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the sensor system, called reconnaissance IR surveillance target acquisition (RISTA II), consists of a 2nd generation FLIR/line scanner, a digital data link, a ground processing facility, and an aided target recognizer (AiTF). The concept of operation together with component details was reported at the passive sensors IRIS in March, 1996. The performance testing of the RISTA II System was reported at the National IRIS in November, 1997. The RISTA II sensor has subsequently undergone performance testing on a Royal Netherlands Air Force F-16 for a manned reconnaissance application in August and October, 1997, at Volkel Airbase, Netherlands. That testing showed performance compatible with the medium altitude IR sensor performance. The results of that testing, together with flight test imagery, will be presented.

  19. Mobilization of horizontally acquired island 2 is induced in planta in the phytopathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 and involves the putative relaxase ECA0613 and quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Vanga, Bhanupratap R; Ramakrishnan, Pavithra; Butler, Ruth C; Toth, Ian K; Ronson, Clive W; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Pitman, Andrew R

    2015-11-01

    Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) contribute to the rapid evolution of bacterial pathogens via horizontal gene transfer of virulence determinants. ICEs have common mechanisms for transmission, yet the cues triggering this process under natural environmental or physiological conditions are largely unknown. In this study, mobilization of the putative ICE horizontally acquired island 2 (HAI2), present in the chromosome of the phytopathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043, was examined during infection of the host plant potato. Under these conditions, mobilization of HAI2 increased markedly compared with in vitro cultures. In planta-induced mobilization of HAI2 was regulated by quorum sensing and involved the putative ICE-encoded relaxase ECA0613. Disruption of ECA0613 also reduced transcription of genes involved in production of coronafacic acid (Cfa), the major virulence factor harboured on HAI2, whereas their expression was unaffected in the quorum-sensing (expI) mutant. Thus, suppression of cfa gene expression was not regulated by the mobilization of the ICE per se, but was due directly to inactivation of the relaxase. The identification of genetic factors associated solely with in planta mobilization of an ICE demonstrates that this process is highly adapted to the natural environment of the bacterial host and can influence the expression of virulence determinants.

  20. NSLS II Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.; Longo, C.; Settepani, P.; Wilson, K.; Hu, J.

    2009-09-13

    National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning and mounting the chambers are given.

  1. Delta II Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Final preparations for lift off of the DELTA II Mars Pathfinder Rocket are shown. Activities include loading the liquid oxygen, completing the construction of the Rover, and placing the Rover into the Lander. After the countdown, important visual events include the launch of the Delta Rocket, burnout and separation of the three Solid Rocket Boosters, and the main engine cutoff. The cutoff of the main engine marks the beginning of the second stage engine. After the completion of the second stage, the third stage engine ignites and then cuts off. Once the third stage engine cuts off spacecraft separation occurs.

  2. Run II luminosity progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.

  3. Evaluation of the computerized procedures Manual II (COPMA II)

    SciTech Connect

    Converse, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computerized procedure system, the Computerized Procedure Manual II (COPMA-II), on the performance and mental workload of licensed reactor operators. To evaluate COPMA-II, eight teams of two operators were trained to operate a scaled pressurized water reactor facility (SPWRF) with traditional paper procedures and with COPMA-II. Following training, each team operated the SPWRF under normal operating conditions with both paper procedures and COPMA-II. The teams then performed one of two accident scenarios with paper procedures, but performed the remaining accident scenario with COPMA-II. Performance measures and subjective estimates of mental workload were recorded for each performance trial. The most important finding of the study was that the operators committed only half as many errors during the accident scenarios with COPMA-II as they committed with paper procedures. However, time to initiate a procedure was fastest for paper procedures for accident scenario trials. For performance under normal operating conditions, there was no difference in time to initiate or to complete a procedure, or in the number of errors committed with paper procedures and with COPMA-II. There were no consistent differences in the mental workload ratings operators recorded for trials with paper procedures and COPMA-II.

  4. RNA-Seq Revealed Differences in Transcriptomes between 3ADON and 15ADON Populations of Fusarium graminearum In Vitro and In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Krishna D.; Yan, Changhui; Leng, Yueqiang

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley and wheat in North America. The fungus not only causes yield loss of the crops but also produces harmful trichothecene mycotoxins [Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives-3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15ADON), and nivalenol (NIV)] that contaminate grains. Previous studies showed a dramatic increase of 3ADON-producing isolates with higher aggressiveness and DON production than the 15ADON-producing isolates in North America. However, the genetic and molecular basis of differences between the two types of isolates is unclear. In this study, we compared transcriptomes of the 3ADON and 15ADON isolates in vitro (in culture media) and in planta (during infection on the susceptible wheat cultivar ‘Briggs’) using RNA-sequencing. The in vitro gene expression comparison identified 479 up-regulated and 801 down-regulated genes in the 3ADON isolates; the up-regulated genes were mainly involved in C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism (18.6%), polysaccharide metabolism (7.7%) or were of unknown functions (57.6%). The in planta gene expression analysis revealed that 185, 89, and 62 genes were up-regulated in the 3ADON population at 48, 96, and 144 hours after inoculation (HAI), respectively. The up-regulated genes were significantly enriched in functions for cellular import, C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism, allantoin and allantoate transport at 48 HAI, for detoxification and virulence at 96 HAI, and for metabolism of acetic acid derivatives, detoxification, and cellular import at 144 HAI. Comparative analyses of in planta versus in vitro gene expression further revealed 2,159, 1,981 and 2,095 genes up-regulated in the 3ADON isolates, and 2,415, 2,059 and 1,777 genes up-regulated in the 15ADON isolates at the three time points after inoculation. Collectively, our data provides a foundation for further understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in

  5. Mod II Stirling engine overviews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    The Mod II engine is a second-generation automotive Stirling engine (ASE) optimized for part-power operation. It has been designed specifically to meet the fuel economy and exhaust emissions objectives of the ASE development program. The design, test experience, performance, and comparison of data to analytical performance estimates of the Mod II engine to date are reviewed. Estimates of Mod II performance in its final configuration are also given.

  6. PEP-II Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Gaydosh, Michael

    2003-05-14

    The PEP-II Asymmetric B-factory consists of two independent storage rings, one located atop the other in the 2200m-circumference PEP tunnel. The high-energy ring, which stores a 9-GeV electron beam, is an upgrade of the existing PEP collider. It re-utilizes all of the PEP magnets and incorporates a state-of-the-art copper vacuum chamber and a new RF system capable of supporting a one-amp stored beam. The low-energy ring, which stores 3.1-GeV positrons, is new construction. Injection is achieved by extracting electrons and positrons at collision energies from the SLC and transporting them each in a dedicated bypass line. The low-emittance SLC beams will be used for the injection process.

  7. Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schuknecht, Nate; White, David; Hoste, Graeme

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  8. HC-Pro protein of sugar cane mosaic virus interacts specifically with maize ferredoxin-5 in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Qin; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Xu, Jian; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Meng; Chen, Yu-Ting; Li, Huai-Fang; Fan, Zai-Feng

    2008-08-01

    Symptom development of a plant viral disease is a result of molecular interactions between the virus and its host plant; thus, the elucidation of specific interactions is a prerequisite to reveal the mechanism of viral pathogenesis. Here, we show that the chloroplast precursor of ferredoxin-5 (Fd V) from maize (Zea mays) interacts with the multifunctional HC-Pro protein of sugar cane mosaic virus (SCMV) in yeast, Nicotiana benthamiana cells and maize protoplasts. Our results demonstrate that the transit peptide rather than the mature protein of Fd V precursor could interact with both N-terminal (residues 1-100) and C-terminal (residues 301-460) fragments, but not the middle part (residues 101-300), of HC-Pro. In addition, SCMV HC-Pro interacted only with Fd V, and not with the other two photosynthetic ferredoxin isoproteins (Fd I and Fd II) from maize plants. SCMV infection significantly downregulated the level of Fd V mRNA in maize plants; however, no obvious changes were observed in levels of Fd I and Fd II mRNA. These results suggest that SCMV HC-Pro interacts specifically with maize Fd V and that this interaction may disturb the post-translational import of Fd V into maize bundle-sheath cell chloroplasts, which could lead to the perturbation of chloroplast structure and function.

  9. Use of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in direct, non-destructive, and rapid assessment of developmental cotton fibers grown in planta and in culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers are routinely harvested from cotton plants (in planta), and their end-use qualities depend on their development stages. Cotton fibers are also cultured at controlled laboratory environments, so that cotton researchers can investigate many aspects of experimental protocols in cotton bre...

  10. Utilizing clouds for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobie, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the use of cloud computing resources for the Belle II experiment. A number of different methods are used to exploit the private and opportunistic clouds. Clouds are making significant contributions to the generation of Belle II MC data samples and it is expected that their impact will continue to grow over the coming years.

  11. PARIS II: DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS II (the program for assisting the replacement of industrial solvents, version II), developed at the USEPA, is a unique software tool that can be used for customizing the design of replacement solvents and for the formulation of new solvents. This program helps users avoid ...

  12. [Modified Class II tunnel preparation].

    PubMed

    Rimondini, L; Baroni, C

    1991-05-15

    Tunnel preparations for restoration of Class II carious lesions in primary molars preserve the marginal ridge and minimize sacrifice of healthy tooth substructure. Materials with improved bonding to tooth structure and increase potential for fluoride release allow Class II restorations without "extension for prevention". PMID:1864420

  13. Technology II: Implementation Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) are facing a number of challenges, including the explosive use of the Internet, the digital divide, the need for integrating technology into teaching and learning, the impact of Tidal Wave II, and the need to ensure that technology is accessible to persons with disabilities. The CCCs' Technology II Strategic…

  14. ACRIM II Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-12-30

    ACRIM II Data and Information Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance ... and Order:   ASDC Order Tool FTP Web Access:  Data Pool Parameters:  Total Solar Irradiance ... ACRIM II Instrument Page ACRIM III Data Sets Readme Files:  Readme File Image ...

  15. Software Development at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhr, Thomas; Hauth, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Belle II is a next generation B-factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor Belle. This requires not only a major upgrade of the detector hardware, but also of the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software. The challenges of the software development at Belle II and the tools and procedures to address them are reviewed in this article.

  16. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema

    Steve Dierker

    2016-07-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  17. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Dierker

    2008-03-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  18. Crystal Structure of Rat Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Esser, V.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the {beta}-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

  19. The Stark II reality.

    PubMed

    Memel, Sherwin L; Grosvenor, John C

    2003-02-01

    The long awaited final regulations in Phase I of a two-phase rulemaking process under the Stark II law were published on January 4, 2001. The Phase I final rules govern interpretation of the Stark law as it is applied to referrals by a physician for designated categories of health services to entities in which the referring physician has a financial interest. These new regulations are of particular concern to specialists, such as orthopaedic surgeons, whose practices are oriented to ancillary services that are considered designated health services, such as radiology, physical therapy and durable medical equipment, and where the availability of clear guidance is essential to ensure that medically necessary care is provided in a manner that complies with law. However, rather than the "brightline" guidance that the healthcare community sought, the new regulations create uncertainty in areas that had not existed before. The new regulations require physicians to evaluate the full range of their business and professional relationships to avoid the risk of nonpayment of claims, civil money penalties, or program exclusion after the effective date of the new regulations. PMID:12567126

  20. Angiotensin II receptor heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Herblin, W.F.; Chiu, A.T.; McCall, D.E.; Ardecky, R.J.; Carini, D.J.; Duncia, J.V.; Pease, L.J.; Wong, P.C.; Wexler, R.R.; Johnson, A.L. )

    1991-04-01

    The possibility of receptor heterogeneity in the angiotensin II (AII) system has been suggested previously, based on differences in Kd values or sensitivity to thiol reagents. One of the authors earliest indications was the frequent observation of incomplete inhibition of the binding of AII to adrenal cortical membranes. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that all of the labeling of the rat adrenal was blocked by unlabeled AII or saralasin, but not by DuP 753. The predominant receptor in the rat adrenal cortex (80%) is sensitive to dithiothreitol (DTT) and DuP 753, and is designated AII-1. The residual sites in the adrenal cortex and almost all of the sites in the rat adrenal medulla are insensitive to both DTT and DuP 753, but were blocked by EXP655. These sites have been confirmed by ligand binding studies and are designated AII-2. The rabbit adrenal cortex is unique in yielding a nonuniform distribution of AII-2 sites around the outer layer of glomerulosa cells. In the rabbit kidney, the sites on the glomeruli are AII-1, but the sites on the kidney capsule are AII-2. Angiotensin III appears to have a higher affinity for AII-2 sites since it inhibits the binding to the rabbit kidney capsule but not the glomeruli. Elucidation of the distribution and function of these diverse sites should permit the development of more selective and specific therapeutic strategies.

  1. [Oculocutaneous type II tyrosinosis].

    PubMed

    Podglajen-Wecxsteen, O; Delaporte, E; Piette, F; le Flohic, X; Bergoend, H

    1993-01-01

    Richner-Hanhart syndrome, also called oculo-cutaneous tyrosinosis type II, is a recessive autosomal genodermatosis consecutive to a disorder of tyrosine metabolism. It presents as a varying association of palmo-plantar keratosis, bilateral keratitis and mental retardation. The authors report a new case which is atypical in that palmoplantar keratosis made a late appearance. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of hypertyrosinaemia, hypertyrosinuria and urinary excretion of phenolic acids, and the absence of hepato-renal lesion. Needle biopsy of the liver, which demonstrates the deficiency of soluble cytosolic tyrosine aminotransferase, is not indispensable to the diagnosis and was not performed in our patient. Treatment consisted of a dietary measure: a controlled phenylalanine and tyrosine intake to obtain a tyrosinaemia below 10 mg/100 ml. This resulted in a favourable and durable course of the oculo-cutaneous lesions. In case of isolated skin lesion, retinoids can be prescribed either alone of combined with a diet, making it less strict.

  2. Oscillator strength measurements in samarium(II), neodymium(II) and praseodymium(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruohong

    A knowledge of the abundances of lanthanide ions in stellar photospheres is valuable in astrophysics, especially for chemically peculiar stars. However, the determination of elemental abundances is often limited by inadequate knowledge of oscillator strengths. Combining independently measured values of radiative lifetimes and branching fractions is an effective and precise method to measure oscillator strengths. It avoids absolute intensity measurements, requiring a knowledge of the absolute number density of particles and absolute measurements of intensity, and furthermore decreases the systematic error greatly. In the previous work of our group, the lifetimes of Sm II, Nd II and Pr II were obtained. In this thesis work, we measured the corresponding branching fractions of these lanthanide ions using a fast-ion-beam laser-induced- fluorescence technique. The power of this technique is that ions are selectively excited by a laser, which ensures that every branch comes from a single upper level and gets rid of spectral blends. Besides, the low ion-beam density ensures that the systematic errors due to collisions and radiation trapping are negligible. Combining the branching fractions with our previously measured lifetimes, we obtained 608, 430 and 260 oscillator strength values for Sm II, Nd II and Pr II transitions, respectively, over the wavelength range 350-850 nm. These transitions originate from 69 upper levels in the range 21 655 cm -1 -29 388 cm -1 for Sm II, 46 upper levels in the range 22 697 cm -1 -29 955 cm -1 for Nd II, and 32 levels in the range 22 040 cm -1 -28 577 cm -1 for Pr II. Of the 260 measured oscillator strength values of Pr II, 183 have been determined accurately for the first time. The uncertainties arise principally from systematic uncertainties of the efficiency calibration of the optical detection system (7.1%), with smaller statistical contributions (1.5%). Comparisons are made to prior measurements.

  3. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  4. Biosatellite II mission.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O E

    1969-01-01

    Biosatellite B was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida, on a two-stage DELTA launch vehicle at 6:04 p.m. on 7 September, 1967. Approximately nine minutes later the 435 kg spacecraft biological laboratory was placed into a satisfactory 315 km near-circular earth orbit, successfully separated from the launch vehicle's second stage and was designated Biosatellite II. The scientific payload consisting of thirteen selected general biology and radiation experiments were subjected to planned, carefully controlled environmental conditions during 45 hours of earth-orbital flight. The decision was made to abbreviate the scheduled 3-day mission by approximately one day because of a threatening tropical storm in the recovery area, and a problem of communication with the spacecraft from the tracking stations. Highest priority was placed on recovery which was essential to obtain the scientific results on all the experiments. The operational phase of the mission came to a successful conclusion with the deorbit of the recovery capsule, deployment of the parachute system and air recovery by the United States Air Force. The 127 kg recovery capsule was returned to biology laboratories at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, for disassembly and immediate inspection and analysis of the biological materials by the experimenters. It was evident immediately that the quality of the biology was excellent and this fact gave promise of a high return of scientific data. The environmental conditions provided to the experimental material in the spacecraft, provisions for experimental controls, and operational considerations are presented as they relate to interpretation of the experimental results. PMID:11949687

  5. Photosystem II: evolutionary perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, A W; Faller, P

    2003-01-01

    Based on the current model of its structure and function, photosystem II (PSII) seems to have evolved from an ancestor that was homodimeric in terms of its protein core and contained a special pair of chlorophylls as the photo-oxidizable cofactor. It is proposed that the key event in the evolution of PSII was a mutation that resulted in the separation of the two pigments that made up the special chlorophyll pair, making them into two chlorophylls that were neither special nor paired. These ordinary chlorophylls, along with the two adjacent monomeric chlorophylls, were very oxidizing: a property proposed to be intrinsic to monomeric chlorophylls in the environment provided by reaction centre (RC) proteins. It seems likely that other (mainly electrostatic) changes in the environments of the pigments probably tuned their redox potentials further but these changes would have been minor compared with the redox jump imposed by splitting of the special pair. This sudden increase in redox potential allowed the development of oxygen evolution. The highly oxidizing homodimeric RC would probably have been not only inefficient in terms of photochemistry and charge storage but also wasteful in terms of protein or pigments undergoing damage due to the oxidative chemistry. These problems would have constituted selective pressures in favour of the lop-sided, heterodimeric system that exists as PSII today, in which the highly oxidized species are limited to only one side of the heterodimer: the sacrificial, rapidly turned-over D1 protein. It is also suggested that one reason for maintaining an oxidizable tyrosine, TyrD, on the D2 side of the RC, is that the proton associated with its tyrosyl radical, has an electrostatic role in confining P(+) to the expendable D1 side. PMID:12594932

  6. Biosatellite II mission.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O E

    1969-01-01

    Biosatellite B was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida, on a two-stage DELTA launch vehicle at 6:04 p.m. on 7 September, 1967. Approximately nine minutes later the 435 kg spacecraft biological laboratory was placed into a satisfactory 315 km near-circular earth orbit, successfully separated from the launch vehicle's second stage and was designated Biosatellite II. The scientific payload consisting of thirteen selected general biology and radiation experiments were subjected to planned, carefully controlled environmental conditions during 45 hours of earth-orbital flight. The decision was made to abbreviate the scheduled 3-day mission by approximately one day because of a threatening tropical storm in the recovery area, and a problem of communication with the spacecraft from the tracking stations. Highest priority was placed on recovery which was essential to obtain the scientific results on all the experiments. The operational phase of the mission came to a successful conclusion with the deorbit of the recovery capsule, deployment of the parachute system and air recovery by the United States Air Force. The 127 kg recovery capsule was returned to biology laboratories at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, for disassembly and immediate inspection and analysis of the biological materials by the experimenters. It was evident immediately that the quality of the biology was excellent and this fact gave promise of a high return of scientific data. The environmental conditions provided to the experimental material in the spacecraft, provisions for experimental controls, and operational considerations are presented as they relate to interpretation of the experimental results.

  7. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-14

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Blood Donors; Blood Transfusion; HIV Infections; HIV-1; HIV-2; HTLV-I; HTLV-II; Retroviridae Infections; Hepatitis, Viral, Human; Hepatitis B; Hepacivirus; West Nile Virus

  8. New instruments at IPNS: POSY II and SAD II

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, R.K.; Felcher, G.P.; Kleb, R.; Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1988-09-29

    Three new instruments are currently in varying degrees of development/construction at IPNS. One of these, the Glass, Liquid, and Amorphous Materials Diffractometer (GLAD) is the subject of a separate paper in these Proceedings, and so will not be discussed further here. The other two, a second neutron reflectometer (POSY II) and a second small-angle diffractometer (SAD II) are described briefly below. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Delta II commercial space transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, J. F.

    1988-07-01

    Delta II is an upgraded variant of the Delta family of launch vehicles that has been in use by NASA since 1960. Among the design improvements incorporated by Delta II is a cryogenic-propellant second stage, a 2.89-m diameter satellite-protecting nose fairing, graphite/epoxy solid rocket motor cases, and 12:1 main engine expansion nozzle. The manufacturer/operator offers Delta II customers a dedicated, single satellite launch capability fully tailored to the given spacecraft's unique mission requirements.

  10. SAM II Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-06

    ... Data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II instrument, which flew on board the Nimbus-7 ... Spatial Resolution:  The altitude profiles of aerosol extinction have a 1 km vertical resolution. Temporal ...

  11. The Monomeric Pentacyanocobaltate (II) Anion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosha, Donnati M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, background information, and discussion of experimental results are provided for the preparation of Thallium (I) Pentacyanocobaltate (II). The preparation of this pale green salt is carried out in an aqueous medium. (Author/JN)

  12. Pregnancy and tyrosinaemia type II.

    PubMed

    Cerone, R; Fantasia, A R; Castellano, E; Moresco, L; Schiaffino, M C; Gatti, R

    2002-08-01

    A female patient with tyrosinaemia type II is reported having undergone two untreated pregnancies. During pregnancies, plasma tyrosine was raised. The outcomes of both offspring show that maternal tyrosinaemia may have an adverse effect on the developing fetus.

  13. Annex II technical documentation assessed.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, A W; Roszek, B; van Tienhoven, E A E; Geertsma, R E; Boumans, R T; Kraus, J J A M

    2005-12-01

    Annex II of the Medical Device Directive (MDD) is used frequently by manufacturers to obtain CE-marking. This procedure relies on a full quality assurance system and does not require an assessment of the individual medical device by a Notified Body. An investigation into the availability and the quality of technical documentation for Annex II devices revealed severe shortcomings, which are reported here. PMID:16419921

  14. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of novel Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) mixed ligand complexes with saccharin and nicotinamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakır, S.; Bulut, İ.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Çakır, O.

    2001-01-01

    Four novel mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) with saccharin and nicotinamide were synthesised and characterised on the basis of elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopic study, UV-Vis spectrometric and magnetic susceptibility data. The structure of the Cu (II) complex is completely different from those of the Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes. From the frequencies of the saccharinato CO and SO 2 modes, it has been proven that the saccharinato ligands in the structure of the Cu complex are coordinated to the metal ion ([Cu(NA) 2(Sac) 2(H 2O)], where NA — nicotinamide, Sac — saccharinato ligand or ion), whilst in the Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes are uncoordinated and exist as ions ([M(NA) 2(H 2O) 4](Sac) 2).

  15. Adsorption of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) on modified jute fibres.

    PubMed

    Shukla, S R; Pai, Roshan S

    2005-09-01

    The potential of a lignocellulosic fibre, jute, was assessed for adsorption of heavy metal ions like Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from their aqueous solutions. The fibre was also used as adsorbent after chemically modifying it by two different techniques viz, loading of a dye with specific structure, C.I. Reactive Orange 13, and oxidising with hydrogen peroxide. Both the modified jute fibres gave higher metal ion adsorption. Thus, the dye loaded jute fibres showed metal ion uptake values of 8.4, 5.26 and 5.95 mg/g for Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II), respectively, while the corresponding values for oxidised jute fibres were 7.73, 5.57 and 8.02 mg/g, as against 4.23, 3.37 and 3.55 mg/g for unmodified jute fibres. Adsorption isotherm models indicated best fit for Langmuir model for the modified jute fibres. The adsorption values decreased with lowering of pH. The desorption efficiency, regenerative and reuse capacity of these adsorbents were also assessed for three successive adsorption-desorption cycles. The adsorptive capacity was retained only when the caustic soda regeneration is carried out as an intermediate step after desorption. Possible mechanism has been given.

  16. Accumulation of methylmercury in rice and flooded soil in experiments with an enriched isotopic Hg(II) tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickman, R. J.; Mitchell, C. P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin produced in anoxic aquatic sediments. Numerous factors, including the presence of aquatic plants, alter the biogeochemistry of sediments, affecting the rate at which microorganisms transform bioavailable inorganic Hg (IHg) to MeHg. Methylmercury produced in flooded paddy soils and its transfer into rice has become an important dietary consideration. An improved understanding of how MeHg reaches the grain and the extent to which rice alters MeHg production in rhizosphere sediments could help to inform rice cultivation practices. We conducted a controlled greenhouse experiment with thirty rice plants grown in individual, flooded pots amended with enriched 200Hg. Unvegetated controls were maintained under identical conditions. At three plant growth stages (vegetative growth, flowering, and grain maturity), ten plants were sacrificed and samples collected from soil, roots, straw, panicle, and grain of vegetated and unvegetated pots, and assessed for MeHg and THg concentrations. We observed consistent ratios between ambient and tracer MeHg between soils (0.36 ±0.04 — 0.44 ± 0.09) and plant compartments (0.23 ± 0.07 -0.34 ± 0.05) indicating that plant MeHg contamination originates in the soil rather than in planta methylation. The majority of this MeHg was absorbed between the tillering (4.48 ± 2.38 ng/plant) and flowering (8.43 ± 5.12 ng/pl) phases, with a subsequent decline at maturity (2.87 ± 1.23 ng/pl) only partly explained by translocation to the developing grain, indicating that MeHg was demethylated in planta. In contrast, IHg was absorbed from both soil and air, as evidenced by the higher ambient IHg concentrations compared to tracer (3.76 ± 1.19 vs. 0.27 ± 0.40 ng/g). Surprisingly, MeHg accumulation was significantly (p= 0.042-- 0.003) lower in vegetated vs. unvegetated sediments at flowering (1.41 ± 0.26 vs. 1.57 ± 0.23) and maturity (1.27 ± 0.22 vs. 1.71 ± 0.25), suggesting that plant exudates bound Hg(II

  17. Mutations in the capsid protein of Brome mosaic virus affecting encapsidation eliminate vesicle induction in planta: implications for virus cell-to-cell spread.

    PubMed

    Bamunusinghe, Devinka; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Rao, A L N

    2013-08-01

    Positive-strand RNA viruses are known to rearrange the endomembrane network to make it more conducive for replication, maturation, or egress. Our previous transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis showed that ectopic expression of wild-type (wt) capsid protein (CP) of Brome mosaic virus (BMV) has an intrinsic property of modifying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to induce vesicles similar to those present in wt BMV infection. In this study, we evaluated the functional significance of CP-mediated vesicle induction to the BMV infection cycle in planta. Consequently, the cytopathologic changes induced by wt CP or its mutants defective in virion assembly due to mutations engineered in either N- or C-proximal domains were comparatively analyzed by TEM in two susceptible (Nicotiana benthamiana and Chenopodium quinoa) and one nonhost (N. clevelandii) plant species. The results showed that in susceptible hosts, CP-mediated ER-derived vesicle induction is contingent on the expression of encapsidation-competent CP. In contrast, unlike in N. benthamiana and C. quinoa, transient expression of wt CP in nonhost N. clevelandii plants eliminated vesicle induction. Additionally, comparative source-to-sink analysis of virus spread in leaves of N. benthamiana and N. clevelandii coexpressing wt BMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) showed that despite trans-encapsidation, CMV failed to complement the defective cell-to-cell movement of BMV. The significance and relation of CP-mediated vesicle induction to virus cell-to-cell movement are discussed.

  18. Arabidopsis DAYU/ABERRANT PEROXISOME MORPHOLOGY9 is a key regulator of peroxisome biogenesis and plays critical roles during pollen maturation and germination in planta.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Ran; Li, Hong-Ju; Yuan, Li; Liu, Man; Shi, Dong-Qiao; Liu, Jie; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2014-02-01

    Pollen undergo a maturation process to sustain pollen viability and prepare them for germination. Molecular mechanisms controlling these processes remain largely unknown. Here, we report an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, dayu (dau), which impairs pollen maturation and in vivo germination. Molecular analysis indicated that DAU encodes the peroxisomal membrane protein ABERRANT PEROXISOME MORPHOLOGY9 (APEM9). DAU is transiently expressed from bicellular pollen to mature pollen during male gametogenesis. DAU interacts with peroxisomal membrane proteins PEROXIN13 (PEX13) and PEX16 in planta. Consistently, both peroxisome biogenesis and peroxisome protein import are impaired in dau pollen. In addition, the jasmonic acid (JA) level is significantly decreased in dau pollen, and the dau mutant phenotype is partially rescued by exogenous application of JA, indicating that the male sterility is mainly due to JA deficiency. In addition, the phenotypic survey of peroxin mutants indicates that the PEXs most likely play different roles in pollen germination. Taken together, these data indicate that DAU/APEM9 plays critical roles in peroxisome biogenesis and function, which is essential for JA production and pollen maturation and germination.

  19. Colonization process of olive tissues by Verticillium dahliae and its in planta interaction with the biocontrol root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Pilar; Navarro‐Raya, Carmen; Valverde‐Corredor, Antonio; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Mercado‐Blanco, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Summary The colonization process of Olea europaea by the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae, and the in planta interaction with the endophytic, biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 were determined. Differential fluorescent protein tagging was used for the simultaneous visualization of P. fluorescens PICF7 and V. dahliae in olive tissues. Olive plants were bacterized with PICF7 and then transferred to V. dahliae‐infested soil. Monitoring olive colonization events by V. dahliae and its interaction with PICF7 was conducted using a non‐gnotobiotic system, confocal laser scanner microscopy and tissue vibratoming sections. A yellow fluorescently tagged V. dahliae derivative (VDAT‐36I) was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens‐mediated transformation. Isolate VDAT‐36I quickly colonized olive root surface, successfully invaded root cortex and vascular tissues via macro‐ and micro‐breakages, and progressed to the aerial parts of the plant through xylem vessel cells. Strain PICF7 used root hairs as preferred penetration site, and once established on/in root tissues, hindered pathogen colonization. For the first time using this approach, the entire colonization process of a woody plant by V. dahliae is reported. Early and localized root surface and root endophytic colonization by P. fluorescens PICF7 is needed to impair full progress of verticillium wilt epidemics in olive. PMID:21255281

  20. Laser Photoacoustic Detection Allows in Planta Detection of Nitric Oxide in Tobacco following Challenge with Avirulent and Virulent Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars1

    PubMed Central

    Mur, Luis A.J.; Santosa, I. Edi; Laarhoven, Lucas J.J.; Holton, Nicholas J.; Harren, Frans J.M.; Smith, Aileen R.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of laser photoacoustic detection (LPAD) as a highly sensitive method to detect in planta nitric oxide (.NO) production from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). LPAD calibration against .NO gas demonstrated a linear relationship over 2 orders of magnitude with a detection threshold of <20 pmol h−1 (1 part per billion volume [ppbv]). The specificity of the photoacoustic signal for .NO when adding gas or the .NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, on injection into plant leaves, was demonstrated by its abolition with O3 (.NO + O3 → NO2 + O2). The utility of the LPAD method was shown by examination of a nonhost hypersensitive response and a disease induced by Pseudomonas syringae (P. s.) pv phaseolicola and P. s. pv tabaci in tobacco. .NO was detected within 40 min of challenge with P. s. pv phaseolicola, some 5 h before the initiation of visible tissue collapse. The wildfire tobacco pathogen P. s. pv tabaci initiated .NO generation at 2 h postinfection. The use of .NO donors, the scavenger CPTIO ([4-carboxyphenyl]-4,5-dihydro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-3-oxide), and the mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NMMA (NG-monomethyl-l-arginine) indicated that .NO influenced the kinetics of cell death and resistance to both avirulent and virulent bacteria in tobacco. These observations suggest that .NO is integral to the elicitation of cell death associated with these two bacterial pathogens in tobacco. PMID:16009999

  1. Colonization process of olive tissues by Verticillium dahliae and its in planta interaction with the biocontrol root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar; Navarro-Raya, Carmen; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Amyotte, Stefan G; Dobinson, Katherine F; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2009-07-01

    The colonization process of Olea europaea by the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae, and the in planta interaction with the endophytic, biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 were determined. Differential fluorescent protein tagging was used for the simultaneous visualization of P. fluorescens PICF7 and V. dahliae in olive tissues. Olive plants were bacterized with PICF7 and then transferred to V. dahliae-infested soil. Monitoring olive colonization events by V. dahliae and its interaction with PICF7 was conducted using a non-gnotobiotic system, confocal laser scanner microscopy and tissue vibratoming sections. A yellow fluorescently tagged V. dahliae derivative (VDAT-36I) was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Isolate VDAT-36I quickly colonized olive root surface, successfully invaded root cortex and vascular tissues via macro- and micro-breakages, and progressed to the aerial parts of the plant through xylem vessel cells. Strain PICF7 used root hairs as preferred penetration site, and once established on/in root tissues, hindered pathogen colonization. For the first time using this approach, the entire colonization process of a woody plant by V. dahliae is reported. Early and localized root surface and root endophytic colonization by P. fluorescens PICF7 is needed to impair full progress of verticillium wilt epidemics in olive.

  2. Genetic modification of potato against microbial diseases: in vitro and in planta activity of a dermaseptin B1 derivative, MsrA2.

    PubMed

    Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Kay, William; Misra, Santosh

    2005-08-01

    Dermaseptin B1 is a potent cationic antimicrobial peptide found in skin secretions of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. A synthetic derivative of dermaseptin B1, MsrA2 (N-Met-dermaseptin B1), elicited strong antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria in vitro. To assess its potential for plant protection, MsrA2 was expressed at low levels (1-5 microg/g of fresh tissue) in the transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Desiree. Stringent challenges of these transgenic potato plants with a variety of highly virulent fungal phytopathogens--Alternaria, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Verticillium species--and with the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora demonstrated that the plants had an unusually broad-spectrum and powerful resistance to infection. MsrA2 profoundly protected both plants and tubers from diseases such as late blight, dry rot and pink rot and markedly extended the storage life of tubers. Due to these properties in planta, MsrA2 is proposed as an ideal antimicrobial peptide candidate to significantly increase resistance to phytopathogens and improve quality in a variety of crops worldwide with the potential to obviate fungicides and facilitate storage under difficult conditions.

  3. Specific in planta recognition of two GKLR proteins of the downy mildew Bremia lactucae revealed in a large effector screen in lettuce.

    PubMed

    Stassen, Joost H M; den Boer, Erik; Vergeer, Pim W J; Andel, Annemiek; Ellendorff, Ursula; Pelgrom, Koen; Pel, Mathieu; Schut, Johan; Zonneveld, Olaf; Jeuken, Marieke J W; Van den Ackerveken, Guido

    2013-11-01

    Breeding lettuce (Lactuca sativa) for resistance to the downy mildew pathogen Bremia lactucae is mainly achieved by introgression of dominant downy mildew resistance (Dm) genes. New Bremia races quickly render Dm genes ineffective, possibly by mutation of recognized host-translocated effectors or by suppression of effector-triggered immunity. We have previously identified 34 potential RXLR(-like) effector proteins of B. lactucae that were here tested for specific recognition within a collection of 129 B. lactucae-resistant Lactuca lines. Two effectors triggered a hypersensitive response: BLG01 in 52 lines, predominantly L. saligna, and BLG03 in two L. sativa lines containing Dm2 resistance. The N-terminal sequences of BLG01 and BLG03, containing the signal peptide and GKLR variant of the RXLR translocation motif, are not required for in planta recognition but function in effector delivery. The locus responsible for BLG01 recognition maps to the bottom of lettuce chromosome 9, whereas recognition of BLG03 maps in the RGC2 cluster on chromosome 2. Lactuca lines that recognize the BLG effectors are not resistant to Bremia isolate Bl:24 that expresses both BLG genes, suggesting that Bl:24 can suppress the triggered immune responses. In contrast, lettuce segregants displaying Dm2-mediated resistance to Bremia isolate Bl:5 are responsive to BLG03, suggesting that BLG03 is a candidate Avr2 protein. PMID:23883357

  4. In Planta Stage-Specific Fungal Gene Profiling Elucidates the Molecular Strategies of Fusarium graminearum Growing inside Wheat Coleoptiles[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Jia, Lei-Jie; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Gang; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The ascomycete Fusarium graminearum is a destructive fungal pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum). To better understand how this pathogen proliferates within the host plant, we tracked pathogen growth inside wheat coleoptiles and then examined pathogen gene expression inside wheat coleoptiles at 16, 40, and 64 h after inoculation (HAI) using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis. We identified 344 genes that were preferentially expressed during invasive growth in planta. Gene expression profiles for 134 putative plant cell wall–degrading enzyme genes suggest that there was limited cell wall degradation at 16 HAI and extensive degradation at 64 HAI. Expression profiles for genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS)–related enzymes suggest that F. graminearum primarily scavenges extracellular ROS before a later burst of extracellular ROS is produced by F. graminearum enzymes. Expression patterns of genes involved in primary metabolic pathways suggest that F. graminearum relies on the glyoxylate cycle at an early stage of plant infection. A secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene cluster was specifically induced at 64 HAI and was required for virulence. Our results indicate that F. graminearum initiates infection of coleoptiles using covert penetration strategies and switches to overt cellular destruction of tissues at an advanced stage of infection. PMID:23266949

  5. 24 CFR 202.12 - Title II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Title II. 202.12 Section 202.12... INSTITUTIONS AND MORTGAGEES Title I and Title II Specific Requirements § 202.12 Title II. (a) Tiered pricing—(1... mortgagee approved for participation in Title II programs is notified by the Secretary that it had a rate...

  6. EBR-II Data Digitization

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Su-Jong; Rabiti, Cristian; Sackett, John

    2014-08-01

    1. Objectives To produce a validation database out of those recorded signals it will be necessary also to identify the documents need to reconstruct the status of reactor at the time of the beginning of the recordings. This should comprehends the core loading specification (assemblies type and location and burn-up) along with this data the assemblies drawings and the core drawings will be identified. The first task of the project will be identify the location of the sensors, with respect the reactor plant layout, and the physical quantities recorded by the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) data acquisition system. This first task will allow guiding and prioritizing the selection of drawings needed to numerically reproduce those signals. 1.1 Scopes and Deliverables The deliverables of this project are the list of sensors in EBR-II system, the identification of storing location of those sensors, identification of a core isotopic composition at the moment of the start of system recording. Information of the sensors in EBR-II reactor system was summarized from the EBR-II system design descriptions listed in Section 1.2.

  7. Proposed MIDAS II processing array

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, J.

    1982-03-01

    MIDAS (Modular Interactive Data Analysis System) is a ganged processor scheme used to interactively process large data bases occurring as a finite sequence of similar events. The existing device uses a system of eight ganged minicomputer central processor boards servicing a rotating group of 16 memory blocks. A proposal for MIDAS II, the successor to MIDAS, is to use a much larger number of ganged processors, one per memory block, avoiding the necessity of switching memories from processor to processor. To be economic, MIDAS II must use a small, relatively fast and inexpensive microprocessor, such as the TMS 9995. This paper analyzes the use of the TMS 9995 applied to the MIDAS II processing array, emphasizing computational, architectural and physical characteristics which make the use of the TMS 9995 attractive for this application.

  8. NSLS-II INJECTION CONCEPT.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAFTAN, T.; PINAYEV, I.; ROSE, J.; WANG, X.J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Currently the facility upgrade project is in progress at the NSLS (at Brookhaven National Laboratory). The goal of the NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-low-emittance storage ring that will increase radiation brightness by three orders of magnitude over that of the present NSLS X-ray ring. The low emittance of the high brightness ring's lattice results in a short lifetime, so that a top-off injection mode becomes an operational necessity. Therefore, the NSLS-II injection system must provide, and efficiently inject, an electron beam at a high repetition rate. In this paper, we present our concept of the NSLS-II injection system and discuss the conditions for, and constraints on, its design.

  9. RTNS-II: present status

    SciTech Connect

    Heikkinen, D.W.; Logan, C.M.

    1980-10-01

    The present status of the RTNS-II facility is described and typical operating parameters are given. A brief discussion is given of the methods used in production of the TiT/sub 2/ targets as well as their performance and tritium handling at RTNS-II. The various types of non-interactive beam diagnostics presently in use at the neutron sources are outlined. The on-line computer system which provides a time history of an irradiation and records target performance is described. Examples are listed of several representative experimental programs which have been carried out thus far at RTNS-II. These include both active and passive experiments. Finally, several of the major improvements to the facility made since the beginning of the experimental program are given.

  10. Charm physics at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    I. Furic

    2003-10-28

    The CDF II detector has the capability of triggering on displaced tracks. Because of this ability, CDF II has accrued large samples of charged meson decays to fully hadronic final states in 64 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data gathered at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Using initial Run II data samples, the production cross sections for J/{psi}, D{sup 0}, D{sup +}, D*{sup +} and D{sub s}{sup +} mesons have been measured. Ratios of branching ratios for Cabibbo suppressed final states and CP asymmetries in D{sup 0} meson decays have been studied. A measurement of the mass difference m(D{sub s}{sup +}) -m(D{sup +}) has been done, and a limit for the branching fraction of the FCNC D{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decays has been set.

  11. Propulsion Systems for Aircraft. Aerospace Education II. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This curriculum guide accompanies another publication in the Aerospace Education II series entitled "Propulsion Systems for Aircraft." The guide includes specific guidelines for teachers on each chapter in the textbook. Suggestions are included for objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points,…

  12. The PEP-II design

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.K.

    1995-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Positron Electron Project-II (PEP-II) is a design for a high-luminosity, asymmetric energy, electron-positron colliding beam accelerator that will operate at the center-of-mass energy of the {Upsilon}4S (10.58 GeV). The goal of the design is to achieve a large enough integrated luminosity with a moving center-of-mass reference frame to he able to observe the predicted rare decay modes of the {Upsilon}4S that do not conserve charge parity (CP).

  13. Transcription of potato spindle tuber viroid by RNA polymerase II starts in the left terminal loop

    SciTech Connect

    Kolonko, Nadine; Bannach, Oliver; Aschermann, Katja; Hu, Kang-Hong; Moors, Michaela; Schmitz, Michael; Steger, Gerhard; Riesner, Detlev . E-mail: riesner@biophys.uni-duesseldorf.de

    2006-04-10

    Viroids are single-stranded, circular RNAs of 250 to 400 bases, that replicate autonomously in their host plants but do not code for a protein. Viroids of the family Pospiviroidae, of which potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is the type strain, are replicated by the host's DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II in the nucleus. To analyze the initiation site of transcription from the (+)-stranded circles into (-)-stranded replication intermediates, we used a nuclear extract from a non-infected cell culture of the host plant S. tuberosum. The (-)-strands, which were de novo-synthesized in the extract upon addition of circular (+)-PSTVd, were purified by affinity chromatography. This purification avoided contamination by host nucleic acids that had resulted in a misassignment of the start site in an earlier study. Primer-extension analysis of the de novo-synthesized (-)-strands revealed a single start site located in the hairpin loop of the left terminal region in circular PSTVd's secondary structure. This start site is supported further by analysis of the infectivity and replication behavior of site-directed mutants in planta.

  14. Case 22:Type II diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is composed of two types depending on the pathogenesis. Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency and usually has its onset during childhood or teenage years. This is also called ketosis-prone diabetes. Type II diab...

  15. RARE II: The Administration's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, M. Rupert

    1977-01-01

    RARE II is a new Roadless Area Review and Evaluation of the National Forest system. Administrators are attempting to inventory existing wilderness areas and to determine criteria for setting aside additional ones. This information will be used for the required 1980 update of the national assessment of forests and rangelands. (MA)

  16. Type-II Weyl semimetals.

    PubMed

    Soluyanov, Alexey A; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B Andrei

    2015-11-26

    Fermions--elementary particles such as electrons--are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals--materials hosting Weyl fermions--were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces.

  17. Recent results from DORIS II

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a brief review of recent results from the ARGUS and Crystal Ball experiments at DORIS II, concentrating on UPSILON(1S) and UPSILON(2S) spectroscopy with a short foray into ..gamma gamma.. physics. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Solar Ca II K Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertello, Luca; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Tlatov, Andrey; Singh, Jagdev

    2016-07-01

    Some of the most important archives of past and current long-term solar synoptic observations in the resonance line of Ca II K are described here. These observations are very important for understanding the state of the solar magnetism on time scales up to several decades. The first observations of this kind began in 1904 at the Kodaikanal Observatory (India), followed by similar programs at different other locations. Regular full-disk Ca II K monitoring programs started in 1915 at the Mount Wilson Observatory (USA) and in 1917 at the National Solar Observatory of Japan. Beginning in 1919 and in 1926 regular observations were taken also at the Paris-Meudon Observatory (France) and at the "Donati solar tower telescope of the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Italy, respectively. In 1926 the the Astronomical Observatory of the Coimbra University in Portugal started its own program of Ca II K observations. Although some of these programs have been terminated over the years, their data archives constitute a unique resource for studies of solar variability. In the early 1970s, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Sacramento Peak (USA) started a new program of daily Sun-as-a-star observations in the Ca II K line. Today the NSO is continuing these observations through its Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility.

  19. Tech Area II: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, R.

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  20. TREC Initiative with Cheshire II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Ray R.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the University of California at Berkeley's participation in the TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) interactive track experiments. Highlights include results of searches on two systems, Cheshire II and ZPRISE; system design goals and implementation; precision and recall results; search questions by topic and system; and results of…

  1. 40 K Fastrac II Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A 40 K Fastrac II duration test performed at Marshall Test Stand 116. The purpose of this test was to gauge the length of time between contact of TEA (Triethylenealuminum) and LOX (liquid oxygen) as an ignitor for the Fastrac engine.

  2. Achondrogenesis type II with polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rittler, M; Orioli, I M

    1995-11-01

    We report on a newborn male infant who presented the typical findings of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), and who also showed postaxial polydactyly on both feet and bilateral microtia. Polydactyly is frequently part of the short-rib syndromes, but has not been reported in achondrogenesis. The hypothesis of polydactyly as part of a contiguous gene syndrome is discussed. PMID:8588578

  3. Military Aerospace. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is a revised publication in the series on Aerospace Education II. It describes the employment of aerospace forces, their methods of operation, and some of the weapons and equipment used in combat and combat support activities. The first chapter describes some of the national objectives and policies served by the Air Force in peace and…

  4. Outcome in tyrosinaemia type II.

    PubMed

    Barr, D G; Kirk, J M; Laing, S C

    1991-10-01

    Tyrosinaemia type II was diagnosed in a boy with failure to thrive and in his sister on neonatal screening. On diet the outcome, at 12 and 10 years respectively, has been excellent in respect of oculocutaneous sequelae, growth, and psychomotor development, contrasting with the generally unfavourable outcome in most reported cases.

  5. Application Programming in AWIPS II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, Matt; McGrath, Kevin; Burks, Jason; Carcione, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Since its inception almost 8 years ago, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has integrated NASA data into the National Weather Service's decision support system (DSS) the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SPoRT has, in some instances, had to shape and transform data sets into various formats and manipulate configurations to visualize them in AWIPS. With the advent of the next generation of DSS, AWIPS II, developers will be able to develop their own plugins to handle any type of data. Raytheon is developing AWIPS II to be a more extensible package written mainly in Java, and built around a Service Oriented Architecture. A plugin architecture will allow users to install their own code modules, and (if all the rules have been properly followed) they will work hand-in-hand with AWIPS II as if it were originally built in. Users can bring in new datasets with existing plugins, tweak plugins to handle a nuance or desired new functionality, or create an entirely new visualization layout for a new dataset. SPoRT is developing plugins to ensure its existing NASA data will be ready for AWIPS II when it is delivered, and to prepare for the future of new instruments on upcoming satellites.

  6. NSLS-II RF SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Gash, W.; Holub, B.; Kawashima, Y.; Ma, H.; Towne, N.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II is a new third generation light source being constructed at Brookhaven Lab. The storage ring is optimized for low emittance by use of damping wigglers to reduce the emittance to below 1 nm-rad. The RF systems are designed to provide stable beam through tight RF phase and amplitude stability requirements.

  7. Diversity of parasite complex II.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shigeharu; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Ohmori, Junko; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Parasites have developed a variety of physiological functions necessary for completing at least part of their life cycles in the specialized environments of surrounding the parasites in the host. Regarding energy metabolism, which is essential for survival, parasites adapt to the low oxygen environment in mammalian hosts by using metabolic systems that are very different from those of the hosts. In many cases, the parasite employs aerobic metabolism during the free-living stage outside the host but undergoes major changes in developmental control and environmental adaptation to switch to anaerobic energy metabolism. Parasite mitochondria play diverse roles in their energy metabolism, and in recent studies of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, the mitochondrial complex II plays an important role in anaerobic energy metabolism of parasites inhabiting hosts by acting as a quinol-fumarate reductase. In Trypanosomes, parasite complex II has been found to have a novel function and structure. Complex II of Trypanosoma cruzi is an unusual supramolecular complex with a heterodimeric iron-sulfur subunit and seven additional non-catalytic subunits. The enzyme shows reduced binding affinities for both substrates and inhibitors. Interestingly, this structural organization is conserved in all trypanosomatids. Since the properties of complex II differ across a wide range of parasites, this complex is a potential target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. In this regard, structural information on the target enzyme is essential for the molecular design of drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex II: Role in cellular physiology and disease. PMID:23333273

  8. Endogenous silencing of Puccinia triticina pathogenicity genes through in planta-expressed sequences leads to the suppression of rust diseases on wheat.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Vinay; McCallum, Brent; Bakkeren, Guus

    2013-02-01

    Rust fungi are destructive plant pathogens. The draft genomes of several wheat-infecting species have been released and potential pathogenicity genes identified through comparative analyses to fungal pathogens that are amenable to genetic manipulation. Functional gene analysis tools are needed to understand the infection process of these obligate parasites and to confirm whether predicted pathogenicity genes could become targets for disease control. We have modified an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated in planta-induced transient gene silencing (PITGS) assay for use in Triticum spp. (wheat), and used this assay to target predicted wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina (Pt) pathogenicity genes, a MAP kinase (PtMAPK1), a cyclophilin (PtCYC1) and calcineurin B (PtCNB), to analyze their roles in disease. Agroinfiltration effectively delivered hairpin silencing constructs in wheat, leading to the generation of fungal gene-specific siRNA molecules in infiltrated leaves, and resulting in up to 70% reduction in transcription of the endogenous target genes in superinfected Pt. In vivo silencing caused severe disease suppression, compromising fungal growth and sporulation, as viewed by confocal microscopy and measured by reductions in fungal biomass and emergence of uredinia. Interestingly, using the same gene constructs, suppression of infection by Puccinia graminis and Puccinia striiformis was also achieved. Our results show that A. tumefaciens-mediated PITGS can be used as a reverse-genetics tool to discover gene function in rust fungi. This proof-of-concept study indicates that the targeted fungal transcripts might be important in pathogenesis, and could potentially be used as promising targets for developing RNA interference-based resistance against rust fungi.

  9. In planta assessment of the role of thioredoxin h proteins in the regulation of S-locus receptor kinase signaling in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Nasrallah, June B

    2013-11-01

    The self-incompatibility (SI) response of the Brassicaceae is mediated by allele-specific interaction between the stigma-localized S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and its ligand, the pollen coat-localized S-locus cysteine-rich protein (SCR). Based on work in Brassica spp., the thioredoxin h-like proteins THL1 and THL2, which interact with SRK, have been proposed to function as oxidoreductases that negatively regulate SRK catalytic activity. By preventing the spontaneous activation of SRK in the absence of SCR ligand, these thioredoxins are thought to be essential for the success of cross pollinations in self-incompatible plants. However, the in planta role of thioredoxins in the regulation of SI signaling has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we addressed this issue using Arabidopsis thaliana plants transformed with the SRKb-SCRb gene pair isolated from self-incompatible Arabidopsis lyrata. These plants express an intense SI response, allowing us to exploit the extensive tools and resources available in A. thaliana for analysis of SI signaling. To test the hypothesis that SRK is redox regulated by thioredoxin h, we expressed a mutant form of SRKb lacking a transmembrane-localized cysteine residue thought to be essential for the SRK-thioredoxin h interaction. We also analyzed transfer DNA insertion mutants in the A. thaliana orthologs of THL1 and THL2. In neither case did we observe an effect on the pollination responses of SRKb-expressing stigmas toward incompatible or compatible pollen. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that, contrary to their proposed role, thioredoxin h proteins are not required to prevent the spontaneous activation of SRK in the A. thaliana stigma. PMID:24077073

  10. Endogenous silencing of Puccinia triticina pathogenicity genes through in planta-expressed sequences leads to the suppression of rust diseases on wheat.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Vinay; McCallum, Brent; Bakkeren, Guus

    2013-02-01

    Rust fungi are destructive plant pathogens. The draft genomes of several wheat-infecting species have been released and potential pathogenicity genes identified through comparative analyses to fungal pathogens that are amenable to genetic manipulation. Functional gene analysis tools are needed to understand the infection process of these obligate parasites and to confirm whether predicted pathogenicity genes could become targets for disease control. We have modified an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated in planta-induced transient gene silencing (PITGS) assay for use in Triticum spp. (wheat), and used this assay to target predicted wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina (Pt) pathogenicity genes, a MAP kinase (PtMAPK1), a cyclophilin (PtCYC1) and calcineurin B (PtCNB), to analyze their roles in disease. Agroinfiltration effectively delivered hairpin silencing constructs in wheat, leading to the generation of fungal gene-specific siRNA molecules in infiltrated leaves, and resulting in up to 70% reduction in transcription of the endogenous target genes in superinfected Pt. In vivo silencing caused severe disease suppression, compromising fungal growth and sporulation, as viewed by confocal microscopy and measured by reductions in fungal biomass and emergence of uredinia. Interestingly, using the same gene constructs, suppression of infection by Puccinia graminis and Puccinia striiformis was also achieved. Our results show that A. tumefaciens-mediated PITGS can be used as a reverse-genetics tool to discover gene function in rust fungi. This proof-of-concept study indicates that the targeted fungal transcripts might be important in pathogenesis, and could potentially be used as promising targets for developing RNA interference-based resistance against rust fungi. PMID:23110316

  11. A ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein secreted from a plant-parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis is cleaved in planta to promote plant parasitism.

    PubMed

    Chronis, Demosthenis; Chen, Shiyan; Lu, Shunwen; Hewezi, Tarek; Carpenter, Sara C D; Loria, Rosemary; Baum, Thomas J; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-04-01

    Nematode effector proteins originating from esophageal gland cells play central roles in suppressing plant defenses and in formation of the plant feeding cells that are required for growth and development of cyst nematodes. A gene (GrUBCEP12) encoding a unique ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein (UBCEP) that consists of a signal peptide for secretion, a mono-ubiquitin domain, and a 12 amino acid carboxyl extension protein (CEP12) domain was cloned from the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. This GrUBCEP12 gene was expressed exclusively within the nematode's dorsal esophageal gland cell, and was up-regulated in the parasitic second-stage juvenile, correlating with the time when feeding cell formation is initiated. We showed that specific GrUBCEP12 knockdown via RNA interference reduced nematode parasitic success, and that over-expression of the secreted Gr(Δ) (SP) UBCEP12 protein in potato resulted in increased nematode susceptibility, providing direct evidence that this secreted effector is involved in plant parasitism. Using transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana, we found that Gr(Δ) (SP) UBCEP12 is processed into free ubiquitin and a CEP12 peptide (GrCEP12) in planta, and that GrCEP12 suppresses resistance gene-mediated cell death. A target search showed that expression of RPN2a, a gene encoding a subunit of the 26S proteasome, was dramatically suppressed in Gr(Δ) (SP) UBCEP12 but not GrCEP12 over-expression plants when compared with control plants. Together, these results suggest that, when delivered into host plant cells, Gr(Δ) (SP) UBCEP12 becomes two functional units, one acting to suppress plant immunity and the other potentially affecting the host 26S proteasome, to promote feeding cell formation.

  12. Virulence and in planta movement of Xanthomonas hortorum pv. pelargonii are affected by the diffusible signal factor (DSF)-dependent quorum sensing system.

    PubMed

    Barel, Victoria; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Sharabani, Galit; Reuven, Michal; Dror, Orit; Burdman, Saul; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2015-09-01

    Xanthomonas hortorum pv. pelargonii (Xhp), the causal agent of bacterial blight in pelargonium, is the most threatening bacterial disease of this ornamental worldwide. To gain an insight into the regulation of virulence in Xhp, we have disrupted the quorum sensing (QS) genes, which mediate the biosynthesis and sensing of the diffusible signal factor (DSF). Mutations in rpfF (encoding the DSF synthase) and rpfC (encoding the histidine sensor kinase of the two-component system RfpC/RpfG) and overexpression of rpfF showed a significant reduction in incidence and severity of the disease on pelargonium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of inoculated plants with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled wild-type strain showed that the pathogen is homogeneously dispersed in the lumen of xylem vessels, reaching the apex and invading the intercellular spaces of the leaf mesophyll tissue within 21 days. In contrast, the rpfF and rpfC knockout mutants, as well as the rpfF-overexpressing strain, remained confined to the vicinity of the inoculation site. The rpfF and rpfC mutants formed large incoherent aggregates in the xylem vessels that might interfere with upward movement of the bacterium within the plant. Both mutants also formed extended aggregates under in vitro conditions, whereas the wild-type strain formed microcolonies. Expression levels of putative virulence genes in planta were substantially reduced within 48 h after inoculation with the QS mutants when compared with the wild-type. The results presented indicate that an optimal DSF concentration is crucial for successful colonization and virulence of Xhp in pelargonium. PMID:25530086

  13. XerR, a negative regulator of XccR in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, relieves its repressor function in planta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Lili; Geng, Yunfeng; Xi, Wei; Fang, Rongxiang; Jia, Yantao

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that XccR, a LuxR-type regulator of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), activates the downstream proline iminopeptidase virulence gene (pip) in response to certain host plant factor(s). In this report, we further show that the expression of the xccR gene was repressed in the culture medium by an NtrC-type response regulator, which we named XerR (XccR expression-related, repressor), and that this repression was relieved when the bacteria were grown in planta. Such a regulatory mechanism is reinforced by the observations that XerR directly bound to the xccR promoter in vitro, and that mutations at the phosphorylation-related residues of XerR resulted in the loss of its repressor function. Furthermore, the expression level of xccR increased even in XerR-overexpressing Xcc cells when they were vacuum infiltrated into cabbage plants. We also preliminarily characterized the host factor(s) involved in the above mentioned interactions between Xcc and the host plant, showing that a plant material(s) with molecular weight(s) less than 1 kDa abolished the binding of XerR to the xccR promoter, while the same material enhanced the binding of XccR to the luxXc box in the pip promoter. Taken together, our results implicate XerR in a new layer of the regulatory mechanism controlling the expression of the virulence-related xccR/pip locus and provide clues to the identification of plant signal molecules that interact with XerR and XccR to enhance the virulence of Xcc. PMID:21483448

  14. Virulence and in planta movement of Xanthomonas hortorum pv. pelargonii are affected by the diffusible signal factor (DSF)-dependent quorum sensing system.

    PubMed

    Barel, Victoria; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Sharabani, Galit; Reuven, Michal; Dror, Orit; Burdman, Saul; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2015-09-01

    Xanthomonas hortorum pv. pelargonii (Xhp), the causal agent of bacterial blight in pelargonium, is the most threatening bacterial disease of this ornamental worldwide. To gain an insight into the regulation of virulence in Xhp, we have disrupted the quorum sensing (QS) genes, which mediate the biosynthesis and sensing of the diffusible signal factor (DSF). Mutations in rpfF (encoding the DSF synthase) and rpfC (encoding the histidine sensor kinase of the two-component system RfpC/RpfG) and overexpression of rpfF showed a significant reduction in incidence and severity of the disease on pelargonium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of inoculated plants with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled wild-type strain showed that the pathogen is homogeneously dispersed in the lumen of xylem vessels, reaching the apex and invading the intercellular spaces of the leaf mesophyll tissue within 21 days. In contrast, the rpfF and rpfC knockout mutants, as well as the rpfF-overexpressing strain, remained confined to the vicinity of the inoculation site. The rpfF and rpfC mutants formed large incoherent aggregates in the xylem vessels that might interfere with upward movement of the bacterium within the plant. Both mutants also formed extended aggregates under in vitro conditions, whereas the wild-type strain formed microcolonies. Expression levels of putative virulence genes in planta were substantially reduced within 48 h after inoculation with the QS mutants when compared with the wild-type. The results presented indicate that an optimal DSF concentration is crucial for successful colonization and virulence of Xhp in pelargonium.

  15. Comparative studies of aerosol extinction measurements made by the SAM II and SAGE II satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, Glenn K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Wang, P.; Osborn, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    Results from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared for measurement locations which are coincident in time and space. At 1.0 micron, the SAM II and SAGE II aerosol extinction profiles are similar within their measurement errors. In addition, sunrise and sunset aerosol extinction data at four different wavelengths are compared for occasions when the SAGE II and SAM II measurements are nearly coincident in space and about 12 hours apart.

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic, antimicrobial and DNA cleavage studies of new Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes with naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halli, Madappa B.; Sumathi, R. B.

    2012-08-01

    A series of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes have been synthesized with newly synthesized Schiff base derived from naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide and cinnamaldehyde. The elemental analyses of the complexes are confined to the stoichiometry of the type MLCl2 [M = Co(II) and Cu(II)], ML2Cl2 [M = Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II)] respectively, where L is Schiff base ligand. Structures have been proposed from elemental analyses, IR, electronic, mass, 1H NMR, ESR spectral data, magnetic, and thermal studies. The measured low molar conductance values in DMF indicate that the complexes are non-electrolytes. Spectroscopic studies suggest coordination occurs through azomethine nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of the ligand with the metal ions. The Schiff base and its complexes have been screened for their antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi) and antifungal (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium and Candida albicans) activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The DNA cleavage studies by agarose gel electrophoresis method was studied for all the complexes.

  17. Adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), and As(V) on bacterially produced metal sulfides.

    PubMed

    Jong, Tony; Parry, David L

    2004-07-01

    The adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II) and As(V) onto bacterially produced metal sulfide (BPMS) material was investigated using a batch equilibrium method. It was found that the sulfide material had adsorptive properties comparable with those of other adsorbents with respect to the specific uptake of a range of metals and, the levels to which dissolved metal concentrations in solution can be reduced. The percentage of adsorption increased with increasing pH and adsorbent dose, but decreased with increasing initial dissolved metal concentration. The pH of the solution was the most important parameter controlling adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), and As(V) by BPMS. The adsorption data were successfully modeled using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Desorption experiments showed that the reversibility of adsorption was low, suggesting high-affinity adsorption governed by chemisorption. The mechanism of adsorption for the divalent metals was thought to be the formation of strong, inner-sphere complexes involving surface hydroxyl groups. However, the mechanism for the adsorption of As(V) by BPMS appears to be distinct from that of surface hydroxyl exchange. These results have important implications to the management of metal sulfide sludge produced by bacterial sulfate reduction.

  18. Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a series of three interlocking imaging and spectroscopic surveys, carried out over an eight-year period with a dedicated 2.5m telescope located at Apache Point Observatory in Southern New Mexico. The SDSS Supernova Survey was one of those three components of SDSS and SDSS-II, a 3-year extension of the original SDSS that operated from July 2005 to July 2008. The Supernova Survey was a time-domain survey, involving repeat imaging of the same region of sky every other night, weather permitting. The primary scientific motivation was to detect and measure light curves for several hundred supernovae through repeat scans of the SDSS Southern equatorial stripe 82 (about 2.5? wide by ~120? long). Over the course of three 3-month campaigns SDSS-II SN discovered and measured multi-band lightcurves for ~500 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range z=0.05-0.4. In addition, the project harvested a few hundred light curves for SNe Ia and discovered about 80 spectroscopically confirmed core-collapse supernovae (supernova types Ib/c and II).

  19. Solid phase extraction of lead (II), copper (II), cadmium (II) and nickel (II) using gallic acid-modified silica gel prior to determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fazhi; Lin, Xucong; Wu, Xiaoping; Xie, Zenghong

    2008-01-15

    The immobilization of gallic acid on the surface of amino group-containing silica gel phases for the formation of a newly chelating matrix (GASG) is described. The newly synthesized extractant, characterized by the diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transformation spectroscopy and elemental analysis, was used to preconcentrate Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II). The pH ranges for quantitative sorption and the concentrations of HCl for eluting Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) were opimized, respectively. The sorption capacity of the matrix has been found to be 12.63, 6.09, 15.38, 4.62mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II), respectively, with the preconcentration factor of approximately 200 ( approximately 100 for Cd(II)). The effects of flow rates, the eluants, the electrolytes and cations on the metal ions extraction, as well as the chelating matrix stability and reusability, were also studied. The extraction behavior of the matrix was conformed with Langmuir's equation. The present preconcentration and determination method was successfully applied to the analysis of synthetic metal mixture solution and river water samples. The 3sigma detection limit and 10sigma quantification limit for Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) were found to be 0.58, 0.86, 0.65, 0.92microg/L and 1.08, 1.23, 0.87, 1.26microg/L, respectively. PMID:18371717

  20. SAM II Data and Information (ASCII)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-09-01

    SAM II (ASCII) Data and Information Data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II instrument, ... Guide Documents:  Project Guide Data Set Guide Readme Files:  Data Set (Text file) ...

  1. Type-II Quantum Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepez, Jeffrey

    This paper discusses a computing architecture that uses both classical parallelism and quantum parallelism. We consider a large parallel array of small quantum computers, connected together by classical communication channels. This kind of computer is called a type-II quantum computer, to differentiate it from a globally phase-coherent quantum computer, which is the first type of quantum computer that has received nearly exclusive attention in the literature. Although a hybrid, a type-II quantum computer retains the crucial advantage allowed by quantum mechanical superposition that its computational power grows exponentially in the number of phase-coherent qubits per node, only short-range and short time phase-coherence is needed, which significantly reduces the level of engineering facility required to achieve its construction. Therefore, the primary factor limiting its computational power is an economic one and not a technological one, since the volume of its computational medium can in principle scale indefinitely.

  2. First results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Aburashitov, J.N.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Gusev, A.O.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mirmov, I.N.; Pshukov, A.M.; Shalagin, A.M.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Bowles, T.J.; Nico, J.S.; Teasdale, W.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Cleveland, B.T.; Daily, T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.; Wildenhain, P.W.; Elliott, S.R.; Cherry, M.L.

    1995-07-10

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first five runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 76{sup +21}{sub {minus}18}(stat){sup +5}{sub {minus}7}(sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result, the capture rate is 74{sup +13}{sub {minus}12}(stat){sup +5}{sub {minus}7}(sys) SNU. This represents only 56%--60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  3. Belle II silicon vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Enami, K.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C. W.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-09-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.

  4. [Tyrosinemia type II. Case report].

    PubMed

    Benatiya, A I; Bouayed, M A; Touiza, E; Daoudi, K; Bhalil, S; Elmesbahi, I; Tahri, H

    2005-01-01

    Tyrosinemia type II or Richner-Hanhart syndrome is a rare hereditary disease characterized by the association of pseudoherpetiform corneal ulcerations and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. We report the case of a 12 year-old young man presenting a superficial punctate keratitis and a corneal dystrophy in both eyes, associated with a palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. The dosage of the serum level of tyrosine is meaningfully raised to 1236 micromol/l. A dietary treatment restraining tyrosine and phenylalanine is started with favorable results after an evolution of 6 months. Tyrosinemia type II is an autosomal recessive disease, due to an enzymatic deficit in tyrosine aminotransferase. The diagnosis is based on the clinic and high level of serum and urinary tyrosine as well as of its urinary metabolites. This disease must be suspected in all cases of dentritic keratitis not reacting on the antiviral treatment, and more especially if it is associated with cutaneous lesions such as palmo-plantar keratosis.

  5. Jefferson Lab's Trim Card II

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Allison; Sarin Philip; C. Higgins; Edward Martin; William Merz

    2005-05-01

    Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) uses Trim Card I power supplies to drive approximately 1900 correction magnets. These trim cards have had a long and illustrious service record. However, some of the employed technology is now obsolete, making it difficult to maintain the system and retain adequate spares. The Trim Card II is being developed to act as a transparent replacement for its aging predecessor. A modular approach has been taken in its development to facilitate the substitution of sections for future improvements and maintenance. The resulting design has been divided into a motherboard and 7 daughter cards which has also allowed for parallel development. The Trim Card II utilizes modern technologies such as a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a microprocessor to embed trim card controls and diagnostics. These reprogrammable devices also provide the versatility to incorporate future requirements.

  6. Blebbistatin and blebbistatin-inactivated myosin II inhibit myosin II-independent processes in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Shi; Liu, Xiong; Korn, Edward D.

    2005-01-01

    Blebbistatin, a cell-permeable inhibitor of class-II myosins, was developed to provide a tool for studying the biologic roles of myosin II. Consistent with this use, we find that blebbistatin inhibits three myosin II-dependent processes in Dictyostelium (growth in suspension culture, capping of Con A receptors, and development to fruiting bodies) and does not inhibit growth on plates, which does not require myosin II. As expected, macropinocytosis (myosin I-dependent), contractile vacuole activity (myosin V-dependent), and phagocytosis (myosin VII-dependent), none of which requires myosin II, are not inhibited by blebbistatin in myosin II-null cells, but, unexpectedly, blebbistatin does inhibit macropinocytosis and phagocytosis by cells expressing myosin II. Expression of catalytically inactive myosin II in myosin II-null cells also inhibits macropinocytosis and phagocytosis. Both blebbistatin-inhibited myosin II and catalytically inactive myosin II form cytoplasmic aggregates, which may be why they inhibit myosin II-independent processes, but neither affects the distribution of actin filaments in vegetative cells or actin and myosin distribution in dividing or polarized cells. Blebbistatin also inhibits cell streaming and plaque expansion in myosin II-null cells. Our results are consistent with myosin II being the only Dictyostelium myosin that is inhibited by blebbistatin but also show that blebbistatin-inactivated myosin II inhibits some myosin II-independent processes and that blebbistatin inhibits other activities in the absence of myosin II. PMID:15671182

  7. MPS II drift chamber system

    SciTech Connect

    Platner, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    The MPS II detectors are narrow drift space chambers designed for high position resolution in a magnetic field and in a very high particle flux environment. Central to this implementation was the development of 3 multi-channel custom IC's and one multi-channel hybrid. The system is deadtimeless and requires no corrections on an anode-to-anode basis. Operational experience and relevance to ISABELLE detectors is discussed.

  8. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This 'light echo' offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves.

  9. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. )

    1993-01-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  10. PEP-II Operations Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2000-11-01

    PEP-II is a two-ring asymmetric B factory operating at the Upsilon(4S) resonance. It was constructed by a SLAC-LBNL-LLNL collaboration. The collider comprises two rings, a High-Energy Ring (HER) storing 9 GeV electrons, and a Low-Energy Ring (LER) storing 3.1 GeV positrons. Commissioning of the HER began in mid-1997 and commissioning of the LER began in mid-1998. First evidence for collisions was obtained on July 23, 1998. The BaBar detector was installed in early 1999, and commissioning with the detector commenced in May 1999. By September 1999, PEP-II had reached a peak luminosity of 1.35 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. In the present run, which began in October 1999, the peak luminosity has reached 3.1 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} and the integrated luminosity delivered is 25 fb{sup {minus}1}. At present, PEP-II is the world's highest luminosity collider. In this paper we describe the startup experience and summarize the operational experience during fiscal year 2000 (from October 1999 through September 2000). Plan s for luminosity upgrades are briefly described.

  11. Argus II retinal prosthesis system: An update.

    PubMed

    Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Yuan, Alex

    2016-09-01

    This review focuses on a description of the Argus II retinal prosthesis system (Argus II; Second Sight Medical Products, Sylmar, CA) that was approved for humanitarian use by the FDA in 2013 in patients with retinitis pigmentosa with bare or no light perception vision. The article describes the components of Argus II, the studies on the implant, and future directions. PMID:26855177

  12. Spectroscopic and mycological studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with 4-aminoantipyrine derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Chandra, Sulekh

    2011-10-01

    Complexes of the type [M(L)X 2], where M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), have been synthesized with novel NO-donor Schiff's base ligand, 1,4-diformylpiperazine bis(4-imino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one) which is obtained by the acid catalyzed condensation of 1,4-diformylpiperazine with 4-aminoantipyrine. The elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV, NMR, mass and EPR studies of the compounds led to the conclusion that the ligand acts as tetradentate chelate. The Schiff's base ligand forms hexacoordinated complexes having octahedral geometry for Ni(II) and tetragonal geometry for Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The mycological studies of the compounds were examined against the several opportunistic pathogens, i.e., Alternaria brassicae, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. The Cu(II) complexes were found to have most fungicidal behavior.

  13. 40 CFR Table II-1 to Subpart II of... - Emission Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission Factors II Table II-1 to Subpart II of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt. 98, Subpt. II, Table...

  14. 40 CFR Table II-1 to Subpart II of... - Emission Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission Factors II Table II-1 to Subpart II of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt. 98, Subpt. II, Table...

  15. Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological evaluation of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with thiosemicarbazone ending by pyrazole and pyridyl rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; Al-Jahdali, M.; El-Rakhawy, El-Bastawesy R.

    2014-08-01

    Here we present the synthesis of the new Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with chelating ligand (Z)-(2-((1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methylene) hydrazinyl)(pyridin-2-ylamino)methanethiol. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, UV-vis, magnetic susceptibility measurements and EPR spectral studies. IR spectra of complexes showed that the ligand behaves as NN neutral bidentate, NSN mononegative tridentate and NSNN mononegative tetradentate. The electronic spectra and the magnetic measurements suggested the octahedral geometry for all complexes as well as the EPR confirmed the tetragonal distorted octahedral for Cu(II) complex. Cd(II) complex showed the highest inhibitory antioxidant activity either using ABTS method. The SOD-like activity exhibited those Cd(II) and Zn(II) complexes have strong antioxidative properties. We tested the synthesized compounds for antitumor activity and showed that the ability to kill liver (HePG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells definitely.

  16. Tdp studies and tests for C. A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela (enelven) at planta ramon laguna, units RL-17 and RL-10. Volume 2. Unit RL-10 boiler condition assessment report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-28

    The study, conducted by Babcock and Wilcox, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development agency on behalf of Enelven. In order to maximize generated power output and minimize operating costs at Planta Ramon Laguna, tests were done to evaluate the condition of equipment at the plant. In order to identify any damage and determine the operating output of each unit, assessments were done of the furnaces, boilers, generators and boiler feed pumps being used in the plant. The report presents the results of these tests. This is the second of three volumes and it includes the following section: (1) Condition Assessment of Unit RL-10 Boiler.

  17. Differential subcellular targeting of recombinant human α₁-proteinase inhibitor influences yield, biological activity and in planta stability of the protein in transgenic tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shweta; Agarwal, Saurabh; Sanyal, Indraneel; Jain, G K; Amla, D V

    2012-11-01

    The response of protein accumulation site on yield, biological activity and in planta stability of therapeutic recombinant human proteinase inhibitor (α₁-PI) was analyzed via targeting to different subcellular locations, like endoplasmic reticulum (ER), apoplast, vacuole and cytosol in leaves of transgenic tomato plants. In situ localization of the recombinant α₁-PI protein in transgenic plant cells was monitored by immunohistochemical staining. Maximum accumulation of recombinant α₁-PI in T₀ and T₁ transgenic tomato plants was achieved from 1.5 to 3.2% of total soluble protein (TSP) by retention in ER lumen, followed by vacuole and apoplast, whereas cytosolic targeting resulted into degradation of the protein. The plant-derived recombinant α₁-PI showed biological activity for elastase inhibition, as monitored by residual porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) activity assay and band-shift assay. Recombinant α₁-PI was purified from transgenic tomato plants with high yield, homogeneity and biological activity. Purified protein appeared as a single band of ∼48-50 kDa on SDS-PAGE with pI value ranging between 5.1 and 5.3. Results of mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy of purified recombinant α₁-PI revealed the structural integrity of the recombinant protein comparable to native serum α₁-PI. Enzymatic deglycosylation and lectin-binding assays with the purified recombinant α₁-PI showed compartment-specific N-glycosylation of the protein targeted to ER, apoplast and vacuole. Conformational studies based on urea-induced denaturation and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy revealed relatively lower stability of the recombinant α₁-PI protein, compared to its serum counterpart. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of plant derived recombinant and human plasma-purified α₁-PI in rat, by intravenous route, revealed significantly faster plasma clearance and lower area under curve (AUC) of recombinant protein. Our data suggested significance of

  18. Genomic homologous recombination in planta.

    PubMed Central

    Gal, S; Pisan, B; Hohn, T; Grimsley, N; Hohn, B

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring intrachromosomal homologous recombination in whole plants is described. A multimer of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) sequences, arranged such that CaMV could only be produced by recombination, was integrated into Brassica napus nuclear DNA. This set-up allowed scoring of recombination events by the appearance of viral symptoms. The repeated homologous regions were derived from two different strains of CaMV so that different recombinant viruses (i.e. different recombination events) could be distinguished. In most of the transgenic plants, a single major virus species was detected. About half of the transgenic plants contained viruses of the same type, suggesting a hotspot for recombination. The remainder of the plants contained viruses with cross-over sites distributed throughout the rest of the homologous sequence. Sequence analysis of two recombinant molecules suggest that mismatch repair is linked to the recombination process. Images PMID:2026150

  19. Zeeman effect of As II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Andrew, K. L.

    1972-01-01

    Spectrograms of As electrodeless-discharge tubes operated in a field of 24,025 G have given Zeeman patterns for 232 As II spectral lines from 2361 to 10,556 A and yielded 80 Lande g factors, of which more than half are new. There is agreement between these and the g values calculated by least-squares fitting for single configurations or for multiconfigurations, where configuration interaction is noticeable. All of the measured g values as well as the energy levels are used in the fitting process.

  20. Commissioning of NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Willeke, F.

    2015-05-03

    NSLS-II, the new 3rd generation light source at BNL was designed for a brightness of 1022 photons s-1mm-2mrad-2 (0.1%BW)-1. It was constructed between 2009 and 2014. The storage ring was commissioned in April 2014 which was followed by insertion device and beamline commissioning in the fall of 2014. All ambitious design parameters of the facility have already been achieved except for commissioning the full beam intensity of 500mA which requires more RF installation. This paper reports on the results of commissioning.

  1. Shuttle II - The next generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative evaluation is conducted for next-generation Space Shuttle-type system configurations, in light of mission and design goals, performance and operational requirements, and technology development needs and opportunities. Cargo vehicle options presently entertained are an unmanned Shuttle Derivative Vehicle and a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle. Two high priority manned vehicle options are small (35,000-lb payload) and large (150,000-lb payload) fully reusable vehicles. Attention is given to single stage vs. two-stage 'Shuttle II' system performance and economic projections.

  2. Mass spectrometry and potentiometry studies of Pb(II)-, Cd(II)- and Zn(II)-cystine complexes.

    PubMed

    Furia, Emilia; Aiello, Donatella; Di Donna, Leonardo; Mazzotti, Fabio; Tagarelli, Antonio; Thangavel, Hariprasad; Napoli, Anna; Sindona, Giovanni

    2014-01-21

    Cd(II)-, Pb(II)- and Zn(II)-cystine complexes were investigated by potentiometric and different mass spectrometric (MS) methodologies. Laser desorption mass spectrometry has provided both the composition and structure of metal-cystine complexes according to the speciation models proposed on the basis of the potentiometric data. Detection of neutral complexes was achieved by protonation or electrochemical reduction during mass spectrometric experiments. The redox activity of metal-cystine complexes was confirmed by laser desorption and charge transfer matrix assisted laser assisted MS experiments, which allowed us to observe the formation of complexes with a reduction of cystine. The stoichiometry of Cd(II)-, Pb(II)- and Zn(II)-cystine complexes was defined by observing the isotopic pattern of the investigated compound. The results suggest that interaction occurs through the carboxylate group of the ligand.

  3. Spectral studies on cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes of naphthaldehyde substituted aroylhydrazones.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Kumar, Deo Nandan

    2006-07-01

    A series of new coordination complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) with two new aroylhydrazones, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone (H(2)L(1)) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde-2-thenoyl-hydrazone (H(2)L(2)) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopy, EPR spectroscopy and thermal analysis. IR spectra suggests ligands acts as a tridentate dibasic donor coordinating through the deprotonated naphtholic oxygen atom, azomethine nitrogen atom and enolic oxygen atom. EPR and ligand field spectra suggests octahedral geometry for Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes and a square planar geometry for Cu(II) complexes. PMID:16529995

  4. Spectral studies on cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes of naphthaldehyde substituted aroylhydrazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Kumar, Deo Nandan

    2006-07-01

    A series of new coordination complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) with two new aroylhydrazones, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone (H 2L 1) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde-2-thenoyl-hydrazone (H 2L 2) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, 1H NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopy, EPR spectroscopy and thermal analysis. IR spectra suggests ligands acts as a tridentate dibasic donor coordinating through the deprotonated naphtholic oxygen atom, azomethine nitrogen atom and enolic oxygen atom. EPR and ligand field spectra suggests octahedral geometry for Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes and a square planar geometry for Cu(II) complexes.

  5. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  6. The SRC-II process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, B. K.; Jackson, D. M.

    1981-03-01

    The Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) process which produces low-sulfur distillate fuel oil from coal is discussed. The process dissolves coal in a process-derived solvent at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of hydrogen, separates the undissolved mineral residue, then recovers the original solvent by vacuum distillation. The distillate fuel oil produced is for use largely as a nonpolluting fuel for generating electrical power and steam and is expected to be competitive with petroleum fuels during the 1980s. During this period, the SRC-II fuel oil is expected to be attractive compared with combustion of coal with flue gas desulfurization in U.S. East Coast oil-burning power plants, as well as in small and medium-sized industrial boilers. The substantial quantities of methane, light hydrocarbons and naphtha produced by the process have value as feedstocks for preparation of pipeline gas, ethylene and high-octane unleaded gasoline, and can replace petroleum fractions in many applications. The liquid and gas products from a future large-scale plant, such as the 6000 t/day plant planned for Morgantown, West Virginia, are expected to have an overall selling price of $4.25 to $4.75/GJ.

  7. BNL ATF II beamlines design

    SciTech Connect

    Fedurin, M.; Jing, Y.; Stratakis, D.; Swinson, C.

    2015-05-03

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator Test Facility (BNL ATF) is currently undergoing a major upgrade (ATF-II). Together with a new location and much improved facilities, the ATF will see an upgrade in its major capabilities: electron beam energy and quality and CO2 laser power. The electron beam energy will be increased in stages, first to 100-150 MeV followed by a further increase to 500 MeV. Combined with the planned increase in CO2 laser power (from 1-100 TW), the ATF-II will be a powerful tool for Advanced Accelerator research. A high-brightness electron beam, produced by a photocathode gun, will be accelerated and optionally delivered to multiple beamlines. Besides the energy range (up to a possible 500 MeV in the final stage) the electron beam can be tailored to each experiment with options such as: small transverse beam size (<10 um), short bunch length (<100 fsec) and, combined short and small bunch options. This report gives a detailed overview of the ATFII capabilities and beamlines configuration.

  8. THE SPECTRUM OF Fe II

    SciTech Connect

    Nave, Gillian; Johansson, Sveneric

    2013-01-15

    The spectrum of singly ionized iron (Fe II) has been recorded using high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) and grating spectroscopy over the wavelength range 900 A to 5.5 {mu}m. The spectra were observed in high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode discharges using FT spectrometers at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ and Imperial College, London and with the 10.7 m Normal Incidence Spectrograph at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Roughly 12,900 lines were classified using 1027 energy levels of Fe II that were optimized to measured wavenumbers. The wavenumber uncertainties of lines in the FT spectra range from 10{sup -4} cm{sup -1} for strong lines around 4 {mu}m to 0.05 cm{sup -1} for weaker lines around 1500 A. The wavelength uncertainty of lines in the grating spectra is 0.005 A. The ionization energy of (130,655.4 {+-} 0.4) cm{sup -1} was estimated from the 3d{sup 6}({sup 5}D)5g and 3d{sup 6}({sup 5}D)6h levels.

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, thermal analysis and electrical conductivity studies of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) vitamin B2 complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Moussa, Mohamed A. A.; Mohamed, Soha F.

    2011-05-01

    Riboflavin (RF) complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) were successfully synthesized. Structures of metal complexes obtained were confirmed and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, and infrared spectra. DC electrical conductivity measurements indicated that the alkaline earth metal (II) complexes of RF ligand are non-electrolytes. Elemental analysis of chelates suggest that the metal(II) ligand ratio is 1:2 with structure formula as [M(RF) 2( X) 2]· nH 2O. Infrared assignments clearly show that RF ligand coordinated as a bidentate feature through azomethine nitrogen of pyrazine ring and C dbnd O of pyrimidine-2,4-dione. Thermal analyses of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) complexes were investigated using (TG/DSC) under atmospheric nitrogen between 30 and 800 °C. The surface morphology of the complexes was studied by SEM. The electrical conductivities of RF and its metal complexes were also measured with DC electrical conductivity in the temperature range from room to 483 K.

  10. [Agrobacterium-mediated sunflower transformation (Helianthus annuus L.) in vitro and in Planta using strain of LBA4404 harboring binary vector pBi2E with dsRNA-suppressor proline dehydrogenase gene].

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, E N; Komisarenko, A G; Mikhal'skaia, S I; Sergeeva, L E; Adamenko, N I; Morgun, B V; Kochetov, A V

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the efficiency of proline dehydrogenase gene suppression towards increasing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tolerance level to water deficit and salinity, we employed strain LBA4404 harboring pBi2E with double-stranded RNA-suppressor, which were prepared on basis arabidopsis ProDH1 gene. The techniques of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in vitro and in planta during fertilization sunflower have been proposed. There was shown the genotype-depended integration of T-DNA in sunflower genome. PCR-analysis showed that ProDH1 presents in genome of inbred lines transformed in planta, as well as in T1- and T2-generations. In trans-genic regenerants the essential accumulation of free L-proline during early stages of in vitro cultivation under normal conditions was shown. There was established the essential accumulation of free proline in transgenic regenerants during cultivation under lethal stress pressure (0.4 M mannitol and 2.0% sea water salts) and its decline upon the recovery period. These data are declared about effectiveness of suppression of sunflower ProDH and gene participation in processes connected with osmotolerance.

  11. Use of anodic stripping voltammetry to determine zinc(II), lead(II), and copper(II) in foods

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimkina, L.M.; Gus'kova, V.P.

    1988-01-20

    The existing standard procedure for the polarographic determination of Zn, Pb, and Cu, based on the cathodic polarization of a dropping mercury electrode, is laborious and time-consuming and allows one to determine the above-mentioned trace elements only when they are separated beforehand. We consider the possibility of using anodic stripping voltammetry with a mercury film electrode for the simultaneous determination of Zn(II), Pb(II), and Cu(II) in foods.

  12. Quiet High Speed Fan II (QHSF II): Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, Karen; Weir, Don; Ross, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This report details the aerodynamic, mechanical, structural design and fabrication of a Honey Engines Quiet High Speed Fan II (lower hub/tip ratio and higher specific flow than the Baseline I fan). This fan/nacelle system incorporates features such as advanced forward sweep and an advanced integrated fan/fan exit guide vane design that provides for the following characteristics: (1) Reduced noise at supersonic tip speeds, in comparison to current state-of-the-art fan technology; (2) Improved aeroelastic stability within the anticipated operating envelope; and (3) Aerodynamic performance consistent with current state-of-the-art fan technology. This fan was fabricated by Honeywell and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel for aerodynamic, aeromechanical, and acoustic performance.

  13. EDTA functionalized silica for removal of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Barakat, M A; Daza, Y A; Woodcock, H L; Kuhn, J N

    2013-10-15

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) functionalized silica adsorbent has been synthesized using (3-aminopropyl) triethoxylsilane (APTES) as a bridging link between silanol groups (SiOH) of silica and carboxylic group of EDTA. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) analysis confirmed the grafting of EDTA onto the silica. The synthesized EDTA-silica was investigated as an adsorbent for removal of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solution. The effect of solution pH, initial solution concentration, and contact time were studied. The removal of metal ions increased with the increase in solution pH, contact time and concentration. The maximum equilibrium time was found to be 45min for all three metal ions. Kinetics studies revealed that the adsorption of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) onto EDTA-silica followed the pseudo-second order kinetics and film diffusion and intra-particle diffusion mechanism were involved. Adsorption equilibrium data were well fitted to Langmuir isotherm model and maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for Cu(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) was 79.36, 74.07 and 67.56mg g(-1), respectively. Thermodynamic results reveal that the removal of metals onto EDTA-silica was endothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  14. Solid phase extraction of Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) ions with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol loaded Amberlite XAD-1180.

    PubMed

    Tokalioğlu, Serife; Yilmaz, Vedat; Kartal, Senol

    2009-05-01

    A new method for separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) ions in various matrices was proposed. The method is based on the adsorption and chelation of the metal ions on a column containing Amberlite XAD-1180 resin impregnated with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol (TAN) reagent prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The effect of pH, type, concentration and volume of eluent, sample volume, flow rates of sample and elution solutions, and interfering ions have been investigated. The optimum pH for simultaneous retention of all the metal ions was 9. Eluent for quantitative elution was 20 ml of 2 mol l(-1) HNO(3). The optimum sample and eluent flow rates were found as 4 ml min(-1), and also sample volume was 500 ml, except for Mn (87% recovery). The sorption capacity of the resin was found to be 0.77, 0.41, 0.57, and 0.30 mg g(-1) for Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Mn(II), respectively. The preconcentration factor of the method was 200 for Cu(II), 150 for Pb(II), 100 for Cd(II) and Ni(II), and 50 for Mn(II). The recovery values for all of the metal ions were > or = 95% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were < or = 5.1%. The detection limit values were in the range of 0.03 and 1.19 microg l(-1). The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysing the certified reference materials (TMDA 54.4 fortified lake water and GBW 07605 tea samples) and the recovery studies. This procedure was applied to the determination of Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) in waste water and lake water samples.

  15. Double quantum coherence electron spin resonance on coupled Cu(II)-Cu(II) electron spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, James S.; Saxena, Sunil

    2005-10-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the ability to generate double quantum coherences (DQCs) for the case of Cu(II). We show that small splittings (˜7 MHz) from the Cu(II)-Cu(II) electron-electron magnetic dipolar interaction can be reliably resolved even though the inhomogeneously broadened Cu(II) linewidth is ˜2 GHz. A Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.0 nm was measured on a model peptide system, thus, demonstrating that distances on the nanometer scale may be measured using DQC electron spin resonance (ESR).

  16. Start II, red ink, and Boris Yeltsin

    SciTech Connect

    Arbatov, A.

    1993-04-01

    Apart from the vulnerability implied by the START II treaty, it will bear the burden of the general political opposition to the Yeltsin administration. START II will be seen as part of an overall Yeltsin-Andrei Kozyrev foreign policy that is under fire for selling out Russian national interests in Yugoslavia, the Persian Gulf, and elsewhere. This article discusses public opinion concerning START II, the cost of its implementation, and the general purpose of the treaty.

  17. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-09-28

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site`s high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified.

  18. [Study on hemolytic mechanism of polyphyllin II].

    PubMed

    Ning, Li-hua; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Yao-xiang; Li, Xin-ping

    2015-09-01

    To study the hemolytic effect of polyphyllin II (PP II) mediated by anion channel protein and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), in order to initially reveal its hemolytic mechanism in vitro. In the experiment, the spectrophotometric method was adopted to detect the hemolysis of PP II in vitro and the effect of anion channel-related solution and blocker, glucose channel-related inhibitor and multi-target drugs dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and diazepam on the hemolysis of PP II. The scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were used to observe the effect of PP II on erythrocyte (RBC) morphology. The results showed that PP II -processed blood cells were severely deformed into spherocytes, acanthocyturia and vesicae. According to the results of the PP II hemolysis experiment in vitro, the anion hypertonic solution LiCl, NaHCO3, Na2SO4 and PBS significantly inhibited the hemolysis induced by PP II (P < 0.05), while blockers NPPB and DIDS remarkably promoted it (P < 0.01). Hyperosmotic sodium chloride, fructose and glucose at specific concentrations notably antagonized the hemolysis induced by PP II (P < 0.05). The glucose channel inhibitor Cytochalasin B and verapamil remarkably antagonized the hemolysis induced by PP II (P < 0.01). The hemolysis induced by PP II could also be antagonized by 1 gmol x L(1) diazepam and 100 μmol x L(-1) DHEA pretreated for 1 min (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the hemolytic mechanism of PP II in vitro may be related to the increase in intracellular osmotic pressure and rupture of erythrocytes by changing the anion channel transport activity, with GLUT1 as the major competitive interaction site. PMID:26983211

  19. AGEX II: Technical quarterly, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.

    1995-03-01

    The AGEX II Technical Quarterly publishes short technical contributions on above ground experiments that use pulsed power and laser drivers. The Quarterly is intended to provide rapid exposure of timely technical ideas and results as well as a means for documenting AGEX II progress and scientific quality for the AGEX II community. Suitable topics include experimental results, diagnostic apparatus, theoretical design, and scaling, among others.

  20. Telemetry Tests Of The Advanced Receiver II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, Sami M.; Bevan, Roland P.; Marina, Miguel

    1993-01-01

    Report describes telemetry tests of Advanced Receiver II (ARX-II): digital radio receiving subsystem operating on intermediate-frequency output of another receiving subsystem called "multimission receiver" (MMR), detecting carrier, subcarrier, and data-symbol signals transmitted by spacecraft, and extracts Doppler information from signals. Analysis of data shows performance of MMR/ARX-II system comparable and sometimes superior to performances of Blk-III/BPA and Blk-III/SDA/SSA systems.

  1. ExodusII Finite Element Data Model

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-14

    EXODUS II is a model developed to store and retrieve data for finite element analyses. It is used for preprocessing (problem definition), postprocessing (results visualization), as well as code to code data transfer. An EXODUS II data file is a random access, machine independent, binary file that is written and read via C, C++, or Fortran library routines which comprise the Application Programming Interface. (exodus II is based on netcdf)

  2. SAGE II aerosol correlative observations - Profile measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, M. T.; Rosen, J. M.; Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, Pi-Huan; Livinfston, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of the aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with profiles from five correlative experiments between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative profiles were derived from six-channel dustsonde measurements and two-wavelength lidar backscatter data. The correlation between the dustsonde- and lidar-derived measurements and the SAGE II data is good, validating the SAGE II lower stratospheric aerosol extinction measurements.

  3. Probing outflows in z = 1 ∼ 2 galaxies through Fe II/Fe II* multiplets

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yuping; Giavalisco, Mauro; Guo, Yicheng

    2014-10-01

    We report on a study of the 2300-2600 Å Fe II/Fe II* multiplets in the rest-UV spectra of star-forming galaxies at 1.0 < z < 2.6 as probes of galactic-scale outflows. We extracted a mass-limited sample of 97 galaxies at z ∼ 1.0-2.6 from ultra-deep spectra obtained during the GMASS spectroscopic survey in the GOODS South field with the Very Large Telescope and FORS2. We obtain robust measures of the rest equivalent width of the Fe II absorption lines down to a limit of W{sub r} > 1.5 Å and of the Fe II* emission lines to W{sub r} > 0.5 Å. Whenever we can measure the systemic redshift of the galaxies from the [O II] emission line, we find that both the Fe II and Mg II absorption lines are blueshifted, indicating that both species trace gaseous outflows. We also find, however, that the Fe II gas has generally lower outflow velocity relative to that of Mg II. We investigate the variation of Fe II line profiles as a function of the radiative transfer properties of the lines, and find that transitions with higher oscillator strengths are more blueshifted in terms of both line centroids and line wings. We discuss the possibility that Fe II lines are suppressed by stellar absorptions. The lower velocities of the Fe II lines relative to the Mg II doublet, as well as the absence of spatially extended Fe II* emission in two-dimensional stacked spectra, suggest that most clouds responsible for Fe II absorption lie close (3 ∼ 4 kpc) to the disks of galaxies. We show that the Fe II/Fe II* multiplets offer unique probes of the kinematic structure of galactic outflows.

  4. Neurosurgical notes: World War II.

    PubMed

    Pool, J L

    2000-03-01

    This concerns my activities as a neurosurgeon in the European Theater of Operations and the North African, Tunisian campaign, during World War II. Action during the Battle of the Bulge came later. Our mobile tent hospital, the 9th Evacuation Hospital, was similar to that depicted in the television show M*A*S*H. To lend flavor to these comments, I have referred to medical and surgical matters in other units as well as our own, mentioned global aspects of the war, and included vignettes of life off-duty. The story begins after induction into the Army Medical Corps as a volunteer in July 1942 and ends with honorable discharge in April 1946. PMID:10719869

  5. EPACT II: project and methods.

    PubMed

    Juillerat, Pascal; Froehlich, Florian; Felley, Christian; Pittet, Valérie; Mottet, Christian; Gonvers, Jean-Jacques; Michetti, Pierre; Vader, John-Paul

    2007-01-01

    Building on the first European Panel on the Appropriateness of Crohn's Disease Treatment (EPACT I) which was held in Lausanne at the beginning of March 2004, a new panel will be convened in Switzerland (EPACT II, November to December 2007) to update this work. A combined evidence- and panel-based method (RAND) will be applied to assess the appropriateness of therapy for Crohn's disease (CD). In preparation for the meeting of experts, reviews of evidence-based literature were prepared for major clinical presentations of CD. During the meeting, an international multidis- ciplinary panel that includes gastroenterologists, surgeons and general practitioners weigh the strength of evidence and apply their clinical experience when assessing the appropriateness of therapy for 569 specific indications (clinical scenarios). This chapter describes in detail the process of updating the literature review and the systematic approach of the RAND Appropriateness Method used during the expert panel meeting. PMID:18239398

  6. Type II Transmembrane Serine Proteases*

    PubMed Central

    Bugge, Thomas H.; Antalis, Toni M.; Wu, Qingyu

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of genome and expressed sequence tag data bases at the turn of the millennium unveiled a new protease family named the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) in a Journal of Biological Chemistry minireview (Hooper, J. D., Clements, J. A., Quigley, J. P., and Antalis, T. M. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 857–860). Since then, the number of known TTSPs has more than doubled, and more importantly, our understanding of the physiological functions of individual TTSPs and their contribution to human disease has greatly increased. Progress has also been made in identifying molecular substrates and endogenous inhibitors. This minireview summarizes the current knowledge of the rapidly advancing TTSP field. PMID:19487698

  7. Optimization of simultaneous electrochemical determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) at carbon nanotube-modified graphite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pikna, L'ubomír; Heželová, Mária; Kováčová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The health of the environment is worsening every day. Monitoring of potentially toxic elements and remediation of environmental pollution are necessary. Therefore, the research and development of simple, inexpensive, portable and effective sensors is important. Electrochemistry is a useful component of the field of environment monitoring. The present study focuses on evaluating and comparing three types of electrodes (PIGE, PIGE/MWCNT/HNO3 and PIGE/MWCNT/EDTA/HNO3) employed for the simultaneous electrochemical determination of four potentially toxic elements: Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II). Cyclic voltammograms were measured in an acetate buffer. The LOD, LOQ, the standard and relative precisions of the method and a prediction intervals were calculated (according to the technical procedure DIN 32 645) for the three electrodes and for each measured element. The LOD for PIGE/CNT/HNO3 (the electrode with narrowest calculated prediction intervals) was 2.98 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Cd(II), 4.83 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Pb(II), 3.81 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Cu(II), 6.79 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Hg(II). One of the benefits of this study was the determination of the amount of Hg(II) in the mixture of other elements.

  8. SWAMI II technology transfer plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.R.; Peterson, K.D.; Harpring, L.J.; Immel, D.M.; Jones, J.D.; Mallet, W.R.

    1995-12-31

    Thousands of drums of radioactive/hazardous/mixed waste are currently stored at DOE sites throughout US; they are stored in warehouse facilities on an interim basis, pending final disposition. Recent emphasis on anticipated decommissioning of facilities indicates that many more drums of waste will be generated, requiring additional storage. Federal and state regulations dictate that hazardous waste covered by RCRA be inspected periodically for container degradation and to verify inventories. All known DOE waste storage facilities are currently inspected manually. A system to perform robotic inspection of waste drums is under development by the SRTC Robotics Group of WSRC; it is called the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI). The first version, SWAMI I, was developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) as a proof of principle system for autonomous inspection of drums in a warehouse. SWAMI I was based on the Transitions Research Corporation (TRC) HelpMate mobile robot. TRC modified the Helpmate to navigate in aisles of drums. SRTC added subsystems to SWAMI I to determine its position in open areas, read bar code labels on the drums up to three levels high, capture images of the drums and perform a radiation survey of the floor in the aisles. The radiation survey was based on SRTC patented technology first implemented on the Semi-Intelligent Mobile Observing Navigator (SIMON). The radiation survey is not essential for the inspection of drums, but is an option that can increase the utility and effectiveness of SWAMI in warehouses with radioactive and/or mixed waste. All the sensors on SWAMI I were fixed on the vehicle. From the success of SWAMI I, a second version, SWAMI II, was developed; it will be evaluated at Fernald and tested with two other mobile robots. Intent is to transfer the technology developed for SWAMI I and II to industry so that it can supply additional units for purchase for drum inspection.

  9. Phase II metabolism of benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Schrenk, D; Orzechowski, A; Schwarz, L R; Snyder, R; Burchell, B; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Bock, K W

    1996-01-01

    The hepatic metabolism of benzene is thought to be a prerequisite for its bony marrow toxicity. However, the complete pattern of benzene metabolites formed in the liver and their role in bone marrow toxicity are not fully understood. Therefore, benzene metabolism was studied in isolated rodent hepatocytes. Rat hepatocytes released benzene-1,2-dihydrodiol, hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CT), phenol (PH), trans-trans-muconic acid, and a number of phase II metabolites such as PH sulfate and PH glucuronide. Pretreatment of animals with 3-methylcholantrene (3-MC) markedly increased PH glucuronide formation while PH sulfate formation was decreased. Likewise, V79 cells transfected with the 3-MC-inducible rat UGT1.6 cDNA showed a considerable rate of PH and HQ glucuronidation. In addition to inducing glucuronidation of phenols, 3-MC treatment (reported to protect rats from the myelotoxicity of benzene) resulted in a decrease of hepatic CYP2E1. In contrast, pretreatment of rats with the CYP2E1-inducer isopropanol strongly enhanced benzene metabolism and the formation of phenolic metabolites. Mouse hepatocytes formed much higher amounts of HQ than rat hepatocytes and considerable amounts of 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (THB) sulfate and HQ sulfate. In conclusion, the protective effect of 3-MC in rats is probably due to a shift from the labile PH sulfate to the more stable PH glucuronide, and to a decrease in hepatic CYP2E1. The higher susceptibility of mice toward benzene may be related to the high rate of formation of the myelotoxic metabolite HQ and the semistable phase II metabolites HQ sulfate and THB sulfate. Images Figure 4. PMID:9118891

  10. Decreased Photosystem II Core Phosphorylation in a Yellow-Green Mutant of Wheat Showing Monophasic Fluorescence Induction Curve.

    PubMed Central

    Giardi, M. T.; Kucera, T.; Briantais, J. M.; Hodges, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the present work we study the regulation of the distribution of the phosphorylated photosystem II (PSII) core populations present in grana regions of the thylakoids from several plant species. The heterogeneous nature of PSII core phosphorylation has previously been reported (M.T. Giardi, F. Rigoni, R. Barbato [1992] Plant Physiol 100: 1948-1954; M.T. Giardi [1993] Planta 190: 107-113). The pattern of four phosphorylated PSII core populations in the grana regions appears to be ubiquitous in higher plants. In the dark, at least two phosphorylated PSII core populations are always detected. A mutant of wheat (Triticum durum) that shows monophasic room-temperature photoreduction of the primary quinone electron acceptor of PSII as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence increase in the presence and absence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and by fluorescence upon flash illumination in intact leaves also lacks the usual distribution of phosphorylated PSII core populations. In this mutant, the whole PSII core population pattern is changed, probably due to altered threonine kinase activity, which leads to the absence of light-induced phosphorylation of CP43 and D2 proteins. The results, correlated to previous experiments in vivo, support the idea that the functional heterogeneity observed by fluorescence is correlated in part to the PSII protein phosphorylation in the grana. PMID:12228652

  11. Accurate Ritz Wavelengths of Parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] Lines of Astrophysical Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C.

    2013-08-01

    We report a comprehensive list of accurate Ritz wavelengths for parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] lines obtained from the analysis of energy levels measured in the laboratory with Fourier transform emission spectroscopy. Such lines, particularly those in the infrared, are in demand for the analysis of low-density astrophysical plasmas in and around objects such as planetary nebulae, star-forming regions, and active galactic nuclei. Transitions between all known metastable levels of Co II and V II are included in our analysis, producing wavelengths for 1477 [V II] lines and 782 [Co II] lines. Of these, 170 [V II] lines and 171 [Co II] lines arise from transitions with calculated transition probabilities greater than 1 × 10-2 s-1 and upper level excitations of less than 5 eV, and thus are likely to be observed in astrophysical spectra.

  12. ACCURATE RITZ WAVELENGTHS OF PARITY-FORBIDDEN [Co II] AND [V II] LINES OF ASTROPHYSICAL INTEREST

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C.

    2013-08-15

    We report a comprehensive list of accurate Ritz wavelengths for parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] lines obtained from the analysis of energy levels measured in the laboratory with Fourier transform emission spectroscopy. Such lines, particularly those in the infrared, are in demand for the analysis of low-density astrophysical plasmas in and around objects such as planetary nebulae, star-forming regions, and active galactic nuclei. Transitions between all known metastable levels of Co II and V II are included in our analysis, producing wavelengths for 1477 [V II] lines and 782 [Co II] lines. Of these, 170 [V II] lines and 171 [Co II] lines arise from transitions with calculated transition probabilities greater than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1} and upper level excitations of less than 5 eV, and thus are likely to be observed in astrophysical spectra.

  13. Kinetics of Formation of Cobalt(II)- and Nickel(II) Carbonic Anhydrase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuate, Robert S.; Reardon, John E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the kinetic behavior associated with the interaction of metal ions with apocarbonic anhydrase, focusing on the formation of two metallocarbonic anhydrase--the biochemically active Co(II) and the inactive Ni(II)derivatives. (GA)

  14. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression analysis of cDNA encoding metalloprotein II (MP II) induced by single and combined metals (Cu(II), Cd(II)) in polychaeta Perinereis aibuhitensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dazuo; Zhou, Yibing; Zhao, Huan; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Sun, Na; Wang, Bin; Yuan, Xiutang

    2012-11-01

    We amplified and analyzed the complete cDNA of metalloprotein II (MP II) from the somatic muscle of the polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis, the full length cDNA is 904 bp encoding 119 amino acids. The MP II cDNA sequence was subjected to BLAST searching in NCBI and was found to share high homology with hemerythrin of other worms. MP II expression of P. aibuhitensis exposed to single and combined metals (Cu(II), Cd(II)) was analyzed using real time-PCR. MP II mRNA expression increased at the start of Cu(II) exposure, then decreased and finally return to the normal level. Expression pattern of MP II under Cd(II) exposure was time- and dose-dependent. MP II expression induced by a combination of Cd(II) and Cu(II) was similar to that induced by Cd(II) alone.

  15. Competitive adsorption of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yongjie; Hou, Haobo; Zhu, Shujing

    2009-02-15

    Polluted and contaminated water can often contain more than one heavy metal species. It is possible that the behavior of a particular metal species in a solution system will be affected by the presence of other metals. In this study, we have investigated the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) in single- and multi-element solution systems as a function of pH and concentration, in a background solution of 0.01M NaNO(3). In adsorption edge experiments, the pH was varied from 2.0 to 13.0 with total metal concentration 0.84mM in the single element system and 0.21mM each of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) in the multi-element system. The value of pH(50) (the pH at which 50% adsorption occurs) was found to follow the sequence Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd in single-element systems, but Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd in the multi-element system. Adsorption isotherms at pH 6.0 in the multi-element systems showed that there is competition among various metals for adsorption sites on BOF slag. The adsorption and potentiometric titrations data for various slag-metal systems were modeled using an extended constant-capacitance surface complexation model that assumed an ion-exchange process below pH 6.5 and the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes at higher pH. Inner-sphere complexation was more dominant for the Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) systems.

  16. Cohesin regulates MHC class II genes through interactions with MHC class II insulators.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Parimal; Boss, Jeremy M

    2011-10-15

    Cohesin is a multiprotein, ringed complex that is most well-known for its role in stabilizing the association of sister chromatids between S phase and M. More recently, cohesin was found to be associated with transcriptional insulators, elements that are associated with the organization of chromatin into regulatory domains. The human MHC class II (MHC-II) locus contains 10 intergenic elements, termed MHC-II insulators, which bind the transcriptional insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor. MHC-II insulators interact with each other, forming a base architecture of discrete loops and potential regulatory domains. When MHC-II genes are expressed, their proximal promoter regulatory regions reorganize to the foci established by the interacting MHC-II insulators. MHC-II insulators also bind cohesin, but the functional role of cohesin in regulating this system is not known. In this article, we show that the binding of cohesin to MHC-II insulators occurred irrespective of MHC-II expression but was required for optimal expression of the HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes. In a DNA-dependent manner, cohesin subunits interacted with CCCTC-binding factor and the MHC-II-specific transcription factors regulatory factor X and CIITA. Intriguingly, cohesin subunits were important for DNA looping interactions between the HLA-DRA promoter region and a 5' MHC-II insulator but were not required for interactions between the MHC-II insulators themselves. This latter observation introduces cohesin as a regulator of MHC-II expression by initiating or stabilizing MHC-II promoter regulatory element interactions with the MHC-II insulator elements, events that are required for maximal MHC-II transcription.

  17. Competitive Fe(II)-Zn(II) uptake on a synthetic montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Soltermann, Daniela; Marques Fernandes, Maria; Baeyens, Bart; Miehé-Brendlé, Jocelyne; Dähn, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of Fe(II) with clay minerals is of particular relevance in global geochemical processes controlling metal and nutrient cycles and the fate of contaminants. In this context, the influence of competitive sorption effects between Fe(II) and other relevant transition metals on their uptake characteristics and mobility remains an important issue. Macroscopic sorption experiments combined with surface complexation modeling and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy were applied to elucidate competitive sorption processes between divalent Fe and Zn at the clay mineral-water interface. Sorption isotherms were measured on a synthetic iron-free montmorillonite (IFM) under anoxic conditions (O2 <0.1 ppm) for the combinations of Zn(II)/Fe(II) and Fe(II)/Zn(II), where the former metal in each pair represents the trace metal (<10(-7) M) and the latter the competing metal at higher concentrations (10(-7) to 10(-3) M). Results of the batch sorption and EXAFS measurements indicated that Fe(II) is competing with trace Zn(II) for the same type of strong sites if Fe(II) is present in excess, whereas no competition between trace Fe(II) and Zn(II) was observed if Zn(II) is present at high concentrations. The noncompetitive behavior suggests the existence of sorption sites which have a higher affinity for Fe(III), where surface-induced oxidation of the sorbed Fe(II) to Fe(III) occurred, and which are not accessible for Zn(II). The understanding of this competitive uptake mechanism between Fe(II) and Zn(II) is of great importance to assess the bioavailability and mobility of transition metals in the natural environment. PMID:24289476

  18. A N-heterocyclic tetracarbene Pd(ii) moiety containing a Pd(ii)-Pb(ii) bimetallic MOF for three-component cyclotrimerization via benzyne.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Li, Yue; Wei, Yong-Liang; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Ma, Jian-Ping; Ji, Jun; Yao, Bing-Jian; Dong, Yu-Bin

    2016-08-18

    A novel Pd(ii)-Pb(ii) bimetallic metal-organic framework Pd(ii)-Pb(ii)-MOF (B) which contains an N-heterocyclic tetracarbene Pd(ii) moiety was synthesized based on a chelating N-heterocyclic dicarbene Pd(ii)-NHDC ligand (A) under solvothermal conditions. It can be a highly active heterogeneous catalyst for three-component cyclotrimerization via benzyne species.

  19. Preschool Racial Attitude Measure II (PRAM II): Technical Report #1: 1970-71 Standardization Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John E.

    This report provides detailed technical information concerning the Preschool Racial Attitude Measure II (PRAM II) a method for assessing the attitudes of pre-literate children toward light- and dark-skinned individuals. Several major changes were involved in the PRAM II revision: (1) the length was doubled, (2) the general artistic quality of the…

  20. 40 CFR Table II-2 to Subpart II - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes II Table II-2 to Subpart II Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt....

  1. 40 CFR Table II-2 to Subpart II - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes II Table II-2 to Subpart II Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt....

  2. Diet History Questionnaire II & Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Web-based DHQ

    Cancer.gov

    The Web-based versions of DHQ II and C-DHQ II are identical in content to the paper forms. By automating the DHQ II and providing versions on the Web for public use, researchers have another tool to collect and analyze food frequency questionnaire data.

  3. FOREWORD: HELAS II International Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizon, Laurent; Roth, Markus

    2008-07-01

    Volume 118 (2008) of Journal of Physics: Conference Series provides a written record of the talks and posters presented at the HELAS II International Conference `Helioseismology, Asteroseismology and MHD Connections'. The conference was held during the week 20-24 August 2007 in Göttingen, Germany, jointly hosted by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Göttingen. A total of 140 scientists from all over the world attended. The Scientific Organizing Committee consisted of Conny Aerts, Annie Baglin, Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard, Thierry Corbard, Jadwiga Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, Stefan Dreizler, Yvonne Elsworth, Laurent Gizon (Chairman), Wolfgang Glatzel, Frank Hill, Donald Kurtz, Oskar von der Lühe, Maria Pia Di Mauro, Mário Monteiro, Pere Pallé, Markus Roth, Philip Scherrer, Manfred Schüssler, and Michael Thompson. HELAS stands for the European Helio- and Asteroseismology Network, a Coordination Action supported by the sixth Framework Programme of the European Union. It aims to bring together researchers in the fields of solar and stellar oscillations. This volume consists of 91 articles organized into sections that reflect the scientific programme of the conference: 012001-07 Wave diagnostics in physics, geophysics and astrophysics 012008-09 Perspectives on helio- and asteroseismology 012010-17 Asteroseismology: Observations 012018-25 Asteroseismology: Theory 012026-32 Global helioseismology and solar models 012033-38 Local helioseismology and magnetic activity 012039-44 Future observational projects in helio- and asteroseismology 012045-91 Poster papers. The overwhelming majority of papers discuss the seismology of the Sun and stars. Papers in the first section provide a broader perspective on wave phenomena and techniques for probing other physical systems, from living beings to the universe as a whole. We were extremely fortunate to have particularly distinguished experts to cover these topics

  4. Adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions by cross-linking chitosan/rectorite nano-hybrid composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lixuan; Chen, Yufei; Zhang, Qiuyun; Guo, Xingmei; Peng, Yanni; Xiao, Huijuan; Chen, Xiaocheng; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-10-01

    Chitosan/rectorie (CTS/REC) nano-hybrid composite microsphere was prepared by changing the proportion of CTS/REC with 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. Compared with the pure cross-linking chitosan microsphere, the nano-hybrid composite microsphere was proved to have better sorption capacity of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II), especially 2:1(CTS/REC-1). The adsorption behavior of the microsphere of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) was investigated in single and binary metal systems. In single system, the equilibrium studies showed that the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) followed the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The negative values of (ΔG) suggested that the adsorption process was spontaneous. In binary system, the combined action of the metals was found to be antagonistic and the metal sorption followed the order of Cu(II)>Cd(II)>Ni(II). The regeneration studies indicated that EDTA desorbed Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) from cross-linking microspheres better than HCl. The FT-IR and XPS spectra showed that coordination bonds were formed between Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) and the nitrogen atoms of cross-linking CTS/REC nano-hybrid composite microspheres. PMID:26076634

  5. Synthesis, DFT Calculation, and Antimicrobial Studies of Novel Zn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) Heteroleptic Complexes Containing Benzoylacetone and Dithiocarbamate

    PubMed Central

    Ekennia, Anthony C.; Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Osowole, Aderoju A.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2015-01-01

    Heteroleptic complexes of zinc(II), copper(II), manganese(II), and cobalt(II) of the types [MLL′(H2O)2]·nH2O and [MLL′]·nH2O have been synthesized using sodium N-methyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate (L) and benzoylacetone (L′). The metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic susceptibility, infrared (IR), and UV-visible spectroscopic studies. The electrical conductance measurements revealed the nonelectrolytic nature of the synthesized complexes. The results of the elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and electronic spectra inferred that the Zn(II) complex adopted a four-coordinate geometry while the Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) complexes assumed octahedral geometries. The IR spectra showed that the metal ions coordinated with the ligands via the S- and O-donor atoms. The geometry, electronic, and thermodynamic parameters of the complexes were obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The spin density distributions, relative strength of H–bonds, and thermodynamic parameters revealed that the order of stability of the metal complexes is Mn < Co < Cu > Zn. The agar diffusion methods were used to study the antimicrobial activity of the complexes against two Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and S. pneumoniae), one Gram negative bacterium (E. coli), and two fungi organisms (A. niger and A. candida) and the complexes showed a broad spectrum of activities against the microbes. PMID:26681931

  6. Arkansas HEA Title II. State Report, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In October 1998, Congress enacted Title II, Sections 207 and 208 (as amendments to the Higher Education Act) which support the efforts of States, Institutions of Higher Education, and their School District partners to improve the recruitment, preparation, and support of new teachers. The Title II report includes specifications, conditions and…

  7. Micro Channel/Multibus-II Interface Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Ambrose, John J.; Jaworski, Richard C.; Heise, Nyles N.; Thornton, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Micro Channel/Multibus-II interface circuit provides electrical interconnections enabling communications between Micro Channels of IBM Personal System/2 computers and IEEE 1296 standard Multibus-II parallel system bus (iPSB). Made mostly of commercially available parts, interface enables independent Micro Channels to communicate over iPSB without modification.

  8. Run II data analysis on the grid

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Mandrichenko, Igor Terekhov and Frank Wurthwein

    2002-12-02

    In this document, we begin the technical design for the distributed RunII computing for CDF and D0. The present paper defines the three components of the data handling area of Run II computing, namely the Data Handling System, the Storage System and the Application. We outline their functionality and interaction between them. We identify necessary and desirable elements of the interfaces.

  9. The CDF SVX II detector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Skarha, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    The proposed CDF SVX II detector upgrade for secondary vertex detection during the Fermilab Tevatron Run II collider run is described. The general design and important features of this silicon vertex detector are presented. The CDF physics goals which are addressed by this detector are also given.

  10. World War II: A Technology Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, Suzy

    1990-01-01

    Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)

  11. Geology of the Phase II System

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, R.; Laughlin, A. William

    1980-11-19

    This is a report on the analysis of EE-2 cuttings and thin sections, geologic characterization of the Phase II system, comparison with Phase 1, and geologic speculations and recommendations concerning Phase II. The EE-2 litholog has been included in the pocket.

  12. Syntheses of Arnottin I and Arnottin II

    PubMed Central

    Moschitto, Matthew J.; Anthony, David R.; Lewis, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Short total syntheses of arnottin I and II were accomplished in 5 and 6 steps, respectively. A sesamol-benzyne cycloaddition with a 3-furyl-benzoate followed by regiospecific lactonization provided rapid, large-scale access to the core of arnottin I. Saponification of arnottin I and hypervalent iodide mediated spirocyclization provided an efficient and direct preparation of racemic arnottin II. PMID:25748275

  13. The CNET Automated Budget System (CABS) II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Morris G.; And Others

    The Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET) Automated Budget System II (CABS II) is an improved and expanded version of an earlier system which was developed by the Training Analysis and Evaluation Group (TAEG) to provide an efficient, easy means of handling the large volume of data necessary to produce budget documents. Intended as a guide…

  14. Biology II Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1820.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Academic Programs.

    In 1986, the Louisiana State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education requested that an advanced course in Biology II be developed. The resulting curriculum guide contains grade appropriate goals, skills, and competencies; suggested activities; suggested materials of instruction; and minimum time allotments for instruction. Biology II is a…

  15. TRUPACT-II procedures and maintenance instructions

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-14

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for operation, inspection and maintenance of a TRUPACT-II Shipping Package and directly related components. This document shall supply the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9218. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the TRUPACT-II SARP (NRC Certificate of Compliance No. 9218), the TRUPACT-II SARP shall govern. This document details the operations, maintenance, repair, replacement of components, as well as the documentation required and the procedures to be followed to maintain the integrity of the TRUPACT-II container. These procedures may be modified for site use, but as a minimum all parameters and format listed herein must be included in any site modified version. For convenience and where applicable steps may be performed out of sequence. Packaging and payload handling equipment and transport trailers have been specifically designed for use with the TRUPACT-II Packaging. This document discusses the minimum required procedures for use of the adjustable center of gravity lift fixture and the TRUPACT-II transport trailer in conjunction with the TRUPACT-II Packaging.

  16. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June 1940";…

  17. First Run II results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    S. Donati

    2002-06-04

    In this paper we report on the first run II results from the CDF experiment. A brief description of the Tevatron collider and CDF detector upgrades and performance achieved in the first part of run II is followed by the CDF expectations in the fields of beauty, top, electroweak and Higgs physics.

  18. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  19. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  20. Synthesis, DFT Calculation, and Antimicrobial Studies of Novel Zn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) Heteroleptic Complexes Containing Benzoylacetone and Dithiocarbamate.

    PubMed

    Ekennia, Anthony C; Onwudiwe, Damian C; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O; Osowole, Aderoju A; Ebenso, Eno E

    2015-01-01

    Heteroleptic complexes of zinc(II), copper(II), manganese(II), and cobalt(II) of the types [MLL'(H2O)2]·nH2O and [MLL']·nH2O have been synthesized using sodium N-methyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate (L) and benzoylacetone (L'). The metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic susceptibility, infrared (IR), and UV-visible spectroscopic studies. The electrical conductance measurements revealed the nonelectrolytic nature of the synthesized complexes. The results of the elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and electronic spectra inferred that the Zn(II) complex adopted a four-coordinate geometry while the Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) complexes assumed octahedral geometries. The IR spectra showed that the metal ions coordinated with the ligands via the S- and O-donor atoms. The geometry, electronic, and thermodynamic parameters of the complexes were obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The spin density distributions, relative strength of H-bonds, and thermodynamic parameters revealed that the order of stability of the metal complexes is Mn < Co < Cu > Zn. The agar diffusion methods were used to study the antimicrobial activity of the complexes against two Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and S. pneumoniae), one Gram negative bacterium (E. coli), and two fungi organisms (A. niger and A. candida) and the complexes showed a broad spectrum of activities against the microbes. PMID:26681931

  1. Inhibition of topoisomerase II by liriodenine.

    PubMed

    Woo, S H; Reynolds, M C; Sun, N J; Cassady, J M; Snapka, R M

    1997-08-15

    The cytotoxic oxoaporphine alkaloid liriodenine, isolated from Cananga odorata, was found to be a potent inhibitor of topoisomerase II (EC 5.99.1.3) both in vivo and in vitro. Liriodenine treatment of SV40 (simian virus 40)-infected CV-1 cells caused highly catenated SV40 daughter chromosomes, a signature of topoisomerase II inhibition. Strong catalytic inhibition of topoisomerase II by liriodenine was confirmed by in vitro assays with purified human topoisomerase II and kinetoplast DNA. Liriodenine also caused low-level protein-DNA cross-links to pulse-labeled SV40 chromosomes in vivo, suggesting that it may be a weak topoisomerase II poison. This was supported by the finding that liriodenine caused topoisomerase II-DNA cross-links in an in vitro assay for topoisomerase II poisons. Verapamil did not increase either liriodenine-induced protein-DNA cross-links or catalytic inhibition of topoisomerase II in SV40-infected cells. This indicates that liriodenine is not a substrate for the verapamil-sensitive drug efflux pump in CV-1 cells. PMID:9313773

  2. Angiotensin II disrupts inhibitory avoidance memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Juliana S; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Zinn, Carolina G; Kerr, Daniel S; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2006-08-01

    The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in learning and memory, but the actual role of angiotensin II (A(II)) and its metabolites in this process has been difficult to comprehend. This has been so mainly due to procedural issues, especially the use of multi-trial learning paradigms and the utilization of pre-training intracerebroventricular infusion of RAS-acting compounds. Here, we specifically analyzed the action of A(II) in aversive memory retrieval using a hippocampal-dependent, one-trial, step-down inhibitory avoidance task (IA) in combination with stereotaxically localized intrahippocampal infusion of drugs. Rats bilaterally implanted with infusion cannulae aimed to the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus were trained in IA and tested for memory retention 24 h later. We found that when given into CA1 15 min before IA memory retention test, A(II), but not angiotensin IV or angiotensin(1-7) induced a dose-dependent and reversible amnesia without altering locomotor activity, exploratory behavior or anxiety state. The effect of A(II) was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by the A(II)-type 2 receptor (AT(2)) antagonist PD123319 but not by the A(II)-type 1 receptor (AT(1)) antagonist losartan. By themselves, neither PD123319 nor losartan had any effect on memory expression. Our data indicate that intra-CA1 A(II) hinders retrieval of avoidance memory through a process that involves activation of AT(2) receptors.

  3. Special issue "International CAWSES-II Symposium"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Nakamura, Takuji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2016-02-01

    This special issue gathered papers from the International CAWSES-II Symposium (November 18-22, 2013 at Nagoya University, Japan). Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System II (CAWSES-II) is an international scientific program sponsored by Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) that continued from 2009 to 2013. The program was established with the aim of significantly enhancing our understanding of the space environment and its impacts on life and society. The International CAWSES-II Symposium was successful with 388 presentations; and from that, 38 papers were published in this special issue. In this preface, we briefly discuss the contents of the special issue as well as the CAWSES-II review papers published in Progress in Earth and Planetary Science (PEPS) in 2014-2015.

  4. TRUPACT-II Operating and Maintenance Instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division

    1999-12-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II) Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9218. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the TRUPACT-II SARP, the TRUPACT-II SARP shall govern. TRUPACT-II C of C number 9218 states, ''... each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' It further states, ''... each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the application.'' Chapter 9 of the TRUPACT-II SARP charges the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Waste Isolation Division (WID) with assuring that the TRUPACT-II is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. To meet this requirement and verify consistency of operations when loading and unloading the TRUPACT-II on the trailer, placing a payload in the packaging, unloading the payload from the packaging, or performing maintenance, the U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (U.S. DOE/CAO) finds it necessary to implement the changes that follow. This TRUPACT-II maintenance document represents a change to previous philosophy regarding site specific procedures for the use of the TRUPACT-II. This document details the instructions to be followed to consistently operate and maintain the TRUPACT-II. The intent of these instructions is to ensure that all users of the TRUPACT-II follow the same or equivalent instructions. Users may achieve this intent by any of the following methods: (1) Utilizing these instructions as is, or (2

  5. TRUPACT-II, a regulatory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, P.C.; Spooner, O.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Transuranic Package Transporter II (TRUPACT-II) is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certified Type B packaging for the shipment of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) material by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The NRC approved the TRUPACT-II design as meeting the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71) and issued Certificate of Compliance (CofC) Number 9218 to the DOE. There are currently 15 certified TRUPACT-IIs. Additional TRUPACT-IIs will be required to make more than 15,000 shipments of CH-TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The TRUPACT-II may also be used for the DOE inter-site and intra-site shipments of CH-TRU waste. The Land Withdrawal Act (Public Law 102-579), enacted by the US Congress, October 30, 1992, and an agreement between the DOE and the State of New Mexico, signed August 4, 1987, both stipulate that only NRC approved packaging may be used for shipments of TRU waste to the WIPP. Early in the TRUPACT-II development phase it was decided that the transportation system (tractor, trailer, and TRUPACT-II) should be highway legal on all routes without the need for oversize and/or overweight permits. In large measure, public acceptance of the DOE`s efforts to safely transport CH-TRU waste depends on the public`s perception that the TRUPACT-II is in compliance with all applicable regulations, standards, and quality assurance requirements. This paper addresses some of the numerous regulations applicable to Type B packaging, and it describes how the TRUPACT-II complies with these regulations.

  6. Intracellular angiotensin II activates rat myometrium.

    PubMed

    Deliu, Elena; Tica, Andrei A; Motoc, Dana; Brailoiu, G Cristina; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2011-09-01

    Angiotensin II is a modulator of myometrial activity; both AT(1) and AT(2) receptors are expressed in myometrium. Since in other tissues angiotensin II has been reported to activate intracellular receptors, we assessed the effects of intracellular administration of angiotensin II via microinjection on myometrium, using calcium imaging. Intracellular injection of angiotensin II increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in myometrial cells in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was abolished by the AT(1) receptor antagonist losartan but not by the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD-123319. Disruption of the endo-lysosomal system, but not that of Golgi apparatus, prevented the angiotensin II-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Blockade of AT(1) receptor internalization had no effect, whereas blockade of microautophagy abolished the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) produced by intracellular injection of angiotensin II; this indicates that microautophagy is a critical step in transporting the peptide into the endo-lysosomes lumenum. The response to angiotensin II was slightly reduced in Ca(2+)-free saline, indicating a major involvement of Ca(2+) release from internal stores. Blockade of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptors with heparin and xestospongin C or inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U-73122 abolished the response to angiotensin II, supporting the involvement of PLC-IP(3) pathway. Angiotensin II-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was slightly reduced by antagonism of ryanodine receptors. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that in myometrial cells, intracellular angiotensin II activates AT(1)-like receptors on lysosomes and activates PLC-IP(3)-dependent Ca(2+) release from endoplasmic reticulum; the response is further augmented by a Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release mechanism via ryanodine receptors activation.

  7. Standards in neurosonology. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). PMID:27104002

  8. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  9. Standards in neurosonology. Part II.

    PubMed

    Wojczal, Joanna; Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity).

  10. Early failure of Class II resin composite versus Class II amalgam restorations placed by dental students.

    PubMed

    Overton, J D; Sullivan, Diane J

    2012-03-01

    Using the information from remake request slips in a dental school's predoctoral clinic, we examined the short-term survival of Class II resin composite restorations versus Class II dental amalgam restorations. In the student clinic, resin composite is used in approximately 58 percent of Class II restorations placed, and dental amalgam is used in the remaining 42 percent. In the period examined, Class II resin composite restorations were ten times more likely to be replaced at no cost to the patient than Class II dental amalgam restorations. A total of eighty-four resin composite restorations and six amalgam restorations were replaced due to an identified failure.

  11. Tdp studies and tests for C. A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela (enelven) at planta ramon laguna, units RL-17 and RL-10. Volume 1. Executive summary, RL-17 test report, and gas conversion proposals. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-28

    The study, conducted by Babcock and Wilcox, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development agency on behalf of Enelven. In order to maximize generated power output and minimize operating costs at Planta Ramon Laguna, tests were done to evaluate the condition of equipment at the plant. In order to identify any damage and determine the operating output of each unit, assessments were done of the furnaces, boilers, generators and boiler feed pumps being used in the plant. The report presents the results of these tests. This is the first of three volumes and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Hydrogen Damage Assessment; (3) RL-17 Gas Conversion Proposal; (4) RL-10 and RL-11 Gas Conversion Proposals.

  12. Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Ayad, D M; Sarhan, A A

    2010-04-15

    The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction. PMID:19962235

  13. Effects of Mg II and Ca II ionization on ab-initio solar chromosphere models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rammacher, W.; Cuntz, M.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustically heated solar chromosphere models are computed considering radiation damping by (non-LTE) emission from H(-) and by Mg II and Ca II emission lines. The radiative transfer equations for the Mg II k and Ca II K emission lines are solved using the core-saturation method with complete redistribution. The Mg II k and Ca II K cooling rates are compared with the VAL model C. Several substantial improvements over the work of Ulmschneider et al. (1987) are included. It is found that the rapid temperature rises caused by the ionization of Mg II are not formed in the middle chromosphere, but occur at larger atmospheric heights. These models represent the temperature structure of the 'real' solar chromosphere much better. This result is a major precondition for the study of ab-initio models for solar flux tubes based on MHD wave propagation and also for ab-initio models for the solar transition layer.

  14. Use of APACHE II and SAPS II to predict mortality for hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Moon, Byeong Hoo; Park, Sang Kyu; Jang, Dong Kyu; Jang, Kyoung Sool; Kim, Jong Tae; Han, Yong Min

    2015-01-01

    We studied the applicability of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute stroke and compared the results with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). We also conducted a comparative study of accuracy for predicting hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke mortality. Between January 2011 and December 2012, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke patients admitted to the ICU were included in the study. APACHE II and SAPS II-predicted mortalities were compared using a calibration curve, the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the results were compared with the GCS and NIHSS. Overall 498 patients were included in this study. The observed mortality was 26.3%, whereas APACHE II and SAPS II-predicted mortalities were 35.12% and 35.34%, respectively. The mean GCS and NIHSS scores were 9.43 and 21.63, respectively. The calibration curve was close to the line of perfect prediction. The ROC curve showed a slightly better prediction of mortality for APACHE II in hemorrhagic stroke patients and SAPS II in ischemic stroke patients. The GCS and NIHSS were inferior in predicting mortality in both patient groups. Although both the APACHE II and SAPS II systems can be used to measure performance in the neurosurgical ICU setting, the accuracy of APACHE II in hemorrhagic stroke patients and SAPS II in ischemic stroke patients was superior.

  15. [C II] and [N II] from dense ionized regions in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The interstellar medium (ISM) consists of highly ionized and neutral atomic, as well as molecular, components. Knowledge of their distribution is important for tracing the structure and lifecycle of the ISM. Aims: To determine the properties of the highly ionized gas and neutral weakly ionized gas in the Galaxy traced by the fine-structure lines of ionized nitrogen, [N ii], and ionized carbon, [C ii]. Methods: We utilize observations of the [C ii] 158 μm and [N ii] 205 μm fine-structure lines taken with the high spectral resolution Heterodyne Instrument in the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory along ten lines of sight towards the inner Galaxy to analyze the ionized ISM. The [N ii] emission can be used to estimate the contribution of the highly ionized gas to the [C ii] emission and separate the contributions from highly ionized and weakly ionized neutral gas. Results: We find that [N ii] has strong emission in distinct spectral features along all lines of sight associated with strong [C ii] emission. The [N ii] arises from moderate density extended H ii regions or ionized boundary layers of clouds. Comparison of the [N ii] and [C ii] spectra in 31 separate kinematic features shows that many of the [C ii] spectra are affected by absorption from low excitation gas associated with molecular clouds, sometimes strongly so. The apparent fraction of the [C ii] associated with the [N ii] gas is unrealistically large in many cases, most likely due to the reduction of [C ii] by absorption. In a few cases the foreground absorption can be modeled to determine the true source intensity. In these sources we find that the foreground absorbing gas layer has C+ column densities of order 1018 cm-2. Conclusions: [C ii] emission arising from strong sources of [N ii] emission is frequently absorbed by low excitation foreground gas complicating the interpretation of the properties of the ionized and neutral gas components that give rise to [C ii] emission.

  16. New Rh2(II,II) Architecture for the Catalytic Reduction of H⁺.

    PubMed

    White, Travis A; Witt, Suzanne E; Li, Zhanyong; Dunbar, Kim R; Turro, Claudia

    2015-10-19

    Formamidinate-bridged Rh2(II,II) complexes containing diimine ligands of the formula cis-[Rh2(II,II)(μ-DTolF)2(NN)2](2+) (Rh2-NN2), where DTolF = p-ditolylformamidinate and NN = dppn (benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-h]quinoxaline), dppz (dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine), and phen (1,10-phenanthroline), electrocatalytically reduce H(+) to H2 in DMF solutions containing CH3COOH at a glassy carbon electrode. Cathodic scans in the absence of acid display a Rh(III,II/II,II) reduction at -0.90 V vs Fc(+)/Fc followed by NN(0/-) reduction at -1.13, -1.36, and -1.65 V for Rh2-dppn2, Rh2-dppz2, and Rh2-phen2, respectively. Upon the addition of acid, Rh2-dppn2 and Rh2-dppz2 undergo reduction-protonation-reduction at each pyrazine-containing NN ligand prior to the Rh2(II,II/II,I) reduction. The Rh2(II,I) species is then protonated at one of the metal centers, resulting in the formation of the corresponding Rh2(II,III)-hydride. In the case of Rh2-phen2, the reduction of the phen ligand is followed by intramolecular electron transfer to the Rh2(II,II) core in the presence of protons to form a Rh2(II,III)-hydride species. Further reduction and protonation at the Rh2 core for all three complexes rapidly catalyzes H2 formation with varied calculated turnover frequencies (TOF) and overpotential values (η): 2.6 × 10(4) s(-1) and 0.56 V for Rh2-dppn, 2.8 × 10(4) s(-1) and 0.50 V for Rh2-dppz2, and 5.9 × 10(4) s(-1) and 0.64 V for Rh2-phen2. Bulk electrolysis confirmed H2 formation, and further CH3COOH addition regenerates H2 production, attesting to the robust nature of the architecture. The cis-[Rh2(II,II)(μ-DTolF)2(NN)2](2+) architecture benefits by combining electron-rich formamidinate bridges, a redox-active Rh2(II,II) core, and electron-accepting NN diimine ligands to allow for the electrocatalysis of H(+) substrate to H2 fuel.

  17. Chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles-sorbent for solid phase extraction of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II).

    PubMed

    Djerahov, Lubomir; Vasileva, Penka; Karadjova, Irina; Kurakalva, Rama Mohan; Aradhi, Keshav Krishna

    2016-08-20

    The present study describes the ecofriendly method for the preparation of chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and application of this film as efficient sorbent for separation and enrichment of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II). The stable CS-AgNPs colloid was prepared by dispersing the AgNPs sol in chitosan solution at appropriate ratio and further used to obtain a cast film with very good stability under storage and good mechanical strength for easy handling in aqueous medium. The incorporation of AgNPs in the structure of CS film and interaction between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The homogeneously embedded AgNPs (average diameter 29nm, TEM analysis) were clearly observed throughout the film by SEM. The CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film shows high sorption activity toward trace metals under optimized chemical conditions. The results suggest that the CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film can be feasibly used as a novel sorbent material for solid-phase extraction of metal pollutants from surface waters.

  18. SEARCHING FOR NEW HYPERCOMPACT H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Pandian, Jagadheep D.; Kurtz, Stan

    2011-09-20

    Hypercompact (HC) H II regions are, by nature, very young H II regions, associated with the earliest stages of massive star formation. They may represent the transition phase as an early B-type star grows into an O-type star. Unfortunately, so few HC H II regions are presently known that their general attributes and defining characteristics are based on small number statistics. A larger sample is needed for detailed studies and good statistics. Class II methanol masers are one of the best indicators of the early stages of massive star formation. Using the Arecibo Methanol Maser Galactic Plane Survey-the most sensitive blind survey for 6.7 GHz methanol masers to date-we selected 24 HC H II region candidates. We made Expanded Very Large Array continuum observations at 3.6 and 1.3 cm to search for HC H II regions associated with these masers. We identified six potential HC H II regions in our sample based on the presence of optically thick free-free emission. Overall, we find that 30% of the methanol masers have an associated centimeter radio continuum source (separation less than 0.1 pc), which is in general agreement with previous studies.

  19. Angiotensin II: Immunohistochemical Study in Sardinian Pterygium

    PubMed Central

    Demurtas, P.; Corrias, M.; Zucca, I.; Piras, F.; Sirigu, P.; Perra, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the principal effector peptide of the RAS system. It has a pleiotropic effect and, beside its physiological role, it has the property to stimulate angiogenesis and activate multiple signalling pathways related to cell proliferation. The purpose of the study was to determinate the Ang II expression and localization in Sardinian pterygium and normal conjunctiva by immunohistochemistry, and its possible involvement in the development and progression of the disease. Twenty-three pterygiums and eleven normal conjunctiva specimens obtained from Sardinian patients, were processed for paraffin embedding and assessed for the immunohistochemi-cal revelation of Ang II. Significant Ang II expression was identified in pterygium and conjunctiva. Particularly, thirteen pterygium specimens (n=13) displayed exclusively moderate to strong nuclear staining; some specimens (n=5) showed exclusively a moderate cytoplasmic immunoreactivity, and few specimens (n=2) displayed moderate to strong immunoreactivity in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Only 3 specimens were negative. Statistical significance difference in respect of nuclear and cytoplasmic localization was observed between normal conjunctiva and pterygium (P=0.020). The results showed a predominant intranuclear localization of Ang II in pterygium epithelial cells, in spite of conjunctiva that mainly showed cytoplasmic localization. These findings suggest a possible role for Ang II in the development and/or progression of pterygium mediated by the activation of local RAS system. PMID:25308851

  20. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World......

  1. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World......

  2. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World......

  3. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World......

  4. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World......

  5. Probing Our Heliospheric History II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Katherine; Redfield, S.

    2012-05-01

    A physical relationship between our local interstellar medium (ISM), galactic cosmic rays (GCR), and our planetary environment has long been a subject of interest to the astronomical community. Clouds of sufficient density to compress the heliosphere to within 1 AU are commonly seen throughout the galactic environment, including within the Local Bubble (LB). Such a compression would lead to an increase in the GCR flux at 1 AU and would have drastic consequences for many planetary processes such as atmospheric chemistry, lightning production, cloud cover, and DNA mutation rates for surface organisms. Prior to this work, we derived a column density profile of the ISM toward 49 bright stars along a narrow cone centered on the historical solar path. High resolution spectra were taken of NaI and CaII absorption out to a distance of 610 pc, with a median separation distance of 11 pc between adjacent stars. No absorption is seen out to a distance of 120 pc (consistent with the LB), but a complex number of absorbers is seen beyond. We now present the detection of several distinct clouds, their associated column densities, radial velocities, inferred distances, and size constraints. This combination of cloud properties allows us to derive a volume density profile of the ISM in the Sun's “rear-view mirror,” which represents one plausible record of actual ISM encounters for the Sun. We also make use of empirical relations to determine the effect these clouds would have on the historical heliosphere. Our analysis suggests that within the last 10 million years, if the Sun encountered a cloud with the same properties as we have detected along the solar historical trajectory, the Sun's termination shock would have resided inside the orbit of Uranus, with a GCR flux at Earth an order of magnitude greater than it is currently.

  6. Angiotensin II receptors in testes

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, M.A.; Aguilera, G.

    1988-05-01

    Receptors for angiotensin II (AII) were identified and characterized in testes of rats and several primate species. Autoradiographic analysis of the binding of 125I-labeled (Sar1,Ile8)AII to rat, rhesus monkey, cebus monkey, and human testicular slide-mounted frozen sections indicated specific binding to Leydig cells in the interstitium. In rat collagenase-dispersed interstitial cells fractionated by Percoll gradient, AII receptor content was parallel to that of hCG receptors, confirming that the AII receptors are in the Leydig cells. In rat dispersed Leydig cells, binding was specific for AII and its analogs and of high affinity (Kd, 4.8 nM), with a receptor concentration of 15 fmol/10(6) cells. Studies of AII receptors in rat testes during development reveals the presence of high receptor density in newborn rats which decreases toward the adult age (4934 +/- 309, 1460 +/- 228, 772 +/- 169, and 82 +/- 12 fmol/mg protein at 5, 15, 20, and 30 days of age, respectively) with no change in affinity. At all ages receptors were located in the interstitium, and the decrease in binding was parallel to the decrease in the interstitial to tubular ratio observed with age. AII receptor properties in membrane-rich fractions from prepuberal testes were similar in the rat and rhesus monkey. Binding was time and temperature dependent, reaching a plateau at 60 min at 37 C, and was increased by divalent cations, EGTA, and dithiothreitol up to 0.5 mM. In membranes from prepuberal monkey testes, AII receptors were specific for AII analogs and of high affinity (Kd, 4.2 nM) with a receptor concentration of 7599 +/- 1342 fmol/mg protein. The presence of AII receptors in Leydig cells in rat and primate testes in conjunction with reports of the presence of other components of the renin-angiotensin system in the testes suggests that the peptide has a physiological role in testicular function.

  7. Light harvesting in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2013-10-01

    Water oxidation in photosynthesis takes place in photosystem II (PSII). This photosystem is built around a reaction center (RC) where sunlight-induced charge separation occurs. This RC consists of various polypeptides that bind only a few chromophores or pigments, next to several other cofactors. It can handle far more photons than the ones absorbed by its own pigments and therefore, additional excitations are provided by the surrounding light-harvesting complexes or antennae. The RC is located in the PSII core that also contains the inner light-harvesting complexes CP43 and CP47, harboring 13 and 16 chlorophyll pigments, respectively. The core is surrounded by outer light-harvesting complexes (Lhcs), together forming the so-called supercomplexes, at least in plants. These PSII supercomplexes are complemented by some "extra" Lhcs, but their exact location in the thylakoid membrane is unknown. The whole system consists of many subunits and appears to be modular, i.e., both its composition and organization depend on environmental conditions, especially on the quality and intensity of the light. In this review, we will provide a short overview of the relation between the structure and organization of pigment-protein complexes in PSII, ranging from individual complexes to entire membranes and experimental and theoretical results on excitation energy transfer and charge separation. It will become clear that time-resolved fluorescence data can provide invaluable information about the organization and functioning of thylakoid membranes. At the end, an overview will be given of unanswered questions that should be addressed in the near future.

  8. Participation of angiotensin II in learning and memory. II. Interactions of angiotensin II with dopaminergic drugs.

    PubMed

    Yonkov, D I; Georgiev, V P; Opitz, M J

    1986-04-01

    The effect of angiotensin II (ATII) and of its interactions with dopaminergic drugs injected post-trial on retention in active avoidance tasks in shuttle-box-trained rats were studied. ATII at doses of 0.10 and 0.50 micrograms administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) immediately after training improved retention. The dopaminergic receptor agonist apomorphine at a dose of 0.10 mg/kg injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) facilitated retention whereas elymoclavine (a dopaminergic agonist) at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg i.p. had no effect. ATII at a dose of 0.10 micrograms i.c.v. administered after apomorphine 0.10 mg/kg or elymoclavine 2.5 mg/kg exerted a stronger retention-facilitating effect. The dopaminergic receptor antagonist haloperidol at a dose of 1 mg/kg i.p. markedly impaired retention. ATII at a dose of 0.50 micrograms administered after haloperidol (1 mg/kg) did not exercise its retention-facilitating effect. It is concluded that the retention facilitating effects of ATII are realized through interactions with brain dopaminergic transmission.

  9. Indium-111-Photofrin-II scintillation scan

    SciTech Connect

    Origitano, T.C.; Karesh, S.M.; Reichman, O.H.; Henkin, R.E.; Caron, M.J.

    1989-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy is under intense investigation as an adjuvant treatment for malignant glial tumors of the central nervous system. Photofrin-II (HpD-II) is currently the most actively investigated photosensitizing agent. A crucial issue regarding the safe and efficacious usage of HpD-II-based photodynamic therapy is the individual in vivo kinetics of tumor uptake and retention, compared with normal brain clearance. The optimal time for photoactivation of sensitized tumor must be known to ensure a high target-to-nontarget ratio, resulting in the maximal tumor destruction while preserving normal brain. Our laboratory developed a radionuclide scan based on 111indium (111In)-labeled HpD-II to evaluate HpD-II localization and clearance noninvasively within a canine model of intracerebral gliosarcoma. Synthesis of the 111In-HpD-II complex in greater than 90% yield is achieved by a simple, rapid labeling method. Radiochemical purity and stability were verified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Using the canine model of intracerebral gliosarcoma, we followed the uptake of 111In-HpD-II in tumors with serial scintillation scanning. Localization of the tumor by 111In-HpD-II has been verified by contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan followed by gross and histological examination of the enhancing brain region. Total body biodistribution of 111In-HpD-II at various times after injection has been evaluated. The ratio of uptake in tumor compared with surrounding brain peaked at 72 hours after injection. The knowledge of regional distribution and concentration of a photosensitizing agent within a tumor mass and surrounding brain allows for the most efficacious timing and localization of a photoactivating source.

  10. Angiotensin II and renal tubular ion transport.

    PubMed

    Valles, Patricia; Wysocki, Jan; Batlle, Daniel

    2005-08-29

    Angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, also participates in the regulation of renal sodium and water excretion, not only via a myriad of effects on renal hemodynamics, glomerular filtration rate, and regulation of aldosterone secretion, but also via direct effects on renal tubule transport. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates H+ secretion and HCO3- reabsorption in both proximal and distal tubules and regulates H+-ATPase activity in intercalated cells of the collecting tubule. Different results regarding the effect of angiotensin II on bicarbonate reabsorption and proton secretion have been reported at the functional level, depending on the angiotensin II concentration and tubule segment studied. It is likely that interstitial angiotensin II is more important in regulating hemodynamic and transport functions than circulating angiotensin II. In proximal tubules, stimulation of bicarbonate reabsorption, Na+/H+-exchange, and Na+/HCO3- cotransport has been found using low concentrations (<10(-9) M), while inhibition of bicarbonate reabsorption has been documented using concentrations higher than 10(-8) M. Evidence for the regulation of H+-ATPase activity in vivo and in vitro by trafficking/exocytosis has been provided. An additional level of H+-ATPase regulation via protein synthesis may be important as well. Recently, we have shown that both aldosterone and angiotensin II provide such a mechanism of regulation in vivo at the level of the medullary collecting tubule. Interestingly, in this part of the nephron, the effects of aldosterone and angiotensin II are not sodium dependent, whereas in the cortical collecting duct, both aldosterone and angiotensin II, by contrast, affect H+ secretion by sodium-dependent mechanisms.

  11. Angiotensin II reduces calcium uptake into bone.

    PubMed

    Schurman, Scott J; Bergstrom, William H; Shoemaker, Lawrence R; Welch, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    Children with neonatal Bartter syndrome (NBS) have hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and osteopenia. A complex of basic-fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan has been identified in the serum and urine of NBS patients. This complex increases bone resorption in a bone disc bioassay system. Angiotensin II (AT II), which is increased in Bartter syndrome, increases the synthesis of b-FGF by cultured endothelial cells. Addition of 10(-8) M AT II to the bioassay, a concentration reported in Bartter syndrome patients, significantly decreased calcium uptake into bone discs [E/C 0.60 (0.04), P < 0.001 compared with buffer, normal E/C >0.90]. Adding b-FGF monoclonal antibody at 10 microg/ml [E/C 0.90 (0.06), P=NS] or indomethacin [E/C 1.00 (0.03), P=NS] to 10(-8 )M AT II neutralized this effect. In separate experiments, newborn rats were given intraperitoneal injections of AT II. Bone discs from these animals were used in the bioassay system and calcium uptake was markedly reduced compared with discs from rats injected with phosphate-buffered saline [AT II 6.6 x 10(-9), E/C 0.10 (0.04), P<0.001, AT II 3.3 x 10(-8), E/C 0.10 (0.05), P<0.001]. AT II decreases calcium uptake in the bone disc bioassay system. This effect can be abrogated by antibody to b-FGF or prostaglandin synthetase inhibition. These results support the hypothesis that in children with NBS, elevated levels of AT II stimulate local skeletal b-FGF synthesis, with a resultant increase in bone resorption via a prostaglandin-dependent pathway. PMID:14648327

  12. Delta II development and flight results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihara, S. K.

    An account is given of the design modifications of the Delta launch vehicle which have resulted in its Delta II variant, together with flight results obtained with the Delta II to date. Delta II launchers feature a stretched LX tank, a larger-diameter satellite-payload fairing, and an expansion of first-stage nozzle expansion ratio from 8:1 to 12:1. The thrust-augmenting solid rocket boosters use graphite/epoxy composite motor cases. Both two-stage and three-stage launches are discussed, with attention to flights for the Navstar satellites.

  13. LHC II system sensitivity to magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotae, Vlad; Creanga, Ioan

    2005-03-01

    Experiments have been designed to reveal the influences of ferrofluid treatment and static magnetic field exposure on the photosynthetic system II, where the light harvesting complex (LHC II) controls the ratio chlorophyll a/ chlorophyll b (revealing, indirectly, the photosynthesis rate). Spectrophotometric measurement of chlorophyll content revealed different influences for relatively low ferrofluid concentrations (10-30 μl/l) in comparison to higher concentrations (70-100 μl/l). The overlapped effect of the static magnetic field shaped better the stimulatory ferrofluid action on LHC II system in young poppy plantlets.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and anti-microbial evaluation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Pt(II) and Pd(II) sulfonylhydrazone complexes; 2D-QSAR analysis of Ni(II) complexes of sulfonylhydrazone derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özbek, Neslihan; Alyar, Saliha; Alyar, Hamit; Şahin, Ertan; Karacan, Nurcan

    2013-05-01

    Copper(II), nickel(II), platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde-N-methylpropanesulfonylhydrazone (nafpsmh) derived from propanesulfonic acid-1-methylhydrazide (psmh) were synthesized, their structure were identified, and antimicrobial activity of the compounds was screened against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. The results of antimicrobial studies indicate that Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes showed the most activity against all bacteria. The crystal structure of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde-N-methylpropanesulfonylhydrazone (nafpsmh) was also investigated by X-ray analysis. A series of Ni(II) sulfonyl hydrazone complexes (1-33) was synthesized and tested in vitro against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Their antimicrobial activities were used in the QSAR analysis. Four-parameter QSAR models revealed that nucleophilic reaction index for Ni and O atoms, and HOMO-LUMO energy gap play key roles in the antimicrobial activity.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis II alpha/beta

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions mucolipidosis II alpha/beta mucolipidosis II alpha/beta Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Mucolipidosis II alpha/beta (also known as I-cell disease) is ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hereditary motor neuropathy, type II distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II is a progressive disorder that affects ...

  17. Selected methods for dissolved iron (II, III) and dissolved sulfide (-II) determinations in geothermal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vivit, D.V.; Jenne, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved sulfide (-II) and dissolved iron (II, III) were determined in geothermal well water samples collected at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Most samples consisted of liquid and gas (two phases) at the instant of collection; and a subset of samples, referred to as ' flashed ' samples, consisted of pressurized steam samples which were allowed to condense. Sulfide was determined by sulfide specific ion electrode; Fe(II) and Fe(III) plus Fe(II) were determined spectrophotometrically. The precision and accuracy of the methods were evaluated for these high-silica waters with replicate analyses, spike recoveries, and an alternate method. Direct current (d.c.) argon plasma emission spectrometry was the alternate method used for Fe(III)-plus-Fe(II) analyses. Mean dissolved iron concentrations ranged from 20.2 to 834 micrograms/L (ug/L) as Fe(II) and 26.8 to 904 ug/L as Fe(III) plus Fe(II). Mean sulfide concentrations ranged from about 0.01 to 5.3 mg/L (S-II) Generally, higher S(-II) values and larger Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios were found in the two-phase samples. These findings suggest that the ' flashed ' samples are at a less reduced state than the two-phase samples. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Kinetics of homogeneous and surface-catalyzed mercury(II) reduction by iron(II)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amirbahman, Aria; Kent, Douglas B.; Curtis, Gary P.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Production of elemental mercury, Hg(0), via Hg(II) reduction is an important pathway that should be considered when studying Hg fate in environment. We conducted a kinetic study of abiotic homogeneous and surface-catalyzed Hg(0) production by Fe(II) under dark anoxic conditions. Hg(0) production rate, from initial 50 pM Hg(II) concentration, increased with increasing pH (5.5–8.1) and aqueous Fe(II) concentration (0.1–1 mM). The homogeneous rate was best described by the expression, rhom = khom [FeOH+] [Hg(OH)2]; khom = 7.19 × 10+3 L (mol min)−1. Compared to the homogeneous case, goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (α-Fe2O3) increased and γ-alumina (γ-Al2O3) decreased the Hg(0) production rate. Heterogeneous Hg(0) production rates were well described by a model incorporating equilibrium Fe(II) adsorption, rate-limited Hg(II) reduction by dissolved and adsorbed Fe(II), and rate-limited Hg(II) adsorption. Equilibrium Fe(II) adsorption was described using a surface complexation model calibrated with previously published experimental data. The Hg(0) production rate was well described by the expression rhet = khet [>SOFe(II)] [Hg(OH)2], where >SOFe(II) is the total adsorbed Fe(II) concentration; khet values were 5.36 × 10+3, 4.69 × 10+3, and 1.08 × 10+2 L (mol min)−1 for hematite, goethite, and γ-alumina, respectively. Hg(0) production coupled to reduction by Fe(II) may be an important process to consider in ecosystem Hg studies.

  19. An uncertain role for Cu(II) in stimulating Mn(II) oxidation by Leptothrix discophora SS-1.

    PubMed

    El Gheriany, Iman A; Bocioaga, Daniela; Hay, Anthony G; Ghiorse, William C; Shuler, Michael L; Lion, Leonard W

    2011-02-01

    In an effort to improve understanding of the role of Cu(II) in bacterial Mn(II) oxidation, a model Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium, Leptothrix discophora SS-1, was grown in presence of toxic and non-toxic concentrations of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II). Mn(II)-oxidizing activity increased by 40% when cells were grown in the presence of 0.05 microM of Cu(II) and increased twofold at 0.18 microM Cu(II). Toxic levels of Cd(II) did not stimulate Mn(II) oxidizing activity, indicating that Mn(II) oxidation is not a response to metal toxicity. Stimulation by Cu(II) confirms the specific role of Cu(II) in Mn(II) oxidation. Comparison of transcript levels of the multicopper oxidase mofA gene in the presence and absence of added Cu(II) do not indicate a statistically significant change in mofA transcript levels in cultures supplemented with Cu(II). Thus, the exact role of Cu(II) in Mn(II) oxidation and its affect on mofA gene expression remain uncertain. PMID:21063867

  20. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, Hunter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Hunter syndrome is caused by deficiency of the lysososmal enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase that cleaves O-linked sulphate moieties from dermatan sulphate and heparan sulphate and leads to accumulation of GAGs. The disease is a X-linked condition affecting males and rarely females, clinically divided into severe (2/3) and attenuated types. Children with severe form, diagnosed at 12-36 months, have coarse facial feature, short stature, joint stiffness, short neck, broad chest, large head circumference, watery diarrhea, skeletal changes, progressive and profound mental retardation, retinal degeneration' hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, valvular involvement, with progressive thickening and stiffening of the valve leaflets leading to mitral and aortic regurgitation and stenosis . Recurrent and prolonged rhinitis with persistent nasal discharge are the first symptoms of airway disease that manifests itself as noisy breathing and later sleep apnea. Some patients develop ivory-colored skin lesions on the upper back and sides of the upper arms, pathogenomic of Hunter syndrome. The scalp hair becomes coarse, straight and bristly. Inguinal and umbilical hernias occur caused by the disturbed structure of connective tissue and increased liver and spleen volume. Patients with attenuated form have normal intelligence and a milder phenotype. Physical features diagnosed later are similar but less pronounced but progress to severe disease. Sceening is by quantitative assessment of urinary GAGs excretion. Qualitative assessment of GAG by electrophoresis can distinguish the type of mucopolysaccharidosis. Definitive diagnosis is based on enzyme activity assay in leukocytes, fibroblasts or plasma. Molecular testing is recommended mainly for genetic counseling and carrier detection. Limited experience of Haematopoietic stem cell therapy in MPS II showed progressive neurodegeneration. Recombinant 125 Idursulfase, is indicated for long-term treatment. The response appears to depend on the

  1. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, Hunter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Hunter syndrome is caused by deficiency of the lysososmal enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase that cleaves O-linked sulphate moieties from dermatan sulphate and heparan sulphate and leads to accumulation of GAGs. The disease is a X-linked condition affecting males and rarely females, clinically divided into severe (2/3) and attenuated types. Children with severe form, diagnosed at 12-36 months, have coarse facial feature, short stature, joint stiffness, short neck, broad chest, large head circumference, watery diarrhea, skeletal changes, progressive and profound mental retardation, retinal degeneration' hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, valvular involvement, with progressive thickening and stiffening of the valve leaflets leading to mitral and aortic regurgitation and stenosis . Recurrent and prolonged rhinitis with persistent nasal discharge are the first symptoms of airway disease that manifests itself as noisy breathing and later sleep apnea. Some patients develop ivory-colored skin lesions on the upper back and sides of the upper arms, pathogenomic of Hunter syndrome. The scalp hair becomes coarse, straight and bristly. Inguinal and umbilical hernias occur caused by the disturbed structure of connective tissue and increased liver and spleen volume. Patients with attenuated form have normal intelligence and a milder phenotype. Physical features diagnosed later are similar but less pronounced but progress to severe disease. Sceening is by quantitative assessment of urinary GAGs excretion. Qualitative assessment of GAG by electrophoresis can distinguish the type of mucopolysaccharidosis. Definitive diagnosis is based on enzyme activity assay in leukocytes, fibroblasts or plasma. Molecular testing is recommended mainly for genetic counseling and carrier detection. Limited experience of Haematopoietic stem cell therapy in MPS II showed progressive neurodegeneration. Recombinant 125 Idursulfase, is indicated for long-term treatment. The response appears to depend on the

  2. NSLS-II Transport Line Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller R. P.; Wahl, W.; Anderson, A.; Benish, B.; DeBoer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hu, J.-P.; Johanson, M.P.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Padrazo, D.; Roy, K.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.

    2012-05-20

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state-of-the-art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The first part of the Linac to Booster Transport (LBT) line has been installed for linac commissioning. This part includes all components necessary to commission the NSLS-II linac. The second part of this transport line is undergoing installation. Initial results of hardware commissioning will be discussed. The Booster to Storage Ring (BSR) transport line underwent a design review. The first part of the BSR transport line, consisting of all components necessary to commission the booster will be installed in 2012 for booster commissioning. We report on the final design of the BSR line along with the plan to commission the booster.

  3. Culturally and linguistically responsive teaching: part II.

    PubMed

    Billings, Diane M

    2015-03-01

    This part II of a two-part article about culturally and linguistically responsive teaching provides suggestions for evaluating learners who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) and are often under-represented in nursing education settings.

  4. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Imaging Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub Wesley; Bryden, Geoff; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Chen, Pin; Trauger, John

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed coronagraph on a balloon-borne platform, for the purpose of observing debris disks around nearby stars. Zodiac II will have a 1.2-m diameter telescope mounted in a balloon-borne gondola capable of arcsecond quality pointing, and with the capability to make long-duration (several week) flights. Zodiac II will have a coronagraph able to make images of debris disks, meaning that its scattered light speckles will be at or below an average contrast level of about 10(exp -7) in three narrow (7 percent) bands centered on the V band, and one broad (20%) one at I band. We will discuss the potential science to be done with Zodiac II.

  5. Resistance domain in type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1980-01-05

    We show that traveling domains with a finite resistance can exist in type II superconductors in the presence of a transport current. An experiment in which this effect generates an alternating electric field and current is proposed.

  6. Far Outer Galaxy H II Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, A. L.; deGues, E. J.; Brand, J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have made a multifrequency (6, 3.6, and 2 cm), high-resolution (3"-6"), radio continuum survey of IRAS selected sources from the catalogue of Wouterloot & Brand (1989) to search for and study H II regions in the far outer Galaxy. We identified 31 sources in this catalog with well determined galactocentric distances, and with R approx.. greater than 15 kpc and L(sub FIR) approx.greater than 10(exp 4) solar luminosity, indicating the presence of high-mass star-formation. We have observed 11 of these sources with the Very Large Array (VLA). We observed the sources at 6 and 2 cm using "scaled arrays", making possible a direct and reliable comparison of the data at these two wavelengths for the determination of spectral indices. We detected a total of 12 radio sources, of which 10 have spectral indices consistent with optically-thin free-free emission from H II regions. Combined with previous VLA observations by other investigators, we have data on a total of 15 H II regions at galactocentric distances of 15 to 18.2kpc, among the most remote H II regions found in our Galaxy. The sizes of the H II regions range from approx. less than 0.10 to 2.3 pc. Using the measured fluxes and sizes, we determine the electron densities, emission measures, and excitation parameters of the H II regions, as well as the fluxes of Lyman continuum photons needed to keep the nebulae ionized. The sizes and electron densities are consistent with most of the sources detected in this survey being compact or ultracompact H II regions. Seven of the fifteen H II regions have sizes approx. less than 0.20 pc. Assuming simple pressure-driven expansion of the H II regions, these sizes indicate ages approx. less than 5 x 10(exp 4) yr, or only 1% of the lifetime of an O star, which implies an unlikely overabundance of O stars in the outer Galaxy. Thus, the large number of compact H II regions suggests that the time these regions spend in a compact phase must be much longer than their dynamical

  7. Topoisomerase II Mediates Meiotic Crossover Interference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangran; Wang, Shunxin; Yin, Shen; Hong, Soogil; Kim, Keun P.; Kleckner, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Summary Spatial patterning is a ubiquitous feature of biological systems. Meiotic crossovers provide an interesting example, defined by the classical phenomenon of crossover interference. Here, analysis of crossover patterns in budding yeast identifies a molecular pathway for interference. Topoisomerase II (Topo II) plays a central role, thus identifying a new function for this critical molecule. SUMOylation [of TopoII and axis component Red1] and ubiquitin-mediated removal of SUMOylated proteins are also required. These and other findings support the hypothesis that crossover interference involves accumulation, relief and redistribution of mechanical stress along the protein/DNA meshwork of meiotic chromosome axes, with TopoII required to adjust spatial relationships among DNA segments. PMID:25043020

  8. Achondrogenesis type II, abnormalities of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Machado, M A; Chou, J W; Campbell, D

    1987-09-01

    Immune and lectin histochemical and microchemical methods were employed to study growth cartilage from seven cases of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino). The normal architecture of the epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage was replaced by a morphologically heterogeneous tissue. Some areas were comprised of vascular canals surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue and enlarged cells that had the appearance and histochemical characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Other areas contained a mixture of cells ranging from small to the enlarged chondrocytes. The extracellular matrix in the latter areas was more abundant and had characteristics of both precartilage mesenchymal matrix and typical cartilage matrix; it contained types I and II collagen, cartilage proteoglycan, fibronectin, and peanut agglutinin binding glycoconjugate(s). Peptide mapping of cyanogen bromide cartilage collagen peptides revealed the presence of types I and II collagen. These observations could be explained by a defect in the biosynthesis of type II collagen or in chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:3309860

  9. Achondrogenesis II-hypochondrogenesis: variability versus heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Borochowitz, Z; Ornoy, A; Lachman, R; Rimoin, D L

    1986-06-01

    Recently hypochondrogenesis was described as a form of neonatally lethal dwarfism said to resemble spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita radiographically and achondrogenesis II morphologically. Because of the difficulty in distinguishing radiographically between mild achondrogenesis II and severe hypochondrogenesis, we performed a clinical, radiographic, and morphologic study of 24 cases originally classified as either achondrogenesis II or hypochondrogenesis, in an attempt to distinguish between heterogeneity and clinical variability. Review of the radiographic findings in these cases show a fairly continuous spectrum of bony defects, rather than two distinct radiographic syndromes. Chondro-osseous histology and ultrastructure was similar in all cases regardless of severity and was characterized by hypervascularity and hypercellularity of the cartilage with multiple small, round dilated cysternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum. These findings suggest that hypochondrogenesis and achondrogenesis type II represent a spectrum with marked phenotypic variability. PMID:3717210

  10. SCORPION II persistent surveillance system update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Hunt, Cassandra

    2011-06-01

    This paper highlights the most recently added features and benefits available in the latest generation of Northrop Grumman SCORPION II persistent surveillance and target recognition systems. By leveraging smaller, lighter, and more power efficient SCORPION II sensor and universal gateway components, with foliage penetrating ad-hoc network communications, persistent field programmable systems that are easier to conceal can be optimized for both image capture and data exfiltration. In addition to the SCORPION II suite of sensor components, a growing list of over sixty different sensor and camera types from a variety of manufacturers have been integrated with the SCORPION Gateway family. In addition to updating several different COP systems, SCORPION and SCORPION II data can be directly processed using a common sensor status graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from hundreds of SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays.

  11. PEP-II Status and Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Wienands, H.U.; Biagini, M.E.; Decker, F.J.; Donald, M.H.; Ecklund, S.; Fisher, A.; Holtzapple, R.L.; Iverson, R.H.; Krejcik, P.; Kulikov, A.V.; Meyer, T.; Nelson, J.; Novokhatski, A.; Reichel, I.; Sullivan, M.; Seeman, J.T.; Turner, J.; Steier, C.; Zisman, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2012-04-24

    PEP-II/BABAR are presently in their second physics run. With machine and detector performance and reliability at an all-time high, almost 51 fb{sup -1} have been integrated by BABAR up to mid-October 2001. PEP-II luminosity has reached 4.4 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and our highest monthly delivered luminosity has been above 6 pb{sup -1}, exceeding the performance parameters given in the PEP-II CDR by almost 50%. The increase compared to the first run in 2000 has been achieved by a combination of beam-current increase and beam-size decrease. In this paper we will summarize the PEP-II performance and the present limitations as well as our plans to further increase machine performance.

  12. Database for mobile group II introns.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lixin; Toor, Navtej; Olson, Robert; Keeping, Andrew; Zimmerly, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing RNAs and retroelements found in bacteria and lower eukaryotic organelles. During the past several years, they have been uncovered in surprising numbers in bacteria due to the genome sequencing projects; however, most of the newly sequenced introns are not correctly identified. We have initiated an ongoing web site database for mobile group II introns in order to provide correct information on the introns, particularly in bacteria. Information in the web site includes: (1) introductory information on group II introns; (2) detailed information on subfamilies of intron RNA structures and intron-encoded proteins; (3) a listing of identified introns with correct boundaries, RNA secondary structures and other detailed information; and (4) phylogenetic and evolutionary information. The comparative data should facilitate study of the function, spread and evolution of group II introns. The database can be accessed at http://www.fp.ucalgary.ca/group2introns/.

  13. Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) by hematite nanoparticles: effect of sorbent concentration, pH, temperature, and exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Heather J; Engates, Karen E; Grover, Valerie A

    2013-03-01

    Nanoparticles offer the potential to improve environmental treatment technologies due to their unique properties. Adsorption of metal ions (Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Zn(II)) to nanohematite was examined as a function of sorbent concentration, pH, temperature, and exhaustion. Adsorption experiments were conducted with 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g/L nanoparticles in a pH 8 solution and in spiked San Antonio tap water. The adsorption data showed the ability of nanohematite to remove Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn species from solution with adsorption increasing as the nanoparticle concentration increased. At 0.5 g/L nanohematite, 100 % Pb species adsorbed, 94 % Cd species adsorbed, 89 % Cu species adsorbed and 100 % Zn species adsorbed. Adsorption kinetics for all metals tested was described by a pseudo second-order rate equation with lead having the fastest rate of adsorption. The effect of temperature on adsorption showed that Pb(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) underwent an endothermic reaction, while Zn(II) underwent an exothermic reaction. The nanoparticles were able to simultaneously remove multiple metals species (Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu) from both a pH 8 solution and spiked San Antonio tap water. Exhaustion experiments showed that at pH 8, exhaustion did not occur for the nanoparticles but adsorption does decrease for Cd, Cu, and Zn species but not Pb species. The strong adsorption coupled with the ability to simultaneously remove multiple metal ions offers a potential remediation method for the removal of metals from water.

  14. Antenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis type II.

    PubMed

    Kodandapani, S; Ramkumar, V

    2009-01-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia, small thorax and polyhydramnios. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis). Prenatal ultrasonography at 22-weeks gestation revealed a fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs. Pregnancy was terminated. Radiologic examination of neonate revealed features of achondrogenesis type II. Routine ultrasound screening made early detection and timely management possible. PMID:20387359

  15. EXODUS II: A finite element data model

    SciTech Connect

    Schoof, L.A.; Yarberry, V.R.

    1994-09-01

    EXODUS II is a model developed to store and retrieve data for finite element analyses. It is used for preprocessing (problem definition), postprocessing (results visualization), as well as code to code data transfer. An EXODUS II data file is a random access, machine independent, binary file that is written and read via C, C++, or Fortran library routines which comprise the Application Programming Interface (API).

  16. The Ssart of Run II at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Marco Rescigno

    2002-10-29

    After a hiatus of almost 6 years and an extensive upgrade, Tevatron, the world largest proton-antiproton collider, has resumed the operation for the so called RUN II. In this paper we give a brief overview of the many new features of the Tevatron complex and of the upgraded CDF experiment, and show the presently achieved detector performances as well as highlights of the RUN II physics program in the beauty and electroweak sector.

  17. NSLS-II Radio Frequency Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rose J.; Gao F.; Goel, A.; Holub, B.; Kulpin, J.; Marques, C.; Yeddulla, M.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II is a 3 GeV X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The NSLS-II RF system consists of the master oscillator, digital low level RF controllers, linac, booster and storage ring RF sub-systems, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system.

  18. NSLS-II Beam Diagnostics Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,O.; Alforque, R.; Bacha, B.; Blednykh, A.; Cameron, P.; Cheng, W.; Dalesio, L. B.; Della Penna, A. J.; doom, L.; Fliller, R. P.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H-C.; Johnson, E. D.; Kosciuk, b. N.; Kramer, S. L.; Krinsky, S.; Mead, J.; Ozaki, S.; Padrazo, D.; Pinayev, I.; Ravindranath, R. V.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.; Sharma, S.; Skaritka, J.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, Y.; Willeke, F. J.; Yu, L-H.

    2009-05-04

    A new 3rd generation light source (NSLS-II) is in the early stages of construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux with exceptional beam stability. It presents several challenges for diagnostics and instrumentation, related to the extremely small emittance. In this paper, we present an overview of all planned instrumentation systems, results from research and development activities; and then focus on other challenging aspects.

  19. Performance of dipole magnets in helium II

    SciTech Connect

    Althaus, R.; Caspi, S.; Gilbert, W.S.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meuser, R.; Rechen, J.; Taylor, C.; Warren, R.

    1981-03-01

    Data from tests in He II of four 1-meter-long magnets are presented. The maximum quench current is increased up to 30 percent, compared with tests in He I. Data from calorimetric measurements of heat generated during cyclic operation are presented. Quenches were induced by heaters placed near the conductor, and the energy required to induce quenches in He II and in He I are compared.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles impregnated on apple pomace to enhanced adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chand, Piar; Pakade, Yogesh B

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized, and impregnated onto apple pomace surface (HANP@AP) for efficient removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions from water. HANP@AP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and surface area analysis. Batch sorption studies were carried out to investigate the influence of different parameters as amount of dose (g), pH, time (min), and initial concentration (mg L(-1)) on adsorption process. Experimental kinetic data followed pseudo-second-order model and equilibrium data well fitted to Langmuir adsorption model with maximum adsorption capacities of 303, 250, and 100 mg g(-1) for Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions, respectively. Competitive adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions in presences of each other was studied to evaluate the removal efficiency of HANP@AP against multi metal-loaded water. HANP@AP was successfully applied to real industrial wastewater with 100 % removal of all three metal ions even at high concentration. HANP@AP could be recycled for four, four, and three cycles in case of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II), respectively. The study showed that HANP@AP is fast, cost effective, and environmental friendly adsorbent for removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions from real industrial wastewater.

  1. Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal from aqueous solutions by olive cake.

    PubMed

    Doyurum, Sabriye; Celik, Ali

    2006-11-01

    The removal of heavy metals from wastewater using olive cake as an adsorbent was investigated. The effect of the contact time, pH, temperature, and concentration of adsorbate on adsorption performance of olive cake for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were examined by batch method. Adsorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in aqueous solution onto olive cake was studied in single component. After establishing the optimum conditions, elution of these ions from the adsorbent surface was also examined. The optimum sorption conditions were determined for two elements. Maximum desorption of the Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were found to be 95.92 and 53.97% by 0.5M HNO(3) and 0.2M HCl, respectively. The morphological analysis of the olive cake was performed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:16806680

  2. Preferred crystallographic orientation in the ice I ← II transformation and the flow of ice II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, K.; Wenk, H.-R.; Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    The preferred crystallographic orientation developed during the ice I ← II transformation and during the plastic flow of ice II was measured in polycrystalline deuterium oxide (D2O) specimens using low-temperature neutron diffraction. Samples partially transformed from ice I to II under a non-hydrostatic stress developed a preferred crystallographic orientation in the ice II. Samples of pure ice II transformed from ice I under a hydrostatic stress and then when compressed axially, developed a strong preferred orientation of compression axes parallel to (1010). A match to the observed preferred orientation using the viscoplastic self-consistent theory was obtained only when (1010) [0001] was taken as the predominant slip system in ice II.

  3. PIVKA-II-producing advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Takano, Shigetsugu; Honda, Ichiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Soda, Hiroaki; Nagata, Matsuo; Hoshino, Isamu; Takenouchi, Toshinao; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2004-08-01

    We describe the case of a 68-year-old man with primary advanced adenocarcinoma of the stomach, who displayed extremely high plasma levels of protein induced by vitamin K antagonist (PIVKA)-II (15 600 mAU/ml) and normal levels of alphafetoprotein (AFP) (4 ng/ml). Ultrasonography and dynamic computed tomography ruled out hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or liver metastasis. After preoperative chemotherapy, pancreatico-spleno total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed. Postoperatively, plasma levels of PIVKA-II returned to within the normal range (29 mAU/ml). Microscopic examination revealed stomach adenocarcinoma showing various histological types, such as moderately to poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma, but hepatoid differentiation of gastric adenocarcinoma was not detected. Localization of PIVKA-II and AFP within tumor cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies. These results indicate that tumor cells from gastric cancer may produce PIVKA-II. Some cases of PIVKA-II- and AFP-producing advanced gastric cancer with liver metastasis have been reported, but this is the first report of gastric cancer without liver metastasis producing PIVKA-II alone.

  4. Group II Introns and Their Protein Collaborators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solem, Amanda; Zingler, Nora; Pyle, Anna Marie; Li-Pook-Than, Jennifer

    Group II introns are an abundant class of autocatalytic introns that excise themselves from precursor mRNAs. Although group II introns are catalytic RNAs, they require the assistance of proteins for efficient splicing in vivo. Proteins that facilitate splicing of organellar group II introns fall into two main categories: intron-encoded maturases and host-encoded proteins. This chapter will focus on the host proteins that group II introns recruited to ensure their function. It will discuss the great diversity of these proteins, define common features, and describe different strategies employed to achieve specificity. Special emphasis will be placed on DEAD-box ATPases, currently the best studied example of host-encoded proteins with a role in group II intron splicing. Since the exact mechanisms by which splicing is facilitated is not known for any of the host proteins, general mechanistic strategies for protein-mediated RNA folding are described and assessed for their potential role in group II intron splicing.

  5. Calcitonin metabolism in senile (type II) osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Reginster, J Y; Deroisy, R; Bruwier, M; Franchimont, P

    1992-05-01

    The exact role of calcitonin (CT) in the pathogenesis of senile (Type II) osteoporosis remains unknown. Whole plasma calcitonin (iCT) and extracted monomeric calcitonin (eCT) basal levels, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and production rate (PR) of iCT and eCT were measured in 41 postmenopausal women, including 14 hip fractures (OP II) and 27 healthy controls. No significant difference appeared for basal iCT levels between OP II (mean +/- SEM: 41.9 +/- 3.4 pg/ml) and controls (mean +/- SEM: 46.2 +/- 5 pg/ml). eCT basal levels were similar in OP II (mean +/- SEM: 5.42 +/- 0.5 pg/ml) and in controls (mean +/- SEM: 7.3 +/- 0.7 pg/ml). MCR were similar in the two groups. iCT PR were similar in OP II (mean +/- SEM: 17.2 +/- 1.5 micrograms/24 h) and controls (mean +/- SEM: 18.6 +/- 1.1 micrograms/24 h). No difference appeared between eCT PR in OP II (mean +/- SEM: 2.3 +/- 0.2 micrograms/24 h) and controls (mean +/- SEM: 3.2 +/- 0.3 pg/ml). From these data, no evidence appears that calcitonin might be one of the determinant factors in the pathogenesis of senile osteoporosis.

  6. AUGO II: A Comprehensive Subauroral Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, I. S.; Connors, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Athabasca University Geophysical Observatory II (AUGO II) is a comprehensive subauroral zone observatory designed for routine automated optical and magnetic observation of the aurora. Becoming operational in February 2012, AUGO II has six temperature/humidity controlled observation rooms, each equipped with a 1.5 meter diameter acrylic dome custom fabricated for wide spectral transparency. AUGO II is located approximately 25 km southwest of the town of Athabasca, in Alberta, Canada, on the southern edge of the auroral zone (Geodetic coordinates: latitude 54 36' 10", longitude 113 38' 40" west. CGM coordinates: latitude 61.7, longitude 306.8, L-value 4.5). AUGO II is sufficiently isolated from urban development that skies are dark enough during winter months to allow optical studies of faint phenomena, such as H-beta studies of proton precipitation aurora, currently underway. The observatory's modest residence can accommodate six persons, allowing groups to live and work with their instruments for the duration of their research campaign without leaving the site. AUGO II's inaugural guest research campaign was reported successful, and resulted in a permanent VLF/LF radio experiment being deployed at the observatory's expansive site. We are hopeful more research groups will take advantage of this unique facility and help realize its full potential.

  7. Coronal type II bursts and interplanetary type II bursts: Distinct shock drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanarayana, G. S.

    2012-02-01

    We study solar radio type II bursts combining with Wind/WAVES type II bursts and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The aim of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of shocks to cause type II bursts in the solar corona and the interplanetary space. We consider the following findings. The distribution of the cessation heights of type II emission is confined to a rather narrow range of height than the distribution of the heights of start frequencies. This is suggestive of the presence of a gradient for the Alfvén speed from the heliocentric height of ˜1.4 solar radii. The range of the kinetic energy of CMEs associated with coronal type II emission taken together with the suggested computation method and the Alfvén speed gradient, indicates the limit to the height up to which type II emission could be expected. This height is ˜2 solar radii from the center of the Sun. Further, the large time gap between the cessation time and heights of coronal type II emission and the commencement time and heights of most of the IP type II bursts do not account for the difference between the two heights and the average shock speed. Also, there is clear difference in the magnitude of the kinetic energies and the distinct characteristics of the CMEs associated with coronal and IP type II bursts. Hence, we suggest that in most instances the coronal type II bursts and IP type II bursts occur due to distinct shocks. We also address the question of the origin of type II bursts and discuss the possible explanation of observed results.

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart II of... - General Provisions of Applicability to Subpart II

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Reference Applies to subpart II Comment 63.1(a)(1)-(3) Yes. 63.1(a)(4) Yes Subpart II clarifies the applicability of each paragraph in subpart A to sources subject to subpart II. 63.1(a)(5)-(7) Yes 63.1(a)(8) No Discusses State programs. 63.1(a)(9)-(14) Yes 63.1(b)(1) Yes § 63.781 specifies applicability in more...

  9. Competitive sorption of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) on carbonaceous nanofibers: A spectroscopic and modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Ding, Congcong; Cheng, Wencai; Wang, Xiangxue; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Sun, Yubing; Chen, Changlun; Wang, Xiangke; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-08-01

    The competitive sorption of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) on the uniform carbonaceous nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated in binary/ternary-metal systems. The pH-dependent sorption of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) on CNFs was independent of ionic strength, indicating that inner-sphere surface complexation dominated sorption Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) on CNFs. The maximum sorption capacities of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) on CNFs in single-metal systems at a pH 5.5±0.2 and 25±1°C were 3.84 (795.65mg/g), 3.21 (204.00mg/g) and 2.67 (156.70mg/g)mmol/g, respectively. In equimolar binary/ternary-metal systems, Pb(II) exhibited greater inhibition of the sorption of Cu(II) and Ni(II), demonstrating the stronger affinity of CNFs for Pb(II). The competitive sorption of heavy metals in ternary-metal systems was predicted quite well by surface complexation modeling derived from single-metal data. According to FTIR, XPS and EXAFS analyses, Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) were specifically adsorbed on CNFs via covalent bonding. These observations should provide an essential start in simultaneous removal of multiple heavy metals from aquatic environments by CNFs, and open the doorways for the application of CNFs. PMID:27108273

  10. Circulating angiotensin II deteriorates left ventricular function with sympathoexcitation via brain angiotensin II receptor

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Keisuke; Kishi, Takuya; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Sympathoexcitation contributes to the progression of heart failure. Activation of brain angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AT1R) causes central sympathoexcitation. Thus, we assessed the hypothesis that the increase in circulating angiotensin II comparable to that reported in heart failure model affects cardiac function through the central sympathoexcitation via activating AT1R in the brain. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II for 14 days increased the circulating angiotensin II level comparable to that reported in heart failure model rats after myocardial infarction. In comparison with the control, angiotensin II infusion increased 24 hours urinary norepinephrine excretion, and systolic blood pressure. Angiotensin II infusion hypertrophied left ventricular (LV) without changing chamber dimensions while increased end-diastolic pressure. The LV pressure–volume relationship indicated that angiotensin II did not impact on the end-systolic elastance, whereas significantly increased end-diastolic elastance. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of AT1R blocker, losartan, attenuated these angiotensin II-induced changes. In conclusion, circulating angiotensin II in heart failure is capable of inducing sympathoexcitation via in part AT1R in the brain, subsequently leading to LV diastolic dysfunction. PMID:26290529

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopic studies and crystal structure of the Schiff base ligand L derived from condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine and its complexes with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II): Comparative DNA binding studies of L and its Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakir, Mohammad; Abbasi, Ambreen; Azam, Mohammad; Khan, Asad U.

    2011-09-01

    The Schiff base ligand, N,N'-bis-(2-thiophenecarboxaldimine)-3,3'-diaminobenzidine (L) obtained from condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine, was used to synthesize the complexes of type, [M 2L 2]Cl 4 [M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II)]. The newly synthesized ligand (L) was characterized on the basis of the results of elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopic studies and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The characteristic resonance signals in 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra indicated the presence of azomethine group as a result of condensation reaction. The stoichiometry, bonding and stereochemistries of complexes were ascertained on the basis of results of elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, molar conductance and spectroscopic studies viz., FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR, UV-vis and EPR. EPR, UV-vis and magnetic moment data revealed an octahedral geometry for complexes with distortion in Cu(II) complex and conductivity data show 1:2 electrolytic nature of complexes. Absoption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies supported that Schiff base ligand L and its Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes exhibited significant binding to calf thymus DNA. The complexes exhibited higher affinity to calf thymus DNA than the free Schiff base ligand L.

  12. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES. II. H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schombert, James; McGaugh, Stacy; Maciel, Tamela E-mail: stacy.mcgaugh@case.edu

    2013-08-01

    The luminosities, colors, and H{alpha} emission for 429 H II regions in 54 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are presented. While the number of H II regions per galaxy is lower in LSB galaxies compared to star-forming irregulars and spirals, there is no indication that the size or luminosity function of H II regions differs from other galaxy types. The lower number of H II regions per galaxy is consistent with their lower total star formation rates. The fraction of the total L{sub H{alpha}} contributed by H II regions varies from 10% to 90% in LSB galaxies (the rest of the H{alpha} emission being associated with a diffuse component) with no correlation with galaxy stellar or gas mass. Bright H II regions have bluer colors, similar to the trend in spirals; their number and luminosities are consistent with the hypothesis that they are produced by the same H II luminosity function as spirals. Comparison with stellar population models indicates that the brightest H II regions in LSB galaxies range in cluster mass from a few 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} (e.g., {rho} Oph) to globular-cluster-sized systems (e.g., 30 Dor) and that their ages are consistent with clusters from 2 to 15 Myr old. The faintest H II regions are comparable to those in the LMC powered by a single O or B star. Thus, star formation in LSB galaxies covers the full range of stellar cluster mass.

  13. Cu(II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity of three different clay liner materials.

    PubMed

    Musso, T B; Parolo, M E; Pettinari, G; Francisca, F M

    2014-12-15

    Sorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) on three natural clays meeting the international requirements for use as liners was evaluated by means of batch tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the retention capacities of the clays for metal cations commonly present in urban solid waste leachates. The pH and ionic strength conditions were set at values frequently found in real leachates. The changes observed in the XRD patterns and FTIR spectra upon adsorption can be considered an evidence of clay-metal electrostatic interaction. The Langmuir model was found to best describe the sorption processes, offering maximum sorption capacities from 8.16 to 56.89 mg/g for Cu(II) and from 49.59 to 103.83 mg/g for Zn(II). All samples remove more Zn(II) than Cu(II), which may be related to the different geometry of the hydrated Cu(II) cation. The total amount of metal sorption was strongly influenced by the total specific surface area, the presence of carbonates and the smectite content of the clays. In addition to their known quality as physical barriers, the adsorbed amounts obtained indicate the suitability of the tested clays to contribute to the retardation of Cu(II) and Zn(II) transport through clay liners.

  14. Phosphate effects on copper(II) and lead(II) sorption to ferrihydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberg, Charlotta; Sjöstedt, Carin; Persson, Ingmar; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2013-11-01

    Transport of lead(II) and copper(II) ions in soil is affected by the soil phosphorus status. Part of the explanation may be that phosphate increases the adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) to iron (hydr)oxides in soil, but the details of these interactions are poorly known. Knowledge about such mechanisms is important, for example, in risk assessments of contaminated sites and development of remediation methods. We used a combination of batch experiments, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and surface complexation modeling with the three-plane CD-MUSIC model to study the effect of phosphate on sorption of copper(II) and lead(II) to ferrihydrite. The aim was to identify the surface complexes formed and to derive constants for the surface complexation reactions. In the batch experiments phosphate greatly enhanced the adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) to ferrihydrite at pH < 6. The largest effects were seen for lead(II).

  15. Angiotensin II: role in skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Córdova, Gonzalo; Salas, José Diego

    2012-09-01

    Skeletal muscle, the main protein reservoir in the body, is a tissue that exhibits high plasticity when exposed to changes. Muscle proteins can be mobilized into free amino acids when skeletal muscle wasting occurs, a process called skeletal muscle atrophy. This wasting is an important systemic or local manifestation under disuse conditions (e.g., bed rest or immobilization), in starvation, in older adults, and in several diseases. The molecular mechanisms involved in muscle wasting imply the activation of specific signaling pathways which ultimately manage muscle responses to modulate biological events such as increases in protein catabolism, oxidative stress, and cell death by apoptosis. Many factors have been involved in the generation and maintenance of atrophy in skeletal muscle, among them angiotensin II (Ang-II), the main peptide of renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Together with Ang-II, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the Ang-II receptor type 1 (AT-1 receptor) are expressed in skeletal muscle, forming an important local axis that can regulate its function. In many of the conditions that lead to muscle wasting, there is an impairment of RAS in a global or local fashion. At this point, there are several pieces of evidence that suggest the participation of Ang-II, ACE, and AT-1 receptor in the generation of skeletal muscle atrophy. Interestingly, the Ang-II participation in muscle atrophy is strongly ligated to the regulation of hypertrophic activity of factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). In this article, we reviewed the current state of Ang-II and RAS function on skeletal muscle wasting and its possible use as a therapeutic target to improve skeletal muscle function under atrophic conditions.

  16. Spectroscopic evaluation of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes derived from thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Anil

    2007-12-01

    Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes were synthesized with thiosemicarbazone (L 1) and semicarbazone (L 2) derived from 2-acetyl furan. These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurement of the complexes in DMSO corresponds to non-electrolytic nature. All the complexes are of high-spin type. On the basis of different spectral studies six coordinated geometry may be assigned for all the complexes except Co(L) 2(SO 4) and Cu(L) 2(SO 4) [where L = L 1 and L 2] which are of five coordinated square pyramidal geometry.

  17. Statistics of equivalent width data and new oscillator strengths for Si II, Fe II, and Mn II. [in interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, Dave

    1986-01-01

    Equivalent width data from Copernicus and IUE appear to have an exponential, rather than a Gaussian distribution of errors. This is probably because there is one dominant source of error: the assignment of the background continuum shape. The maximum likelihood method of parameter estimation is presented for the case of exponential statistics, in enough generality for application to many problems. The method is applied to global fitting of Si II, Fe II, and Mn II oscillator strengths and interstellar gas parameters along many lines of sight. The new values agree in general with previous determinations but are usually much more tightly constrained. Finally, it is shown that care must be taken in deriving acceptable regions of parameter space because the probability contours are not generally ellipses whose axes are parallel to the coordinate axes.

  18. Heterotrimetallic Ru(II)/Pd(II)/Ru(II) complexes: synthesis, crystalstructure, spectral characterization, DFT calculation and antimicrobial study.

    PubMed

    Al-Noaimi, Mousa; Nafady, Ayman; Warad, Ismail; Alshwafy, Rwaida; Husein, Ahmad; Talib, Wamidh H; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2014-03-25

    New ruthenium(II) mononuclear complexes of the type [RuCl2(PPh3)2(η(2)-triamine)] (2) [RuCl(PPh3)2(η(3)-triamine)]Cl (5) (triemine=N(1)-(2-aminoethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine) have been synthesized by reacting [RuCl2(PPh3)3] (1) with one mole equivalent of N(1)-(2-aminoethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine in dichloromethane. Reaction of (2) with half-equivalent of (PhCN)2PdCl2 or Pd(OAc)2 in dichloromethane as a solvent afforded two novel heterotrimetallic Ru(II)-Pd(II)-Ru(II) complexes, [Ru(II)Cl2(PPh3)2(triamine)]2[Pd(II)X2](X=Cl, OAc) (3 and 4), bearing bioactive ligand. The progress of the undertaken reactions was monitored by (31)P{1H} NMR and FTIR. Crystal structure of complex 2 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The absorption spectrum of 2 in dichloromethane was modeled by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The in vitro antimicrobial studies of complex 2-5 against an array of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were conducted. Complexes 3 and 4 exhibit high dual antibacterial and antifungal activity inhibiting microorganisms possibly via hydrolytic pathway which further evidenced by electrochemical analyses. The complexes 3 and 4 show a high inhibitory activity at 200 μg/ml concentration, suggesting that complexes 3 and 4 are two efficient catalytic inhibitor of microorganisms and further, they should be tested against cancer strains.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart E of... - Sampling Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling Tables II Appendix II to Subpart E of Part 205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE..., Subpt. E, App. II Appendix II to Subpart E of Part 205—Sampling Tables Table 1—Model Year...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart E of... - Sampling Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling Tables II Appendix II to Subpart E of Part 205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE..., Subpt. E, App. II Appendix II to Subpart E of Part 205—Sampling Tables Table 1—Model Year...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used...

  6. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall be.... In these circumstances, a Class II brake test shall be performed prior to the train's departure...

  7. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall be.... In these circumstances, a Class II brake test shall be performed prior to the train's departure...

  8. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall be.... In these circumstances, a Class II brake test shall be performed prior to the train's departure...

  9. THE ARECIBO H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bania, T. M.; Anderson, L. D.; Balser, Dana S.

    2012-11-10

    We report the detection of radio recombination line (RRL) emission using the Arecibo Observatory at X band (9 GHz, 3 cm) from 37 previously unknown H II regions in the Galactic zone 66 Degree-Sign {>=} l {>=} 31 Degree-Sign and | b | {<=} 1 Degree-Sign . This Arecibo H II Region Discovery Survey (Arecibo HRDS) is a continuation of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) HRDS. The targets for the Arecibo HRDS have spatially coincident 24 {mu}m and 20 cm emission of a similar angular morphology and extent. To take advantage of Arecibo's sensitivity and small beam size, sources in this sample are fainter, smaller in angle, or in more crowded fields compared to those of the GBT HRDS. These Arecibo nebulae are some of the faintest H II regions ever detected in RRL emission. Our detection rate is 58%, which is low compared to the 95% detection rate for GBT HRDS targets. We derive kinematic distances to 23 of the Arecibo HRDS detections. Four nebulae have negative local standard of rest velocities and are thus unambiguously in the outer Galaxy. The remaining sources are at the tangent-point distance or farther. We identify a large, diffuse H II region complex that has an associated H I and {sup 13}CO shell. The {approx}90 pc diameter of the G52L nebula in this complex may be the largest Galactic H II region known, and yet it has escaped previous detection.

  10. Summary of CPAS Gen II Parachute Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Moore, James W.; Olson, Leah M.; Ray, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft is currently under development by NASA and Lockheed Martin. Like Apollo, Orion will use a series of parachutes to slow its descent and splashdown safely. The Orion parachute system, known as the CEV Parachute Assembly System (CPAS), is being designed by NASA, the Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG), and Airborne Systems. The first generation (Gen I) of CPAS testing consisted of thirteen tests and was executed in the 2007-2008 timeframe. The Gen I tests provided an initial understanding of the CPAS parachutes. Knowledge gained from Gen I testing was used to plan the second generation of testing (Gen II). Gen II consisted of six tests: three singleparachute tests, designated as Main Development Tests, and three Cluster Development Tests. Gen II required a more thorough investigation into parachute performance than Gen I. Higher fidelity instrumentation, enhanced analysis methods and tools, and advanced test techniques were developed. The results of the Gen II test series are being incorporated into the CPAS design. Further testing and refinement of the design and model of parachute performance will occur during the upcoming third generation of testing (Gen III). This paper will provide an overview of the developments in CPAS analysis following the end of Gen I, including descriptions of new tools and techniques as well as overviews of the Gen II tests.

  11. Reddening and extinction towards H II regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplan, James; Deharveng, Lise

    1989-01-01

    The light emitted by the gas in H II regions is attenuated by dust. This extinction can be measured by comparing H alpha, H beta, and radio continuum fluxes, since the intrinsic ratios of the Balmer line and thermal radio continuum emissivities are nearly constant for reasonable conditions in H II regions. In the case of giant extragalactic H II regions, the extinction was found to be considerably greater than expected. The dust between the Earth and the emitting gas may have an optical thickness which varies. The dust may be close enough to the source that scattered light contributes to the flux, or the dust may be actually mixed with the emitting gas. It is difficult to decide which configuration is correct. A rediscussion of this question in light of recent observations, with the Fabry-Perot spectrophotometers, of the large Galactic H II region is presented. The color excesses are compared for stars embedded in these H II regions with those derived (assuming the standard law) from the nebular extinction and reddening.

  12. PEP-II injection timing and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, V.; Browne, M.; Crane, M.; Gromme, T.; Himel, T.; Ross, M.; Stanek, M.; Ronan, M.

    1997-07-01

    Hardware has been built and software written and incorporated in the existing SLC accelerator control system to control injection of beam pulses from the accelerator into the PEP-II storage rings currently under construction. Hardware includes a CAMAC module to delay the machine timing fiducial in order that a beam pulse extracted from a damping ring will be injected into a selected group of four 476 MHz buckets in a PEP-II ring. Further timing control is accomplished by shifting the phase of the bunches stored in the damping rings before extraction while leaving the phase of the PEP-II stored beam unchanged. The software which drives timing devices on a pulse-to-pulse basis relies on a dedicated communication link on which one scheduling microprocessor broadcasts a 128-bit message to all distributed control microprocessors at 360 Hz. PEP-II injection will be driven by the scheduling microprocessor according to lists specifying bucket numbers in arbitrary order, and according to scheduling constraints maximizing the useful beam delivered to the SLC collider currently in operation. These lists will be generated by a microprocessor monitoring the current stored per bucket in each of the PEP-II rings.

  13. Belle-II Experiment Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, David; Bell, Greg; Carlson, Tim; Cowley, David; Dart, Eli; Erwin, Brock; Godang, Romulus; Hara, Takanori; Johnson, Jerry; Johnson, Ron; Johnston, Bill; Dam, Kerstin Kleese-van; Kaneko, Toshiaki; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Kuhr, Thomas; McCoy, John; Miyake, Hideki; Monga, Inder; Nakamura, Motonori; Piilonen, Leo; Pordes, Ruth; Ray, Douglas; Russell, Richard; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Jim; Sevior, Martin; Singh, Surya; Suzuki, Soh; Sasaki, Takashi; Williams, Jim

    2013-05-28

    The Belle experiment, part of a broad-based search for new physics, is a collaboration of ~400 physicists from 55 institutions across four continents. The Belle detector is located at the KEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan. The Belle detector was operated at the asymmetric electron-positron collider KEKB from 1999-2010. The detector accumulated more than 1 ab-1 of integrated luminosity, corresponding to more than 2 PB of data near 10 GeV center-of-mass energy. Recently, KEK has initiated a $400 million accelerator upgrade to be called SuperKEKB, designed to produce instantaneous and integrated luminosity two orders of magnitude greater than KEKB. The new international collaboration at SuperKEKB is called Belle II. The first data from Belle II/SuperKEKB is expected in 2015. In October 2012, senior members of the Belle-II collaboration gathered at PNNL to discuss the computing and neworking requirements of the Belle-II experiment with ESnet staff and other computing and networking experts. The day-and-a-half-long workshop characterized the instruments and facilities used in the experiment, the process of science for Belle-II, and the computing and networking equipment and configuration requirements to realize the full scientific potential of the collaboration's work.

  14. Mesospheric ozone measurements by SAGE II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, D. A.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1994-04-01

    SAGE II observations of ozone at sunrise and sunset (solar zenith angle = 90 deg) at approximately the same tropical latitude and on the same day exhibit larger concentrations at sunrise than at sunset between 55 and 65 km. Because of the rapid conversion between atomic oxygen and ozone, the onion-peeling scheme used in SAGE II retrievals, which is based on an assumption of constant ozone, is invalid. A one-dimensional photochemical model is used to simulate the diurnal variation of ozone particularly within the solar zenith angle of 80 deg - 100 deg. This model indicates that the retrieved SAGE II sunrise and sunset ozone values are both overestimated. The Chapman reactions produce an adequate simulation of the ozone sunrise/sunset ratio only below 60 km, while above 60 km this ratio is highly affected by the odd oxygen loss due to odd hydrogen reactions, particularly OH. The SAGE II ozone measurements are in excellent agreement with model results to which an onion peeling procedure is applied. The SAGE II ozone observations provide information on the mesospheric chemistry not only through the ozone profile averages but also from the sunrise/sunset ratio.

  15. Mesospheric ozone measurements by SAGE II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, D. A.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    SAGE II observations of ozone at sunrise and sunset (solar zenith angle = 90 deg) at approximately the same tropical latitude and on the same day exhibit larger concentrations at sunrise than at sunset between 55 and 65 km. Because of the rapid conversion between atomic oxygen and ozone, the onion-peeling scheme used in SAGE II retrievals, which is based on an assumption of constant ozone, is invalid. A one-dimensional photochemical model is used to simulate the diurnal variation of ozone particularly within the solar zenith angle of 80 deg - 100 deg. This model indicates that the retrieved SAGE II sunrise and sunset ozone values are both overestimated. The Chapman reactions produce an adequate simulation of the ozone sunrise/sunset ratio only below 60 km, while above 60 km this ratio is highly affected by the odd oxygen loss due to odd hydrogen reactions, particularly OH. The SAGE II ozone measurements are in excellent agreement with model results to which an onion peeling procedure is applied. The SAGE II ozone observations provide information on the mesospheric chemistry not only through the ozone profile averages but also from the sunrise/sunset ratio.

  16. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

  17. PIP-II Status and Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Stephen; Derwent, Paul; Lebedev, Valeri; Mishra, Shekhar; Mitchell, Donald; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav P.

    2015-06-01

    Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) is the centerpiece of Fermilab's plan for upgrading the accelerator complex to establish the leading facility in the world for particle physics research based on intense proton beams. PIP-II has been developed to provide 1.2 MW of proton beam power at the start of operations of the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), while simultaneously providing a platform for eventual extension of LBNE beam power to >2MW and enabling future initiatives in rare processes research based on high duty factor/higher beam power operations. PIP-II is based on the construction of a new 800 MeV superconducting linac, augmented by improvements to the existing Booster, Recycler, and Main Injector complex. PIP-II is currently in the development stage with an R&D program underway targeting the front end and superconducting RF acceleration technologies. This paper will describe the status of the PIPII conceptual development, the associated technology R&D programs, and the strategy for project implementation.

  18. Stenogyria - not only in Chiari II malformation.

    PubMed

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Duczkowska, Agnieszka; Brągoszewska, Hanna; Duczkowski, Marek; Mierzewska, Hanna

    2014-12-15

    Stenogyria, meaning multiple small compacted gyri separated by shallow sulci, is reported in the literature in association with Chiari II malformation (CM II) which in turn is reported in association with myelomeningocele (MMC). The authors present five cases of stenogyria (and other abnormalities found in CM II, like callosal hypoplasia/dysplasia, agenesis of the anterior commissure, hypoplasia of the falx cerebri) in children without the history of MMC or any other form of open spinal dysraphism. In these cases stenogyria was associated with Chiari I malformation, rhombencephalosynapsis and spina bifida. Stenogyria, which is not a true neuronal migration disorder, should not be mistaken for polymicrogyria which is also present in CM II. It is histologically different from polymicrogyria because the cortex is normally organized. Also on MRI, the general sulcal pattern is preserved in stenogyria, while it is completely distorted in polymicrogyria. The authors conclude that features traditionally attributed to CM II, like stenogyria, occur not only in the population of patients with MMC as opposed to the widely accepted theory.

  19. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment Pt. 18, Subpt. D, App. II Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title 1 Typical layout drawing of a machine. 2 Sample bill...

  20. Introduction to Health Occupations Education II. Module No. I. Health Occupations Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Nancy; And Others

    This package of seven modules that introduce health occupations II is one of six such packages containing a total of 46 modules that comprise Health Occupations Education II, the second course of a two-year course of study. Each module may contain some or all of the following components: introduction, directions, objectives, a list of learning…

  1. On Cu(II) Cu(II) distance measurements using pulsed electron electron double resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhongyu; Becker, James; Saxena, Sunil

    2007-10-01

    The effects of orientational selectivity on the 4-pulse electron electron double resonance (PELDOR) ESR spectra of coupled Cu(II)-Cu(II) spins are presented. The data were collected at four magnetic fields on a poly-proline peptide containing two Cu(II) centers. The Cu(II)-PELDOR spectra of this peptide do not change appreciably with magnetic field at X-band. The data were analyzed by adapting the theory of Maryasov, Tsvetkov, and Raap [A.G. Maryasov, Y.D. Tsvetkov, J. Raap, Weakly coupled radical pairs in solids:ELDOR in ESE structure studies, Appl. Magn. Reson. 14 (1998) 101-113]. Simulations indicate that orientational effects are important for Cu(II)-PELDOR. Based on simulations, the field-independence of the PELDOR data for this peptide is likely due to two effects. First, for this peptide, the Cu(II) g-tensor(s) are in a very specific orientation with respect to the interspin vector. Second, the flexibility of the peptide washes out the orientation effects. These effects reduce the suitability of the poly-proline based peptide as a good model system to experimentally probe orientational effects in such experiments. An average Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.1-2.2 nm was determined, which is consistent with earlier double quantum coherence ESR results.

  2. Employability Planning Process. STIP II (Skill Training Improvement Programs Round II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA.

    Four reports are presented detailing procedures for improving the employability of students enrolled in the Los Angeles Community College District's Skill Training Improvement Programs (STIP II). Each report was submitted by one of the four STIP II programs: Los Angeles Southwest College's program for computer programming; the programs for…

  3. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: identification of abnormal type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    We have extended the study of a mild case of type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis to include biochemical analyses of cartilage, bone, and the collagens produced by dermal fibroblasts. Type I collagen extracted from bone and types I and III collagen produced by dermal fibroblasts were normal, as was the hexosamine ratio of cartilage proteoglycans. Hyaline cartilage, however, contained approximately equal amounts of types I and II collagen and decreased amounts of type XI collagen. Unlike the normal SDS-PAGE mobility. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE revealed extensive overmodification of all type II cyanogen bromide peptides in a pattern consistent with heterozygosity for an abnormal pro alpha 1(II) chain which impaired the assembly and/or folding of type II collagen. This interpretation implies that dominant mutations of the COL2A1 gene may cause type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis. More generally, emerging data implicating defects of type II collagen in the type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis-spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita spectrum and in the Kniest-Stickler syndrome spectrum suggest that diverse mutations of this gene may be associated with widely differing phenotypic outcome. PMID:3195588

  4. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  5. Validation of the Sexual Assault Symptom Scale II (SASS II) Using a Panel Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruch, Libby O.; Wang, Chang-Hwai

    2006-01-01

    To examine the utility of a self-report scale of sexual assault trauma, 223 female victims were interviewed with the 43-item Sexual Assault Symptom Scale II (SASS II) at 1, 3, 7, 11, and 15 months postassault. Factor analyses using principal-components extraction with an oblimin rotation yielded 7 common factors with 31 items. The internal…

  6. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-17

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  7. Characterization of Schizothorax prenanti cgnrhII gene: fasting affects cgnrhII expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Yuan, D; Zhou, C; Lin, F; Chen, H; Wu, H; Wei, R; Xin, Z; Liu, J; Gao, Y; Chen, D; Yang, S; Pu, Y; Li, Z

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the role of chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone II (cgnrhII) in feeding regulation was investigated in Schizothorax prenanti. First, the full-length S. prenanti cgnrhII cDNA consisted of 693 bp with an open reading frame of 261 bp encoding a protein of 86 amino acids. Next, cgnrhII was widely expressed in the central and peripheral tissues. Last, there were significant changes in cgnrhII mRNA expression in the fasted group compared to the fed group in the S. prenanti hypothalamus during 24 h fasting (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the cgnrhII gene expression presented a significant decrease in the fasted group compared with the fed group (P < 0.05) on days 3, 5 and 7, after re-feeding, there was no significant changes in cgnrhII mRNA expression level between refed and fed group on day 9 (P > 0.05). Thus, the results suggest that cGnRH II expression is influenced by fasting and the gene may be involved in feeding regulation in S. prenanti.

  8. Nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes with humic acid anions and their derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabova, I.N.

    2008-01-15

    Complexation of Ni(II) and Cu(II) in aqueous solutions with anions of humic acids, extracted from naturally oxidized coal, and with their hydroxymethyl derivatives is studied spectrophotometrically and potentiometrically. The complexation stoichiometry and the stability constants of the complexes are determined.

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart II of... - General Provisions of Applicability to Subpart II

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General Provisions of Applicability to Subpart II 1 Table 1 to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National...

  10. Adsorption characteristics of Cu(II) and Pb(II) onto expanded perlite from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Sari, Ahmet; Tuzen, Mustafa; Citak, Demirhan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2007-09-01

    The adsorption characteristics of Cu(II) and Pb(II) onto expanded perlite (EP) from aqueous solution were investigated with respect to the changes in pH of solution, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature of solution. For the adsorption of both metal ions, the Langmuir isotherm model fitted to equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm model. Using the Langmuir model equation, the monolayer adsorption capacity of EP was found to be 8.62 and 13.39 mg/g for Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model was also applied to the equilibrium data and the mean free energies of adsorption were found as 10.82 kJ/mol for Cu(II) and 9.12 kJ/mol for Pb(II) indicating that the adsorption of both metal ions onto EP was taken place by chemical ion-exchange. Thermodynamic functions, the change of free energy (DeltaG degrees ), enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ) and entropy (DeltaS degrees ) of adsorption were also calculated for each metal ions. These parameters showed that the adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions onto EP was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic at 20-50 degrees C. Experimental data were also evaluated in terms of kinetic characteristics of adsorption and it was found that adsorption process for both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.

  11. Proteins with High Turnover Rate in Barley Leaves Estimated by Proteome Analysis Combined with in Planta Isotope Labeling1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Clark J.; Alexova, Ralitza; Jacoby, Richard P.; Millar, A. Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Protein turnover is a key component in cellular homeostasis; however, there is little quantitative information on degradation kinetics for individual plant proteins. We have used 15N labeling of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of free amino acids and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of proteins to track the enrichment of 15N into the amino acid pools in barley leaves and then into tryptic peptides derived from newly synthesized proteins. Using information on the rate of growth of barley leaves combined with the rate of degradation of 14N-labeled proteins, we calculate the turnover rates of 508 different proteins in barley and show that they vary by more than 100-fold. There was approximately a 9-h lag from label application until 15N incorporation could be reliably quantified in extracted peptides. Using this information and assuming constant translation rates for proteins during the time course, we were able to quantify degradation rates for several proteins that exhibit half-lives on the order of hours. Our workflow, involving a stringent series of mass spectrometry filtering steps, demonstrates that 15N labeling can be used for large-scale liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry studies of protein turnover in plants. We identify a series of abundant proteins in photosynthesis, photorespiration, and specific subunits of chlorophyll biosynthesis that turn over significantly more rapidly than the average protein involved in these processes. We also highlight a series of proteins that turn over as rapidly as the well-known D1 subunit of photosystem II. While these proteins need further verification for rapid degradation in vivo, they cluster in chlorophyll and thiamine biosynthesis. PMID:25082890

  12. Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Secretes Proteases and Xylanases via the Xps Type II Secretion System and Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Magali; Scheibner, Felix; Hoffmeister, Anne-Katrin; Hartmann, Nadine; Hause, Gerd; Rother, Annekatrin; Jordan, Michael; Lautier, Martine; Arlat, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many plant-pathogenic bacteria utilize type II secretion (T2S) systems to secrete degradative enzymes into the extracellular milieu. T2S substrates presumably mediate the degradation of plant cell wall components during the host-pathogen interaction and thus promote bacterial virulence. Previously, the Xps-T2S system from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria was shown to contribute to extracellular protease activity and the secretion of a virulence-associated xylanase. The identities and functions of additional T2S substrates from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, however, are still unknown. In the present study, the analysis of 25 candidate proteins from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria led to the identification of two type II secreted predicted xylanases, a putative protease and a lipase which was previously identified as a virulence factor of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. Studies with mutant strains revealed that the identified xylanases and the protease contribute to virulence and in planta growth of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. When analyzed in the related pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris, several T2S substrates from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria were secreted independently of the T2S systems, presumably because of differences in the T2S substrate specificities of the two pathogens. Furthermore, in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria T2S mutants, secretion of T2S substrates was not completely absent, suggesting the contribution of additional transport systems to protein secretion. In line with this hypothesis, T2S substrates were detected in outer membrane vesicles, which were frequently observed for X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. We, therefore, propose that extracellular virulence-associated enzymes from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria are targeted to the Xps-T2S system and to outer membrane vesicles. IMPORTANCE The virulence of plant-pathogenic bacteria often depends on TS2 systems, which secrete degradative enzymes into the extracellular milieu. T2S

  13. Type II supernovae as probes of environment metallicity: observations of host H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. P.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Dessart, L.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Morrell, N. I.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Jaeger, T.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Spectral modelling of type II supernova atmospheres indicates a clear dependence of metal line strengths on progenitor metallicity. This dependence motivates further work to evaluate the accuracy with which these supernovae can be used as environment metallicity indicators. Aims: To assess this accuracy we present a sample of type II supernova host H ii-region spectroscopy, from which environment oxygen abundances have been derived. These environment abundances are compared to the observed strength of metal lines in supernova spectra. Methods: Combining our sample with measurements from the literature, we present oxygen abundances of 119 host H ii regions by extracting emission line fluxes and using abundance diagnostics. These abundances are then compared to equivalent widths of Fe ii 5018 Å at various time and colour epochs. Results: Our distribution of inferred type II supernova host H ii-region abundances has a range of ~0.6 dex. We confirm the dearth of type II supernovae exploding at metallicities lower than those found (on average) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The equivalent width of Fe ii 5018 Å at 50 days post-explosion shows a statistically significant correlation with host H ii-region oxygen abundance. The strength of this correlation increases if one excludes abundance measurements derived far from supernova explosion sites. The correlation significance also increases if we only analyse a "gold" IIP sample, and if a colour epoch is used in place of time. In addition, no evidence is found of a correlation between progenitor metallicity and supernova light-curve or spectral properties - except for that stated above with respect to Fe ii 5018 Å equivalent widths - suggesting progenitor metallicity is not a driving factor in producing the diversity that is observed in our sample. Conclusions: This study provides observational evidence of the usefulness of type II supernovae as metallicity indicators. We finish with a discussion of the

  14. Cobalt(II) Oxidation by the Marine Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Bacillus sp. Strain SG-1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon; Tebo, Bradley M.

    1994-01-01

    The geochemical cycling of cobalt (Co) has often been considered to be controlled by the scavenging and oxidation of Co(II) on the surface of manganese [Mn(III,IV)] oxides or manganates. Because Mn(II) oxidation in the environment is often catalyzed by bacteria, we have investigated the ability of Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria to bind and oxidize Co(II) in the absence of Mn(II) to determine whether some Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria also oxidize Co(II) independently of Mn oxidation. We used the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1, which produces mature spores that oxidize Mn(II), apparently due to a protein in their spore coats (R.A. Rosson and K. H. Nealson, J. Bacteriol. 151:1027-1034, 1982; J. P. M. de Vrind et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:1096-1100, 1986). A method to measure Co(II) oxidation using radioactive 57Co as a tracer and treatments with nonradioactive (cold) Co(II) and ascorbate to discriminate bound Co from oxidized Co was developed. SG-1 spores were found to oxidize Co(II) over a wide range of pH, temperature, and Co(II) concentration. Leucoberbelin blue, a reagent that reacts with Mn(III,IV) oxides forming a blue color, was found to also react with Co(III) oxides and was used to verify the presence of oxidized Co in the absence of added Mn(II). Co(II) oxidation occurred optimally around pH 8 and between 55 and 65°C. SG-1 spores oxidized Co(II) at all Co(II) concentrations tested from the trace levels found in seawater to 100 mM. Co(II) oxidation was found to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics. An Eadie-Hofstee plot of the data suggests that SG-1 spores have two oxidation systems, a high-affinity-low-rate system (Km, 3.3 × 10-8 M; Vmax, 1.7 × 10-15 M · spore-1 · h-1) and a low-affinity-high-rate system (Km, 5.2 × 10-6 M; Vmax, 8.9 × 10-15 M · spore-1 · h-1). SG-1 spores did not oxidize Co(II) in the absence of oxygen, also indicating that oxidation was not due to abiological Co(II) oxidation on the surface of preformed Mn(III,IV) oxides. These

  15. Validation of the Sexual Assault Symptom Scale II (SASS II) using a panel research design.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Libby O; Wang, Chang-Hwai

    2006-11-01

    To examine the utility of a self-report scale of sexual assault trauma, 223 female victims were interviewed with the 43-item Sexual Assault Symptom Scale II (SASS II) at 1, 3, 7, 11, and 15 months postassault. Factor analyses using principal-components extraction with an oblimin rotation yielded 7 common factors with 31 items. The internal consistency was high for 4 factors and moderate for 2 factors. The multitrait-multimethod matrix, correlating the factor subscale scores of self-reported trauma and clinical assessment ratings, demonstrated both convergent and discriminant validity, indicating that the SASS II has construct validity. Correlations between the SASS II subscales and the intrusion subscale of the Impact of Events Scale also indicated the convergent and discriminant validity of the SASS II. Significant positive correlations between current and prior trauma levels further evidence the validity of the SASS.

  16. XAFS studies of Pb(II)-chloro and Hg(II)-chloro ternary complexes on goethite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, J.R.; Persson, Petra; Brown, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    EXAFS spectroscopy was used to study Pb(II) and Hg(II) adsorption complexes on goethite (??-FeOOH) in the presence of Cl-. At pH 7, the dominant Pb(II) species are bonded to edges of FeO6 octahedra and are similar to complexes that occur in the absence of Cl-. At pH ??? 6, Pb(II)-chloro ternary complexes predominate and are bonded to corners of FeO6 octahedra. At pH 6.5, linear Hg(OH)Cl ternary complexes predominate that are bonded to goethite through surface oxygens in a bent Hg-O-Fe geometry. In the absence of Cl-, the Hg(II) surface complexes retain this basic geometry, but an OH group replaces the chloride ion in the first coordination shell.

  17. Spectroscopic and thermal degradation behavior of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with thiopental sodium anesthesia drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.

    2013-04-01

    A new series of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes have been synthesized with thiopental sodium anesthesia drug. The elemental analyses of the complexes are confined to stoichiometry of the formulas [M(TPL)3]ṡnH2O (M = Cr(III) or Fe(III); n = 6 or 5), [M(TPL)2(H2O)2]ṡnH2O (M = Mn(II), Co(II) or Ni(II); n = 0 or 4), and [M(TPL)2] (M = Cu(II) or Zn(II); n = 2 or 0) respectively, where TPL is thiopental chelating agent. Structures have been discussed and suggested upon elemental analyses, infrared, Raman, electronic, electron spin resonance, 1H NMR spectral data and magnetic studies. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was performed of metal complexes. The XRD patterns indicate crystalline nature for the complexes. The measured low molar conductance values in dimethylsulfoxide indicate that the complexes are non-electrolyte nature. Spectroscopic discussion refer that coordination take place through three types: Cdbnd N (pyrimidine moiety) nitrogen and C2sbnd S (2-thiolate group) for Cr(III), Mn(II) and Fe(III), C6dbnd O (amido group) oxygen and C2sbnd S (2-thiolate group) for Co(II) and Ni(II), and Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions coordinated via Cdbnd N (pyrimidine moiety) nitrogen, C2dbnd S (2-thiolate group) and C6dbnd O (amido group) oxygen, respectively. The thermal behavior (TG/DTG/DTA) of the complexes was studied and kinetic parameters were determined by Horowitz-Metzger and Coats-Redfern methods. The thiopental and its complexes have been screened for their antimicrobial (G+ and G-) bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans) activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method.

  18. Competitive adsorption of Cu(II)-EDTA and Cd(II)-EDTA onto TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.K.; Davis, A.P.

    1999-08-01

    Cu(II), EDTA, Cu(II)-EDTA, Cd(II)-EDTA, and Cu(II)/Cd(II) and Cu(II)-EDTA/Cd(II)-EDTA competitive adsorption onto TiO{sub 2} has been studied with variation of pH and concentration. For Cu(II) and EDTA, typical cationic and anionic types of adsorption are noted, respectively. Ligand-type adsorption is found for Cu(II)-EDTA and Cd(II)-EDTA under both single and competitive conditions. Surface complexation modeling considered inner-sphere complexation and the diffuse layer model employing MINTEQA2; surface complexes used include Ti-(OH{sub 2})O-Cu{sup +}, Ti-(OH)EDTAH{sub 2}{sup {minus}2}, Ti-(OH)EDTA-Cu{sup {minus}2}, and Ti-(OH)EDTA-Cd{sup {minus}2}. Experimental and model predictions suggest no competitive adsorption between Cu(II) and Cd(II) at 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M. On the other hand, adsorption data and model predictions indicate that Cd(II)-EDTA adsorption is favored over that of Cu(II)-EDTA with some competition for adsorption sites. Cd(II)-EDTA Adsorption was only slightly affected by the presence of Cu(II)-EDTA; however, Cu(II)-EDTA adsorption was strongly influenced by the presence of Cd(II)-EDTA, especially as the molar ratio of Cd(II)-EDTA/Cu(II)-EDTA increased. A modified surface complexation constant for Cd(II)-EDTA is required to explain the competitive data, suggesting surface site heterogeneity.

  19. TRUPACT-II residue pipe payload container

    SciTech Connect

    Geinitz, R.; Gregory, P.

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the project to develop, test and certify a new payload container for the TRUPACT-II, a Type B packaging for the shipment of transuranic waste. The new payload container will provide segregation of plutonium waste materials within the TRUPACT-II. This segregation of fissile contents will support a new criticality safety analysis that may allow an increase in the TRUPACT-II Pu-239 Fissile Gram Equivalent (FGE) limit from 325 grams to 2800 grams. The need for this project was brought about by the end of the Cold War and the resulting shift in value of plutonium residues from providing recoverable Defense Program material to being considered disposable waste. This paper will not cover many of the details of the project but will instead aim to provide a general picture of all the project activities.

  20. SHIELD II: WSRT HI Spectral Line Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Alex Jonah Robert; Cannon, John M.; Adams, Elizabeth A.; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    The "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs II" ("SHIELD II") is a multiwavelength, legacy-class observational campaign that is facilitating the study of both internal and global evolutionary processes in low-mass dwarf galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We present new results from WSRT HI spectral line observations of 22 galaxies in the SHIELD II sample. We explore the morphology and kinematics by comparing images of the HI surface densities and the intensity weighted velocity fields with optical images from HST, SDSS, and WIYN. In most cases the HI and stellar populations are cospatial; projected rotation velocities range from less than 10 km/s to roughly 30 km/s.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant AST-1211683 to JMC at Macalester College, and by NASA through grant GO-13750 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  1. Photoinactivation of photosystem II by flashing light.

    PubMed

    Szilárd, András; Sass, László; Hideg, Eva; Vass, Imre

    2005-06-01

    Inhibition of Photosystem II (PS II) activity by single turnover visible light flashes was studied in thylakoid membranes isolated form spinach. Flash illumination results in decreased oxygen evolving activity of PS II, which effect is most pronounced when the water-oxidizing complex is in the S2 and S3 states, and increases with increasing time delay between the subsequent flashes. By applying the fluorescent spin-trap DanePy, we detected the production of singlet oxygen, whose amount was increasing with increasing flash spacing. These findings were explained in the framework of a model, which assumes that recombination of the S2QB - and S3QB - states generate the triplet state of the reaction center chlorophyll and lead to the production of singlet oxygen.

  2. SHIELD II: VLA HI Spectral Line Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eojin; Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; Teich, Yaron; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    The "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs II" ("SHIELD II") is a multiwavelength, legacy-class observational campaign that is facilitating the study of both internal and global evolutionary processes in low-mass dwarf galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We present new results from low-resolution D-configuration VLA HI spectral line observations of 6 galaxies in the SHIELD II sample. We explore the morphology and kinematics by comparing images of the HI surface densities and the intensity weighted velocity fields with optical images from SDSS and WIYN. These data allow us to localize the HI gas and to study the bulk neutral gas kinematics.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant AST-1211683 to JMC at Macalester College.

  3. ORION II bus demonstration. Demonstration report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, J.

    1989-02-01

    The Central New York Regional Transportation Authority conducted an 18-month demonstration to determine how the ORION II bus operates in actual service. The ORION II vehicle is a small low floor, accessible heavy duty, diesel-powered transit bus designed to meet the needs of the elderly and handicapped. It has the capacity to seat 26 passengers with 4 wheelchair lockdowns. Side and rear doors are equipped with electrically powered ramps. Eight Thomas vehicles (22-foot, 11,500 lbs, wheelchair equipped, gasoline fueled) were also tested during the demonstration period. Operations (fuel and oil usage) and maintenance (scheduled and unscheduled) data were collected and charted-out in the report as well as driver, passenger, and maintenance surveys. This report provides descriptions, photographs, and comparison charts of both the diesel-fueled ORION II transit bus and the gasoline-fueled Thomas vehicles along with the demonstration test plan, evaluations, conclusions, and survey results.

  4. Mutagenic effects of lead (II) bromide.

    PubMed

    Maslat, A O; Haas, H J

    1989-12-01

    The mutagenicity of lead (II) bromide (a combustion product of the gasoline additives lead (IV) tetraethyl and 1,2-dibromoethane) was investigated using various strains of bacteria. Taking prodigiosin (the red pigment) production as a marker, lead (II) bromide was found to be mutagenic in S. marcescens, leading to the appearance of white mutant colonies that are unable to produce such a pigment. This compound was also found to be mutagenic in E. coli KMBL1851, resulting in the appearance of rifampicin-resistant mutants in addition to Met+ and His+ revertants. Some of the S. marcescens mutants were found to be reversible, able to resynthesize prodigiosin. Differences in the sensitivity to antibiotics as well as in the biochemical properties were detected between the mutants and their corresponding wild types. Lead (II) bromide gave positive results in the Ames test performed with strain TA 1535.

  5. Validation of SAGE II NO2 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Zawodny, J. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Pommereau, J. P.; Goutail, F.

    1991-01-01

    The validity of NO2 measurements from the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) II is examined by comparing the data with climatological distributions of NO2 and by examining the consistency of the observations themselves. The precision at high altitudes is found to be 5 percent, which is also the case at specific low altitudes for certain latitudes where the mixing ratio is 4 ppbv, and the precision is 0.2 ppbv at low altitudes. The autocorrelation distance of the smoothed profile measurement noise is 3-5 km and 10 km for 1-km and 5-km smoothing, respectively. The SAGE II measurements agree with spectroscopic measurements to within 10 percent, and the SAGE measurements are about 20 percent smaller than average limb monitor measurements at the mixing ratio peak. SAGE I and SAGE II measurements are slightly different, but the difference is not attributed to changes in atmospheric NO2.

  6. Type II endoleaks: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew; Saggu, Greta K; Bown, Matthew J; Sayers, Robert D; Sidloff, David A

    2016-01-01

    Type II endoleaks are the most common endovascular complications of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR); however, there has been a divided opinion regarding their significance in EVAR. Some advocate a conservative approach unless there is clear evidence of sac expansion, while others maintain early intervention is best to prevent adverse late outcomes such as rupture. There is a lack of level-one evidence in this challenging group of patients, and due to a low event rate of complications, large numbers of patients would be required in well-designed trials to fully understand the natural history of type II endoleak. This review will discuss the imaging, management, and outcome of patients with isolated type II endoleaks following infra-renal EVAR. PMID:27042087

  7. Type II seesaw dominance in SO(10)

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Ramirez, Alba; Senjanovic, Goran

    2010-10-01

    Grand unified theories where the neutrino mass is given by type II seesaw have the potential to provide interesting connections between the neutrino and charged fermion sectors. We explore the possibility of having a dominant type II seesaw contribution in supersymmetric SO(10). We show that this can be achieved in the model where symmetry breaking is triggered by 54 and 45 dimensional representations, without the need for additional fields other than those already required to have a realistic charged fermion mass spectrum. Physical consequences, such as the implementation of the Bajc, Senjanovic, and Vissani mechanism, the possibility of the fields responsible for type II seesaw dominance being messengers of supersymmetry breaking, and the realization of baryo and leptogenesis in these theories, are discussed.

  8. Intrafibrillar Mineral May be Absent in Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II (DI-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Pople, John A.

    2001-03-29

    High-resolution synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) were performed on normal and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DI-II) teeth. Three normal and three DI-II human third molars were used in this study. The normal molars were unerupted and had intact enamel; donors were female and ranged in age from 18-21y. The DI-II specimens, which were also unerupted with intact enamel, came from a single female donor age 20y. SRCT showed that the mineral concentration was 33% lower on average in the DI-II dentin with respect to normal dentin. The SAXS spectra from normal dentin exhibited low-angle diffraction peaks at harmonics of 67.6 nm, consistent with nucleation and growth of the apatite phase within gaps in the collagen fibrils (intrafibrillar mineralization). In contrast, the low-angle peaks were almost nonexistent in the DI-II dentin. Crystallite thickness was independent of location in both DI-II and normal dentin, although the crystallites were significantly thicker in DI-II dentin (6.8 nm (s.d. = 0.5) vs 5.1 nm (s.d. = 0.6)). The shape factor of the crystallites, as determined by SAXS, showed a continuous progression in normal dentin from roughly one-dimensional (needle-like) near the pulp to two-dimensional (plate-like) near the dentin-enamel junction. The crystallites in DI-II dentin, on the other hand, remained needle-like throughout. The above observations are consistent with an absence of intrafibrillar mineral in DI-II dentin.

  9. Testicular gonadotropin-releasing hormone II receptor (GnRHR-II) knockdown constitutively impairs diurnal testosterone secretion in the boar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second mammalian GnRH isoform (GnRH-II) and its specific receptor (GnRHR-II) are highly expressed in the testis, suggesting an important role in testis biology. Gene coding errors prevent the production of GnRH-II and GnRHR-II in many species, but both genes are functional in swine. We have demo...

  10. Five coordinate M(II)-diphenolate [M = Zn(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II)] Schiff base complexes exhibiting metal- and ligand-based redox chemistry.

    PubMed

    Franks, Mark; Gadzhieva, Anastasia; Ghandhi, Laura; Murrell, David; Blake, Alexander J; Davies, E Stephen; Lewis, William; Moro, Fabrizio; McMaster, Jonathan; Schröder, Martin

    2013-01-18

    Five-coordinate Zn(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) complexes containing pentadentate N(3)O(2) Schiff base ligands [1A](2-) and [1B](2-) have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray crystallographic studies reveal five coordinate structures in which each metal ion is bound by two imine N-donors, two phenolate O-donors, and a single amine N-donor. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies suggest that the N(3)O(2) coordination spheres of [Cu(1A)] and [Cu(1B)] are retained in CH(2)Cl(2) solution and solid-state superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometric studies confirm that [Ni(1A)] and [Ni(1B)] adopt high spin (S = 1) configurations. Each complex exhibits two reversible oxidation processes between +0.05 and +0.64 V vs [Fc](+)/[Fc]. The products of one- and two-electron oxidations have been studied by UV/vis spectroelectrochemistry and by EPR spectroscopy which confirm that each oxidation process for the Zn(II) and Cu(II) complexes is ligand-based with sequential formation of mono- and bis-phenoxyl radical species. In contrast, the one-electron oxidation of the Ni(II) complexes generates Ni(III) products. This assignment is supported by spectroelectrochemical and EPR spectroscopic studies, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and the single crystal X-ray structure of [Ni(1A)][BF(4)] which contains Ni in a five-coordinate distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry.

  11. DO GIANT PLANETS SURVIVE TYPE II MIGRATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-09-10

    Planetary migration is one of the most serious problems to systematically understand the observations of exoplanets. We clarify that the theoretically predicted type II, migration (like type I migration) is too fast, by developing detailed analytical arguments in which the timescale of type II migration is compared with the disk lifetime. In the disk-dominated regime, the type II migration timescale is characterized by a local viscous diffusion timescale, while the disk lifetime is characterized by a global diffusion timescale that is much longer than the local one. Even in the planet-dominated regime where the inertia of the planet mass reduces the migration speed, the timescale is still shorter than the disk lifetime except in the final disk evolution stage where the total disk mass decays below the planet mass. This suggests that most giant planets plunge into the central stars within the disk lifetime, and it contradicts the exoplanet observations that gas giants are piled up at r {approx}> 1 AU. We examine additional processes that may arise in protoplanetary disks: dead zones, photoevaporation of gas, and gas flow across a gap formed by a type II migrator. Although they make the type II migration timescale closer to the disk lifetime, we show that none of them can act as an effective barrier for rapid type II migration with the current knowledge of these processes. We point out that gas flow across a gap and the fraction of the flow accreted onto the planets are uncertain and they may have the potential to solve the problem. Much more detailed investigation for each process may be needed to explain the observed distribution of gas giants in extrasolar planetary systems.

  12. Copper(II) thiaethyneporphyrin and copper(II) 21-phosphoryl N-confused porphyrin hybrids. intramolecular copper(II)-carbon interaction inside of a porphyrinoid surrounding.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzek, Norbert; Nojman, Elżbieta; Szterenberg, Ludmiła; Latos-Grażyński, Lechosław

    2013-03-01

    Stabilization of unusual organocopper(II) species via the very efficient protection of the copper(II)-carbon bond has been achieved encapsulating the copper(II) center in the coordination core of suitably constructed carbaporphyrinoids. Copper(II) was inserted into hybrid N-confused porphyrins which contain 21-diphenylphosphoryl-, 21-diphenylthiophosphoryl-, or 21-phosphinodithioic substituents or into 20-thiaethyneporphyrin, an aromatic porphyrinoid, which combines two structural motifs of 21-thiaporphyrin and ethyne. Two distinctly different types of the copper(II)-carbon bond have been detected. Copper(II) hybrid N-confused porphyrins reveal the η(1)-C(21) side-on coordination. The unprecedented equatorial metal(II)···η(2)-CC interaction has been trapped in a copper(II) thiaethyneporphyrin surrounding.

  13. Recycled chitosan nanofibril as an effective Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) ionic chelating agent: adsorption and desorption performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dagang; Li, Zehui; Zhu, Yi; Li, Zhenxuan; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-10-13

    Mechanically disassembled chitosan nanofibrils were prepared and used as metal ion chelating agents. Structure and morphology of nanofibrils were investigated and ionic adsorption or desorption performance were validated to establish related fitting models. In single metal ion solution, the saturated adsorption capacities of Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), and Ni(II) were 168.66, 118.00 and 60.85, 143.67, and 63.32 mg/g, respectively. In ternary metal ion solution, Cu(II) was more competitive to be adsorbed than Pb(II) and Cd(II) and its removal could arrive at 60%. Ions adsorbed by nanofibrils could be released by EDTA and the recovery could keep above 70% after 3 sorption-desorption cycles. Hence, renewable and recyclable nanofibrillar chitosan exhibited a great promising application in metal treatments attributed to its high adsorption capacity and chelation efficiency.

  14. Site Environmental Report for 1998 Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggieri, Michael

    1999-09-30

    Volume II of the Site Environment Report for 1998 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to the report printed in volume I. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results in the main report for routine and non routine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in chapter 6). Data presented in the tables are given in International System of Units (SI) units of measure.

  15. SLUDGE BATCH 6 PHASE II FLOWSHEET SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Best, D.

    2010-03-30

    Two Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were used to demonstrate that a fairly wide window of acid stoichiometry was available for processing SB6 Phase II flowsheet simulant (Tank 40 simulant) while still meeting the dual goals of acceptable nitrate destruction and controlled hydrogen generation. Phase II was an intermediate flowsheet study for the projected composition of Tank 40 after transfer of SB6/Tank 51 sludge to the heel of SB5. The composition was based on August 2009 projections. A window of about 50% in total acid was found between acceptable nitrite destruction and excessive hydrogen generation.

  16. trans-Bis(hexafluoroantimonato)(phthalocyaninato)copper(II).

    PubMed

    Gardberg, A S; Ibers, J A

    2001-05-01

    The title compound, trans-bis(hexafluoroantimonato-F)(phthalocyaninato-kappa(4)N(29,30,31,32))copper(II), [Cu(SbF(6))(2)(C(32)H(16)N(8))] or Cu(pc)(SbF(6))(2) (pc is phthalocyaninate), comprises a six-coordinate Cu atom, lying on an inversion center, bonded to four N atoms of a phthalocyanine ring and to F atoms of two trans SbF(6)(-) groups. The compound is presumed to consist of a Cu(II) center and a doubly oxidized phthalocyanine ring, by analogy with Cu(pc)(ReO(4))(2).

  17. TAURUS II launch vehicle lox subcooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Glen E.

    2012-06-01

    The Orbital Sciences Taurus II medium lift launch vehicle utilizes first stage engines fueled by liquid oxygen and RP-1. Performance of the Taurus II is enhanced by densifying the liquid oxygen from a saturation temperature of 94 K to a subcooled temperature of 77.9 K. Subcooling the 75.07 kg/s liquid oxygen flow is accomplished in a 1.907 megawatt heat exchanger cooled by a flow of 9.62 kg/s ambient pressure liquid nitrogen. Design, fabrication, insulation and testing of the densification heat exchanger is described in this paper.

  18. CDF - Run II Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Manfred Paulini

    2003-03-17

    After a five year upgrade period, the CDF detector located at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is back in operation taking high quality data with all subsystems functional. We report on the status of the CDF experiment in Run II and discuss the start-up of the Tevatron accelerator. First physics results from CDF are presented. We also discuss the prospects for B physics in RunII, in particular the measurements of B{sub S}{sup 0} flavour oscillations and CP violation in B decays.

  19. Touschek Lifetime Calculations for NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Nash,B.; Kramer, S.

    2009-05-04

    The Touschek effect limits the lifetime for NSLS-II. The basic mechanism is Coulomb scattering resulting in a longitudinal momentum outside the momentum aperture. The momentum aperture results from a combination of the initial betatron oscillations after the scatter and the non-linear properties determining the resultant stability. We find that higher order multipole errors may reduce the momentum aperture, particularly for scattered particles with energy loss. The resultant drop in Touschek lifetime is minimized, however, due to less scattering in the dispersive regions. We describe these mechanisms, and present calculations for NSLS-II using a realistic lattice model including damping wigglers and engineering tolerances.

  20. Validation of SAGE II ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.; Barnes, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Five ozone profiles from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with coincident ozonesonde measurements obtained at Natal, Brazil, and Wallops Island, Virginia. It is shown that the mean difference between all of the measurements is about 1 percent and that the agreement is within 7 percent at altitudes between 20 and 53 km. Good agreement is also found for ozone mixing ratios on pressure surfaces. It is concluded that the SAGE II profiles provide useful ozone information up to about 60 km altitude.

  1. Comparison of TcPO II and StO II using the blood oxygen dissociation curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Leigh P.; Makhratchev, Marina; Yarbrough, Amy; Elmandjra, Mohamed; Mao, Jian-min

    2006-02-01

    It is well known that the relation between the partial pressure of oxygen in blood (PO II) and the hemoglobin oxygen saturation in blood (SO II) is given by the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. In this study, we investigate if a similar relation exists in tissue. The PO II in tissue was approximated by the transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen (TcPO II) measured by TCM3 TM Transcutanous pO II/pCO II Monitoring System; and the SO II in tissue (StO II) was measured by ODISsey TM Tissue Oximeter. The study showed that the TcPO II versus StO II relation is similar to the dissociation curve in blood, as expected.

  2. Ni(II) And Co(II) Sensing By Escherichia Coli RcnR

    SciTech Connect

    Iwig, J.S.; Leitch, S.; Herbst, R.W.; Maroney, M.J.; Chivers, P.T.

    2009-05-18

    Escherichia coli RcnR and Mycobacterium tuberculosis CsoR are the founding members of a recently identified, large family of bacterial metal-responsive DNA-binding proteins. RcnR controls the expression of the metal efflux protein RcnA only in response to Ni(II) and Co(II) ions. Here, the interaction of Ni(II) and Co(II) with wild-type and mutant RcnR proteins is examined to understand how these metals function as allosteric effectors. Both metals bind to RcnR with nanomolar affinity and stabilize the protein to denaturation. X-ray absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies reveal six-coordinate high-spin sites for each metal that contains a thiolate ligand. Experimental data support a tripartite N-terminal coordination motif (NH{sub 2}-Xaa-NH-His) that is common for both metals. However, the Ni(II)- and Co(II)-RcnR complexes are shown to differ in the remaining coordination environment. Each metal coordinates a conserved Cys ligand but with distinct M-S distances. Co(II)-thiolate coordination has not been observed previously in Ni(II)-/Co(II)-responsive metalloregulators. The ability of RcnR to recruit ligands from the N-terminal region of the protein distinguishes it from CsoR, which uses a lower coordination geometry to bind Cu(I). These studies facilitate comparisons between Ni(II)-RcnR and NikR, the other Ni(II)-responsive transcriptional regulator in E. coli, to provide a better understanding how different nickel levels are sensed in E. coli. The characterization of the Ni(II)- and Co(II)-binding sites in RcnR, in combination with bioinformatics analysis of all RcnR/CsoR family members, identified a four amino acid fingerprint that likely defines ligand-binding specificity, leading to an emerging picture of the similarities and differences between different classes of RcnR/CsoR proteins.

  3. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR, UV/VIS), thermogravimetric and antimicrobial studies of Ca(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes of ferulic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowska, M.; Piekut, J.; Bruss, A.; Follet, C.; Sienkiewicz-Gromiuk, J.; Świsłocka, R.; Rzączyńska, Z.; Lewandowski, W.

    2014-03-01

    The molecular structure of Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Ca(II) ferulates (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamates) was studied. The selected metal ferulates were synthesized. Their composition was established by means of elementary and thermogravimetric analysis. The following spectroscopic methods were used: infrared (FT-IR), Raman (FT-Raman), nuclear magnetic resonance (13C, 1H NMR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV/VIS). On the basis of obtained results the electronic charge distribution in studied metal complexes in comparison with ferulic acid molecule was discussed. The microbiological study of ferulic acid and ferulates toward Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris was done.

  4. A Land Plant-Specific Transcription Factor Directly Enhances Transcription of a Pathogenic Noncoding RNA Template by DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Qu, Jie; Ji, Shaoyi; Wallace, Andrew J; Wu, Jian; Li, Yi; Gopalan, Venkat; Ding, Biao

    2016-05-01

    Some DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (DdRPs) possess RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity, as was first discovered in the replication of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) RNA genome in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Recent studies revealed that this activity in bacteria and mammals is important for transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms. Here, we used PSTVd as a model to uncover auxiliary factors essential for RNA-templated transcription by DdRP PSTVd replication in the nucleoplasm generates (-)-PSTVd intermediates and (+)-PSTVd copies. We found that the Nicotiana benthamiana canonical 9-zinc finger (ZF) Transcription Factor IIIA (TFIIIA-9ZF) as well as its variant TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (+)-PSTVd, but only TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (-)-PSTVd. Suppression of TFIIIA-7ZF reduced PSTVd replication, and overexpression of TFIIIA-7ZF enhanced PSTVd replication in planta. Consistent with the locale of PSTVd replication, TFIIIA-7ZF was found in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus, in contrast to the strictly nucleolar localization of TFIIIA-9ZF. Footprinting assays revealed that only TFIIIA-7ZF bound to a region of PSTVd critical for initiating transcription. Furthermore, TFIIIA-7ZF strongly enhanced the in vitro transcription of circular (+)-PSTVd by partially purified Pol II. Together, our results identify TFIIIA-7ZF as a dedicated cellular transcription factor that acts in DdRP-catalyzed RNA-templated transcription, highlighting both the extraordinary evolutionary adaptation of viroids and the potential of DdRPs for a broader role in cellular processes. PMID:27113774

  5. Biosorption characteristics of copper (II), chromium (III), nickel (II), and lead (II) from aqueous solutions by Chara sp. and Cladophora sp.

    PubMed

    Elmaci, Ayşe; Yonar, Taner; Ozengin, Nihan

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this research was to expose individual removals of copper, chromium, nickel, and lead from aqueous solutions via biosorption using nonliving algae species, Chara sp. and Cladophora sp. Optimum pH values for biosorption of copper (II), chromium (III), nickel (II), and lead (II) from aqueous solutions were determined to be 6, 7, 7, and 3 for Cladophora sp. and 5, 3, 5, and 4 for Chara sp. respectively. Maximum adsorption capacities of Chara sp. [10.54 for chromium (III) and 61.72 for lead (II)] and Cladophora sp. [6.59 for chromium (III) and 16.75 and 23.25 for lead (II)] for chromium (III) and lead (II) are similar. On the other hand, copper (II) and nickel (II) biosorption capacity of Cladophora sp. [14.28 for copper (II) and 16.75 for nickel (II)] is greater than Chara sp. [6.506 for copper (II) and 11.76 for nickel (II)]. Significantly high correlation coefficients indicated for the Langmuir adsorption isotherm models can be used to describe the equilibrium behavior of copper, chromium, nickel, and lead adsorption onto Cladophora sp. and Chara sp.

  6. Electroanalytical investigation on the interaction between 6-mercaptopurine and zinc(II), lead(II), and cadmium(II) ions in nonaqueous solvents.

    PubMed

    Cinquantini, A; Cini, R; Zanello, P

    1980-04-01

    Different electroanalytical techniques have been employed in the study of the interaction between 6-mercaptopurine and zinc(II), lead(II), and cadmium(II) ions in ethanol, dimethylformamide, and dimethylsulfoxide. The stoichiometry of the formed complexes was determined as well as their instability constants. The kinetic parameters of the electrode processes have been also evaluated.

  7. [Evaluation of serum PIVKA-II by Lumipulse PrestoII assay].

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Kumiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Takagi, Kazumi; Kani, Satomi; Goto, Takaaki; Takasaka, Yoshimitsu; Matsuura, Kentaro; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Moriyama, Kazushige; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Sachiko; Mizokami, Masashi

    2009-03-01

    Measurements of serum concentrations of Des-gamma-carboxy Prothrombin (PIVKA-II) are widely used for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, in Lumipulsef assay, it was reported that antibodies against alkaline phosphatase (ALP) derived from anti bleeding sheets led false high values of PIVKA-II in the patients with HCC resection. To improve the previous issue, newly developed Lumipulse PrestoII assay was examined. (1) The assay was reliable and positively correlated with the previous assays (Lumipulse f and Picolumi, R = 0.997 and 0.994 (n=115), respectively). (2) Eleven cases, which had false high values of PIVKA-II by the Lumipulsef assay, were examined by the PrestoII assay with excess of inactive ALP. The false high values of 10 cases were improved, but only one was still high. False reactivity of this case was stronger than other cases, more effective adsorption was required. (3) Comparing the absorbent activity of inactive ALP among 6 different kinds, we found inactive ALP with much higher adsorbent activity. When this inactive ALP was applied to assay, false high values of PIVKA-II were improved in all 11 cases. In conclusion, the PrestoII assay, which applies the inactive ALP with high activity, is reliable and useful for clinical screening.

  8. Predicting outcomes in organophosphate poisoning based on APACHE II and modified APACHE II scores.

    PubMed

    Eizadi-Mood, N; Saghaei, M; Jabalameli, M

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the scores of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and a modified APACHE II system (MAS), without parameters of biochemical tests; and to find prognostic value of individual elements of the APACHE II and MAS in predicting outcomes in organophosphate (OP) poisoning. Data were collected from 131 patients. The median (25th-75th percentiles) of APACHE II score for survivors without intubation were found to be lower than those of non survivors or survivors with intubation and ventilation, [4 (1-7); versus 17.5 (7.8-29), and 13.5 (7.8-16.3)]. Logistic regression analysis identified white blood cell (WBC), potassium, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), age and sodium in APACHE II; GCS and mean arterial pressure in MAS system as prognostically valuable. There was no statistically significance difference between APACHE II and MAS scores in terms of area under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve [(0.902, 95% confidence interval: (0.837-0.947) for APACHE II), and (0.892, 95% confidence interval: (0.826-0.940) for MAS); P=0.74) to predict need for intubation. It is concluded usage of MAS facilitates the prognostication of the OP poisoned patients due to simplicity, less time-consuming and effectiveness in an emergency situation.

  9. Lifetimes and Oscillator Strengths for Ultraviolet Transitions in P II, Cl II and Cl III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, S.; Federman, S. R.; Schectman, R. M.; Brown, M.; Irving, R. E.; Fritts, M. C.; Gibson, N. D.

    2006-01-01

    Oscillator strengths for transitions in P II, Cl II and Cl III are derived from lifetimes and branching factions measured with beam-foil techniques. The focus is on the multiplets with a prominent interstellar line at 1153 A in P II which is seen in spectra of hot stars, and the lines at 1071 A in Cl II and 1011 A in Cl III whose lines are seen in spectra of diffuse interstellar clouds and the Io torus acquired with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. These data represent the first complete set of experimental f-values for the lines in the multiplets. Our results for P II (lambda)1153 agree well with Curtis semi-empirical predictions, as well as the large scale computations by Hibbert and by Tayal. The data for Cl II (lambda)1071 also agree very well with the most recent theoretical effort and with Morton s newest recommendations. For Cl III, however, our f-values are significantly larger than those given by Morton; instead, they are more consistent with recent large-scale theoretical calculations. Extensive tests provide confirmation that LS coupling rules apply to the transitions for the multiplets in Cl II and Cl III.

  10. Copper(II) and nickel(II) binding sites of peptide containing adjacent histidyl residues.

    PubMed

    Grenács, Ágnes; Sanna, Daniele; Sóvágó, Imre

    2015-10-01

    Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of the terminally protected nonapeptide Ac-SGAEGHHQK-NH2 modeling the metal binding sites of the (8-16) domain of amyloid-β have been studied by potentiometric, UV-vis, CD and ESR spectroscopic methods. The studies on the mutants containing only one of the histidyl residues (Ac-SGAEGAHQK-NH2, Ac-SGAEGHAQK-NH2) have also been performed. The formation of imidazole and amide coordinated mononuclear complexes is characteristic of all systems with a preference of nickel(II) binding to the His14 site, while the involvement of both histidines in metal binding is suggested in the corresponding copper(II) complexes. The formation of bis(ligand) and dinuclear complexes has also been observed in the copper(II)-Ac-SGAEGHHQK-NH2 system. The results provide further support for the copper(II) binding ability of the (8-16) domain of amyloid-β and support the previous assumptions that via the bis(ligand) complex formation copper(II) ions may promote the formation of the oligomers of amyloid-β.

  11. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. II. THE SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L. D.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Rood, Robert T.

    2011-06-01

    The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) H II Region Discovery Survey has doubled the number of known H II regions in the Galactic zone 343{sup 0} {<=} l {<=} 67{sup 0} with | b | {<=} 1{sup 0}. We detected 603 discrete hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) components at 9 GHz (3 cm) from 448 targets. Our targets were selected based on spatially coincident mid-infrared and 20 cm radio continuum emission. Such sources are almost invariably H II regions; we detected hydrogen RRL emission from 95% of our target sample. The sensitivity of the GBT and the power of its spectrometer together made this survey possible. Here, we provide a catalog of the measured properties of the RRL and continuum emission from the survey nebulae. The derived survey completeness limit, 180 mJy at 9 GHz, is sufficient to detect all H II regions ionized by single O-stars to a distance of 12 kpc. These recently discovered nebulae share the same distribution on the sky as does the previously known census of Galactic H II regions. On average, however, the new nebulae have fainter continuum fluxes, smaller continuum angular sizes, fainter RRL intensities, and smaller RRL line widths. Though small in angular size, many of our new nebulae show little spatial correlation with tracers associated with extremely young H II regions, implying that our sample spans a range of evolutionary states. We discovered 34 first quadrant negative-velocity H II regions, which lie at extreme distances from the Sun and appear to be part of the Outer Arm. We found RRL emission from 208 Spitzer GLIMPSE 8.0 {mu}m 'bubble' sources, 65 of which have been cataloged previously. It thus appears that nearly all GLIMPSE bubbles are H II regions and that {approx}50% of all Galactic H II regions have a bubble morphology at 8.0 {mu}m.

  12. Solvent Refined Coal-II (SRC-II) detailed environmental plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This document describes environmental research which will: aid in the development of an environmentally acceptable SRC-II process; and provide data for environmental assessment of the process. The SRC-II process is described, criteria for selection of samples to undergo environmental analyses are given, and approximate timelines are presented for obtaining pertinent samples. At this time, the SRC-II process is at the pilot-plant stage of development and a demonstration facility is scheduled to begin operation in 1984. Since design criteria may change, the environmental research described in this document is organized in four phases which correlate with and will provide information early in process development. Phase I research (screening) evaluates samples from existing SRC-II facilities (pilot, process demonstration unit (PDU), bench) which may bracket potential demonstration/commercial practice in terms of physical and chemical criteria. The samples are being subjected to a battery of short-term biomedical and ecological assays. Chemical fractionation and analysis are being performed to determine compounds and compound classes of potential concern. Phase II (baseline) research will evaluate SRC-II materials which are considered most representative of potential demonstration/commercial practice. These materials will be subjected to longer-term, more-extensive biological and ecological analyses relative to effects and environmental fate. Phase III research will examine effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential environmental properties of SRC-II materials. Phase IV research (onsite monitoring) will develop methods and initiate environmental monitoring for effects at the SRC-II demonstration facility and potential commercial sites. This document also describes industrial hygiene programs which must occur throughout SRC-II process development.

  13. The Bipolar II Depression Questionnaire: A Self-Report Tool for Detecting Bipolar II Depression

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Chi Ming; Yim, Chi Lap; Yan, Connie T. Y.; Chan, Cheuk Chi; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Mak, Arthur D. P.; Fok, Marcella Lei-Yee; Ungvari, Gabor S.

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar II (BP-II) depression is often misdiagnosed as unipolar (UP) depression, resulting in suboptimal treatment. Tools for differentiating between these two types of depression are lacking. This study aimed to develop a simple, self-report screening instrument to help distinguish BP-II depression from UP depressive disorder. A prototype BP-II depression questionnaire (BPIIDQ-P) was constructed following a literature review, panel discussions and a field trial. Consecutively assessed patients with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or BP with depressive episodes completed the BPIIDQ-P at a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Hong Kong between October and December 2013. Data were analyzed using discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Of the 298 subjects recruited, 65 (21.8%) were males and 233 (78.2%) females. There were 112 (37.6%) subjects with BP depression [BP-I = 42 (14.1%), BP-II = 70 (23.5%)] and 182 (62.4%) with UP depression. Based on family history, age at onset, postpartum depression, episodic course, attacks of anxiety, hypersomnia, social phobia and agoraphobia, the 8-item BPIIDQ-8 was constructed. The BPIIDQ-8 differentiated subjects with BP-II from those with UP depression with a sensitivity/specificity of 0.75/0.63 for the whole sample and 0.77/0.72 for a female subgroup with a history of childbirth. The BPIIDQ-8 can differentiate BP-II from UP depression at the secondary care level with satisfactory to good reliability and validity. It has good potential as a screening tool for BP-II depression in primary care settings. Recall bias, the relatively small sample size, and the high proportion of females in the BP-II sample limit the generalization of the results. PMID:26963908

  14. Ultraviolet Emission Lines of Si ii in Quasars: Investigating the "Si ii Disaster"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Sibasish; Keenan, Francis P.; Ferland, Gary J.; Ramsbottom, Catherine A.; Aggarwal, Kanti M.

    2016-07-01

    The observed line intensity ratios of the Si ii λ1263 and λ1307 multiplets to that of Si ii λ1814 in the broad-line region (BLR) of quasars are both an order of magnitude larger than the theoretical values. This was first pointed out by Baldwin et al., who termed it the “Si ii disaster,” and it has remained unresolved. We investigate the problem in the light of newly published atomic data for Si ii. Specifically, we perform BLR calculations using several different atomic data sets within the CLOUDY modeling code under optically thick quasar cloud conditions. In addition, we test for selective pumping by the source photons or intrinsic galactic reddening as possible causes for the discrepancy, and we also consider blending with other species. However, we find that none of the options investigated resolve the Si ii disaster, with the potential exception of microturbulent velocity broadening and line blending. We find that a larger microturbulent velocity (˜ 500 {km} {{{s}}}-1) may solve the Si ii disaster through continuum pumping and other effects. The CLOUDY models indicate strong blending of the Si ii λ1307 multiplet with emission lines of O i, although the predicted degree of blending is incompatible with the observed λ1263/λ1307 intensity ratios. Clearly, more work is required on the quasar modeling of not just the Si ii lines but also nearby transitions (in particular those of O i) to fully investigate whether blending may be responsible for the Si ii disaster.

  15. The Bipolar II Depression Questionnaire: A Self-Report Tool for Detecting Bipolar II Depression.

    PubMed

    Leung, Chi Ming; Yim, Chi Lap; Yan, Connie T Y; Chan, Cheuk Chi; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Mak, Arthur D P; Fok, Marcella Lei-Yee; Ungvari, Gabor S

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar II (BP-II) depression is often misdiagnosed as unipolar (UP) depression, resulting in suboptimal treatment. Tools for differentiating between these two types of depression are lacking. This study aimed to develop a simple, self-report screening instrument to help distinguish BP-II depression from UP depressive disorder. A prototype BP-II depression questionnaire (BPIIDQ-P) was constructed following a literature review, panel discussions and a field trial. Consecutively assessed patients with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or BP with depressive episodes completed the BPIIDQ-P at a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Hong Kong between October and December 2013. Data were analyzed using discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Of the 298 subjects recruited, 65 (21.8%) were males and 233 (78.2%) females. There were 112 (37.6%) subjects with BP depression [BP-I = 42 (14.1%), BP-II = 70 (23.5%)] and 182 (62.4%) with UP depression. Based on family history, age at onset, postpartum depression, episodic course, attacks of anxiety, hypersomnia, social phobia and agoraphobia, the 8-item BPIIDQ-8 was constructed. The BPIIDQ-8 differentiated subjects with BP-II from those with UP depression with a sensitivity/specificity of 0.75/0.63 for the whole sample and 0.77/0.72 for a female subgroup with a history of childbirth. The BPIIDQ-8 can differentiate BP-II from UP depression at the secondary care level with satisfactory to good reliability and validity. It has good potential as a screening tool for BP-II depression in primary care settings. Recall bias, the relatively small sample size, and the high proportion of females in the BP-II sample limit the generalization of the results. PMID:26963908

  16. Chemotherapy for Stage II Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The adjuvant treatment of patients with stage II colon cancer is an area of controversy in medical oncology. Adjuvant chemotherapy aims to eradicate micrometastatic disease present at the time of surgery, preventing the development of distant metastatic disease and thereby curing those patients of their cancer. National and international guidelines for the adjuvant treatment of stage II colon cancer recommend a range of treatment options from observation to chemotherapy with single-agent or combination regimens, depending on the presence or absence of high-risk features (poorly differentiated histology, presence of lymphovascular invasion, presence of perineural invasion, report of < 12 lymph nodes, bowel obstruction, localized perforation, or positive margins). In the one prospective study designed to address the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II colon cancer, a small but statistically significant benefit in overall survival was seen for those patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy; however, multiple meta-analyses and retrospective subgroup analyses have called these findings into question. Though there may be a role for adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with stage II colon cancer, its incremental benefit is small, at best, and comes with the risks of real and rarely fatal complications of chemotherapy. PMID:26648796

  17. Database for bacterial group II introns.

    PubMed

    Candales, Manuel A; Duong, Adrian; Hood, Keyar S; Li, Tony; Neufeld, Ryan A E; Sun, Runda; McNeil, Bonnie A; Wu, Li; Jarding, Ashley M; Zimmerly, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The Database for Bacterial Group II Introns (http://webapps2.ucalgary.ca/~groupii/index.html#) provides a catalogue of full-length, non-redundant group II introns present in bacterial DNA sequences in GenBank. The website is divided into three sections. The first section provides general information on group II intron properties, structures and classification. The second and main section lists information for individual introns, including insertion sites, DNA sequences, intron-encoded protein sequences and RNA secondary structure models. The final section provides tools for identification and analysis of intron sequences. These include a step-by-step guide to identify introns in genomic sequences, a local BLAST tool to identify closest intron relatives to a query sequence, and a boundary-finding tool that predicts 5' and 3' intron-exon junctions in an input DNA sequence. Finally, selected intron data can be downloaded in FASTA format. It is hoped that this database will be a useful resource not only to group II intron and RNA researchers, but also to microbiologists who encounter these unexpected introns in genomic sequences.

  18. Site Environmental Report for 2008, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, Regina; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Xu, Suying

    2009-09-21

    The Site Environmental Report for 2008 is an integrated report on environmental programs at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and satisfies the requirements of DOE Order 231.1 A., Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities

  19. Site Environmental Report for 2007 Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, Regina E; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Wyrick, Steve

    2008-09-15

    The Site Environmental Report for 2007 is an integrated report on the environmental programs at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and satisfies the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  20. Microbunching phenomena in LCLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, M.; Qiang, J.; Papadopoulos, C.; Ding, Y.; Emma, P.; Huang, Z.; Marcus, G.; Marinelli, A.; Nosochkov, Y.; Raubenheimer, T.; Wang, L.; Woodley, M.

    2015-07-14

    The microbunching instability has long been recognized as a potential limiting factor to the performance of X-ray FELs. It is of particular relevance in LCLS-II due, in part, to a layout that includes a long bypass beamline between the Linac and the undulators. Here we focus on two aspects of the instability that highlight the importance of 3D effects.

  1. RTNS-II 1984 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    RTNS-II was built to provide a deuterium-tritium neutron source for the study of fusion neutron effects. In the quest to apply fusion to commercial power production, the specific mission of RTNS-II is threefold: to acquire direct engineering data for near-term confinement experiments and for materials that will see moderate neutron dose in future reactor systems; to measure production rates of transmutants and to develop appropriate radiation-resistant instrumentation for fusion systems; and to study the radiation-induced property changes caused by fusion neutrons. RTNS-II comprises two independent sources of 14-MeV neutrons. This is the third annual report summarizing irradiation experiments at RTNS-II. It covers calendar year 1983, and includes reports of all irradiation results, both fusion and non-fusion related. These comprise both secondary (or ''add-on'') and primary irradiations. Each summary article has been submitted by the investigator and has been altered only to meet the style and format requirements of this report.

  2. Ir Spectroscopy and Nickel (II) Hexammines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reedijk, J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment, for the general chemistry laboratory, intended to introduce the student to infrared spectroscopy. After being introduced to the theory of molecular vibrations on an elementary level, each student receives a list of 5-7 nickel (II) ammines to be prepared, analyzed and characterized by infrared spectoscopy. (MLH)

  3. A movie of RNA polymerase II transcription.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Alan C M; Cramer, Patrick

    2012-06-22

    We provide here a molecular movie that captures key aspects of RNA polymerase II initiation and elongation. To create the movie, we combined structural snapshots of the initiation-elongation transition and of elongation, including nucleotide addition, translocation, pausing, proofreading, backtracking, arrest, reactivation, and inhibition. The movie reveals open questions about the mechanism of transcription and provides a useful teaching tool.

  4. Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This revised textbook, one in the Aerospace Education II series, provides answers to many questions related to airplanes and properties of air flight. The first chapter provides a description of aerodynamic forces and deals with concepts such as acceleration, velocity, and forces of flight. The second chapter is devoted to the discussion of…

  5. Report of Programme Commission II (Natural Sciences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Conference.

    As the first part of the report of the Programme Commission II, a summary of discussions on plans for natural sciences and their applications is presented in this document. The two agenda items are: (1) detailed consideration of the 1973-74 draft program and budget and of the 1973-78 draft medium-term outline, and (2) desirability of adopting an…

  6. H II Regions in Interacting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattare, L. M.; Keel, W. C.; Laurikainen, E.

    1993-12-01

    We present a census of H II regions in 50 pairs of interacting galaxies, carried out on CCD and ISIT narrow-band images from Kitt Peak, Lowell, and La Palma. Objects were identified objectively using peak finding at multiple Gaussian smoothing levels to allow for the fact that the larger H II regions are marginally resolved, and measured using aperture photometry. We consider statistics of the space distribution, radial distribution, and luminosity functions. Preliminary analysis shows that the enhancement in star formation is strongest not only in the nuclear regions, but in preferred annuli as well. Interactions can produce significant asymmetries in the star-formation distribution. Some interacting galaxies show flatter luminosity functions for H II regions than seen in normal galaxies, either through an excess of very luminous star-forming complexes or a change in their clumping properties. We compare the statistics of both the location and luminosity of H II regions in interacting systems to results on isolated spirals. This work was supported by the NSF through REU grant AST-9300413 and EPSCoR grant EHR-9108761.

  7. NSLS-II RF BEAM POSITION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, K.; Della Penna, A. J.; DeLong, J.; Kosciuk, B.; Mead, J.; Pinayev, I.; Singh, O.; Tian, Y.; Ha, K.; Portmann, G.; Sebek J.

    2011-03-28

    An internal R&D program has been undertaken at BNL to develop a sub-micron RF Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the NSLS-II 3rd generation light source that is currently under construction. The BPM R&D program started in August 2009. Successful beam tests were conducted 15 months from the start of the program. The NSLS-II RF BPM has been designed to meet all requirements for the NSLS-II Injection system and Storage Ring. Housing of the RF BPM's in +-0.1 C thermally controlled racks provide sub-micron stabilization without active correction. An active pilot-tone has been incorporated to aid long-term (8hr min) stabilization to 200nm RMS. The development of a sub-micron BPM for the NSLS-II has successfully demonstrated performance and stability. Pilot Tone calibration combiner and RF synthesizer has been implemented and algorithm development is underway. The program is currently on schedule to start production development of 60 Injection BPM's starting in the Fall of 2011. The production of {approx}250 Storage Ring BPM's will overlap the Injection schedule.

  8. Day Camp Manual: Staff. Book II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, William

    Book II of a 5-book day camp manual focuses on staff selection and training. Following the philosophy that developing an effective staff is the responsibility of the camp director, the book contains major sections on staff recruitment (sources of staff, problems, selection procedures, job descriptions, personnel practices); guidelines for job…

  9. Status of the CDF II Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, Mark

    2006-10-27

    The status of the CDF calorimeters was reported at the CALOR2002 conference, about a year after Run II started at the Tevatron Collider. I will review upgrades to the system since that conference, as well as the operation and performance of the calorimeters.

  10. Electrochemical Determination of Bisphenol A with Pencil Graphite Electrodes Modified with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Fe(II) Phthalocyaninetetrasulfonates.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Levent; Altuntas, Muhammet; Büyüksagis, Aysel; Türk, Hayrettin; Yurdakal, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Pencil graphite electrodes modified with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Fe(II) metallophthalocyaninetetrasulfonates (MePcTSs) were investigated for an electrochemical determination of bisphenol A (BPA). The electrochemical performances of the modified electrodes for different pH values in phosphate and the Britton-Robinson buffers were determined by cyclic voltammetry; the electrode performances were better in the Britton-Robinson buffer. NiPcTS and CoPcTS modifications of the electrodes had remarkable enhancements on their performances. The differential pulse voltammetry parameters for the electrodes were optimized, and we found that the electrochemical response versus the concentration of BPA is linear from 5.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-5) M for the NiPcTS and CoPcTS modified electrodes. The detection limits of these modified electrodes are 2.9 × 10(-7) and 4.3 × 10(-7) M, respectively, and the effects of interfering species are less than 5%. The results show that NiPcTS and CoPcTS modified pencil graphite electrodes could be used for electrochemical determinations of BPA for analytical purposes. PMID:27506715

  11. The Uptake Mechanism of Cd(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) by Mycelia and Fruiting Bodies of Galerina vittiformis

    PubMed Central

    Damodaran, Dilna; Balakrishnan, Raj Mohan; Shetty, Vidya K.

    2013-01-01

    Optimum concentrations of heavy metals like copper, cadmium, lead, chromium, and zinc in soil are essential in carrying out various cellular activities in minimum concentrations and hence help in sustaining all life forms, although higher concentration of these metals is lethal to most of the life forms. Galerina vittiformis, a macrofungus, was found to accumulate these heavy metals into its fleshy fruiting body in the order Pb(II) > Cd(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Cr(VI) from 50 mg/kg soil. It possesses various ranges of potential cellular mechanisms that may be involved in detoxification of heavy metals and thus increases its tolerance to heavy metal stress, mainly by producing organic acids and phytochelatins (PCs). These components help in repairing stress damaged proteins and compartmentalisation of metals to vacuoles. The stress tolerance mechanism can be deduced by various analytical tools like SEM-EDX, FTIR, and LC-MS. Production of two kinds of phytochelatins was observed in the organism in response to metal stress. PMID:24455671

  12. Biceps Tenodesis for Type II SLAP Tears.

    PubMed

    Tayrose, Gregory A; Karas, Spero G; Bosco, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Tears of the superior glenoid labrum are a common cause of shoulder pain and disability, especially in overhead athletes such as pitchers, swimmers, and volleyball players. Type II SLAP lesions have been the most clinically important superior labral pathology, and the management of this lesion has been a very controversial topic. Currently, there are no high level studies in the literature to guide treatment. While the few level 3 and level 4 evidence studies that are available following arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP lesions all report reasonable overall patient satisfaction, persistent postoperative pain is common and associated with a low return to pre-injury level of sports participation. There has been a recent school of thought that biceps tenodesis, which maintains the length-tension relationship of the long head of biceps, should be the procedure of choice for patients with isolated type II SLAP lesions. The current paper reviews the role biceps tenodesis plays in the management of type II SLAP tears. PMID:26517164

  13. Internet Image Viewer (iiV)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joel T; Munch, Kristin R; Carlis, John V; Pardo, José V

    2008-01-01

    Background Visualizing 3-dimensional (3-D) datasets is an important part of modern neuroimaging research. Many tools address this problem; however, they often fail to address specific needs and flexibility, such as the ability to work with different data formats, to control how and what data are displayed, to interact with values, and to undo mistakes. Results iiV, an interactive software program for displaying 3-D brain images, is described. This tool was programmed to solve basic problems in 3-D data visualization. It is written in Java so it is extensible, is platform independent, and can display images within web pages. iiV displays 3-D images as 2-dimensional (2-D) slices with each slice being an independent object with independent features such as location, zoom, colors, labels, etc. Feature manipulation becomes easier by having a full set of editing capabilities including the following: undo or redo changes; drag, copy, delete and paste objects; and save objects with their features to a file for future editing. It can read multiple standard positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) file formats like ECAT, ECAT7, ANALYZE, NIfTI-1 and DICOM. We present sample applications to illustrate some of the features and capabilities. Conclusion iiV is an image display tool with many useful features. It is highly extensible, platform independent, and web-compatible. This report summarizes its features and applications, while illustrating iiV's usefulness to the biomedical imaging community. PMID:18510765

  14. IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    The IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT II), an individually-administered measure of speaking and listening proficiency in English as a Second Language designed for secondary school students, is described and discussed. The test consists of 91 items and requires 5-25 minutes to administer. Raw scores are converted to one of seven proficiency…

  15. Neurofibromatosis types I and II: radiological appearance.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, C A; Cavallin, L I

    1998-02-01

    The neurocutaneous disorders frequently involve the central nervous system. This, the first in a pair of articles which describe and illustrate the radiological appearances of the central nervous system manifestations of the most common neurocutaneous disorders, looks at neurofibromatosis types I and II.

  16. Diffraction with CDF II at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, Konstantin

    2009-03-23

    Results on diffraction from the Fermilab Tevatron collider obtained by the CDF II Collaboration using data from pp-bar collisions at {radical}(s) = 1.96 TeV are reviewed and compared with theoretical expectations. Implications for predictions of exclusive Higgs boson production rates at the Large Hadron Collider are discussed.

  17. National Ignition Facility Title II Design Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpan, S

    1997-03-01

    This National Ignition Facility (NIF) Title II Design Plan defines the work to be performed by the NIF Project Team between November 1996, when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reviewed Title I design and authorized the initiation of Title H design and specific long-lead procurements, and September 1998, when Title 11 design will be completed.

  18. Spectroscopy of gluonic states at LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1983-08-01

    The properties of QCD which imply the existence of gluonic states are reviewed. The problem of discovering the spectrum of gluonic states is discussed in general and illustrated with examples from current data. Higher statistics fixed target experiments, such as could be performed at LAMPF II, are essential for further progress.

  19. Biceps Tenodesis for Type II SLAP Tears.

    PubMed

    Tayrose, Gregory A; Karas, Spero G; Bosco, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Tears of the superior glenoid labrum are a common cause of shoulder pain and disability, especially in overhead athletes such as pitchers, swimmers, and volleyball players. Type II SLAP lesions have been the most clinically important superior labral pathology, and the management of this lesion has been a very controversial topic. Currently, there are no high level studies in the literature to guide treatment. While the few level 3 and level 4 evidence studies that are available following arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP lesions all report reasonable overall patient satisfaction, persistent postoperative pain is common and associated with a low return to pre-injury level of sports participation. There has been a recent school of thought that biceps tenodesis, which maintains the length-tension relationship of the long head of biceps, should be the procedure of choice for patients with isolated type II SLAP lesions. The current paper reviews the role biceps tenodesis plays in the management of type II SLAP tears.

  20. Topaz-II reactor control unit development

    SciTech Connect

    Wyant, F.J.; Jensen, D.; Logothetis, J.

    1994-12-31

    The development for a new digital reactor control unit for the Topaz-II reactor is described. The unit is expected to provide the means for automated control during a possible Topaz flight experiment. The breadboard design and development is discussed.

  1. Cu(II) promotes amyloid pore formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hangyu; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2015-08-14

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation. - Highlights: • Cu(II) promoted the annular protofibril formation of α-synuclein in vitro. • Cu(II) postponed the in vitro fibrillization of α-synuclein. • Neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils.

  2. Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Terry R; Kale, Laxmikant V; Moreira, Jose

    2013-11-01

    This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.

  3. [A case of type II achondrogenesis].

    PubMed

    Micheli, E; Perrone, C; Quarta Colosso, L; Vetrugno, M; Zecca, G; Indirli, G C; Greco, F; Elia, G; Ciancio, S

    1996-01-01

    We describe a rare case of type II achondrogenesis (gestational age = thirty-two weeks) dead forty-five minutes after birth. This congenital skeletal dysplasia is classified among the lethal osteochondrodysplasias. Clinical features were enough for diagnosis and autopsy added nothing to our clinical knowledges. PMID:8685014

  4. Occupational Information 1990/91. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Nebraska Career Information System.

    The Nebraska Occupational Information books (volumes I and II) contain information about 386 different occupations in the state and answer questions about specific occupations in detail. The descriptions are arranged according to a U.S. Department of Labor classification system, with occupational titles clustered in general groups of selected…

  5. Heavy flavor physics at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    A. Cerri

    2001-07-12

    Tevatron experiments will soon begin Run II data taking with an aggressive B physics program. The B physics reach of the CDF and D0 experiments already seems competitive and complementary to that of B factories. We report on the future plans for B physics and CP violation measurements at the Tevatron.

  6. An ADC Interface for the Apple II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiker, P. Steven

    1990-01-01

    Described is the construction of a simple analog-to-digital convertor circuit to interface an Apple II+ microcomputer to a light sensor used in conjunction with a holographic gear inspector. A list of parts, circuit diagram, and a simple BASIC program for the convertor are provided. (CW)

  7. The RDP-II (Ribosomal Database Project).

    PubMed

    Maidak, B L; Cole, J R; Lilburn, T G; Parker, C T; Saxman, P R; Farris, R J; Garrity, G M; Olsen, G J; Schmidt, T M; Tiedje, J M

    2001-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP-II), previously described by Maidak et al. [Nucleic Acids Res. (2000), 28, 173-174], continued during the past year to add new rRNA sequences to the aligned data and to improve the analysis commands. Release 8.0 (June 1, 2000) consisted of 16 277 aligned prokaryotic small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences while the number of eukaryotic and mitochondrial SSU rRNA sequences in aligned form remained at 2055 and 1503, respectively. The number of prokaryotic SSU rRNA sequences more than doubled from the previous release 14 months earlier, and approximately 75% are longer than 899 bp. An RDP-II mirror site in Japan is now available (http://wdcm.nig.ac.jp/RDP/html/index.h tml). RDP-II provides aligned and annotated rRNA sequences, derived phylogenetic trees and taxonomic hierarchies, and analysis services through its WWW server (http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/). Analysis services include rRNA probe checking, approximate phylogenetic placement of user sequences, screening user sequences for possible chimeric rRNA sequences, automated alignment, production of similarity matrices and services to plan and analyze terminal restriction fragment polymorphism experiments. The RDP-II email address for questions and comments has been changed from curator@cme.msu.edu to rdpstaff@msu.edu.

  8. A Camp Director Remembers World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Helen Herz

    2003-01-01

    A girl's camp in Maine during World War II had to deal with food rationing and black-market food dealers. Campers picked beans to raise money for refugees, sewed clothes for refugees, and spotted for enemy planes from Mt. Pleasant. An attempt to use a horse-drawn cart for transportation failed, and good help was hard to find. (TD)

  9. Symbol Character Generator Developed for Decwriter II

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, R.J.

    2001-03-15

    The versatile dot matrix printer of the DECwriter II was modified to enable printing of symbol characters., e.g., Greek letters and other symbol for mathematical expressions and units of measurement. This development involved the replacement of the read-only memory (ROM) units with erasable-programmable read-only memory (EPROM) units.

  10. The Amityville Experience During World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Historical Inquiry, 1985

    1985-01-01

    An historical journal compiled by advanced placement American history high school students contains 10 articles about the experiences of residents of Amityville, New York, during World War II. Students used secondary sources, first-hand newspaper accounts, oral interviews, and primary source documents to recreate Amityville as it was during those…

  11. FR II radio galaxies at low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    Due to their steep spectra, low-frequency observations of FR II radio galaxies potentially provide key insights in to the morphology, energetics and underlying physics of these powerful radio sources. However, limitations imposed by the previous generation of radio interferometers at metre wavelengths have meant that this region of parameter space remains largely unexplored.In this talk, we present our latest results using LOFAR and the JVLA at frequencies between 50 and 460 MHz which, along with complementary archival radio and X-ray data, now allows us to undertake well resolved, detailed studies of nearby FR II radio galaxies at low frequencies. We discuss how our improved knowledge of the low-energy electron distribution, magnetic field strength and total energy content of the lobes impacts upon our understanding of the dynamics and energetics of nearby FR II radio galaxies and, for the first time, present the spectral structure of these sources on small spatial scales at low frequencies. We conclude by discussing how these findings change our current understanding of the underlying physics of FR II radio galaxies and, ultimately, their impact on the environment and galaxy evolution as a whole.

  12. Colleges and Universities in World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardozier, V. R.

    This book examines the impact of World War II on college campuses and how the large military influence during that period affected such areas as the emergence of new fields of study, the role of the professor, and the social utility of higher education. Specific chapters examine Army, Navy, and Army Air Forces College Training Programs; how…

  13. Iron(II) PARACEST MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Dorazio, Sarina J; Tsitovich, Pavel B; Siters, Kevin E; Spernyak, Joseph A; Morrow, Janet R

    2011-09-14

    The first examples of Fe(II) PARACEST magnetic resonance contrast agents are reported (PARACEST = paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer). The iron(II) complexes contain a macrocyclic ligand, either 1,4,7-tris(carbamoylmethyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L1) or 1,4,7-tris[(5-amino-6-methyl-2-pyridyl)methyl]-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L2). The macrocycles bind Fe(II) in aqueous solution with formation constants of log K = 13.5 and 19.2, respectively, and maintain the Fe(II) state in the presence of air. These complexes each contain six exchangeable protons for CEST which are amide protons in [Fe(L1)](2+) or amino protons in [Fe(L2)](2+). The CEST peak for the [Fe(L1)](2+) amide protons is at 69 ppm downfield of the bulk water resonance whereas the CEST peak for the [Fe(L2)](2+) amine protons is at 6 ppm downfield of bulk water. CEST imaging using a MRI scanner shows that the CEST effect can be observed in solutions containing low millimolar concentrations of complex at neutral pH, 100 mM NaCl, 20 mM buffer at 25 °C or 37 °C.

  14. VELOCITY-RESOLVED [C ii] EMISSION AND [C ii]/FIR MAPPING ALONG ORION WITH HERSCHEL *,**

    PubMed Central

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Teyssier, D.; Etxaluze, M.; Goldsmith, P.F.; Ossenkopf, V.; Gerin, M.; Bergin, E.A.; Black, J.H.; Cernicharo, J.; Cuadrado, S.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Hacar, A.; Lis, D.C.; Marcelino, N.; Melnick, G.J.; Müller, H.S.P.; Persson, C.; Pety, J.; Röllig, M.; Schilke, P.; Simon, R.; Snell, R.L.; Stutzki, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first ~7.5′×11.5′ velocity-resolved (~0.2 km s−1) map of the [C ii] 158 μm line toward the Orion molecular cloud 1 (OMC 1) taken with the Herschel/HIFI instrument. In combination with far-infrared (FIR) photometric images and velocity-resolved maps of the H41α hydrogen recombination and CO J=2-1 lines, this data set provides an unprecedented view of the intricate small-scale kinematics of the ionized/PDR/molecular gas interfaces and of the radiative feedback from massive stars. The main contribution to the [C ii] luminosity (~85 %) is from the extended, FUV-illuminated face of the cloud (G0>500, nH>5×103 cm−3) and from dense PDRs (G≳104, nH≳105 cm−3) at the interface between OMC 1 and the H ii region surrounding the Trapezium cluster. Around ~15 % of the [C ii] emission arises from a different gas component without CO counterpart. The [C ii] excitation, PDR gas turbulence, line opacity (from [13C ii]) and role of the geometry of the illuminating stars with respect to the cloud are investigated. We construct maps of the L[C ii]/LFIR and LFIR/MGas ratios and show that L[C ii]/LFIR decreases from the extended cloud component (~10−2–10−3) to the more opaque star-forming cores (~10−3–10−4). The lowest values are reminiscent of the “[C ii] deficit” seen in local ultra-luminous IR galaxies hosting vigorous star formation. Spatial correlation analysis shows that the decreasing L[C ii]/LFIR ratio correlates better with the column density of dust through the molecular cloud than with LFIR/MGas. We conclude that the [C ii] emitting column relative to the total dust column along each line of sight is responsible for the observed L[C ii]/LFIR variations through the cloud. PMID:26568638

  15. Rapid and sensitive colorimetric determination of cobalt(II).

    PubMed

    Eldawy, M A; Tawfik, A S; Elshabouri, S R

    1976-05-01

    A highly selective and sensitive spectrophotometric determination of cobalt (II) was developed. 7-Nitroso-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid sodium salt was used as the chromogenic reagent for color development. Although other metals form colored chelates with the ligand, it was possible to develop a selective method using McIlvaine's pH 8 citric acid-phosphate buffer. Under these conditions, iron(II), iron (III), copper (II), zinc (II), and manganese (II), minerals likely to be compounded with cobalt (II) in geriatric formulations, do not interfere with the precision of the method or the color development. Calcium (II) and magnesium (II) do not form colored chelates with the used ligand. Hormones, vitamins, and additives likely to be present along with the cobalt ion in pharmaceutical formulations do not interfere. The sensitivity is 0.37 mug of cobalt (II)/ml of sample solution.

  16. Influence of different mineral and Organic pesticide treatments on Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) contents determined by derivative potentiometric stripping analysis in Italian white and red wines.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Francesco; La Pera, Lara; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Nicotina, Mariano; Dugo, Giacomo

    2003-02-12

    This paper deals with the use of derivative potentiometric stripping analysis (dPSA) as a rapid and precise method to determine Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels in red and white wine samples from Sicily, Campania, and Tuscany and to investigate the possible connection between the content of these metals and the pesticide treatments used in vine-growing to control plant diseases and pests. dPSA allowed direct quantitation of heavy metals in acidified wines without any sample pretreatment. Mean recoveries of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) ranged from 95.5 to 99.2% for white wine samples and from 96.1 to 100.0% for red wine samples. The obtained results showed that Cd(II) was not found in any sample and that Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels were always lower than the toxicity limits in both fungicide- and water-treated wines. Nevertheless, the contents of metals were increased in samples from organic and inorganic pesticides treatment with respect to the water-treated samples. In particular, quinoxyfen, dinocap-penconazole, and dinocap applications considerably increased Cu(II) and Zn(II) contents in white and red wines. The levels of lead were significantly raised by azoxystrobin and sulfur treatments.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of tridentate Schiff base derived from vanillin and DL-α-aminobutyric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, M. Sivasankaran; Joseyphus, R. Selwin

    2008-09-01

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of the Schiff base derived from vanillin and DL-α-aminobutyric acid were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectra, conductance measurements, magnetic measurements, powder XRD and biological activity. The analytical data show the composition of the metal complex to be [ML(H 2O)], where L is the Schiff base ligand. The conductance data indicate that all the complexes are non-electrolytes. IR results demonstrate the tridentate binding of the Schiff base ligand involving azomethine nitrogen, phenolic oxygen and carboxylato oxygen atoms. The IR data also indicate the coordination of a water molecule with the metal ion in the complex. The electronic spectral measurements show that Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have tetrahedral geometry, while Cu(II) complex has square planar geometry. The powder XRD studies indicate that Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes are amorphous, whereas Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes are crystalline in nature. Magnetic measurements show that Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have paramagnetic behaviour. Antibacterial results indicated that the metal complexes are more active than the ligand.

  18. Zn(II) ions substantially perturb Cu(II) ion coordination in amyloid-β at physiological pH.

    PubMed

    Silva, K Ishara; Saxena, Sunil

    2013-08-15

    The interaction of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions with amyloid-β (Aβ) plays an important role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. We describe the use of electron spin resonance (ESR) to measure metal-binding competition between Cu(II) and Zn(II) in amyloid-β at physiological pH. Continuous wave ESR measurements show that the affinity of Cu(II) toward Aβ(1-16) is significantly higher than that of Zn(II) at physiological pH. Importantly, of the two known Cu(II) coordination modes in Aβ, component I and component II, Zn(II) displaces Cu(II) only from component I. Our results indicate that at excess amounts of Zn(II) component II becomes the most dominant coordination mode. This observation is important as Aβ aggregates in the brain contain a high Zn(II) ion concentration. In order to determine details of the metal ion competition, electron spin echo envelope modulation experiments were carried out on Aβ variants that were systematically (15)N labeled. In the presence of Zn(II), most peptides use His 14 as an equatorial ligand to bind Cu(II) ions. Interestingly, Zn(II) ions completely substitute Cu(II) ions that are simultaneously coordinated to His 6 and His 13. Furthermore, in the presence of Zn(II), the proportion of Cu(II) ions that are simultaneously coordinated to His 13 and His 14 is increased. On the basis of our results we suggest that His 13 plays a critical role in modulating the morphology of Aβ aggregates.

  19. Synthesis, spectral characterization and thermal studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with 2-amino benzoic acid- and 2-hydroxy benzoic acid thiophen-2-ylmethylene hydrazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vinod P.; Singh, Pooja

    2013-03-01

    A series of metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with 2-amino benzoic acid thiophen-2-ylmethylene hydrazide (Habth) and 2-hydroxy benzoic acid thiophen-2-ylmethylene hydrazide (Hhbth) have been synthesized. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, IR, NMR, ESR spectra and thermal studies (TGA and DTA). Molecular structure of the Habth ligand was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Habth acts as a monobasic bidentate ligand in all its complexes bonding through a deprotonated Csbnd O- and lbond2 Cdbnd Nsbnd groups whereas, Hhbth acts as a monobasic bidentate in its Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes, bonding through a deprotonated Csbnd O- and lbond2 Cdbnd Nsbnd groups and as monobasic tridentate in Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes bonding through lbond2 Cdbnd O, lbond2 Cdbnd Nsbnd and deprotonated (Csbnd O)- groups with the metal ion. Electronic spectra suggest a square planar geometry for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of Habth and Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of Hhbth. However, the Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of Hhbth have octahedral geometry. The ESR spectra of Cu(II) complex of Hhbth in the solid state and in DMSO frozen solution show axial signals and suggest the presence of unpaired electron in d orbital of Cu(II). The Cu(II) complex of Habth in solid state shows isotropic signal, whereas, axial signal in DMSO frozen solution in the range of tetragonally distorted octahedral geometry due to interactions of DMSO molecules at axial positions. Thermal studies of some of the metal complexes show a multi-step decomposition pattern of bonded ligands in the complex.

  20. Angiotensin II during Experimentally Simulated Central Hypovolemia

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Theo Walther; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2016-01-01

    Central hypovolemia, defined as diminished blood volume in the heart and pulmonary vascular bed, is still an unresolved problem from a therapeutic point of view. The development of pharmaceutical agents targeted at specific angiotensin II receptors, such as the non-peptidergic AT2-receptor agonist compound 21, is yielding many opportunities to uncover more knowledge about angiotensin II receptor profiles and possible therapeutic use. Cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective therapeutic use of compound 21 have been suggested. However, there has not yet been a focus on the use of these agents in a hypovolemic setting. We argue that the latest debates on the effect of angiotensin II during hypovolemia might guide for future studies, investigating the effect of such agents during experimentally simulated central hypovolemia. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of angiotensin II during episodes of central hypovolemia. To examine this, we reviewed results from studies with three experimental models of simulated hypovolemia: head up tilt table test, lower body negative pressure, and hemorrhage of animals. A systemic literature search was made with the use of PubMed/MEDLINE for studies that measured variables of the renin–angiotensin system or its effect during simulated hypovolemia. Twelve articles, using one of the three models, were included and showed a possible organ-protective effect and an effect on the sympathetic system of angiotensin II during hypovolemia. The results support the possible organ-protective vasodilatory role for the AT2-receptor during hypovolemia on both the kidney and the splanchnic tissue. PMID:26973842

  1. Angiotensin II: multitasking in the brain.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Juan M; Benicky, Julius; Zhou, Jin

    2006-03-01

    In addition to controlling systemic blood pressure, angiotensin II (Ang II) has several roles in the brain, including the regulation of cerebrovascular flow and the reaction to stress. In order to clarify the central effects of Ang II and its type 1 (AT1) receptors, we reviewed the literature reporting recent research on the effects of pretreatment with the AT1-receptor blocker, candesartan, on experimental ischemia, cerebrovascular remodeling, and inflammation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), and the responses to stress induced by isolation and by cold-restraint. Angiotensin II regulates the brain circulation through stimulation of AT1-receptors located in the cerebrovascular endothelium and central pathways. SHRs express greater numbers of endothelial AT1-receptors and a central sympathetic overdrive, resulting in pathological cerebrovascular growth, inflammation, decreased cerebrovascular compliance, and enhanced vulnerability to brain ischemia. Sustained central AT1-receptor antagonism reverses these effects. Sustained reduction of AT1-receptor stimulation before stress prevents the hormonal and sympathoadrenal stress responses during isolation and prevents the gastric ulceration stress response to cold-restraint, indicating that increased AT1-receptor stimulation is essential to enhance the central sympathetic response and the formation and release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin that occur during stress. AT1-receptor blocking agents reverse the cortical alterations in CRF1 and benzodiazepine receptors characteristic of isolation stress, effects probably related to their anti-anxiety effect in rodents. Sustained reduction of Ang II tone by AT1-receptor antagonism could be considered as a preventive and therapeutic approach for brain ischemia and stress-related and mood disorders. Additional preclinical studies and controlled clinical trials are necessary to confirm the efficacy of this novel therapeutic approach.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of VO(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of chromone based azo-linked Schiff base ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anitha, C.; Sheela, C. D.; Tharmaraj, P.; Johnson Raja, S.

    2012-12-01

    Azo-Schiff-base complexes of VO(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, mass spectra, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurement, electron spin resonance (EPR), CV, fluorescence, NLO and SEM. The conductance data indicate the nonelectrolytic nature of the complexes, except VO(II) complex which is electrolytic in nature. On the basis of electronic spectra and magnetic susceptibility octahedral geometry has been proposed for the complexes. The EPR spectra of copper and oxovanadium complexes in DMSO at 300 and 77 K were recorded and its salient features are reported. The redox behavior of the copper(II) complex was studied using cyclic voltammetry. The in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica typhi, Bacillus subtilis and Candida strains was studied and compared with that of free ligand by well-diffusion technique. The azo Schiff base exhibited fluorescence properties originating from intraligand (π-π∗) transitions and metal-mediated enhancement is observed on complexation and so the synthesized complexes can serve as potential photoactive materials as indicated from their characteristic fluorescence properties. On the basis of the optimized structures, the second-order nonlinear optical properties (NLO) are calculated by using second-harmonic generation (SHG) and also the surface morphology of the complexes was studied by SEM.

  3. Molecular mechanisms of the biological activity of the anticancer drug elesclomol and its complexes with Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pt(II).

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arun A; Patel, Daywin; Wu, Xing; Hasinoff, Brian B

    2013-09-01

    The bis(thiohydrazide) amide elesclomol has extremely potent antiproliferative activity and is currently in clinical trials as an anticancer agent. Elesclomol strongly binds copper and may be exerting its cell growth inhibitory effects by generating copper-mediated oxidative stress. Nickel(II) and platinum(II) complexes of elesclomol were synthesized and characterized in order to investigate if these biologically redox inactive metal complexes could also inhibit cell growth. The nickel(II)-elesclomol and platinum(II) elesclomol complexes were 34- and 1040-fold less potent than the copper(II)-elesclomol complex towards human leukemia K562 cells. These results support the conclusion that a redox active metal is required for elesclomol to exert its cell growth inhibitory activity. Copper(II)-elesclomol was also shown to efficiently oxidize ascorbic acid at physiological ascorbic acid concentrations. Reoxidation of the copper(I) thus produced would lead to production of damaging reactive oxygen species. An X-ray crystallographic structure determination of copper(II)-elesclomol showed that it formed a 1:1 neutral complex with a distorted square planar structure. The kinetics and equilibria of the competition reaction of the strong copper(II) chelator TRIEN with copper(II)-elesclomol were studied spectrophotometrically under physiological conditions. These results showed elesclomol bound copper(II) with a conditional stability constant 24-fold larger than TRIEN. A log stability constant of 24.2 was thus indirectly determined for the copper(II)-elesclomol complex.

  4. Formation of layered Fe(II)-Al(III)-hydroxides during reaction of Fe(II) with aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Evert J

    2012-05-01

    The reactivity of aqueous Fe(II) with aluminum oxide in anoxic solutions was investigated with batch kinetic experiments combined with Fe K edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements to characterize Fe(II) sorption products. Formation of Fe(II)-Al(III)-layered double hydroxides with an octahedral sheet structure similar to nikischerite (NaFe(II)(6) Al(3)(SO(4))(2)(OH)(18) (H(2)O)(12)) was observed within a few hours during sorption at pH 7.5 and aqueous Fe(II) concentrations of 1-3 mM. These Fe(II) phases are composed of brucite-like Fe(II)(OH)(2) sheets with partial substitution of Al(III) for Fe(II), charge balanced by anions coordinated along the basal planes. Their fast rate of formation suggests that these previously unrecognized Fe(II) phases, which are structurally and compositionally similar to green rust, may be an important sink of Fe(II) in suboxic and anoxic geochemical environments, and impact the fate of structurally compatible trace metals, such as Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II), as well as redox-reactive species including Cr(VI) and U(VI). Further studies are required to assess the thermodynamics, formation kinetics, and stability of these Fe(II) minerals under field conditions. PMID:22409244

  5. Thiol-functionalized polysilsesquioxane as efficient adsorbent for adsorption of Hg(II) and Mn(II) from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Yuzhong Qu, Rongjun; Liu, Xiguang; Mu, Lei; Bu, Baihui; Sun, Yuting; Chen, Hou; Meng, Yangfeng; Meng, Lina; Cheng, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • PMPSQ was promising adsorbent for the removal of Hg(II) and Mn(II). • The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. • The adsorption isotherms can be described by the monolayer Langmuir model. • The adsorption was controlled by film diffusion and chemical ion-exchange mechanism. - Abstract: Thiol-functionalized polysilsesquioxane was synthesized and used for the adsorption of Hg(II) and Mn(II) from aqueous solution. Results showed that the optimal pH was about 6 and 5 for Hg(II) and Mn(II), respectively. Adsorption kinetics showed that the adsorption equilibriums were established within 100 min and followed pseudo-second-order model. Adsorption isotherms revealed that the adsorption capacities increased with the increasing of temperature. The adsorption was found to be well described by the monolayer Langmuir isotherm model and took place by chemical ion-exchange mechanism. The thermodynamic properties indicated the adsorption processes were spontaneous and endothermic nature. Selectively adsorption showed that PMPSQ can selectively adsorb Hg(II) from binary ion systems in the presence of the coexistent ions Mn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Co(II), and Ni(II). Based on the results, it is concluded that PMPSQ had comparable high adsorption efficiency and could be potentially used for the removal of Hg(II) and Mn(II) from aqueous solution.

  6. Spectral studies on Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with thiosemicarbazone (L 1) and semicarbazone (L 2) derived from 2-acetyl furan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Anil

    2007-04-01

    Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes are synthesized with thiosemicarbazone (L 1) and semicarbazone (L 2) derived from 2-acetyl furan. These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurements of the complexes in DMSO correspond to non-electrolytic nature except Ni(L) 2(NO 3) 2, which is 1:2 electrolyte. All the complexes are of high-spin type. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry may be assigned for Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes except nitrato complexes of Ni(II) which is of tetrahedral geometry, whereas tetragonal geometry for Cu(II) complexes.

  7. Coordination of Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) with 2,5-hexanedione bis(thiosemicarbazone), HBTS: Crystal structure of cis-[Pd(HBTS)]Cl2 and 1-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-yl)-thiourea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeragh, Bakir; El-Asmy, Ahmed A.

    2014-09-01

    Metal complexes of Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pd2+ or Pt2+ with 2,5-hexanedione bis(thiosemicarbazone), HBTS; have been prepared and spectroscopically investigated. The empirical formulae of the complexes were suggested based on the elemental analysis. Single crystal of Pd(II) has been solved to be cis-form of square-planar geometry by the X-ray crystallography. 1H and 13C NMR spectra have been recorded for HBTS, Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes, in DMSO-d6, showing the mode of chelation. The ligand acts as a neutral or a binegative tetradentate (N2S2) or neutral bidentate on the basis of FT-IR. The magnetic moments and electronic spectra provide information about the geometry of the complexes which supported by calculating the ligand field parameters for the Co(II) and Fe(III) complexes. The Ni(II) complex has subnormal magnetic moment (0.71 BM) indicative of a mixed stereochemistry of square-planar and tetrahedral structure. [Cu(HBTS-2H)] measured 0.93 BM indicating high interaction between the copper centers. The ligand may be ordered at the top of the spectrochemical series which giving high ligand field splitting energy (10Dq = 17,900 cm-1 for Co2+ complex). The mass spectra of some complexes proved their stable chemical formulae while the TGA depicts the degradation steps and the final residue. In evaporating the mother liquor during the preparation of HBTS, new compound is obtained naming 1-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-yl)thiourea and its crystal was solved.

  8. Coordination of Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) with 2,5-hexanedione bis(thiosemicarbazone), HBTS: crystal structure of cis-[Pd(HBTS)]Cl2 and 1-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-yl)-thiourea.

    PubMed

    Jeragh, Bakir; El-Asmy, Ahmed A

    2014-09-15

    Metal complexes of Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pd2+ or Pt2+ with 2,5-hexanedione bis(thiosemicarbazone), HBTS; have been prepared and spectroscopically investigated. The empirical formulae of the complexes were suggested based on the elemental analysis. Single crystal of Pd(II) has been solved to be cis-form of square-planar geometry by the X-ray crystallography. 1H and 13C NMR spectra have been recorded for HBTS, Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes, in DMSO-d6, showing the mode of chelation. The ligand acts as a neutral or a binegative tetradentate (N2S2) or neutral bidentate on the basis of FT-IR. The magnetic moments and electronic spectra provide information about the geometry of the complexes which supported by calculating the ligand field parameters for the Co(II) and Fe(III) complexes. The Ni(II) complex has subnormal magnetic moment (0.71 BM) indicative of a mixed stereochemistry of square-planar and tetrahedral structure. [Cu(HBTS-2H)] measured 0.93 BM indicating high interaction between the copper centers. The ligand may be ordered at the top of the spectrochemical series which giving high ligand field splitting energy (10 Dq=17,900 cm(-1) for Co2+ complex). The mass spectra of some complexes proved their stable chemical formulae while the TGA depicts the degradation steps and the final residue. In evaporating the mother liquor during the preparation of HBTS, new compound is obtained naming 1-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-yl)thiourea and its crystal was solved.

  9. SVX II a silicon vertex detector for run II of the tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoletto, D.

    1994-11-01

    A microstrip silicon detector SVX II has been proposed for the upgrade of the vertex detector of the CDF experiment to be installed for run II of the Tevatron in 1998. Three barrels of four layers of double sided detectors will cover the interaction region. The requirement of the silicon tracker and the specification of the sensors are discussed together with the proposed R&D to verify the performance of the prototypes detectors produced by Sintef, Micron and Hamamatsu.

  10. RTNS-II: irradiations at the Rotating Target Neutron Source-II. 1983 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This is the second annual report summarizing irradiation experiments and operations at RTNS-II. It covers calendar year 1983 and includes reports on all irradiations, non-fusion as well as fusion, and on utilization of Monbusho's transmission electron microscope (TEM) a RTNS-II. Each summary article has been submitted by the investigator and has been altered only to meet the style and format requirements of this report.

  11. Palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes with tridentate iminophosphine ligands; synthesis and structural studies.

    PubMed

    Ní Dhubhghaill, Orla M; Lennon, Joanne; Drew, Michael G B

    2005-10-01

    The previously synthesised Schiff-base ligands 2-(2-Ph(2)PC(6)H(4)N[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)-R'-C(6)H(3)OH (R'= 3-OCH(3), HL(1); 5-OCH(3), HL(2); 5-Br, HL(3); 5-Cl, HL(4)) were prepared by a faster, more efficient route involving a microwave assisted co-condensation of 2-(diphenylphosphino)aniline with the appropriate substituted salicylaldehyde. HL(1-4) react directly with M(II)Cl(2)(M = Pd, Pt) or Pt(II)I(2)(cod) affording neutral square-planar complexes of general formula [M(II)Cl(eta(3)-L(1-4))](M = Pd, Pt, 1-8) and [Pt(II)I(eta(3)-L(1-4))](M = Pd, Pt, 9-12). Reaction of complexes 1-4 with the triarylphosphines PR(3)(R = Ph, p-tolyl) gave the novel ionic complexes [Pd(II)(PR(3))(eta(3)-L(1-4))]ClO(4)(13-20). Substituted platinum complexes of the type [Pt(II)(PR(3))(eta(3)-L(1-4))]ClO(4)(R = P(CH(2)CH(2)CN)(3)21-24) and [Pt(II)(P(p-tolyl)(3))(eta(3)-L(3,4))]ClO(4)( 25 and 26 ) were synthesised from the appropriate [Pt(II)Cl(eta(3)-L(1-4))] complex (5-8) and PR(3). The complexes are characterised by microanalytical and spectroscopic techniques. The crystal structures of 3, 6, 10, 15, 20 and 26 were determined and revealed the metal to be in a square-planar four-coordinate environment containing a planar tridentate ligand with an O,N,P donor set together with one further atom which is trans to the central nitrogen atom. PMID:16172647

  12. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity, structural and spectral characterization and DFT calculations of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes of 4-amino-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Tarek A; Shaaban, Ibrahim A; Farag, Rabei S; Zoghaib, Wajdi M; Afifi, Mahmoud S

    2015-01-25

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes of 4-amino-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile (APC) have been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, mass spectrometry, infrared (4000-200 cm(-1)), UV-Visible (200-1100 nm), (1)H NMR and ESR spectroscopy as well as TGA analysis. The molar conductance measurements in DMSO imply non-electrolytic complexes, formulated as [M(APC)2Cl2] where M=Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II). The infrared spectra of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes indicate a bidentate type of bonding for APC through the exocyclic amino and adjacent pyrimidine nitrogen as donors whereas APC coordinated to Pd(II) ion as a monodentated ligand via a pyrimidine nitrogen donor. The magnetic measurements and the electronic absorption spectra support distorted octahedral geometries for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes however a square planar complex was favored for the Pd(II) complex (C2h skeleton symmetry). In addition, we carried out B3LYP and ω-B97XD geometry optimization at 6-31G(d) basis set except for Pd(II) where we implemented LanL2DZ/6-31G(d) combined basis set. The computational results favor all trans geometrical isomers where amino N, pyrimidine N and Cl are trans to each other (structure 1). Finally, APC and its divalent metal ion complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity, and the synthesized complexes were found to be more potent antimicrobial agents than APC against one or more microbial species. PMID:25105264

  13. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity, structural and spectral characterization and DFT calculations of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes of 4-amino-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Tarek A; Shaaban, Ibrahim A; Farag, Rabei S; Zoghaib, Wajdi M; Afifi, Mahmoud S

    2015-01-25

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes of 4-amino-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile (APC) have been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, mass spectrometry, infrared (4000-200 cm(-1)), UV-Visible (200-1100 nm), (1)H NMR and ESR spectroscopy as well as TGA analysis. The molar conductance measurements in DMSO imply non-electrolytic complexes, formulated as [M(APC)2Cl2] where M=Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II). The infrared spectra of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes indicate a bidentate type of bonding for APC through the exocyclic amino and adjacent pyrimidine nitrogen as donors whereas APC coordinated to Pd(II) ion as a monodentated ligand via a pyrimidine nitrogen donor. The magnetic measurements and the electronic absorption spectra support distorted octahedral geometries for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes however a square planar complex was favored for the Pd(II) complex (C2h skeleton symmetry). In addition, we carried out B3LYP and ω-B97XD geometry optimization at 6-31G(d) basis set except for Pd(II) where we implemented LanL2DZ/6-31G(d) combined basis set. The computational results favor all trans geometrical isomers where amino N, pyrimidine N and Cl are trans to each other (structure 1). Finally, APC and its divalent metal ion complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity, and the synthesized complexes were found to be more potent antimicrobial agents than APC against one or more microbial species.

  14. DNA methyltransferase inhibitor CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zirong; Jin, Guorong; Lin, Shuibin; Lin, Xiumei; Gu, Yumei; Zhu, Yujuan; Hu, Chengbin; Zhang, Qingjiong; Wu, Lizi; Shen, Huangxuan

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors and structural proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDA-II inhibited proliferation and migration of C2C12 myoblasts. -- Abstract: CDA-II (cell differentiation agent II), isolated from healthy human urine, is a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. Previous studies indicated that CDA-II played important roles in the regulation of cell growth and certain differentiation processes. However, it has not been determined whether CDA-II affects skeletal myogenesis. In this study, we investigated effects of CDA-II treatment on skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation, migration and proliferation. We found that CDA-II blocked differentiation of murine myoblasts C2C12 in a dose-dependent manner. CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors, such as Myogenin and Mef2c, and structural proteins, such as myosin heavy chain (Myh3), light chain (Mylpf) and MCK. Moreover, CDA-II inhibited C1C12 cell migration and proliferation. Thus, our data provide the first evidence that CDA-II inhibits growth and differentiation of muscle progenitor cells, suggesting that the use of CDA-II might affect skeletal muscle functions.

  15. LINE EMISSION FROM RADIATION-PRESSURIZED H II REGIONS. II. DYNAMICS AND POPULATION SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Verdolini, Silvia; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Yeh, Sherry C. C.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2013-05-20

    Optical and infrared emission lines from H II regions are an important diagnostic used to study galaxies, but interpretation of these lines requires significant modeling of both the internal structure and dynamical evolution of the emitting regions. Most of the models in common use today assume that H II region dynamics are dominated by the expansion of stellar wind bubbles, and have neglected the contribution of radiation pressure to the dynamics, and in some cases also to the internal structure. However, recent observations of nearby galaxies suggest that neither assumption is justified, motivating us to revisit the question of how H II region line emission depends on the physics of winds and radiation pressure. In a companion paper we construct models of single H II regions including and excluding radiation pressure and winds, and in this paper we describe a population synthesis code that uses these models to simulate galactic collections of H II regions with varying physical parameters. We show that the choice of physical parameters has significant effects on galactic emission line ratios, and that in some cases the line ratios can exceed previously claimed theoretical limits. Our results suggest that the recently reported offset in line ratio values between high-redshift star-forming galaxies and those in the local universe may be partially explained by the presence of large numbers of radiation-pressure-dominated H II regions within them.

  16. Synthesis, structural elucidation and carbon dioxide adsorption on Zn (II) hexacyanoferrate (II) Prussian blue analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roque-Malherbe, R.; Lugo, F.; Polanco, R.

    2016-11-01

    In the course of the last years hexacyanoferrates have been widely studied; even though, the adsorption properties of Zn (II) hexacyanoferrate(II) (labelled here Zn-HII) have not been thoroughly considered. In addition, soft porous crystals, i.e., adsorbents that display structural flexibility have been, as well, extensively studied, however this property has not been reported for Zn (II) hexacyanoferrate(II). In this regard, the key questions addressed here were the synthesis and structural characterization of Zn-HII together with the investigation of their low (up to 1 bar) and high pressure (up to 30 bar) adsorption properties, to found if these materials show structural flexibility. Then, to attain the anticipated goals, structural characterizations were made with: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry (DRIFTS) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), simultaneously, with the investigation of the adsorption of carbon dioxide. As a result of the research process we concluded that the Zn-HII displayed Fm barm space group framework. Besides, the carbon dioxide adsorption investigation demonstrated the presence of the framework expansion effect together with an extremely high adsorption heat, properties that could be useful for the use of Zn(II) hexacyanoferrate(II) as an excellent adsorbent.

  17. Titanium dioxide mediated photocatalysis of Pb(II)- and Co(II)-EDTA complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.P.; Vohra, M.S.; Ayres, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    The photocatalysis of lead and cobalt(II) complexed to EDTA was evaluated under a variety of experimental conditions. Adsorption characteristics of the metals and the metal complexes were also determined. A recirculating batch system was used to quantify photocatalytic oxidation rates. EDTA mineralization and total dissolved metal were monitored. Separations of Co(II*), Co(II)-EDTA, and Co(III)-EDTA were made with a method using Dowex cation exchange resin. Adsorptions of Pb(II), Co(II), EDTA, and the corresponding metal complexes was examined using concentrations of 10{sup -}{sup 5} to 10{sup -}{sup 3} M in 2 g/L TiO{sub 2}. After purging and pH adjustment, the samples were shaken overnight. The final pH and metal and TOC concentrations were determined. Results showed that the photocatablytic oxidation of metal-EDTA complexes is independent of pH from 5 to 7. This contrasts with the adsorption of these species onto TiO{sub 2}, which decreases at neutral-high pH, suggesting that adsorption is not a prerequisite to photocalysis. For Co(II)-EDTA, a competing pH dependent conversion to Co(III)-EDTA is noted.

  18. Potential future applications for the tracking and data relay satellite II (TDRS II) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    During the conceptual design phases of the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) II system provision was made for a future service growth (FSG) payload with an undefined mission. The intent of the FSG was to provide a resource for TDRS II applications which would be available to meet a change in requirements for the operational TDRS II system. This paper summarizes the effect of the consideration of potential FSG applications imposed on the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) II system. The following applications were considered as FSG candidates: An optical 650 Mbps space-to-space link (SSL) coupled to an optical or RF downlink, an RF or optical crosslink to extend the baseline TDRS II system coverage, -zone of exclusion (ZOE) closure, relay for lunar communications either RF or optically, and relay for Martian communications either RF or optically. This paper summarizes work done in the 1990 time frame on the above stated applications. Since then, NASA has sponsored several studies (during phase B of the TDRS II development cycle) of the ZOE closure application of the FSG. The purpose of this paper is to report on the efforts previously considered for the FSG. A previous paper was presented at the 1991 Congress related to the second application above. This paper extends this effort to the four stated applications.

  19. Electroweak Prospects for Tevatron RunII

    SciTech Connect

    D. Glenzinski

    2002-10-21

    In RunI each experiment collected about 100 pb{sup -1} of data. During RunIIa, each experiment is expected to collect about 2 fb{sup -1} of data. The center-of-mass energy for RunII, {radical}s = 2.0 TeV, is a bit larger than the 1.8 TeV of RunI and results in an increase of about 10% (35%) in the production cross-sections for W and Z (t{bar t}) events. Additional gains in the event yield are expected due to improvements in the detector acceptance and performance. Taken together, the RunIIa upgrades are expected to yield 2300k (800) W (t{bar t}) events per experiment, including the effects of event selection and triggering, which can be compared to the RunI yields of 77k (20) events. With the RunI data-set, CDF and D0 produced a breadth of electroweak results and obtained the world's only sample of top quarks. While the RunII electroweak physics program is very similar, the RunII upgrade improvements should yield many precision results. The Tevatron began delivering steady data in about June, 2001. The first six months of data taking was ''commissioning dominated'' for CDF and D0. Starting around January, 2002, the experiments were largely commissioned and began taking ''analysis quality'' data. The physics results reported at this conference are based on about 10-20pb{sup -1} (depending on the data-set) per experiment. Thus, the presently available event samples are smaller than those available in RunI. At this early stage of RunII, it is interesting to compare the present detector performance to that assumed when making the RunII physics projections. In the following sections the author discusses some RunII projections for a few electroweak measurements of particular importance, namely the precision determinations of the W-boson mass, M{sub W}, and the top-quark mass, M{sub t}.

  20. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and biological activities of N4O2 Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Resayes, Saud I.; Shakir, Mohammad; Abbasi, Ambreen; Amin, Kr. Mohammad Yusuf; Lateef, Abdul

    The Schiff base ligand, bis(indoline-2-one)triethylenetetramine (L) obtained from condensation of triethylenetetramine and isatin was used to synthesize the complexes of type, [ML]Cl2 [M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)]. L was characterized on the basis of the results of elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR, mass spectroscopic studies. The stoichiometry, bonding and stereochemistries of complexes were ascertained on the basis of results of elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility values, molar conductance and various spectroscopic studies. EPR, UV-vis and magnetic moments revealed an octahedral geometry for complexes. L and its Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity. Analgesic activity of Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes was also tested in rats by tail flick method. Both complexes were found to possess good antibacterial and moderate analgesic activity.