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Sample records for ii quantum yields

  1. Action spectra of photosystems II and I and quantum yield of photosynthesis in leaves in State 1.

    PubMed

    Laisk, Agu; Oja, Vello; Eichelmann, Hillar; Dall'Osto, Luca

    2014-02-01

    The spectral global quantum yield (YII, electrons/photons absorbed) of photosystem II (PSII) was measured in sunflower leaves in State 1 using monochromatic light. The global quantum yield of PSI (YI) was measured using low-intensity monochromatic light flashes and the associated transmittance change at 810nm. The 810-nm signal change was calibrated based on the number of electrons generated by PSII during the flash (4·O2 evolution) which arrived at the PSI donor side after a delay of 2ms. The intrinsic quantum yield of PSI (yI, electrons per photon absorbed by PSI) was measured at 712nm, where photon absorption by PSII was small. The results were used to resolve the individual spectra of the excitation partitioning coefficients between PSI (aI) and PSII (aII) in leaves. For comparison, pigment-protein complexes for PSII and PSI were isolated, separated by sucrose density ultracentrifugation, and their optical density was measured. A good correlation was obtained for the spectral excitation partitioning coefficients measured by these different methods. The intrinsic yield of PSI was high (yI=0.88), but it absorbed only about 1/3 of quanta; consequently, about 2/3 of quanta were absorbed by PSII, but processed with the low intrinsic yield yII=0.63. In PSII, the quantum yield of charge separation was 0.89 as detected by variable fluorescence Fv/Fm, but 29% of separated charges recombined (Laisk A, Eichelmann H and Oja V, Photosynth. Res. 113, 145-155). At wavelengths less than 580nm about 30% of excitation is absorbed by pigments poorly connected to either photosystem, most likely carotenoids bound in pigment-protein complexes.

  2. Structure-Triggered High Quantum Yield Luminescence and Switchable Dielectric Properties in Manganese(II) Based Hybrid Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-Xia; Li, Peng-Fei; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Tang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Two new manganese(II) based organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, C11H21Cl3MnN2 (1) and C11H22Cl4MnN2 (2), with prominent photoluminescence and dielectric properties were synthesized by solvent modulation. Compound 1 with novel trigonal bipyramidal geometry exhibits bright red luminescence with a lifetime of 2.47 ms and high quantum yield of 35.8 %. Compound 2 with tetrahedral geometry displays intense long-lived (1.54 ms) green light emission with higher quantum yield of 92.3 %, accompanied by reversible solid-state phase transition at 170 K and a distinct switchable dielectric property. The better performance of 2 results from the structure, including a discrete organic cation moiety and inorganic metal anion framework, which gives the cations large freedom of motion.

  3. Molar Absorptivity and Concentration-Dependent Quantum Yield of Fe(II) Photo-Formation for the Aqueous Solutions of Fe(III)-Dicarboxylate Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitomi, Y.; Arakaki, T.

    2009-12-01

    Redox cycles of iron in the aquatic environment affect formation of reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, which in turn determines lifetimes of many organic compounds. Although aqueous Fe(III)-dicarboxylate complexes are considered to be important sources of photo-formed Fe(II), molar absorptivity and quantum yield of Fe(II) formation for individual species are not well understood. We initiated a study to characterize Fe(II) photo-formation from Fe(III)-dicarboxylates with the concentration ranges that are relevant to the natural aquatic environment. The Visual MINTEQ computer program was used to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of individual Fe(III)-dicarboxylate species. The molar absorptivity of Fe(III)-dicarboxylate species was obtained by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, and the product of the quantum yield and the molar absorptivity of Fe(III)-dicarboxylate species were obtained from photochemical experiments. These experimental data were combined with the calculated equilibrium Fe(III)-dicarboxylate concentrations to determine individual molar absorptivity and quantum yield of Fe(II) photo-formation for a specific Fe(III)-dicarboxylate species. We used initial concentrations of less than 10 micromolar Fe(III) to study the photochemical formation of Fe(II). Dicarboxylate compounds studied include oxalate, malonate, succinate, malate, and phthalate. We report molar absorptivity and concentration-dependent quantum yields of Fe(II) photo-formation of individual Fe(III)-dicarboxylates.

  4. Temperature Dependence of the Linkage of Quantum Yield of Photosystem II to CO2 Fixation in C4 and C3 Plants.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, W.; Edwards, G. E.

    1993-02-01

    The temperature dependence of quantum yields of electron transport from photosystem II (PSII) ([phi]II, determined from chlorophyll a fluorescence) and CO2 assimilation ([phi]CO2, apparent quantum yield for CO2 assimilation) were determined simultaneously in vivo. With C4 species representing NADP-malic enzyme, NAD-malic enzyme, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase subgroups, the ratio of [phi]II/[phi]CO2 was constant over the temperature range from 15 to 40[deg]C at high light intensity (1100 [mu]mol quanta m-2 s-1). A similar response was obtained at low light intensity (300 [mu]mol quanta m-2 s-1), except the ratio of [phi]II/[phi]CO2 increased at high temperature. When the true quantum yield for CO2 fixation ([phi]CO2*) was calculated by correcting for respiration in the light (estimated from temperature dependence of dark respiration), the ratio of [phi]II/[phi]C02* remained constant with varying temperature and under both light intensities in all C4 species examined. Because the [phi]II/[phi]CO2* ratio was the same in C4 monocots representing the three subgroups, the ratio was not affected by differences in the bio-chemical mechanism of concentrating CO2 in the bundle sheath cells. The results suggest that PSII activity is closely linked to the true rate of CO2 fixation in C4 plants. The close relationship between [phi]II and [phi]CO2* in C4 species under varying temperature and light intensity conditions is apparently due to a common low level of photorespiration and a primary requirement for reductive power in the C3 pathway. In contrast, in a C3 plant the [phi] II/[phi]CO2* ratio is higher under normal atmospheric conditions than under nonphotorespiratory conditions and it increases with rising temperature. This decrease in efficiency in utilizing energy derived from PSII for CO2 fixation is due to an increase in photorespiration. In both the C3 and C4 species, photochemistry is limited under low temperature, and thus excess energy must be dissipated by

  5. Luminescent pincer platinum(II) complexes with emission quantum yields up to almost unity: photophysics, photoreductive C-C bond formation, and materials applications.

    PubMed

    Chow, Pui-Keong; Cheng, Gang; Tong, Glenna So Ming; To, Wai-Pong; Kwong, Wai-Lun; Low, Kam-Hung; Kwok, Chi-Chung; Ma, Chensheng; Che, Chi-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Luminescent pincer-type Pt(II)  complexes supported by C-deprotonated π-extended tridentate RC^N^NR' ligands and pentafluorophenylacetylide ligands show emission quantum yields up to almost unity. Femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence measurements and time-dependent DFT calculations together reveal the dependence of excited-state structural distortions of [Pt(RC^N^NR')(CC-C6 F5 )] on the positional isomers of the tridentate ligand. Pt complexes [Pt(R-C^N^NR')(CC-Ar)] are efficient photocatalysts for visible-light-induced reductive CC bond formation. The [Pt(R-C^N^NR')(CC-C6 F5 )] complexes perform strongly as phosphorescent dopants for green- and red-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with external quantum efficiency values over 22.1 %. These complexes are also applied in two-photon cellular imaging when incorporated into mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs).

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis ameliorates the optimum quantum yield of photosystem II and reduces non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Porcel, Rosa; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Aroca, Ricardo; Garcia, Rosalva; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in the world and is a primary source of food for more than half of the world population. However, salinity is considered the most common abiotic stress reducing its productivity. Soil salinity inhibits photosynthetic processes, which can induce an over-reduction of the reaction centres in photosystem II (PSII), damaging the photosynthetic machinery. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis may improve host plant tolerance to salinity, but it is not clear how the AM symbiosis affects the plant photosynthetic capacity, particularly the efficiency of PSII. This study aimed at determining the influence of the AM symbiosis on the performance of PSII in rice plants subjected to salinity. Photosynthetic activity, plant gas-exchange parameters, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and rubisco activity and gene expression were also measured in order to analyse comprehensively the response of the photosynthetic processes to AM symbiosis and salinity. Results showed that the AM symbiosis enhanced the actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and reduced the quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salinity. AM rice plants maintained higher net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate than nonAM plants. Thus, we propose that AM rice plants had a higher photochemical efficiency for CO2 fixation and solar energy utilization and this increases plant salt tolerance by preventing the injury to the photosystems reaction centres and by allowing a better utilization of light energy in photochemical processes. All these processes translated into higher photosynthetic and rubisco activities in AM rice plants and improved plant biomass production under salinity.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis ameliorates the optimum quantum yield of photosystem II and reduces non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Porcel, Rosa; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Aroca, Ricardo; Garcia, Rosalva; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in the world and is a primary source of food for more than half of the world population. However, salinity is considered the most common abiotic stress reducing its productivity. Soil salinity inhibits photosynthetic processes, which can induce an over-reduction of the reaction centres in photosystem II (PSII), damaging the photosynthetic machinery. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis may improve host plant tolerance to salinity, but it is not clear how the AM symbiosis affects the plant photosynthetic capacity, particularly the efficiency of PSII. This study aimed at determining the influence of the AM symbiosis on the performance of PSII in rice plants subjected to salinity. Photosynthetic activity, plant gas-exchange parameters, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and rubisco activity and gene expression were also measured in order to analyse comprehensively the response of the photosynthetic processes to AM symbiosis and salinity. Results showed that the AM symbiosis enhanced the actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and reduced the quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salinity. AM rice plants maintained higher net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate than nonAM plants. Thus, we propose that AM rice plants had a higher photochemical efficiency for CO2 fixation and solar energy utilization and this increases plant salt tolerance by preventing the injury to the photosystems reaction centres and by allowing a better utilization of light energy in photochemical processes. All these processes translated into higher photosynthetic and rubisco activities in AM rice plants and improved plant biomass production under salinity. PMID:26291919

  8. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the

  9. The Oxygen quantum yield in diverse algae and cyanobacteria is controlled by partitioning of flux between linear and cyclic electron flow within photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Ananyev, Gennady; Gates, Colin; Dismukes, G Charles

    2016-09-01

    We have measured flash-induced oxygen quantum yields (O2-QYs) and primary charge separation (Chl variable fluorescence yield, Fv/Fm) in vivo among phylogenetically diverse microalgae and cyanobacteria. Higher O2-QYs can be attained in cells by releasing constraints on charge transfer at the Photosystem II (PSII) acceptor side by adding membrane-permeable benzoquinone (BQ) derivatives that oxidize plastosemiquinone QB(-) and QBH2. This method allows uncoupling PSII turnover from its natural regulation in living cells, without artifacts of isolating PSII complexes. This approach reveals different extents of regulation across species, controlled at the QB(-) acceptor site. Arthrospira maxima is confirmed as the most efficient PSII-WOC (water oxidizing complex) and exhibits the least regulation of flux. Thermosynechococcus elongatus exhibits an O2-QY of 30%, suggesting strong downregulation. WOC cycle simulations with the most accurate model (VZAD) show that a light-driven backward transition (net addition of an electron to the WOC, distinct from recombination) occurs in up to 25% of native PSIIs in the S2 and S3 states, while adding BQ prevents backward transitions and increases the lifetime of S2 and S3 by 10-fold. Backward transitions occur in PSIIs that have plastosemiquinone radicals in the QB site and are postulated to be physiologically regulated pathways for storing light energy as proton gradient through direct PSII-cyclic electron flow (PSII-CEF). PSII-CEF is independent of classical PSI/cyt-b6f-CEF and provides an alternative proton translocation pathway for energy conversion. PSII-CEF enables variable fluxes between linear and cyclic electron pathways, thus accommodating species-dependent needs for redox and ion-gradient energy sources powered by a single photosystem.

  10. The Oxygen quantum yield in diverse algae and cyanobacteria is controlled by partitioning of flux between linear and cyclic electron flow within photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Ananyev, Gennady; Gates, Colin; Dismukes, G Charles

    2016-09-01

    We have measured flash-induced oxygen quantum yields (O2-QYs) and primary charge separation (Chl variable fluorescence yield, Fv/Fm) in vivo among phylogenetically diverse microalgae and cyanobacteria. Higher O2-QYs can be attained in cells by releasing constraints on charge transfer at the Photosystem II (PSII) acceptor side by adding membrane-permeable benzoquinone (BQ) derivatives that oxidize plastosemiquinone QB(-) and QBH2. This method allows uncoupling PSII turnover from its natural regulation in living cells, without artifacts of isolating PSII complexes. This approach reveals different extents of regulation across species, controlled at the QB(-) acceptor site. Arthrospira maxima is confirmed as the most efficient PSII-WOC (water oxidizing complex) and exhibits the least regulation of flux. Thermosynechococcus elongatus exhibits an O2-QY of 30%, suggesting strong downregulation. WOC cycle simulations with the most accurate model (VZAD) show that a light-driven backward transition (net addition of an electron to the WOC, distinct from recombination) occurs in up to 25% of native PSIIs in the S2 and S3 states, while adding BQ prevents backward transitions and increases the lifetime of S2 and S3 by 10-fold. Backward transitions occur in PSIIs that have plastosemiquinone radicals in the QB site and are postulated to be physiologically regulated pathways for storing light energy as proton gradient through direct PSII-cyclic electron flow (PSII-CEF). PSII-CEF is independent of classical PSI/cyt-b6f-CEF and provides an alternative proton translocation pathway for energy conversion. PSII-CEF enables variable fluxes between linear and cyclic electron pathways, thus accommodating species-dependent needs for redox and ion-gradient energy sources powered by a single photosystem. PMID:27117512

  11. Photoelectron Quantum Yields of the Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dam, Rudy J.; Burke, Charles A.; Griffith, O. Hayes

    1974-01-01

    The photoelectron quantum yields of 21 common amino acids and 15 polyamino acids were measured in the 180-240 nm wavelength region. On the average, the quantum yields of these two groups exhibit quite similar wavelength dependence. For λ > 220 nm all amino acid and polyamino acid quantum yields are ≤10-7 electrons/(incident) photon. The mean yields increase to about 5 × 10-7 electrons/photon at 200 nm and 5 × 10-6 electrons/photon at 180 nm. L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, and poly-L-tryptophan exhibit above average yields between 180 and 200 nm. Comparison with the dye phthalocyanine indicates that the quantum yield of the dye is two orders of magnitude greater than that of the amino acids from 200 to 240 nm, suggesting the feasibility of photoelectron labeling studies of biological surfaces. PMID:4836100

  12. Are Very Small Emission Quantum Yields Characteristic of Pure Metal-to-Ligand Charge-Transfer Excited States of Ruthenium(II)-(Acceptor Ligand) Chromophores?

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia Nung; Mazumder, Shivnath; Zhang, Xiu Zhu; Schlegel, H Bernhard; Chen, Yuan Jang; Endicott, John F

    2016-08-01

    Metal to ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited state emission quantum yields, ϕem, are reported in 77 K glasses for a series of pentaammine and tetraammine ruthenium(II) complexes with monodentate aromatic acceptor ligands (Ru-MDA) such as pyridine and pyrazine. These quantum yields are only about 0.2-1% of those found for their Ru-bpy (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) analogs in similar excited state energy ranges (hνem). The excited state energy dependencies of the emission intensity are characterized by mean radiative decay rate constants, kRAD, resolved from ϕem/τobs = kRAD (τobs = the observed emission decay lifetime; τobs(-1) = kRAD + kNRD; kNRD = nonradiative decay rate constant). Except for the Ru-pz chromophores in alcohol glasses, the values of kNRD for the Ru-MDA chromophores are slightly smaller, and their dependences on excited state energies are very similar to those of related Ru-bpy chromophores. In principle, one expects kRAD to be proportional to the product of (hνem)(3) and the square of the transition dipole moment (Me,g).(2) However, from experimental studies of Ru-bpy chromophores, an additional hνem dependence has been found that originates in an intensity stealing from a higher energy excited state with a much larger value of Me,g. This additional hνem dependence is not present in the kRAD energy dependence for Ru-MDA chromophores in the same energy regime. Intensity stealing in the phosphorescence of these complexes is necessary since the triplet-to-singlet transition is only allowed through spin-orbit coupling and since the density functional theory modeling implicates configurational mixing between states in the triplet spin manifold; this is treated by setting Me,g equal to the product of a mixing coefficient and the difference between the molecular dipole moments of the states involved, which implicates an experimental first order dependence of kRAD on hνem. The failure to observe intensity stealing for the Ru-MDA complexes suggests

  13. Are Very Small Emission Quantum Yields Characteristic of Pure Metal-to-Ligand Charge-Transfer Excited States of Ruthenium(II)-(Acceptor Ligand) Chromophores?

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia Nung; Mazumder, Shivnath; Zhang, Xiu Zhu; Schlegel, H Bernhard; Chen, Yuan Jang; Endicott, John F

    2016-08-01

    Metal to ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited state emission quantum yields, ϕem, are reported in 77 K glasses for a series of pentaammine and tetraammine ruthenium(II) complexes with monodentate aromatic acceptor ligands (Ru-MDA) such as pyridine and pyrazine. These quantum yields are only about 0.2-1% of those found for their Ru-bpy (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) analogs in similar excited state energy ranges (hνem). The excited state energy dependencies of the emission intensity are characterized by mean radiative decay rate constants, kRAD, resolved from ϕem/τobs = kRAD (τobs = the observed emission decay lifetime; τobs(-1) = kRAD + kNRD; kNRD = nonradiative decay rate constant). Except for the Ru-pz chromophores in alcohol glasses, the values of kNRD for the Ru-MDA chromophores are slightly smaller, and their dependences on excited state energies are very similar to those of related Ru-bpy chromophores. In principle, one expects kRAD to be proportional to the product of (hνem)(3) and the square of the transition dipole moment (Me,g).(2) However, from experimental studies of Ru-bpy chromophores, an additional hνem dependence has been found that originates in an intensity stealing from a higher energy excited state with a much larger value of Me,g. This additional hνem dependence is not present in the kRAD energy dependence for Ru-MDA chromophores in the same energy regime. Intensity stealing in the phosphorescence of these complexes is necessary since the triplet-to-singlet transition is only allowed through spin-orbit coupling and since the density functional theory modeling implicates configurational mixing between states in the triplet spin manifold; this is treated by setting Me,g equal to the product of a mixing coefficient and the difference between the molecular dipole moments of the states involved, which implicates an experimental first order dependence of kRAD on hνem. The failure to observe intensity stealing for the Ru-MDA complexes suggests

  14. Type-II Quantum Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepez, Jeffrey

    This paper discusses a computing architecture that uses both classical parallelism and quantum parallelism. We consider a large parallel array of small quantum computers, connected together by classical communication channels. This kind of computer is called a type-II quantum computer, to differentiate it from a globally phase-coherent quantum computer, which is the first type of quantum computer that has received nearly exclusive attention in the literature. Although a hybrid, a type-II quantum computer retains the crucial advantage allowed by quantum mechanical superposition that its computational power grows exponentially in the number of phase-coherent qubits per node, only short-range and short time phase-coherence is needed, which significantly reduces the level of engineering facility required to achieve its construction. Therefore, the primary factor limiting its computational power is an economic one and not a technological one, since the volume of its computational medium can in principle scale indefinitely.

  15. Spectroscopy characterization and quantum yield determination of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras Ortiz, S. N.; Mejía Ospino, E.; Cabanzo, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we show the characterization of two kinds of quantum dots: hydrophilic and hydrophobic, with core and core/shell respectively, using spectroscopy techniques such as UV-Vis, fluorescence and Raman. We determined the quantum yield in the quantum dots using the quinine sulphate as standard. This salt is commonly used because of its quantum yield (56%) and stability. For the CdTe excitation, we used a wavelength of 549nm and for the CdSe/ZnS excitation a wavelength of 527nm. The results show that CdSe/ZnS (49%) has better fluorescence, better quantum dots, and confirm the fluorescence result. The quantum dots have shown a good fluorescence performance, so this property will be used to replace dyes, with the advantage that quantum dots are less toxic than some dyes like the rhodamine. In addition, in this work we show different techniques to find the quantum dots emission: fluorescence spectrum, synchronous spectrum and Raman spectrum.

  16. Quantum Yield of Gold-Cathode Photomultipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Charles B.

    1961-01-01

    Two gold-cathode EMI 6255G tubes have been investigated for their quantum yield between 3100 and 1900 A. The tubes had cathodes of different appearances. One of these, numbered 3012, had a slight bluish tinge and was very transparent to visible light; the other, numbered 3021, had a definite gold coloration. The relative quantum yield of each tube was determined with the aid of a Cary model 14 recording spectrophotometer used as a monochromator. The monochromator relative-energy output was determined from the current output of a sodium-salicylate-coated RCA 1P21 photomultiplier. Each gold-cathode tube was then operated at 3000 v, and the central 1.8 cm cube of the cathode was exposed to the monochromator output.

  17. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to monitor high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora).

    PubMed

    Janka, Eshetu; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-05-01

    Under a dynamic greenhouse climate control regime, temperature is adjusted to optimise plant physiological responses to prevailing irradiance levels; thus, both temperature and irradiance are used by the plant to maximise the rate of photosynthesis, assuming other factors are not limiting. The control regime may be optimised by monitoring plant responses, and may be promptly adjusted when plant performance is affected by extreme microclimatic conditions, such as high irradiance or temperature. To determine the stress indicators of plants based on their physiological responses, net photosynthesis (Pn) and four chlorophyll-a fluorescence parameters: maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII [Fv/Fm], electron transport rate [ETR], PSII operating efficiency [F'q/F'm], and non-photochemical quenching [NPQ] were assessed for potted chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) 'Coral Charm' under different temperature (20, 24, 28, 32, 36 °C) and daily light integrals (DLI; 11, 20, 31, and 43 mol m(-2) created by a PAR of 171, 311, 485 and 667 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for 16 h). High irradiance (667 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) combined with high temperature (>32 °C) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased Fv/Fm. Under high irradiance, the maximum Pn and ETR were reached at 24 °C. Increased irradiance decreased the PSII operating efficiency and increased NPQ, while both high irradiance and temperature had a significant effect on the PSII operating efficiency at temperatures >28 °C. Under high irradiance and temperature, changes in the NPQ determined the PSII operating efficiency, with no major change in the fraction of open PSII centres (qL) (indicating a QA redox state). We conclude that 1) chrysanthemum plants cope with excess irradiance by non-radiative dissipation or a reversible stress response, with the effect on the Pn and quantum yield of PSII remaining low until the temperature reaches 28 °C and 2) the integration of online measurements to monitor photosynthesis and PSII

  18. Quantum Yield Heterogeneity among Single Nonblinking Quantum Dots Revealed by Atomic Structure-Quantum Optics Correlation.

    PubMed

    Orfield, Noah J; McBride, James R; Wang, Feng; Buck, Matthew R; Keene, Joseph D; Reid, Kemar R; Htoon, Han; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A; Rosenthal, Sandra J

    2016-02-23

    Physical variations in colloidal nanostructures give rise to heterogeneity in expressed optical behavior. This correlation between nanoscale structure and function demands interrogation of both atomic structure and photophysics at the level of single nanostructures to be fully understood. Herein, by conducting detailed analyses of fine atomic structure, chemical composition, and time-resolved single-photon photoluminescence data for the same individual nanocrystals, we reveal inhomogeneity in the quantum yields of single nonblinking "giant" CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (g-QDs). We find that each g-QD possesses distinctive single exciton and biexciton quantum yields that result mainly from variations in the degree of charging, rather than from volume or structure inhomogeneity. We further establish that there is a very limited nonemissive "dark" fraction (<2%) among the studied g-QDs and present direct evidence that the g-QD core must lack inorganic passivation for the g-QD to be "dark". Therefore, in contrast to conventional QDs, ensemble photoluminescence quantum yield is principally defined by charging processes rather than the existence of dark g-QDs.

  19. On the photoelectric quantum yield of small dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Photoelectron emission is crucial to electric charging of dust particles around main-sequence stars and gas heating in various dusty environments. An estimate of the photoelectric processes contains an ill-defined parameter called the photoelectric quantum yield, which is the total number of electrons ejected from a dust particle per absorbed photon. Here we revisit the so-called small particle effect of photoelectron emission and provide an analytical model to estimate photoelectric quantum yields of small dust particles in sizes down to nanometers. We show that the small particle effect elevates the photoelectric quantum yields of nanoparticles up to by a factor of 103 for carbon, water ice, and organics, and a factor of 102 for silicate, silicon carbide, and iron. We conclude the surface curvature of the particles is a quantity of great importance to the small particle effect, unless the particles are submicrometers in radius or larger.

  20. Unity quantum yield of photogenerated charges and band-like transport in quantum-dot solids.

    PubMed

    Talgorn, Elise; Gao, Yunan; Aerts, Michiel; Kunneman, Lucas T; Schins, Juleon M; Savenije, T J; van Huis, Marijn A; van der Zant, Herre S J; Houtepen, Arjan J; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2011-09-25

    Solid films of colloidal quantum dots show promise in the manufacture of photodetectors and solar cells. These devices require high yields of photogenerated charges and high carrier mobilities, which are difficult to achieve in quantum-dot films owing to a strong electron-hole interaction and quantum confinement. Here, we show that the quantum yield of photogenerated charges in strongly coupled PbSe quantum-dot films is unity over a large temperature range. At high photoexcitation density, a transition takes place from hopping between localized states to band-like transport. These strongly coupled quantum-dot films have electrical properties that approach those of crystalline bulk semiconductors, while retaining the size tunability and cheap processing properties of colloidal quantum dots.

  1. High quantum yield ZnO quantum dots synthesizing via an ultrasonication microreactor method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weimin; Yang, Huafang; Ding, Wenhao; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Le; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-11-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic microreactor. Ultrasonic radiation brought bubbles through ultrasonic cavitation. These bubbles built microreactor inside the microreactor. The photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots synthesized with different flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature were discussed. Flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature would influence the type and quantity of defects in ZnO quantum dots. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by those conditions as well. Flow rate affected the reaction time. With the increasing of flow rate, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots decreased and the quantum yields first increased then decreased. Ultrasonic power changed the ultrasonic cavitation intensity, which affected the reaction energy and the separation of the solution. With the increasing of ultrasonic power, sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased, while the quantum yields kept increasing. The effect of ultrasonic temperature on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots was influenced by the flow rate. Different flow rate related to opposite changing trend. Moreover, the quantum yields of ZnO QDs synthesized by ultrasonic microreactor could reach 64.7%, which is higher than those synthesized only under ultrasonic radiation or only by microreactor. PMID:27245962

  2. High quantum yield ZnO quantum dots synthesizing via an ultrasonication microreactor method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weimin; Yang, Huafang; Ding, Wenhao; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Le; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-11-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic microreactor. Ultrasonic radiation brought bubbles through ultrasonic cavitation. These bubbles built microreactor inside the microreactor. The photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots synthesized with different flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature were discussed. Flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature would influence the type and quantity of defects in ZnO quantum dots. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by those conditions as well. Flow rate affected the reaction time. With the increasing of flow rate, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots decreased and the quantum yields first increased then decreased. Ultrasonic power changed the ultrasonic cavitation intensity, which affected the reaction energy and the separation of the solution. With the increasing of ultrasonic power, sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased, while the quantum yields kept increasing. The effect of ultrasonic temperature on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots was influenced by the flow rate. Different flow rate related to opposite changing trend. Moreover, the quantum yields of ZnO QDs synthesized by ultrasonic microreactor could reach 64.7%, which is higher than those synthesized only under ultrasonic radiation or only by microreactor.

  3. Quantum Yield of Single Surface Plasmons Generated by a Quantum Dot Coupled with a Silver Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Wei, Hong; Xu, Hongxing

    2015-12-01

    The interactions between surface plasmons (SPs) in metal nanostructures and excitons in quantum emitters (QEs) lead to many interesting phenomena and potential applications that are strongly dependent on the quantum yield of SPs. The difficulty in distinguishing all the possible exciton recombination channels hinders the experimental determination of SP quantum yield. Here, we experimentally measured for the first time the quantum yield of single SPs generated by the exciton-plasmon coupling in a system composed of a single quantum dot and a silver nanowire (NW). By utilizing the SP guiding property of the NW, the decay rates of all the exciton recombination channels, i.e., direct free space radiation channel, SP generation channel, and nonradiative damping channel, are quantitatively obtained. It is determined that the optimum emitter-NW coupling distance for the largest SP quantum yield is about 10 nm, resulting from the different distance-dependent decay rates of the three channels. These results are important for manipulating the coupling between plasmonic nanostructures and QEs and developing on-chip quantum plasmonic devices for potential nanophotonic and quantum information applications.

  4. Photosynthetic Quantum Yield Dynamics: From Photosystems to Leaves[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hogewoning, Sander W.; Wientjes, Emilie; Douwstra, Peter; Trouwborst, Govert; van Ieperen, Wim; Croce, Roberta; Harbinson, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the wavelength dependence of the quantum yield for CO2 fixation (α) and its acclimation to the growth-light spectrum are quantitatively addressed, combining in vivo physiological and in vitro molecular methods. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) was grown under an artificial sunlight spectrum, shade light spectrum, and blue light, and the quantum yield for photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) electron transport and α were simultaneously measured in vivo at 20 different wavelengths. The wavelength dependence of the photosystem excitation balance was calculated from both these in vivo data and in vitro from the photosystem composition and spectroscopic properties. Measuring wavelengths overexciting PSI produced a higher α for leaves grown under the shade light spectrum (i.e., PSI light), whereas wavelengths overexciting PSII produced a higher α for the sun and blue leaves. The shade spectrum produced the lowest PSI:PSII ratio. The photosystem excitation balance calculated from both in vivo and in vitro data was substantially similar and was shown to determine α at those wavelengths where absorption by carotenoids and nonphotosynthetic pigments is insignificant (i.e., >580 nm). We show quantitatively that leaves acclimate their photosystem composition to their growth light spectrum and how this changes the wavelength dependence of the photosystem excitation balance and quantum yield for CO2 fixation. This also proves that combining different wavelengths can enhance quantum yields substantially. PMID:22623496

  5. Quantum yield of conversion of the dental photoinitiator camphorquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yin-Chu; Ferracane, Jack L.; Prahl, Scott A.

    2005-06-01

    The primary absorber in dental resins is the photoinitiators, which start the photo polymerization process. We studied the quantum yield of conversion of camphorquinone (CQ), a blue light photoinitiator, using 3M FreeLight LED lamp as the light curing unit. The molar extinction coefficient, ɛ469, of CQ was measured to be 46+/-2 cm-1/(mol/L) at 469 nm. The absorption coefficient change to the radiant exposure was measured at three different irradiances. The relationship between the CQ absorption coefficient and curing lamp radiant exposure was the same for different irradiances and fit an exponential function: μa469(H)= μao exp(-H/Hthreshold), where μao is 4.46+/-0.05 cm-1, and Hthreshold=43+/-4 J/cm2. Combining this exponential relationship with CQ molar extinction coefficient and the absorbed photon energy (i.e., the product of the radiant exposure with the absorption coefficient), we plotted CQ concentration [number of molecules/cm3] as a function of the accumulated absorbed photons per volume. The slope of the relationship is the quantum yield of the CQ conversion. Therefore, in our formulation (0.7 w% CQ with reducing agents 0.35 w% DMAEMA and 0.05 w% BHT) the quantum yield was solved to be 0.07+/-0.01 CQ conversion per absorbed photon.

  6. Accurate fluorescence quantum yield determination by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Daryan; Schöne, Antonie; Fitter, Jörg; Gabba, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    Here, we present a comparative method for the accurate determination of fluorescence quantum yields (QYs) by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. By exploiting the high sensitivity of single-molecule spectroscopy, we obtain the QYs of samples in the microliter range and at (sub)nanomolar concentrations. Additionally, in combination with fluorescence lifetime measurements, our method allows the quantification of both static and collisional quenching constants. Thus, besides being simple and fast, our method opens up the possibility to photophysically characterize labeled biomolecules under application-relevant conditions and with low sample consumption, which is often important in single-molecule studies.

  7. Spatial mapping of fluorophore quantum yield in diffusive media.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyu; Roblyer, Darren

    2015-08-01

    Fluorescence quantum yield (QY) indicates the efficiency of the fluorescence process. The QY of many fluorophores is sensitive to local tissue environments, highlighting the possibility of using QY as an indicator of important parameters such as pH or temperature. QY is commonly measured by comparison to a well-known standard in nonscattering media. We propose a new imaging method, called quantum yield imaging (QYI), to spatially map the QY of a fluorophore within an optically diffusive media. QYI utilizes the wide-field diffuse optical technique spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) as well as planar fluorescence imaging. SFDI is used to measure the optical properties of the background media and the absorption contributed by the fluorophore. The unknown QY is then calculated by combining information from both modalities. A fluorescent sample with known QY is used to account for instrument response. To demonstrate QYI, rhodamine B and SNARF-5 were imaged in liquid phantoms with different background optical properties. The methanol:water ratio and pH were changed for rhodamine B and SNARF-5 solvents, respectively, altering the QY of each through a wide range. QY was determined with an agreement of 0.021 and 0.012 for rhodamine B and SNARF-5, respectively. PMID:26308165

  8. Synthesis of Luminescent Graphene Quantum Dots with High Quantum Yield and Their Toxicity Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dan; Chen, Yunping; Li, Na; Li, Wen; Wang, Zhenguo; Zhu, Jingli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Bin; Xu, Shan

    2015-01-01

    High fluorescence quantum yield graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have showed up as a new generation for bioimaging. In this work, luminescent GQDs were prepared by an ameliorative photo-Fenton reaction and a subsequent hydrothermal process using graphene oxide sheets as the precursor. The as-prepared GQDs were nanomaterials with size ranging from 2.3 to 6.4 nm and emitted intense green luminescence in water. The fluorescence quantum yield was as high as 24.6% (excited at 340 nm) and the fluorescence was strongest at pH 7. Moreover, the influences of low-concentration (12.5, 25 μg/mL) GQDs on the morphology, viability, membrane integrity, internal cellular reactive oxygen species level and mortality of HeLa cells were relatively weak, and the in vitro imaging demonstrated GQDs were mainly in the cytoplasm region. More strikingly, zebrafish embryos were co-cultured with GQDs for in vivo imaging, and the results of heart rate test showed the intake of small amounts of GQDs brought little harm to the cardiovascular of zebrafish. GQDs with high quantum yield and strong photoluminescence show good biocompatibility, thus they show good promising for cell imaging, biolabeling and other biomedical applications. PMID:26709828

  9. Luminescence quantum yields of gold nanoparticles varying with excitation wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuqing; Lu, Guowei; He, Yingbo; Shen, Hongming; Zhao, Jingyi; Xia, Keyu; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-01-28

    Luminescence quantum yields (QYs) of gold nanoparticles including nanorods, nanobipyramids and nanospheres are measured elaborately at a single nanoparticle level with different excitation wavelengths. It is found that the QYs of the nanostructures are essentially dependent on the excitation wavelength. The QY is higher when the excitation wavelength is blue-detuned and close to the nanoparticles' surface plasmon resonance peak. A phenomenological model based on the plasmonic resonator concept is proposed to understand the experimental findings. The excitation wavelength dependent QY is attributed to the wavelength dependent coupling efficiency between the free electron oscillation and the intrinsic plasmon resonant radiative mode. These studies should contribute to the understanding of one-photon luminescence from metallic nanostructures and plasmonic surface enhanced spectroscopy. PMID:26731570

  10. Luminescence quantum yields of gold nanoparticles varying with excitation wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuqing; Lu, Guowei; He, Yingbo; Shen, Hongming; Zhao, Jingyi; Xia, Keyu; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-01-01

    Luminescence quantum yields (QYs) of gold nanoparticles including nanorods, nanobipyramids and nanospheres are measured elaborately at a single nanoparticle level with different excitation wavelengths. It is found that the QYs of the nanostructures are essentially dependent on the excitation wavelength. The QY is higher when the excitation wavelength is blue-detuned and close to the nanoparticles' surface plasmon resonance peak. A phenomenological model based on the plasmonic resonator concept is proposed to understand the experimental findings. The excitation wavelength dependent QY is attributed to the wavelength dependent coupling efficiency between the free electron oscillation and the intrinsic plasmon resonant radiative mode. These studies should contribute to the understanding of one-photon luminescence from metallic nanostructures and plasmonic surface enhanced spectroscopy.

  11. Film quantum yields of EUV& ultra-high PAG photoresists

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, Elsayed; Higgins, Craig; Naulleau, Patrick; Matyi, Richard; Gallatin, Greg; Denbeaux, Gregory; Antohe, Alin; Thackery, Jim; Spear, Kathleen; Szmanda, Charles; Anderson, Christopher N.; Niakoula, Dimitra; Malloy, Matthew; Khurshid, Anwar; Montgomery, Cecilia; Piscani, Emil C.; Rudack, Andrew; Byers, Jeff; Ma, Andy; Dean, Kim; Brainard, Robert

    2008-01-10

    Base titration methods are used to determine C-parameters for three industrial EUV photoresist platforms (EUV-2D, MET-2D, XP5496) and twenty academic EUV photoresist platforms. X-ray reflectometry is used to measure the density of these resists, and leads to the determination of absorbance and film quantum yields (FQY). Ultrahigh levels ofPAG show divergent mechanisms for production of photo acids beyond PAG concentrations of 0.35 moles/liter. The FQY of sulfonium PAGs level off, whereas resists prepared with iodonium PAG show FQY s that increase beyond PAG concentrations of 0.35 moles/liter, reaching record highs of 8-13 acids generatedlEUV photons absorbed.

  12. Quantum interference effects among helicities at CERN LEP-II and Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Klemm, William; Murayama, Hitoshi; Heinemann, Beate

    2008-06-01

    A completely model-independent method of obtaining information on the spin using the quantum interference effect among various helicity states was proposed in a recent paper. Here we point out that this effect should be demonstrable in the existing data on e{sup -}e{sup +}{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -} at LEP-II and pp{yields}Z{sup 0}+j at Tevatron.

  13. Near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield in MoS₂.

    PubMed

    Amani, Matin; Lien, Der-Hsien; Kiriya, Daisuke; Xiao, Jun; Azcatl, Angelica; Noh, Jiyoung; Madhvapathy, Surabhi R; Addou, Rafik; KC, Santosh; Dubey, Madan; Cho, Kyeongjae; Wallace, Robert M; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Ager, Joel W; Zhang, Xiang; Yablonovitch, Eli; Javey, Ali

    2015-11-27

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a promising material system for optoelectronic applications, but their primary figure of merit, the room-temperature photoluminescence quantum yield (QY), is extremely low. The prototypical 2D material molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is reported to have a maximum QY of 0.6%, which indicates a considerable defect density. Here we report on an air-stable, solution-based chemical treatment by an organic superacid, which uniformly enhances the photoluminescence and minority carrier lifetime of MoS2 monolayers by more than two orders of magnitude. The treatment eliminates defect-mediated nonradiative recombination, thus resulting in a final QY of more than 95%, with a longest-observed lifetime of 10.8 ± 0.6 nanoseconds. Our ability to obtain optoelectronic monolayers with near-perfect properties opens the door for the development of highly efficient light-emitting diodes, lasers, and solar cells based on 2D materials.

  14. Near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield in MoS₂.

    PubMed

    Amani, Matin; Lien, Der-Hsien; Kiriya, Daisuke; Xiao, Jun; Azcatl, Angelica; Noh, Jiyoung; Madhvapathy, Surabhi R; Addou, Rafik; KC, Santosh; Dubey, Madan; Cho, Kyeongjae; Wallace, Robert M; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Ager, Joel W; Zhang, Xiang; Yablonovitch, Eli; Javey, Ali

    2015-11-27

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a promising material system for optoelectronic applications, but their primary figure of merit, the room-temperature photoluminescence quantum yield (QY), is extremely low. The prototypical 2D material molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is reported to have a maximum QY of 0.6%, which indicates a considerable defect density. Here we report on an air-stable, solution-based chemical treatment by an organic superacid, which uniformly enhances the photoluminescence and minority carrier lifetime of MoS2 monolayers by more than two orders of magnitude. The treatment eliminates defect-mediated nonradiative recombination, thus resulting in a final QY of more than 95%, with a longest-observed lifetime of 10.8 ± 0.6 nanoseconds. Our ability to obtain optoelectronic monolayers with near-perfect properties opens the door for the development of highly efficient light-emitting diodes, lasers, and solar cells based on 2D materials. PMID:26612948

  15. Near-unity quantum yields from chloride treated CdTe colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Page, Robert C; Espinobarro-Velazquez, Daniel; Leontiadou, Marina A; Smith, Charles; Lewis, Edward A; Haigh, Sarah J; Li, Chen; Radtke, Hanna; Pengpad, Atip; Bondino, Federica; Magnano, Elena; Pis, Igor; Flavell, Wendy R; O'Brien, Paul; Binks, David J

    2015-04-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising materials for novel light sources and solar energy conversion. However, trap states associated with the CQD surface can produce non-radiative charge recombination that significantly reduces device performance. Here a facile post-synthetic treatment of CdTe CQDs is demonstrated that uses chloride ions to achieve near-complete suppression of surface trapping, resulting in an increase of photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) from ca. 5% to up to 97.2 ± 2.5%. The effect of the treatment is characterised by absorption and PL spectroscopy, PL decay, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This process also dramatically improves the air-stability of the CQDs: before treatment the PL is largely quenched after 1 hour of air-exposure, whilst the treated samples showed a PL QY of nearly 50% after more than 12 hours.

  16. Are Fluorescence Quantum Yields So Tricky to Measure? A Demonstration Using Familiar Stationery Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fery-Forgues*, Suzanne; Lavabre, Dominique

    1999-09-01

    Fluorescence quantum yields are used to quantify the efficiency of the emission process. In spite of the importance of these data, experimental directions for their acquisition are rarely given. A general procedure for determining the relative fluorescence quantum yield of solutions is described here, drawing attention to the many pitfalls that students may encounter. Starting materials are common yellow and pink highlighter pens.

  17. Local Density Fluctuations Predict Photoisomerization Quantum Yield of Azobenzene-Modified DNA.

    PubMed

    Kingsland, Addie; Samai, Soumyadyuti; Yan, Yunqi; Ginger, David S; Maibaum, Lutz

    2016-08-01

    Azobenzene incorporated into DNA has a photoisomerization quantum yield that depends on the DNA sequence near the azobenzene attachment site. We use Molecular Dynamics computer simulations to elucidate which physical properties of the modified DNA determine the quantum yield. We show for a wide range of DNA sequences that the photoisomerization quantum yield is strongly correlated with the variance of the number of atoms in close proximity to the outer phenyl ring of the azobenzene group. We infer that quantum yield is controlled by the availability of fluctuations that enable the conformational change. We demonstrate that these simulations can be used as a qualitative predictive tool by calculating the quantum yield for several novel DNA sequences, and confirming these predictions using UV-vis spectroscopy. Our results will be useful for the development of a wide range of applications of photoresponsive DNA nanotechnology. PMID:27428569

  18. Categorical quantum mechanics II: Classical-quantum interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coecke, Bob; Kissinger, Aleks

    2016-08-01

    This is the second part of a three-part overview, in which we derive the category-theoretic backbone of quantum theory from a process ontology, treating quantum theory as a theory of systems, processes and their interactions. In this part, we focus on classical-quantum interaction. Classical and quantum systems are treated as distinct types, of which the respective behavioral properties are specified in terms of processes and their compositions. In particular, classicality is witnessed by ‘spiders’ which fuse together whenever they connect. We define mixedness and show that pure processes are extremal in the space of all processes, and we define entanglement and show that quantum theory indeed exhibits entanglement. We discuss the classification of tripartite qubit entanglement and show that both the GHZ-state and the W-state come from spider-like families of processes, which differ only in how they behave when they are connected by two or more wires. We define measurements and provide fully comprehensive descriptions of several quantum protocols involving classical data flow. Finally, we give a notion of ‘genuine quantumness’, from which special processes called ‘phase spiders’ arise, and get a first glimpse of quantum nonlocality.

  19. Absolute 1* quantum yields for the ICN A state by diode laser gain versus absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Absolute I* quantum yields were measured as a function of wavelength for room temperature photodissociation of the ICN A state continuum. The temperature yields are obtained by the technique of time-resolved diode laser gain-versus-absorption spectroscopy. Quantum yields are evaluated at seven wavelengths from 248 to 284 nm. The yield at 266 nm is 66.0 +/- 2% and it falls off to 53.4 +/- 2% and 44.0 +/- 4% at 284 and 248 respectively. The latter values are significantly higher than those obtained by previous workers using infrared fluorescence. Estimates of I* quantum yields obtained from analysis of CN photofragment rotational distributions, as discussed by other workers, are in good agreement with the I* yields. The results are considered in conjunction with recent theoretical and experimental work on the CN rotational distributions and with previous I* yield results.

  20. Creating high yield water soluble luminescent graphene quantum dots via exfoliating and disintegrating carbon nanotubes and graphite flakes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liangxu; Zhang, Shaowei

    2012-10-21

    We have developed an effective method to exfoliate and disintegrate multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphite flakes. With this technique, high yield production of luminescent graphene quantum dots with high quantum yield and low oxidization can be achieved.

  1. Electron quantum yields from a barium photocathode illuminated with polarized light

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, M.E.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Kim, K.J.; Kwon, S.I.; Leung, K.N.; Young, A.T.

    1993-05-01

    Photoemission measurements with a barium photo-cathode and a nitrogen laser are reported. The cathode is prepared by evaporating barium onto a copper disc. Radiation from a nitrogen laser (337 nm, 10 ns) is polarized and strikes the cathode surface at variable angles. An electron quantum yield as high as 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} is observed. The dependence of the quantum yield on the beam polarization and angle of incidence is investigated. The results indicate that higher quantum yields are achieved when the laser beam is incident at an angle of {approximately}55{degree} and is polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence.

  2. Entanglement and Quantum Logical Gates. Part II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Chiara, M. L.; Leporini, R.; Sergioli, G.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce the notion of proper unitary connective-gate and we prove that entanglement cannot be characterized by such gates. We consider then a larger class of gates (called pseudo-unitary gates), which contains both the unitary and the anti-unitary quantum operations. By using a mixed language (a proper extension of the standard quantum computational language), we show how a logical characterization of entanglement is possible in the framework of a mixed semantics, which generalizes both the unitary and the pseudo-unitary quantum computational semantics.

  3. Quantum cascade light emitting diodes based on type-II quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.H.; Yang, R.Q.; Zhang, D.; Murry, S.J.; Pei, S.S.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1997-01-21

    The authors have demonstrated room-temperature CW operation of type-II quantum cascade (QC) light emitting diodes at 4.2 {micro}m using InAs/InGaSb/InAlSb type-II quantum wells. The type-II QC configuration utilizes sequential multiple photon emissions in a staircase of coupled type-II quantum wells. The device was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a p-type GaSb substrate and was compared of 20 periods of active regions separated by digitally graded quantum well injection regions. The maximum average output power is about 250 {micro}W at 80 K, and 140 {micro}W at 300 K at a repetition rate of 1 kHz with a duty cycle of 50%.

  4. Gradient CdSe/CdS Quantum Dots with Room Temperature Biexciton Unity Quantum Yield.

    PubMed

    Nasilowski, Michel; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Patriarche, Gilles; Dubertret, Benoît

    2015-06-10

    Auger recombination is a major limitation for the fluorescent emission of quantum dots (QDs). It is the main source of QDs fluorescence blinking at the single-particle level. At high-power excitation, when several charge carriers are formed inside a QD, Auger becomes more efficient and severely decreases the quantum yield (QY) of multiexcitons. This limits the efficiency and the use of colloidal QDs in applications where intense light output is required. Here, we present a new generation of thick-shell CdSe/CdS QDs with dimensions >40 nm and a composition gradient between the core and the shell that exhibits 100% QY for the emission of both the monoexciton and the biexciton in air and at room temperature for all the QDs we have observed. The fluorescence emission of these QDs is perfectly Poissonian at the single-particle level at different excitation levels and temperatures, from 30 to 300 K. In these QDs, the emission of high-order (>2) multiexcitons is quite efficient, and we observe white light emission at the single-QD level when high excitation power is used. These gradient thick shell QDs confirm the suppression of Auger recombination in gradient core/shell structures and help further establish the colloidal QDs with a gradient shell as a very stable source of light even under high excitation.

  5. Gradient CdSe/CdS Quantum Dots with Room Temperature Biexciton Unity Quantum Yield.

    PubMed

    Nasilowski, Michel; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Patriarche, Gilles; Dubertret, Benoît

    2015-06-10

    Auger recombination is a major limitation for the fluorescent emission of quantum dots (QDs). It is the main source of QDs fluorescence blinking at the single-particle level. At high-power excitation, when several charge carriers are formed inside a QD, Auger becomes more efficient and severely decreases the quantum yield (QY) of multiexcitons. This limits the efficiency and the use of colloidal QDs in applications where intense light output is required. Here, we present a new generation of thick-shell CdSe/CdS QDs with dimensions >40 nm and a composition gradient between the core and the shell that exhibits 100% QY for the emission of both the monoexciton and the biexciton in air and at room temperature for all the QDs we have observed. The fluorescence emission of these QDs is perfectly Poissonian at the single-particle level at different excitation levels and temperatures, from 30 to 300 K. In these QDs, the emission of high-order (>2) multiexcitons is quite efficient, and we observe white light emission at the single-QD level when high excitation power is used. These gradient thick shell QDs confirm the suppression of Auger recombination in gradient core/shell structures and help further establish the colloidal QDs with a gradient shell as a very stable source of light even under high excitation. PMID:25990468

  6. High quantum yield graphene quantum dots decorated TiO2 nanotubes for enhancing photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Ailan; Xie, Haolong; Xu, Xinmei; Zhang, Yangyu; Wen, Shengwu; Cui, Yifan

    2016-07-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with high quantum yield (about 23.6% at an excitation wavelength of 320 nm) and GQDs/TiO2 nanotubes (GQDs/TiO2 NTs) composites were achieved by a simple hydrothermal method at low temperature. Photoluminescence characterization showed that the GQDs exhibited the down-conversion PL features at excitation from 300 to 420 nm and up-conversion photoluminescence in the range of 600-800 nm. The photocatalytic activity of prepared GQDs/TiO2 NTs composites on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) was significantly enhanced compared with that of pure TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 NTs). For the composites coupling with 1.5%, 2.5% and 3.5% GQDs, the degradation of MO after 20 min irradiation under UV-vis light irradiation (λ = 380-780 nm) were 80.52%, 94.64% and 51.91%, respectively, which are much higher than that of pure TiO2 NTs (35.41%). It was inferred from the results of characterization that the improved photocatalytic activity of the GQDs/TiO2 NTs composites was attributed to the synergetic effect of up-conversion properties of the GQDs, enhanced visible light absorption and efficient separation of photogenerated electron-holes of the GQDs/TiO2 composite.

  7. Quantum yield and lifetime data analysis for the UV curable quantum dot nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qi; Liu, Cui; Wei, Wenjun; Xu, Heng; You, Qingliang; Zou, Linling; Liu, Xueqing; Liu, Jiyan; Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Zheng, Guang

    2016-01-01

    The quantum yield (QY) and lifetime are the important parameters for the photoluminescent materials. The data here report the changes of the QY and lifetime for the quantum dot (QD) nanocomposite after the UV curing of the urethane acrylate prepolymer. The data were collected based on the water soluble CdTe QDs and urethane acrylate prepolymer. Colloidal QDs were in various concentration from 0.5×10−3 molL−1 to 10×10−3 molL−1, and 1% (wt%) 1173 was the photoinitiator. The QY before the curing was 56.3%, 57.8% and 58.6% for the QDs 510 nm, 540 nm and 620 nm, respectively. The QY after the curing was changed to 8.9%, 9.6% and 13.4% for the QDs 510 nm, 540 nm and 620 nm, respectively. Lifetime data showed that the lifetime was changed from 23.71 ns, 24.55 ns, 23.52 ns to 1.29 ns, 2.74 ns, 2.45 ns for the QDs 510 nm, 540 nm and 620 nm, respectively. PMID:26909375

  8. DETERMINATION OF APPARENT QUANTUM YIELD SPECTRA FOR THE FORMATION OF BIOLOGICALLY LABILE PHOTOPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantum yield spectra for the photochemical formation of biologically labile photoproducts from dissolved organic matter (DOM) have not been available previously, although they would greatly facilitate attempts to model photoproduct formation rates across latitudinal, seasonal, a...

  9. Comparison of photoluminescence quantum yield of single gold nanobipyramids and gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Rao, Wenye; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yuanzhao; Li, Tao; Wu, Lijun

    2015-03-24

    Fluorescent gold nanoparticles with high quantum yield are highly desirable for optical imaging in the fields of biology and materials science. We investigate the one-photon photoluminescence (PL) properties of individual gold nanobipyramids (GNBs) and find they are analogous to those of the extensively studied gold nanorods (GNRs). By combining PL and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements with discrete dipole approximation (DDA) simulations, we obtain the PL quantum yield of single GNRs and GNBs. Compared to GNRs in the similar surface plasmon resonance range, the PL quantum yield of GNBs is found to be doubled. The stronger field intensity around GNBs can explain their higher PL quantum yields. Our research would provide deeper understanding of the mechanism of PL from gold nanoparticles as well as be beneficial for finding out optical imaging labels with high contrast.

  10. Primary quantum yields of ketyl radicals in photoreduction by amines. Abstraction of H from N

    SciTech Connect

    Inbar, S.; Linschitz, H.; Cohen, S.G.

    1980-02-13

    Results of laser flash photolysis studies of the primary reaction of benzophenone triplet with aliphatic amines in benzene solution are reported. Quantum yield of formation of benzophenone ketyl radical was 0.9 - 1.0. Quantum yields for reduction of ketone also were determined for various amines, and the effects of tert-butyl alcohol on radical formation was investigated. Data indicated that H is not abstracted from -CH/sub 3/ but is abstracted efficiently from -NH/sub 2/. The very high quantum yields observed with tertiary and secondary amines were thought to imply exciplex formation, but lower quantum yields with primary amines were conditionally attributed to higher ionization potentials. (BLM)

  11. On the possibility of long-wavelength long-lifetime high-quantum-yield luminophores.

    PubMed

    Lakowicz, J R; Piszczek, G; Kang, J S

    2001-01-01

    We describe an approach to creating a new class of luminophores which display both long wavelength emissions exceeding 600 nm and long lifetimes. These luminophores are based on resonance energy transfer (RET) from a long lifetime donor to a short lifetime but long wavelength acceptor. We demonstrated the possibility of obtaining these desirable spectral properties using donors and acceptors noncovalently bound to DNA. The donor was a ruthenium (Ru) metal-ligand complex in which one of the diimine ligands intercalated into double-helix DNA. The acceptors were either nile blue, TOTO-3, or TO-PRO-3. Upon binding of the acceptor to donor-labeled DNA, we found that the acceptor quantum yield was remarkably enhanced so that the wavelength-integrated intensities of the donor and acceptor bound to DNA were many-fold greater than the intensity of the donor and acceptor alone when separately bound to DNA. The origin of this effect is efficient energy transfer from the donor. Under these conditions the effective overall quantum yield approaches that of the acceptor. Importantly, the increased quantum yield can be obtained while maintaining usefully long apparent acceptor lifetimes of 30 to 80 ns. The effect of an increased quantum yield from a low quantum yield donor may find use in assays to detect macromolecular binding interactions. These results suggest the synthesis of covalently linked donor-acceptor pairs with the desirable spectral properties of long wavelength emission, high quantum yield, and moderately long lifetimes for gated detection.

  12. Double quantum coherence electron spin resonance on coupled Cu(II)-Cu(II) electron spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, James S.; Saxena, Sunil

    2005-10-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the ability to generate double quantum coherences (DQCs) for the case of Cu(II). We show that small splittings (˜7 MHz) from the Cu(II)-Cu(II) electron-electron magnetic dipolar interaction can be reliably resolved even though the inhomogeneously broadened Cu(II) linewidth is ˜2 GHz. A Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.0 nm was measured on a model peptide system, thus, demonstrating that distances on the nanometer scale may be measured using DQC electron spin resonance (ESR).

  13. Nanosecond flash studies of reduction of benzophenone by aliphatic amines. Quantum yields and kinetic isotope effects

    SciTech Connect

    Inbar, S.; Linschitz, H.; Cohen, S.G.

    1981-03-11

    Nanosecond flash photolysis, steady irradiation, and deuterium substitution studies have been carried out on solutions of benzophenone with added reductants. Quantum yields (phi/sub ketyl/) for reduction in benzene of benzophenone triplet to ketyl radical, based on phi = 2 for benzhydrol (I), were approx. 1 for cyclohexane (II), tert-butylamine (III), 2-aminobutane (IV), cyclohexylamine (V), di-n-propylamine (VI), and triethylamine (VII), approx. 0.7 for 1,4-diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane (VIII), and approx. 0 for tert-butyl alcohol (IX). Thus, quenching, without radical formation by H abstraction from N and/or ..cap alpha..-C, does not occur with common aliphatic amines but does with Dabco (VIII). The latter quenching is markedly increased by small additions of acetonitrile; the flash spectrum from this compound indicates formation of a triplet amine CT complex or radical ion pair. Triplet-reductant interaction rate constants, k/sur ir/, are high for the amines (approx. 10/sup 8/-10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/) but also show significant deuterium kinetic isotope effects: 1.9 with III-N-d/sub 2/; 1.4 with IV-N-d/sub 2/; 1.2-1.3 with IV-..cap alpha..-C-d. It is proposed that k/sub ir/ measures H atom abstraction, favored in the transition state by an initial charge-transfer interaction. Overall steady irradiation quantum yields of reduction by amines, phi/sub Red/, are much lower than phi/sub ketyl/. This is attributed to disproportionationreactions of ketyl and alkylaminyl radicals for primary and secondary amines, and, possibly, aminoalkyl radicals for tertiary amines. In the case of tert-butylamine, the rate constant for disproportionation is obtained from the decay kinetics of ketyl radical and leads to phi/sub Red/ in agreement with that directly measured.

  14. Measurement of Quantum Yield, Quantum Requirement, and Energetic Efficiency of the O2-Evolving System of Photosynthesis by a Simple Dye Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros Barcelò, A.; Zapata, J. M.

    1996-11-01

    Photosynthesis is the conversion of absorbed radiant energy from sunlight into various forms of chemical energy by the chloroplasts of higher green plants. The overall process of photosynthesis consists of the oxidation of water (with the release of O2 as a product) and the reduction of CO2 to form carbohydrates. In the test tube electrons produced by the photolytic cleavage of H2) may be deviated from their true acceptor by inserting a suitable dye in the electron chain; i.e.; 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) (E'o = + 0.217 V), which is blue in the oxidized quinone form and which becomes colorless when reduced to the phenolic form. This dye-electrom acceptor also has the advantage that it accepts electroms directly from the quinone (Qa) electron-acceptor of the photosystem II< the reaction center associated with the O2-evolving (or water-slplitting) system. Based in the bleaching of DCPIP by illuminated spinach leaf chloroplasts, a classroom laboratory protocol has been developed to determine the quantum yield (QY = micromol O2 s-1 / micromol photons s-1, the quantum requirement (1/QY) and the energetic efficiency (f = chemical energy stored / light energy supplied) of the O2-evolving system of photosynthesis. Although values for the quantum yield, the quantum requirement and the energetic efficiency calculated in the classroom laboratory differ widely from those expected theoretically, these calculations are useful for illustrating the transformation of light energy into chemical energy by the chloroplasts of green plants.

  15. Relational quadrilateralland II: The Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Edward; Kneller, Sophie

    2014-04-01

    We provide the quantum treatment of the relational quadrilateral. The underlying reduced configuration spaces are ℂℙ2 and the cone over this. We consider exact free and isotropic HO potential cases and perturbations about these. Moreover, our purely relational kinematical quantization is distinct from the usual one for ℂℙ2, which turns out to carry absolutist connotations instead. Thus, this paper is the first to note absolute-versus-relational motion distinctions at the kinematical rather than dynamical level. It is also an example of value to the discussion of kinematical quantization along the lines of Isham, 1984. The relational quadrilateral is the simplest RPM whose mathematics is not standard in atomic physics (the triangle and four particles on a line are both based on 𝕊2 and ℝ3 mathematics). It is far more typical of the general quantum relational N-a-gon than the previously studied case of the relational triangle. We consider useful integrals as regards perturbation theory and the peaking interpretation of quantum cosmology. We subsequently consider problem of time (PoT) applications of this: quantum Kuchař beables, the Machian version of the semiclassical approach and the timeless naïve Schrödinger interpretation. These go toward extending the combined Machian semiclassical-Histories-Timeless Approach of [Int. J. Mod. Phys. D23 (2014) 1450014] to the case of the quadrilateral, which will be treated in subsequent papers.

  16. Size-dependent absolute quantum yields for size-separated colloidally-stable silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Mastronardi, Melanie L; Maier-Flaig, Florian; Faulkner, Daniel; Henderson, Eric J; Kübel, Christian; Lemmer, Uli; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2012-01-11

    Size-selective precipitation was used to successfully separate colloidally stable allylbenzene-capped silicon nanocrystals into several visible emitting monodisperse fractions traversing the quantum size effect range of 1-5 nm. This enabled the measurement of the absolute quantum yield and lifetime of photoluminescence of allylbenzene-capped silicon nanocrystals as a function of size. The absolute quantum yield and lifetime are found to monotonically decrease with decreasing nanocrystal size, which implies that nonradiative vibrational and surface defect effects overwhelm spatial confinement effects that favor radiative relaxation. Visible emission absolute quantum yields as high as 43% speak well for the development of "green" silicon nanocrystal color-tunable light emitting diodes that can potentially match the performance of their toxic heavy metal chalcogenide counterparts.

  17. Measurements of barium photocathode quantum yields at four excimer laser wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Van Loy, M.D.; Young, A.T.; Leung, K.N.

    1992-06-01

    The electron quantum yields from barium cathodes excited by excimer laser radiation at 193, 248, 308, and 351 nm have been determined. Experiments with different cathode surface preparation techniques reveal that deposition of barium film a few microns thick on a clean copper surface under moderate vacuum conditions achieves relatively high quantum efficiencies. Quantum yields measured from surfaces prepared in this manner are 2.3 x 10{sup -3} at 193 nm, 7.6 x 10{sup - 4} at 248 nm, 6.1 x 10{sup -4} at 308 nm, and 4.0 x 10{sup -4} at 351 nm. Other preparation techniques, such as laser cleaning of a solid barium surface, produced quantum yields that were at least an order of magnitude lower than these values.

  18. Ensemble brightening and enhanced quantum yield in size-purified silicon nanocrystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Miller, Joseph B.; Van Sickle, Austin R.; Anthony, Rebecca J.; Kroll, Daniel M.; Kortshagen, Uwe R.; Hobbie, Erik K.

    2012-07-18

    Here, we report on the quantum yield, photoluminescence (PL) lifetime and ensemble photoluminescent stability of highly monodisperse plasma-synthesized silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) prepared though density-gradient ultracentrifugation in mixed organic solvents. Improved size uniformity leads to a reduction in PL line width and the emergence of entropic order in dry nanocrystal films. We find excellent agreement with the anticipated trends of quantum confinement in nanocrystalline silicon, with a solution quantum yield that is independent of nanocrystal size for the larger fractions but decreases dramatically with size for the smaller fractions. We also find a significant PL enhancement in films assembled from themore » fractions, and we use a combination of measurement, simulation and modeling to link this ‘brightening’ to a temporally enhanced quantum yield arising from SiNC interactions in ordered ensembles of monodisperse nanocrystals. Using an appropriate excitation scheme, we exploit this enhancement to achieve photostable emission.« less

  19. Ensemble brightening and enhanced quantum yield in size-purified silicon nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Joseph B.; Van Sickle, Austin R.; Anthony, Rebecca J.; Kroll, Daniel M.; Kortshagen, Uwe R.; Hobbie, Erik K.

    2012-07-18

    Here, we report on the quantum yield, photoluminescence (PL) lifetime and ensemble photoluminescent stability of highly monodisperse plasma-synthesized silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) prepared though density-gradient ultracentrifugation in mixed organic solvents. Improved size uniformity leads to a reduction in PL line width and the emergence of entropic order in dry nanocrystal films. We find excellent agreement with the anticipated trends of quantum confinement in nanocrystalline silicon, with a solution quantum yield that is independent of nanocrystal size for the larger fractions but decreases dramatically with size for the smaller fractions. We also find a significant PL enhancement in films assembled from the fractions, and we use a combination of measurement, simulation and modeling to link this ‘brightening’ to a temporally enhanced quantum yield arising from SiNC interactions in ordered ensembles of monodisperse nanocrystals. Using an appropriate excitation scheme, we exploit this enhancement to achieve photostable emission.

  20. [Calculation method of absolute quantum yields in photocatalytic slurry reactor based on cylindrical light].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xun-wei; Yuan, Chun-wei

    2005-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis in slurry reactors have the particular characteristic that the catalyst particles not only absorb but also scatter photons so the radiation scattering can not be neglected. However, it is very difficult in mathematics to obtain the rigorous solution of the radiative transfer equation. Consequently present methods, in which the apparent quantum yields can be calculated by employing the incident radiation intensity, always underestimate quantum yields calculations. In this paper, a method is developed to produce absolute values of photocatalytic quantum yields in slurry reactor based on cylindrical UV light source. In a typical laboratory reactor (diameter equal to 5.6 cm and length equal to 10 cm) the values for the photocatalytic degradation of phenol are reported under precisely defined conditions. The true value of the local volumetric rate of photon absorption (LVRPA) can be obtained. It was shown that apparent quantum yields differ from true quantum yields 7.08% and that for the same geometric arrangement, vanishing fraction accounts for 1.1% of the incident radiation. The method can be used to compare reactivity of different catalysts or, for a given catalyst, reactivity with different model compounds and as a principle to design a reactor.

  1. Quantum Yields of CAM Plants Measured by Photosynthetic O(2) Exchange.

    PubMed

    Adams, W W; Nishida, K; Osmond, C B

    1986-05-01

    The quantum yield of photosynthetic O(2) exchange was measured in eight species of leaf succulents representative of both malic enzyme type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase type CAM plants. Measurements were made at 25 degrees C and CO(2) saturation using a leaf disc O(2) electrode system, either during or after deacidification. The mean quantum yield was 0.095 +/- 0.012 (sd) moles O(2) per mole quanta, which compared with 0.094 +/- 0.006 (sd) moles O(2) per mole quanta for spinach leaf discs measured under the same conditions. There were no consistent differences in quantum yield between decarboxylation types or during different phases of CAM metabolism. On the basis of current notions of compartmentation of CAM biochemistry, our observations are interpreted to indicate that CO(2) refixation is energetically independent of gluconeogenesis during deacidification.

  2. Girdling effects on fruit set and quantum yield efficiency of PSII in two Citrus cultivars.

    PubMed

    Rivas, F; Gravina, A; Agustí, M

    2007-04-01

    Girdling effects on fruitlet abscission, leaf chlorophyll, chlorophyll a fluorescence and carbohydrate concentration in various flowering and vegetative shoots were studied during natural fruit drop in two Citrus cultivars. Irrespective of shoot type, girdling delayed fruitlet abscission, but only fruitlets borne on leafy shoots had increased final fruit set. Chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis revealed differences in quantum yield efficiency of photosystem II of light adapted leaves (Phi(PSII)) among shoot types and in response to girdling. In young leaves of vegetative shoots, girdling decreased Phi(PSII), whereas Phi(PSII) increased from Day 30 after girdling in young leaves of leafy flowering shoots; however, Phi(PSII) did not change in mature leaves during fruit set in either control or girdled trees. Girdling altered leaf carbohydrate concentrations and the photosynthetic performance of the various shoot types. Our results indicate that, in Citrus, several carbohydrate-based regulatory mechanisms of photosynthesis coexist during carbohydrate accumulation brought about by girdling. It is concluded that the delay in fruitlet abscission and the increase in Phi(PSII )observed in girdled leafy flowering shoots are the mechanisms underlying the enhancement of fruit set after girdling.

  3. Girdling effects on fruit set and quantum yield efficiency of PSII in two Citrus cultivars.

    PubMed

    Rivas, F; Gravina, A; Agustí, M

    2007-04-01

    Girdling effects on fruitlet abscission, leaf chlorophyll, chlorophyll a fluorescence and carbohydrate concentration in various flowering and vegetative shoots were studied during natural fruit drop in two Citrus cultivars. Irrespective of shoot type, girdling delayed fruitlet abscission, but only fruitlets borne on leafy shoots had increased final fruit set. Chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis revealed differences in quantum yield efficiency of photosystem II of light adapted leaves (Phi(PSII)) among shoot types and in response to girdling. In young leaves of vegetative shoots, girdling decreased Phi(PSII), whereas Phi(PSII) increased from Day 30 after girdling in young leaves of leafy flowering shoots; however, Phi(PSII) did not change in mature leaves during fruit set in either control or girdled trees. Girdling altered leaf carbohydrate concentrations and the photosynthetic performance of the various shoot types. Our results indicate that, in Citrus, several carbohydrate-based regulatory mechanisms of photosynthesis coexist during carbohydrate accumulation brought about by girdling. It is concluded that the delay in fruitlet abscission and the increase in Phi(PSII )observed in girdled leafy flowering shoots are the mechanisms underlying the enhancement of fruit set after girdling. PMID:17241995

  4. MnBr₂/18-crown-6 coordination complexes showing high room temperature luminescence and quantum yield.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, David; Kuzmanoski, Ana; Feldmann, Claus

    2016-04-21

    The reaction of manganese(ii) bromide and the crown ether 18-crown-6 in the ionic liquid [(n-Bu)3MeN][N(Tf)2] under mild conditions (80-130 °C) resulted in the formation of three different coordination compounds: MnBr2(18-crown-6) (), Mn3Br6(18-crown-6)2 () and Mn3Br6(18-crown-6) (). In general, the local coordination and the crystal structure of all compounds are driven by the mismatch between the small radius of the Mn(2+) cation (83 pm) and the ring opening of 18-crown-6 as a chelating ligand (about 300 pm). This improper situation leads to different types of coordination and bonding. MnBr2(18-crown-6) represents a molecular compound with Mn(2+) coordinated by two bromine atoms and only five oxygen atoms of 18-crown-6. Mn3Br6(18-crown-6)2 falls into a [MnBr(18-crown-6)](+) cation - with Mn(2+) coordinated by six oxygen atoms and Br - and a [MnBr(18-crown-6)MnBr4](-) anion. In this anion, Mn(2+) is coordinated by five oxygen atoms of the crown ether as well as by two bromine atoms, one of them bridging to an isolated (MnBr4) tetrahedron. Mn3Br6(18-crown-6), finally, forms an infinite, non-charged [Mn2(18-crown-6)(MnBr6)] chain. Herein, 18-crown-6 is exocyclically coordinated by two Mn(2+) cations. All compounds show intense luminescence in the yellow to red spectral range and exhibit remarkable quantum yields of 70% (Mn3Br6(18-crown-6)) and 98% (Mn3Br6(18-crown-6)2). The excellent quantum yield of Mn3Br6(18-crown-6)2 and its differentiation from MnBr2(18-crown-6) and Mn3Br6(18-crown-6) can be directly correlated to the local coordination. PMID:26956783

  5. Control of the external photoluminescent quantum yield of emitters coupled to nanoantenna phased arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Ke; Verschuuren, Marc A.; Lozano, Gabriel

    2015-08-21

    Optical losses in metals represent the largest limitation to the external quantum yield of emitters coupled to plasmonic antennas. These losses can be at the emission wavelength, but they can be more important at shorter wavelengths, i.e., at the excitation wavelength of the emitters, where the conductivity of metals is usually lower. We present accurate measurements of the absolute external photoluminescent quantum yield of a thin layer of emitting material deposited over a periodic nanoantenna phased array. Emission and absorptance measurements of the sample are performed using a custom-made setup including an integrating sphere and variable angle excitation. The measurements reveal a strong dependence of the external quantum yield on the angle at which the optical field excites the sample. Such behavior is attributed to the coupling between far-field illumination and near-field excitation mediated by the collective resonances supported by the array. Numerical simulations confirm that the inherent losses associated with the metal can be greatly reduced by selecting an optimum angle of illumination, which boosts the light conversion efficiency in the emitting layer. This combined experimental and numerical characterization of the emission from plasmonic arrays reveals the need to carefully design the illumination to achieve the maximum external quantum yield.

  6. Picosecond Lifetimes with High Quantum Yields from Single-Photon-Emitting Colloidal Nanostructures at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Bidault, Sébastien; Devilez, Alexis; Maillard, Vincent; Lermusiaux, Laurent; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bonod, Nicolas; Wenger, Jérôme

    2016-04-26

    Minimizing the luminescence lifetime while maintaining a high emission quantum yield is paramount in optimizing the excitation cross-section, radiative decay rate, and brightness of quantum solid-state light sources, particularly at room temperature, where nonradiative processes can dominate. We demonstrate here that DNA-templated 60 and 80 nm diameter gold nanoparticle dimers, featuring one fluorescent molecule, provide single-photon emission with lifetimes that can fall below 10 ps and typical quantum yields in a 45-70% range. Since these colloidal nanostructures are obtained as a purified aqueous suspension, fluorescence spectroscopy can be performed on both fixed and freely diffusing nanostructures to quantitatively estimate the distributions of decay rate and fluorescence intensity enhancements. These data are in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations and demonstrate that millions of bright fluorescent nanostructures, with radiative lifetimes below 100 ps, can be produced in parallel. PMID:26972678

  7. Impact of Vibrational Coherence on the Quantum Yield at a Conical Intersection.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hong-Guang; Miller, R J Dwayne; Thorwart, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We study the vibrationally coherent quantum dynamics of an electronic wave packet in the vicinity of a conical intersection within a three-state two-mode model. By transforming the coherent tuning and coupling modes into the bath, the underdamped dynamics of the resulting effective three-state model is solved efficiently by the numerically exact hierarchy equation of motion approach. The transient excited-state absorption and two-dimensional spectra reveal the impact of vibrational coherence on the relaxation pathways of the wave packet. We find that both the quantum yield and the isomerization rate are crucially influenced by the vibrational coherence of the wave packet. A less coherent wave packet can traverse the conical intersection more rapidly, while the resulting quantum yield is smaller. Finally, we show that repeated passages of the wave packet through the conical intersection can lead to measurable interference effects in the form of Stueckelberg oscillations. PMID:27547995

  8. Degree of circular polarization in II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Shivani; Sen, Pratima; Sen, Pranay Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Degree of circular polarization (DCP) in II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) has been studied analytically. Energy levels have been calculated using Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian and effective mass approximation. Effects due to application of externa magnetic field have been investigated, followed by calculation of transition dipole moment and DCP. Numerical estimates made for Mn-doped CdSe/ZnSe QDs show that DCP in undoped QDs is negligible while transition metal ion doping yields substantial polarization rotation (≈-2.20%) even at moderate magnetic fields (≈0.5T).

  9. Quantum yield for carbon monoxide production in the 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Z.; Stickel, R. E.; Wine, P. H.

    1995-01-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been coupled with excimer laser flash photolysis to measure the quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) relative to the well-known quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photolysis of phosgene (Cl2CO2). The temporal resolution of the experiments was sufficient to distinguish CO formed directly by photodissociation from that formed by subsequent S((sup 3)P(sub J)) reaction with OCS. Under the experimental conditions employed, CO formation via the fast S((sup 1)D(sub 2)) + OCS reaction was minimal. Measurements at 297K and total pressures from 4 to 100 Torr N2 + N2O show the CO yield to be greater than 0.95 and most likely unity. This result suggests that the contribution of OCS as a precursor to the lower stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer is somewhat larger than previously thought.

  10. Absolute I(asterisk) quantum yields for the ICN A state by diode laser gain-vs-absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Absolute I(asterisk) quantum yields have been measured as a function of wavelength for room temperature photodissociation of the ICN A state continuum. The yields are obtained by the technique of time-resolved diode laser gain-vs-absorption spectroscopy. Quantum yields are evaluated at seven wavelengths from 248 to 284 nm. The yield at 266 nm is 66.0 + or - 2 percent and it falls off to 53.4 + or - 2 percent and 44.0 + or - 4 percent at 284 and 248 nm, respectively. The latter values are significantly higher than those obtained by previous workers using infrared fluorescence. Estimates of I(asterisk) quantum yields obtained from analysis of CN photofragment rotational distributions, as discussed by other workers, are in good agreement with the I(asterisk) yields reported here. The results are considered in conjunction with recent theoretical and experimental work on the CN rotational distributions and with previous I(asterisk) quantum yield results.

  11. Fluorescence Quantum Yield Measurements of Fluorescent Proteins: A Laboratory Experiment for a Biochemistry or Molecular Biophysics Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Kathryn P.; Dillon, Rebecca; Knowles, Michelle K.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins are commonly used in cell biology to assess where proteins are within a cell as a function of time and provide insight into intracellular protein function. However, the usefulness of a fluorescent protein depends directly on the quantum yield. The quantum yield relates the efficiency at which a fluorescent molecule converts…

  12. An experimental and theoretical mechanistic study of biexciton quantum yield enhancement in single quantum dots near gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Swayandipta; Zhou, Yadong; Tian, Xiangdong; Jenkins, Julie A.; Chen, Ou; Zou, Shengli; Zhao, Jing

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we systematically investigated the plasmonic effect on blinking, photon antibunching behavior and biexciton emission of single CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) near gold nanoparticles (NPs) with a silica shell (Au@SiO2). In order to obtain a strong interaction between the plasmons and excitons, the Au@SiO2 NPs and CdSe/CdS QDs of appropriate sizes were chosen so that the plasmon resonance overlaps with the absorption and emission of the QDs. We observed that in the regime of a low excitation power, the photon antibunching and blinking properties of single QDs were modified significantly when the QDs were on the Au@SiO2 substrates compared to those on glass. Most significantly, second-order photon intensity correlation data show that the presence of plasmons increases the ratio of the biexciton quantum yield over the exciton quantum yield (QYBX/QYX). An electrodynamics model was developed to quantify the effect of plasmons on the lifetime, quantum yield, and emission intensity of the biexcitons for the QDs. Good agreement was obtained between the experimentally measured and calculated changes in QYBX/QYX due to Au@SiO2 NPs, showing the validity of the developed model. The theoretical studies also indicated that the relative position of the QDs to the Au NPs and the orientation of the electric field are important factors that regulate the emission properties of the excitons and biexcitons of QDs. The study suggests that the multiexciton emission efficiency in QD systems can be manipulated by employing properly designed plasmonic structures.In this work, we systematically investigated the plasmonic effect on blinking, photon antibunching behavior and biexciton emission of single CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) near gold nanoparticles (NPs) with a silica shell (Au@SiO2). In order to obtain a strong interaction between the plasmons and excitons, the Au@SiO2 NPs and CdSe/CdS QDs of appropriate sizes were chosen so that the plasmon resonance

  13. An experimental and theoretical mechanistic study of biexciton quantum yield enhancement in single quantum dots near gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swayandipta; Zhou, Yadong; Tian, Xiangdong; Jenkins, Julie A; Chen, Ou; Zou, Shengli; Zhao, Jing

    2015-04-21

    In this work, we systematically investigated the plasmonic effect on blinking, photon antibunching behavior and biexciton emission of single CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) near gold nanoparticles (NPs) with a silica shell (Au@SiO2). In order to obtain a strong interaction between the plasmons and excitons, the Au@SiO2 NPs and CdSe/CdS QDs of appropriate sizes were chosen so that the plasmon resonance overlaps with the absorption and emission of the QDs. We observed that in the regime of a low excitation power, the photon antibunching and blinking properties of single QDs were modified significantly when the QDs were on the Au@SiO2 substrates compared to those on glass. Most significantly, second-order photon intensity correlation data show that the presence of plasmons increases the ratio of the biexciton quantum yield over the exciton quantum yield (QYBX/QYX). An electrodynamics model was developed to quantify the effect of plasmons on the lifetime, quantum yield, and emission intensity of the biexcitons for the QDs. Good agreement was obtained between the experimentally measured and calculated changes in QYBX/QYX due to Au@SiO2 NPs, showing the validity of the developed model. The theoretical studies also indicated that the relative position of the QDs to the Au NPs and the orientation of the electric field are important factors that regulate the emission properties of the excitons and biexcitons of QDs. The study suggests that the multiexciton emission efficiency in QD systems can be manipulated by employing properly designed plasmonic structures. PMID:25806486

  14. An experimental and theoretical mechanistic study of biexciton quantum yield enhancement in single quantum dots near gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swayandipta; Zhou, Yadong; Tian, Xiangdong; Jenkins, Julie A; Chen, Ou; Zou, Shengli; Zhao, Jing

    2015-04-21

    In this work, we systematically investigated the plasmonic effect on blinking, photon antibunching behavior and biexciton emission of single CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) near gold nanoparticles (NPs) with a silica shell (Au@SiO2). In order to obtain a strong interaction between the plasmons and excitons, the Au@SiO2 NPs and CdSe/CdS QDs of appropriate sizes were chosen so that the plasmon resonance overlaps with the absorption and emission of the QDs. We observed that in the regime of a low excitation power, the photon antibunching and blinking properties of single QDs were modified significantly when the QDs were on the Au@SiO2 substrates compared to those on glass. Most significantly, second-order photon intensity correlation data show that the presence of plasmons increases the ratio of the biexciton quantum yield over the exciton quantum yield (QYBX/QYX). An electrodynamics model was developed to quantify the effect of plasmons on the lifetime, quantum yield, and emission intensity of the biexcitons for the QDs. Good agreement was obtained between the experimentally measured and calculated changes in QYBX/QYX due to Au@SiO2 NPs, showing the validity of the developed model. The theoretical studies also indicated that the relative position of the QDs to the Au NPs and the orientation of the electric field are important factors that regulate the emission properties of the excitons and biexcitons of QDs. The study suggests that the multiexciton emission efficiency in QD systems can be manipulated by employing properly designed plasmonic structures.

  15. Quantum oscillation in vortex states of type-II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, K. )

    1991-08-01

    We examine theoretically magnetic quantum oscillations like the de Haas--van Alphen and Subnikov--de Haas effects in vortex states in type-II superconductors. For a magnetic field {ital B} not very small compared with {ital H}{sub {ital c}3}({ital T}), the main effect of superconductivity is introduction of the extra quasiparticle scattering rate proportional to {vert bar}{Delta}{vert bar}{sup 2}, the square of the superconducting order parameter. Therefore the detectability of the magnetic quantum oscillation is determined from the condition that the extra Dingle temperature due to {vert bar}{Delta}{vert bar}{sup 2} is not too large. For example in a magnetic field {similar to}10 T, the superconducting transition temperature {ital T}{sub {ital c}} has to be less than 30 K in order to have a reasonable signal.

  16. Preparation of carbon quantum dots with a high quantum yield and the application in labeling bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengpeng; Zhang, Changchang; Liu, Xiang; Cui, Ping

    2016-04-01

    An economic and green approach of manufacturing carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with a high quantum yield (denoted with HQY-CQDs) and the application in labeling bovine serum albumin (BSA) were described in detail in this work. Firstly, the cheap resources of citric acid and glycine were pyrolysed in drying oven for preparing the CQDs. Then the product was immersed in tetrahydrofuran for 8 h. HQY-CQDs were obtained by removing tetrahydrofuran from the supernate and were evaluated that they possessed a much higher quantum yield compared with that without dealing with tetrahydrofuran and a wonderful photo-bleaching resistance. Such HQY-CQDs could be functionalized by N-hydroxysuccinimide and successively combined with BSA covalently. Thus fluorescent labeling on BSA was realized. The HQY-CQDs were demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy and the chemical modification with N-hydroxysuccinimide was proved by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectra. Labeling BSA with the HQY-CQDs was confirmed by gel electrophoresis and fluorescence imaging.

  17. Quantum yield and excitation rate of single molecules close to metallic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Holzmeister, Phil; Pibiri, Enrico; Schmied, Jürgen J; Sen, Tapasi; Acuna, Guillermo P; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of dyes and metallic nanostructures strongly affects the fluorescence and can lead to significant fluorescence enhancement at plasmonic hot spots, but also to quenching. Here we present a method to distinguish the individual contributions to the changes of the excitation, radiative and non-radiative rate and use this information to determine the quantum yields for single molecules. The method is validated by precisely placing single fluorescent dyes with respect to gold nanoparticles as well as with respect to the excitation polarization using DNA origami nanostructures. Following validation, measurements in zeromode waveguides reveal that suppression of the radiative rate and enhancement of the non-radiative rate lead to a reduced quantum yield. Because the method exploits the intrinsic blinking of dyes, it can generally be applied to fluorescence measurements in arbitrary nanophotonic environments. PMID:25370834

  18. Quantum yield and excitation rate of single molecules close to metallic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Holzmeister, Phil; Pibiri, Enrico; Schmied, Jürgen J; Sen, Tapasi; Acuna, Guillermo P; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2014-11-05

    The interaction of dyes and metallic nanostructures strongly affects the fluorescence and can lead to significant fluorescence enhancement at plasmonic hot spots, but also to quenching. Here we present a method to distinguish the individual contributions to the changes of the excitation, radiative and non-radiative rate and use this information to determine the quantum yields for single molecules. The method is validated by precisely placing single fluorescent dyes with respect to gold nanoparticles as well as with respect to the excitation polarization using DNA origami nanostructures. Following validation, measurements in zeromode waveguides reveal that suppression of the radiative rate and enhancement of the non-radiative rate lead to a reduced quantum yield. Because the method exploits the intrinsic blinking of dyes, it can generally be applied to fluorescence measurements in arbitrary nanophotonic environments.

  19. Sample-averaged biexciton quantum yield measured by solution-phase photon correlation.

    PubMed

    Beyler, Andrew P; Bischof, Thomas S; Cui, Jian; Coropceanu, Igor; Harris, Daniel K; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2014-12-10

    The brightness of nanoscale optical materials such as semiconductor nanocrystals is currently limited in high excitation flux applications by inefficient multiexciton fluorescence. We have devised a solution-phase photon correlation measurement that can conveniently and reliably measure the average biexciton-to-exciton quantum yield ratio of an entire sample without user selection bias. This technique can be used to investigate the multiexciton recombination dynamics of a broad scope of synthetically underdeveloped materials, including those with low exciton quantum yields and poor fluorescence stability. Here, we have applied this method to measure weak biexciton fluorescence in samples of visible-emitting InP/ZnS and InAs/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals, and to demonstrate that a rapid CdS shell growth procedure can markedly increase the biexciton fluorescence of CdSe nanocrystals.

  20. A quantum yield determination of O/1D/ production from ozone via laser flash photolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philen, D. L.; Davis, D. D.; Watson, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The quantum yield of electronically excited atomic oxygen produced from ozone photolysis was measured at 298 K from wavelengths of 293.0 to 316.5 nm. The reaction of the atomic oxygen with N2O to form excited NO2 was used to monitor the O production; a frequency-doubled flashlamp-pumped dye laser which provided tunable ultraviolet in the desired spectral region with 0.1-nm linewidth served as the photolysis source. The atomic oxygen quantum yield was found to be constant below 300 nm, with a sharp decrease centered at 308 nm and a diminution to less than one tenth of the constant value by 313.5 nm.

  1. Photo-dissociation quantum yields of mammalian oxyhemoglobin investigated by a nanosecond laser technique

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Ningli; Zhang Shuyi . E-mail: zhangsy@nju.edu.cn; Kuo Paokuang; Qu Min; Fang Jianwen; Li Jiahuang; Hua Zichun

    2007-02-23

    The photo-dissociations of oxyhemoglobin of several mammals, such as human, bovine, pig, horse, and rabbit, have been studied. By means of optical pump-probe technique, the quantum yields for photo-dissociation of these oxyhemoglobin have been determined at pH 7 and 20 {sup o}C. A nanosecond laser at 532 nm is used as the pumping source, and a xenon lamp through a monochrometer provides a probe light at 432 nm. The experimental results show that the quantum yields of these mammalian oxyhemoglobin are different from each other, especially for that of rabbit. By analyzing the amino acid sequences and tetramer structures as well as the flexibility and hydrophobicity of the different hemoglobin, possible explanations for the differences are proposed.

  2. Sample-Averaged Biexciton Quantum Yield Measured by Solution-Phase Photon Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Beyler, Andrew P.; Bischof, Thomas S.; Cui, Jian; Coropceanu, Igor; Harris, Daniel K.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2015-01-01

    The brightness of nanoscale optical materials such as semiconductor nanocrystals is currently limited in high excitation flux applications by inefficient multiexciton fluorescence. We have devised a solution-phase photon correlation measurement that can conveniently and reliably measure the average biexciton-to-exciton quantum yield ratio of an entire sample without user selection bias. This technique can be used to investigate the multiexciton recombination dynamics of a broad scope of synthetically underdeveloped materials, including those with low exciton quantum yields and poor fluorescence stability. Here, we have applied this method to measure weak biexciton fluorescence in samples of visible-emitting InP/ZnS and InAs/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals, and to demonstrate that a rapid CdS shell growth procedure can markedly increase the biexciton fluorescence of CdSe nanocrystals. PMID:25409496

  3. Quantum yield and excitation rate of single molecules close to metallic nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Holzmeister, Phil; Pibiri, Enrico; Schmied, Jürgen J.; Sen, Tapasi; Acuna, Guillermo P.; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of dyes and metallic nanostructures strongly affects the fluorescence and can lead to significant fluorescence enhancement at plasmonic hot spots, but also to quenching. Here we present a method to distinguish the individual contributions to the changes of the excitation, radiative and non-radiative rate and use this information to determine the quantum yields for single molecules. The method is validated by precisely placing single fluorescent dyes with respect to gold nanoparticles as well as with respect to the excitation polarization using DNA origami nanostructures. Following validation, measurements in zeromode waveguides reveal that suppression of the radiative rate and enhancement of the non-radiative rate lead to a reduced quantum yield. Because the method exploits the intrinsic blinking of dyes, it can generally be applied to fluorescence measurements in arbitrary nanophotonic environments. PMID:25370834

  4. Photocurrent Quantum Yield in Suspended Carbon Nanotube p-n Junctions.

    PubMed

    Aspitarte, Lee; McCulley, Daniel R; Minot, Ethan D

    2016-09-14

    We study photocurrent generation in individual suspended carbon nanotube p-n junctions using spectrally resolved scanning photocurrent microscopy. Spatial maps of the photocurrent allow us to determine the length of the p-n junction intrinsic region, as well as the role of the n-type Schottky barrier. We show that reverse-bias operation eliminates complications caused by the n-type Schottky barrier and increases the length of the intrinsic region. The absorption cross-section of the CNT is calculated using an empirically verified model, and the effect of substrate reflection is determined using FDTD simulations. We find that the room temperature photocurrent quantum yield is approximately 30% when exciting the carbon nanotube at the S44 and S55 excitonic transitions. The quantum yield value is an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. PMID:27575386

  5. Photosensitized electron transport across lipid vesicle walls: enhancement of quantum yield by ionophores and transmembrane potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Laane, C.; Ford, W.E.; Otvos, J.W.; Calvin, M.

    1981-04-01

    The photosensitized reduction of heptylviologen in the bulk aqueous phase of phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing EDTA inside and a membrane-bound tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(2+) derivative is enhanced by a factor of 6.5 by the addition of valinomycin in the presence of K/sup +/. A 3-fold stimulation by gramicidin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone is observed. The results suggest that, under these conditions, the rate of photoinduced electron transfer across vesicle walls in the absence of ion carriers is limited by cotransport of cations. The rate of electron transfer across vesicle walls could be influenced further by generating transmembrane potentials with K/sup +/ gradients inatthe presence of valinomycin. When vesicles are made with transmembrane potentials, interior more negative, the quantum yield of heptylviologen reduction is doubled, and, converseley, when vesicles are made with transmembrane potentials, interior more positive, the quantum yield is decreased and approaches the value found in the absence of valinomycin.

  6. Luminescent carbon quantum dots with high quantum yield as a single white converter for white light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X. T.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, X. G.; Zhang, F.; Wang, Y. L.; Yang, Y. Z.

    2015-11-23

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with high quantum yield (51.4%) were synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal method using thiosalicylic acid and ethylenediamine as precursor. The CQDs have the average diameter of 2.3 nm and possess excitation-independent emission wavelength in the range from 320 to 440 nm excitation. Under an ultraviolet (UV) excitation, the CQDs aqueous solutions emit bright blue fluorescence directly and exhibit broad emission with a high spectral component ratio of 67.4% (blue to red intensity to total intensity). We applied the CQDs as a single white-light converter for white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) using a UV-LED chip as the excitation light source. The resulted WLED shows superior performance with corresponding color temperature of 5227 K and the color coordinates of (0.34, 0.38) belonging to the white gamut.

  7. Quantum Yield Determination Based on Photon Number Measurement, Protocols for Firefly Bioluminescence Reactions.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Quantum yield (QY), which is defined as the probability of photon production by a single bio/chemiluminescence reaction, is an important factor to characterize luminescence light intensity emitted diffusively from the reaction solution mixture. Here, methods to measure number of photons to determine QY according to the techniques of national radiometry standards are described. As an example, experiments using firefly bioluminescence reactions are introduced. PMID:27424895

  8. Quantum Yield Determination Based on Photon Number Measurement, Protocols for Firefly Bioluminescence Reactions.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Quantum yield (QY), which is defined as the probability of photon production by a single bio/chemiluminescence reaction, is an important factor to characterize luminescence light intensity emitted diffusively from the reaction solution mixture. Here, methods to measure number of photons to determine QY according to the techniques of national radiometry standards are described. As an example, experiments using firefly bioluminescence reactions are introduced.

  9. High Photoluminescence Quantum Yield in Band Gap Tunable Bromide Containing Mixed Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Sutter-Fella, Carolin M; Li, Yanbo; Amani, Matin; Ager, Joel W; Toma, Francesca M; Yablonovitch, Eli; Sharp, Ian D; Javey, Ali

    2016-01-13

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite based semiconductor materials are attractive for use in a wide range of optoelectronic devices because they combine the advantages of suitable optoelectronic attributes and simultaneously low-cost solution processability. Here, we present a two-step low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process to grow high quality homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx perovskite films over the full band gap range of 1.6-2.3 eV. Photoluminescence light-in versus light-out characterization techniques are used to provide new insights into the optoelectronic properties of Br-containing hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites as a function of optical carrier injection by employing pump-powers over a 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range. The internal luminescence quantum yield of wide band gap perovskites reaches impressive values up to 30%. This high quantum yield translates into substantial quasi-Fermi level splitting and high "luminescence or optically implied" open-circuit voltage. Most importantly, both attributes, high internal quantum yield and high optically implied open-circuit voltage, are demonstrated over the entire band gap range (1.6 eV ≤ Eg ≤ 2.3 eV). These results establish the versatility of Br-containing perovskite semiconductors for a variety of applications and especially for the use as high-quality top cell in tandem photovoltaic devices in combination with industry dominant Si bottom cells. PMID:26691065

  10. Diffusion limited photoluminescence quantum yields in 1-D semiconductors: single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Tobias; Himmelein, Sabine; Ackermann, Thomas; Stich, Dominik; Crochet, Jared

    2010-12-28

    Photoluminescence quantum yields and nonradiative decay of the excitonic S(1) state in length fractionated (6,5) single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are studied by continuous wave and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The experimental data are modeled by diffusion limited contact quenching of excitons at stationary quenching sites including tube ends. A combined analysis of the time-resolved photoluminescence decay and the length dependence of photoluminescence quantum yields (PL QYs) from SWNTs in sodium cholate suspensions allows to determine the exciton diffusion coefficient D = 10.7 ± 0.4 cm(2)s(-1) and lifetime τ(PL) for long tubes of 20 ± 1 ps. PL quantum yields Φ(PL) are found to scale with the inverse diffusion coefficient and the square of the mean quenching site distance, here l(d) = 120 ± 25 nm. The results suggest that low PL QYs of SWNTs are due to the combination of high-diffusive exciton mobility with the presence of only a few quenching sites.

  11. Excitation-emission spectra and fluorescence quantum yields for fresh and aged biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2013-05-10

    Certain biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) become absorbent and fluorescent when exposed to reduced nitrogen compounds such as ammonia, amines and their salts. Fluorescent SOA may potentially be mistaken for biological particles by detection methods relying on fluorescence. This work quantifies the spectral distribution and effective quantum yields of fluorescence of SOA generated from two monoterpenes, limonene and a-pinene, and two different oxidants, ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radical (OH). The SOA was generated in a smog chamber, collected on substrates, and aged by exposure to ~100 ppb ammonia vapor in air saturated with water vapor. Absorption and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of aqueous extracts of aged and control SOA samples were measured, and the effective absorption coefficients and fluorescence quantum yields (~0.005 for 349 nm excitation) were determined from the data. The strongest fluorescence for the limonene-derived SOA was observed for excitation = 420+- 50 nm and emission = 475 +- 38 nm. The window of the strongest fluorescence shifted to excitation = 320 +- 25 nm and emission = 425 +- 38 nm for the a-pinene-derived SOA. Both regions overlap with the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of some of the fluorophores found in primary biological aerosols. Our study suggests that, despite the low quantum yield, the aged SOA particles should have sufficient fluorescence intensities to interfere with the fluorescence detection of common bioaerosols.

  12. Excitation-emission spectra and fluorescence quantum yields for fresh and aged biogenic secondary organic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ji Julie; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A

    2013-06-01

    Certain biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) become absorbent and fluorescent when exposed to reduced nitrogen compounds such as ammonia, amines, and their salts. Fluorescent SOA may potentially be mistaken for biological particles by detection methods relying on fluorescence. This work quantifies the spectral distribution and effective quantum yields of fluorescence of water-soluble SOA generated from two monoterpenes, limonene and α-pinene, and two different oxidants, ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radical (OH). The SOA was generated in a smog chamber, collected on substrates, and aged by exposure to ∼100 ppb ammonia in air saturated with water vapor. Absorption and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of aqueous extracts of aged and control SOA samples were measured, and the effective absorption coefficients and fluorescence quantum yields (∼0.005 for 349 nm excitation) were determined from the data. The strongest fluorescence for the limonene-derived SOA was observed for λexcitation = 420 ± 50 nm and λemission = 475 ± 38 nm. The window of the strongest fluorescence shifted to λexcitation = 320 ± 25 nm and λemission = 425 ± 38 nm for the α-pinene-derived SOA. Both regions overlap with the EEM spectra of some of the fluorophores found in primary biological aerosols. Despite the low quantum yield, the aged SOA particles may have sufficient fluorescence intensities to interfere with the fluorescence detection of common bioaerosols.

  13. Photoluminescence quantum yield of PbS nanocrystals in colloidal suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Greben, M.; Fucikova, A.; Valenta, J.

    2015-04-14

    The absolute photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of oleic acid-capped colloidal PbS quantum dots (QDs) in toluene is thoroughly investigated as function of QD size, concentration, excitation photon energy, and conditions of storage. We observed anomalous decrease of QY with decreasing concentration for highly diluted suspensions. The ligand desorption and QD-oxidation are demonstrated to be responsible for this phenomenon. Excess of oleic acid in suspensions makes the QY values concentration-independent over the entire reabsorption-free range. The PL emission is shown to be dominated by surface-related recombinations with some contribution from QD-core transitions. We demonstrate that QD colloidal suspension stability improves with increasing the concentration and size of PbS QDs.

  14. Quantum yield of photosensitized singlet oxygen (a[sup 1][Delta][sub g]) production in solid polystyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Scurlock, R.D.; Martire, D.O.; Ogilby, P.R. . Dept. of Chemistry); Taylor, V.L.; Clough, R.L. )

    1994-08-15

    The quantum yield of singlet oxygen (a[sup 1][Delta][sub g]), produced by energy transfer from the photosensitizer acridine, has been determined by two independent spectroscopic methods in solid polystyrene. Upon 355-nm pulsed-laser irradiation of acridine at 1.3 mJ/pulse, the O[sub 2](a[sup 1][Delta][sub g]) quantum yield in polystyrene [[phi][sub [Delta

  15. Self-consistent calculations of optical properties of type I and type II quantum heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvayev, Vladimir A.

    In this Thesis the self-consistent computational methods are applied to the study of the optical properties of semiconductor nanostructures with one- and two-dimensional quantum confinements. At first, the self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson system of equations is applied to the cylindrical core-shell structure with type II band alignment without direct Coulomb interaction between carriers. The electron and hole states and confining potential are obtained from a numerical solution of this system. The photoluminescence kinetics is theoretically analyzed, with the nanostructure size dispersion taken into account. The results are applied to the radiative recombination in the system of ZnTe/ZnSe stacked quantum dots. A good agreement with both continuous wave and time-resolved experimental observations is found. It is shown that size distribution results in the photoluminescence decay that has essentially non-exponential behavior even at the tail of the decay where the carrier lifetime is almost the same due to slowly changing overlap of the electron and hole wavefunctions. Also, a model situation applicable to colloidal core-shell nanowires is investigated and discussed. With respect to the excitons in type I quantum wells, a new computationally efficient and flexible approach of calculating the characteristics of excitons, based on a self-consistent variational treatment of the electron-hole Coulomb interaction, is developed. In this approach, a system of self-consistent equations describing the motion of an electron-hole pair is derived. The motion in the growth direction of the quantum well is separated from the in-plane motion, but each of them occurs in modified potentials found self-consistently. This approach is applied to a shallow quantum well with the delta-potential profile, for which analytical expressions for the exciton binding energy and the ground state eigenfunctions are obtained, and to the quantum well with the square potential profile with several

  16. Carbon dots with high fluorescence quantum yield: the fluorescence originates from organic fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Yang, Jian Hai; Zeng, Hai Bo; Chen, Yong Mei; Yang, Sheng Chun; Wu, Chao; Zeng, Hao; Yoshihito, Osada; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-08-14

    In this contribution, we have shown that the organic fluorophores, 5-oxo-3,5-dihydro-2H-thiazolo [3,2-a] pyridine-3,7-dicarboxylic acid (TPDCA) and 5-oxo-3,5-dihydro-2H-thiazolo [3,2-a] pyridine-7-carboxylic acid (TPCA), are the main ingredients and fluorescence origins of N,S-CDs via systematic analyses. It inspires us to deeply analyze and understand the fluorescence origins of carbon dots with high fluorescence quantum yields, which will expand their applications. PMID:27426926

  17. The relationship between photooxidation defects and quantum yield loss in a liquid crystalline oligofluorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesely, E. Jane; Rothberg, Lewis; Geng, Yanhou; Chen, Shaw

    2004-03-01

    We have studied the photophysics of a liquid crystalline oligofluorene which emits blue light with a quantum efficiency of forty-nine percent.( Y. Geng, S. Culligan, A. Trajkovska, J. Wallace and S. Chen, Chem. Mater; 2003, 15, 542-549.) The fluorescent yield is reduced when the film has been exposed to ultra-violet light and air. The resulting photooxidation creates luminescent defects that have previously been observed in some polyfluorenes.( E. J. W. List, R. Guentner, P. Scanducci de Freitas, and U. Scherf, Adv Mater., 2002, 14, 374-378.) The defects decrease the overall fluorescent yield because they divert energy away from the blue-emitting chromophores and emit at longer wavelengths with low efficiency. In contrast with previous studies of photooxidized polyfluorenes, we observe two emission peaks associated with defects that have distinct intensity dependence and decay dynamics.

  18. Enhancement of carrier lifetimes in type-II quantum dot/quantum well hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, O. D. D.; de Almeida, P. T.; dos Santos, G. E.; Balanta, M. A. G.; Andriolo, H. F.; Brum, J. A.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Iikawa, F.; Liang, B. L.; Huffaker, D. L.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate optical transitions and carrier dynamics in hybrid structures containing type-I GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs) and type-II GaSb/AlGaAs quantum dots (QDs). We show that the optical recombination of photocreated electrons confined in the QWs with holes in the QDs and wetting layer can be modified according to the QW/QD spatial separation. In particular, for low spacer thicknesses, the QW optical emission can be suppressed due to the transference of holes from the QW to the GaSb layer, favoring the optical recombination of spatially separated carriers, which can be useful for optical memory and solar cell applications. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements reveal non-exponential recombination dynamics. We demonstrate that the PL transients can only be quantitatively described by considering both linear and quadratic terms of the carrier density in the bimolecular recombination approximation for type-II semiconductor nanostructures. We extract long exciton lifetimes from 700 ns to 5 μs for QDs depending on the spacer layer thickness.

  19. Diurnal changes of photosynthetic quantum yield in the intertidal macroalga Sargassum thunbergii under simulated tidal emersion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yong Qiang; Zhang, Quan Sheng; Tang, Yong Zheng; Li, Xue Meng; Liu, Hong Liang; Li, Li Xia

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a three-way factorial experimental design was used to investigate the diurnal changes of photosynthetic activity of the intertidal macroalga Sargassum thunbergii in response to temperature, tidal pattern and desiccation during a simulated diurnal light cycle. The maximum (Fv/Fm) and effective (ΦPSII) quantum yields of photosystem II (PSII) were estimated by chlorophyll fluorescence using a pulse amplitude modulated fluorometer. Results showed that this species exhibited sun-adapted characteristics, as evidenced by the daily variation of Fv/Fm and ΦPSII. Both yield values decreased with increasing irradiance towards noon and recovered rapidly in the afternoon suggesting a dynamic photoinhibition. The photosynthetic quantum yield of S. thunbergii thalli varied significantly with temperature, tidal pattern and desiccation. Thalli were more susceptible to light-induced damage at high temperature of 25 °C and showed complete recovery of photosynthetic activity only when exposed to 8 °C. In contrast with the mid-morning low tide period, although there was an initial increase in photosynthetic yield during emersion, thalli showed a greater degree of decline at the end of emersion and remained less able to recover when low tide occurred at mid-afternoon. Short-term air exposure of 2 h did not significantly influence the photosynthesis. However, when exposed to moderate conditions (4 h desiccation at 15 °C or 6 h desiccation at 8 °C), a significant inhibition of photosynthesis was followed by partial or complete recovery upon re-immersion in late afternoon. Only extreme conditions (4 h desiccation at 25 °C or 6 h desiccation at 15 °C or 25 °C) resulted in the complete inhibition, with little indication of recovery until the following morning, implying the occurrence of chronic PSII damage. Based on the magnitude of effect, desiccation was the predominant negative factor affecting the photosynthesis under the simulated daytime irradiance period. These

  20. Carbon dots with high fluorescence quantum yield: the fluorescence originates from organic fluorophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei; Yang, Jian Hai; Zeng, Hai Bo; Chen, Yong Mei; Yang, Sheng Chun; Wu, Chao; Zeng, Hao; Yoshihito, Osada; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution, we have shown that the organic fluorophores, 5-oxo-3,5-dihydro-2H-thiazolo [3,2-a] pyridine-3,7-dicarboxylic acid (TPDCA) and 5-oxo-3,5-dihydro-2H-thiazolo [3,2-a] pyridine-7-carboxylic acid (TPCA), are the main ingredients and fluorescence origins of N,S-CDs via systematic analyses. It inspires us to deeply analyze and understand the fluorescence origins of carbon dots with high fluorescence quantum yields, which will expand their applications.In this contribution, we have shown that the organic fluorophores, 5-oxo-3,5-dihydro-2H-thiazolo [3,2-a] pyridine-3,7-dicarboxylic acid (TPDCA) and 5-oxo-3,5-dihydro-2H-thiazolo [3,2-a] pyridine-7-carboxylic acid (TPCA), are the main ingredients and fluorescence origins of N,S-CDs via systematic analyses. It inspires us to deeply analyze and understand the fluorescence origins of carbon dots with high fluorescence quantum yields, which will expand their applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00451b

  1. Solvent effect on the relative quantum yield and fluorescence quenching of 2DAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, D.; Melavanki, R. M.; Patil, N. R.; Kusanur, R. A.

    2014-09-01

    The relative quantum yield of diethyl 2-acetamido-2-((3-oxo-3H-benzo[f]chromen-1-yl)methyl) malonate [2DAM] is estimated using single point method with quinine sulfate as standard reference. The quantum yield varies between 0.1161 and 0.3181 depending on the nature of the solvent. The rates of radiative and non radiative decay constants are also calculated. The fluorescence quenching of [2DAM] by aniline is studied at room temperature, by steady state, in five different solvents namely acetonitrile (AN), 1,4 dioxane (DX), 1,2 dichloroethane (DCE), tetrahydrofuran (THF) and toluene (TOL), in order to explore various possible quenching mechanisms. The experimental results show a positive deviation in Stern Volmer plots for all solvents. Various parameters for the quenching process are determined by ground state complex, sphere of action static quenching model and finite sink approximation model. The magnitudes of these rate parameters indicate that positive deviation in the Stern Volmer (SV) plot is due to both static and dynamic processes. Further, finite sink approximation model is used to check whether these bimolecular reactions were diffusion limited or not. The values of distance parameter R‧ and diffusion co efficient D are determined and then compared with the values of encounter distance R and diffusion coefficient D calculated using Stokes-Einstein equation.

  2. Solvent effect on the relative quantum yield and fluorescence quenching of a newly synthesized coumarin derivative.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, D; Melavanki, R M; Patil, N R; Geethanjali, H S; Kusanur, R A

    2015-08-01

    We estimated the relative florescence quantum yield (Φ) of 8-methoxy-3-[1-(4,5-dicarbomethoxy-1,2,3-triazoloacetyl)]coumarin [8MDTC] using a single-point method with quinine sulfate in 0.1 M of sulfuric acid used as a standard reference. The fluorescence lifetimes, radiative and non-radiative decay rate constants are calculated. Relative quantum yields were found to be less in the non-polar solvents, indicating that the solute exhibits less fluorescence in a non-polar environment. The fluorescence quenching of [8MDTC] by aniline was studied at room temperature by examining the steady state in five different solvents in order to explore various possible quenching mechanisms. The experimental results show a positive deviation in Stern-Volmer plots in all solvents. Ground state complex and sphere of action static quenching models were used to interpret the results. Many quenching rate parameters were calculated using these models. The values of these parameters suggest that the sphere of action static quenching model agrees well with the experimental results. Further, a finite sink approximation model was used to check whether these bimolecular reactions were diffusion limited or not. The values of the distance parameter R' and the diffusion coefficient D were determined and are compared with the values of the encounter distance R and diffusion coefficient D calculated using the Stokes-Einstein equation.

  3. Investigation of the CO2 Dependence of Quantum Yield and Respiration in Eucalyptus pauciflora

    PubMed Central

    Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    1987-01-01

    In leaves of C3 plants, the rate of nonphotorespiratory respiration appears to be higher in darkness than in the light. This change from a high to a low rate of carbon loss with increasing photon flux density leads to an increase in the apparent quantum yield of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation at low photon flux densities (Kok effect). The mechanism of this suppression of nonphotorespiratory respiration is not understood, but biochemical evidence and the observation that a Kok effect is often not observed under low O2, has led to the suggestion that photorespiration might be involved in some way. This hypothesis was tested with snowgum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng.) using gas exchange methods. The test was based on the assumption that if photorespiration were involved, then it would be expected that the intercellular partial pressure of CO2 would also have an influence on the Kok effect. Under normal atmospheric levels of CO2 and O2, a Kok effect was found. Changing the intercellular partial pressure of CO2, however, did not affect the estimate of nonphotorespiratory respiraton, and it was concluded that its decrease with increasing photon flux density did not involve photorespiration. Concurrent measurements showed that the quantum yield of net assimilation of CO2 increased with increasing intercellular partial pressure of CO2, and this increase agreed closely with predictions based on recent models of photosynthesis. PMID:16665319

  4. Accuracy of quantum sensors measuring yield photon flux and photosynthetic photon flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Tibbitts, T.; Sager, J.; Deitzer, G.; Bubenheim, D.; Koerner, G.; Bugbee, B.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Photosynthesis is fundamentally driven by photon flux rather than energy flux, but not all absorbed photons yield equal amounts of photosynthesis. Thus, two measures of photosynthetically active radiation have emerged: photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), which values all photons from 400 to 700 nm equally, and yield photon flux (YPF), which weights photons in the range from 360 to 760 nm according to plant photosynthetic response. We selected seven common radiation sources and measured YPF and PPF from each source with a spectroradiometer. We then compared these measurements with measurements from three quantum sensors designed to measure YPF, and from six quantum sensors designed to measure PPF. There were few differences among sensors within a group (usually <5%), but YPF values from sensors were consistently lower (3% to 20%) than YPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements. Quantum sensor measurements of PPF also were consistently lower than PPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements, but the differences were <7% for all sources, except red-light-emitting diodes. The sensors were most accurate for broad-band sources and least accurate for narrow-band sources. According to spectroradiometric measurements, YPF sensors were significantly less accurate (>9% difference) than PPF sensors under metal halide, high-pressure sodium, and low-pressure sodium lamps. Both sensor types were inaccurate (>18% error) under red-light-emitting diodes. Because both YPF and PPF sensors are imperfect integrators, and because spectroradiometers can measure photosynthetically active radiation much more accurately, researchers should consider developing calibration factors from spectroradiometric data for some specific radiation sources to improve the accuracy of integrating sensors.

  5. Accuracy of quantum sensors measuring yield photon flux and photosynthetic photon flux.

    PubMed

    Barnes, C; Tibbitts, T; Sager, J; Deitzer, G; Bubenheim, D; Koerner, G; Bugbee, B

    1993-12-01

    Photosynthesis is fundamentally driven by photon flux rather than energy flux, but not all absorbed photons yield equal amounts of photosynthesis. Thus, two measures of photosynthetically active radiation have emerged: photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), which values all photons from 400 to 700 nm equally, and yield photon flux (YPF), which weights photons in the range from 360 to 760 nm according to plant photosynthetic response. We selected seven common radiation sources and measured YPF and PPF from each source with a spectroradiometer. We then compared these measurements with measurements from three quantum sensors designed to measure YPF, and from six quantum sensors designed to measure PPF. There were few differences among sensors within a group (usually <5%), but YPF values from sensors were consistently lower (3% to 20%) than YPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements. Quantum sensor measurements of PPF also were consistently lower than PPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements, but the differences were <7% for all sources, except red-light-emitting diodes. The sensors were most accurate for broad-band sources and least accurate for narrow-band sources. According to spectroradiometric measurements, YPF sensors were significantly less accurate (>9% difference) than PPF sensors under metal halide, high-pressure sodium, and low-pressure sodium lamps. Both sensor types were inaccurate (>18% error) under red-light-emitting diodes. Because both YPF and PPF sensors are imperfect integrators, and because spectroradiometers can measure photosynthetically active radiation much more accurately, researchers should consider developing calibration factors from spectroradiometric data for some specific radiation sources to improve the accuracy of integrating sensors.

  6. Determination of the phosphorescence quantum yield of singlet molecular oxygen ( sup 1. Delta. sub g ) in five different solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.; Seikel, K.; Brauer, H.D. )

    1989-06-01

    The quantum yield of singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) {sup 1}{Delta}{sub g} (v = 0) {yields} {sup 1}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup {minus}} (v = O) phosphorescence was determined in acetonitrile, chloroform, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, and Freon 113 relative to the respective emission in benzene, using the known {sup 1}O{sub 2} phosphorescence quantum yield in benzene as standard. Quantum yields were not found to depend on sensitizer (dicyanoanthracene, rubicene, tetraphenylporphine) but to depend strongly on solvent. The {sup 1}O{sub 2} phosphorescence quantum yields are surprisingly large. The maximum value measured is Qp (Freon 113) = 0.15. The emission quantum yields correlate linearly with {sup 1}O{sub 2} lifetimes for all solvents, including benzene. Consequently the rate constant of {sup 1}O{sub 2} phosphorescence is independent of solvent. It amounts to k{sub p} = 1.3 s{sup {minus}1}. Thus the radiative rate constant is approximately 5000 times larger in liquid solution than for an isolated {sup 1}O{sub 2} molecule.

  7. Effect of PMMA impregnation on the fluorescence quantum yield of sol-gel glasses doped with quinine sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Barbosa-García, O.; Díaz-Torres, L. A.; Chávez-Cerda, S.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; King, T. A.

    2001-08-01

    The fluorescence quantum yield of quinine sulfate in sol-gel and PMMA impregnated glasses is measured. The observed quantum yield improvement in the sol-gel matrix, compared to ethanol, is interpreted as a reduction of non-radiative relaxation channels by isolation of the molecules by the cage of the glass. PMMA impregnated sol-gel glasses show an extra improvement of the fluorescence yield, which is interpreted as a reduction of the free space and the rigid fixation of the molecules to the matrix.

  8. SU-E-T-191: First Principle Calculation of Quantum Yield in Photodynamic Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Abolfath, R; Guo, F; Chen, Z; Nath, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We present a first-principle method to calculate the spin transfer efficiency in oxygen induced by any photon fields especially in MeV energy range. The optical pumping is mediated through photosensitizers, e.g., porphyrin and/or ensemble of quantum dots. Methods: Under normal conditions, oxygen molecules are in the relatively non-reactive triplet state. In the presence of certain photosensitizer compounds such as porphyrins, electromagnetic radiation of specific wavelengths can excite oxygen to highly reactive singlet state. With selective uptake of photosensitizers by certain malignant cells, photon irradiation of phosensitized tumors can lead to selective killing of cancer cells. This is the basis of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Despite several attempts, PDT has not been clinically successful except in limited superficial cancers. Many parameters such as photon energy, conjugation with quantum dots etc. can be potentially combined with PDT in order to extend the role of PDT in cancer management. The key quantity for this optimization is the spin transfer efficiency in oxygen by any photon field. The first principle calculation model presented here, is an attempt to fill this need. We employ stochastic density matrix description of the quantum jumps and the rate equation methods in quantum optics based on Markov/Poisson processes and calculate time evolution of the population of the optically pumped singlet oxygen. Results: The results demonstrate the feasibility of our model in showing the dependence of the optical yield in generating spin-singlet oxygen on the experimental conditions. The adjustable variables can be tuned to maximize the population of the singlet oxygen hence the efficacy of the photodynamic therapy. Conclusion: The present model can be employed to fit and analyze the experimental data and possibly to assist researchers in optimizing the experimental conditions in photodynamic therapy.

  9. Effect of capsid proteins to ICG mass ratio on fluorescent quantum yield of virus-resembling optical nano-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sharad; Ico, Gerardo; Matsumura, Paul; Rao, A. L. N.; Vullev, Valentine; Anvari, Bahman

    2012-03-01

    We recently reported construction of a new type of optical nano-construct composed of genome-depleted plant infecting brome mosaic virus (BMV) doped with Indocyanine green (ICG), an FDA-approved chromophore. We refer to these constructs as optical viral ghosts (OVGs) since only the capsid protein (CP) subunits of BMV remain to encapsulate ICG. To utilize OVGs as effective nano-probes in fluorescence imaging applications, their fluorescence quantum yield needs to be maximized. In this study, we investigate the effect of altering the CP to ICG mass ratio on the fluorescent quantum yield of OVGs. Results of this study provide the basis for construction of OVGs with optimal amounts of CP and ICG to yield maximal fluorescence quantum yield.

  10. Synthesis and spectroscopic evaluation of PbS quantum dots emitting at 1300 nm for optimized imaging in optical window II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydt, Alexander P.; Blair, Shane; Zhang, Hairong; Chernomordik, Boris D.; Beard, Matthew C.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2016-03-01

    Contrast agents for optical imaging have traditionally been designed for the near-infrared (NIR) spectral range (700-900 nm, Optical Window I) where absorption and scattering of tissue are relatively low. Recently, another window beyond 1000 nm has been discovered known as Optical Window II or the extended Near Infrared (exNIR) with improved transparency. In this work, we present a method to synthesize quantum dots emitting at 1300 nanometers, the optimal wavelength. The quantum dots were synthesized in organic solvents, and a method of transforming them into water is discussed. Optical characterizations including absolute quantum yield and the fluorescence lifetime are presented.

  11. Fluorescence quantum yield measurements of fluorescent proteins: a laboratory experiment for a biochemistry or molecular biophysics laboratory course.

    PubMed

    Wall, Kathryn P; Dillon, Rebecca; Knowles, Michelle K

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins are commonly used in cell biology to assess where proteins are within a cell as a function of time and provide insight into intracellular protein function. However, the usefulness of a fluorescent protein depends directly on the quantum yield. The quantum yield relates the efficiency at which a fluorescent molecule converts absorbed photons into emitted photons and it is necessary to know for assessing what fluorescent protein is the most appropriate for a particular application. In this work, we have designed an upper-level, biochemistry laboratory experiment where students measure the fluorescence quantum yields of fluorescent proteins relative to a standard organic dye. Four fluorescent protein variants, enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), mCitrine, and mCherry, were used, however the methods described are useful for the characterization of any fluorescent protein or could be expanded to fluorescent quantum yield measurements of organic dye molecules. The laboratory is designed as a guided inquiry project and takes two, 4 hr laboratory periods. During the first day students design the experiment by selecting the excitation wavelength, choosing the standard, and determining the concentration needed for the quantum yield experiment that takes place in the second laboratory period. Overall, this laboratory provides students with a guided inquiry learning experience and introduces concepts of fluorescence biophysics into a biochemistry laboratory curriculum.

  12. Foliar application of isopyrazam and epoxiconazole improves photosystem II efficiency, biomass and yield in winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Ajigboye, Olubukola O; Murchie, Erik; Ray, Rumiana V

    2014-09-01

    A range of fungicides including epoxiconazole, azoxystrobin and isopyrazam, were applied to winter wheat at GS 31/32 to determine their effect on photosystem II (PSII) efficiency, biomass and yield. Frequent, repeated measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence were carried on plants grown under different water regimes in controlled environment and in the field to establish the transiency of fluorescence changes in relation to fungicide application. Application of the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor isopyrazam in a mixture with the triazole epoxiconazole increased PSII efficiency associated with a 28% increase in biomass in the controlled environment and 4% increase in grain yield in the field in the absence of disease pressure. Application of isopyrazam and epoxiconazole increased efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv'/Fm') as early as 4h following application associated with improved photosynthetic gas exchange and increased rates of electron transport. We reveal a strong, positive relationship between Fv'/Fm' and CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate in controlled environment and Fv'/Fm' detected just after anthesis on the flag leaf at GS 73 and grain yield in field. We conclude that application of a specific combination of fungicides with positive effects of plant physiology in the absence of disease pressure results in enhanced biomass and yield in winter wheat. Additionally, an accurate and frequent assessment of photosynthetic efficiency of winter wheat plants can be used to predict yield and biomass in the field.

  13. Second Preliminary Report on X-ray Yields from OMEGA II Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K B; May, M J; MacLaren, S A; Coverdale, C A; Davis, J F

    2006-08-28

    We present details about X-ray yields measured with LLNL and SNL diagnostics in soft and moderately hard X-ray bands from laser-driven, doped-aerogel targets shot on 07/14/06 during the OMEGA II test series. Yields accurate to {+-}25% in the 5-15 keV band are measured with Livermore's HENWAY spectrometer. Yields in the sub-keV to 3.2 keV band are measured with LLNL's DANTE diagnostic, the DANTE yields may be 35-40% too large. SNL ran a PCD-based diagnostic that also measured X-ray yields in the spectral region above 4 keV, and also down to the nearly sub-keV range. The PCD and HENWAY and DANTE numbers are compared. The time histories of the X-ray signals are measured with LLNL's H11 PCD, and from two SNL PCDs with comparable filtering. There is a persistent disagreement between the H11 PCD and SNL PCD measured FWHM, which is shown not to be due to analysis techniques. The recommended X-ray waveform is that from the SNL PCD p66k10, which was recorded on a fast, high-bandwidth TDS 6804 oscilloscope, and which are not plotted here.

  14. Quantum yields for the light adaptations in Anabaena sensory rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoichiro; Kawanabe, Akira; Furutani, Yuji; Kandori, Hideki; Ohtani, Hiroyuki

    2008-02-01

    Archael-type rhodopsin has an all- trans or a 13- cis retinal. The light-induced interconversion between these two forms has been found in Anabaena sensory rhodopsin, even though only the photoreaction from the 13- cis form to the all- trans form exists in bacteriorhodopsin. In this study, we obtained the quantum yields for the 13- cis → all- trans and all- trans → 13- cis reactions of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (0.24 ± 0.03 and 0.38 ± 0.07, respectively) and concluded that these values were independent of the wavelength of the excitation light as well as bacteriorhodopsin. In other words, no excess energy effects can be found in these reactions.

  15. Surface structures for enhancement of quantum yield in broad spectrum emission nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Schreuder, Michael A.; McBride, James R.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2014-07-22

    Disclosed are inorganic nanoparticles comprising a body comprising cadmium and/or zinc crystallized with selenium, sulfur, and/or tellurium; a multiplicity of phosphonic acid ligands comprising at least about 20% of the total surface ligand coverage; wherein the nanocrystal is capable of absorbing energy from a first electromagnetic region and capable of emitting light in a second electromagnetic region, wherein the maximum absorbance wavelength of the first electromagnetic region is different from the maximum emission wavelength of the second electromagnetic region, thereby providing a Stokes shift of at least about 20 nm, wherein the second electromagnetic region comprises an at least about 100 nm wide band of wavelengths, and wherein the nanoparticle exhibits has a quantum yield of at least about 10%. This abstract is intended as a scanning tool for purposes of searching in the particular art and is not intended to be limiting of the present invention.

  16. Photonic effects on the radiative decay rate and luminescence quantum yield of doped nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Senden, Tim; Rabouw, Freddy T; Meijerink, Andries

    2015-02-24

    Nanocrystals (NCs) doped with luminescent ions form an emerging class of materials. In contrast to excitonic transitions in semiconductor NCs, the optical transitions are localized and not affected by quantum confinement. The radiative decay rates of the dopant emission in NCs are nevertheless different from their bulk analogues due to photonic effects, and also the luminescence quantum yield (QY, important for applications) is affected. In the past, different theoretical models have been proposed to describe the photonic effects for dopant emission in NCs, with little experimental validation. In this work we investigate the photonic effects on the radiative decay rate of luminescent doped NCs using 4 nm LaPO4 NCs doped with Ce(3+) or Tb(3+) ions in different refractive index solvents and bulk crystals. We demonstrate that the measured influence of the refractive index on the radiative decay rate of the Ce(3+) emission, having near unity QY, is in excellent agreement with the theoretical nanocrystal-cavity model. Furthermore, we show how the nanocrystal-cavity model can be used to quantify the nonunity QY of Tb(3+)-doped LaPO4 NCs and demonstrate that, as a general rule, the QY is higher in media with higher refractive index.

  17. Aeronomical determinations of the quantum yields of O (1S) and O (1D) from dissociative recombination of O2(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Abreu, Vincent J.; Colwell, William B.

    1989-01-01

    Data from the visible-airglow experiment on the Atmosphere Explorer-E satellite have been used to determine the quantum yields of O (1S) and O (1D) from the dissociative recombination of O2(+) based on a constant total recombination rate from each vibrational level. A range of values between 0.05 and 0.18 has been obtained for the quantum yield of O (1S) and shows a positive correlation with the extent of the vibrational excitation of O2(+). The quantum yield of O (1D) has been measured to be 0.9 + or - 0.2, with no apparent dependence on the vibrational distribution of O2(+).

  18. Secondary Electron Yield and Groove Chamber Tests in PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Le Pimpec, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Pivi, MTF; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; Seeman, J.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2007-11-06

    Possible remedies for the electron cloud in positron damping ring (DR) of the International Linear Collider (ILC) includes thin-film coatings, surface conditioning, photon antechamber, clearing electrodes and chamber with grooves or slots [1]. We installed chambers in the PEP-II Low Energy Ring (LER) to monitor the secondary electron yield (SEY) of TiN, TiZrV (NEG) and technical accelerator materials under the effect of electron and photon conditioning in situ. We have also installed chambers with rectangular grooves in straight sections to test this possible mitigation technique. In this paper, we describe the ILC R&D ongoing effort at SLAC to reduce the electron cloud effect in the damping ring, the chambers installation in the PEP-II and latest results.

  19. Solution-based synthesis of high yield CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) spherical quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, G.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Subramanian, E. P.; Venkatraman, M. R.; Agilan, S.; Ragavendran, V.; Thambidurai, M.; Velumani, S.; Yi, Junsin; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2015-01-01

    High yield CZTS quantum dots have been synthesized using simple precursors by chemical precipitation technique. Formation mechanism of CZTS spherical quantum dots also has been investigated. According to the mechanism, copper sulfide nuclei firstly forms, and serves as the starting point for the nucleation and growth of CZTS. X-ray diffraction pattern, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and Raman spectra reveals the formation of pure kesterite structure Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles. HRTEM analysis reveals the formation of CZTS quantum dots with an average particle size of ∼8.3 nm. The elemental distribution of CZTS quantum dots studied using STEM elemental mapping reveals that Cu, Zn, Sn and S are present in the sample. The photoluminescence spectra of CZTS exhibit a broad red emission band at 657 nm. The optical band gap is shifted to the higher energy side and it shows the presence of quantum confinement effect.

  20. Absolute Photoluminescence Quantum Yields of IR-26 Dye, PbS, and PbSe Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Semonin, Octavi Escala; Johnson, Justin C; Luther, Joseph M; Midgett, Aaron G; Nozik, Arthur J; Beard, Matthew C

    2010-08-19

    In this study, we have directly measured the photoluminescence quantum yield (Φ{sub PL}) of IR-26 at a range of concentrations and the Φ{sub PL} of PbS and PbSe QDs for a range of sizes. We find that the Φ{sub PL} of IR-26 has a weak concentration dependence due to reabsorption, with a Φ{sub PL} of 0.048 ± 0.002% for low concentrations, lower than previous reports by a full order of magnitude. We also find that there is a dramatic size dependence for both PbS and PbSe QDs, with the smallest dots exhibiting a Φ{sub PL} in excess of 60%, while larger dots fall below 3%. A model, including nonradiative transition between electronic states and energy transfer to ligand vibrations, appears to explain this size dependence. These findings provide both a better characterization of photoluminescence for near-infrared emitters and some insight into how improved QDs can be developed.

  1. The Effect of Varying Short-Chain Alkyl Substitution on the Molar Absorptivity and Quantum Yield of Cyanine Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Gala; Henary, Maged; Patonay, Gabor

    2011-01-01

    The effect of varying short-chain alkyl substitution of the indole nitrogens on the spectroscopic properties of cyanine dyes was examined. Molar absorptivities and fluorescence quantum yields were determined for a set of pentamethine dyes and a set of heptamethine dyes for which the substitution of the indole nitrogen was varied. For both sets of dyes, increasing alkyl chain length resulted in no significant change in quantum yield or molar absorptivity. These results may be useful in designing new cyanine dyes for analytical applications and predicting their spectroscopic properties. PMID:21760707

  2. Determination of the Fluorescence Quantum Yield by Oceanic Phytoplankton in Their Natural Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maritorena, Stéphane; Morel, André; Gentili, Bernard

    2000-12-01

    Sun-stimulated chlorophyll a fluorescence has been measured in situ , within the upward and downward light fields, in oceanic waters with chlorophyll concentrations of 0.04 3 mg m 3 . We combined these signals with phytoplankton absorption spectra to derive the fluorescence quantum yield, (number of photons emitted by fluorescence number of absorbed photons). was derived separately from hyperspectral (upward and downward) irradiance measurements (with a LI-COR Instruments spectroradiometer) and from nadir radiance near 683 nm (with a Biospherical Instruments profiler). The contribution of inelastic Raman scattering to the signal in the red band was assessed and subtracted. Raman-corrected values derived from the two instruments compared well. Vertical profiles were strongly structured, with maximal (5 6%) values at depth, whereas was 1% in near-surface waters (measurements made approximately at solar noon). These near-surface values are needed for interpretation of remotely sensed fluorescence signals. This optical study shows that the fluorescence yield of algae in their natural environment can be accurately derived in a nonintrusive way with available instrumentation and adequate protocols.

  3. Final Report on X-ray Yields from OMEGA II Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K B; May, M J; MacLaren, S A; Coverdale, C A; Davis, J F

    2007-06-20

    We present details about X-ray yields measured with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) diagnostics in soft and moderately hard X-ray bands from laser-driven, doped-aerogel targets shot on 07/14/06 during the OMEGA II test series. Yields accurate to {+-}25% in the 5-15 keV band are measured with Livermore's HENWAY spectrometer. Yields in the sub-keV to 3.2 keV band are measured with LLNL's DANTE diagnostic, the DANTE yields are accurate to 10-15%. SNL ran a PCD-based diagnostic that also measured X-ray yields in the spectral region above 4 keV, and also down to the sub-keV range. The PCD and HENWAY and DANTE numbers are compared. The time histories of the moderately hard (h{nu} > 4 keV) X-ray signals are measured with LLNL's H11 PCD, and from two SNL PCDs with comparable filtration. There is general agreement between the H11 PCD and SNL PCD measured FWHM except for two of the shorter-laser-pulse shots, which is shown not to be due to analysis techniques. The recommended X-ray waveform is that from the SNL PCD p66k10, which was recorded on a fast, high-bandwidth TDS 6804 oscilloscope. X-ray waveforms from target emission in two softer spectral bands are also shown; the X-ray emissions have increasing duration as the spectral content gets softer.

  4. Low-Pressure Photolysis of 2,3-Pentanedione in Air: Quantum Yields and Reaction Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bouzidi, Hichem; Djehiche, Mokhtar; Gierczak, Tomasz; Morajkar, Pranay; Fittschen, Christa; Coddeville, Patrice; Tomas, Alexandre

    2015-12-24

    Dicarbonyls in the atmosphere mainly arise from secondary sources as reaction products in the degradation of a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Because of their sensitivity to solar radiation, photodissociation of dicarbonyls can dominate the fate of these VOC and impact the atmospheric radical budget. The photolysis of 2,3-pentanedione (PTD) has been investigated for the first time as a function of pressure in a static reactor equipped with continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy to measure the HO2 radical photostationary concentrations along with stable species. We showed that (i) Stern-Volmer plots are consistent with low OH-radical formation yields in RCO + O2 reactions, (ii) the decrease of the photodissociation rate due to pressure increase from 26 to 1000 mbar is of about 30%, (iii) similarly to other dicarbonyls, the Stern-Volmer analysis shows a curvature at the lower pressure investigated, which may be assigned to the existence of excited singlet and triplet PTD states, (iv) PTD photolysis at 66 mbar leads to CO2, CH2O and CO with yields of (1.16 ± 0.04), (0.33 ± 0.02) and (0.070 ± 0.005), respectively, with CH2O yield independent of pressure up to 132 mbar and CO yield in agreement with that obtained at atmospheric pressure by Bouzidi et al. (2014), and (v) the PTD photolysis mechanism remains unchanged between atmospheric pressure and 66 mbar. As a part of this work, the O2 broadening coefficient for the absorption line of HO2 radicals at 6638.21 cm(-1) has been determined (γO2 = 0.0289 cm(-1) atm(-1)). PMID:26608471

  5. Thiolated DAB dendrimers and CdSe quantum dots nanocomposites for Cd(II) or Pb(II) sensing.

    PubMed

    Algarra, M; Campos, B B; Alonso, B; Miranda, M S; Martínez, A M; Casado, C M; Esteves da Silva, J C G

    2012-01-15

    Four different generation of thiol-DAB dendrimers were synthesized, S-DAB-G(x) (x=1, 2, 3 and 5), and coupled with CdSe quantum dots, to obtain fluorescent nanocomposites as metal ions sensing. Cd(II) and Pb(II) showed the higher enhancement and quenching effects respectively towards the fluorescence of S-DAB-G(5)-CdSe nanocomposite. The fluorescence enhancement provoked by Cd(II) can be linearized using a Henderson-Hasselbalch type equation and the quenching provoked by Pb(II) can be linearized by a Stern-Volmer equation. The sensor responds to Cd(II) ion in the 0.05-0.7μM concentration range and to Pb(II) ion in the 0.01-0.15mM concentration range with a LOD of 0.06mM. The sensor has selectivity limitations but its dendrimer configuration has analytical advantages.

  6. ABSORBANCE, ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT, AND APPARENT QUANTUM YIELD: A COMMENT ON AMBIGUITY IN THE USE OF THESE OPTICAL CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several important optical terms such as "absorbance" and "absorption coefficient" are frequently used ambiguously in the current peer-reviewed literature. Since they are important terms that are required to derive other quantities such as the "apparent quantum yield" of photoprod...

  7. Fluorescence quantum yield of carbon dioxide for quantitative UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Bessler, W. G.; Yoo, J.; Schulz, C.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2008-11-01

    The fluorescence quantum yield for ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of CO2 is determined for selected excitation wavelengths in the range 215-250 nm. Wavelength-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of CO2, NO, and O2 are measured in the burned gases of a laminar CH4/air flame ( φ=0.9 and 1.1) at 20 bar with additional NO seeded into the flow. The fluorescence spectra are fit to determine the relative contribution of the three species to infer an estimate of fluorescence quantum yield for CO2 that ranges from 2-8×10-6 depending on temperature and excitation wavelength with an estimated uncertainty of ±0.5×10-6. The CO2 fluorescence signal increases linearly with gas pressure for flames with constant CO2 mole fraction for the 10 to 60 bar range, indicating that collisional quenching is not an important contributor to the CO2 fluorescence quantum yield. Spectral simulation calculations are used to choose two wavelengths for excitation of CO2, 239.34 and 242.14 nm, which minimize interference from LIF of NO and O2. Quantitative LIF images of CO2 are demonstrated using these two excitation wavelengths and the measured fluorescence quantum yield.

  8. Modeling of the redox state dynamics in photosystem II of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick cells and leaves of spinach and Arabidopsis thaliana from single flash-induced fluorescence quantum yield changes on the 100 ns-10 s time scale.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, N E; Schmitt, F-J; Paschenko, V Z; Riznichenko, G Yu; Rubin, A B

    2015-08-01

    The time courses of the photosystem II (PSII) redox states were analyzed with a model scheme supposing a fraction of 11-25 % semiquinone (with reduced [Formula: see text]) RCs in the dark. Patterns of single flash-induced transient fluorescence yield (SFITFY) measured for leaves (spinach and Arabidopsis (A.) thaliana) and the thermophilic alga Chlorella (C.) pyrenoidosa Chick (Steffen et al. Biochemistry 44:3123-3132, 2005; Belyaeva et al. Photosynth Res 98:105-119, 2008, Plant Physiol Biochem 77:49-59, 2014) were fitted with the PSII model. The simulations show that at high-light conditions the flash generated triplet carotenoid (3)Car(t) population is the main NPQ regulator decaying in the time interval of 6-8 μs. So the SFITFY increase up to the maximum level [Formula: see text]/F 0 (at ~50 μs) depends mainly on the flash energy. Transient electron redistributions on the RC redox cofactors were displayed to explain the SFITFY measured by weak light pulses during the PSII relaxation by electron transfer (ET) steps and coupled proton transfer on both the donor and the acceptor side of the PSII. The contribution of non-radiative charge recombination was taken into account. Analytical expressions for the laser flash, the (3)Car(t) decay and the work of the water-oxidizing complex (WOC) were used to improve the modeled P680(+) reduction by YZ in the state S 1 of the WOC. All parameter values were compared between spinach, A. thaliana leaves and C. pyrenoidosa alga cells and at different laser flash energies. ET from [Formula: see text] slower in alga as compared to leaf samples was elucidated by the dynamics of [Formula: see text] fractions to fit SFITFY data. Low membrane energization after the 10 ns single turnover flash was modeled: the ∆Ψ(t) amplitude (20 mV) is found to be about 5-fold smaller than under the continuous light induction; the time-independent lumen pHL, stroma pHS are fitted close to dark estimates. Depending on the flash energy used at 1

  9. Modeling of the redox state dynamics in photosystem II of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick cells and leaves of spinach and Arabidopsis thaliana from single flash-induced fluorescence quantum yield changes on the 100 ns-10 s time scale.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, N E; Schmitt, F-J; Paschenko, V Z; Riznichenko, G Yu; Rubin, A B

    2015-08-01

    The time courses of the photosystem II (PSII) redox states were analyzed with a model scheme supposing a fraction of 11-25 % semiquinone (with reduced [Formula: see text]) RCs in the dark. Patterns of single flash-induced transient fluorescence yield (SFITFY) measured for leaves (spinach and Arabidopsis (A.) thaliana) and the thermophilic alga Chlorella (C.) pyrenoidosa Chick (Steffen et al. Biochemistry 44:3123-3132, 2005; Belyaeva et al. Photosynth Res 98:105-119, 2008, Plant Physiol Biochem 77:49-59, 2014) were fitted with the PSII model. The simulations show that at high-light conditions the flash generated triplet carotenoid (3)Car(t) population is the main NPQ regulator decaying in the time interval of 6-8 μs. So the SFITFY increase up to the maximum level [Formula: see text]/F 0 (at ~50 μs) depends mainly on the flash energy. Transient electron redistributions on the RC redox cofactors were displayed to explain the SFITFY measured by weak light pulses during the PSII relaxation by electron transfer (ET) steps and coupled proton transfer on both the donor and the acceptor side of the PSII. The contribution of non-radiative charge recombination was taken into account. Analytical expressions for the laser flash, the (3)Car(t) decay and the work of the water-oxidizing complex (WOC) were used to improve the modeled P680(+) reduction by YZ in the state S 1 of the WOC. All parameter values were compared between spinach, A. thaliana leaves and C. pyrenoidosa alga cells and at different laser flash energies. ET from [Formula: see text] slower in alga as compared to leaf samples was elucidated by the dynamics of [Formula: see text] fractions to fit SFITFY data. Low membrane energization after the 10 ns single turnover flash was modeled: the ∆Ψ(t) amplitude (20 mV) is found to be about 5-fold smaller than under the continuous light induction; the time-independent lumen pHL, stroma pHS are fitted close to dark estimates. Depending on the flash energy used at 1

  10. Modern Quantum Field Theory II - Proceeeings of the International Colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. R.; Mandal, G.; Mukhi, S.; Wadia, S. R.

    1995-08-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Foreword * 1. Black Holes and Quantum Gravity * Quantum Black Holes and the Problem of Time * Black Hole Entropy and the Semiclassical Approximation * Entropy and Information Loss in Two Dimensions * Strings on a Cone and Black Hole Entropy (Abstract) * Boundary Dynamics, Black Holes and Spacetime Fluctuations in Dilation Gravity (Abstract) * Pair Creation of Black Holes (Abstract) * A Brief View of 2-Dim. String Theory and Black Holes (Abstract) * 2. String Theory * Non-Abelian Duality in WZW Models * Operators and Correlation Functions in c ≤ 1 String Theory * New Symmetries in String Theory * A Look at the Discretized Superstring Using Random Matrices * The Nested BRST Structure of Wn-Symmetries * Landau-Ginzburg Model for a Critical Topological String (Abstract) * On the Geometry of Wn Gravity (Abstract) * O(d, d) Tranformations, Marginal Deformations and the Coset Construction in WZNW Models (Abstract) * Nonperturbative Effects and Multicritical Behaviour of c = 1 Matrix Model (Abstract) * Singular Limits and String Solutions (Abstract) * BV Algebra on the Moduli Spaces of Riemann Surfaces and String Field Theory (Abstract) * 3. Condensed Matter and Statistical Mechanics * Stochastic Dynamics in a Deposition-Evaporation Model on a Line * Models with Inverse-Square Interactions: Conjectured Dynamical Correlation Functions of the Calogero-Sutherland Model at Rational Couplings * Turbulence and Generic Scale Invariance * Singular Perturbation Approach to Phase Ordering Dynamics * Kinetics of Diffusion-Controlled and Ballistically-Controlled Reactions * Field Theory of a Frustrated Heisenberg Spin Chain * FQHE Physics in Relativistic Field Theories * Importance of Initial Conditions in Determining the Dynamical Class of Cellular Automata (Abstract) * Do Hard-Core Bosons Exhibit Quantum Hall Effect? (Abstract) * Hysteresis in Ferromagnets * 4. Fundamental Aspects of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory

  11. Quantum energy inequalities and local covariance II: categorical formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewster, Christopher J.

    2007-11-01

    We formulate quantum energy inequalities (QEIs) in the framework of locally covariant quantum field theory developed by Brunetti, Fredenhagen and Verch, which is based on notions taken from category theory. This leads to a new viewpoint on the QEIs, and also to the identification of a new structural property of locally covariant quantum field theory, which we call local physical equivalence. Covariant formulations of the numerical range and spectrum of locally covariant fields are given and investigated, and a new algebra of fields is identified, in which fields are treated independently of their realisation on particular spacetimes and manifestly covariant versions of the functional calculus may be formulated.

  12. Ultrasmall Organic Nanoparticles with Aggregation-Induced Emission and Enhanced Quantum Yield for Fluorescence Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Suying; Bai, Xilin; Ma, Jingwen; Xu, Minmin; Hu, Gaofei; James, Tony D; Wang, Leyu

    2016-08-01

    The use of fluorescence probes for biomedical imaging has attracted significant attention over recent years owing to their high resolution at cellular level. The probes are available in many formats including small particle size based imaging agents which are considered to be promising candidates, due to their excellent stabilities. Yet, concerns over the potential cytotoxicity effects of inorganic luminescent particles have led to questions about their suitability for imaging applications. Exploration of alternatives inspired us to use organic fluorophores with aggregation-induced emission (AIE), prepared by functionalizing the amine group on tetraphenylethene with 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl isocyanate. The as-synthesized novel AIE fluorophore (TPE-F) display enhanced quantum yield and longer lifetime as compared with its counterparts (4,4',4″,4‴-(ethene-1,1,2,2-tetrayl)tetraaniline, TPE-AM). Furthermore, the TPE-F was encapsulated into small-size organic nanoparticles (NPs; dynamic light scattering size, ∼10 nm) with polysuccinimide (PSI). The biocompatibility, excellent stability, bright fluorescence, and selective cell targeting of these NPs enable the as-prepared TPE-F NPs to be suitable for specific fluorescence cell imaging. PMID:27349933

  13. 100 fs photo-isomerization with vibrational coherences but low quantum yield in Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Cheminal, Alexandre; Léonard, Jérémie; Kim, So-Young; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Kandori, Hideki; Haacke, Stefan

    2015-10-14

    Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin (ASR) stands out among the microbial retinal proteins in that, under light-adaptation (LA) conditions, it binds both the 13-cis isomer and the all-trans isomer of the protonated Schiff base of retinal (PSBR). In the dark-adapted (DA) state, more than 95% of the proteins bear all-trans PSBR, and the protein environment adopts a different equilibrium state. We report the excited state and photo-isomerization kinetics of ASR under different LA conditions. The full data set allows confirming that the photoisomerization of the 13C isomer occurs within 100 fs and indications of an excited and ground state wavepacket launched by the ultrafast non-adiabatic reaction are reported. Even though this recalls the record isomerization time and the coherent reaction scenario of 11-cis PSBR in rhodopsin, the photoisomerization quantum yield (QY) is much lower, actually the lowest value ever reported for retinal proteins (<15%). Noticeably, in ASR the excited state lifetime (ESL) is at least five times larger and the QY is more than twice as large for AT PSBR as compared to 13C PSBR. We argue that ESL and QY cannot be expected to be correlated at all, but that the latter is decided on, as often anticipated, by the wavepacket pathways leading to the conical intersection seam.

  14. White carbon: Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with tunable quantum yield in a reproducible green synthesis.

    PubMed

    Meiling, Till T; Cywiński, Piotr J; Bald, Ilko

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new reliable, economic, and environmentally-friendly one-step synthesis is established to obtain carbon nanodots (CNDs) with well-defined and reproducible photoluminescence (PL) properties via the microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment of starch and Tris-acetate-EDTA (TAE) buffer as carbon sources. Three kinds of CNDs are prepared using different sets of above mentioned starting materials. The as-synthesized CNDs: C-CND (starch only), N-CND 1 (starch in TAE) and N-CND 2 (TAE only) exhibit highly homogenous PL and are ready to use without need for further purification. The CNDs are stable over a long period of time (>1 year) either in solution or as freeze-dried powder. Depending on starting material, CNDs with PL quantum yield (PLQY) ranging from less than 1% up to 28% are obtained. The influence of the precursor concentration, reaction time and type of additives on the optical properties (UV-Vis absorption, PL emission spectrum and PLQY) is carefully investigated, providing insight into the chemical processes that occur during CND formation. Remarkably, upon freeze-drying the initially brown CND-solution turns into a non-fluorescent white/slightly brown powder which recovers PL in aqueous solution and can potentially be applied as fluorescent marker in bio-imaging, as a reduction agent or as a photocatalyst. PMID:27334409

  15. Novel photocatalytic reactor for the destruction of airborne pollutants reaction kinetics and quantum yields

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, H.; Lasa, H. de

    1999-09-01

    Photocatalytic conversion of a model pollutant (toluene) is studied in a newly designed batch photoreactor, called Photo-CREC-Air. In this unit TiO{sub 2} is supported on a filter mesh with good contact with near UV light, TiO{sub 2}, and air. Photo-CREC-Air is designed with special features including a Venturi section and a heated perforated plate. The heated perforated plate minimizes water adsorption on the mesh and consequently water effects on the reaction rate. The system performance is examined for different toluene concentrations and two humidity levels. After assessing the insignificant toluene adsorption observed under the selected operating conditions, a pseudohomogeneous model is postulated for kinetics modeling. Initial photodegradation rates of toluene at 100 C in Photo-CREC-Air, in the range of model pollutant concentrations and humidity level studied, were 0.005--0.05 {mu}mol/(gcat s). Apparent quantum yields were estimated to be in many cases greater than 100% and as high as 450%.

  16. Integrated semiconductor quantum dot scintillation detector: Ultimate limit for speed and light yield

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Oktyabrsky, Serge; Yakimov, Michael; Tokranov, Vadim; Murat, Pavel

    2016-03-30

    Here, a picosecond-range timing of charged particles and photons is a long-standing challenge for many high-energy physics, biophysics, medical and security applications. We present a design, technological pathway and challenges, and some properties important for realization of an ultrafast high-efficient room-temperature semiconductor scintillator based on self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in a GaAs matrix. Low QD density (<; 1015 cm-3), fast (~5 ps) electron capture, luminescence peak redshifted by 0.2-0.3 eV from GaAs absorption edge with fast decay time (0.5-1 ns) along with the efficient energy transfer in the GaAs matrix (4.2 eV/pair) allows for fabrication of a semiconductormore » scintillator with the unsurpassed performance parameters. The major technological challenge is fabrication of a large volume (> 1 cm3 ) of epitaxial QD medium. This requires multiple film separation and bonding, likely using separate epitaxial films as waveguides for improved light coupling. Compared to traditional inorganic scintillators, the semiconductor-QD based scintillators could have about 5x higher light yield and 20x faster decay time, opening a way to gamma detectors with the energy resolution better than 1% and sustaining counting rates MHz. Picosecond-scale timing requires segmented low-capacitance photodiodes integrated with the scintillator. For photons, the proposed detector inherently provides the depth-of-interaction information.« less

  17. White carbon: Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with tunable quantum yield in a reproducible green synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Meiling, Till T.; Cywiński, Piotr J.; Bald, Ilko

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new reliable, economic, and environmentally-friendly one-step synthesis is established to obtain carbon nanodots (CNDs) with well-defined and reproducible photoluminescence (PL) properties via the microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment of starch and Tris-acetate-EDTA (TAE) buffer as carbon sources. Three kinds of CNDs are prepared using different sets of above mentioned starting materials. The as-synthesized CNDs: C-CND (starch only), N-CND 1 (starch in TAE) and N-CND 2 (TAE only) exhibit highly homogenous PL and are ready to use without need for further purification. The CNDs are stable over a long period of time (>1 year) either in solution or as freeze-dried powder. Depending on starting material, CNDs with PL quantum yield (PLQY) ranging from less than 1% up to 28% are obtained. The influence of the precursor concentration, reaction time and type of additives on the optical properties (UV-Vis absorption, PL emission spectrum and PLQY) is carefully investigated, providing insight into the chemical processes that occur during CND formation. Remarkably, upon freeze-drying the initially brown CND-solution turns into a non-fluorescent white/slightly brown powder which recovers PL in aqueous solution and can potentially be applied as fluorescent marker in bio-imaging, as a reduction agent or as a photocatalyst. PMID:27334409

  18. White carbon: Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with tunable quantum yield in a reproducible green synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiling, Till T.; Cywiński, Piotr J.; Bald, Ilko

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a new reliable, economic, and environmentally-friendly one-step synthesis is established to obtain carbon nanodots (CNDs) with well-defined and reproducible photoluminescence (PL) properties via the microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment of starch and Tris-acetate-EDTA (TAE) buffer as carbon sources. Three kinds of CNDs are prepared using different sets of above mentioned starting materials. The as-synthesized CNDs: C-CND (starch only), N-CND 1 (starch in TAE) and N-CND 2 (TAE only) exhibit highly homogenous PL and are ready to use without need for further purification. The CNDs are stable over a long period of time (>1 year) either in solution or as freeze-dried powder. Depending on starting material, CNDs with PL quantum yield (PLQY) ranging from less than 1% up to 28% are obtained. The influence of the precursor concentration, reaction time and type of additives on the optical properties (UV-Vis absorption, PL emission spectrum and PLQY) is carefully investigated, providing insight into the chemical processes that occur during CND formation. Remarkably, upon freeze-drying the initially brown CND-solution turns into a non-fluorescent white/slightly brown powder which recovers PL in aqueous solution and can potentially be applied as fluorescent marker in bio-imaging, as a reduction agent or as a photocatalyst.

  19. Quantum Yields and Rate Constants of Photochemical and Nonphotochemical Excitation Quenching (Experiment and Model).

    PubMed Central

    Laisk, A.; Oja, V.; Rasulov, B.; Eichelmann, H.; Sumberg, A.

    1997-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench.), amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.), and cytochrome b6f complex-deficient transgenic tobacco leaves were used to test the response of plants exposed to differnt light intensities and CO2 concentrations before and after photoinhibition at 4000 [mu]mol photons m-2 s-1 and to thermoinhibition up to 45[deg]C. Quantum yields of photochemical and nonphotochemical excitation quenching (YP and YN) and the corresponding relative rate constants for excitation capture from the antenna-primary radical pair equilibrium system (k[prime]P and k[prime]N) were calculated from measured fluorescence parameters. The above treatments resulted in decreases in YP and K[prime]P and in approximately complementary increases in YN and K[prime]N under normal and inhibitory conditions. The results were reproduced by a mathematical model of electron/proton transport and O2 evolution/CO2 assimilation in photosynthesis based on budget equations for the intermediates of photosynthesis. Quantitative differences between model predictions and experiments are explainable, assuming that electron transport is organized into domains that contain relatively complete electron and proton transport chains (e.g. thylakoids). With the complementation that occurs between the photochemical and nonphotochemical excitation quenching, the regulatory system can constantly maintain the shortest lifetime of excitation necessary to avoid the formation of chlorophyll triplet states and singlet oxygen. PMID:12223845

  20. Effects of inter-nanocrystal distance on luminescence quantum yield in ensembles of Si nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Valenta, J. Greben, M.; Gutsch, S.; Hiller, D.; Zacharias, M.

    2014-12-15

    The absolute photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of multilayers of Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) separated by SiO{sub 2} barriers were thoroughly studied as function of the barrier thickness, excitation wavelength, and temperature. By mastering the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition growth, we produce a series of samples with the same size-distribution of SiNCs but variable interlayer barrier distance. These samples enable us to clearly demonstrate that the increase of barrier thickness from ∼1 to larger than 2 nm induces doubling of the PL QY value, which corresponds to the change of number of close neighbors in the hcp structure. The temperature dependence of PL QY suggests that the PL QY changes are due to a thermally activated transport of excitation into non-radiative centers in dark NCs or in the matrix. We estimate that dark NCs represent about 68% of the ensemble of NCs. The PL QY excitation spectra show no significant changes upon changing the barrier thickness and no clear carrier multiplication effects. The dominant effect is the gradual decrease of the PL QY with increasing excitation photon energy.

  1. A redetermination of the sup 1 B sub 2u yields sup 1 A sub 1g fluorescence quantum yield of benzene vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, D.B.; Lipsky, S. )

    1991-05-02

    The fluorescence quantum yield of benzene vapor excited at 253.7 nm and at pressures from 10 to 50 Torr has been determined at 22C by comparison with the fluorescence from a dilute solution of benzene in cyclohexane. The value thus obtained is 0.044 {plus minus} 0.006, which is significantly lower than has been reported in all previous investigations. Although the origin of the discrepancy remains unknown, a theoretical argument is presented that tends to support the lower value.

  2. Biosolar cells: global artificial photosynthesis needs responsive matrices with quantum coherent kinetic control for high yield.

    PubMed

    Purchase, R L; de Groot, H J M

    2015-06-01

    This contribution discusses why we should consider developing artificial photosynthesis with the tandem approach followed by the Dutch BioSolar Cells consortium, a current operational paradigm for a global artificial photosynthesis project. We weigh the advantages and disadvantages of a tandem converter against other approaches, including biomass. Owing to the low density of solar energy per unit area, artificial photosynthetic systems must operate at high efficiency to minimize the land (or sea) area required. In particular, tandem converters are a much better option than biomass for densely populated countries and use two photons per electron extracted from water as the raw material into chemical conversion to hydrogen, or carbon-based fuel when CO2 is also used. For the average total light sum of 40 mol m(-2) d(-1) for The Netherlands, the upper limits are many tons of hydrogen or carbon-based fuel per hectare per year. A principal challenge is to forge materials for quantitative conversion of photons to chemical products within the physical limitation of an internal potential of ca 2.9 V. When going from electric charge in the tandem to hydrogen and back to electricity, only the energy equivalent to 1.23 V can be stored in the fuel and regained. A critical step is then to learn from nature how to use the remaining difference of ca 1.7 V effectively by triple use of one overpotential for preventing recombination, kinetic stabilization of catalytic intermediates and finally generating targeted heat for the release of oxygen. Probably the only way to achieve this is by using bioinspired responsive matrices that have quantum-classical pathways for a coherent conversion of photons to fuels, similar to what has been achieved by natural selection in evolution. In appendix A for the expert, we derive a propagator that describes how catalytic reactions can proceed coherently by a convergence of time scales of quantum electron dynamics and classical nuclear dynamics. We

  3. Biosolar cells: global artificial photosynthesis needs responsive matrices with quantum coherent kinetic control for high yield.

    PubMed

    Purchase, R L; de Groot, H J M

    2015-06-01

    This contribution discusses why we should consider developing artificial photosynthesis with the tandem approach followed by the Dutch BioSolar Cells consortium, a current operational paradigm for a global artificial photosynthesis project. We weigh the advantages and disadvantages of a tandem converter against other approaches, including biomass. Owing to the low density of solar energy per unit area, artificial photosynthetic systems must operate at high efficiency to minimize the land (or sea) area required. In particular, tandem converters are a much better option than biomass for densely populated countries and use two photons per electron extracted from water as the raw material into chemical conversion to hydrogen, or carbon-based fuel when CO2 is also used. For the average total light sum of 40 mol m(-2) d(-1) for The Netherlands, the upper limits are many tons of hydrogen or carbon-based fuel per hectare per year. A principal challenge is to forge materials for quantitative conversion of photons to chemical products within the physical limitation of an internal potential of ca 2.9 V. When going from electric charge in the tandem to hydrogen and back to electricity, only the energy equivalent to 1.23 V can be stored in the fuel and regained. A critical step is then to learn from nature how to use the remaining difference of ca 1.7 V effectively by triple use of one overpotential for preventing recombination, kinetic stabilization of catalytic intermediates and finally generating targeted heat for the release of oxygen. Probably the only way to achieve this is by using bioinspired responsive matrices that have quantum-classical pathways for a coherent conversion of photons to fuels, similar to what has been achieved by natural selection in evolution. In appendix A for the expert, we derive a propagator that describes how catalytic reactions can proceed coherently by a convergence of time scales of quantum electron dynamics and classical nuclear dynamics. We

  4. Adaptation to high CO2 concentration in an optimal environment: radiation capture, canopy quantum yield and carbon use efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, O.; Bugbee, B.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of elevated [CO2] on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Veery 10) productivity was examined by analysing radiation capture, canopy quantum yield, canopy carbon use efficiency, harvest index and daily C gain. Canopies were grown at either 330 or 1200 micromoles mol-1 [CO2] in controlled environments, where root and shoot C fluxes were monitored continuously from emergence to harvest. A rapidly circulating hydroponic solution supplied nutrients, water and root zone oxygen. At harvest, dry mass predicted from gas exchange data was 102.8 +/- 4.7% of the observed dry mass in six trials. Neither radiation capture efficiency nor carbon use efficiency were affected by elevated [CO2], but yield increased by 13% due to a sustained increase in canopy quantum yield. CO2 enrichment increased root mass, tiller number and seed mass. Harvest index and chlorophyll concentration were unchanged, but CO2 enrichment increased average life cycle net photosynthesis (13%, P < 0.05) and root respiration (24%, P < 0.05). These data indicate that plant communities adapt to CO2 enrichment through changes in C allocation. Elevated [CO2] increases sink strength in optimal environments, resulting in sustained increases in photosynthetic capacity, canopy quantum yield and daily C gain throughout the life cycle.

  5. Adaptation to high CO2 concentration in an optimal environment: radiation capture, canopy quantum yield and carbon use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Monje, O; Bugbee, B

    1998-01-01

    The effect of elevated [CO2] on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Veery 10) productivity was examined by analysing radiation capture, canopy quantum yield, canopy carbon use efficiency, harvest index and daily C gain. Canopies were grown at either 330 or 1200 micromoles mol-1 [CO2] in controlled environments, where root and shoot C fluxes were monitored continuously from emergence to harvest. A rapidly circulating hydroponic solution supplied nutrients, water and root zone oxygen. At harvest, dry mass predicted from gas exchange data was 102.8 +/- 4.7% of the observed dry mass in six trials. Neither radiation capture efficiency nor carbon use efficiency were affected by elevated [CO2], but yield increased by 13% due to a sustained increase in canopy quantum yield. CO2 enrichment increased root mass, tiller number and seed mass. Harvest index and chlorophyll concentration were unchanged, but CO2 enrichment increased average life cycle net photosynthesis (13%, P < 0.05) and root respiration (24%, P < 0.05). These data indicate that plant communities adapt to CO2 enrichment through changes in C allocation. Elevated [CO2] increases sink strength in optimal environments, resulting in sustained increases in photosynthetic capacity, canopy quantum yield and daily C gain throughout the life cycle.

  6. Supercurrent in the quantum Hall regime, part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amet, Francois; Ke, Chung Ting; Borzenets, Ivan; Wang, Jiyingmei; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Deacon, Russel; Yamamoto, Michihisa; Bomze, Yuriy; Tarucha, Seigo; Finkelstein, Gleb

    A novel promising route for creating topological states and excitations is to combine superconductivity and the quantum Hall effect. Despite this potential, signatures of superconductivity in the quantum Hall regime remain scarce, and a superconducting current through a Landau-quantized two-dimensional electron gas has so far eluded experimental observation. High-mobility graphene/BN heterostructures exhibit the quantum Hall effect at relatively low field and are therefore particularly suitable to study the fate of the Josephson effect in that regime. Here, we report the observation of a superconducting current through graphene at fields as high as 2 Tesla. In that regime, the normal-state resistance is quantized but pockets of superconductivity still persist at small current bias. We will describe their bias and temperature dependence. Magnetic field interference patterns in the supercurrent inform on possible mechanisms mediating this supercurrent.

  7. Type II InAs/GaAsSb quantum dots: Highly tunable exciton geometry and topology

    SciTech Connect

    Llorens, J. M.; Wewior, L.; Cardozo de Oliveira, E. R.; Alén, B.; Ulloa, J. M.; Utrilla, A. D.; Guzmán, A.; Hierro, A.

    2015-11-02

    External control over the electron and hole wavefunctions geometry and topology is investigated in a p-i-n diode embedding a dot-in-a-well InAs/GaAsSb quantum structure with type II band alignment. We find highly tunable exciton dipole moments and largely decoupled exciton recombination and ionization dynamics. We also predicted a bias regime where the hole wavefunction topology changes continuously from quantum dot-like to quantum ring-like as a function of the external bias. All these properties have great potential in advanced electro-optical applications and in the investigation of fundamental spin-orbit phenomena.

  8. Influence of temperature and photon energy on quantum yield of photoemission from real iron surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momose, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Sakurai, Takao; Nakayama, Keiji

    2014-07-01

    The influence of temperature and incident photon energy on the photoemission quantum yield, Y s, of real iron surfaces has been investigated by thermally assisted photoemission (TAPE). Measurements were carried out using a Geiger counter under a gaseous atmosphere of He containing 1 % isobutane vapor at normal atmospheric pressure in the temperature range 25-353 °C under UV irradiation with wavelengths of 200, 210, 220, and 230 nm. The Y s obtained under irradiation at a given wavelength was found to increase with temperature, particularly more rapidly with wavelengths of greater photon energy. From the Arrhenius plots, the Y s values were found to have activation energies of 0.112-0.040 eV, depending on the photon energy. The chemical composition of the surfaces after TAPE measurements at different temperatures was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The intensity of species thermally removed from the surface was also measured by temperature desorption spectroscopy (TDS). XPS and TDS results showed the removal of the surface water and weakly bound carbon material from the surface with temperature. It was concluded that the removal of these species with increasing temperature enabled the incident light to penetrate through the surface into the metal, causing the increase in the Y s. The dependence of the activation energies on the photon energy was explained by the change of UV light absorption spectra of the surface water, and the enhancement of the Y s with temperature was also attributed to the influence of iron cations (Fe3+) corresponding to positive holes produced in the surface oxide layer by UV light.

  9. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. II. Sticking

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfanti, Matteo; Jackson, Bret; Hughes, Keith H.; Burghardt, Irene

    2015-09-28

    Following our recent system-bath modeling of the interaction between a hydrogen atom and a graphene surface [Bonfanti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 124703 (2015)], we present the results of converged quantum scattering calculations on the activated sticking dynamics. The focus of this study is the collinear scattering on a surface at zero temperature, which is treated with high-dimensional wavepacket propagations with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. At low collision energies, barrier-crossing dominates the sticking and any projectile that overcomes the barrier gets trapped in the chemisorption well. However, at high collision energies, energy transfer to the surface is a limiting factor, and fast H atoms hardly dissipate their excess energy and stick on the surface. As a consequence, the sticking coefficient is maximum (∼0.65) at an energy which is about one and half larger than the barrier height. Comparison of the results with classical and quasi-classical calculations shows that quantum fluctuations of the lattice play a primary role in the dynamics. A simple impulsive model describing the collision of a classical projectile with a quantum surface is developed which reproduces the quantum results remarkably well for all but the lowest energies, thereby capturing the essential physics of the activated sticking dynamics investigated.

  10. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. II. Sticking.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Matteo; Jackson, Bret; Hughes, Keith H; Burghardt, Irene; Martinazzo, Rocco

    2015-09-28

    Following our recent system-bath modeling of the interaction between a hydrogen atom and a graphene surface [Bonfanti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 124703 (2015)], we present the results of converged quantum scattering calculations on the activated sticking dynamics. The focus of this study is the collinear scattering on a surface at zero temperature, which is treated with high-dimensional wavepacket propagations with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. At low collision energies, barrier-crossing dominates the sticking and any projectile that overcomes the barrier gets trapped in the chemisorption well. However, at high collision energies, energy transfer to the surface is a limiting factor, and fast H atoms hardly dissipate their excess energy and stick on the surface. As a consequence, the sticking coefficient is maximum (∼0.65) at an energy which is about one and half larger than the barrier height. Comparison of the results with classical and quasi-classical calculations shows that quantum fluctuations of the lattice play a primary role in the dynamics. A simple impulsive model describing the collision of a classical projectile with a quantum surface is developed which reproduces the quantum results remarkably well for all but the lowest energies, thereby capturing the essential physics of the activated sticking dynamics investigated. PMID:26429029

  11. Measurement of quantum yield of up-conversion Luminescence in Er(3+)-doped nano-glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, V D; Tikhomirov, V K; Méndez-Ramos, J; del-Castillo, J; Görller-Walrand, C

    2009-03-01

    A measurement of quantum yield of up-conversion luminescence has been done for the Er(3+)-doped transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics 32(SiO,)9(AlO1.5)31.5(CdF2)18.5(PbF2)5.5(ZnF2): 3.5(ErF3) mol%, where most of Er3+ dopants partition in 8 nm diameter nano-crystals Er10Pb25F65. The yield was found by newly proposed method using the pump power dependence of the resonant luminescence. The result of the measurement points out that a theoretical maximum of 50% may be reached for the up-conversion luminescence yield in this material. This high yield is shown to be due to low phonon energy and short inter-dopant distances in the nano-crystals.

  12. Rigidifying Fluorescent Linkers by Metal–Organic Framework Formation for Fluorescence Blue Shift and Quantum Yield Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhangwen; Gu, Zhi-Yuan; Arvapally, Ravi K.; Chen, Ying-Pin; Ivy, Joshua F.; Yakovenko, Andrey A.; Feng, Dawei; Omary, Mohammad A.; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2014-06-11

    We demonstrate that rigidifying the structure of fluorescent linkers by structurally constraining them in metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) to control their conformation effectively tunes the fluorescence energy and enhances the quantum yield. Thus, a new tetraphenylethylene-based zirconium MOF exhibits a deep-blue fluorescent emission at 470 nm with a unity quantum yield (99.9 ± 0.5%) under Ar, representing ca. 3600 cm⁻¹ blue shift and doubled radiative decay efficiency vs the linker precursor. An anomalous increase in the fluorescence lifetime and relative intensity takes place upon heating the solid MOF from cryogenic to ambient temperatures. The origin of these unusual photoluminescence properties is attributed to twisted linker conformation, intramolecular hindrance, and framework rigidity.

  13. Rigidifying Fluorescent Linkers by Metal-Organic Framework Formation for Fluorescence Blue Shift and Quantum Yield Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, ZW; Gu, ZY; Arvapally, RK; Chen, YP; McDougald, RN; Ivy, JF; Yakovenko, AA; Feng, DW; Omary, MA; Zhou, HC

    2014-06-11

    We demonstrate that rigidifying the structure of fluorescent linkers by structurally constraining them in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to control their conformation effectively tunes the fluorescence energy and enhances the quantum yield. Thus, a new tetraphenylethylene-based zirconium MOF exhibits a deep-blue fluorescent emission at 470 nm with a unity quantum yield (99.9 +/- 0.5%) under Ar, representing ca. 3600 cm(-1) blue shift and doubled radiative decay efficiency vs the linker precursor. An anomalous increase in the fluorescence lifetime and relative intensity takes place upon heating the solid MOF from cryogenic to ambient temperatures. The origin of these unusual photoluminescence properties is attributed to twisted linker conformation, intramolecular hindrance, and framework rigidity.

  14. Challenge to the Charging Model of Semiconductor-Nanocrystal Fluorescence Intermittency from Off-State Quantum Yields and Multiexciton Blinking

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jing; Nair, Gautham; Fisher, Brent R.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2010-04-16

    Semiconductor nanocrystals emit light intermittently; i.e., they “blink,” under steady illumination. The dark periods have been widely assumed to be due to photoluminescence (PL) quenching by an Auger-like process involving a single additional charge present in the nanocrystal. Our results challenge this long-standing assumption. Close examination of exciton PL intensity time traces of single CdSe(CdZnS) core(shell) nanocrystals reveals that the dark state PL quantum yield can be 10 times less than the biexciton PL quantum yield. In addition, we observe spectrally resolved multiexciton emission and find that it also blinks with an on/off ratio greater than 10:1 . These results directly contradict the predictions of the charging model.

  15. Calculated quantum yield of photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the Marine Light-Mixed Layers (59 deg N, 21 deg W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L.; Lee, Z. P.; Marra, John; Steward, R. G.; Perry, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    The quantum yield of photosynthesis (mol C/mol photons) was calculated at six depths for the waters of the Marine Light-Mixed Layer (MLML) cruise of May 1991. As there were photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) but no spectral irradiance measurements for the primary production incubations, three ways are presented here for the calculation of the absorbed photons (AP) by phytoplankton for the purpose of calculating phi. The first is based on a simple, nonspectral model; the second is based on a nonlinear regression using measured PAR values with depth; and the third is derived through remote sensing measurements. We show that the results of phi calculated using the nonlinear regreesion method and those using remote sensing are in good agreement with each other, and are consistent with the reported values of other studies. In deep waters, however, the simple nonspectral model may cause quantum yield values much higher than theoretically possible.

  16. Silicon Nanoparticles with Surface Nitrogen: 90% Quantum Yield with Narrow Luminescence Bandwidth and the Ligand Structure Based Energy Law.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Luo, Tian-Yi; Zhou, Meng; Abroshan, Hadi; Huang, Jingchun; Kim, Hyung J; Rosi, Nathaniel L; Shao, Zhengzhong; Jin, Rongchao

    2016-09-27

    Silicon nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely accepted as an alternative material for typical quantum dots and commercial organic dyes in light-emitting and bioimaging applications owing to silicon's intrinsic merits of least toxicity, low cost, and high abundance. However, to date, how to improve Si nanoparticle photoluminescence (PL) performance (such as ultrahigh quantum yield, sharp emission peak, high stability) is still a major issue. Herein, we report surface nitrogen-capped Si NPs with PL quantum yield up to 90% and narrow PL bandwidth (full width at half-maximum (fwhm) ≈ 40 nm), which can compete with commercial dyes and typical quantum dots. Comprehensive studies have been conducted to unveil the influence of particle size, structure, and amount of surface ligand on the PL of Si NPs. Especially, a general ligand-structure-based PL energy law for surface nitrogen-capped Si NPs is identified in both experimental and theoretical analyses, and the underlying PL mechanisms are further discussed. PMID:27548639

  17. Linear optical implementation of ancilla-free 1{yields}3 optimal phase covariant quantum cloning machines for the equatorial qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Zou Xubo; Mathis, W.

    2005-08-15

    We propose experimental schemes to implement ancilla-free 1{yields}3 optimal phase covariant quantum cloning machines for x-y and x-z equatorial qubits by interfering a polarized photon, which we wish to clone, with different light resources at a six-port symmetric beam splitter. The scheme requires linear optical elements and three-photon coincidence detection, and is feasible with current experimental technology.

  18. Can we Predict Quantum Yields Using Excited State Density Functional Theory for New Families of Fluorescent Dyes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Alexander W.; Lin, Zhou; Shepherd, James J.; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2016-06-01

    For a fluorescent dye, the quantum yield characterizes the efficiency of energy transfer from the absorbed light to the emitted fluorescence. In the screening among potential families of dyes, those with higher quantum yields are expected to have more advantages. From the perspective of theoreticians, an efficient prediction of the quantum yield using a universal excited state electronic structure theory is in demand but still challenging. The most representative examples for such excited state theory include time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham (ROKS). In the present study, we explore the possibility of predicting the quantum yields for conventional and new families of organic dyes using a combination of TDDFT and ROKS. We focus on radiative (kr) and nonradiative (knr) rates for the decay of the first singlet excited state (S_1) into the ground state (S_0) in accordance with Kasha's rule. M. Kasha, Discuss. Faraday Soc., 9, 14 (1950). For each dye compound, kr is calculated with the S_1-S_0 energy gap and transition dipole moment obtained using ROKS and TDDFT respectively at the relaxed S_1 geometry. Our predicted kr agrees well with the experimental value, so long as the order of energy levels is correctly predicted. Evaluation of knr is less straightforward as multiple processes are involved. Our study focuses on the S_1-T_1 intersystem crossing (ISC) and the S_1-S_0 internal conversion (IC): we investigate the properties that allow us to model the knr value using a Marcus-like expression, such as the Stokes shift, the reorganization energy, and the S_1-T_1 and S_1-S_0 energy gaps. Taking these factors into consideration, we compare our results with those obtained using the actual Marcus theory and provide explanation for discrepancy. T. Kowalczyk, T. Tsuchimochi, L. Top, P.-T. Chen, and T. Van Voorhis, J. Chem. Phys., 138, 164101 (2013). M. Kasha, Discuss. Faraday Soc., 9, 14 (1950).

  19. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S.; Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joel

    2014-06-28

    Post-depositional processes alter nitrate concentration and nitrate isotopic composition in the top layers of snow at sites with low snow accumulation rates, such as Dome C, Antarctica. Available nitrate ice core records can provide input for studying past atmospheres and climate if such processes are understood. It has been shown that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack plays a major role in nitrate loss and that the photolysis products have a significant influence on the local troposphere as well as on other species in the snow. Reported quantum yields for the main reaction spans orders of magnitude – apparently a result of whether nitrate is located at the air-ice interface or in the ice matrix – constituting the largest uncertainty in models of snowpack NO{sub x} emissions. Here, a laboratory study is presented that uses snow from Dome C and minimizes effects of desorption and recombination by flushing the snow during irradiation with UV light. A selection of UV filters allowed examination of the effects of the 200 and 305 nm absorption bands of nitrate. Nitrate concentration and photon flux were measured in the snow. The quantum yield for loss of nitrate was observed to decrease from 0.44 to 0.003 within what corresponds to days of UV exposure in Antarctica. The superposition of photolysis in two photochemical domains of nitrate in snow is proposed: one of photolabile nitrate, and one of buried nitrate. The difference lies in the ability of reaction products to escape the snow crystal, versus undergoing secondary (recombination) chemistry. Modeled NO{sub x} emissions may increase significantly above measured values due to the observed quantum yield in this study. The apparent quantum yield in the 200 nm band was found to be ∼1%, much lower than reported for aqueous chemistry. A companion paper presents an analysis of the change in isotopic composition of snowpack nitrate based on the same samples as in this study.

  20. Quantum diffusion with drift and the Einstein relation. II

    SciTech Connect

    De Roeck, Wojciech; Fröhlich, Jürg; Schnelli, Kevin

    2014-07-15

    This paper is a companion to Paper I [W. De Roeck, J. Fröhlich, and K. Schnelli, “Quantum diffusion with drift and the Einstein relation. I,” J. Math. Phys. 55, 075206 (2014)]. The purpose of this paper is to describe and prove a certain number of technical results used in Paper I, but not proven there. Both papers concern long-time properties (diffusion, drift) of the motion of a driven quantum particle coupled to an array of thermal reservoirs. The main technical results derived in the present paper are: (1) an asymptotic perturbation theory applicable for small driving force, and (2) the construction of time-dependent correlation functions of particle observables.

  1. Biosolar cells: global artificial photosynthesis needs responsive matrices with quantum coherent kinetic control for high yield

    PubMed Central

    Purchase, R. L.; de Groot, H. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution discusses why we should consider developing artificial photosynthesis with the tandem approach followed by the Dutch BioSolar Cells consortium, a current operational paradigm for a global artificial photosynthesis project. We weigh the advantages and disadvantages of a tandem converter against other approaches, including biomass. Owing to the low density of solar energy per unit area, artificial photosynthetic systems must operate at high efficiency to minimize the land (or sea) area required. In particular, tandem converters are a much better option than biomass for densely populated countries and use two photons per electron extracted from water as the raw material into chemical conversion to hydrogen, or carbon-based fuel when CO2 is also used. For the average total light sum of 40 mol m−2 d−1 for The Netherlands, the upper limits are many tons of hydrogen or carbon-based fuel per hectare per year. A principal challenge is to forge materials for quantitative conversion of photons to chemical products within the physical limitation of an internal potential of ca 2.9 V. When going from electric charge in the tandem to hydrogen and back to electricity, only the energy equivalent to 1.23 V can be stored in the fuel and regained. A critical step is then to learn from nature how to use the remaining difference of ca 1.7 V effectively by triple use of one overpotential for preventing recombination, kinetic stabilization of catalytic intermediates and finally generating targeted heat for the release of oxygen. Probably the only way to achieve this is by using bioinspired responsive matrices that have quantum–classical pathways for a coherent conversion of photons to fuels, similar to what has been achieved by natural selection in evolution. In appendix A for the expert, we derive a propagator that describes how catalytic reactions can proceed coherently by a convergence of time scales of quantum electron dynamics and classical nuclear dynamics

  2. Quantum Bio-Informatics II From Quantum Information to Bio-Informatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, L.; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori

    2009-02-01

    The problem of quantum-like representation in economy cognitive science, and genetics / L. Accardi, A. Khrennikov and M. Ohya -- Chaotic behavior observed in linea dynamics / M. Asano, T. Yamamoto and Y. Togawa -- Complete m-level quantum teleportation based on Kossakowski-Ohya scheme / M. Asano, M. Ohya and Y. Tanaka -- Towards quantum cybernetics: optimal feedback control in quantum bio informatics / V. P. Belavkin -- Quantum entanglement and circulant states / D. Chruściński -- The compound Fock space and its application in brain models / K. -H. Fichtner and W. Freudenberg -- Characterisation of beam splitters / L. Fichtner and M. Gäbler -- Application of entropic chaos degree to a combined quantum baker's map / K. Inoue, M. Ohya and I. V. Volovich -- On quantum algorithm for multiple alignment of amino acid sequences / S. Iriyama and M. Ohya --Quantum-like models for decision making in psychology and cognitive science / A. Khrennikov -- On completely positive non-Markovian evolution of a d-level system / A. Kossakowski and R. Rebolledo -- Measures of entanglement - a Hilbert space approach / W. A. Majewski -- Some characterizations of PPT states and their relation / T. Matsuoka -- On the dynamics of entanglement and characterization ofentangling properties of quantum evolutions / M. Michalski -- Perspective from micro-macro duality - towards non-perturbative renormalization scheme / I. Ojima -- A simple symmetric algorithm using a likeness with Introns behavior in RNA sequences / M. Regoli -- Some aspects of quadratic generalized white noise functionals / Si Si and T. Hida -- Analysis of several social mobility data using measure of departure from symmetry / K. Tahata ... [et al.] -- Time in physics and life science / I. V. Volovich -- Note on entropies in quantum processes / N. Watanabe -- Basics of molecular simulation and its application to biomolecules / T. Ando and I. Yamato -- Theory of proton-induced superionic conduction in hydrogen-bonded systems

  3. Quantum Efficiency Characterization and Optimization of a Tungsten Transition-Edge Sensor for ALPS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastidon, Noëmie; Horns, Dieter; Lindner, Axel

    2016-07-01

    The ALPS II experiment, Any Light Particle Search II at DESY in Hamburg, will look for sub-eV mass new fundamental bosons (e.g., axion-like particles, hidden photons, and other weakly interacting sub-eV particles) in the next years by means of a light-shining-through-wall setup. The ALPS II photosensor is a tungsten transition-edge sensor (W-TES) optimized for 1064 nm photons. This TES, operated at 80 mK, has already allowed single infrared photon detections as well as non-dispersive spectroscopy with very low background rates. The demonstrated quantum efficiency for such TES is up to 95 % (1064 nm) as has been already demonstrated by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. A back-to-back measurement of the ALPS TES quantum efficiency using a calibrated charge-coupled device camera has lead to a first estimation of 30 %. Improvement methods are discussed.

  4. Highly efficient visual detection of trace copper(II) and protein by the quantum photoelectric effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Lei, Jianping; Su, Mengqi; Liu, Yueting; Hao, Qing; Ju, Huangxian

    2013-09-17

    This work presented a photocurrent response mechanism of quantum dots (QDs) under illumination with the concept of a quantum photoelectric effect. Upon irradiation, the photoelectron could directly escape from QDs. By using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) to capture the photoelectron, a new visual system was proposed due to the formation of an insoluble reduction product, purple formazan, which could be used to visualize the quantum photoelectric effect. The interaction of copper(II) with QDs could form trapping sites to interfere with the quantum confinement and thus blocked the escape of photoelectron, leading to a "signal off" visual method for sensitive copper(II) detection. Meanwhile, by using QDs as a signal tag to label antibody, a "signal on" visual method was also proposed for immunoassay of corresponding protein. With meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic-capped CdTe QDs and carcino-embryonic antigen as models, the proposed visual detection methods showed high sensitivity, low detection limit, and wide detectable concentration ranges. The visualization of quantum photoelectric effect could be simply extended for the detection of other targets. This work opens a new visual detection way and provides a highly efficient tool for bioanalysis.

  5. Experimental Measurements of the Secondary Electron Yield in the Experimental Measurement of the Secondary Electron Yield in the PEP-II Particle Accelerator Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.T.F.; Collet, G.; King, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Markiewicz, T.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Seeman, J.; Le Pimpec, F.; /PSI, Villigen

    2010-08-25

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders (LC) such as ILC and CLIC. To test a series of promising possible electron cloud mitigation techniques as surface coatings and grooves, in the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed several test vacuum chambers including (i) a special chamber to monitor the variation of the secondary electron yield of technical surface materials and coatings under the effect of ion, electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line; (ii) chambers with grooves in a straight magnetic-free section; and (iii) coated chambers in a dedicated newly installed 4-magnet chicane to study mitigations in a magnetic field region. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R&D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the LC damping ring, focusing on the first experimental area and on results of the reduction of the secondary electron yield due to in situ conditioning.

  6. Mapping quantum yield for (Fe-Zn-Sn-Ti)Ox photoabsorbers using a high throughput photoelectrochemical screening system.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Chengxiang; Haber, Joel; Marcin, Martin; Mitrovic, Slobodan; Jin, Jian; Gregoire, John M

    2014-03-10

    Combinatorial synthesis and screening of light absorbers are critical to material discoveries for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical applications. One of the most effective ways to evaluate the energy-conversion properties of a semiconducting light absorber is to form an asymmetric junction and investigate the photogeneration, transport and recombination processes at the semiconductor interface. This standard photoelectrochemical measurement is readily made on a semiconductor sample with a back-side metallic contact (working electrode) and front-side solution contact. In a typical combinatorial material library, each sample shares a common back contact, requiring novel instrumentation to provide spatially resolved and thus sample-resolved measurements. We developed a multiplexing counter electrode with a thin layer assembly, in which a rectifying semiconductor/liquid junction was formed and the short-circuit photocurrent was measured under chopped illumination for each sample in a material library. The multiplexing counter electrode assembly demonstrated a photocurrent sensitivity of sub-10 μA cm(-2) with an external quantum yield sensitivity of 0.5% for each semiconductor sample under a monochromatic ultraviolet illumination source. The combination of cell architecture and multiplexing allows high-throughput modes of operation, including both fast-serial and parallel measurements. To demonstrate the performance of the instrument, the external quantum yields of 1819 different compositions from a pseudoquaternary metal oxide library, (Fe-Zn-Sn-Ti)Ox, at 385 nm were collected in scanning serial mode with a throughput of as fast as 1 s per sample. Preliminary screening results identified a promising ternary composition region centered at Fe0.894Sn0.103Ti0.0034Ox, with an external quantum yield of 6.7% at 385 nm.

  7. In cellulo Evaluation of Phototransformation Quantum Yields in Fluorescent Proteins Used As Markers for Single-Molecule Localization Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Avilov, Sergiy; Berardozzi, Romain; Gunewardene, Mudalige S.; Adam, Virgile; Hess, Samuel T.; Bourgeois, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule localization microscopy of biological samples requires a precise knowledge of the employed fluorescent labels. Photoactivation, photoblinking and photobleaching of phototransformable fluorescent proteins influence the data acquisition and data processing strategies to be used in (Fluorescence) Photoactivation Localization Microscopy ((F)-PALM), notably for reliable molecular counting. As these parameters might depend on the local environment, they should be measured in cellulo in biologically relevant experimental conditions. Here, we measured phototransformation quantum yields for Dendra2 fused to actin in fixed mammalian cells in typical (F)-PALM experiments. To this aim, we developed a data processing strategy based on the clustering optimization procedure proposed by Lee et al (PNAS 109, 17436–17441, 2012). Using simulations, we estimated the range of experimental parameters (molecular density, molecular orientation, background level, laser power, frametime) adequate for an accurate determination of the phototransformation yields. Under illumination at 561 nm in PBS buffer at pH 7.4, the photobleaching yield of Dendra2 fused to actin was measured to be (2.5±0.4)×10−5, whereas the blinking-off yield and thermally-activated blinking-on rate were measured to be (2.3±0.2)×10−5 and 11.7±0.5 s−1, respectively. These phototransformation yields differed from those measured in poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) and were strongly affected by addition of the antifading agent 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO). In the presence of DABCO, the photobleaching yield was reduced 2-fold, the blinking-off yield was decreased more than 3-fold, and the blinking-on rate was increased 2-fold. Therefore, DABCO largely improved Dendra2 photostability in fixed mammalian cells. These findings are consistent with redox-based bleaching and blinking mechanisms under (F)-PALM experimental conditions. Finally, the green-to-red photoconversion quantum yield of Dendra2 was

  8. CO quantum yield in the photolysis of CO2 at wavelength 1470 and wavelengths 1500-1670.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inn, E. C. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The results of carbon monoxide quantum yield measurements of carbon dioxide photolysis by radiation at 1470 A and in the region from 1500 to 1670 A are presented in tabular form. The experimental technique and equipment developed by Inn and Heimerl (1971) were used. These measurements, together with some previously reported ones for a longer wavelength region, are intended to provide a uniform set of values based on the same experimental technique for the entire spectral region that is relevant to the carbon-dioxide photochemistry in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus.

  9. ``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, William; Reimer, Tyle

    2015-05-01

    A ``simplest molecule'' consisting of CW- laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity from poster board - I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and antimatter. Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: ``All colors go c.''

  10. "simplest Molecule" Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, T. C.; Harter, W. G.

    2014-06-01

    A "simplest molecule" consisting of CW-laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity in Talk I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and anti-matter. *Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: "All colors go c."

  11. Vortex states and quantum magnetic oscillations in conventional type-II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniv, Tsofar; Zhuravlev, Vladimir; Vagner, Israel; Wyder, Peter

    2001-10-01

    The theory of pure type-II superconductors at high magnetic fields and low temperatures has recently attracted much attention due to the discovery of de Haas-van Alphen oscillations deep in the vortex state. In this article the authors review the state of the art in this rapidly growing new field of research. The very existence of quantum magnetic oscillations deep in the vortex state poses challenging questions to the theorists working in this field. For a conventional extreme type-II superconductor in magnetic fields just below the upper critical field Hc2, the quasiparticle spectrum is gapless and the de Haas-van Alphen effect is suppressed with respect to the corresponding normal-state signal due to superconducting induced currents near the vortex cores, which are of paramagnetic nature. Numerical simulations of the quasiparticle band structure in the Abrikosov vortex lattice show the existence of well-separated Landau bands below Hc2. An analytical perturbative approach, which emphasizes the importance of phase coherence in quasiparticle scattering by the pair potential in the Abrikosov lattice, predicts a relatively weak magnetic breakdown of the corresponding cyclotron orbits. In contrast to the situation in the Abrikosov lattice state, a theory based on a random vortex lattice model yields large exponential decay of the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations with the superconducting order parameter below Hc2. The disordered nature of the vortex state near Hc2 in real superconductors, where long-range phase coherence in the superconducting order parameter is destroyed, could explain the success of this model in interpreting experimental data below Hc2. In the Abrikosov vortex lattice state, which usually stabilizes well below Hc2, the residual damping of the de Haas-van Alphen amplitude is significantly reduced. In quasi-two-dimensional superconductors, phase fluctuations associated with sliding Bragg chains along principal axes in the vortex lattice lead to a weak

  12. Active and silent chromophore isoforms for phytochrome Pr photoisomerization: An alternative evolutionary strategy to optimize photoreaction quantum yields.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Linke, Martin; von Haimberger, Theodore; Matute, Ricardo; González, Leticia; Schmieder, Peter; Heyne, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Photoisomerization of a protein bound chromophore is the basis of light sensing of many photoreceptors. We tracked Z-to-E photoisomerization of Cph1 phytochrome chromophore PCB in the Pr form in real-time. Two different phycocyanobilin (PCB) ground state geometries with different ring D orientations have been identified. The pre-twisted and hydrogen bonded PCB(a) geometry exhibits a time constant of 30 ps and a quantum yield of photoproduct formation of 29%, about six times slower and ten times higher than that for the non-hydrogen bonded PCB(b) geometry. This new mechanism of pre-twisting the chromophore by protein-cofactor interaction optimizes yields of slow photoreactions and provides a scaffold for photoreceptor engineering. PMID:26798771

  13. Photocapacitance study of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum ring solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wagener, M. C.; Botha, J. R.; Carrington, P. J.; Krier, A.

    2014-01-07

    In this study, the density of states associated with the localization of holes in GaSb/GaAs quantum rings are determined by the energy selective charging of the quantum ring distribution. The authors show, using conventional photocapacitance measurements, that the excess charge accumulated within the type-II nanostructures increases with increasing excitation energies for photon energies above 0.9 eV. Optical excitation between the localized hole states and the conduction band is therefore not limited to the Γ(k = 0) point, with pseudo-monochromatic light charging all states lying within the photon energy selected. The energy distribution of the quantum ring states could consequently be accurately related from the excitation dependence of the integrated photocapacitance. The resulting band of localized hole states is shown to be well described by a narrow distribution centered 407 meV above the GaAs valence band maximum.

  14. Time-dependent toroidal compactification proposals and the Bianchi type II model: Classical and quantum solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, J.; Toledo Sesma, L.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we construct an effective four-dimensional model by compactifying a ten-dimensional theory of gravity coupled with a real scalar dilaton field on a time-dependent torus without the contributions of fluxes as first approximation. This approach is applied to anisotropic cosmological Bianchi type II model for which we study the classical coupling of the anisotropic scale factors with the two real scalar moduli produced by the compactification process. Also, we present some solutions to the corresponding Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) equation in the context of Standard Quantum Cosmology and we claim that these quantum solution are generic in the moduli scalar field for all Bianchi Class A models. Also we give the relation to these solutions for asymptotic behavior to large argument in the corresponding quantum solution in the gravitational variables and compare with Bohm's solutions, finding that this corresponds to the lowest-order WKB approximation.

  15. Microscopic Modeling of Intersubband Optical Processes in Type II Semiconductor Quantum Wells: Linear Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Kolokolov, Kanstantin I.; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Linear absorption spectra arising from intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum well heterostructures are analyzed using quantum kinetic theory by treating correlations to the first order within Hartree-Fock approximation. The resulting intersubband semiconductor Bloch equations take into account extrinsic dephasing contributions, carrier-longitudinal optical phonon interaction and carrier-interface roughness interaction which is considered with Ando s theory. As input for resonance lineshape calculation, a spurious-states-free 8-band kp Hamiltonian is used, in conjunction with the envelop function approximation, to compute self-consistently the energy subband structure of electrons in type II InAs/AlSb single quantum well structures. We demonstrate the interplay of nonparabolicity and many-body effects in the mid-infrared frequency range for such heterostructures.

  16. Nonvolatile Memories Using Quantum Dot (QD) Floating Gates Assembled on II-VI Tunnel Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, E.; Gogna, M.; Al-Amoody, F.; Karmakar, S.; Ayers, J.; Heller, E.; Jain, F.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents preliminary data on quantum dot gate nonvolatile memories using nearly lattice-matched ZnS/Zn0.95Mg0.05S/ZnS tunnel insulators. The GeO x -cladded Ge and SiO x -cladded Si quantum dots (QDs) are self-assembled site-specifically on the II-VI insulator grown epitaxially over the Si channel (formed between the source and drain region). The pseudomorphic II-VI stack serves both as a tunnel insulator and a high- κ dielectric. The effect of Mg incorporation in ZnMgS is also investigated. For the control gate insulator, we have used Si3N4 and SiO2 layers grown by plasma- enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  17. Ultrafast dynamics of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Komolibus, K.; Piwonski, T.; Gradkowski, K.; Reyner, C. J.; Liang, B.; Huffaker, D. L.; Huyet, G.; Houlihan, J.

    2015-01-19

    In this paper, room temperature two-colour pump-probe spectroscopy is employed to study ultrafast carrier dynamics in type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots. Our results demonstrate a strong dependency of carrier capture/escape processes on applied reverse bias voltage, probing wavelength and number of injected carriers. The extracted timescales as a function of both forward and reverse bias may provide important information for the design of efficient solar cells and quantum dot memories based on this material. The first few picoseconds of the dynamics reveal a complex behaviour with an interesting feature, which does not appear in devices based on type-I materials, and hence is linked to the unique carrier capture/escape processes possible in type-II structures.

  18. Ultrafast dynamics of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komolibus, K.; Piwonski, T.; Gradkowski, K.; Reyner, C. J.; Liang, B.; Huyet, G.; Huffaker, D. L.; Houlihan, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, room temperature two-colour pump-probe spectroscopy is employed to study ultrafast carrier dynamics in type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots. Our results demonstrate a strong dependency of carrier capture/escape processes on applied reverse bias voltage, probing wavelength and number of injected carriers. The extracted timescales as a function of both forward and reverse bias may provide important information for the design of efficient solar cells and quantum dot memories based on this material. The first few picoseconds of the dynamics reveal a complex behaviour with an interesting feature, which does not appear in devices based on type-I materials, and hence is linked to the unique carrier capture/escape processes possible in type-II structures.

  19. Quantum Entanglement in the Genome? The Role of Quantum Effects in Catalytic Synchronization of Type II Restriction Endonucleases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, P.

    Several living systems have been examined for their exhibition of macroscopic quantum effects, showcasing biology's apparent optimization of structure and function for quantum behavior. Prevalent in lower organisms with analogues in eukaryotes, type II restriction endonucleases are the largest class of restriction enzymes. Orthodox type II endonucleases recognize four-to-eight base pair sequences of palindromic DNA, cut both strands symmetrically, and act without an external metabolite such as ATP. While it is known that these enzymes induce strand breaks by nucleophilic attack on opposing phosphodiester bonds of the DNA helix, what remains unclear is the mechanism by which cutting occurs in concert at the catalytic centers. Previous studies indicate the primacy of intimate DNA contacts made by the specifically bound enzyme in coordinating the two synchronized cuts. We propose that collective electronic behavior in the DNA helix generates coherent oscillations---quantized through boundary conditions imposed by the endonuclease---that provide the energy required to break two phosphodiester bonds. Such quanta may be preserved in the presence of thermal noise and electromagnetic interference through the specific complex's exclusion of water and ions surrounding the helix, with the enzyme serving as a decoherence shield. Clamping energy imparted by the decoherence shield is comparable with zero-point modes of the dipole-dipole oscillations in the DNA recognition sequence. The palindromic mirror symmetry of this sequence should conserve parity during the process. Experimental data corroborate that symmetric bond-breaking ceases when the symmetry of the endonuclease complex is violated, or when environmental parameters are perturbed far from biological optima. Persistent correlation between states in DNA sequence across spatial separations of any length---a characteristic signature of quantum entanglement---may be explained by such a physical mechanism.

  20. Quantum Chemical Studies on the Prediction of Structures, Charge Distributions and Vibrational Spectra of Some Ni(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II) Iodide Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardakci, Tayyibe; Kumru, Mustafa; Altun, Ahmet

    2016-06-01

    Transition metal complexes play an important role in coordination chemistry as well as in the formation of metal-based drugs. In order to obtain accurate results for studying these type of complexes quantum chemical studies are performed and especially density functional theory (DFT) has become a promising choice. This talk represents molecular structures, charge distributions and vibrational analysis of Ni(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II) iodide complexes of p-toluidine and m-toluidine by means of DFT. Stable structures of the ligands and the related complexes have been obtained in the gas phase at B3LYP/def2-TZVP level and calculations predict Ni(II) complexes as distorted polymeric octahedral whereas Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes as distorted tetrahedral geometries. Charge distribution analysis have been performed by means of Mulliken, NBO and APT methods and physically most meaningful method for our compounds is explained. Vibrational spectra of the title compounds are computed from the optimized geometries and theoretical frequencies are compared with the previously obtained experimental data. Since coordination occurs via nitrogen atoms of the free ligands, N-H stretching bands of the ligands are shifted towards lower wavenumbers in the complexes whereas NH_2 wagging and twisting vibrations are shifted towards higher wavenumbers.

  1. Cathodoluminescence from II-VI quantum well light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, Alexey Yuriyevich

    The objectives of the present research were to advance understanding of luminescence degradation, defects, and bias-dependent carrier confinement and transport in ZnCd(Mg)Se-based quantum well (QW) LED structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Most data were obtained from three LED samples. One was a ZnCdSe QW-based red LED with Au coating on top, and two were ZnCdMgSe QW-based blue LEDs with Au coating or Au dots on top. Optical and carrier confinement properties were characterized by time-resolved and bias-dependent cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy and imaging. Electrical behavior was characterized by I-V and electroluminescence (EL) measurements. Both reversible and irreversible effects of bias and electron bombardment on luminescence were observed. Reversible effects were QW CL energy shifts and QW CL intensity changes during bias cycling. No EL was detected from the blue LEDs. Irreversible effects were QW CL decreases for the red LED and QW CL intensity enhancements for the blue LEDs. Reversible effects of bias on CL were simulated using a model incorporating generation and transport of excess carriers, overlap of the electron and hole wave functions, carrier escape, and competition between radiative and nonradiative processes. Ground state energy levels of carriers in the QW heterostructure were calculated in the effective mass and envelope function approximations. Modification of energy levels and wave functions by bias was calculated for both infinite and finite QWs. The finite QW simulations predict the reversible bias-dependent CL intensity behaviors seen experimentally for both red and blue LEDs. The simulations predict qualitatively, but not quantitatively, the reversible photon energy shifts with bias for the red LED. The photon energy shifts for the blue LEDs differed in both direction and magnitude from the simulations. The CL experiments have not established the cause of irreversible intensity decreases observed for the red LED during

  2. Graphene oxide-phosphor hybrid nanoscrolls with high luminescent quantum yield: synthesis, structural, and X-ray absorption studies.

    PubMed

    Rani, Janardhanan R; Oh, Se-I; Woo, Jeong Min; Tarwal, Nilesh L; Kim, Hyun-Woong; Mun, Bongjin Simon; Lee, Sungbae; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2015-03-18

    Highly luminescent graphene oxide (GO)-phosphor hybrid thin films with a maximum quantum yield of 9.6% were synthesized via a simple chemical method. An intense luminescence emission peak at 537 nm and a broad emission peak at 400 nm were observed from the GO-phosphor hybrid films. The maximum quantum yield of the emissions from the hybrid films was found to be 9.6%, which is 48 times higher than that of pristine GO films. The GO-phosphor hybrids were prepared via spin-coating and subsequent postannealing of the films, resulting in scrolling of the GO sheets. The resulting GO nanoscrolls exhibited a length of ∼2 μm with nanoscale interior cavities. Transmission electron microscopy and selected-area electron diffraction analyses revealed that the lattice structure of the tubular scrolls is similar to that of carbon nanotubes. While pristine GO films are p-type, in the GO-phosphor hybrids, the Fermi level shifted upward and fell between the HOMO-LUMO gap due to phosphor attachment via C-N bonding. The highly luminescent GO-phosphor hybrids will find important applications in graphene-based optoelectronic devices.

  3. Excitonic transitions in highly efficient (GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb) type-II quantum-well structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gies, S.; Kruska, C.; Berger, C.; Hens, P.; Fuchs, C.; Rosemann, N. W.; Veletas, J.; Stolz, W.; Koch, S. W.; Heimbrodt, W.; Ruiz Perez, A.; Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.

    2015-11-02

    The excitonic transitions of the type-II (GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb) gain medium of a “W”-laser structure are characterized experimentally by modulation spectroscopy and analyzed using microscopic quantum theory. On the basis of the very good agreement between the measured and calculated photoreflectivity, the type-I or type-II character of the observable excitonic transitions is identified. Whereas the energetically lowest three transitions exhibit type-II character, the subsequent energetically higher transitions possess type-I character with much stronger dipole moments. Despite the type-II character, the quantum-well structure exhibits a bright luminescence.

  4. Enhanced fluorescence yields through cavity quantum-electrodynamic effects in microdroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.D.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M. )

    1994-07-01

    Measurements of the integrated fluorescence yield per molecule of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) in 4--16-[mu]m-diameter levitated microdroplets show a size dependence that is attributed to a net increase in the fluorescence decay rate for the smaller (4--5-[mu]m) droplets. The average fluorescence yield in 4-[mu]m droplets (for which we have previously observed emission-rate enhancement) is approximately a factor of 2 larger than the yield measured for larger droplets for which emission-rate enhancement does not occur. These results suggest that there is little emission-rate inhibition in this system, even though the fluorescence emission spectrum overlaps several cavity resonances. A mechanism based on spectral diffusion is postulated for the apparent absence of cavity-inhibited emission and is illustrated by Monte Carlo calculations using time-dependent line-shape functions.

  5. Quantum Dot Channel (QDC) FETs with Wraparound II-VI Gate Insulators: Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, F.; Lingalugari, M.; Kondo, J.; Mirdha, P.; Suarez, E.; Chandy, J.; Heller, E.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents simulations predicting the feasibility of 9-nm wraparound quantum dot channel (QDC) field-effect transistors (FETs). In particular, II-VI lattice-matched layers which reduce the density of interface states, serving as top (tunnel gate), side, and bottom gate insulators, have been simulated. Quantum simulations show FET operation with voltage swing of ~0.2 V. Incorporation of cladded quantum dots, such as SiO x -Si and GeO x -Ge, under the gate tunnel oxide results in electrical transport in one or more quantum dot layers which form a quantum dot superlattice (QDSL). Long-channel QDC FETs have experimental multistate drain current ( I D)-gate voltage ( V G) and drain current ( I D)-drain voltage ( V D) characteristics, which can be attributed to the manifestation of extremely narrow energy minibands formed in the QDSL. An approach for modeling the multistate I D- V G characteristics is reported. The multistate characteristics of QDC FETs permit design of compact two-bit multivalued logic circuits.

  6. Spectroscopy and dynamics of charge transfer excitons in type-II band aligned quantum confined heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kushavah, Dushyant; Mohapatra, P. K.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P.; Rustagi, K. C.; Bahadur, D.

    2015-05-15

    We illustrate effect of charge transfer (CT) in type-II quantum confined heterostructure by comparing CdSe quantum dots (QDs), CdSe/CdTe heterostructure quantum dots (HQDs) and CdSe/CdTe/CdSe quantum well-quantum dots (QWQDs) heterostructures. CdSe core QDs were synthesized using a kinetic growth method where QD size depends on reaction time. For shell coating we used modified version of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Size of different QDs ∼5 to 7 nm were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Strong red shift from ∼597 to ∼746 nm in photoluminescence (PL) spectra from QDs to QWQDs shows high tunability which is not possible with single constituent semiconductor QDs. PL spectra have been recorded at different temperatures (10K-300K). Room temperature time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurements for QDs to QWQDs show three exponential radiative decay. The slowest component decay constant in QWQDs comes around eight fold to ∼51 ns as compared to ∼6.5 ns in HQD suggesting new opportunities to tailor the radiative carrier recombination rate of CT excitons.

  7. Spectroscopy and dynamics of charge transfer excitons in type-II band aligned quantum confined heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushavah, Dushyant; Mohapatra, P. K.; Rustagi, K. C.; Bahadur, D.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P.

    2015-05-01

    We illustrate effect of charge transfer (CT) in type-II quantum confined heterostructure by comparing CdSe quantum dots (QDs), CdSe/CdTe heterostructure quantum dots (HQDs) and CdSe/CdTe/CdSe quantum well-quantum dots (QWQDs) heterostructures. CdSe core QDs were synthesized using a kinetic growth method where QD size depends on reaction time. For shell coating we used modified version of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Size of different QDs ˜5 to 7 nm were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Strong red shift from ˜597 to ˜746 nm in photoluminescence (PL) spectra from QDs to QWQDs shows high tunability which is not possible with single constituent semiconductor QDs. PL spectra have been recorded at different temperatures (10K-300K). Room temperature time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurements for QDs to QWQDs show three exponential radiative decay. The slowest component decay constant in QWQDs comes around eight fold to ˜51 ns as compared to ˜6.5 ns in HQD suggesting new opportunities to tailor the radiative carrier recombination rate of CT excitons.

  8. Quantum Dot Channel (QDC) FETs with Wraparound II-VI Gate Insulators: Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, F.; Lingalugari, M.; Kondo, J.; Mirdha, P.; Suarez, E.; Chandy, J.; Heller, E.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents simulations predicting the feasibility of 9-nm wraparound quantum dot channel (QDC) field-effect transistors (FETs). In particular, II-VI lattice-matched layers which reduce the density of interface states, serving as top (tunnel gate), side, and bottom gate insulators, have been simulated. Quantum simulations show FET operation with voltage swing of ~0.2 V. Incorporation of cladded quantum dots, such as SiO x -Si and GeO x -Ge, under the gate tunnel oxide results in electrical transport in one or more quantum dot layers which form a quantum dot superlattice (QDSL). Long-channel QDC FETs have experimental multistate drain current (I D)-gate voltage (V G) and drain current (I D)-drain voltage (V D) characteristics, which can be attributed to the manifestation of extremely narrow energy minibands formed in the QDSL. An approach for modeling the multistate I D-V G characteristics is reported. The multistate characteristics of QDC FETs permit design of compact two-bit multivalued logic circuits.

  9. Isocrystalline core/shell synthesis of high quality II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots: ligand-field spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovanovic, Pavle V.; Gamelin, Daniel R.

    2002-11-01

    Ligand field electronic absorption spectroscopy has been applied as a direct probe of Co2+ dopant ions in II-VI based diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots. Synthesis of Co2+-doped CdS (Co2+:CdS) quantum dots by simple coprecipitation in inverted micelle solutions has been found to yield predominantly surface bound dopant ions, which are unstable with respect to solvation in a coordinating solvent (pyridine). The solvation kinetics are biphasic, involving two transient intermediates. In contrast, Co2+ ions are doped much more isotropically in ZnS QDs, and this difference is attributed to the similar ionic radii of Co2+ and Zn2+ ions (0.74 Å), as opposed to Cd2+ ions (0.97 Å). We have developed an isocrystalline core/shell synthetic methodology that enables us to synthesize high quality internally doped Co2+:CdS quantum dots. The effect of Co2+ binding on the surface energies of CdS and ZnS quantum dots is discussed and related to the growth mechanism of diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots.

  10. Optical anisotropy in type-II quantum wells on high-index substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kawazu, Takuya

    2014-02-07

    Optical anisotropy in type-II quantum wells (QWs) on high-index (11n) substrates is studied theoretically. By solving 6 × 6 Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian, we analyze GaSb{sub x}As{sub 1-x}/In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As type-II QWs and calculate the degree ρ of polarization at various compositions X. With increasing X, the preferential direction of the polarization is changed from [11-2/n] ([-110]) to [-110] ([11-2/n]) directions for n > 1 (n < 1). The optical anisotropy can be vanished even on high-index (11n) substrates by adjusting the composition X. These curious polarization properties are originated from the spatial separation of electrons and holes in the type-II QWs, where the overlap integral of their wave functions is strongly affected by the composition X.

  11. Photogeneration of reactive transient species upon irradiation of natural water samples: Formation quantum yields in different spectral intervals, and implications for the photochemistry of surface waters.

    PubMed

    Marchisio, Andrea; Minella, Marco; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio; Vione, Davide

    2015-04-15

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in surface waters is a photochemical source of several transient species such as CDOM triplet states ((3)CDOM*), singlet oxygen ((1)O2) and the hydroxyl radical (OH). By irradiation of lake water samples, it is shown here that the quantum yields for the formation of these transients by CDOM vary depending on the irradiation wavelength range, in the order UVB > UVA > blue. A possible explanation is that radiation at longer wavelengths is preferentially absorbed by the larger CDOM fractions, which show lesser photoactivity compared to smaller CDOM moieties. The quantum yield variations in different spectral ranges were definitely more marked for (3)CDOM* and OH compared to (1)O2. The decrease of the quantum yields with increasing wavelength has important implications for the photochemistry of surface waters, because long-wavelength radiation penetrates deeper in water columns compared to short-wavelength radiation. The average steady-state concentrations of the transients ((3)CDOM*, (1)O2 and OH) were modelled in water columns of different depths, based on the experimentally determined wavelength trends of the formation quantum yields. Important differences were found between such modelling results and those obtained in a wavelength-independent quantum yield scenario.

  12. Entangled quantum electronic wavefunctions of the Mn4CaO5 cluster in photosystem II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashige, Yuki; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Yanai, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    It is a long-standing goal to understand the reaction mechanisms of catalytic metalloenzymes at an entangled many-electron level, but this is hampered by the exponential complexity of quantum mechanics. Here, by exploiting the special structure of physical quantum states and using the density matrix renormalization group, we compute near-exact many-electron wavefunctions of the Mn4CaO5 cluster of photosystem II, with more than 1 × 1018 quantum degrees of freedom. This is the first treatment of photosystem II beyond the single-electron picture of density functional theory. Our calculations support recent modifications to the structure determined by X-ray crystallography. We further identify multiple low-lying energy surfaces associated with the structural distortion seen using X-ray crystallography, highlighting multistate reactivity in the chemistry of the cluster. Direct determination of Mn spin-projections from our wavefunctions suggests that current candidates that have been recently distinguished using parameterized spin models should be reassessed. Through entanglement maps, we reveal rich information contained in the wavefunctions on bonding changes in the cycle.

  13. Analysis of ice-binding sites in fish type II antifreeze protein by quantum mechanics.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuhua; Yang, Zuoyin; Tan, Hongwei; Liu, Ruozhuang; Chen, Guangju; Jia, Zongchao

    2002-01-01

    Many organisms living in cold environments can survive subzero temperatures by producing antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or antifreeze glycoproteins. In this paper we investigate the ice-binding surface of type II AFP by quantum mechanical methods, which, to the best of our knowledge, represents the first time that molecular orbital computational approaches have been applied to AFPs. Molecular mechanical approaches, including molecular docking, energy minimization, and molecular dynamics simulation, were used to obtain optimal systems for subsequent quantum mechanical analysis. We selected 17 surface patches covering the entire surface of the type II AFP and evaluated the interaction energy between each of these patches and two different ice planes using semi-empirical quantum mechanical methods. We have demonstrated the weak orbital overlay phenomenon and the change of bond orders in ice. These results consistently indicate that a surface patch containing 19 residues (K37, L38, Y20, E22, Y21, I19, L57, T56, F53, M127, T128, F129, R17, C7, N6, P5, G10, Q1, and W11) is the most favorable ice-binding site for both a regular ice plane and an ice plane where water O atoms are randomly positioned. Furthermore, for the first time the computation results provide new insights into the weakening of the ice lattice upon AFP binding, which may well be a primary factor leading to AFP-induced ice growth inhibition. PMID:12324437

  14. Entangled quantum electronic wavefunctions of the Mn₄CaO₅ cluster in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Kurashige, Yuki; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Yanai, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    It is a long-standing goal to understand the reaction mechanisms of catalytic metalloenzymes at an entangled many-electron level, but this is hampered by the exponential complexity of quantum mechanics. Here, by exploiting the special structure of physical quantum states and using the density matrix renormalization group, we compute near-exact many-electron wavefunctions of the Mn4CaO5 cluster of photosystem II, with more than 1 × 10(18) quantum degrees of freedom. This is the first treatment of photosystem II beyond the single-electron picture of density functional theory. Our calculations support recent modifications to the structure determined by X-ray crystallography. We further identify multiple low-lying energy surfaces associated with the structural distortion seen using X-ray crystallography, highlighting multistate reactivity in the chemistry of the cluster. Direct determination of Mn spin-projections from our wavefunctions suggests that current candidates that have been recently distinguished using parameterized spin models should be reassessed. Through entanglement maps, we reveal rich information contained in the wavefunctions on bonding changes in the cycle. PMID:23881496

  15. Iridium Cyclometalated Complexes in Host-Guest Chemistry: A Strategy for Maximizing Quantum Yield in Aqueous Media.

    PubMed

    Alrawashdeh, Lubna R; Cronin, Michael P; Woodward, Clifford E; Day, Anthony I; Wallace, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    The weaker emission typically seen for iridium(III) cyclometalated complexes in aqueous medium can be reversed via encapsulation in cucurbit[10]uril (Q[10]). The Q[10] cavity is shown to effectively maximize quantum yields for the complexes, compared to any other medium. This may provide significant advantages for a number of sensor applications. NMR studies show that the complexes are accommodated similarly within the host molecule, even with cationic substituents attached to the ppy ligands, indicating that the hydrophobic effect is the dominant driving force for binding. Cavity-encapsulated 1:1 host-guest species dominate the emission, but 1:2 species are also indicated, which also give some enhancement of intensity. Results demonstrate that the enhancement is due primarily to much lower rates of nonradiative decay but also suggest that the encapsulation can cause a change in character of the emitting state.

  16. The quantum yield of photosynthesis in Porphyridium cruentum, and the role of chlorophyll a in the photosynthesis of red algae.

    PubMed

    BRODY, M; EMERSON, R

    1959-11-01

    Quantum yield measurements were made with the red alga Porphyridium cruentum, cultured so as to give different proportions of chlorophyll and phycobilins. Totally absorbing suspensions were used so that there was no uncertainty in the amount of energy absorbed. These measurements have shown that chlorophyll, in this alga, has a photosynthetic efficiency as high as in other algal groups, and higher than the phycobilins-at least at wave lengths shorter than about 650 mmicro. Wave lengths longer than this are beyond the range of maximum efficiency of chlorophyll. Under specified conditions of temperature and supplementary light full efficiency may be extended to longer wave lengths. The results of these measurements have made it unnecessary to suppose that in red algae chlorophyll plays a minor role while the phycobilins are the photosynthetic sensitizers of primary importance.

  17. Increasing quantum yield of sodium salicylate above 80 eV photon energy: Implications for photoemission cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Lindle, D.W.; Ferrett, T.A.; Heimann, P.A.; Shirley, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    The quantum yield of the visible scintillator sodium salicylate is found to increase in the incident photon-energy range 80--270 eV. Because of its use as a photon-flux monitor in recent gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, previously reported partial cross sections for Hg (4f-italic, 5p-italic, and 5d-italic subshells) and CH/sub 3/I (I 4d-italic subshell) in this energy range are corrected, and new values are reported. For Hg, the correction brings the experimental data into better overall agreement with theory. However, considerable uncertainty remains in the absolute scale derived from previous Hg photoabsorption measurements, and no single rescaling of the subshell cross sections could simultaneously bring all three into agreement with available theoretical calculations.

  18. Thiophene based europium β-diketonate complexes: effect of the ligand structure on the emission quantum yield.

    PubMed

    Freund, Christelle; Porzio, William; Giovanella, Umberto; Vignali, Francesco; Pasini, Mariacecilia; Destri, Silvia; Mech, Agnieszka; Di Pietro, Sebastiano; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Mineo, Placido

    2011-06-20

    The synthesis and the molecular and photophysical characterization, together with solid state and solution structure analysis, of a series of europium complexes based on β-diketonate ligands are reported. The Eu(III) complex emission, specifically its photoluminescence quantum yield (PL-QY), can be tuned by changing ligands which finely modifies the environment of the metal ion. Steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy and overall PL-QY measurements are reported and related to geometrical features observed in crystal structures of some selected compounds. Moreover, paramagnetic NMR, based on the analogous complexes with other lanthanides, are use to demonstrate that there is a significant structural reorganization upon dissolution, which justifies the observed differences in the emission properties between solid and solution states. The energy of the triplet levels of the ligands and the occurrence of nonradiative deactivation processes clearly account for the luminescence efficiencies of the complexes in the series.

  19. Hydrogen quantum yields in the 360 nm photolysis of Eu/2+/ solutions and their relationship to photochemical fuel formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R.

    1977-01-01

    Water decomposition by a cyclic photoredox process is discussed in general terms. Thermodynamics determines the wavelength of the charge-transfer band corresponding to electron transfer to or from water of hydration of a cation. These relationships indicate that it is unlikely that a photoreduction reaction resulting in water decomposition will occur in the sea-level solar range of wavelengths. Such is not the case for photooxidation, and an example is known: the photolysis of Eu(2+) in aqueous solution. Hydrogen quantum yields have been determined for this reaction. They are sufficiently high (about 0.3) as to offer encourangement for the further exploration of photoredox reactions as a means of solar energy conversion.

  20. Iridium Cyclometalated Complexes in Host-Guest Chemistry: A Strategy for Maximizing Quantum Yield in Aqueous Media.

    PubMed

    Alrawashdeh, Lubna R; Cronin, Michael P; Woodward, Clifford E; Day, Anthony I; Wallace, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    The weaker emission typically seen for iridium(III) cyclometalated complexes in aqueous medium can be reversed via encapsulation in cucurbit[10]uril (Q[10]). The Q[10] cavity is shown to effectively maximize quantum yields for the complexes, compared to any other medium. This may provide significant advantages for a number of sensor applications. NMR studies show that the complexes are accommodated similarly within the host molecule, even with cationic substituents attached to the ppy ligands, indicating that the hydrophobic effect is the dominant driving force for binding. Cavity-encapsulated 1:1 host-guest species dominate the emission, but 1:2 species are also indicated, which also give some enhancement of intensity. Results demonstrate that the enhancement is due primarily to much lower rates of nonradiative decay but also suggest that the encapsulation can cause a change in character of the emitting state. PMID:27315543

  1. Phosphorescent Iridium(III) Complexes Bearing Fluorinated Aromatic Sulfonyl Group with Nearly Unity Phosphorescent Quantum Yields and Outstanding Electroluminescent Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Yu, Yue; Yang, Xiaolong; Yan, Xiaogang; Zhang, Huiming; Xu, Xianbin; Zhou, Guijiang; Wu, Zhaoxin; Ren, Yixia; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2015-11-11

    A series of heteroleptic functional Ir(III) complexes bearing different fluorinated aromatic sulfonyl groups has been synthesized. Their photophysical features, electrochemical behaviors, and electroluminescent (EL) properties have been characterized in detail. These complexes emit intense yellow phosphorescence with exceptionally high quantum yields (ΦP > 0.9) at room temperature, and the emission maxima of these complexes can be finely tuned depending upon the number of the fluorine substituents on the pendant phenyl ring of the sulfonyl group. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties and electron injection/transporting (EI/ET) abilities of these Ir(III) phosphors can also be effectively tuned by the fluorinated aromatic sulfonyl group to furnish some desired characters for enhancing the EL performance. Hence, the maximum luminance efficiency (ηL) of 81.2 cd A(-1), corresponding to power efficiency (ηP) of 64.5 lm W(-1) and external quantum efficiency (ηext) of 19.3%, has been achieved, indicating the great potential of these novel phosphors in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Furthermore, a clear picture has been drawn for the relationship between their optoelectronic properties and chemical structures. These results should provide important information for developing highly efficient phosphors. PMID:26458215

  2. Phosphorescent Iridium(III) Complexes Bearing Fluorinated Aromatic Sulfonyl Group with Nearly Unity Phosphorescent Quantum Yields and Outstanding Electroluminescent Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Yu, Yue; Yang, Xiaolong; Yan, Xiaogang; Zhang, Huiming; Xu, Xianbin; Zhou, Guijiang; Wu, Zhaoxin; Ren, Yixia; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2015-11-11

    A series of heteroleptic functional Ir(III) complexes bearing different fluorinated aromatic sulfonyl groups has been synthesized. Their photophysical features, electrochemical behaviors, and electroluminescent (EL) properties have been characterized in detail. These complexes emit intense yellow phosphorescence with exceptionally high quantum yields (ΦP > 0.9) at room temperature, and the emission maxima of these complexes can be finely tuned depending upon the number of the fluorine substituents on the pendant phenyl ring of the sulfonyl group. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties and electron injection/transporting (EI/ET) abilities of these Ir(III) phosphors can also be effectively tuned by the fluorinated aromatic sulfonyl group to furnish some desired characters for enhancing the EL performance. Hence, the maximum luminance efficiency (ηL) of 81.2 cd A(-1), corresponding to power efficiency (ηP) of 64.5 lm W(-1) and external quantum efficiency (ηext) of 19.3%, has been achieved, indicating the great potential of these novel phosphors in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Furthermore, a clear picture has been drawn for the relationship between their optoelectronic properties and chemical structures. These results should provide important information for developing highly efficient phosphors.

  3. Expressing an RbcS Antisense Gene in Transgenic Flaveria bidentis Leads to an Increased Quantum Requirement for CO2 Fixed in Photosystems I and II.

    PubMed Central

    Siebke, K.; Von Caemmerer, S.; Badger, M.; Furbank, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    It was previously shown with concurrent measurements of gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination that the reduction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase by an antisense gene construct in transgenic Flaveria bidentis (a C4 species) leads to reduced CO2 assimilation rates, increased bundle-sheath CO2 concentration, and leakiness (defined as the ratio of CO2 leakage to the rate of C4 acid decarboxylation; S. von Caemmerer, A. Millegate, G.D. Farquhar, R.T. Furbank [1997] Plant Physiol 113: 469-477). Increased leakiness in the transformants should result in an increased ATP requirement per mole of CO2 fixed and a change in the ATP-to-NADPH demand. To investigate this, we compared measurements of the quantum yield of photosystem I and II ([phi]PSI and [phi]PSII) with the quantum yield of CO2 fixation ([phi]CO2) in control and transgenic F. bidentis plants in various conditions. Both [phi]PSI/[phi]CO2 and [phi]PSII/[phi]CO2 increased with a decrease in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase content, confirming an increase in leakiness. In the wild type the ratio of [phi]PSI to [phi]PSII was constant at different irradiances but increased with irradiance in the transformants, suggesting that cyclic electron transport may be higher in the transformants. To evaluate the relative contribution of cyclic or linear electron transport to extra ATP generation, we developed a model that links leakiness, ATP/NADP requirements, and quantum yields. Despite some uncertainties in the light distribution between photosystem I and II, we conclude from the increase of [phi]PSII/[phi]CO2 in the transformants that cyclic electron transport is not solely responsible for ATP generation without NADPH production. PMID:12223865

  4. Acetylene bridged porphyrin-monophthalocyaninato ytterbium(III) hybrids with strong two-photon absorption and high singlet oxygen quantum yield.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hanzhong; Li, Wenbin; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xunjin; Tam, Hoi-Lam; Hou, Anxin; Kwong, Daniel W J; Wong, Wai-Kwok

    2012-04-21

    Several acetylene bridged porphyrin-monophthalocyaninato ytterbium(III) hybrids, PZn-PcYb, PH(2)-PcYb and PPd-PcYb, have been prepared and characterized by (1)H and (31)P NMR, mass spectrometry, and UV-vis spectroscopy. Their photophysical and photochemical properties, especially the relative singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) quantum yields and the two-photon absorption cross-section (σ(2)), were investigated. These three newly synthesized compounds exhibited very large σ(2) values and substantial (1)O(2) quantum yields upon photo-excitation, making them potential candidates as one- and two-photon photodynamic therapeutic agents.

  5. Crystal-Phase Control by Solution-Solid-Solid Growth of II-VI Quantum Wires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fudong; Buhro, William E

    2016-02-10

    A simple and potentially general means of eliminating the planar defects and phase alternations that typically accompany the growth of semiconductor nanowires by catalyzed methods is reported. Nearly phase-pure, defect-free wurtzite II-VI semiconductor quantum wires are grown from solid rather than liquid catalyst nanoparticles. The solid-catalyst nanoparticles are morphologically stable during growth, which minimizes the spontaneous fluctuations in nucleation barriers between zinc blende and wurtzite phases that are responsible for the defect formation and phase alternations. Growth of single-phase (in our cases the wurtzite phase) nanowires is thus favored. PMID:26731426

  6. Exciton storage in type-II quantum dots using the optical Aharonov-Bohm effect

    SciTech Connect

    Climente, Juan I.; Planelles, Josep

    2014-05-12

    We investigate the bright-to-dark exciton conversion efficiency in type-II quantum dots subject to a perpendicular magnetic field. To this end, we take the exciton storage protocol recently proposed by Simonin and co-workers [Phys. Rev. B 89, 075304 (2014)] and simulate its coherent dynamics. We confirm the storage is efficient in perfectly circular structures subject to weak external electric fields, where adiabatic evolution is dominant. In practice, however, the efficiency rapidly degrades with symmetry lowering. Besides, the use of excited states is likely unfeasible owing to the fast decay rates. We then propose an adaptation of the protocol which does not suffer from these limitations.

  7. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: II. Sustainability, crop yield, and profitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare

    2011-02-01

    The optimality of irrigation strategies may be sought with respect to a number of criteria, including water requirements, crop yield, and profitability. To explore the suitability of different demand-based irrigation strategies, we link the probabilistic description of irrigation requirements under stochastic hydro-climatic conditions, provided in a companion paper [Vico G, Porporato A. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: I. A generalized irrigation scheme with stochastic soil moisture. Adv Water Resour 2011;34(2):263-71], to crop-yield and economic analyses. Water requirements, application efficiency, and investment costs of different irrigation methods, such as surface, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems, are described via a unified conceptual and theoretical approach, which includes rainfed agriculture and stress-avoidance irrigation as extreme cases. This allows us to analyze irrigation strategies with respect to sustainability, productivity, and economic return, using the same framework, and quantify them as a function of climate, crop, and soil parameters. We apply our results to corn ( Zea mays), a food staple and biofuel source, which is currently mainly irrigated through surface systems. As our analysis shows, micro-irrigation maximizes water productivity, but more traditional solutions may be more profitable at least in some contexts.

  8. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements and Groove Chambers Tests in the PEP-II Beam Line Straights Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.T.F.; King, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Markiewicz, T; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Seeman, J.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2008-07-03

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders such as ILC and CLIC [1, 2]. In the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed vacuum chambers with rectangular grooves in a straight magnetic-free section to test this promising possible electron cloud mitigation technique. We have also installed a special chamber to monitor the secondary electron yield of TiN and TiZrV (NEG) coating, Copper, Stainless Steel and Aluminum under the effect of electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R&D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the ILC damping ring, the latest results on in situ secondary electron yield conditioning and recent update on the groove tests in PEP-II.

  9. The Broken Ring: Reduced Aromaticity in Lys-Trp Cations and High pH Tautomer Correlates with Lower Quantum Yield and Shorter Lifetimes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Several nonradiative processes compete with tryptophan fluorescence emission. The difficulty in spectral interpretation lies in associating specific molecular environmental features with these processes and thereby utilizing the fluorescence spectral data to identify the local environment of tryptophan. Here, spectroscopic and molecular modeling study of Lys-Trp dipeptide charged species shows that backbone-ring interactions are undistinguished. Instead, quantum mechanical ground state isosurfaces reveal variations in indole π electron distribution and density that parallel charge (as a function of pK1, pK2, and pKR) on the backbone and residues. A pattern of aromaticity-associated quantum yield and fluorescence lifetime changes emerges. Where quantum yield is high, isosurfaces have a charge distribution similar to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of indole, which is the dominant fluorescent ground state of the 1La transition dipole moment. Where quantum yield is low, isosurface charge distribution over the ring is uneven, diminished, and even found off ring. At pH 13, the indole amine is deprotonated, and Lys-Trp quantum yield is extremely low due to tautomer structure that concentrates charge on the indole amine; the isosurface charge distribution bears scant resemblance to the indole HOMO. Such greatly diminished fluorescence has been observed for proteins where the indole nitrogen is hydrogen bonded, lending credence to the association of aromaticity changes with diminished quantum yield in proteins as well. Thus tryptophan ground state isosurfaces are an indicator of indole aromaticity, signaling the partition of excitation energy between radiative and nonradiative processes. PMID:24882092

  10. How quantum entanglement in DNA synchronizes double-strand breakage by type II restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Kurian, P; Dunston, G; Lindesay, J

    2016-02-21

    Macroscopic quantum effects in living systems have been studied widely in pursuit of fundamental explanations for biological energy transport and sensing. While it is known that type II endonucleases, the largest class of restriction enzymes, induce DNA double-strand breaks by attacking phosphodiester bonds, the mechanism by which simultaneous cutting is coordinated between the catalytic centers remains unclear. We propose a quantum mechanical model for collective electronic behavior in the DNA helix, where dipole-dipole oscillations are quantized through boundary conditions imposed by the enzyme. Zero-point modes of coherent oscillations would provide the energy required for double-strand breakage. Such quanta may be preserved in the presence of thermal noise by the enzyme's displacement of water surrounding the DNA recognition sequence. The enzyme thus serves as a decoherence shield. Palindromic mirror symmetry of the enzyme-DNA complex should conserve parity, because symmetric bond-breaking ceases when the symmetry of the complex is violated or when physiological parameters are perturbed from optima. Persistent correlations in DNA across longer spatial separations-a possible signature of quantum entanglement-may be explained by such a mechanism.

  11. A Class of Asymmetric Gapped Hamiltonians on Quantum Spin Chains and its Characterization II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Yoshiko

    2016-06-01

    We give a characterization of the class of gapped Hamiltonians introduced in Part I (Ogata, A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015). The Hamiltonians in this class are given as MPS (Matrix product state) Hamiltonians. In Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), we list up properties of ground state structures of Hamiltonians in this class. In this Part II, we show the converse. Namely, if a (not necessarily MPS) Hamiltonian H satisfies five of the listed properties, there is a Hamiltonian H' from the class by Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), satisfying the following: The ground state spaces of the two Hamiltonians on the infinite interval coincide. The spectral projections onto the ground state space of H on each finite intervals are approximated by that of H' exponentially well, with respect to the interval size. The latter property has an application to the classification problem with open boundary conditions.

  12. Nonlinear quantum-dynamical system based on the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili II equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarmi, Yair

    2013-06-01

    The structure of soliton solutions of classical integrable nonlinear evolution equations, which can be solved through the Hirota transformation, suggests a new way for the construction of nonlinear quantum-dynamical systems that are based on the classical equations. In the new approach, the classical soliton solution is mapped into an operator, U, which is a nonlinear functional of the particle-number operators over a Fock space of quantum particles. U obeys the evolution equation; the classical soliton solutions are the eigenvalues of U in multi-particle states in the Fock space. The construction easily allows for the incorporation of particle interactions, which generate soliton effects that do not have a classical analog. In this paper, this new approach is applied to the case of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili II equation. The nonlinear quantum-dynamical system describes a set of M = (2S + 1) particles with intrinsic spin S, which interact in clusters of 1 ≤ N ≤ (M - 1) particles.

  13. The quantum interference effects in the SC II 4247 Å line of the second solar spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Smitha, H. N.; Nagendra, K. N.; Stenflo, J. O.; Bianda, M.; Ramelli, R. E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in E-mail: mbianda@irsol.ch

    2014-10-10

    The Sc II 4247 Å line formed in the chromosphere is one of the lines well known, like the Na I D{sub 2} and Ba II D{sub 2}, for its prominent triple-peak structure in Q/I and the underlying quantum interference effects governing it. In this paper, we try to study the nature of this triple-peak structure using the theory of F-state interference including the effects of partial frequency redistribution (PRD) and radiative transfer (RT). We compare our results with the observations taken in a quiet region near the solar limb. In spite of accounting for PRD and RT effects, it has not been possible to reproduce the observed triple-peak structure in Q/I. While the two wing PRD peaks (on either side of central peak) and the near wing continuum can be reproduced, the central peak is completely suppressed by the enhanced depolarization resulting from the hyperfine structure splitting. This suppression remains for all the tested widely different one-dimensional model atmospheres or for any multi-component combinations of them. While multidimensional RT effects may improve the fit to the intensity profiles, they do not appear capable of explaining the enigmatic central Q/I peak. This leads us to suspect that some aspect of quantum physics is missing.

  14. A Novel Method For Predicting Carbon Monoxide Apparent Quantum Yield Spectra in Coastal Water Using Remote Sensing Reflectance Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, H. E.; Miller, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    Photochemical oxidation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the major source of carbon monoxide to the surface ocean. Bacterial consumption and air-sea exchange comprise the two known sinks for CO in marine systems. Though the two loss terms are relatively efficient, CO remains supersaturated with respect to the atmosphere in the surface ocean. Global oceanic estimates of CO photoproduction range from 30-84Tg CO/year (Zafiriou 2003, Fichot and Miller 2010). The variation in estimates is largely due to the difficulty in predicting the efficiency of photoproduction (i.e. Apparent Quantum Yield; AQY). Though the AQY for CO photoproduction appears to be relatively constant, there is indication that terrestrially derived sources, such as those found in estuarine environments, produce CO more efficiently than marine derived sources (Ziolkowski 2000). Since variation among sources is likely in the global ocean, accurate assignment of AQY to variable water types is required to accurately predict CO photoproduction. Deriving the correct apparent quantum yield from remotely sensed data would lead to better predictions of large scale CO photoproduction from optical data. Thirty-eight (38) AQY spectra for CO photoproduction were determined by monthly sampling during spring tides in three dark water locations on the coast of Georgia, USA, from November 2008 to September 2009. Sapelo Sound, a marine dominated system, receives little to no freshwater input over the year, while Altamaha Sound drains the largest watershed in the state of Georgia, and has largely variably freshwater input. Doboy Sound, situated between Sapelo Sound and Altamaha Sound, is largely marine dominated, though in periods of high flow on the Altamaha River, receives some fresh water overflow. The coast of Georgia is dominated by Spartina alterniflora salt marshes, and thus also has a strong non-point source of terrestrially derived carbon. CO apparent quantum yields were determined by

  15. Quantum magnetotransport at a type II broken-gap single heterointerface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, K. D.; Berezovets, V. A.; Mikhailova, M. P.; Nizhankovskii, V. I.; Parfeniev, R. V.; Yakovlev, Yu. P.

    2001-06-01

    We report the study of quantum magnetotransport in a semimetal channel at the type II broken-gap single heterointerface at magnetic field range up to 16 T at low temperature. The GaIn 0.16As 0.22Sb/InAs heterostructures with high quality abrupt heteroboundary (˜12 Å) were fabricated by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) on InAs substrates. Electron channel with high carrier mobility ( μ H=50 000-70 000 cm 2/V s) was found at the interface in the isotype p-GaInAsSb/p-InAs heterostructure under low magnetic field up to 5 T. Three series of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in Hall conductivity and magnetoresistance were observed under high magnetic fields (9-16 T) at T=1.45 K. Two of them were corresponded to 2D-electron subbands E 1 and E 2 with carrier concentration n 1=4.77×10 11 cm-2 and n 2=1.82×10 11 cm-2, while the significant contribution of the third one corresponding to 2D-hole subband with concentration p˜10 12 cm -2 has been pronounced in the range 13-16 T. The most impressed result is the observation of the integer quantum Hall effect (QHE) plateaus in the Hall conductivity with the filling factor ν=2, 3 and 6 when ultraquantum limit for E 1 subband was realized. It is the first demonstration of QHE in a type II single GaInAsSb/InAs heterostructure with self-consistent quantum wells grown by LPE.

  16. Synthesis and formation mechanistic investigation of nitrogen-doped carbon dots with high quantum yields and yellowish-green fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Juan; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Tianyu; Wang, Bo; Li, Huiyu; Ding, Lan

    2016-05-01

    Heteroatom doped carbon dots (CDs) have received increasing attention due to their unique properties and related applications. However, previously reported CDs generally show strong emission only in the blue-light region, thus restricting their further applications. And the fundamental investigation on the preparation process is always neglected. Herein, we have developed a simple and solvent-free synthetic strategy to fabricate nitrogen-doped CDs (N-CDs) from citric acid and dicyandiamide. The as-prepared N-CDs exhibited a uniform size distribution, strong yellowish-green fluorescence emission and a high quantum yield of 73.2%. The products obtained at different formation stages were detailedly characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV absorbance spectroscopy. A possible formation mechanism has thus been proposed including dehydration, polymerization and carbonization. Furthermore, the N-CDs could serve as a facile and label-free probe for the detection of iron and fluorine ions with detection limits of 50 nmol L-1 and 75 nmol L-1, respectively.Heteroatom doped carbon dots (CDs) have received increasing attention due to their unique properties and related applications. However, previously reported CDs generally show strong emission only in the blue-light region, thus restricting their further applications. And the fundamental investigation on the preparation process is always neglected. Herein, we have developed a simple and solvent-free synthetic strategy to fabricate nitrogen-doped CDs (N-CDs) from citric acid and dicyandiamide. The as-prepared N-CDs exhibited a uniform size distribution, strong yellowish-green fluorescence emission and a high quantum yield of 73.2%. The products obtained at different formation stages were detailedly characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV absorbance spectroscopy. A

  17. Measurement procedure for absolute broadband infrared up-conversion photoluminescent quantum yields: Correcting for absorption/re-emission

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, Sean K. W.; Ivaturi, Aruna; Marques-Hueso, Jose; Richards, Bryce S.

    2014-06-15

    The internal photoluminescent quantum yield (iPLQY) – defined as the ratio of emitted photons to those absorbed – is an important parameter in the evaluation and application of luminescent materials. The iPLQY is rarely reported due to the complexities in the calibration of such a measurement. Herein, an experimental method is proposed to correct for re-emission, which leads to an underestimation of the absorption under broadband excitation. Although traditionally the iPLQY is measured using monochromatic sources for linear materials, this advancement is necessary for nonlinear materials with wavelength dependent iPLQY, such as the application of up-conversion to solar energy harvesting. The method requires an additional measurement of the emission line shape that overlaps with the excitation and absorption spectra. Through scaling of the emission spectrum, at the long wavelength edge where an overlap of excitation does not occur, it is possible to better estimate the value of iPLQY. The method has been evaluated for a range of nonlinear material concentrations and under various irradiances to analyze the necessity and boundary conditions that favor the proposed method. Use of this refined method is important for a reliable measurement of iPLQY under a broad illumination source such as the Sun.

  18. Low cost 3D-printing used in an undergraduate project: an integrating sphere for measurement of photoluminescence quantum yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomes, John J.; Finlayson, Chris E.

    2016-09-01

    We report upon the exploitation of the latest 3D printing technologies to provide low-cost instrumentation solutions, for use in an undergraduate level final-year project. The project addresses prescient research issues in optoelectronics, which would otherwise be inaccessible to such undergraduate student projects. The experimental use of an integrating sphere in conjunction with a desktop spectrometer presents opportunities to use easily handled, low cost materials as a means to illustrate many areas of physics such as spectroscopy, lasers, optics, simple circuits, black body radiation and data gathering. Presented here is a 3rd year undergraduate physics project which developed a low cost (£25) method to manufacture an experimentally accurate integrating sphere by 3D printing. Details are given of both a homemade internal reflectance coating formulated from readily available materials, and a robust instrument calibration method using a tungsten bulb. The instrument is demonstrated to give accurate and reproducible experimental measurements of luminescence quantum yield of various semiconducting fluorophores, in excellent agreement with literature values.

  19. Controls of the quantum yield and saturation light of isoprene emission in different-aged aspen leaves.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong; Talts, Eero

    2015-12-01

    Leaf age alters the balance between the use of end-product of plastidic isoprenoid synthesis pathway, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), in prenyltransferase reactions leading to synthesis of pigments of photosynthetic machinery and in isoprene synthesis, but the implications of such changes on environmental responses of isoprene emission have not been studied. Because under light-limited conditions, isoprene emission rate is controlled by DMADP pool size (SDMADP ), shifts in the share of different processes are expected to particularly strongly alter the light dependency of isoprene emission. We examined light responses of isoprene emission in young fully expanded, mature and old non-senescent leaves of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides) and estimated in vivo SDMADP and isoprene synthase activity from post-illumination isoprene release. Isoprene emission capacity was 1.5-fold larger in mature than in young and old leaves. The initial quantum yield of isoprene emission (αI ) increased by 2.5-fold with increasing leaf age primarily as the result of increasing SDMADP . The saturating light intensity (QI90 ) decreased by 2.3-fold with increasing leaf age, and this mainly reflected limited light-dependent increase of SDMADP possibly due to feedback inhibition by DMADP. These major age-dependent changes in the shape of the light response need consideration in modelling canopy isoprene emission.

  20. Implications of interveinal distance for quantum yield in C4 grasses: a modeling and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Kiona

    2003-08-01

    The distance between veins has the potential to affect photosynthesis in C(4) grasses because photon capture and photosynthetic carbon reduction are primarily restricted to vascular bundle sheath cells (BSC). For example, BSC density should increase as interveinal distance (IVD) decreases, and thus IVD may influence photon capture and photosynthesis in C(4) grasses. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential importance of IVD to the function of C(4) grasses, and a literature survey is conducted to test the hypothesis that quantum yield of photosynthesis (Phi) increases with decreasing IVD. First, a meta-analysis of Phi and IVD values obtained for 12 C(4) grass species supports this hypothesis as Phi and IVD are significantly negatively correlated (r=-0.61). Second, a regression of carbon isotope discrimination (delta) versus IVD was conducted and the regression equation was used in a simple biochemical model that relates Phi to Delta and leakage of CO(2) from the BSC. The modeling analysis also supports the hypothesis that Phi decreases with increasing IVD in C(4) grasses. C(4) grasses are virtually absent from shaded habitats, and the biochemical model is employed to examine the implications of IVD for shade-tolerance in C(4) grasses. The model predicts that only those species with uncommonly small IVD values are able to tolerate prolonged shade.

  1. Facile Synthesis of pH-sensitive Germanium Nanocrystals with High Quantum Yield for Intracellular Acidic Compartment Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Wang, Jing; Sun, Shuqing; Wang, Hai; Tang, Zhiyong; Nie, Guangjun

    2015-04-24

    A green-light emitting germanium nanocrystal-based biosensor to monitor lysosomal pH changes is developed. The Ge nanocrystals are synthesized in an aqueous solution with a significantly enhanced photoluminescence quantum yield of 26%. This synthesis involves a facile solution based route which avoided the use of toxic or environmentally unfriendly agents. Importantly, the photoluminescence intensity of the synthesized Ge nanocrystals is particularly sensitive to changes in pH between 5 and 6. When incubated with cultured cells, the nanocrystals are internalized and subsequently translocated via the lysosomal pathway, and the Ge nanocrystals' fluorescence are greatly enhanced, even when the lysosomal pH is only slightly increased. These results reveal that the Ge nanocrystals possess high pH sensitivity compared to a commercially available dye, LysoSensor Green DND-189. The fluorescent properties of the Ge nanocrystals are demonstrated to be dependent on both the crystal form and their surface chemistry. The superior fluorescence properties and bioapplicability of the Ge nanocrystals makes them a promising intracellular bioimaging probe for monitoring various pH-sensitive processes in cells.

  2. Quantum yield spectra and I-V properties of a GaAs solar cell grown on a Ge substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partain, L. D.; Virshup, G. F.; Kaminar, N. R.

    A measured quantum yield spectrum showed a weak Ge junction in tandem with a strong GaAs junction for a heteroface p/n GaAs junction grown by MOCVD (metal-organic chemical vapor deposition) on an n-Ge substrate. In natural sunlight, this device had a notched-shaped I-V that limited its fill factor (FF) to 0.612 and its efficiency to 18 percent AM2.6D, which are values below those typical of similar heteroface p/n GaAs junctions grown on n-GaAs substrates. The notch disappeared and the FF increased to 0.806 under infrared-rich incandescent light. The notch deepened and the FF decreased to 0.606 under infrared-poor xenon light. This is modeled as a Ge junction with a soft I-V in tandem with a standard GaAs p/n junction. Calculations of the relative infrared content of sunlight predicts that this cell's FF should progressively decrease as the air mass spectrum progressively loses infrared content in going from AM2.6 through AM1.5 to AM0. The best model found for the Ge junction transport properties is an n-GaAs/n-Ge isotype heterojunction possibly controlled by space-charge-limited-current mechanisms.

  3. Synthesis and formation mechanistic investigation of nitrogen-doped carbon dots with high quantum yields and yellowish-green fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juan; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Tianyu; Wang, Bo; Li, Huiyu; Ding, Lan

    2016-06-01

    Heteroatom doped carbon dots (CDs) have received increasing attention due to their unique properties and related applications. However, previously reported CDs generally show strong emission only in the blue-light region, thus restricting their further applications. And the fundamental investigation on the preparation process is always neglected. Herein, we have developed a simple and solvent-free synthetic strategy to fabricate nitrogen-doped CDs (N-CDs) from citric acid and dicyandiamide. The as-prepared N-CDs exhibited a uniform size distribution, strong yellowish-green fluorescence emission and a high quantum yield of 73.2%. The products obtained at different formation stages were detailedly characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV absorbance spectroscopy. A possible formation mechanism has thus been proposed including dehydration, polymerization and carbonization. Furthermore, the N-CDs could serve as a facile and label-free probe for the detection of iron and fluorine ions with detection limits of 50 nmol L(-1) and 75 nmol L(-1), respectively. PMID:27180833

  4. Photolysis of CH₃CHO at 248 nm: evidence of triple fragmentation from primary quantum yield of CH₃ and HCO radicals and H atoms.

    PubMed

    Morajkar, Pranay; Bossolasco, Adriana; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa

    2014-06-01

    Radical quantum yields have been measured following the 248 nm photolysis of acetaldehyde, CH3CHO. HCO radical and H atom yields have been quantified by time resolved continuous wave Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy in the near infrared following their conversion to HO2 radicals by reaction with O2. The CH3 radical yield has been determined using the same technique following their conversion into CH3O2. Absolute yields have been deduced for HCO radicals and H atoms through fitting of time resolved HO2 profiles, obtained under various O2 concentrations, to a complex model, while the CH3 yield has been determined relative to the CH3 yield from 248 nm photolysis of CH3I. Time resolved HO2 profiles under very low O2 concentrations suggest that another unknown HO2 forming reaction path exists in this reaction system besides the conversion of HCO radicals and H atoms by reaction with O2. HO2 profiles can be well reproduced under a large range of experimental conditions with the following quantum yields: CH3CHO + hν(248nm) → CH3CHO*, CH3CHO* → CH3 + HCO ϕ(1a) = 0.125 ± 0.03, CH3CHO* → CH3 + H + CO ϕ(1e) = 0.205 ± 0.04, CH3CHO*[Formula: see text]CH3CO + HO2 ϕ(1f) = 0.07 ± 0.01. The CH3O2 quantum yield has been determined in separate experiments as ϕ(CH₃) = 0.33 ± 0.03 and is in excellent agreement with the CH3 yields derived from the HO2 measurements considering that the triple fragmentation (R1e) is an important reaction path in the 248 nm photolysis of CH3CHO. From arithmetic considerations taking into account the HO2 and CH3 measurements we deduce a remaining quantum yield for the molecular pathway: CH3CHO* → CH4 + CO ϕ(1b) = 0.6. All experiments can be consistently explained with absence of the formerly considered pathway: CH3CHO* → CH3CO + H ϕ(1c) = 0. PMID:24908009

  5. Kinetics and quantum yield of photoluminescence of EuFOD{sub 3} doped into a nanoporous glass with the help of supercritical CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bagratashvili, V N; Tsypina, S I; Chutko, E A; Gerasimova, V I; Gordienko, V M

    2008-08-31

    The kinetics of photoluminescence of a EuFOD{sub 3} metalloorganic compound doped into a nanoporous Vycor glass by the method of supercritical fluid impregnation is studied. The lifetime of luminescence of EuFOD{sub 3} molecules in pores excited by an excimer XeCl laser was 40 {mu}s, which is considerably smaller than this lifetime (150-890 {mu}s) in solutions. The quantum yield of luminescence of EuFOD{sub 3} was estimate as {approx}4x10{sup -4}. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  6. Polarization quantum properties in a type-II optical parametric oscillator below threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Zambrini, Roberta; Miguel, Maxi San; Gatti, Alessandra; Lugiato, Luigi

    2003-12-01

    We study the far-field spatial distribution of the quantum fluctuations in the transverse profile of the output light beam generated by a type-II optical parametric oscillator below threshold, including the effects of transverse walk-off. We study how quadrature field correlations depend on the polarization. We find spatial Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement in quadrature-polarization components. For the far-field points not affected by walk-off there is almost complete noise suppression in the proper quadratures difference of any orthogonal polarization components. We show the entanglement of the state of symmetric, intense, or macroscopic, spatial light modes. We also investigate nonclassical polarization properties in terms of the Stokes operators. We find perfect correlations in all Stokes parameters measured in opposite far-field points in the direction orthogonal to the walk-off, while locally the field is unpolarized and we find no polarization squeezing.

  7. Electronic and optical properties of single excitons and biexcitons in type-II quantum dot nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Koc, Fatih; Sahin, Mehmet E-mail: mehsahin@gmail.com

    2014-05-21

    In this study, a detailed investigation of the electronic and optical properties (i.e., binding energies, absorption wavelength, overlap of the electron-hole wave functions, recombination oscillator strength, etc.) of an exciton and a biexciton in CdTe/CdSe core/shell type-II quantum dot heterostructures has been carried out in the frame of the single band effective mass approximation. In order to determine the electronic properties, we have self-consistently solved the Poisson-Schrödinger equations in the Hartree approximation. We have considered all probable Coulomb interaction effects on both energy levels and also on the corresponding wave functions for both single exciton and biexciton. In addition, we have taken into account the quantum mechanical exchange-correlation effects in the local density approximation between same kinds of particles for biexciton. Also, we have examined the effect of the ligands and dielectric mismatch on the electronic and optical properties. We have used a different approximation proposed by Sahin and Koc [Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 183103 (2013)] for the recombination oscillator strength of the biexciton for bound and unbound cases. The results obtained have been presented comparatively as a function of the shell thicknesses and probable physical reasons in behind of the results have been discussed in a detail.

  8. Time-resolved magnetophotoluminescence studies of magnetic polaron dynamics in type-II quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, B.; Oszwałdowski, R.; Schweidenback, L.; Russ, A. H.; Pientka, J. M.; Tsai, Y.; Chou, W.-C.; Fan, W. C.; Murphy, J. R.; Cartwright, A. N.; Sellers, I. R.; Petukhov, A. G.; Žutić, I.; McCombe, B. D.; Petrou, A.

    2015-07-01

    We used continuous wave photoluminescence (cw-PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectroscopy to compare the properties of magnetic polarons (MP) in two related spatially indirect II-VI epitaxially grown quantum dot systems. In the ZnTe /(Zn ,Mn )Se system the holes are confined in the nonmagnetic ZnTe quantum dots (QDs), and the electrons reside in the magnetic (Zn,Mn)Se matrix. On the other hand, in the (Zn ,Mn )Te /ZnSe system, the holes are confined in the magnetic (Zn,Mn)Te QDs, while the electrons remain in the surrounding nonmagnetic ZnSe matrix. The magnetic polaron formation energies EMP in both systems were measured from the temporal redshift of the band-edge emission. The magnetic polaron exhibits distinct characteristics depending on the location of the Mn ions. In the ZnTe /(Zn ,Mn )Se system the magnetic polaron shows conventional behavior with EMP decreasing with increasing temperature T and increasing magnetic field B . In contrast, EMP in the (Zn ,Mn )Te /ZnSe system has unconventional dependence on temperature T and magnetic field B ; EMP is weakly dependent on T as well as on B . We discuss a possible origin for such a striking difference in the MP properties in two closely related QD systems.

  9. Enhanced carrier multiplication in engineered quasi-type-II quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Cirloganu, Claudiu M; Padilha, Lazaro A; Lin, Qianglu; Makarov, Nikolay S; Velizhanin, Kirill A; Luo, Hongmei; Robel, Istvan; Pietryga, Jeffrey M; Klimov, Victor I

    2014-01-01

    One process limiting the performance of solar cells is rapid cooling (thermalization) of hot carriers generated by higher-energy solar photons. In principle, the thermalization losses can be reduced by converting the kinetic energy of energetic carriers into additional electron-hole pairs via carrier multiplication (CM). While being inefficient in bulk semiconductors this process is enhanced in quantum dots, although not sufficiently high to considerably boost the power output of practical devices. Here we demonstrate that thick-shell PbSe/CdSe nanostructures can show almost a fourfold increase in the CM yield over conventional PbSe quantum dots, accompanied by a considerable reduction of the CM threshold. These structures enhance a valence-band CM channel due to effective capture of energetic holes into long-lived shell-localized states. The attainment of the regime of slowed cooling responsible for CM enhancement is indicated by the development of shell-related emission in the visible observed simultaneously with infrared emission from the core. PMID:24938462

  10. Enhanced carrier multiplication in engineered quasi-type-II quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Cirloganu, Claudiu M.; Padilha, Lazaro A.; Lin, Qianglu; Makarov, Nikolay S.; Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Luo, Hongmei; Robel, Istvan; Pietryga, Jeffrey M.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2014-01-01

    One process limiting the performance of solar cells is rapid cooling (thermalization) of hot carriers generated by higher-energy solar photons. In principle, the thermalization losses can be reduced by converting the kinetic energy of energetic carriers into additional electron-hole pairs via carrier multiplication (CM). While being inefficient in bulk semiconductors this process is enhanced in quantum dots, although not sufficiently high to considerably boost the power output of practical devices. Here we demonstrate that thick-shell PbSe/CdSe nanostructures can show almost a fourfold increase in the CM yield over conventional PbSe quantum dots, accompanied by a considerable reduction of the CM threshold. These structures enhance a valence-band CM channel due to effective capture of energetic holes into long-lived shell-localized states. The attainment of the regime of slowed cooling responsible for CM enhancement is indicated by the development of shell-related emission in the visible observed simultaneously with infrared emission from the core. PMID:24938462

  11. The enhancement of fluorescence quantum yields of anilino naphthalene sulfonic acids by inclusion of various cyclodextrins and cucurbit[7]uril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueishi, Yoshimi; Fujita, Tomonori; Nakatani, Shinichiro; Inazumi, Naoya; Osawa, Yoshihiro

    2013-10-01

    The association constants (K) for the inclusion complexation of four kinds of cyclodextrins (CDs (β- and γ-), 2,6-di-O-methylated β-CD, and 2,3,6-tri-O-methylated β-CD) and cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) with 1,8- and 2,6-anilinonaphthalene sulfonic acids (ANSs) were determined from fluorescence spectra enhanced by inclusion. Various CDs and CB[7] form stable 1:1 inclusion complexes with 1,8- and 2,6-ANSs: K = 80-11 700 M-1 for 2,6-ANS and 50-195 M-1 for 1,8-ANS. The high stability of the inclusion complexes of 2,6-ANS with CB[7] and 2,6-di-O-methylated β-CD is shown. Further, we determined the fluorescence quantum yields (Φ values) for the inclusion complexes of ANSs by using a fluorescence spectrophotometer equipped with a half-moon unit. The Φ values of 1,8- and 2,6-ANSs were largely enhanced by the inclusion of methylated β-CDs and did not correlate with the degree of stability (K) of the inclusion complexes. We characterized the structures of the inclusion complexes by 2D ROESY-NMR measurements. In addition, the microenvironmental polarity inside the hydrophobic CD and CB[7] cavities was evaluated using the fluorescence probe 2,6-ANS. Based on the emission mechanism and the aspect of inclusion in a hydrophobic cavity, we have suggested that the microenvironmental polarity and viscosity for the excited state of ANS plays an important role for the Φ values of inclusion complexes.

  12. The enhancement of fluorescence quantum yields of anilino naphthalene sulfonic acids by inclusion of various cyclodextrins and cucurbit[7]uril.

    PubMed

    Sueishi, Yoshimi; Fujita, Tomonori; Nakatani, Shinichiro; Inazumi, Naoya; Osawa, Yoshihiro

    2013-10-01

    The association constants (K) for the inclusion complexation of four kinds of cyclodextrins (CDs (β- and γ-), 2,6-di-O-methylated β-CD, and 2,3,6-tri-O-methylated β-CD) and cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) with 1,8- and 2,6-anilinonaphthalene sulfonic acids (ANSs) were determined from fluorescence spectra enhanced by inclusion. Various CDs and CB[7] form stable 1:1 inclusion complexes with 1,8- and 2,6-ANSs: K=80-11700 M(-1) for 2,6-ANS and 50-195 M(-1) for 1,8-ANS. The high stability of the inclusion complexes of 2,6-ANS with CB[7] and 2,6-di-O-methylated β-CD is shown. Further, we determined the fluorescence quantum yields (Φ values) for the inclusion complexes of ANSs by using a fluorescence spectrophotometer equipped with a half-moon unit. The Φ values of 1,8- and 2,6-ANSs were largely enhanced by the inclusion of methylated β-CDs and did not correlate with the degree of stability (K) of the inclusion complexes. We characterized the structures of the inclusion complexes by 2D ROESY-NMR measurements. In addition, the microenvironmental polarity inside the hydrophobic CD and CB[7] cavities was evaluated using the fluorescence probe 2,6-ANS. Based on the emission mechanism and the aspect of inclusion in a hydrophobic cavity, we have suggested that the microenvironmental polarity and viscosity for the excited state of ANS plays an important role for the Φ values of inclusion complexes.

  13. Upconverting core-shell nanocrystals with high quantum yield under low irradiance: On the role of isotropic and thick shells

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Stefan; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Johnson, Noah J. J.; Pichaandi, Jothirmayanantham; Veggel, Frank C. J. M. van

    2015-11-21

    Colloidal upconverter nanocrystals (UCNCs) that convert near-infrared photons to higher energies are promising for applications ranging from life sciences to solar energy harvesting. However, practical applications of UCNCs are hindered by their low upconversion quantum yield (UCQY) and the high irradiances necessary to produce relevant upconversion luminescence. Achieving high UCQY under practically relevant irradiance remains a major challenge. The UCQY is severely limited due to non-radiative surface quenching processes. We present a rate equation model for migration of the excitation energy to show that surface quenching does not only affect the lanthanide ions directly at the surface but also many other lanthanide ions quite far away from the surface. The average migration path length is on the order of several nanometers and depends on the doping as well as the irradiance of the excitation. Using Er{sup 3+}-doped β-NaYF{sub 4} UCNCs, we show that very isotropic and thick (∼10 nm) β-NaLuF{sub 4} inert shells dramatically reduce the surface-related quenching processes, resulting in much brighter upconversion luminescence at simultaneously considerably lower irradiances. For these UCNCs embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate), we determined an internal UCQY of 2.0% ± 0.2% using an irradiance of only 0.43 ± 0.03 W/cm{sup 2} at 1523 nm. Normalized to the irradiance, this UCQY is 120× higher than the highest values of comparable nanomaterials in the literature. Our findings demonstrate the important role of isotropic and thick shells in achieving high UCQY at low irradiances from UCNCs. Additionally, we measured the additional short-circuit current due to upconversion in silicon solar cell devices as a proof of concept and to support our findings determined using optical measurements.

  14. Observation of room temperature optical absorption in InP/GaAs type-II ultrathin quantum wells and quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S. D. Porwal, S.; Mondal, Puspen; Srivastava, A. K.; Mukherjee, C.; Dixit, V. K.; Sharma, T. K.; Oak, S. M.

    2014-06-14

    Room temperature optical absorption process is observed in ultrathin quantum wells (QWs) and quantum dots (QDs) of InP/GaAs type-II band alignment system using surface photovoltage spectroscopy technique, where no measurable photoluminescence signal is available. Clear signature of absorption edge in the sub band gap region of GaAs barrier layer is observed for the ultrathin QWs and QDs, which red shifts with the amount of deposited InP material. Movement of photogenerated holes towards the sample surface is proposed to be the main mechanism for the generation of surface photovoltage in type-II ultrathin QWs and QDs. QDs of smaller size are found to be free from the dislocations as confirmed by the high resolution transmission electron microscopy images.

  15. Determination of Phosphorescence Quantum Yield of Singlet Oxygen O 2( 1Δ g) Photosensitized by Phenalenone in Air-Saturated Carbon Tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Okiyasu; Watanabe, Jun; Imakubo, Keiichi; Naito, Shizuo

    1998-11-01

    The phosphorescence quantum yield Φ P (=einsteins emitted/einsteins absorbed by sensitizer) of singlet oxygen (1O2) was measured for an air-saturated CCl4 solution of phenalenone (PH) used as a photosensitizer, by means of a photon-counting technique based on the use of a near-IR-sensitive photomultiplier. Employment of steady-state excitation allowed for the determination of the absolute quantum yield of Φ P=(1.38±0.05)×10-3 in CCl4. The result was obtained by direct comparison of the areas under the corrected emission spectra of 1O2 and of quinine bisulfate (QBS) in 1N H2SO4 as a luminescence standard.

  16. Quantum yield for O-atom production in the VUV photodissociation of CO2 using the time-sliced velocity-mapped imaging (TS-VMI) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, William M.

    2016-10-01

    VUV photodissociation above 10.5 eV is considered the primary region for photochemical destruction of CO2 by solar radiation. There is enough photon energy in this region so that in addition to ground state O(3PJ) and CO(1Σ +) that can be produced during photodissociation excited species such as atomic oxygen O(1D) and O(1S), as well as excited carbon monoxide CO(a3Π, a'3Σ+) also can be formed. Electronic excited oxygen atom and carbon monoxide are the species that are responsible for the airglows in atmospheres of the solar planets and comets. Therefore, detail photodissociation quantum yields for these excited species from CO2 are critical in interpreting the chemistry in these solar system bodies. We have previously shown that the time-sliced velocity-mapped imaging (TS-VMI) technique can provide detailed branching ratio information about photodissociation of diatomic molecules.1, 2 However, to date we have not been able to show how this technique can be use to determine absolute quantum yields for the products produced in the VUV photodissociation of CO2. In this talk we will describe how the known quantum yields for the photodissociation O2 to O(3P2), O(3P1), O(3P0) and O(1D) can be used to determine quantum yields of similar products in the photodissociation of CO2.[1] Yu Song, Hong Gao, Yih Chung Chang, D. Hammouténe, H. Ndome, M. Hochlaf, William M. Jackson, and C. Y. Ng, Ap. J., 819:23 (13pp), 2016; doi:10.3847/0004-637X/819/1/23.[2] Hong Gao, Yu Song, William M. Jackson and C. Y. Ng, J. Chem. Phys, 138, 191102, 2013.

  17. Analysis of the photosystem II by modelling the fluorescence yield transients during 10 seconds after a 10 ns pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaeva, Natalya E.; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Paschenko, Vladimir Z.; Riznichenko, Galina Yu.; Rubin, Andrew B.

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of the photosystem II (PS II) redox states is imitated over nine orders of magnitude in time. Our simulations focus on the information of the chlorophyll a fluorescence induced by a 10 ns laser flash. The PS II model analyzes differences in the PS II reaction between leaves (A. Thaliana, spinach) and thermophilic Chlorella cells.

  18. Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auletta, Gennaro; Fortunato, Mauro; Parisi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction; Part I. Basic Features of Quantum Mechanics: 1. From classical mechanics to quantum mechanics; 2. Quantum observable and states; 3. Quantum dynamics; 4. Examples of quantum dynamics; 5. Density matrix; Part II. More Advanced Topics: 6. Angular momentum and spin; 7. Identical particles; 8. Symmetries and conservation laws; 9. The measurement problem; Part III. Matter and Light: 10. Perturbations and approximation methods; 11. Hydrogen and helium atoms; 12. Hydrogen molecular ion; 13. Quantum optics; Part IV. Quantum Information: State and Correlations: 14. Quantum theory of open systems; 15. State measurement in quantum mechanics; 16. Entanglement: non-separability; 17. Entanglement: quantum information; References; Index.

  19. High yield and ultrafast sources of electrically triggered entangled-photon pairs based on strain-tunable quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Wildmann, Johannes S.; Ding, Fei; Trotta, Rinaldo; Huo, Yongheng; Zallo, Eugenio; Huber, Daniel; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2015-12-01

    Triggered sources of entangled photon pairs are key components in most quantum communication protocols. For practical quantum applications, electrical triggering would allow the realization of compact and deterministic sources of entangled photons. Entangled-light-emitting-diodes based on semiconductor quantum dots are among the most promising sources that can potentially address this task. However, entangled-light-emitting-diodes are plagued by a source of randomness, which results in a very low probability of finding quantum dots with sufficiently small fine structure splitting for entangled-photon generation (~10-2). Here we introduce strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes that exploit piezoelectric-induced strains to tune quantum dots for entangled-photon generation. We demonstrate that up to 30% of the quantum dots in strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emit polarization-entangled photons. An entanglement fidelity as high as 0.83 is achieved with fast temporal post selection. Driven at high speed, that is 400 MHz, strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emerge as promising devices for high data-rate quantum applications.

  20. High yield and ultrafast sources of electrically triggered entangled-photon pairs based on strain-tunable quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Wildmann, Johannes S; Ding, Fei; Trotta, Rinaldo; Huo, Yongheng; Zallo, Eugenio; Huber, Daniel; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2015-01-01

    Triggered sources of entangled photon pairs are key components in most quantum communication protocols. For practical quantum applications, electrical triggering would allow the realization of compact and deterministic sources of entangled photons. Entangled-light-emitting-diodes based on semiconductor quantum dots are among the most promising sources that can potentially address this task. However, entangled-light-emitting-diodes are plagued by a source of randomness, which results in a very low probability of finding quantum dots with sufficiently small fine structure splitting for entangled-photon generation (∼10(-2)). Here we introduce strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes that exploit piezoelectric-induced strains to tune quantum dots for entangled-photon generation. We demonstrate that up to 30% of the quantum dots in strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emit polarization-entangled photons. An entanglement fidelity as high as 0.83 is achieved with fast temporal post selection. Driven at high speed, that is 400 MHz, strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emerge as promising devices for high data-rate quantum applications.

  1. High yield and ultrafast sources of electrically triggered entangled-photon pairs based on strain-tunable quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Wildmann, Johannes S.; Ding, Fei; Trotta, Rinaldo; Huo, Yongheng; Zallo, Eugenio; Huber, Daniel; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2015-01-01

    Triggered sources of entangled photon pairs are key components in most quantum communication protocols. For practical quantum applications, electrical triggering would allow the realization of compact and deterministic sources of entangled photons. Entangled-light-emitting-diodes based on semiconductor quantum dots are among the most promising sources that can potentially address this task. However, entangled-light-emitting-diodes are plagued by a source of randomness, which results in a very low probability of finding quantum dots with sufficiently small fine structure splitting for entangled-photon generation (∼10−2). Here we introduce strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes that exploit piezoelectric-induced strains to tune quantum dots for entangled-photon generation. We demonstrate that up to 30% of the quantum dots in strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emit polarization-entangled photons. An entanglement fidelity as high as 0.83 is achieved with fast temporal post selection. Driven at high speed, that is 400 MHz, strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emerge as promising devices for high data-rate quantum applications. PMID:26621073

  2. Diffusion-enhanced Förster resonance energy transfer and the effects of external quenchers and the donor quantum yield.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Maik H; Dsouza, Roy N; Ghosh, Indrajit; Norouzy, Amir; Schwarzlose, Thomas; Nau, Werner M

    2013-01-10

    effective FRET rate and the recovered donor-acceptor distance depend on the quantum yield, most strongly in the absence of diffusion, which has to be accounted for in the interpretation of distance trends monitored by FRET.

  3. Temperature dependence of the phosphorescence quantum yield of various alpha-lactalbumins and of hen egg-white lysozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C A; Maki, A H

    1993-01-01

    The radiative quantum yield, phi op, of the triplet state of human alpha-lactalbumin (HLA) has been measured in the temperature range between 6 K and the softening point of the aqueous glass (approximately 150 K). phi op has little temperature dependence below approximately 30 K, but above this it decreases sharply with increasing temperature. The unusual temperature dependence is fitted by a phenomenological two-state model in which the phosphorescence originates primarily from a donor, tryptophan (Trp) 104, and an acceptor, Trp 60, the populations of which are coupled by a thermally activated triplet-triplet energy transfer process. The model assumes that the acceptor (Trp 60) triplet state undergoes radiationless deactivation by a proximal disulfide residue, while the donor (Trp 104) has no such extrinsic quencher. The decrease of phi op with increasing temperature is accounted for by the thermally activated triplet-triplet energy transfer process. The disulfide quenching rate constant itself is assumed to be temperature independent, in accord with recent measurements of simple disulfide quenching in long chain snake venom neurotoxins (Schlyer, B. D., E. Lau, and A. H. Maki. 1992. Biochemistry. 31:4375-4383; Li, Z., A. Bruce, and W. C. Galley. 1992. Biophys. J. 61:1364-1371). We find that the phosphorescence quenching in HLA occurs with an activation energy of 97 cm-1, which we associate with a barrier to the energy transfer process. The data are fit well by the model if we assume a value for the temperature-independent disulfide quenching constant of kQ > 3 s-1 that is consistent with recent measurements on indole-disulfide model systems (Li, Z., A. Bruce, and W. C. Galley. 1992. Biophys. J. 61:1364-1371). Similar results are reported for bovine alpha-lactalbumin (BLA) and for hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) that contains the structural equivalents of Trp 104 and Trp 60 of HLA. HLA provides the best agreement with calculations since it is the simplest, lacking

  4. Multi-band Bloch equations and gain spectra of highly excited II-VI semiconductor quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Girndt, A.; Jahnke, F.; Knorr, A.; Koch, S.W.; Chow, W.W.

    1997-04-21

    Quasi-equilibrium excitation dependent optical probe spectra of II-VI semiconductor quantum wells at room temperature are investigated within the framework of multi-band semiconductor Bloch equations. The calculations include correlation effects beyond the Hartree-Fock level which describe dephasing, interband Coulomb correlations and band-gap renormalization in second Born approximation. In addition to the carrier-Coulomb interaction, the influence of carrier-phonon scattering and inhomogeneous broadening is considered. The explicit calculation of single particle properties like band structure and dipole matrix elements using k {center_dot} p theory makes it possible to investigate various II-VI material combinations. Numerical results are presented for CdZnSe/ZnSe and CdZnSe/MnZnSSe semiconductor quantum-well systems.

  5. Dynamics of the matrix in DMS Type-II quantum dot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Collin R.; Whiteside, Vince R.; Sellers, Ian R.; Petrou, Athos; Chou, W.-C.

    Magnetic field, temperature, and polarization dependent continuous wave photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) is used to study two related Type-II quantum dots (QDs). These techniques were used to study how the location of magnetic impurities affects the formation of magnetic polarons in these two (related) systems. The ZnMnTe/ZnSe system has Mn impurities located within the QDs, with (ideally) no Mn in the surrounding ZnSe matrix. The ZnTe/ZnMnSe QDs have Mn impurities grown within the matrix, which ideally is excluded from the QDs. For both these systems, the holes are confined within the dots, while the electrons are located in the surrounding matrix. The location of the Mn and its coupling with the spin of the corresponding carrier leads to distinct characteristics for each system. Due to difficulties growing these systems, some diffusion of Mn during the growth of these samples is suspected, leading to a percentage of magnetic impurities unintentionally located in the non-magnetic region for both samples. The emission from the matrix in particular was studied to determine the effect/composition of Mn in this region and its contribution to the characteristics of the QDs. This work is supported by NSF DMR-1305770.

  6. Quantum efficiency investigations of type-II InAs/GaSb midwave infrared superlattice photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Giard, E. Ribet-Mohamed, I.; Jaeck, J.; Viale, T.; Haïdar, R.; Taalat, R.; Delmas, M.; Rodriguez, J.-B.; Christol, P.; Steveler, E.; Bardou, N.; Boulard, F.

    2014-07-28

    We present in this paper a comparison between different type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) photodiodes and focal plane array (FPA) in the mid-wavelength infrared domain to understand which phenomenon drives the performances of the T2SL structure in terms of quantum efficiency (QE). Our measurements on test photodiodes suggest low minority carrier diffusion length in the “InAs-rich” design, which penalizes carriers' collection in this structure for low bias voltage and front side illumination. This analysis is completed by a comparison of the experimental data with a fully analytic model, which allows to infer a hole diffusion length shorter than 100 nm. In addition, measurements on a FPA with backside illumination are finally presented. Results show an average QE in the 3–4.7 μm window equal to 42% for U{sub bias} = −0.1 V, 77 K operating temperature and no anti-reflection coating. These measurements, completed by modulation transfer function and noise measurements, reveal that the InAs-rich design, despite a low hole diffusion length, is promising for high performance infrared imaging applications.

  7. I.I. Rabi Prize Talk: Exploring New Frontiers of Quantum Optical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Mikhail

    2009-05-01

    In this talk we will discuss recent developments involving a new scientific interface between quantum optics and atomic physics, many body physics, nanoscience and quantum information science. Specific examples include quantum manipulation of individual spins and photons using impurities in diamond and control of light-matter interactions using sub-wavelength localization of optical fields. Novel applications of these techniques ranging from implementation of ideas from quantum information science to nanoscale magnetic sensing will be discussed.

  8. The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics Part II: Physical Realizations and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Using the simplest possible quantum system--the qubit--the fundamental concepts of quantum physics can be introduced. This highlights the common features of many different physical systems, and provides a unifying framework when teaching quantum physics at the high school or introductory level. In a previous "TPT" article and in a…

  9. High detectivity short-wavelength II-VI quantum cascade detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ravikumar, Arvind P. Gmachl, Claire F.; Garcia, Thor A.; Tamargo, Maria C.; Jesus, Joel De

    2014-08-11

    We report on the experimental demonstration of a ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe-based short-wavelength photovoltaic Quantum Cascade Detector (QCD). The QCD operates in two spectral bands centered around 2.6 μm and 3.6 μm. Calibrated blackbody measurements yield a peak responsivity of 0.1 mA/W or 2400 V/W at 80 K, and a corresponding 300 K background radiation limited infrared performance detectivity (BLIP) of ∼2.5 × 10{sup 10 }cm √Hz/W. Comparison of background illuminated and dark current-voltage measurements demonstrates a BLIP temperature of 200 K. The device differential resistance-area product, decreases from about 10{sup 6} Ω cm{sup 2} at 80 K to about 8000 Ω cm{sup 2} at 300 K, indicative of the ultra-low Johnson noise in the detectors.

  10. Extended Cahill-Glauber formalism for finite-dimensional spaces. II. Applications in quantum tomography and quantum teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Marchiolli, Marcelo A.; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Galetti, Diogenes

    2005-10-15

    By means of a mod(N)-invariant operator basis, s-parametrized phase-space functions associated with bounded operators in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space are introduced in the context of the extended Cahill-Glauber formalism, and their properties are discussed in details. The discrete Glauber-Sudarshan, Wigner, and Husimi functions emerge from this formalism as specific cases of s-parametrized phase-space functions where, in particular, a hierarchical process among them is promptly established. In addition, a phase-space description of quantum tomography and quantum teleportation is presented and new results are obtained.

  11. Photochromic conversion in a red/green cyanobacteriochrome from Synechocystis PCC6803: quantum yields in solution and photoswitching dynamics in living E. coli cells.

    PubMed

    Pennacchietti, Francesca; Losi, Aba; Xu, Xiu-ling; Zhao, Kai-hong; Gärtner, Wolfgang; Viappiani, Cristiano; Cella, Francesca; Diaspro, Alberto; Abbruzzetti, Stefania

    2015-02-01

    The protein encoded by the gene slr1393 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (Slr1393) is composed of three GAF domains, a PAS domain, and a histidine kinase motif. The third GAF domain (referred to as GAF3) was previously characterized as the sole domain in this protein, being able to carry phycocyanobilin (PCB) as the chromophore and to accomplish photochemistry. GAF3 shows photochromicity, and is able to switch between a red-absorbing parental state (GAF3R, λmax = 649 nm) and a green-absorbing photoproduct state (GAF3G, λmax = 536 nm) upon appropriate irradiation. In this study we have determined the photochemical quantum yields for the interconversion between both forms using two methods: an "absolute" method and a reference-based control. The latter is a comparative procedure which exploits a well-characterized blue-light photoreceptor, YtvA from Bacillus subtilis, and the cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 as actinometers. The former is an ad hoc developed, four laser-based setup where two cw lasers provide the pump beams to induce photoswitching (red to green and green to red, respectively) and two cw lasers simultaneously monitor the appearance and disappearance of the two species. Interestingly, fit analysis of the recorded transient absorbance changes provided a quantum yield for the green → red conversion (≈0.3) at least three times larger than for the red → green conversion (≈0.08). These data are in agreement with the results from the comparative method documenting the usefulness of the 'direct' method developed here for quantum yields' determination. The light-induced switching capability of this photochromic protein allowed measuring the kinetics of GAF3 immobilized on a glass plate, and within living, overexpressing Escherichia coli cells. PMID:25358617

  12. Q-Machine Plasmas Yielding New Experimental Methodologies of Sheared-Flow and Nano-Quantum Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2008-10-15

    The traditional Q machine has been modified in accordance with the evolution of experimental methodologies ranging from modern plasma physics to extreme nanoscience. A special emphasis is placed on physics of sheared-flow related electron-temperature-gradient modes and nano-quantum physics or electronics based on fullerene and carbon nanotubes.

  13. The optical depth of the 158 micrometer (C-12 II) line: Detection of the F=1 yields 0 (C-13 III) hyperfine-structure component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, G. J.; Townes, C. H.; Poglitsch, A.; Madden, S. C.; Jackson, J. M.; Herrmann, F.; Genzel, R.; Geis, N.

    1991-01-01

    The first detection of the F = 1 yields 0 hyperfine component of the 158 micrometer (C-13 II) fine structure line in the interstellar medium is reported. A twelve point intensity map was obtained of the (C-13 II) distribution over the inner 190 inch (right ascension) by 190 inch (declination) regions of the Orion nebula using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer. The (C-12 II)/(C-13 II) line intensity ratio varied significantly over the region mapped. It is highest (86 plus or minus 9) in the core of the Orion H II region and significantly lower (62 plus or minus 7) in the outer regions of the map, reflecting higher optical depth in the (C-12 II) line here. It is suggested that this enhanced optical depth is the result of limb brightening of the optically thin (C-13 II) line at the edges of the bowl-shaped H II region blister. If the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio is 43, the (C-12 II) line in the inner regions of the Orion nebula, has a low optical depth: tau sub 12 approximately = 0.75 plus or minus 0.25. The optical depth together with the large brightness temperature of the (C-12 II) line (approximately 160 K) requires that the excitation temperature of the P-2 sub 3/2 level be approximately 310 K, in very good agreement with the previous analysis of the physical conditions of the Orion interface region based on fine structure line intensity ratios and photodissociation region models. If the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio is 67, the line optical depth is somewhat larger (tau sub 12 approximately = 1.85), and the transition excitation temperature is somewhat smaller (approximately 190 K) than that predicted by these models. The present results therefore support values approximately = 43 for the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio in the Orion nebula.

  14. Controllable chrominance and highly improved luminescent quantum yield of YV(1-x)P(x)O4: Tm, Dy, Eu inverse opal white light phosphors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pingwei; Zhu, Yongsheng; Xu, Wen; Xu, Lin; Song, Hongwei

    2013-11-01

    In this work, rare earth (RE) ions tri-doped YV(1-x)P(x)O(4): RE(3+) (RE = Tm, Dy, Eu) inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPCs) were fabricated by the PMMA template method, which demonstrated efficient white light emissions under ultraviolet excitation. It is significant to observe that the chrominance of the white light could be largely modulated by the photonic stop band of the IOPCs. And more, the photoluminescence quantum yield in the IOPCs was largely improved over the grinded reference (REF) because the undesired energy transfer (ET) process was effectively restrained. PMID:24216800

  15. Absolute chlorine and hydrogen atom quantum yield measurements in the 193.3 nm photodissociation of CH3CFCl2 (HCFC-141b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Läuter, Almuth; Suresh, Dhanya; Volpp, Hans-Robert

    2003-04-01

    The dynamics of chlorine and hydrogen atom formation in the 193.3 nm gas-phase laser photolysis of room-temperature 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, CH3CFCl2 (HCFC-141b), were studied by means of the pulsed-laser-photolysis and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) "pump-and-probe" technique. Nascent ground-state Cl(2P3/2) and spin-orbit excited Cl*(2P1/2) as well as H(2S) atom photofragments were detected under collision-free conditions by pulsed Doppler-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements employing narrow-band vacuum ultraviolet probe laser radiation, generated via resonant third-order sum-difference frequency conversion of dye laser radiation in krypton. Using HCl photolysis as a reference source of well-defined Cl(2P3/2), Cl*(2P1/2), and H atom concentrations, values for the chlorine-atom spin-orbit branching ratio [Cl*]/[Cl]=0.36±0.08, the total chlorine atom quantum yield (ΦCl+Cl*=1.01±0.14), and the H atom quantum yield (ΦH=0.04±0.01) were determined by means of a photolytic calibration method. From the measured Cl and Cl* atom Doppler profiles the mean relative translational energy of the chlorine fragments could be determined to be ET(Cl)=157±12 kJ/mol and ET(Cl*)=165±12 kJ/mol. The corresponding average values 0.56 and 0.62 of the fraction of total available energy channeled into CH3CFCl+Cl/Cl* product translational energy were found to lie between the limiting values 0.36 and 0.85 predicted by a soft impulsive and a rigid rotor model of the CH3CFCl2→CH3CFCl+Cl/Cl* dissociation processes, respectively. The measured total chlorine atom quantum yield along with the rather small H atom quantum yield as well as the observed energy disposal indicates that direct C-Cl bond cleavage is the most important primary fragmentation mechanism for CH3CFCl2 after photoexcitation in the first absorption band.

  16. A water-soluble ESIPT fluorescent probe with high quantum yield and red emission for ratiometric detection of inorganic and organic palladium.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tang; Xu, Pengfei; Liu, Meihui; Bi, Anyao; Hu, Pengzhi; Ye, Bin; Wang, Wei; Zeng, Wenbin

    2015-05-01

    A novel fluorescent probe with a high quantum yield (0.41), large Stokes shifts (255 nm), and red emission (635 nm) was designed to detect all typical oxidation states of palladium species (0, +2, +4) by palladium-mediated terminal propargyl ethers cleavage reaction in water solution without any organic media. The probe showed a high selectivity and excellent sensitivity for palladium species, with a detection as low as 57 nM (6.2 μg L(-1)).

  17. Short-Term Responses in Maximum Quantum Yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) to ex situ Temperature Treatment of Populations of Bryophytes Originating from Different Sites in Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    PubMed Central

    Jägerbrand, Annika K.; Kudo, Gaku

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge available on the thermal acclimation processes for bryophytes, especially when considering variation between populations or sites. This study investigated whether short-term ex situ thermal acclimation of different populations showed patterns of site dependency and whether the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) could be used as an indicator of adaptation or temperature stress in two bryophyte species: Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt. and Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. We sought to test the hypothesis that differences in the ability to acclimate to short-term temperature treatment would be revealed as differences in photosystem II maximum yield (Fv/Fm). Thermal treatments were applied to samples from 12 and 11 populations during 12 or 13 days in growth chambers and comprised: (1) 10/5 °C; (2) 20/10 °C; (3) 25/15 °C; (4) 30/20 °C (12 hours day/night temperature). In Pleurozium schreberi, there were no significant site-dependent differences before or after the experiment, while site dependencies were clearly shown in Racomitrium lanuginosum throughout the study. Fv/Fm in Pleurozium schreberi decreased at the highest and lowest temperature treatments, which can be interpreted as a stress response, but no similar trends were shown by Racomitrium lanuginosum. PMID:27135242

  18. Short-Term Responses in Maximum Quantum Yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) to ex situ Temperature Treatment of Populations of Bryophytes Originating from Different Sites in Hokkaido, Northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Kudo, Gaku

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge available on the thermal acclimation processes for bryophytes, especially when considering variation between populations or sites. This study investigated whether short-term ex situ thermal acclimation of different populations showed patterns of site dependency and whether the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) could be used as an indicator of adaptation or temperature stress in two bryophyte species: Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt. and Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. We sought to test the hypothesis that differences in the ability to acclimate to short-term temperature treatment would be revealed as differences in photosystem II maximum yield (Fv/Fm). Thermal treatments were applied to samples from 12 and 11 populations during 12 or 13 days in growth chambers and comprised: (1) 10/5 °C; (2) 20/10 °C; (3) 25/15 °C; (4) 30/20 °C (12 hours day/night temperature). In Pleurozium schreberi, there were no significant site-dependent differences before or after the experiment, while site dependencies were clearly shown in Racomitrium lanuginosum throughout the study. Fv/Fm in Pleurozium schreberi decreased at the highest and lowest temperature treatments, which can be interpreted as a stress response, but no similar trends were shown by Racomitrium lanuginosum. PMID:27135242

  19. Short-Term Responses in Maximum Quantum Yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) to ex situ Temperature Treatment of Populations of Bryophytes Originating from Different Sites in Hokkaido, Northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Kudo, Gaku

    2016-04-26

    There is limited knowledge available on the thermal acclimation processes for bryophytes, especially when considering variation between populations or sites. This study investigated whether short-term ex situ thermal acclimation of different populations showed patterns of site dependency and whether the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) could be used as an indicator of adaptation or temperature stress in two bryophyte species: Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt. and Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. We sought to test the hypothesis that differences in the ability to acclimate to short-term temperature treatment would be revealed as differences in photosystem II maximum yield (Fv/Fm). Thermal treatments were applied to samples from 12 and 11 populations during 12 or 13 days in growth chambers and comprised: (1) 10/5 °C; (2) 20/10 °C; (3) 25/15 °C; (4) 30/20 °C (12 hours day/night temperature). In Pleurozium schreberi, there were no significant site-dependent differences before or after the experiment, while site dependencies were clearly shown in Racomitrium lanuginosum throughout the study. Fv/Fm in Pleurozium schreberi decreased at the highest and lowest temperature treatments, which can be interpreted as a stress response, but no similar trends were shown by Racomitrium lanuginosum.

  20. Probing the Quenching of Quantum Dot Photoluminescence by Peptide-Labeled Ruthenium(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Scott, Amy M; Algar, W Russ; Stewart, Michael H; Trammell, Scott A; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B; Dawson, Philip E; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Goswami, Ramasis; Oh, Eunkeu; Huston, Alan L; Medintz, Igor L

    2014-05-01

    Charge transfer processes with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have generated much interest for potential utility in energy conversion. Such configurations are generally nonbiological; however, recent studies have shown that a redox-active ruthenium(II)-phenanthroline complex (Ru(2+)-phen) is particularly efficient at quenching the photoluminescence (PL) of QDs, and this mechanism demonstrates good potential for application as a generalized biosensing detection modality since it is aqueous compatible. Multiple possibilities for charge transfer and/or energy transfer mechanisms exist within this type of assembly, and there is currently a limited understanding of the underlying photophysical processes in such biocomposite systems where nanomaterials are directly interfaced with biomolecules such as proteins. Here, we utilize redox reactions, steady-state absorption, PL spectroscopy, time-resolved PL spectroscopy, and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (FSTA) to investigate PL quenching in biological assemblies of CdSe/ZnS QDs formed with peptide-linked Ru(2+)-phen. The results reveal that QD quenching requires the Ru(2+) oxidation state and is not consistent with Förster resonance energy transfer, strongly supporting a charge transfer mechanism. Further, two colors of CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs with similar macroscopic optical properties were found to have very different rates of charge transfer quenching, by Ru(2+)-phen with the key difference between them appearing to be the thickness of their ZnS outer shell. The effect of shell thickness was found to be larger than the effect of increasing distance between the QD and Ru(2+)-phen when using peptides of increasing persistence length. FSTA and time-resolved upconversion PL results further show that exciton quenching is a rather slow process consistent with other QD conjugate materials that undergo hole transfer. An improved understanding of the QD-Ru(2+)-phen system can allow for the design of more

  1. Probing the Quenching of Quantum Dot Photoluminescence by Peptide-Labeled Ruthenium(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Charge transfer processes with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have generated much interest for potential utility in energy conversion. Such configurations are generally nonbiological; however, recent studies have shown that a redox-active ruthenium(II)–phenanthroline complex (Ru2+-phen) is particularly efficient at quenching the photoluminescence (PL) of QDs, and this mechanism demonstrates good potential for application as a generalized biosensing detection modality since it is aqueous compatible. Multiple possibilities for charge transfer and/or energy transfer mechanisms exist within this type of assembly, and there is currently a limited understanding of the underlying photophysical processes in such biocomposite systems where nanomaterials are directly interfaced with biomolecules such as proteins. Here, we utilize redox reactions, steady-state absorption, PL spectroscopy, time-resolved PL spectroscopy, and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (FSTA) to investigate PL quenching in biological assemblies of CdSe/ZnS QDs formed with peptide-linked Ru2+-phen. The results reveal that QD quenching requires the Ru2+ oxidation state and is not consistent with Förster resonance energy transfer, strongly supporting a charge transfer mechanism. Further, two colors of CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs with similar macroscopic optical properties were found to have very different rates of charge transfer quenching, by Ru2+-phen with the key difference between them appearing to be the thickness of their ZnS outer shell. The effect of shell thickness was found to be larger than the effect of increasing distance between the QD and Ru2+-phen when using peptides of increasing persistence length. FSTA and time-resolved upconversion PL results further show that exciton quenching is a rather slow process consistent with other QD conjugate materials that undergo hole transfer. An improved understanding of the QD–Ru2+-phen system can allow for the design of more sophisticated

  2. Oxalyl chloride, ClC(O)C(O)Cl: UV/vis spectrum and Cl atom photolysis quantum yields at 193, 248, and 351 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Buddhadeb; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Burkholder, James B.

    2012-10-28

    Oxalyl chloride, (ClCO){sub 2}, has been used as a Cl atom photolytic precursor in numerous laboratory kinetic and photochemical studies. In this study, the UV/vis absorption spectrum of (ClCO){sub 2} and the Cl atom quantum yields in its photolysis at 193, 248, and 351 nm are reported. The UV/vis spectrum was measured between 200 and 450 nm at 296 K using diode array spectroscopy in conjunction with an absolute cross section obtained at 213.9 nm. Our results are in agreement with the spectrum reported by Baklanov and Krasnoperov [J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 97-103 (2001)], which was obtained at 11 discrete wavelengths between 193.3 and 390 nm. Cl atom quantum yields, {Phi}({lambda}), were measured using pulsed laser photolysis coupled with time resolved atomic resonance fluorescence detection of Cl. The UV photolysis of (ClCO){sub 2} has been shown in previous studies to occur via an impulsive three-body dissociation mechanism, (COCl){sub 2}+ hv{yields} ClCO*+ Cl + CO (2), where the excited ClCO radical, ClCO*, either dissociates or stabilizes ClCO*{yields} Cl + CO (3a), {yields} ClCO (3b). ClCO is thermally unstable at the temperatures (253-298 K) and total pressures (13-128 Torr) used in our experiments ClCO + M {yields} Cl + CO + M (4) leading to the formation of a secondary Cl atom that was resolvable in the Cl atom temporal profiles obtained in the 248 and 351 nm photolysis of (ClCO){sub 2}. {Phi}(193 nm) was found to be 2.07 {+-} 0.37 independent of bath gas pressure (25.8-105.7 Torr, N{sub 2}), i.e., the branching ratio for channel 2a or the direct formation of 2Cl + 2CO in the photolysis of (ClCO){sub 2} is >0.95. At 248 nm, the branching ratio for channel 2a was determined to be 0.79 {+-} 0.15, while the total Cl atom yield, i.e., following the completion of reaction (4), was found to be 1.98 {+-} 0.26 independent of bath gas pressure (15-70 Torr, N{sub 2}). {Phi}(351 nm) was found to be pressure dependent between 7.8 and 122.4 Torr (He, N{sub 2}). The low

  3. Novel π-type vortex in a nanoscale extreme type-II superconductor: Induced by quantum-size effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wenhui; Chen, Yajiang

    2016-11-01

    By numerically solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, we report a novel π-type vortex state whose order parameter near the core undergoes an extraordinary π-phase change for a quantum-confined extreme type-II s-wave superconductor. Its supercurrent behaves as the cube of the radial coordinate near the core, and its local density of states spectrum exhibits a significant negative-shifted zero-bias peak. Such π-type vortex state is induced by quantum-size effect, and can survive thermal smearing at temperatures up to a critical value Tτ. The Anderson's approximation indicates that the π-type vortex may remain stable under sufficiently week magnetic field in the case less deep in the type-II limit. Moreover, we find that its appearance is governed by the sample size and kFξ0 with kF the Fermi wave number and ξ0 the zero-temperature coherence length. Similar effects may be expected in quantum-confined ultracold superfluid Fermi gasses, or even high-Tc superconductors with proper kFξ0 value.

  4. Determination of the Strong Phase in D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} Using Quantum-Correlated Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.; Mohapatra, D.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Patterson, J. R.

    2008-06-06

    We exploit the quantum coherence between pair-produced D{sup 0} and D{sup 0} in {psi}(3770) decays to study charm mixing, which is characterized by the parameters x and y, and to make a first determination of the relative strong phase {delta} between D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. Using 281 pb{sup -1} of e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data collected with the CLEO-c detector at E{sub cm}=3.77 GeV, as well as branching fraction input and time-integrated measurements of R{sub M}{identical_to}(x{sup 2}+y{sup 2})/2 and R{sub WS}{identical_to}{gamma}(D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{gamma}(D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) from other experiments, we find cos{delta}=1.03{sub -0.17}{sup +0.31}{+-}0.06, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. By further including other mixing parameter measurements, we obtain an alternate measurement of cos{delta}=1.10{+-}0.35{+-}0.07, as well as xsin{delta}=(4.4{sub -1.8}{sup +2.7}{+-}2.9)x10{sup -3} and {delta}=(22{sub -12-11}{sup +11+9}) deg.

  5. Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement. II. Development of Research-Based Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials and peer-instruction tools to reduce students' common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students'…

  6. Do genotypic differences in thermotolerance plasticity correspond with water-induced differences in yield and photosynthetic stability for field-grown upland cotton?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if cultivar differences in thermotolerance plasticity of photosystem II promote yield or photosynthetic stability when variability in both parameters is water-induced, the temperature response of maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) was evaluated for two cotton cultivars (FM ...

  7. Recent development of SWIR focal plane array with InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Hiroshi; Machinaga, Kenichi; Balasekaran, Sundararajan; Miura, Kouhei; Kawahara, Takahiko; Migita, Masaki; Akita, Katsushi; Iguchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-01

    HgCdTe (MCT) is predominantly used for infrared imaging applications even in SWIR region. However, MCT is expensive and contains environmentally hazardous substances. Therefore, its application has been restricted mainly military and scientific use and was not spread to commercial use. InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum well structures are considered as an attractive material for realizing low dark current PDs owing to lattice-matching to InP substrate. Moreover, III-V compound material systems are suitable for commercial use. In this report, we describe successful operation of focal plane array (FPA) with InGaAs/GaAsSb quantum wells and mention improvement of optical characteristics. Planar type pin-PDs with 250-pairs InGaAs(5nm)/GaAsSb(5nm) quantum well absorption layer were fabricated. The p-n junction was formed in the absorption layer by the selective diffusion of zinc. Electrical and optical characteristics of FPA or pin-PDs were investigated. Dark current of 1μA/cm2 at 210K, which showed good uniformity and led to good S/N ratio in SWIR region, was obtained. Further, we could successfully reduce of stray light in the cavity of FPA with epoxy resin. As a result, the clear image was taken with 320x256 format and 7% contrast improvement was achieved. Reliability test of 10,000 heat cycles was carried out. No degradations were found in FPA characteristics of the epoxy coated sample. This result means FPA using InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum wells is a promising candidate for commercial applications.

  8. The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics Part II: Physical Realizations and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Using the simplest possible quantum system—the qubit—the fundamental concepts of quantum physics can be introduced. This highlights the common features of many different physical systems, and provides a unifying framework when teaching quantum physics at the high school or introductory level. In a previous TPT article and in a separate paper posted online, we introduced catchy visualizations of the qubit based on the Bloch sphere or just the unit circle (see also Refs. 3-8 for other approaches highlighting the importance of the qubit). These visualizations open the way to understand basic ideas of quantum physics even without knowledge of the underlying mathematical formalism. In addition, simple mathematics can be introduced to describe the qubit as an abstract object and basic unit of quantum information. This generalizes the digital bit as a basic unit of classical information. The proposed visualizations can be used even at the high school level, while the mathematical explanations are of importance when teaching quantum physics at the undergraduate university level. This approach provides a unified framework to introduce common features of all quantum systems, such as the stochastic behavior and state change of a superposition state under measurement.

  9. Time-evolution of quantum systems via a complex nonlinear Riccati equation. II. Dissipative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Hans; Schuch, Dieter; Castaños, Octavio; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    In our former contribution (Cruz et al., 2015), we have shown the sensitivity to the choice of initial conditions in the evolution of Gaussian wave packets via the nonlinear Riccati equation. The formalism developed in the previous work is extended to effective approaches for the description of dissipative quantum systems. By means of simple examples we show the effects of the environment on the quantum uncertainties, correlation function, quantum energy contribution and tunnelling currents. We prove that the environmental parameter γ is strongly related with the sensitivity to the choice of initial conditions.

  10. Time-resolved photoluminescence of type-II quantum dots and isoelectronic centers in Zn-Se-Te superlattice structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, M. C.-K.; Cartwright, A. N.; Sellers, I. R.; McCombe, B. D.; Kuskovsky, I. L.

    2008-01-01

    Spectrally and time-resolved photoluminescence of a ZnTe /ZnSe superlattice reveals a smooth transition of the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime from ˜100ns at 2.35eV to less than a few nanoseconds at 2.8eV. The significant increase of the lifetime in the low energy region is strong evidence to support the formation of type-II quantum dots (QDs), since in these nanostructures the spatial separation of carriers is increased. The shorter lived emission above 2.5eV is attributed to excitons bound to Te isoelectronic centers in the ZnSe matrix. The smooth transition of the PL lifetime confirms that clusters of these Te atoms evolve into type-II ZnTe /ZnSe QDs.

  11. The road to matrix mechanics: II. Ladenburg’s quantum interpretation of optical dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellari, Lucio

    2016-09-01

    This paper reviews Ladenburg’s development of the phenomenological theory of radiative transitions between the stationary states of an atom put forward by Einstein in 1917. The historical background as well as the far reaching outcomes of his work are considered and discussed; among them the Kramers–Heisenberg quantum dispersion theory that paved the way to Heisenberg’s formulation of matrix mechanics and the quantum-mechanical calculation of the spectral line profiles.

  12. The road to matrix mechanics: II. Ladenburg’s quantum interpretation of optical dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellari, Lucio

    2016-09-01

    This paper reviews Ladenburg’s development of the phenomenological theory of radiative transitions between the stationary states of an atom put forward by Einstein in 1917. The historical background as well as the far reaching outcomes of his work are considered and discussed; among them the Kramers-Heisenberg quantum dispersion theory that paved the way to Heisenberg’s formulation of matrix mechanics and the quantum-mechanical calculation of the spectral line profiles.

  13. Quantum damped oscillator II: Bateman's Hamiltonian vs. 2D parabolic potential barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz . E-mail: darch@phys.uni.torun.pl

    2006-04-15

    We show that quantum Bateman's system which arises in the quantization of a damped harmonic oscillator is equivalent to a quantum problem with 2D parabolic potential barrier known also as 2D inverted isotropic oscillator. It turns out that this system displays the family of complex eigenvalues corresponding to the poles of analytical continuation of the resolvent operator to the complex energy plane. It is shown that this representation is more suitable than the hyperbolic one used recently by Blasone and Jizba.

  14. Temperature and irradiance impacts on the growth, pigmentation and photosystem II quantum yield of Haemotococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microalga Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow has been the subject of a number of studies concerned with maximizing astaxanthin production for use in animal feeds and for human consumption. Several of these studies have specifically attempted to ascertain the optimal temperature and irradiance combi...

  15. Temperature and Irradiance Impacts on the Growth, Pigmentation and Photosystem II Quantum Yields of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microalga Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow has been the subject of a number of studies concerned with maximizing astaxanthin production for use in animal feeds and for human consumption. Several of these studies have specifically attempted to ascertain the optimal temperature and irradiance combi...

  16. Effects of Scalar and Pseudoscalar Higgs Bosons in the Process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} bb-bar{nu}{nu}-bar at the LEP II Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Likhoded, A.A.; Chalov, A.E.

    2005-12-01

    The possibility of setting constraints on the couplings of the scalar or pseudoscalar Higgs boson to b quarks on the basis of data on the process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} bb-bar{nu}{nu}-bar at the LEP II collider is investigated. The mixing of the scalar and the hypothetical pseudoscalar Higgs boson in the Hbb-bar vertex is parametrized in the form (m{sub b}/v)(a + i{gamma}{sub 5}b). An analysis of the differential distributions for the process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} bb-bar{nu}{nu}-bar reveals that the contribution of the fusion subprocess WW {yields} H in the channel involving an electron neutrino enhances the sensitivity of data to the parameters under analysis. It is shown that the LEP II data at {radical}(s) = 200 GeV and {integral} Ldt = 600 pb{sup -1} per experiment would make it possible to constrain the parameters {delta}a=a - 1 and b as follows: -0.75 {<=} {delta}a {<=} 1.4 at b = 0 and free {delta}a and -0.97 {<=} b {<=} 0.97 at {delta}a = 0 and free b.

  17. Properties of inelastic yielding zones generated by in-plane dynamic ruptures—II. Detailed parameter-space study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiqing; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Ampuero, Jean-Paul

    2012-12-01

    We perform a detailed parameter-space study on properties of yielding zones generated by 2-D in-plane dynamic ruptures on a planar fault with different friction laws and parameters, different initial stress conditions, different rock cohesion values, and different contrasts of elasticity and mass density across the fault. The focus is on cases corresponding to large strike-slip faults having high angle (?) to the maximum compressive background stress. The simulations and analytical scaling results show that for crack-like ruptures (1) the maximum yielding zone thickness Tmax linearly increases with rupture distance L and the ratio Tmax/L is inversely proportional to (1 +S)2 with S being the relative strength parameter; (2) the potency density ? decays logarithmically with fault normal distance at a rate depending on the stress state and S; (3) increasing rock cohesion reduces Tmax/L, resulting in faster rupture speed and higher inclination angle ? of expected microfractures on the extensional side of the fault. For slip pulses in quasi-steady state, T is approximately constant along strike with local values correlating with the maximum slip velocity (or final slip) at a location. For a bimaterial interface with ?, the energy dissipation to yielding contributes to developing macroscopically asymmetric rupture (at the scale of rupture length) with the same preferred propagation direction predicted for purely elastic cases with Coulomb friction. When ?, representative for thrust faulting, the energy dissipation to yielding leads to opposite preferred rupture propagation. In all cases, ? is higher on average on the compliant side. For both crack and pulse ruptures with ?, T decreases and ? increases for conditions representing greater depth. Significant damage asymmetry of the type observed across several large strike-slip faults likely implies persistent macroscopic rupture asymmetry (unilateral cracks, unilateral pulses or asymmetric bilateral pulses). The results on

  18. Oxalyl chloride, ClC(O)C(O)Cl: UV/vis spectrum and Cl atom photolysis quantum yields at 193, 248, and 351 nm.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Buddhadeb; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Burkholder, James B

    2012-10-28

    Oxalyl chloride, (ClCO)(2), has been used as a Cl atom photolytic precursor in numerous laboratory kinetic and photochemical studies. In this study, the UV/vis absorption spectrum of (ClCO)(2) and the Cl atom quantum yields in its photolysis at 193, 248, and 351 nm are reported. The UV∕vis spectrum was measured between 200 and 450 nm at 296 K using diode array spectroscopy in conjunction with an absolute cross section obtained at 213.9 nm. Our results are in agreement with the spectrum reported by Baklanov and Krasnoperov [J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 97-103 (2001)], which was obtained at 11 discrete wavelengths between 193.3 and 390 nm. Cl atom quantum yields, Φ(λ), were measured using pulsed laser photolysis coupled with time resolved atomic resonance fluorescence detection of Cl. The UV photolysis of (ClCO)(2) has been shown in previous studies to occur via an impulsive three-body dissociation mechanism, (COCl)(2) + hv → ClCO* + Cl + CO (2), where the excited ClCO radical, ClCO*, either dissociates or stabilizes ClCO* → Cl + CO (3a), → ClCO (3b). ClCO is thermally unstable at the temperatures (253-298 K) and total pressures (13-128 Torr) used in our experiments ClCO + M → Cl + CO + M (4) leading to the formation of a secondary Cl atom that was resolvable in the Cl atom temporal profiles obtained in the 248 and 351 nm photolysis of (ClCO)(2). Φ(193 nm) was found to be 2.07 ± 0.37 independent of bath gas pressure (25.8-105.7 Torr, N(2)), i.e., the branching ratio for channel 2a or the direct formation of 2Cl + 2CO in the photolysis of (ClCO)(2) is >0.95. At 248 nm, the branching ratio for channel 2a was determined to be 0.79 ± 0.15, while the total Cl atom yield, i.e., following the completion of reaction (4), was found to be 1.98 ± 0.26 independent of bath gas pressure (15-70 Torr, N(2)). Φ(351 nm) was found to be pressure dependent between 7.8 and 122.4 Torr (He, N(2)). The low-pressure limit of the total Cl atom quantum yield, Φ(0)(351 nm), was 2

  19. SWIR InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum well photodetectors and spectrometers integrated on SOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruijun; Muneeb, Muhammad; Sprengel, Stephan; Boehm, Gerhard; Baets, Roel; Amann, Markus-Christian; Roelkens, Gunther

    2016-03-01

    The short-wave infrared wavelength range (2-3 μm) is attractive for applications in gas sensing and next-generation communication systems. Photodetectors and wavelength (de)multiplexers are key components that have to be developed for these systems. In this contribution, we report the integration of InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum well photodetectors and spectrometers on the silicon photonics platform. In this photodetector epitaxial layer stack, the absorbing active region consists of 6 periods of W-shaped quantum wells, which can also be used to realize lasers. The efficient coupling between silicon waveguides and quantum well photodetectors is realized by tapered III-V waveguides. The photodetectors have a very low dark current of 12 nA at -0.5 V bias at room temperature. The devices show a responsivity of 1.2 A/W at 2.32 μm wavelength, and higher than 0.5A/W over the 2.2-2.4 μm wavelength range. On the silicon-on-insulator platform we also demonstrate high performance short-wave infrared spectrometers. 8-channel spectrometers in the 2.3-2.4 μm range with a resolution of 5nm and 1.4nm are demonstrated, showing a cross-talk below -25 dB and an insertion loss lower than 3 dB.

  20. Quantum entanglement in manganese(II) hexakisimidazole nitrate: on electronic structure imaging - A polarized neutron diffraction and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Warren A.

    2016-04-01

    Quantum entanglement has been visualized for the first time, in view of the spin density distribution and electronic structure for manganese in manganese(II)hexakisimidazole nitrate. Using polarized neutron diffraction and density functional theory modelling we have found for the complex, which crystallizes in the R3¯ spacegroup, a = b = 12.4898(3) Å, c = 14.5526(4) Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 120°, Z = 3, that spatially antisymmetric and spatially symmetric shaped regions of negative spin density, in the spin density map for manganese, are a result of quantum entanglement of the high spin d5 configuration due to dative imidazole- manganese π- donation and σ-bonding interactions respectively. We have found leakage of the entangled states for manganese observed as regions of positive spin density with spherical (3.758(2) μB) and non-spherical (1.242(3) μB) contributions. Our results, which are supportive of Einstein's theory of general relativity, provide evidence for the existence of a black hole spin density distribution at the origin of an electronic structure and also address the paradoxical views of entanglement and quantum mechanics. We have also found the complex, which is an insulator, to be suitable for spintronic studies.

  1. A DPF Analysis Yields Quantum Mechanically Accurate Analytic Potential Energy Functions for the a ^1Σ^+ and X ^1Σ^+ States of NaH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roy, Robert J.; Walji, Sadru; Sentjens, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    Alkali hydride diatomic molecules have long been the object of spectroscopic studies. However, their small reduced mass makes them species for which the conventional semiclassical-based methods of analysis tend to have the largest errors. To date, the only quantum-mechanically accurate direct-potential-fit (DPF) analysis for one of these molecules was the one for LiH reported by Coxon and Dickinson. The present paper extends this level of analysis to NaH, and reports a DPF analysis of all available spectroscopic data for the A ^1Σ^+-X ^1Σ^+ system of NaH which yields analytic potential energy functions for these two states that account for those data (on average) to within the experimental uncertainties. W.C. Stwalley, W.T. Zemke and S.C. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data {20}, 153-187 (1991). J.A. Coxon and C.S. Dickinson, J. Chem. Phys. {121}, 8378 (2004).

  2. Slow-Injection Growth of Seeded CdSe/CdS Nanorods with Unity Fluorescence Quantum Yield and Complete Shell to Core Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Coropceanu, Igor; Rossinelli, Aurelio; Caram, Justin R; Freyria, Francesca S; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2016-03-22

    A two-step process has been developed for growing the shell of CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods. The method combines an established fast-injection-based step to create the initial elongated shell with a second slow-injection growth that allows for a systematic variation of the shell thickness while maintaining a high degree of monodispersity at the batch level and enhancing the uniformity at the single-nanorod level. The second growth step resulted in nanorods exhibiting a fluorescence quantum yield up to 100% as well as effectively complete energy transfer from the shell to the core. This improvement suggests that the second step is associated with a strong suppression of the nonradiative channels operating both before and after the thermalization of the exciton. This hypothesis is supported by the suppression of a defect band, ubiquitous to CdSe-based nanocrystals after the second growth.

  3. Improved photoluminescence quantum yield and stability of CdSe-TOP, CdSe-ODA-TOPO, CdSe/CdS and CdSe/EP nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shutian; Zhu, Zhilin; Wang, Zhixiao; Wei, Gugangfen; Wang, Pingjian; Li, Hai; Hua, Zhen; Lin, Zhonghai

    2016-07-01

    Size-controllable monodisperse CdSe nanocrystals with different organic capping were prepared based on the hot-injection method. The effective separation of nucleation and growth was achieved by rapidly mixing two highly reactive precursors. As a contrast, we prepared CdSe/CdS nanocrystals (NCs) successfully based on the selective ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. This inorganic capping obtained higher photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 59.3% compared with organic capping of 40.8%. Furthermore, the CdSe-epoxy resin (EP) composites were prepared by adopting a flexible ex situ method, and showed excellent stability in the ambient environment for one year. So the composites with both high PLQY of nanocrystals and excellent stability are very promising to device application.

  4. [Impulse photoconductance of solutions of chlorophyll and its analogs. IV. Absolute quantum yield of ion radical formation during photooxidation of chlorophyll a by n-benzoquinone].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, N D; Stolovitskiĭ, Iu M; Evstigneev, V B

    1978-01-01

    The values of absolute quantum yield phi of the formation of free ion-radicals during the illumination of alkohol solutions of chlorophyll alpha (Chl) and rho-benzoquinone (Q) at room temperature were obtained by the method of impulse photoconductance. With an increase of the dielectric constant epsilon of the solvent from approximately 6 to approximately 25 phi increases by two orders ( approximately 10(-3)--approximately 10(-1). That obtained relationship phi (epsilon) is explained by epsilon effect on the efficiency of dissociation of "solvent-shared" ion-radical pair Chls+. Os-. The comparison of experimental data and theoretically expected ones allowed the estimation of some parameters to be obtained which characterize the ion-radical pair: interionic distance (10 A), the dissociation velocity constant ( approximately 10(5)--10(8) s-1), the velocity constant of reverse electron transfer (10(8) s-1), the life time approximately 10(-8) s).

  5. Changes in quantum yield of photosynthesis in the red alga Porphyridium cruentum caused by stepwise reduction in the intensity of light preferentially absorbed by the phycobilins.

    PubMed

    THOMAS, J B; GOVINDJEE

    1960-09-01

    This paper describes the relation between the quantum yield of photosynthesis in the red alga Porphyridium cruentum, and the spectral composition of light, changed by filtering white light through aqueous phycobilin solutions of increasing optical density. At sufficiently high densities of the filter solution, no measurable photosynthesis can be observed, although chlorophyll a molecules are still being excited at a significant rate, as can be proved by calculations from spectral distribution curves, and is confirmed by the occurrence of a "second Emerson effect" upon addition of orange light. An interpretation of this result, based on other experiments, will be given in a subsequent paper. A modification of the opal glass technique for reducing the effect of scattering when measuring absorption, was developed in connection with this research, and also is described in the paper.

  6. The nature and role of quantized transition states in the accurate quantum dynamics of the reaction O + H2 yields OH + H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, David C.; Friedman, Ronald S.; Lynch, Gillian C.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate quantum mechanical dynamics calculations are reported for the reaction probabilities of O(3P) + H2 yields OH + H with zero total angular momentum on a single potential energy surface. The results show that the reactive flux is gated by quantized transition states up to the highest energy studied, which corresponds to a total energy of 1.90 eV. The quantized transition states are assigned and compared to vibrationally adiabatic barrier maxima; their widths and transmission coefficients are determined; and they are classified as variational, supernumerary of the first kind, and supernumerary of the second kind. Their effects on state-selected and state-to-state reactivity are discussed in detail.

  7. A Time-Dependent Quantum Dynamics Study of the H2 + CH3 yields H + CH4 Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Dunyou; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a time-dependent wave-packet propagation calculation for the H2 + CH3 yields H + CH4 reaction in six degrees of freedom and for zero total angular momentum. Initial state selected reaction probability for different initial rotational-vibrational states are presented in this study. The cumulative reaction probability (CRP) is obtained by summing over initial-state-selected reaction probability. The energy-shift approximation to account for the contribution of degrees of freedom missing in the 6D calculation is employed to obtain an approximate full-dimensional CRP. Thermal rate constant is compared with different experiment results.

  8. Hydrated germanium (II): irregular structural and dynamical properties revealed by a quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Azam, S Sikander; Lim, Len Herald V; Hofer, Thomas S; Randolf, Bernhard R; Rode, Bernd M

    2010-01-30

    Structural and dynamical properties of Ge (II) in aqueous solution have been investigated using the novel ab initio quantum mechanical charge field (QMCF) molecular dynamics (MD) formalism. The first and second hydration shells were treated by ab initio quantum mechanics at restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) level using the cc-pVDZ-PP basis set for Ge (II) and Dunning double-zeta plus polarization basis sets for O and H. Besides ligand exchange processes and mean ligand residence times to observe dynamics, tilt- and theta-angle distributions along with an advanced structural parameter, namely radial and angular distribution functions (RAD) for different regions were also evaluated. The combined radial and angular distribution depicted through surface plot and contour map is presented to provide a detailed insight into the density distribution of water molecules around the Ge(2+) ion. A strongly distorted hydration structure with two trigonal pyramidal substructures within the first hydration shell is observed, which demonstrates the lone-pair influence and provides a new basis for the interpretation of the catalytic and pharmacological properties of germanium coordination compounds.

  9. Study on the Ultrahigh Quantum Yield of Fluorescent P,O-g-C3 N4 Nanodots and its Application in Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rong, Mingcong; Cai, Zhixiong; Xie, Lei; Lin, Chunshui; Song, Xinhong; Luo, Feng; Wang, Yiru; Chen, Xi

    2016-06-27

    Graphitic carbon nitride nanodots (g-C3 N4 nanodots), as a new kind of heavy-metal-free quantum dots, have attracted considerable attention because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Although various methods to obtain g-C3 N4 nanodots have been reported, it is still a challenge to synthesize g-C3 N4 nanodots with ultrahigh fluorescence quantum yield (QY). In this study, highly fluorescent phosphorus/oxygen-doped graphitic carbon nitride (P,O-g-C3 N4 ) nanodots were prepared by chemical oxidation and hydrothermal etching of bulk P-g-C3 N4 derived from the pyrolysis of phytic acid and melamine. The as-prepared P,O-g-C3 N4 nanodots showed strong blue fluorescence and a relatively high QY of up to 90.2 %, which can be ascribed to intrinsic phosphorus/oxygen-containing groups, and surface-oxidation-related fluorescence enhancement. In addition, the P,O-g-C3 N4 nanodots were explored for cell imaging with excellent stability and biocompatibility, which suggest that they have great potential in biological applications. PMID:27249019

  10. Photoluminescence quantum yields of PbSe and PbS QDs in the range of 1000 nm to 2000 nm (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, Matthew C.; Semonin, Octavi E.; Johnson, Justin C.; Marshall, Ashley; Zhang, Jianbing; Chernomordik, Boris D.

    2016-03-01

    PbS and PbSe quantum dots (QDs) are promising strong infrared emitters. We have developed several synthetic routes to producing PbS and PbSe QDs with a variety of sizes such that the bandgap can be continuously tuned from 2000 to 1000 nm. We provide a simple and accurate synthetic route to reproducibly produce PbS QDs with a narrow size-distribution and high chemical yield. The different synthetic routes lead to differences in their surface chemistry and to differences in their air stability and photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQY). To characterize the PLQY we directly measured the PLQY IR-26 (a standard IR emitting organic dye) at a range of concentrations as well as the PLQY of PbS and PbSe QDs for a range of sizes. We find that the PLQY of IR-26 has a weak concentration dependence due to reabsorption, with a PLQY of 0:048_0:002% for low concentrations, lower than previous reports by a full order of magnitude. We also find a dramatic size dependence for both PbS and PbSe QDs, with the smallest dots exhibiting a PLQY in excess of 60% while larger dots fall below 3%. A model, including nonradiative transition between electronic states and energy transfer to ligand vibrations, appears to explain this size dependence. These findings provide both a better characterization of photoluminescence for near infrared emitters. Halogen surface passivation provides both a larger PLQY (~ 30% improvement) as well as increased air stability.

  11. Oil and gas yields from devonian oil shale in the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II process demonstration unit: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Robl, R.L.; Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.

    1993-12-31

    The broad objective of this program is to perform the research necessary to design, construct, test, and optimize the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. Many of our objectives have already been realized. The retort has been successfully constructed and the shakedown phase is essentially complete. In addition, much of the coking and cracking kinetics experiments have been completed which will provide important information for the operation of the retort. We are now entering the testing phase for the retort which has the following objectives: Determine any relationships between the retorting conditions and the yield and characteristics of the products, and compare the results to those from the bench-scale shale oil cracking and coking experiments; study and develop alternative applications for the products from the KENTORT II process. In particular, asphalt performance tests will be conducted on the heavy fraction of oil produced during the testing phase.

  12. Spontaneous generation of phase waves and solitons in stimulated Raman scattering. II. Quantum statistics of Raman-soliton generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englund, John C.; Bowden, Charles M.

    1992-07-01

    The formalism of Englund and Bowden [Phys. Rev. A 42, 2870 (1990)] is used to conduct a detailed investigation into the statistics of spontaneously generated Raman solitons and their origin in phase waves. Two approaches are adopted. In one, a Monte Carlo simulation of the stochastic differential equations describing stimulated Raman scattering is carried out, with quantum noise entering through the Stokes vacuum. The other involves determining analytically the field statistics in the quantum-initiation regime, finding the corresponding phase-wave statistics, and determining numerically the class of phase waves that appear in the nonlinear regime as solitons. Computations involving quasi-Gaussian and rectangular pump-pulse profiles consistently indicate soliton yields of roughly 10% and 4%, respectively; differences in the distributions of soliton delay times and peak intensities are also indicated. The Monte Carlo method is adapted to the experimental parameter values of MacPherson et al. [Phys. Rev. A 40, 6745 (1989)], and gives yields and distribution in good accord with the experiment.

  13. Uncooled SWIR InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum well focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, H.; Miura, K.; Mori, H.; Nagai, Y.; Iguchi, Y.; Kawamura, Y.

    2010-04-01

    Low dark current photodiodes (PDs) in the short wavelength infrared (SWIR) upto 2.5μm region, are expected for many applications. HgCdTe (MCT) is predominantly used for infrared imaging applications. However, because of high dark current, MCT device requires a refrigerator such as stirling cooler, which increases power consumption, size and cost of the sensing system. Recently, InGaAs/GaAsSb type II quantum well structures were considered as attractive material system for realizing low dark current PDs owing to lattice-matching to InP substrate. Planar type PIN-PDs were successfully fabricated. The absorption layer with 250 pair-InGaAs(5nm)/GaAsSb(5nm) quantum well structures was grown on S-doped (100) InP substrates by solid source molecular beam epitaxy method. InP and InGaAs were used for cap layer and buffer layer, respectively. The p-n junctions were formed in the absorption layer by the selective diffusion of zinc. Diameter of light-receiving region was 140μm. Low dark current was obtained by improving GaAsSb crystalline quality. Dark current density was 0.92mA/cm2 which was smaller than that of a conventional MCT. Based on the same process as the discrete device, a 320x256 planar type focal plane array was also fabricated. Each PD has 15μm diameter and 30μm pitch and it was bonded to read-out IC by using indium bump flip chip process. Finally, we have successfully demonstrated the 320 x256 SWIR image at room temperature. This result means that planer type PD array with the type II InGaAs/GaAsSb quantum well structure is a promising candidate for uncooled applications.

  14. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soil by Pteris vittata L. II. Effect on arsenic uptake and rice yield.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Asit; Purakayastha, T J; Patra, A K; Sanyal, S K

    2012-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment evaluated the effect of phytoextraction of arsenic from a contaminated soil by Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata L.) and its subsequent effects on growth and uptake of arsenic by rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop. Pteris vittata was grown for one or two growing cycles of four months each with two phosphate sources, using single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP). Rice was grown on phytoextracted soils followed by measurements of biomass yield (grain, straw, and root), arsenic concentration and, uptake by individual plant parts. The biomass yield (grain, straw and rice) of rice was highest in soil phytoextracted with Pteris vittata grown for two cycles and fertilized with diammonium phosphate (DAP). Total arsenic uptake in contaminated soil ranged from 8.2 to 16.9 mg pot(-1) in first growing cycle and 5.5 to 12.0 mg pot(-1) in second growing cycle of Pteris vittata. There was thus a mean reduction of 52% in arsenic content of rice grain after two growing cycle of Pteris vittata and 29% after the one growing cycle. The phytoextraction of arsenic contaminated soil by Pteris vittata was beneficial for growing rice resulted in decreased arsenic content in rice grain of <1 ppm. There was a mean improvement in rice grain yield 14% after two growing cycle and 8% after the one growing cycle of brake fern. PMID:22908631

  15. Simulation of cemented granular materials. II. Micromechanical description and strength mobilization at the onset of macroscopic yielding.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Nicolas; Lizcano, Arcesio; Taboada, Alfredo

    2010-07-01

    This is the second of two papers investigating the mechanical response of cemented granular materials by means of contact dynamics simulations. In this paper, a two-dimensional polydisperse sample with high void ratio is sheared in a load-controlled simple shear numerical device until the stress state of the sample reaches the yield stress. We first study the stress transmission properties of the granular material in terms of the fabric of different subsets of contacts characterized by the magnitude of their normal forces. This analysis highlights the existence of a peculiar force carrying structure in the cemented material, which is reminiscent of the bimodal stress transmission reported for cohesionless granular media. Then, the evolution of contact forces and torques is investigated trying to identify the micromechanical conditions that trigger macroscopic yielding. It is shown that global failure can be associated to the apparition of a group of particles whose contacts fulfill at least one of the local rupture conditions. In particular, these particles form a large region that percolates through the sample at the moment of failure, evidencing the relationship between macroscopic yielding and the emergence of large-scale correlations in the system.

  16. Simulation of cemented granular materials. II. Micromechanical description and strength mobilization at the onset of macroscopic yielding.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Nicolas; Lizcano, Arcesio; Taboada, Alfredo

    2010-07-01

    This is the second of two papers investigating the mechanical response of cemented granular materials by means of contact dynamics simulations. In this paper, a two-dimensional polydisperse sample with high void ratio is sheared in a load-controlled simple shear numerical device until the stress state of the sample reaches the yield stress. We first study the stress transmission properties of the granular material in terms of the fabric of different subsets of contacts characterized by the magnitude of their normal forces. This analysis highlights the existence of a peculiar force carrying structure in the cemented material, which is reminiscent of the bimodal stress transmission reported for cohesionless granular media. Then, the evolution of contact forces and torques is investigated trying to identify the micromechanical conditions that trigger macroscopic yielding. It is shown that global failure can be associated to the apparition of a group of particles whose contacts fulfill at least one of the local rupture conditions. In particular, these particles form a large region that percolates through the sample at the moment of failure, evidencing the relationship between macroscopic yielding and the emergence of large-scale correlations in the system. PMID:20866608

  17. Optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a quantum-cascade laser yields the lowest formaldehyde detection limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, P.; Fasci, E.; Ventrillard, I.; Carras, M.; Maisons, G.; Romanini, D.

    2013-03-01

    We report on the first application of Optical Feedback-Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy to formaldehyde trace gas analysis at mid-infrared wavelengths. A continuous-wave room-temperature, distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser emitting around 1,769 cm-1 has been successfully coupled to an optical cavity with finesse 10,000 in an OF-CEAS spectrometer operating on the ν2 fundamental absorption band of formaldehyde. This compact setup (easily transportable) is able to monitor H2CO at ambient concentrations within few seconds, presently limited by the sample exchange rate. The minimum detectable absorption is 1.6 × 10-9 cm-1 for a single laser scan (100 ms, 100 data points), with a detectable H2CO mixing ratio of 60 pptv at 10 Hz. The corresponding detection limit at 1 Hz is 5 × 10-10 cm-1, with a normalized figure of merit of 5 × 10-11cm^{-1}/sqrtHz (100 data points recorded in each spectrum taken at 10 Hz rate). A preliminary Allan variance analysis shows white noise averaging down to a minimum detection limit of 5 pptv at an optimal integration time of 10 s, which is significantly better than previous results based on multi-pass or cavity-enhanced tunable QCL absorption spectroscopy.

  18. Interband cascade light emitting devices based on type-II quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui Q.; Lin, C.H.; Murry, S.J.

    1997-06-01

    The authors discuss physical processes in the newly developed type-II interband cascade light emitting devices, and review their recent progress in the demonstration of the first type-II interband cascade lasers and the observation of interband cascade electroluminescence up to room temperature in a broad mid-infrared wavelength region (extended to 9 {mu}m).

  19. Excitonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in isotopically pure {sup 70}Ge/Si self-assembled type-II quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Satoru; Ishikawa, Toyofumi; Eto, Mikio; Itoh, Kohei M.; Moutanabbir, Oussama; Haller, Eugene E.; Sawano, Kentarou; Shiraki, Yasuhiro

    2010-08-15

    We report on a magnetophotoluminescence study of isotopically pure {sup 70}Ge/Si self-assembled type-II quantum dots. Oscillatory behaviors attributed to the Aharonov-Bohm effect are simultaneously observed for the emission energy and intensity of excitons subject to an increasing magnetic field. When the magnetic flux penetrates through the ringlike trajectory of an electron moving around each quantum dot, the ground state of an exciton experiences a change in its angular momentum. Our results provide the experimental evidence for the phase coherence of localized electron wave functions in group-IV Ge/Si self-assembled quantum structures.

  20. Effect of the long-term elevation of CO sub 2 concentration in the field on the quantum yield of photosynthesis of the C sub 3 sedge, Scirpus olneyi

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P. ); Drake, B.G. )

    1991-05-01

    CO{sub 2} concentration was elevated throughout 3 years around stands of the C{sub 3} sedge Scirpus olneyi on a tidal marsh of the Chesapeake Bay. The hypothesis that tissues developed in an elevated CO{sub 2} atmosphere will show an acclimatory decrease in photosynthetic capacity under light-limiting conditions was examined. The absorbed light quantum yield of CO{sub 2} uptake ({phi}{sub abs}) and the efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry were determined for plants which had developed in open top chambers with CO{sub 2} concentrations in air of 680 micromoles per mole, and of 351 micromoles per mole as controls. When measured in an atmosphere with 10 millimoles per mole O{sub 2} to suppress photorespiration, shoots showed a {phi}{sub abs} of 0.093 {plus minus} 0.003, with no statistically significant difference between shoots grown in elevated or control CO{sub 2} concentration. Efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry was also unchanged by development in an elevated CO{sub 2} atmosphere. Shoots grown and measured in 680 micromoles per mole of CO{sub 2} in air showed a {phi}{sub abs} of 0.078 {plus minus} 0.004 compared with 0.065 {plus minus} for leaves grown and measured in 351 micromoles per mole CO{sub 2} in air; a highly significant increase. In accordance with the change in {phi}{sub abs}, the light compensation point of photosynthesis decreased from 51 {plus minus} 3 to 31 {plus minus} 3 micromoles per square meter per second for stems grown and measured in 351 and 680 micromoles per mole of CO{sub 2} in air, respectively.

  1. Photoactivation of the manganese catalyst of O2 evolution. II A two-quantum mechanism.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Cheniae, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    A kinetic analysis is presented of the data obtained in previously described kinetic experiments relating to the photoactivation of the Mn complex required for photosynthetic O2 evolution. The results obtained from the computer simulation of the derived kinetic model compare favorably with the experimentally derived values. They also suggest that photoactivation can be rationalized in terms of a two-quantum process.

  2. A Gurson-type criterion for porous ductile solids containing arbitrary ellipsoidal voids—II: Determination of yield criterion parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madou, Komlanvi; Leblond, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to fully determine the parameters of the approximate homogenized yield criterion for porous ductile solids containing arbitrary ellipsoidal cavities proposed in Part I. This is done through improvements of the limit-analysis of some representative hollow cell presented there. The improvements are of two kinds. For hydrostatic loadings, the limit-analysis is refined by performing micromechanical finite element computations in a number of significant cases, so as to replace Leblond and Gologanu (2008)'s trial velocity field representing the expansion of the void by the exact, numerically determined one. For deviatoric loadings, limit-analysis is dropped and direct use is made of some general rigorous results for nonlinear composites derived by Ponte-Castaneda (1991), Willis (1991) and Michel and Suquet (1992) using the earlier work of Willis (1977) and the concept of "linear comparison material". This hybrid approach is thought to lead to the best possible expressions of the yield criterion parameters. The criterion proposed reduces to (variants of) classical approximate criteria proposed by Gurson (1977) and Gologanu et al. (1993, 1994, 1997) in the specific cases of spherical or spheroidal, prolate or oblate cavities. An overview of the validation of this criterion through micromechanical finite element computations is finally presented.

  3. Photoinhibition of Photosystems I and II Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiles, Maria Jose

    2005-01-01

    In this study the photoinhibition of photosystems (PS) I and II caused by exposure to high intensity light in oat ("Avena sativa," var Prevision) is measured by the emission of chlorophyll fluorescence in intact leaves adapted to darkness. The maximal quantum yield of PS II was lower in plants grown under high light intensity than in plants grown…

  4. Actinometry in monochromatic flash photolysis: the extinction coefficient of triplet benzophenone and quantum yield of triplet zinc tetraphenyl porphyrin

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.K.; Sinai, N.; Linschitz, H.

    1982-11-15

    The extinction coefficient epsilon/sub T/, of triplet benzophenone in benzene has been directly determined by absolute measurements of absorbed energy and triplet absorbance, ..delta..D/sup 0//sub T/, under demonstrably linear conditions where incident excitation energy, E/sub 0/, and ground state absorbance, A/sub 0/, are both extrapolated to zero. The result, 7220 +- 320 M/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/ at 530 nm, validates and corrects many measurements of triplet and radical extinctions and yields, using the energy-transfer method. As E/sub 0/ and A/sub 0/ both decrease, ..delta..D/sup 0//sub T/ becomes proportional to their product. In this situation, the ratio R = (1/A/sub 0/) (d..delta..D/sup 0//sub T//dE/sub 0/) = (epsilon/sub T/ /sup -/ epsilon/sub G/)phi/sub T/. Measurements of R, referred to benzophenone, give (epsilon/sub T/ - epsilon/sub G/)phi/sub T/ for any substance, without necessity for absolute energy calibration. Both absolute and relative laser flash measurements on zinc tetraphenyl porphyrin (epsilon/sub T/ - epsilon/sub G/ at 470 nm = 7.3 x 10/sup 4/ M/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/) give phi/sub T/ = 0.83 +- 0.04. 6 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Quantum Russian roulette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Alexandre G. M.; da Silva, Ladário

    2013-01-01

    We quantize the gamble known as Russian roulette and we study it in two versions for two- and three-persons when: (i) players use a fully loaded quantum gun; (ii) the quantum gun has only one quantum bullet.

  6. EVOLUTION, NUCLEOSYNTHESIS, AND YIELDS OF LOW-MASS ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS AT DIFFERENT METALLICITIES. II. THE FRUITY DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Cristallo, S.; Dominguez, I.; Abia, C.; Piersanti, L.; Straniero, O.; Gallino, R.; Di Rico, G.; Quintini, M.; Bisterzo, S.

    2011-12-01

    By using updated stellar low-mass stars models, we systematically investigate the nucleosynthesis processes occurring in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. In this paper, we present a database dedicated to the nucleosynthesis of AGB stars: FRANEC Repository of Updated Isotopic Tables and Yields (FRUITY). An interactive Web-based interface allows users to freely download the full (from H to Bi) isotopic composition, as it changes after each third dredge-up (TDU) episode and the stellar yields the models produce. A first set of AGB models, having masses in the range 1.5 {<=}M/M{sub Sun} {<=} 3.0 and metallicities 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {<=} Z {<=} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}, is discussed. For each model, a detailed description of the physical and the chemical evolution is provided. In particular, we illustrate the details of the s-process and we evaluate the theoretical uncertainties due to the parameterization adopted to model convection and mass loss. The resulting nucleosynthesis scenario is checked by comparing the theoretical [hs/ls] and [Pb/hs] ratios to those obtained from the available abundance analysis of s-enhanced stars. On the average, the variation with the metallicity of these spectroscopic indexes is well reproduced by theoretical models, although the predicted spread at a given metallicity is substantially smaller than the observed one. Possible explanations for such a difference are briefly discussed. An independent check of the TDU efficiency is provided by the C-stars luminosity function. Consequently, theoretical C-stars luminosity functions for the Galactic disk and the Magellanic Clouds have been derived. We generally find good agreement with observations.

  7. Super and massive AGB stars - II. Nucleosynthesis and yields - Z = 0.02, 0.008 and 0.004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Carolyn L.; Gil-Pons, Pilar; Lau, Herbert H. B.; Lattanzio, John C.; Siess, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    We have computed detailed evolution and nucleosynthesis models for super and massive asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars over the mass range 6.5-9.0 M⊙ in divisions of 0.5 M⊙ with metallicities Z = 0.02, 0.008 and 0.004. These calculations, in which we find third dredge-up and hot bottom burning, fill the gap between existing low- and intermediate-mass AGB star models and high-mass star models that become supernovae. For the considered metallicities, the composition of the yields is largely dominated by the thermodynamic conditions at the base of the convective envelope rather than by the pollution arising from third dredge-up. We investigate the effects of various uncertainties, related to the mass-loss rate, mixing length parameter, and the treatment of evolution after the envelope instability that develops near the end of the (super)AGB phase. Varying these parameters alters the yields mainly because of their impact on the amount of third dredge-up enrichment, and to a lesser extent on the hot bottom burning conditions. Our models produce significant amounts of 4He, 7Li (depending on the mass-loss formulation) 13C, 14N, 17O, 23Na, 25Mg, as well the radioactive isotope 26Al in agreement with previous investigation. In addition, our results show enrichment of 22Ne, 26Mg and 60Fe, as well as a substantial increase in our proxy neutron capture species representing all species heavier than iron. These stars may provide important contributions to the Galaxy's inventory of the heavier Mg isotopes, 14N, 7Li and 27Al.

  8. High quantum-yield CdSexS1-x/ZnS core/shell quantum dots for warm white light-emitting diodes with good color rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Hongyan; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Yugang; Sun, Dapeng; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jian; Lan, Xinzheng; Zhou, Hongyang; Chen, Lei; Zhong, Honghai

    2013-07-01

    Composition-controllable ternary CdSexS1-x quantum dots (QDs) with multiple emission colors were obtained via a hot-injection-like method at a relatively low injection temperature (230 ° C) in octadecene. Then highly fluorescent CdSexS1-x/ZnS core/shell (CS) QDs were synthesized by a facile single-molecular precursor approach. The fluorescent quantum yield of the resulting green (λem = 523 nm), yellow (λem = 565 nm) and red (λem = 621 nm) emission of CS QDs in toluene reached up to 85%, 55% and 39%, respectively. Moreover, a QDs white light-emitting diode (QDs-WLED) was fabricated by hybridizing green-, yellow- and red-emitting CdSexS1-x/ZnS CS QDs/epoxy composites on a blue InGaN chip. The resulting four-band RYGB QDs-WLED showed good performance with CIE-1931 coordinates of (0.4137, 0.3955), an Ra of 81, and a Tc of 3360 K at 30 mA, which indicated the combination of multiple-color QDs with high fluorescence QYs in LEDs as a promising approach to obtain warm WLEDs with good color rendering.

  9. Effects of Conformally Invariant Quantum Fields on Future Singularities - Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeen, Andrew J.; Einhorn, John R.; Carlson, Eric D.; Anderson, Paul R.

    2014-03-01

    The effects of conformally invariant quantum fields on universes with future singularities are numerically investigated. It is assumed that these singularities are caused by dark energy in the form of a perfect fluid with a known equation of state. Comparison is made between the behaviors of the universe for a purely classical analysis, an order reduced quantum analysis, and a fully self-consistent semiclassical backreaction analysis. Numerical results for big rip (type I) and little rip cosmologies are presented. It is found, consistent with theory, that for one sign of the coefficient of □ R term in the trace of the semi-classical backreaction equations, the future singularity is always avoided, and the universe achieves a maximum size before recontracting, while for the other sign the universe is inevitably driven to expand forever, driving it to the singularity. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant Nos. PHY-0856050 and PHY-1308325.

  10. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics with complex quantum trajectories. II. The adiabatic representation

    SciTech Connect

    Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J.

    2012-12-14

    We present a complex quantum trajectory method for treating non-adiabatic dynamics. Each trajectory evolves classically on a single electronic surface but with complex position and momentum. The equations of motion are derived directly from the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, and the population exchange arises naturally from amplitude-transfer terms. In this paper the equations of motion are derived in the adiabatic representation to complement our work in the diabatic representation [N. Zamstein and D. J. Tannor, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A517 (2012)]. We apply our method to two benchmark models introduced by John Tully [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990)], and get very good agreement with converged quantum-mechanical calculations. Specifically, we show that decoherence (spatial separation of wavepackets on different surfaces) is already contained in the equations of motion and does not require ad hoc augmentation.

  11. Effective g-factor control in II-VI quantum dots: morphological effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, S. J.; López-Richard, V.; Trallero-Giner, C.; Alcalde, A. M.; Marques, G. E.

    2004-03-01

    The Zeeman splitting in a single CdTe quantum dot (QD) is theoretically analyzed in the frame of Kane-Weiler 8 × 8 k . p model. The conduction g-factor was calculated as a function of the QD size. We discuss the effects of the dot geometry on the magnitude and on sign of the g-factor, that opens new channels towards control and manipulation of magneto-optical properties and spin in different confinement regimes.

  12. Optical gain in type-II InGaAs/GaAsSb quantum well nano-heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmal, H. K.; Yadav, Nisha; Lal, Pyare; Alvi, P. A.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we have simulated optical gain in type-II InGaAs/GaAsSb quantum well based nano-scale heterostructure. In order to simulate the optical gain, the heterostructure has been modeled with the help of six band k.p method. The 6 × 6 diagonalized k.p Hamiltonian has been solved to evaluate the valence sub-bands (i.e. light and heavy hole energies); and then optical matrix elements and optical gain within TE (Transverse Electric) mode has been calculated. The results obtained suggest that peak optical gain in the heterostructure can be achieved at the lasing wavelength ~ 1.95 µm (SWIR region) and at corresponding energy ~ 0.635 eV.

  13. New formalism for two-photon quantum optics. I - Quadrature phases and squeezed states. II - Mathematical foundation and compact notation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caves, C. M.; Schumaker, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    A new formalism for analyzing two-photon devices, such as parametric amplifiers and phase-conjugate mirrors, is proposed in part I, focusing on the properties and the significance of the quadrature-phase amplitudes and two-mode squeezed states. Time-stationary quasi-probability noise is also detailed for the case of Gaussian noise, and uncertainty principles for the quadrature-phase amplitudes are outlined, as well as some important properties of the two-mode states. Part II establishes a mathematical foundation for the formalism, with introduction of a vector notation for compact representation of two-mode properties. Fundamental unitary operators and special quantum states are also examined with an emphasis on the two-mode squeezed states. The results are applied to a previously studied degenerate limit (epsilon = 0).

  14. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa

    PubMed Central

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. “Batavia” (green) and cv. “Lollo Rossa” (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m−2 s−1 for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent. PMID:25767473

  15. Four-dimensional quantum study on exothermic complex-forming reactions: Cl{sup -}+CH{sub 3}Br{yields}ClCH{sub 3}+Br{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, Carsten; Schmatz, Stefan

    2005-06-15

    The exothermic gas-phase bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (S{sub N}2) reaction Cl{sup -}+CH{sub 3}Br ({upsilon}{sub 1}{sup '},{upsilon}{sub 2}{sup '},{upsilon}{sub 3}{sup '}){yields}ClCH{sub 3} ({upsilon}{sub 1},{upsilon}{sub 2},{upsilon}{sub 3})+Br{sup -} and the corresponding endothermic reverse reaction have been studied by time-independent quantum scattering calculations in hyperspherical coordinates on a coupled-cluster potential-energy surface. The dimensionality-reduced model takes four degrees of freedom into account [Cl-C and C-Br stretching modes (quantum numbers {upsilon}{sub 3}{sup '} and {upsilon}{sub 3}); totally symmetric modes of the methyl group, i.e., C-H stretching ({upsilon}{sub 1}{sup '} and {upsilon}{sub 1}) and umbrella bending vibrations ({upsilon}{sub 2}{sup '} and {upsilon}{sub 2})]. Diagonalization of the Hamiltonian was performed employing the Lanczos algorithm with a variation of partial reorthogonalization. A narrow grid in the total energy was employed so that long-living resonance states could be resolved and extracted. While excitation of the reactant umbrella bending mode already leads to a considerable enhancement of the reaction probability, its combination with vibrational excitation of the broken C-Br bond, (0, 1, 1), results in a strong synergic effect that can be rationalized by the similarity with the classical transitional normal mode. Exciting the C-H stretch has a non-negligible effect on the reaction probability, while for larger translational energies this mode follows the expected spectatorlike behavior. Combination of C-Br stretch and symmetric C-H, (1,0,1), stretch does not show a cooperative effect. Contrary to the spectator mode concept, energy originally stored in the C-H stretching mode is by no means conserved, but almost completely released in other modes of the reaction products. Products are most likely formed in states with a high degree of excitation in the new C-Cl bond, while the internal modes of

  16. Dynamics of cover, UV-protective pigments, and quantum yield in biological soil crust communities of an undisturbed Mojave Desert shrubland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Phillips, S.L.; Smith, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are an integral part of dryland ecosystems. We monitored the cover of lichens and mosses, cyanobacterial biomass, concentrations of UV-protective pigments in both free-living and lichenized cyanobacteria, and quantum yield in the soil lichen species Collema in an undisturbed Mojave Desert shrubland. During our sampling time, the site received historically high and low levels of precipitation, whereas temperatures were close to normal. Lichen cover, dominated by Collema tenax and C. coccophorum, and moss cover, dominated by Syntrichia caninervis, responded to both increases and decreases in precipitation. This finding for Collema spp. at a hot Mojave Desert site is in contrast to a similar study conducted at a cool desert site on the Colorado Plateau in SE Utah, USA, where Collema spp. cover dropped in response to elevated temperatures, but did not respond to changes in rainfall. The concentrations of UV-protective pigments in free-living cyanobacteria at the Mojave Desert site were also strongly and positively related to rainfall received between sampling times (R2 values ranged from 0.78 to 0.99). However, pigment levels in the lichenized cyanobacteria showed little correlation with rainfall. Quantum yield in Collema spp. was closely correlated with rainfall. Climate models in this region predict a 3.5-4.0 ??C rise in temperature and a 15-20% decline in winter precipitation by 2099. Based on our data, this rise in temperature is unlikely to have a strong effect on the dominant species of the soil crusts. However, the predicted drop in precipitation will likely lead to a decrease in soil lichen and moss cover, and high stress or mortality in soil cyanobacteria as levels of UV-protective pigments decline. In addition, surface-disturbing activities (e.g., recreation, military activities, fire) are rapidly increasing in the Mojave Desert, and these disturbances quickly remove soil lichens and mosses. These stresses combined are likely to lead to

  17. Lasing action and extraordinary reduction in long radiative lifetime of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots using circular photonic crystal nanocavity

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Kung-Shu; Chang, Shu-Wei; Hung, Wei-Chun; Chang, Chih-Chi; Lin, Wei-Hsun; Lin, Shih-Yen; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Lee, Po-Tsung; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2015-08-31

    We demonstrated the lasing action and remarkable reduction in long radiative lifetimes of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots using a circular photonic-crystal nano-cavity with high Purcell factors. The associated enhancement in carrier recombination was surprisingly high and could even surpass type-I counterparts in similar conditions. These phenomena reveal that the type-II sample exhibited extremely low nonradiative recombination so that weak radiative transitions were more dominant than expected. The results indicate that type-II nanostructures may be advantageous for applications which require controllable radiative transitions but low nonradiative depletions.

  18. Time-dependent treatment of scattering. II - Novel integral equation approach to quantum wave packets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharafeddin, Omar A.; Judson, Richard S.; Kouri, Donald J.; Hoffman, David K.

    1990-01-01

    The novel wave-packet propagation scheme presented is based on the time-dependent form of the Lippman-Schwinger integral equation and does not require extensive matrix inversions, thereby facilitating application to systems in which some degrees of freedom express the potential in a basis expansion. The matrix to be inverted is a function of the kinetic energy operator, and is accordingly diagonal in a Bessel function basis set. Transition amplitudes for various orbital angular momentum quantum numbers are obtainable via either Fourier transform of the amplitude density from the time to the energy domain, or the direct analysis of the scattered wave packet.

  19. A Quantum Computational Semantics for Epistemic Logical Operators. Part II: Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrametti, Enrico; Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    By using the abstract structures investigated in the first Part of this article, we develop a semantics for an epistemic language, which expresses sentences like "Alice knows that Bob does not understand that π is irrational". One is dealing with a holistic form of quantum computational semantics, where entanglement plays a fundamental role; thus, the meaning of a global expression determines the contextual meanings of its parts, but generally not the other way around. The epistemic situations represented in this semantics seem to reflect some characteristic limitations of the real processes of acquiring information. Since knowledge is not generally closed under logical consequence, the unpleasant phenomenon of logical omniscience is here avoided.

  20. Recombination dynamics in heterostructures with two planar arrays of II-VI quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, T. N.; Belyaev, K. G.; Toropov, A. A.; Sorokin, S. V.; Pozina, G.; Shubina, T. V.

    2016-08-01

    We present time-resolved photoluminescence studies of epitaxial heterostructures with two arrays of Cd(Zn)Se/ZnSe quantum dots (QDs), which are formed by the successive insertion of CdSe fractional monolayers of different nominal thicknesses into a ZnSe matrix. Our data are suggestive of the appearance of effective channels of the energy transfer from the insertion comprising the array with smaller QDs, emitting at higher energy, towards the array with larger QDs, emitting at lower energy. The effect of dark excitons on characteristic times of radiative recombination is discussed.

  1. Raman and photoluminescence properties of type II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots on (001) Ge substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zon; Poempool, Thanavorn; Kiravittaya, Suwit; Nuntawong, Noppadon; Sopitpan, Suwat; Thainoi, Supachok; Kanjanachuchai, Songphol; Ratanathammaphan, Somchai; Panyakeow, Somsak

    2016-07-01

    We investigate structural Raman and photoluminescence properties of type II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on (001) Ge substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Array of self-assembled GaSb QDs having an areal density of ˜1.66 × 1010 dots/cm2 is obtained by a growth at relatively low substrate temperature (450 °C) on a GaAs surface segmented into anti-phase domains (APDs). Most of QDs form in one APD area. However, a few QDs can be observed at the APD boundaries. Raman spectroscopy is used to probe the strain in GaAs layer. Slight redshift of both LO and TO GaAs peaks are observed when GaSb QDs are buried into GaAs matrix. Optical properties of capped QDs are characterized by photoluminescence measurement at low temperatures (20 K and 30 K). Emission peaks of GaSb/GaAs QDs are found in the range of 1.0-1.3 eV at both temperatures. Slight redshift is observed when the laser excitation power is increased at 20 K while blueshift of QD peak is observed at 30 K. We attribute this abnormal behavior to the contribution of overlapped GaSb wetting layer peak in the PL emission as well as the feature of type II band structure. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Suppressed blinking and auger recombination in near-infrared type-II InP/CdS nanocrystal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Allison M; Mangum, Benjamin D; Piryatinski, Andrei; Park, Young-Shin; Hannah, Daniel C; Casson, Joanna L; Williams, Darrick J; Schaller, Richard D; Htoon, Han; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A

    2012-11-14

    Nonblinking excitonic emission from near-infrared and type-II nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) is reported for the first time. To realize this unusual degree of stability at the single-dot level, novel InP/CdS core/shell NQDs were synthesized for a range of shell thicknesses (~1-11 monolayers of CdS). Ensemble spectroscopy measurements (photoluminescence peak position and radiative lifetimes) and electronic structure calculations established the transition from type-I to type-II band alignment in these heterostructured NQDs. More significantly, single-NQD studies revealed clear evidence for blinking suppression that was not strongly shell-thickness dependent, while photobleaching and biexciton lifetimes trended explicitly with extent of shelling. Specifically, very long biexciton lifetimes-up to >7 ns-were obtained for the thickest-shell structures, indicating dramatic suppression of nonradiative Auger recombination. This new system demonstrates that electronic structure and shell thickness can be employed together to effect control over key single-dot and ensemble NQD photophysical properties.

  3. One-step microwave synthesis of N-doped hydroxyl-functionalized carbon dots with ultra-high fluorescence quantum yields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Liu, Xingyuan; Fan, Yi; Guo, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Lei; Lv, Ying; Lin, Jie

    2016-08-18

    A one-step microwave synthesis of N-doped hydroxyl-functionalized carbon dots (CDs) with ultra-high fluorescence quantum yields (QYs) of 99% is reported. These ultra-high QY CDs were synthesized using citric acid and amino compound-containing hydroxyls like ethanolamine and tris(hydroxylmethyl)aminomethane. Amino and carboxyl moieties can form amides through dehydration condensation reactions, and these amides act as bridges between carboxyl and hydroxyl groups, and modify hydroxyl groups on the surface of the CDs. The entire reaction can be carried out within 5 min. When the molar ratio of reactants is 1 : 1, the hydroxyl and graphitic nitrogen content is the highest, and the synergy leads to a high ratio between the radiative transition rate and nonradiative transition rate as well as a high QY. The developed pathway to N-doped hydroxyl-functionalized CDs can provide unambiguous and remarkable insights into the design of highly luminescent functionalized carbon dots, and expedite the applications of CDs. PMID:27500530

  4. A Facile and Low-Cost Method to Enhance the Internal Quantum Yield and External Light-Extraction Efficiency for Flexible Light-Emitting Carbon-Dot Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z. C.; Lin, T. N.; Lin, H. T.; Talite, M. J.; Tzeng, T. T.; Hsu, C. L.; Chiu, K. P.; Lin, C. A. J.; Shen, J. L.; Yuan, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed, non-toxic carbon dots (CDs) have attracted much attention due to their unique photoluminescence (PL) properties. They are promising emissive layers for flexible light-emitting devices. To this end, the CDs in pristine aqueous solutions need to be transferred to form solid-state thin films without sacrificing their original PL characteristics. Unfortunately, solid-state PL quenching induced by extra non-radiative (NR) energy transfer among CDs would significantly hinder their practical applications in optoelectronics. Here, a facile, low-cost and effective method has been utilized to fabricate high-performance CD/polymer light-emitting flexible films with submicron-structured patterns. The patterned polymers can serve as a solid matrix to disperse and passivate CDs, thus achieving high internal quantum yields of 61%. In addition, they can act as an out-coupler to mitigate the waveguide-mode losses, approximately doubling the external light-extraction efficiency. Such CD/polymer composites also exhibit good photo-stability, and thus can be used as eco-friendly, low-cost phosphors for solid-state lighting.

  5. Control of interchain contacts, solid-state fluorescence quantum yield, and charge transport of cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes by choice of anion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Renqiang; Garcia, Andres; Korystov, Dmitry; Mikhailovsky, Alexander; Bazan, Guillermo C; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen

    2006-12-27

    Simple procedures are provided for exchanging charge-compensating ions in conjugated polyelectrolytes by progressive dilution of the original species and for determining the degree of ion exchange by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. By using these methods, the bromide ions in poly[(9,9-bis(6'-N,N,N-trimethylammoniumbromide)hexyl)fluorene-co-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)]were exchanged with BF4-, CF3SO3-, PF6-, BPh4-, and B(3,5-(CF3)2C6H3)4- (BArF4-). Absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and PL quantum yields (Phi) were measured in different solvents and in solid films cast from methanol. Examination of the resulting trends, together with the spectral bandshapes in different solvents, suggests that increasing the counteranion (CA) size decreases interchain contacts and aggregation and leads to a substantial increase of Phi in the bulk. Size analysis of polymers containing Br- and BArF4- in water by dynamic light scattering techniques indicates suppression of aggregation by BArF4-. Nanoscale current-voltage measurements of films using conducting atomic force microscopy show that hole mobilities and, more significantly, charge injection barriers are CA dependent. These results show that it is possible to significantly modify the optoelectronic properties of conjugated polyelectrolytes by choosing different counterions. A parent conjugated backbone can thus be fine-tuned for specific applications. PMID:17177402

  6. A Facile and Low-Cost Method to Enhance the Internal Quantum Yield and External Light-Extraction Efficiency for Flexible Light-Emitting Carbon-Dot Films

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Z. C.; Lin, T. N.; Lin, H. T.; Talite, M. J.; Tzeng, T. T.; Hsu, C. L.; Chiu, K. P.; Lin, C. A. J.; Shen, J. L.; Yuan, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed, non-toxic carbon dots (CDs) have attracted much attention due to their unique photoluminescence (PL) properties. They are promising emissive layers for flexible light-emitting devices. To this end, the CDs in pristine aqueous solutions need to be transferred to form solid-state thin films without sacrificing their original PL characteristics. Unfortunately, solid-state PL quenching induced by extra non-radiative (NR) energy transfer among CDs would significantly hinder their practical applications in optoelectronics. Here, a facile, low-cost and effective method has been utilized to fabricate high-performance CD/polymer light-emitting flexible films with submicron-structured patterns. The patterned polymers can serve as a solid matrix to disperse and passivate CDs, thus achieving high internal quantum yields of 61%. In addition, they can act as an out-coupler to mitigate the waveguide-mode losses, approximately doubling the external light-extraction efficiency. Such CD/polymer composites also exhibit good photo-stability, and thus can be used as eco-friendly, low-cost phosphors for solid-state lighting. PMID:26822337

  7. A Brown Mesoporous TiO2-x /MCF Composite with an Extremely High Quantum Yield of Solar Energy Photocatalysis for H2 Evolution.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong; Qiu, Bocheng; Tian, Baozhu; Anpo, Masakazu; Che, Michel

    2015-04-24

    A brown mesoporous TiO2-x /MCF composite with a high fluorine dopant concentration (8.01 at%) is synthesized by a vacuum activation method. It exhibits an excellent solar absorption and a record-breaking quantum yield (Φ = 46%) and a high photon-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency (η = 34%,) for solar photocatalytic H2 production, which are all higher than that of the black hydrogen-doped TiO2 (Φ = 35%, η = 24%). The MCFs serve to improve the adsorption of F atoms onto the TiO2 /MCF composite surface, which after the formation of oxygen vacancies by vacuum activation, facilitate the abundant substitution of these vacancies with F atoms. The decrease of recombination sites induced by high-concentration F doping and the synergistic effect between lattice Ti(3+)-F and surface Ti(3+)-F are responsible for the enhanced lifetime of electrons, the observed excellent absorption of solar light, and the photocatalytic production of H2 for these catalysts. The as-prepared F-doped composite is an ideal solar light-driven photocatalyst with great potential for applications ranging from the remediation of environmental pollution to the harnessing of solar energy for H2 production.

  8. Luminescence, lifetime, and quantum yield studies of redispersible Eu3+-doped GdPO4 crystalline nanoneedles: Core-shell and concentration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaiphaba, N.; Ningthoujam, R. S.; Singh, N. Shanta; Vatsa, R. K.; Singh, N. Rajmuhon; Dhara, Sangita; Misra, N. L.; Tewari, R.

    2010-02-01

    Crystalline nanoneedles of Eu3+-doped GdPO4 and Eu3+-doped GdPO4 covered with GdPO4 shell (core shell) have been prepared at relatively low temperature of 150 °C in ethylene glycol medium. From luminescence study, asymmetric ratio of Eu3+ emission at 612 nm (electric dipole transition) to 592 nm (magnetic dipole transition) is found to be less than one. Maximum luminescence was observed from the nanoparticles with Eu3+ concentration of 5 at. %. For a fixed concentration of Eu3+ doping, there is an improvement in emission intensity for core-shell nanoparticles compared to that for core. This has been attributed to effective removal of surface inhomogeneities around Eu3+ ions present on the surface of core as well as the passivation of inevitable surface states, defects or capping ligand (ethylene glycol) of core nanoparticles by bonding to the shell. Lifetime for D50 level of Eu3+ was found to increase three times for core-shell nanoparticles compared to that for core confirming the more Eu3+ ions with symmetry environment in core shell. For 5 at. % Eu3+-doped GdPO4, quantum yield of 19% is obtained. These nanoparticles are redispersible in water, ethanol, or chloroform and thus will be useful in biological labeling. The dispersed particles are incorporated in polymer-based films that will be useful in display devices.

  9. A Facile and Low-Cost Method to Enhance the Internal Quantum Yield and External Light-Extraction Efficiency for Flexible Light-Emitting Carbon-Dot Films.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z C; Lin, T N; Lin, H T; Talite, M J; Tzeng, T T; Hsu, C L; Chiu, K P; Lin, C A J; Shen, J L; Yuan, C T

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed, non-toxic carbon dots (CDs) have attracted much attention due to their unique photoluminescence (PL) properties. They are promising emissive layers for flexible light-emitting devices. To this end, the CDs in pristine aqueous solutions need to be transferred to form solid-state thin films without sacrificing their original PL characteristics. Unfortunately, solid-state PL quenching induced by extra non-radiative (NR) energy transfer among CDs would significantly hinder their practical applications in optoelectronics. Here, a facile, low-cost and effective method has been utilized to fabricate high-performance CD/polymer light-emitting flexible films with submicron-structured patterns. The patterned polymers can serve as a solid matrix to disperse and passivate CDs, thus achieving high internal quantum yields of 61%. In addition, they can act as an out-coupler to mitigate the waveguide-mode losses, approximately doubling the external light-extraction efficiency. Such CD/polymer composites also exhibit good photo-stability, and thus can be used as eco-friendly, low-cost phosphors for solid-state lighting. PMID:26822337

  10. Measurement of Quantum Yield and Upconversion Brightness in Red, Blue and Green on NIR Excited M2O2S:Yb/Er/Ho/Tm Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeks, Ivan; Kumar, Ajith G.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2015-03-01

    A series of broadly color tunable upconversion phosphors were synthesized from M2O2S (M=Y,Gd,La) using a flux fusion method. We investigate their upconversion properties as a function of the dopant concentrations and excitation power density. The phosphor compositions were determined for their upconversion characteristics under 800, 980 and 1550 nm excitations. By measuring the quantum yield and luminous brightness, we investigate their potential applications in biomedical imaging as well as NIR display applications. Results are compared with the well-known upconversion phosphor NaYF4:Yb/Er/Ho/Tm and found that the M2O2S phosphor systems are more efficient compared to NaYF4. By adopting various synthesis protocols, we were able to examine M2O2S in the size range of 10 nm to 10 μm. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation Partnerships for Research and Education in Materials (NSF-PREM) Grant N0-DMR-0934218.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxy-silane (APTMS) functionalized Gd2O3:Eu3+ red phosphor with enhanced quantum yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Akhil; Hirata, G. A.; Farías, M. H.; Castillón, F. F.

    2016-02-01

    We report the surface modification of nanocrystalline Gd2O3:Eu3+ phosphor by (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS). The nanoparticles were first coated with silica using the Stöber process, and then annealed at 650 °C for 2 h. Afterwards, APTMS was functionalized onto the silica layer to obtain Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanoparticles bearing amine groups on the surface. The effect of silica coating, and the subsequent annealing process on the crystallization of the nanophosphor were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) confirmed the presence of a silica layer of ∼45 nm thickness. X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of silica and the amine groups. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis demonstrated an increased emission after functionalization of nanoparticles. Absolute quantum yield (QY) measurements revealed an 18% enhancement in QY in functionalized nanoparticles compared with unmodified nanoparticles, which is of great importance for their biomedical applications.

  12. Host-Guest Chemistry between Perylene Diimide (PDI) Derivatives and 18-Crown-6: Enhancement in Luminescence Quantum Yield and Electrical Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Lasitha, P; Prasad, Edamana

    2016-07-18

    Perylene diimide (PDI) derivatives exhibit a high propensity for aggregation, which causes the aggregation-induced quenching of emission from the system. Host-guest chemistry is one of the best-known methods for preventing aggregation through the encapsulation of guest molecules. Herein we report the use of 18-crown-6 (18-C-6) as a host system to disaggregate suitably substituted PDI derivatives in methanol. 18-C-6 formed complexes with amino-substituted PDIs in methanol, which led to disaggregation and enhanced emission from the systems. Furthermore, the embedding of the PDI⋅18-C-6 complexes in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films generated remarkably high emission quantum yields (60-70 %) from the PDI derivatives. More importantly, the host-guest systems were tested for their ability to conduct electricity in PVA films. The electrical conductivities of the self-assembled systems in PVA were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the highest conductivity observed was 2.42×10(-5)  S cm(-1) .

  13. Synthesis and characterization of (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxy-silane (APTMS) functionalized Gd2O3:Eu(3+) red phosphor with enhanced quantum yield.

    PubMed

    Jain, Akhil; Hirata, G A; Farías, M H; Castillón, F F

    2016-02-12

    We report the surface modification of nanocrystalline Gd2O3:Eu(3+) phosphor by (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS). The nanoparticles were first coated with silica using the Stöber process, and then annealed at 650 °C for 2 h. Afterwards, APTMS was functionalized onto the silica layer to obtain Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanoparticles bearing amine groups on the surface. The effect of silica coating, and the subsequent annealing process on the crystallization of the nanophosphor were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) confirmed the presence of a silica layer of ∼45 nm thickness. X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of silica and the amine groups. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis demonstrated an increased emission after functionalization of nanoparticles. Absolute quantum yield (QY) measurements revealed an 18% enhancement in QY in functionalized nanoparticles compared with unmodified nanoparticles, which is of great importance for their biomedical applications. PMID:26684579

  14. Quantum Calculation of Inelastic CO Collisions with H. II. Pure Rotational Quenching of High Rotational Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kyle M.; Song, L.; Yang, B. H.; Groenenboom, G. C.; van der Avoird, A.; Balakrishnan, N.; Forrey, R. C.; Stancil, P. C.

    2015-09-01

    Carbon monoxide is a simple molecule present in many astrophysical environments, and collisional excitation rate coefficients due to the dominant collision partners are necessary to accurately predict spectral line intensities and extract astrophysical parameters. We report new quantum scattering calculations for rotational deexcitation transitions of CO induced by H using the three-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) of Song et al. State-to-state cross sections for collision energies from 10-5 to 15,000 cm-1 and rate coefficients for temperatures ranging from 1 to 3000 K are obtained for CO (v = 0, j) deexcitation from j=1-45 to all lower j‧ levels, where j is the rotational quantum number. Close-coupling and coupled-states calculations were performed in full-dimension for j=1-5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 while scaling approaches were used to estimate rate coefficients for all other intermediate rotational states. The current rate coefficients are compared with previous scattering results using earlier PESs. Astrophysical applications of the current results are briefly discussed.

  15. Coherent states, quantum gravity, and the Born- Oppenheimer approximation. II. Compact Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottmeister, Alexander; Thiemann, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    In this article, the second of three, we discuss and develop the basis of a Weyl quantisation for compact Lie groups aiming at loop quantum gravity-type models. This Weyl quantisation may serve as the main mathematical tool to implement the program of space adiabatic perturbation theory in such models. As we already argued in our first article, space adiabatic perturbation theory offers an ideal framework to overcome the obstacles that hinder the direct implementation of the conventional Born-Oppenheimer approach in the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity. Additionally, we conjecture the existence of a new form of the Segal-Bargmann-Hall "coherent state" transform for compact Lie groups G, which we prove for G = U(1)n and support by numerical evidence for G = SU(2). The reason for conjoining this conjecture with the main topic of this article originates in the observation that the coherent state transform can be used as a basic building block of a coherent state quantisation (Berezin quantisation) for compact Lie groups G. But, as Weyl and Berezin quantisation for ℝ2d are intimately related by heat kernel evolution, it is natural to ask whether a similar connection exists for compact Lie groups as well. Moreover, since the formulation of space adiabatic perturbation theory requires a (deformation) quantisation as minimal input, we analyse the question to what extent the coherent state quantisation, defined by the Segal-Bargmann-Hall transform, can serve as basis of the former.

  16. Quantum transport effects in copper(II) phthalocyanine sandwiched between gold nanoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Tada, Tomofumi; Hamayama, Shinya; Kondo, Masakazu; Yoshizawa, Kazunari

    2005-06-30

    The electrical transmission of copper(II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) sandwiched between gold nanoelectrodes is studied on the basis of the Green function formalism coupled with the Gaussian-broadening technique. In the Au-CuPc-Au junction, broadened density of states (DOS) of the Au chains is defined as continuous DOS of electrodes to calculate the Green function of the electrodes. Two peaks of the transmission function found in the vicinity of the Fermi level are analyzed in terms of molecular orbitals (MOs). A convenient procedure to analyze MO contribution to a transmission peak is proposed. It is found that (I) symmetry-matched interactions between CuPc and the gold nanoelectrodes are important to the enhancement of the transmission function and (II) the nanoelectrodes have almost no effect on the electronic states of CuPc.

  17. Adiabatically implementing quantum gates

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jie; Lu, Songfeng Liu, Fang

    2014-06-14

    We show that, through the approach of quantum adiabatic evolution, all of the usual quantum gates can be implemented efficiently, yielding running time of order O(1). This may be considered as a useful alternative to the standard quantum computing approach, which involves quantum gates transforming quantum states during the computing process.

  18. The Prognostic Yield of Biomarkers Harvested in Chemotherapy-Naive Stage II Colon Cancer: Can We Separate the Wheat from the Chaff?

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Martin M; Søreide, Kjetil

    2016-01-01

    The tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) system fails to accurately predict disease recurrence in a considerable number of patients. Although node-negative (stage II) colon cancer is considered to have an overall good prognosis, the 5-year cancer-specific survival is reported at 81–83% in patients who did not have adjuvant chemotherapy. Thus, reliance on node status alone has led to undertreatment in a subgroup of stage II patients with an unfavorable prognosis. The search for new and better prognosticators in stage II colon cancer has suggested several proposed biomarkers of better prognostication and prediction. However, few such biomarkers have reached widespread clinical utility. For the clinician swimming in the sea of emerging biomarkers, it may be hard to recognize the true floating aid from the surrounding debris in the search for more precise decision-making. Proposed markers include microsatellite instability (MSI) and KRAS and BRAF mutations, but a number of gene panels and consensus molecular subtypes are proposed for clinical prediction and prognostication as well. Although several studies suggest such biomarkers or panels to have a prognostic role in subgroups of patients, a number of studies are reported in heterogeneous groups with in part discordant findings, which again distorts the predictive and prognostic ability of each marker. Lack of homogeneous cohorts, underpowered studies in strict subgroups and challenges in analytical and clinical validity may hamper the progress toward widespread clinical utility. The harvest of prognostic biomarkers in colon cancer has yielded a huge number of candidates for which it is now time to separate the wheat from the chaff. PMID:27262159

  19. Quantum dynamics in continuum for proton transport II: Variational solvent-solute interface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duan; Chen, Zhan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Proton transport plays an important role in biological energy transduction and sensory systems. Therefore, it has attracted much attention in biological science and biomedical engineering in the past few decades. The present work proposes a multiscale/multiphysics model for the understanding of the molecular mechanism of proton transport in transmembrane proteins involving continuum, atomic, and quantum descriptions, assisted with the evolution, formation, and visualization of membrane channel surfaces. We describe proton dynamics quantum mechanically via a new density functional theory based on the Boltzmann statistics, while implicitly model numerous solvent molecules as a dielectric continuum to reduce the number of degrees of freedom. The density of all other ions in the solvent is assumed to obey the Boltzmann distribution in a dynamic manner. The impact of protein molecular structure and its charge polarization on the proton transport is considered explicitly at the atomic scale. A variational solute-solvent interface is designed to separate the explicit molecule and implicit solvent regions. We formulate a total free-energy functional to put proton kinetic and potential energies, the free energy of all other ions, and the polar and nonpolar energies of the whole system on an equal footing. The variational principle is employed to derive coupled governing equations for the proton transport system. Generalized Laplace-Beltrami equation, generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and generalized Kohn-Sham equation are obtained from the present variational framework. The variational solvent-solute interface is generated and visualized to facilitate the multiscale discrete/continuum/quantum descriptions. Theoretical formulations for the proton density and conductance are constructed based on fundamental laws of physics. A number of mathematical algorithms, including the Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping, matched interface and boundary method, Gummel iteration, and Krylov

  20. Estimating chlorophyll content and photochemical yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) using solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurements at different growing stages of attached leaves.

    PubMed

    Tubuxin, Bayaer; Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran, Parinaz; Ginnan, Yusaku; Hosoi, Fumiki; Omasa, Kenji

    2015-09-01

    This paper illustrates the possibility of measuring chlorophyll (Chl) content and Chl fluorescence parameters by the solar-induced Chl fluorescence (SIF) method using the Fraunhofer line depth (FLD) principle, and compares the results with the standard measurement methods. A high-spectral resolution HR2000+ and an ordinary USB4000 spectrometer were used to measure leaf reflectance under solar and artificial light, respectively, to estimate Chl fluorescence. Using leaves of Capsicum annuum cv. 'Sven' (paprika), the relationships between the Chl content and the steady-state Chl fluorescence near oxygen absorption bands of O2B (686nm) and O2A (760nm), measured under artificial and solar light at different growing stages of leaves, were evaluated. The Chl fluorescence yields of ΦF 686nm/ΦF 760nm ratios obtained from both methods correlated well with the Chl content (steady-state solar light: R(2) = 0.73; artificial light: R(2) = 0.94). The SIF method was less accurate for Chl content estimation when Chl content was high. The steady-state solar-induced Chl fluorescence yield ratio correlated very well with the artificial-light-induced one (R(2) = 0.84). A new methodology is then presented to estimate photochemical yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) from the SIF measurements, which was verified against the standard Chl fluorescence measurement method (pulse-amplitude modulated method). The high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.74) between the ΦPSII of the two methods shows that photosynthesis process parameters can be successfully estimated using the presented methodology.

  1. Estimating chlorophyll content and photochemical yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) using solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurements at different growing stages of attached leaves

    PubMed Central

    Tubuxin, Bayaer; Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran, Parinaz; Ginnan, Yusaku; Hosoi, Fumiki; Omasa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates the possibility of measuring chlorophyll (Chl) content and Chl fluorescence parameters by the solar-induced Chl fluorescence (SIF) method using the Fraunhofer line depth (FLD) principle, and compares the results with the standard measurement methods. A high-spectral resolution HR2000+ and an ordinary USB4000 spectrometer were used to measure leaf reflectance under solar and artificial light, respectively, to estimate Chl fluorescence. Using leaves of Capsicum annuum cv. ‘Sven’ (paprika), the relationships between the Chl content and the steady-state Chl fluorescence near oxygen absorption bands of O2B (686nm) and O2A (760nm), measured under artificial and solar light at different growing stages of leaves, were evaluated. The Chl fluorescence yields of ΦF 686nm/ΦF 760nm ratios obtained from both methods correlated well with the Chl content (steady-state solar light: R2 = 0.73; artificial light: R2 = 0.94). The SIF method was less accurate for Chl content estimation when Chl content was high. The steady-state solar-induced Chl fluorescence yield ratio correlated very well with the artificial-light-induced one (R2 = 0.84). A new methodology is then presented to estimate photochemical yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) from the SIF measurements, which was verified against the standard Chl fluorescence measurement method (pulse-amplitude modulated method). The high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.74) between the ΦPSII of the two methods shows that photosynthesis process parameters can be successfully estimated using the presented methodology. PMID:26071530

  2. Delaying the oocyte maturation trigger by one day leads to a higher metaphase II oocyte yield in IVF/ICSI: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The negative impact of rising progesterone levels on pregnancy rates is well known, but data on mature oocyte yield are conflicting. We examined whether delaying the oocyte maturation trigger in IVF/ICSI affected the number of mature oocytes and investigated the potential influence of serum progesterone levels in this process. Methods Between January 31, 2011, and December 31, 2011, 262 consecutive patients were monitored using ultrasound plus hormonal evaluation. Those with > =3 follicles with a mean diameter of > =18 mm were divided into 2 groups depending on their serum progesterone levels. In cases with a progesterone level < = 1 ng/ml, which was observed in 59 patients, 30-50% of their total number of follicles (only counting those larger than 10 mm) were at least 18 mm in diameter. These patients were randomised into 2 groups: in one group, final oocyte maturation was triggered the same day; for the other, maturation was triggered 24 hours later. Seventy-two patients with progesterone levels > 1 ng/ml were randomised in the same manner, irrespective of the percentage of larger follicles (> = 18 mm). The number of metaphase II oocytes was our primary outcome variable. Because some patients were included more than once, correction for duplicate patients was performed. Results In the study arm with low progesterone (<= 1 ng/ml), the mean number of metaphase II oocytes (+/-SD) was 10.29 (+/-6.35) in the group with delayed administration of the oocyte maturation trigger versus 7.64 (+/-3.26) in the control group. After adjusting for age, the mean difference was 2.41 (95% CI: 0.22-4.61; p = 0.031). In the study arm with elevated progesterone (>1 ng/ml), the mean numbers of metaphase II oocytes (+/-SD) were 11.81 (+/-9.91) and 12.03 (+/-7.09) for the delayed and control groups, respectively. After adjusting for PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) and female pathology, the mean difference was -0.44 (95% CI: -3.65-2.78; p

  3. Kondo effects in a triangular triple quantum dot II: ground-state properties for deformed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Akira; Amaha, Shinichi; Nisikawa, Yunori; Hewson, A. C.; Tarucha, Seigo; Numata, Takahide

    2010-03-01

    We study transport through a triangular triple quantum dot (TTQD) connected to two noninteracting leads, using the numerical renormalization group. The system has been theoretically revealed to show a variety of Kondo effects depending on the electron filling of the triangle [1]. For instance, the SU(4) Kondo effect takes place at three-electron filling, and a two-stage Kondo screening of a high-spin S=1 Nagaoka state takes place at four-electron filling. Because of the enhanced freedom in the configurations, however, the large parameter space of the TTQD still has not been fully explored, especially for large deformations. We report the effects of the inhomogeneity in the inter-dot couplings and the level positions in a wide region of the filling. [1] T. Numata, Y. Nisikawa, A. Oguri, and A. C. Hewson: PRB 80, 155330 (2009).

  4. 2 μm wavelength range InP-based type-II quantum well photodiodes heterogeneously integrated on silicon photonic integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruijun; Sprengel, Stephan; Muneeb, Muhammad; Boehm, Gerhard; Baets, Roel; Amann, Markus-Christian; Roelkens, Gunther

    2015-10-01

    The heterogeneous integration of InP-based type-II quantum well photodiodes on silicon photonic integrated circuits for the 2 µm wavelength range is presented. A responsivity of 1.2 A/W at a wavelength of 2.32 µm and 0.6 A/W at 2.4 µm wavelength is demonstrated. The photodiodes have a dark current of 12 nA at -0.5 V at room temperature. The absorbing active region of the integrated photodiodes consists of six periods of a "W"-shaped quantum well, also allowing for laser integration on the same platform.

  5. Photoinduced electron donor/acceptor processes in colloidal II-VI semiconductor quantum dots and nitroxide free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Poulami

    Electron transfer (ET) processes are one of the most researched topics for applications ranging from energy conversion to catalysis. An exciting variation is utilizing colloidal semiconductor nanostructures to explore such processes. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are emerging as a novel class of light harvesting, emitting and charge-separation materials for applications such as solar energy conversion. Detailed knowledge of the quantitative dissociation of the photogenerated excitons and the interfacial charge- (electron/hole) transfer is essential for optimization of the overall efficiency of many such applications. Organic free radicals are the attractive counterparts for studying ET to/from QDs because these undergo single-electron transfer steps in reversible fashion. Nitroxides are an exciting class of stable organic free radicals, which have recently been demonstrated to be efficient as redox mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells, making them even more interesting for the aforementioned studies. This dissertation investigates the interaction between nitroxide free radicals TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), 4-amino-TEMPO (4-amino- 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and II-VI semiconductor (CdSe and CdTe) QDs. The nature of interaction in these hybrids has been examined through ground-state UV-Vis absorbance, steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, transient absorbance, upconversion photoluminescence spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The detailed analysis of the PL quenching indicates that the intrinsic charge transfer is ultrafast however, the overall quenching is still limited by the lower binding capacities and slower diffusion related kinetics. Careful analysis of the time resolved PL decay kinetics reveal that the decay rate constants are distributed and that the trap states are involved in the overall quenching process. The ultrafast hole transfer from CdSe QDs to 4-Amino TEMPO observed

  6. Control of physical and optical properties of II-VI quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sooklal, Kelly Sonja

    This thesis primarily concentrates on two semiconductors, CdS and ZnS, both of which have been widely used in the fabrication of electrical devices. Nanoparticles of CdS and ZnS have both been prepared using a variety of synthetic methods. These "quantum confined" particles exhibit a wide range of size dependent properties which can be modified by either altering their size and/or surface chemistry. In one set of experiments, it was found that the location of Mn 2+ profoundly affects the photophysics of ZnS nanoclusters. Mn 2+ substituted for Zn2+ in the ZnS lattice produced orange emission with lifetimes that were intermediate between those found for micron clusters and smaller nanoclusters. The addition of Mn2+ to the outside of the preformed ZnS nanoclusters showed near-band gap emission in the ultraviolet with even shorter lifetimes. We have also used these Mn2+ doped nanoclusters to fabricate electroluminescent devices. In another set of experiments, the effects of different ions on the photophysics of ZnS nanoclusters was investigated. Depending on the cation, we have been able to produce ZnS nanoclusters that emit in the blue, green, yellow and orange regions of the visible spectrum by incorporating Cu2+, Pb2+ and Mn2+. Quantum dots of CdS have also been prepared using several different stabilizing agents. CdS nanoparticles that have been synthesized using dendrimers as hosts exhibit striking optical and electronic features. Intense blue-green emission is observed when the CdS-dendrimer nanocomposites are formed in methanol and/or acidified methanol solutions. Bright yellow emission is observed when the semiconductor-dendrimer nanocomposites are prepared in water and/or basic methanol solutions. One additional experiment was performed using capping groups to modify the photophysics of CdS. Nanometer-sized CdS were prepared using a series of 4-substituted thiophenols as capping agents. The 4-substituents included both electron-donating and electron

  7. Localized and bound excitons in type-II ZnMnSe/ZnSSe quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Chernenko, A V; Brichkin, A S

    2014-10-22

    Photoluminescence of ZnMnSe/ZnSSe multiple quantum wells under a bandgap continuous wave and fs-pulsed excitations is measured in magnetic fields up to 10 T in Faraday geometry at temperatures within the range of 1.6-20 K. The measurements reveal two dominant lines in the spectra and LO-phonon replicas of the lower-energy line. The photoluminescence and time-resolved studies show dramatically different behaviour of the lines. Analysis of their properties reveals that they correspond to recombination of indirect localized excitons and indirect acceptor-bound excitons (A0X). Crossing of exciton and A0X lines because of the difference in magnitudes of their Zeeman shifts is observed. Analysis of LO-phonon replicas of photoluminescence lines provides additional evidence for strong carrier localization bound to A0X. A model of phonon-assisted recombination of indirect acceptor-bound excitons is proposed. The fitting of photoluminescence lines with this model gives the Huang-Rhys factor S≃0.25 for A0X and the hole localization size ah≃30 Å. Contrary to expectations the exciton magnetic polaron effect is hardly observed in these structures. PMID:25273841

  8. High quantum efficiency Type-II superlattice N-structure photodetectors with thin intrinsic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, Yuksel; Hostut, Mustafa; Tansel, Tunay; Muti, Abdullah; Kilic, Abidin; Turan, Rasit; Aydinli, Atilla

    2013-06-01

    We report on the development of InAs/AlSb/GaSb based N-structure superlattice pin photodiode. In this new design, AlSb layer in between InAs and GaSb layers acts as an electron barrier that pushes electron and hole wave functions towards the GaSb/InAs interface to perform strong overlap under reverse bias. Experimental results show that, with only 20 periods of intrinsic layers, dark current density and dynamic resistance at -50 mV bias are measured as 6x10-3 A/cm2 and 148 Ωcm2 at 77K, respectively. Under zero bias, high spectral response of 1.2A/W is obtained at 5 μm with 50% cut-off wavelengths (λc) of 6 μm. With this new design, devices with only 146 nm thick i-regions exhibit a quantum efficiency of 42% at 3 μm with front-side illimunation and no anti-reflection coatings.

  9. Astronomical constraints on quantum theories of cold dark matter - II. Supermassive black holes and luminous matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivey, S. C.; Musielak, Z. E.; Fry, J. L.

    2015-04-01

    Our previous model of quantum cold dark matter (QCDM) is expanded to include the influence of supermassive black holes located at centres of different galaxies and galactic luminous (baryonic) matter distributions. The inclusion of a black hole to the galactic potential is shown to produce a more concentrated halo with a cuspier core. The addition of a small-scale galactic luminous matter distribution also concentrates the halo, while a large-scale distribution diffuses it; nevertheless, in either case the smooth core of the halo is preserved. Effects caused by including a non-linear scattering term are investigated by solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The obtained results demonstrate that the scattering term produces a rounder and more diffuse density profile. Moreover, adding a sufficiently large black hole in combination with this term results in an even cuspier profile than the black hole alone. As a result of all these additions, our extended QCDM model can be applied to a much larger range of dark matter halo shapes and sizes.

  10. Magnetic polarons in type-II (Zn,Mn)Se/ZnTe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. R.; Barman, B.; Tsai, Y.; Scrace, T.; Pientka, J. M.; Zutic, I.; McCombe, B. D.; Petrou, A.; Cartwright, A. N.; Chou, W. C.; Tsou, M. H.; Yang, C. S.; Sellers, I. R.; Oszwaldowski, R.; Petukhov, A. G.

    2014-03-01

    We have studied magnetic polaron formation dynamics in (Zn,Mn)Se/ZnTe quantum dots2 (QDs) using time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy. The emitted light was spectrally and temporally analyzed; the emission spectra were recorded as function of time delay (Δt) from the exciting laser pulse. The recombination time at T = 10 K in our samples is 2.3 ns. The peak energy of the emission red shifts with increasing Δt due to the lowering of the hole-Mn spin complex (magnetic polaron) energy. From this shift we determined the magnetic polaron formation energy (EMP) at T = 10 K to be 20 meV, which is half the value observed in the ZnSe/(Zn,Mn)Te system studied previously.3EMP decreases with increasing temperature, in contrast to the behavior of the ZnSe/(Zn,Mn)Te system3 in which EMP is temperature independent. These results are discussed in terms of a theoretical model. This work is supported by DOE-BES, ONR and NSF.

  11. Defect Creation in InGaAs/GaAs Multiple Quantum Wells - II. Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karow, Matthias M.; Faleev, Nikolai N.; Maros, Aymeric; Honsberg, Christiana B.

    2015-09-01

    The optical properties of three sets of InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and previously characterized by x-ray diffraction for crystal perfection were investigated. The correlations between growth conditions, crystal defects, and optical properties are discussed. Evaluation of the relative importance of non-radiative Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination was carried out according to a method presented herein. The optimal deposition temperature was determined based on both proper carrier confinement in the nanostructures and the least non-radiative recombination. Growing below this temperature increased SRH-recombination whereas higher growth temperatures led to carrier localization in local band edge minima. Varying the MQW periodicity and MQW period allowed the study of their effects on the strength of SRH-recombination. MQW periodicity results are explained in the frame of a cumulative deterioration effect with continued epitaxial growth, while MQW period data shows correlations between relaxation of the initial elastic stress and SRH-strength. Limitations of the underlying model for SRH-analysis are pointed out.

  12. Plane wave holonomies in quantum gravity. II. A sine wave solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Donald E.

    2015-08-01

    This paper constructs an approximate sinusoidal wave packet solution to the equations of canonical gravity. The theory uses holonomy-flux variables with support on a lattice (LHF =lattice-holonomy flux ). There is an SU(2) holonomy on each edge of the LHF simplex, and the goal is to study the behavior of these holonomies under the influence of a passing gravitational wave. The equations are solved in a small sine approximation: holonomies are expanded in powers of sines and terms beyond sin2 are dropped; also, fields vary slowly from vertex to vertex. The wave is unidirectional and linearly polarized. The Hilbert space is spanned by a set of coherent states tailored to the symmetry of the plane wave case. Fixing the spatial diffeomorphisms is equivalent to fixing the spatial interval between vertices of the loop quantum gravity lattice. This spacing can be chosen such that the eigenvalues of the triad operators are large, as required in the small sine limit, even though the holonomies are not large. Appendices compute the energy of the wave, estimate the lifetime of the coherent state packet, discuss circular polarization and coarse-graining, and determine the behavior of the spinors used in the U(N) SHO realization of LQG.

  13. UV-Light-Induced Improvement of Fluorescence Quantum Yield of DNA-Templated Gold Nanoclusters: Application to Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensing of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Zong-Yu; Wu, Yun-Tse; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2015-10-28

    The use of DNA as a template has been demonstrated as an effective method for synthesizing different-sized silver nanoclusters. Although DNA-templated silver nanoclusters show outstanding performance as fluorescent probes for chemical sensing and cellular imaging, the synthesis of DNA-stabilized gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with high fluorescence intensity remains a challenge. Here a facile, reproducible, scalable, NaBH4-free, UV-light-assisted method was developed to prepare AuNCs using repeats of 30 adenosine nucleotides (A30). The maximal fluorescence of A30-stabilized AuNCs appeared at 475 nm with moderate quantum yield, two fluorescence lifetimes, and a small amount of Au(+) on the surface of the Au core. Results of size-exclusion chromatography revealed that A30-stabilized AuNCs were more compact than A30. A series of control experiments showed that UV light played a dual role in the reduction of gold-ion precursors and the decomposition of citrate ions. A30 also acted as a stabilizer to prevent the aggregation of AuNCs. In addition, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) consisting of an AuNC-nucleation sequence and a hybridization sequence was utilized to develop a AuNC-based ratiometric fluorescent probe in the presence of the double-strand-chelating dye SYBR Green I (SG). Under conditions of single-wavelength excitation, the combination of AuNC/SG-bearing ssDNA and perfectly matched DNA emitted fluorescence at 475 and 525 nm, respectively. The formed AuNC/SG-bearing ssDNA enabled the sensitive, selective, and ratiometric detection of specific nucleic acid targets. Finally, the AuNC-based ratiometric probes were successfully applied to determine specific nucleic acid targets in human serum.

  14. X-ray induced singlet oxygen generation by nanoparticle-photosensitizer conjugates for photodynamic therapy: determination of singlet oxygen quantum yield.

    PubMed

    Clement, Sandhya; Deng, Wei; Camilleri, Elizabeth; Wilson, Brian C; Goldys, Ewa M

    2016-01-01

    Singlet oxygen is a primary cytotoxic agent in photodynamic therapy. We show that CeF3 nanoparticles, pure as well as conjugated through electrostatic interaction with the photosensitizer verteporfin, are able to generate singlet oxygen as a result of UV light and 8 keV X-ray irradiation. The X-ray stimulated singlet oxygen quantum yield was determined to be 0.79 ± 0.05 for the conjugate with 31 verteporfin molecules per CeF3 nanoparticle, the highest conjugation level used. From this result we estimate the singlet oxygen dose generated from CeF3-verteporfin conjugates for a therapeutic dose of 60 Gy of ionizing radiation at energies of 6 MeV and 30 keV to be (1.2 ± 0.7) × 10(8) and (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10(9) singlet oxygen molecules per cell, respectively. These are comparable with cytotoxic doses of 5 × 10(7)-2 × 10(9) singlet oxygen molecules per cell reported in the literature for photodynamic therapy using light activation. We confirmed that the CeF3-VP conjugates enhanced cell killing with 6 MeV radiation. This work confirms the feasibility of using X- or γ- ray activated nanoparticle-photosensitizer conjugates, either to supplement the radiation treatment of cancer, or as an independent treatment modality.

  15. X-ray induced singlet oxygen generation by nanoparticle-photosensitizer conjugates for photodynamic therapy: determination of singlet oxygen quantum yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Sandhya; Deng, Wei; Camilleri, Elizabeth; Wilson, Brian C.; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2016-01-01

    Singlet oxygen is a primary cytotoxic agent in photodynamic therapy. We show that CeF3 nanoparticles, pure as well as conjugated through electrostatic interaction with the photosensitizer verteporfin, are able to generate singlet oxygen as a result of UV light and 8 keV X-ray irradiation. The X-ray stimulated singlet oxygen quantum yield was determined to be 0.79 ± 0.05 for the conjugate with 31 verteporfin molecules per CeF3 nanoparticle, the highest conjugation level used. From this result we estimate the singlet oxygen dose generated from CeF3-verteporfin conjugates for a therapeutic dose of 60 Gy of ionizing radiation at energies of 6 MeV and 30 keV to be (1.2 ± 0.7) × 108 and (2.0 ± 0.1) × 109 singlet oxygen molecules per cell, respectively. These are comparable with cytotoxic doses of 5 × 107-2 × 109 singlet oxygen molecules per cell reported in the literature for photodynamic therapy using light activation. We confirmed that the CeF3-VP conjugates enhanced cell killing with 6 MeV radiation. This work confirms the feasibility of using X- or γ- ray activated nanoparticle-photosensitizer conjugates, either to supplement the radiation treatment of cancer, or as an independent treatment modality.

  16. X-ray induced singlet oxygen generation by nanoparticle-photosensitizer conjugates for photodynamic therapy: determination of singlet oxygen quantum yield

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Sandhya; Deng, Wei; Camilleri, Elizabeth; Wilson, Brian C.; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2016-01-01

    Singlet oxygen is a primary cytotoxic agent in photodynamic therapy. We show that CeF3 nanoparticles, pure as well as conjugated through electrostatic interaction with the photosensitizer verteporfin, are able to generate singlet oxygen as a result of UV light and 8 keV X-ray irradiation. The X-ray stimulated singlet oxygen quantum yield was determined to be 0.79 ± 0.05 for the conjugate with 31 verteporfin molecules per CeF3 nanoparticle, the highest conjugation level used. From this result we estimate the singlet oxygen dose generated from CeF3-verteporfin conjugates for a therapeutic dose of 60 Gy of ionizing radiation at energies of 6 MeV and 30 keV to be (1.2 ± 0.7) × 108 and (2.0 ± 0.1) × 109 singlet oxygen molecules per cell, respectively. These are comparable with cytotoxic doses of 5 × 107–2 × 109 singlet oxygen molecules per cell reported in the literature for photodynamic therapy using light activation. We confirmed that the CeF3-VP conjugates enhanced cell killing with 6 MeV radiation. This work confirms the feasibility of using X- or γ- ray activated nanoparticle-photosensitizer conjugates, either to supplement the radiation treatment of cancer, or as an independent treatment modality. PMID:26818819

  17. Ultraviolet photochemistry of buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-dienes: laser spectroscopic absolute hydrogen atom quantum yield and translational energy distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Hanf, A; Volpp, H-R; Sharma, P; Mittal, J P; Vatsa, R K

    2010-07-14

    Using pulsed H-atom Lyman-alpha laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy along with a photolytic calibration approach, absolute H-atom product quantum yields of phi(H-b13d) = (0.32+/-0.04) and phi(H-b12d) = (0.36+/-0.04) were measured under collision-free conditions for the 193 nm gas-phase laser flash photolysis of buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-diene at room temperature, which demonstrate that nascent H-atom formation is of comparable importance for both parent molecules. Comparison of the available energy fraction, f(T-b13d) = (0.22+/-0.03) and f(T-b12d) = (0.13+/-0.01), released as H+C(4)H(5) product translational energy with results of impulsive and statistical energy partitioning modeling calculations indicates that for both, buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-diene, H-atom formation is preceded by internal conversion to the respective electronic ground state (S(0)) potential energy surfaces. In addition, values of sigma(b-1,3-d-L alpha) = (3.5+/-0.2)x10(-17) cm(2) and sigma(b-1,2-d-L alpha) = (4.4+/-0.2)x10(-17) cm(2) for the previously unknown Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm) radiation photoabsorption cross sections of buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-diene in the gas-phase were determined.

  18. Metallic nanoparticles and their medicinal potential. Part II: aluminosilicates, nanobiomagnets, quantum dots and cochleates.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Leena; Scarabelli, Tiziano

    2013-09-01

    Metallic miniaturization techniques have taken metals to nanoscale size where they can display fascinating properties and their potential applications in medicine. In recent years, metal nanoparticles such as aluminium, silicon, iron, cadmium, selenium, indium and calcium, which find their presence in aluminosilicates, nanobiomagnets, quantum dots (Q-dots) and cochleates, have caught attention of medical industries. The increasing impact of metallic nanoparticles in life sciences has significantly advanced the production techniques for these nanoparticles. In this Review, the various methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles are outlined, followed by their physicochemical properties, some recent applications in wound healing, diagnostic imaging, biosensing, assay labeling, antimicrobial activity, cancer therapy and drug delivery are listed, and finally their toxicological impacts are revised. The first half of this article describes the medicinal uses of two noble nanoparticles - gold and silver. This Review provides further information on the ability of aluminum, silicon, iron, selenium, indium, calcium and zinc to be used as nanoparticles in biomedical sciences. Aluminosilicates find their utility in wound healing and antibacterial growth. Iron-oxide nanoparticles enhance the properties of MRI contrast agents and are also used as biomagnets. Cadmium, selenium, tellurium and indium form the core nanostructures of tiny Q-dots used in cellular assay labeling, high-resolution cell imaging and biosensing. Cochleates have the bivalent nano ions calcium, magnesium or zinc imbedded in their structures and are considered to be highly effective agents for drug and gene delivery. The aluminosilicates, nanobiomagnets, Q-dots and cochleates are discussed in the light of their properties, synthesis and utility.

  19. Conditions for Directional Charge Transfer in CdSe Quantum Dots Functionalized by Ru(II) Polypyridine Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kilina, Svetlana; Cui, Peng; Fischer, Sean A; Tretiak, Sergei

    2014-10-16

    Thermodynamic conditions governing the charge transfer direction in CdSe quantum dots (QD) functionalized by either Ru(II)-trisbipyridine or black dye are studied using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT). Compared to the energy offsets of the isolated QD and the dye, QD-dye interactions strongly stabilize dye orbitals with respect to the QD states, while the surface chemistry of the QD has a minor effect on the energy offsets. In all considered QD/dye composites, the dyes always introduce unoccupied states close to the edge of the conduction band and control the electron transfer. Negatively charged ligands and less polar solvents significantly destabilize the dye's occupied orbitals shifting them toward the very edge of the valence band, thus, providing favorite conditions for the hole transfer. Overall, variations in the dye's ligands and solvent polarity can progressively adjust the electronic structure of QD/dye composites to modify conditions for the directed charge transfer. PMID:26278611

  20. Isotropic and anisotropic spin-spin interactions and a quantum phase transition in a dinuclear Cu(II) compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolitano, Lia M. B.; Nascimento, Otaciro R.; Cabaleiro, Santiago; Castro, Jesús; Calvo, Rafael

    2008-06-01

    We report electron-paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies at ˜9.5GHz ( X band) and ˜34GHz ( Q band) of powder and single-crystal samples of the compound Cu2[TzTs]4 [ N -thiazol-2-yl-toluenesulfonamidatecopper(II)], C40H36Cu2N8O8S8 , having copper(II) ions in dinuclear units. Our data allow determining an antiferromagnetic interaction J0=(-113±1)cm-1 (Hex=-J0S1ṡS2) between Cu(II) ions in the dinuclear unit and the anisotropic contributions to the spin-spin coupling matrix D(Hani=S1ṡDṡS2) , a traceless symmetric matrix with principal values D/4=(0.198±0.003)cm-1 and E/4=(0.001±0.003)cm-1 arising from magnetic dipole-dipole and anisotropic exchange couplings within the units. In addition, the single-crystal EPR measurements allow detecting and estimating very weak exchange couplings between neighbor dinuclear units, with an estimated magnitude |J'|=(0.060±0.015)cm-1 . The interactions between a dinuclear unit and the “environment” of similar units in the structure of the compound produce a spin dynamics that averages out the intradinuclear dipolar interactions. This coupling with the environment leads to decoherence, a quantum phase transition that collapses the dipolar interaction when the isotropic exchange coupling with neighbor dinuclear units equals the magnitude of the intradinuclear dipolar coupling. Our EPR experiments provide a new procedure to follow the classical exchange-narrowing process as a shift and collapse of the line structure (not only as a change of the resonance width), which is described with general (but otherwise simple) theories of magnetic resonance. Using complementary procedures, our EPR measurements in powder and single-crystal samples allow measuring simultaneously three types of interactions differing by more than three orders of magnitude (between 113cm-1 and 0.060cm-1 ).

  1. Interfacial strain effect on type-I and type-II core/shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheshlaghi, Negar; Pisheh, Hadi Sedaghat; Karim, M. Rezaul; Malkoc, Derya; Ünlü, Hilmi

    2016-09-01

    A comparative experimental and theoretical study on the calculation of capped core diameter in ZnSe/ZnS, CdSe/Cd(Zn)S type-I and ZnSe/CdS type-II core/shell nanocrystals is presented. The lattice mismatch induced interface strain between core and shell was calculated from continuum elastic theory and applied in effective mass approximation method to obtain the corresponding capped core diameter. The calculated results were compared with diameter of bare cores (CdSe and ZnSe) from transmission electron microscopy images to obtain the amount of the stretched or squeezed core after deposition of tensile or compressive shells. The result of the study showed that the core is squeezed in ZnSe/ZnS and CdSe/Cd(Zn)S after compressive shell and stretched in ZnSe/CdS after tensile shell deposition. The stretched and squeezed amount of the capped core found to be in proportion with lattice mismatch amount in the core/shell structure.

  2. Quantum chemical topology study of the water-platinum(II) interaction.

    PubMed

    Bergès, Jacqueline; Fourré, Isabelle; Pilmé, Julien; Kozelka, Jiri

    2013-02-01

    The "inverse hydration" of neutral complexes of Pt(II) by an axial water molecule, whose one OH-bond is oriented toward Pt, has been the subject of recent works, theoretical as well as experimental. To study the influence of the ligands on this non-conventional H-bond, we extend here our previous energy calculations, using the second-order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) method together with the Dolg-Pélissier pseudopotential for platinum, to various neutral complexes including the well-known chemotherapeutic agent "cisplatin". The stabilization energy, depending on the nature and the configuration of platinum ligands, is dominated by the same important dispersive component, for all the investigated complexes. For a further characterization of this particular H-bond, we used the atoms in molecules theory (AIM) and the topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF). The charge transfer occurring from the complex to the water molecule and the Laplacian of the density at the bond critical point between water and Pt are identified as interesting AIM descriptors of this non-conventional H-bond. Beyond this AIM analysis, we show that the polarization of the ELF bonding O-H basin involved in the non-conventional H-bond is enhanced during the approach of the water molecule to the Pt complexes. When the water medium, treated in an implicit solvation model, is taken into account, the interaction energies become independent on the nature and configuration of platinum ligands. However, the topological descriptors remain qualitatively unchanged. PMID:23347164

  3. Quantum chemical topology study of the water-platinum(II) interaction.

    PubMed

    Bergès, Jacqueline; Fourré, Isabelle; Pilmé, Julien; Kozelka, Jiri

    2013-02-01

    The "inverse hydration" of neutral complexes of Pt(II) by an axial water molecule, whose one OH-bond is oriented toward Pt, has been the subject of recent works, theoretical as well as experimental. To study the influence of the ligands on this non-conventional H-bond, we extend here our previous energy calculations, using the second-order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) method together with the Dolg-Pélissier pseudopotential for platinum, to various neutral complexes including the well-known chemotherapeutic agent "cisplatin". The stabilization energy, depending on the nature and the configuration of platinum ligands, is dominated by the same important dispersive component, for all the investigated complexes. For a further characterization of this particular H-bond, we used the atoms in molecules theory (AIM) and the topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF). The charge transfer occurring from the complex to the water molecule and the Laplacian of the density at the bond critical point between water and Pt are identified as interesting AIM descriptors of this non-conventional H-bond. Beyond this AIM analysis, we show that the polarization of the ELF bonding O-H basin involved in the non-conventional H-bond is enhanced during the approach of the water molecule to the Pt complexes. When the water medium, treated in an implicit solvation model, is taken into account, the interaction energies become independent on the nature and configuration of platinum ligands. However, the topological descriptors remain qualitatively unchanged.

  4. Switching-on quantum size effects in silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Chenxi; Wang, Liwei; Wei, Muan; Mastronardi, Melanie L; Casillas, Gilberto; Breu, Josef; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2015-01-27

    The size-dependence of the absolute luminescence quantum yield of size-separated silicon nanocrystals reveals a "volcano" behavior, which switches on around 5 nm, peaks at near 3.7-3.9 nm, and decreases thereafter. These three regions respectively define: i) the transition from bulk to strongly quantum confined emissive silicon, ii) increasing confinement enhancing radiative recombination, and iii) increasing contributions favoring non-radiative recombination.

  5. Integrated miniature fluorescent probe to leverage the sensing potential of ZnO quantum dots for the detection of copper (II) ions.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sing Muk; Wong, Derrick Sing Nguong; Phung, Jane Hui Chiun; Chin, Suk Fun; Chua, Hong Siang

    2013-11-15

    Quantum dots are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles that can be utilised for sensing applications. This paper evaluates the ability to leverage their analytical potential using an integrated fluorescent sensing probe that is portable, cost effective and simple to handle. ZnO quantum dots were prepared using the simple sol-gel hydrolysis method at ambient conditions and found to be significantly and specifically quenched by copper (II) ions. This ZnO quantum dots system has been incorporated into an in-house developed miniature fluorescent probe for the detection of copper (II) ions in aqueous medium. The probe was developed using a low power handheld black light as excitation source and three photo-detectors as sensor. The sensing chamber placed between the light source and detectors was made of 4-sided clear quartz windows. The chamber was housed within a dark compartment to avoid stray light interference. The probe was operated using a microcontroller (Arduino Uno Revision 3) that has been programmed with the analytical response and the working algorithm of the electronics. The probe was sourced with a 12 V rechargeable battery pack and the analytical readouts were given directly using a LCD display panel. Analytical optimisations of the ZnO quantum dots system and the probe have been performed and further described. The probe was found to have a linear response range up to 0.45 mM (R(2)=0.9930) towards copper (II) ion with a limit of detection of 7.68×10(-7) M. The probe has high repeatable and reliable performance.

  6. Magnetoresistance and capacitance oscillations and hysteresis in type-II InAsSbP ellipsoidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambaryan, K. M.; Harutyunyan, V. G.; Aroutiounian, V. M.; Ai, Y.; Ashalley, E.; Wang, Z. M.

    2015-06-01

    The InAsSbP composition type-II quantum dots (QDs) are grown on a InAs(1 0 0) substrate from In-As-Sb-P quaternary liquid phase at a constant temperature in Stranski-Krastanow growth mode. Device structures in the form of photoconductive cells are prepared for investigation. Magnetospectroscopy and high-precision capacitance spectrometry are used to explore the QDs structure’s electric sheet resistance in a magnetic field and the capacitance (charge) law at lateral current flow. Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations with the period of δB = 0.38   ±   0.04 T are found on the magnetoresistance curve at both room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The influence of the QDs size distribution on the period of AB oscillations is investigated. The magnetoresistance hysteresis equals to ~50 mΩ and ~400 mΩ is revealed at room and liquid nitrogen temperature, respectively. The capacitance hysteresis (CH) and contra-directional oscillations are also detected. Behavior of the CH versus applied voltage frequency in the range f = 103-106 Hz is investigated. It is shown that the CH decreases with increasing frequency up to 106 Hz. The time constant and corresponding frequency for the QDs R-C parallel circuit (generator) equal to τ = 2.9   ×   10-7 s and f 0 = 5.5   ×   105 Hz, respectively, are calculated.

  7. Feynman perturbation expansion for the price of coupon bond options and swaptions in quantum finance. II. Empirical.

    PubMed

    Baaquie, Belal E; Liang, Cui

    2007-01-01

    The quantum finance pricing formulas for coupon bond options and swaptions derived by Baaquie [Phys. Rev. E 75, 016703 (2006)] are reviewed. We empirically study the swaption market and propose an efficient computational procedure for analyzing the data. Empirical results of the swaption price, volatility, and swaption correlation are compared with the predictions of quantum finance. The quantum finance model generates the market swaption price to over 90% accuracy.

  8. Evolution of exciton states near the percolation threshold in two-phase systems with II-VI semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Bondar, N. V. Brodyn, M. S.

    2010-07-15

    From studies of two-phase systems (borosilicate matrices containing ZnSe or CdS quantum dots), it was found that the systems exhibit a specific feature associated with the percolation phase transition of charge carriers (excitons). The transition manifests itself as radical changes in the optical spectra of both ZnSe and CdS quantum dot systems and by fluctuations of the emission band intensities near the percolation threshold. These effects are due to microscopic fluctuations of the density of quantum dots. The average spacing between quantum dots is calculated taking into account their finite dimensions and the volume fraction occupied by the quantum dots at the percolation threshold. It is shown that clustering of quantum dots occurs via tunneling of charge carriers between the dots. A physical mechanism responsible for the percolation threshold for charge carriers is suggested. In the mechanism, the permittivity mismatch of the materials of the matrix and quantum dots plays an important role in delocalization of charge carriers (excitons): due to the mismatch, 'a dielectric trap' is formed at the external surface of the interface between the matrix and a quantum dot and, thus, surface exciton states are formed there. The critical concentrations of quantum dots are determined, such that the spatial overlapping of such surface states provides the percolation transition in both systems.

  9. Derivation of a true (t → 0+) quantum transition-state theory. II. Recovery of the exact quantum rate in the absence of recrossing.

    PubMed

    Althorpe, Stuart C; Hele, Timothy J H

    2013-08-28

    In Paper I [T. J. H. Hele and S. C. Althorpe, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 084108 (2013)] we derived a quantum transition-state theory (TST) by taking the t → 0+ limit of a new form of quantum flux-side time-correlation function containing a ring-polymer dividing surface. This t → 0+ limit appears to be unique in giving positive-definite Boltzmann statistics, and is identical to ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) TST. Here, we show that quantum TST (i.e., RPMD-TST) is exact if there is no recrossing (by the real-time quantum dynamics) of the ring-polymer dividing surface, nor of any surface orthogonal to it in the space describing fluctuations in the polymer-bead positions along the reaction coordinate. In practice, this means that RPMD-TST gives a good approximation to the exact quantum rate for direct reactions, provided the temperature is not too far below the cross-over to deep tunnelling. We derive these results by comparing the t → ∞ limit of the ring-polymer flux-side time-correlation function with that of a hybrid flux-side time-correlation function (containing a ring-polymer flux operator and a Miller-Schwarz-Tromp side function), and by representing the resulting ring-polymer momentum integrals as hypercubes. Together with Paper I, the results of this article validate a large number of RPMD calculations of reaction rates.

  10. The structural and optical properties of GaSb/InGaAs type-II quantum dots grown on InP (100) substrate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the structural and optical properties of type-II GaSb/InGaAs quantum dots [QDs] grown on InP (100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Rectangular-shaped GaSb QDs were well developed and no nanodash-like structures which could be easily found in the InAs/InP QD system were formed. Low-temperature photoluminescence spectra show there are two peaks centered at 0.75eV and 0.76ev. The low-energy peak blueshifted with increasing excitation power is identified as the indirect transition from the InGaAs conduction band to the GaSb hole level (type-II), and the high-energy peak is identified as the direct transition (type-I) of GaSb QDs. This material system shows a promising application on quantum-dot infrared detectors and quantum-dot field-effect transistor. PMID:22277096

  11. Photochemical redox reactions of copper(II)-alanine complexes in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Jui; Hsu, Chao-Sheng; Wang, Po-Yen; Lin, Yi-Liang; Lo, Yu-Shiu; Wu, Chien-Hou

    2014-05-19

    The photochemical redox reactions of Cu(II)/alanine complexes have been studied in deaerated solutions over an extensive range of pH, Cu(II) concentration, and alanine concentration. Under irradiation, the ligand-to-metal charge transfer results in the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) and the concomitant oxidation of alanine, which produces ammonia and acetaldehyde. Molar absorptivities and quantum yields of photoproducts for Cu(II)/alanine complexes at 313 nm are characterized mainly with the equilibrium Cu(II) speciation where the presence of simultaneously existing Cu(II) species is taken into account. By applying regression analysis, individual Cu(I) quantum yields are determined to be 0.094 ± 0.014 for the 1:1 complex (CuL) and 0.064 ± 0.012 for the 1:2 complex (CuL2). Individual quantum yields of ammonia are 0.055 ± 0.007 for CuL and 0.036 ± 0.005 for CuL2. Individual quantum yields of acetaldehyde are 0.030 ± 0.007 for CuL and 0.024 ± 0.007 for CuL2. CuL always has larger quantum yields than CuL2, which can be attributed to the Cu(II) stabilizing effect of the second ligand. For both CuL and CuL2, the individual quantum yields of Cu(I), ammonia, and acetaldehyde are in the ratio of 1.8:1:0.7. A reaction mechanism for the formation of the observed photoproducts is proposed.

  12. Photolysis of CH{sub 3}CHO at 248 nm: Evidence of triple fragmentation from primary quantum yield of CH{sub 3} and HCO radicals and H atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Morajkar, Pranay; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa; Bossolasco, Adriana

    2014-06-07

    Radical quantum yields have been measured following the 248 nm photolysis of acetaldehyde, CH{sub 3}CHO. HCO radical and H atom yields have been quantified by time resolved continuous wave Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy in the near infrared following their conversion to HO{sub 2} radicals by reaction with O{sub 2}. The CH{sub 3} radical yield has been determined using the same technique following their conversion into CH{sub 3}O{sub 2}. Absolute yields have been deduced for HCO radicals and H atoms through fitting of time resolved HO{sub 2} profiles, obtained under various O{sub 2} concentrations, to a complex model, while the CH{sub 3} yield has been determined relative to the CH{sub 3} yield from 248 nm photolysis of CH{sub 3}I. Time resolved HO{sub 2} profiles under very low O{sub 2} concentrations suggest that another unknown HO{sub 2} forming reaction path exists in this reaction system besides the conversion of HCO radicals and H atoms by reaction with O{sub 2}. HO{sub 2} profiles can be well reproduced under a large range of experimental conditions with the following quantum yields: CH{sub 3}CHO + hν{sub 248nm} → CH{sub 3}CHO{sup *}, CH{sub 3}CHO{sup *} → CH{sub 3} + HCO ϕ{sub 1a} = 0.125 ± 0.03, CH{sub 3}CHO{sup *} → CH{sub 3} + H + CO ϕ{sub 1e} = 0.205 ± 0.04, CH{sub 3}CHO{sup *}→{sup o{sub 2}}CH{sub 3}CO + HO{sub 2} ϕ{sub 1f} = 0.07 ± 0.01. The CH{sub 3}O{sub 2} quantum yield has been determined in separate experiments as ϕ{sub CH{sub 3}} = 0.33 ± 0.03 and is in excellent agreement with the CH{sub 3} yields derived from the HO{sub 2} measurements considering that the triple fragmentation (R1e) is an important reaction path in the 248 nm photolysis of CH{sub 3}CHO. From arithmetic considerations taking into account the HO{sub 2} and CH{sub 3} measurements we deduce a remaining quantum yield for the molecular pathway: CH{sub 3}CHO{sup *} → CH{sub 4} + CO ϕ{sub 1b} = 0.6. All experiments can be

  13. Excitons in coupled type-II double quantum wells under electric and magnetic fields: InAs/AlSb/GaSb

    SciTech Connect

    Lyo, S. K.; Pan, W.

    2015-11-21

    We calculate the wave functions and the energy levels of an exciton in double quantum wells under electric (F) and magnetic (B) fields along the growth axis. The result is employed to study the energy levels, the binding energy, and the boundary on the F–B plane of the phase between the indirect exciton ground state and the semiconductor ground state for several typical structures of the type-II quasi-two-dimensional quantum wells such as InAs/AlSb/GaSb. The inter-well inter-band radiative transition rates are calculated for exciton creation and recombination. We find that the rates are modulated over several orders of magnitude by the electric and magnetic fields.

  14. Near-UV phosphorescent emitters: N-heterocyclic platinum(ii) tetracarbene complexes.

    PubMed

    Unger, Yvonne; Zeller, Alexander; Taige, Maria A; Strassner, Thomas

    2009-06-28

    Although examples of nickel(ii), palladium(ii) and platinum(ii) N-heterocyclic tetracarbene complexes are known in the literature, particularly platinum(ii) tetracarbene complexes are rare. We developed a new synthetic route via biscarbene acetate complexes, which make homoleptic as well as heteroleptic platinum(ii) tetracarbene complexes accessible. The reported photoluminescence data show that these complexes have good quantum yields and photostability and are a promising class of emitters for PhOLEDs. Characterization of the compounds includes a solid-state structure of the homoleptic complex bis(1,1'-diisopropyl-3,3'-methylenediimidazoline-2,2'-diylidene)platinum(ii) dibromide. PMID:19513490

  15. Hybrid type-I InAs/GaAs and type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dot structure with enhanced photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Hai-Ming; Liang, Baolai Simmonds, Paul J.; Juang, Bor-Chau; Yang, Tao; Young, Robert J.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2015-03-09

    We investigate the photoluminescence (PL) properties of a hybrid type-I InAs/GaAs and type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dot (QD) structure grown in a GaAs matrix by molecular beam epitaxy. This hybrid QD structure exhibits more intense PL with a broader spectral range, compared with control samples that contain only InAs or GaSb QDs. This enhanced PL performance is attributed to additional electron and hole injection from the type-I InAs QDs into the adjacent type-II GaSb QDs. We confirm this mechanism using time-resolved and power-dependent PL. These hybrid QD structures show potential for high efficiency QD solar cell applications.

  16. Practical characterization of quantum devices without tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon-Cardinal, Olivier; Flammia, Steven; Silva, Marcus; Liu, Yi-Kai; Poulin, David

    2012-02-01

    Quantum tomography is the main method used to assess the quality of quantum information processing devices, but its complexity presents a major obstacle for the characterization of even moderately large systems. Part of the reason for this complexity is that tomography generates much more information than is usually sought. Taking a more targeted approach, we develop schemes that enable (i) estimating the ?delity of an experiment to a theoretical ideal description, (ii) learning which description within a reduced subset best matches the experimental data. Both these approaches yield a signi?cant reduction in resources compared to tomography. In particular, we show how to estimate the ?delity between a predicted pure state and an arbitrary experimental state using only a constant number of Pauli expectation values selected at random according to an importance-weighting rule. In addition, we propose methods for certifying quantum circuits and learning continuous-time quantum dynamics that are described by local Hamiltonians or Lindbladians.

  17. Practical characterization of quantum devices without tomography.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcus P; Landon-Cardinal, Olivier; Poulin, David

    2011-11-18

    Quantum tomography is the main method used to assess the quality of quantum information processing devices. However, the amount of resources needed for quantum tomography is exponential in the device size. Part of the problem is that tomography generates much more information than is usually sought. Taking a more targeted approach, we develop schemes that enable (i) estimating the fidelity of an experiment to a theoretical ideal description, (ii) learning which description within a reduced subset best matches the experimental data. Both these approaches yield a significant reduction in resources compared to tomography. In particular, we demonstrate that fidelity can be estimated from a number of simple experiments that is independent of the system size, removing an important roadblock for the experimental study of larger quantum information processing units. PMID:22181862

  18. Enhanced quantum yield of yellow photoluminescence of Dy{sup 3+} ions in nonlinear optical Ba{sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} nanocrystals formed in glass

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, N.; Honma, T.; Komatsu, T.

    2009-02-15

    Transparent crystallized glasses consisting of nonlinear optical Ba{sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} nanocrystals (diameter: {approx}100 nm) are prepared through the crystallization of 40BaO-20TiO{sub 2}-40SiO{sub 2}-0.5Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass (in the molar ratio), and photoluminescence quantum yields of Dy{sup 3+} ions in the visible region are evaluated directly by using a photoluminescence spectrometer with an integrating sphere. The incorporation of Dy{sup 3+} ions into Ba{sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} nanocrystals is confirmed from the X-ray diffraction analyses. The total quantum yields of the emissions at the bands of {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} (blue: 484 nm), {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} (yellow: 575 nm), and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 11/2} (red: 669 nm) in the crystallized glasses are {approx}15%, being about four times larger compared with the precursor glass. It is found that the intensity of yellow (575 nm) emissions and the branching ratio of the yellow (575 nm)/blue (484 nm) intensity ratio increase largely due to the crystallization. It is suggested from Judd-Ofelt analyses that the site symmetry of Dy{sup 3+} ions in the crystallized glasses is largely distorted, giving a large increase in the yellow emissions. It is proposed that Dy{sup 3+} ions substitute Ba{sup 2+} sites in Ba{sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} nanocrystals. - Grapical abstract: This figure shows the photoluminescence spectra of Dy{sup 3+} ions in the range of 450-700 nm obtained in the quantum field measurements for the precursor BTS and crystallized (at 770 and 790 deg. C, for 30 min) glasses. The wavelength of the excitation light was 352 nm. By incorporating into Ba{sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} nanocrystals, the emission intensity of the yellow band of Dy{sup 3+} ions is largely enhanced. This would give an impact in the science and technology of photoluminescence materials.

  19. State-transitions facilitate robust quantum yields and cause an over-estimation of electron transport in Dunaliella tertiolecta cells held at the CO₂ compensation point and re-supplied with DIC.

    PubMed

    Ihnken, Sven; Kromkamp, Jacco C; Beardall, John; Silsbe, Greg M

    2014-03-01

    Photosynthetic energy consumption and non-photosynthetic energy quenching processes are inherently linked. Both processes must be controlled by the cell to allow cell maintenance and growth, but also to avoid photodamage. We used the chlorophyte algae Dunaliella tertiolecta to investigate how the interactive regulation of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic pathways varies along dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and photon flux gradients. Specifically, cells were transferred to DIC-deplete media to reach a CO₂ compensation before being re-supplied with DIC at various concentrations and different photon flux levels. Throughout these experiments we monitored and characterized the photophysiological responses using pulse amplitude modulated fluorescence, oxygen evolution, 77 K fluorescence emission spectra, and fast-repetition rate fluorometry. O₂ uptake was not significantly stimulated at DIC depletion, which suggests that O₂ production rates correspond to assimilatory photosynthesis. Fluorescence-based measures of relative electron transport rates (rETRs) over-estimated oxygen-based photosynthetic measures due to a strong state-transitional response that facilitated high effective quantum yields. Adoption of an alternative fluorescence-based rETR calculation that accounts for state-transitions resulted in improved linear oxygen versus rETR correlation. This study shows the extraordinary capacity of D. tertiolecta to maintain stable effective quantum yields by flexible regulation of state-transitions. Uncertainties about the control mechanisms of state-transitions are presented.

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of coumarin-stained beads: quantification of the number of fluorophores per particle with solid-state 19F-NMR and measurement of absolute fluorescence quantum yields.

    PubMed

    Huber, Alexandra; Behnke, Thomas; Würth, Christian; Jaeger, Christian; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2012-04-17

    The rational design of nano- and micrometer-sized particles with tailor-made optical properties for biological, diagnostic, and photonic applications requires tools to characterize the signal-relevant properties of these typically scattering bead suspensions. This includes methods for the preferably nondestructive quantification of the number of fluorophores per particle and the measurement of absolute fluorescence quantum yields and absorption coefficients of suspensions of fluorescent beads for material performance optimization and comparison. Here, as a first proof-of-concept, we present the first time determination of the number of dye molecules per bead using nondestructive quantitative ((19)F) NMR spectroscopy and 1000 nm-sized carboxylated polystyrene particles loaded with varying concentrations of the laser dye coumarin 153 containing a CF(3) group. Additionally, the signal-relevant optical properties of these dye-loaded particles were determined in aqueous suspension in comparison to the free dye in solvents of different polarity with a custom-built integrating sphere setup that enables spectrally resolved measurements of emission, transmission, and reflectance as well absolute fluorescence quantum yields. These measurements present an important step toward absolute brightness values and quantitative fluorescence analysis with particle systems that can be exploited, for example, for optical imaging techniques and different fluorescence assays as well as for the metrological traceability of fluorescence methods. PMID:22404690

  1. Step-like increase of quantum yield of 1.5 μm Er-related emission in SiO{sub 2} doped with Si nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, S.; Jong, E. M. L. D. de; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2015-02-14

    We investigate the excitation dependence of the efficiency of the Si nanocrystals-mediated photoluminescence from Er{sup 3+} ions embedded in a SiO{sub 2} matrix. We show that the quantum yield of this emission increases in a step-like manner with excitation energy. The subsequent thresholds of this characteristic dependence are approximately given by the sum of the Si nanocrystals bandgap energy and multiples of 0.8 eV, corresponding to the energy of the first excited state of Er{sup 3+} ions. By comparing differently prepared materials, we explicitly demonstrate that the actual values of the threshold energies and the rate of the observed increase of the external quantum yield depend on sample characteristics—the size, the optical activity and the concentration of Si nanocrystals as well Er{sup 3+} ions to Si nanocrystals concentration ratio. In that way, detailed insights into the efficient excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions are obtained. In particular, the essential role of the hot-carrier-mediated Er excitation route is established, with a possible application perspective for highly efficient future-generation photovoltaics.

  2. Interactions of α-Factor-1, a Yeast Pheromone, and Its Analogue with Copper(II) Ions and Low-Molecular-Weight Ligands Yield Very Stable Complexes.

    PubMed

    Bossak, Karolina; Mital, Mariusz; Poznański, Jarosław; Bonna, Arkadiusz; Drew, Simon; Bal, Wojciech

    2016-08-15

    α-Factor-1 (WHWLQLKPGQPMY), a peptidic pheromone of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, contains a XHX type copper(II) binding N-terminal site. Using a soluble analogue, WHWSKNR-amide, we demonstrated that the W(1)H(2)W(3) site alone binds copper(II) with a Kd value of 0.18 pM at pH 7.4 and also binds imidazole (Im) in a ternary complex (Kd of 1 mM at pH 7.4). This interaction boosts the ability of the peptide to sequester copper(II) depending on the Im concentration up to a subfemtomolar range, not available for any oligopeptidic system studied before. Therefore, α-factor-1 and other XHX-type peptides are likely copper(II) carriers in biological systems. PMID:27476515

  3. Effective mass of two-dimensional electrons in InGaAsN/GaAsSb type II quantum well by Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamata, Shuichi; Hibino, Akira; Tanaka, Sho; Kawamura, Yuichi

    2016-10-01

    In order to develop optical devices for 2-3 μm wavelength regions, the InP-based InGaAs/GaAsSb type II multiple quantum well system has been investigated. By doping nitrogen into InGaAs layers, the system becomes effective in creating the optical devices with a longer wavelength. In this report, electrical transport properties are reported on the InGaAsN/GaAsSb type II system. The epitaxial layers with the single hetero or multiple quantum well structure on InP substrates are grown by the molecular beam epitaxy. The electrical resistance of samples with different nitrogen concentrations has been measured as a function of the magnetic field up to 9 Tesla at several temperatures between 2 and 6 K. The oscillation of the resistance due to the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) effect has been observed at each temperature. The effective mass is obtained from the temperature dependence of the amplitude of the SdH oscillations. The value of the effective mass increases from 0.048 for N = 0.0% to 0.062 for N = 1.2 and 1.5% as the nitrogen concentration increases. The mass enhancement occurs with corresponding to the reduction of the bandgap energy. These results are consistent with the band anticrossing model.

  4. Continuous wave vertical cavity surface emitting lasers at 2.5 μm with InP-based type-II quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Sprengel, S.; Andrejew, A.; Federer, F.; Veerabathran, G. K.; Boehm, G.; Amann, M.-C.

    2015-04-13

    A concept for electrically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) for emission wavelength beyond 2 μm is presented. This concept integrates type-II quantum wells into InP-based VCSELs with a buried tunnel junction as current aperture. The W-shaped quantum wells are based on the type-II band alignment between GaInAs and GaAsSb. The structure includes an epitaxial GaInAs/InP and an amorphous AlF{sub 3}/ZnS distributed Bragg reflector as bottom and top (outcoupling) mirror, respectively. Continuous-wave operation up to 10 °C at a wavelength of 2.49 μm and a peak output power of 400 μW at −18 °C has been achieved. Single-mode emission with a side-mode suppression ratio of 30 dB for mesa diameters up to 14 μm is presented. The long emission wavelength and current tunability over a wavelength range of more than 5 nm combined with its single-mode operation makes this device ideally suited for spectroscopy applications.

  5. Decay kinetics and quantum yields of fluorescence in photosystem I from Synechococcus elongatus with P700 in the reduced and oxidized state: are the kinetics of excited state decay trap-limited or transfer-limited?

    PubMed Central

    Byrdin, M; Rimke, I; Schlodder, E; Stehlik, D; Roelofs, T A

    2000-01-01

    Transfer and trapping of excitation energy in photosystem I (PS I) trimers isolated from Synechococcus elongatus have been studied by an approach combining fluorescence induction experiments with picosecond time-resolved fluorescence measurements, both at room temperature (RT) and at low temperature (5 K). Special attention was paid to the influence of the oxidation state of the primary electron donor P700. A fluorescence induction effect has been observed, showing a approximately 12% increase in fluorescence quantum yield upon P700 oxidation at RT, whereas at temperatures below 160 K oxidation of P700 leads to a decrease in fluorescence quantum yield ( approximately 50% at 5 K). The fluorescence quantum yield for open PS I (with P700 reduced) at 5 K is increased by approximately 20-fold and that for closed PS I (with P700 oxidized) is increased by approximately 10-fold, as compared to RT. Picosecond fluorescence decay kinetics at RT reveal a difference in lifetime of the main decay component: 34 +/- 1 ps for open PS I and 37 +/- 1 ps for closed PS I. At 5 K the fluorescence yield is mainly associated with long-lived components (lifetimes of 401 ps and 1.5 ns in closed PS I and of 377 ps, 1.3 ns, and 4.1 ns in samples containing approximately 50% open and 50% closed PS I). The spectra associated with energy transfer and the steady-state emission spectra suggest that the excitation energy is not completely thermally equilibrated over the core-antenna-RC complex before being trapped. Structure-based modeling indicates that the so-called red antenna pigments (A708 and A720, i.e., those with absorption maxima at 708 nm and 720 nm, respectively) play a decisive role in the observed fluorescence kinetics. The A720 are preferentially located at the periphery of the PS I core-antenna-RC complex; the A708 must essentially connect the A720 to the reaction center. The excited-state decay kinetics turn out to be neither purely trap limited nor purely transfer (to the trap

  6. Properties of Type-II ZnTe/ZnSe Submonolayer Quantum Dots Studied via Excitonic Aharonov- Bohm Effect and Polarized Optical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Haojie

    In this thesis I develop understanding of the fundamental physical and material properties of type-II ZnTe/ZnSe submonolayer quantum dots (QDs), grown via combination of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE). I use magneto-photoluminescence, including excitonic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect and polarized optical spectroscopy as the primary tools in this work. I present previous studies as well as the background of optical and magneto-optical processes in semiconductor nanostructures and introduce the experimental methods in Chapters 1 - 3. In Chapter 4 I focus on the excitonic AB effect in the type-II QDs. I develop a lateral tightly-bound exciton model for ZnTe/ZnSe type-II QDs, using analytical methods and numerical calculations. This explained the magneto-PL observation and allowed for establishing the size and density of the QDs in each sample based on the results of PL and magneto-PL measurements. For samples with larger QDs, I observe behaviors that fall between properties of quantum-dot and quantum-well-like systems due to increased QD densities and their type-II nature. Finally, the decoherence mechanisms of the AB excitons are investigated via the temperature dependent studies of the magneto-PL. It is determined that the AB exciton decoherence is due to transport-like (acoustic phonon) scattering of the electrons moving in the ZnSe barriers, but with substantially smaller magnitude of electron-phonon coupling constant due to relatively strong electron-hole coupling within these type-II QDs. In Chapter 5 I discuss the results of circularly polarized magneto-PL measurements. A model with ultra-long spin-flip time of holes confined to submonolayer QDs is proposed. The g-factor of type-II excitons was extracted from the Zeeman splitting and the g-factor of electrons was obtained by fitting the temperature dependence of the degree of circular polarization (DCP), from which g-factor of holes confined within ZnTe QDs was found. It is shown

  7. High Throughput, High Yield Fabrication of High Quantum Efficiency Back-Illuminated Photon Counting, Far UV, UV, and Visible Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, M. E.; Carver, A. G.; Jones, T. J.; Greer, F.; Hamden, E.; Goodsall, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the high throughput end-to-end post fabrication processing of high performance delta-doped and superlattice-doped silicon imagers for UV, visible, and NIR applications. As an example, we present our results on far ultraviolet and ultraviolet quantum efficiency (QE) in a photon counting, detector array. We have improved the QE by nearly an order of magnitude over microchannel plates (MCPs) that are the state-of-the-art UV detectors for many NASA space missions as well as defense applications. These achievements are made possible by precision interface band engineering of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD).

  8. Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics Prize Lecture: Correlation Functions in Integrable Models II: The Role of Quantum Affine Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimbo, Michio

    2013-03-01

    Since the beginning of 1980s, hidden infinite dimensional symmetries have emerged as the origin of integrability: first in soliton theory and then in conformal field theory. Quest for symmetries in quantum integrable models has led to the discovery of quantum groups. On one hand this opened up rapid mathematical developments in representation theory, combinatorics and other fields. On the other hand it has advanced understanding of correlation functions of lattice models, leading to multiple integral formulas in integrable spin chains. We shall review these developments which continue up to the present time.

  9. Designs of blue and green light-emitting diodes based on type-II InGaN-ZnGeN2 quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lu; Kash, Kathleen; Zhao, Hongping

    2016-09-01

    Type-II InGaN-ZnGeN2 quantum wells (QWs) are studied as improved active regions for light-emitting diodes emitting in the blue (λ ˜ 485 nm) and green (λ ˜ 530 nm) spectral ranges. Both the energy band gap and the lattice parameters of ZnGeN2 are very close to those of GaN. The recently predicted large band offset between GaN and ZnGeN2 allows the formation of a type-II InGaN-ZnGeN2 heterostructure. The strong confinement of holes in the ZnGeN2 layer allows the use of a lower In-content InGaN QW to extend the emission wavelength into the blue and green wavelength regions, as compared to the traditional InGaN QW with uniform In content. In the type-II InGaN-ZnGeN2 QW designs, a thin AlGaN layer was used as a barrier for better carrier confinement. The type-II InGaN-ZnGeN2 QWs lead to a significant enhancement of the electron-hole wave function overlap as compared to those of the conventional QWs. Simulation studies of the proposed type-II QWs promise a significant enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate by 6.1-7.2 times for the QW design emitting at the blue wavelength region and 4.6-4.9 times for the QW design emitting at the green wavelength region, as compared to the conventional InGaN QWs emitting at the same wavelengths.

  10. Effect of arsenic on the optical properties of GaSb-based type II quantum wells with quaternary GaInAsSb layers

    SciTech Connect

    Janiak, F. Motyka, M.; Sęk, G.; Dyksik, M.; Ryczko, K.; Misiewicz, J.; Weih, R.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Patriarche, G.

    2013-12-14

    Optical properties of molecular beam epitaxially grown type II “W” shaped GaSb/AlSb/InAs/GaIn(As)Sb/InAs/AlSb/GaSb quantum wells (QWs) designed for the active region of interband cascade lasers have been investigated. Temperature dependence of Fourier-transformed photoluminescence and photoreflectance was employed to probe the effects of addition of arsenic into the original ternary valence band well of GaInSb. It is revealed that adding arsenic provides an additional degree of freedom in terms of band alignment and strain tailoring and allows enhancing the oscillator strength of the active type II transition. On the other hand, however, arsenic incorporation apparently also affects the structural and optical material quality via generating carrier trapping states at the interfaces, which can deteriorate the radiative efficiency. These have been evidenced in several spectroscopic features and are also confirmed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images. While arsenic incorporation into type II QWs is a powerful heterostructure engineering tool for optoelectronic devices, a compromise has to be found between ideal band structure properties and high quality morphological properties.

  11. Optical properties and band bending of InGaAs/GaAsBi/InGaAs type-II quantum well grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wenwu; Zhang, Liyao; Zhu, Liang; Li, Yaoyao; Chen, Xiren; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fan; Shao, Jun; Wang, Shumin

    2016-09-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) properties of In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs0.96Bi0.04/In0.2Ga0.8As quantum well (QW) grown on GaAs substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy were studied by varying excitation power and temperature, respectively. The type-II transition energy shifts from 1.149 eV to 1.192 eV when increasing the excitation power from 10 mW to 150 mW at 4.5 K, which was ascribed to the band-bending effect. On the other hand, the type-II PL quenches quickly along with fast redshift with the increasing temperature due to the relaxation of the band bending caused by the thermal excitation process. An 8 band k.p model was used to analyze the electronic properties and the band-bending effect in the type-II QW. The calculated subband levels and transition energy fit well with the experiment results, and two thermal activation energies of 8.7 meV and 50 meV, respectively, are deduced.

  12. The effects of side-chain-induced disorder on the emission spectra and quantum yields of oligothiophene nano-aggregates. A combined experimental and MD-TDDFT study

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Jiyun; Jeon, SuKyung; Kim, Janice J.; Devi, Diane; Chacon-Madrid, Kelly; Lee, Wynee; Koo, Seung Moh; Wildeman, Jurjen; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Peteanu, Linda A.; Wen, Jin; Ma, Jing

    2014-07-24

    Oligomeric thiophenes are commonly-used components in organic electronics and solar cells. These molecules stack and/or aggregate readily under the processing conditions used to form thin films for these applications, significantly altering their optical and charge-transport properties. To determine how these effects depend on the substitution pattern of the thiophene main chains, nano-aggregates of three sexi-thiophene (6T) oligomers having different alkyl substitution patterns were formed using solvent poisoning techniques and studied using steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. The results indicate the substantial role played by the side-chain substituents in determining the emissive properties of these species. Both the measured spectral changes and their dependence on substitution are well modeled by combined quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations connect the side-chain-induced disorder, which determines the favorable chain packing configurations within the aggregates, with their measured electronic spectra.

  13. Real-time ultrasonic measurement of fat thickness and longissimus muscle area: II. Relationship between real-time ultrasound measures and carcass retail yield.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, K E; Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Wheeler, T L; Dikeman, M E

    1995-06-01

    Feedlot steers (n = 180) representing 11 sire-breed groups were ultrasonically measured for fat thickness (FTU) and longissimus muscle area (LMU) at two 60-d intervals during the feeding period and four 21-d intervals corresponding to serial slaughter dates to predict carcass retail yield parameters. Two fat trim levels, 8 and 0 mm, were used to calculate percentage of trimmable fat (FAT8P and FAT0P) and retail product percentage (RPD8P and RPD0P) for each carcass. Regression techniques were used to evaluate best-fit equations that explained variation in retail product components. When FAT8P, FAT0P, RPD8P, and RPD0P were regressed on USDA yield grade (YG), R2 values ranged from 75 to 76% (P < .001). Comparatively, when live animal predictors of YG components (FTU, LMU, and final live weight) were used as the independent variables, equations predicting retail yield had R2 values of 61 to 65% (P < .01). Equations using final FTU as the independent variable explained 58 to 64% (P < .001) of the variation in FAT8P, FAT0P, RPD8P, and RPD0P. Equations with FTU, LMU, and either WT, AGE, marbling, or quality grade resulted in R2 values similar to those with only FTU, indicating the strong influence of fat on retail yields. These results indicate that ultrasonic predictors explained about 10% less variation in retail product percentage than did carcass measures. PMID:7673066

  14. The role of additives in moderating the influence of Fe(III) and Cu(II) on the radiochemical yield of [⁶⁸Ga(DOTATATE)].

    PubMed

    Oehlke, Elisabeth; Lengkeek, Nigel A; Le, Van So; Pellegrini, Paul A; Greguric, Ivan; Weiner, Ron

    2016-01-01

    [(68)Ga(DOTATATE)] has demonstrated its clinical usefulness. Both Fe(3+) and Cu(2+), potential contaminants in Gallium-68 generator eluent, substantially reduce the radiochemical (RC) yield of [(68)Ga(DOTATATE)] if the metal/ligand ratio of 1:1 is exceeded. A variety of compounds were examined for their potential ability to reduce this effect. Most had no effect on RC yield. However, addition of phosphate diminished the influence of Fe(3+) by likely forming an insoluble iron salt. Addition of ascorbic acid reduced Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) to Cu(+) and Fe(2+) respectively, both of which have limited impact on RC yields. At low ligand amounts (5 nmol DOTATATE), the addition of 30 nmol phosphate (0.19 mM) increased the tolerance of Fe(3+) from 4 nmol to 10 nmol (0.06 mM), while the addition of ascorbic acid allowed high RC yields (>95%) in the presence of 40 nmol Fe(3+) (0.25 mM) and 100 nmol Cu(2+) (0.63 mM). The effect of ascorbic acid was highly pH-dependant, and gave optimal results at pH 3. PMID:26405839

  15. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: II. QTL and genes that increase oil concentration without decreasing protein or with increased seed yield.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-06-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed oil is the primary global source of edible oil and a major renewable and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. Therefore, increasing the relative oil concentration in soybean is desirable; however, that goal is complex due to the quantitative nature of the oil concentration trait and possible effects on major agronomic traits such as seed yield or protein concentration. The objectives of the present study were to study the relationship between seed oil concentration and important agronomic and seed quality traits, including seed yield, 100-seed weight, protein concentration, plant height, and days to maturity, and to identify oil quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are co-localized with the traits evaluated. A population of 203 F4:6 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between moderately high oil soybean genotypes OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, was developed and grown across multiple environments in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. Among the 11 QTL associated with seed oil concentration in the population, which were detected using either single-factor ANOVA or multiple QTL mapping methods, the number of QTL that were co-localized with other important traits QTL were six for protein concentration, four for seed yield, two for 100-seed weight, one for days to maturity, and one for plant height. The oil-beneficial allele of the QTL tagged by marker Sat_020 was positively associated with seed protein concentration. The oil favorable alleles of markers Satt001 and GmDGAT2B were positively correlated with seed yield. In addition, significant two-way epistatic interactions, where one of the interacting markers was solely associated with seed oil concentration, were identified for the selected traits in this study. The number of significant epistatic interactions was seven for yield, four for days to maturity, two for 100-seed weight, one for protein concentration, and one for plant height. The identified molecular

  16. Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartakovskii, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by

  17. Velocity autocorrelation by quantum simulations for direct parameter-free computations of the neutron cross sections. II. Liquid deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarini, E.; Neumann, M.; Bafile, U.; Celli, M.; Colognesi, D.; Bellissima, S.; Farhi, E.; Calzavara, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Very recently we showed that quantum centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations of the velocity autocorrelation function provide, through the Gaussian approximation (GA), an appropriate representation of the single-molecule dynamic structure factor of liquid H2, as witnessed by a straightforward absolute-scale agreement between calculated and experimental values of the total neutron cross section (TCS) at thermal and epithermal incident energies. Also, a proper quantum evaluation of the self-dynamics was found to guarantee, via the simple Sköld model, a suitable account of the distinct (intermolecular) contributions that influence the neutron TCS of para-H2 for low-energy neutrons (below 10 meV). The very different role of coherent nuclear scattering in D2 makes the neutron response from this liquid much more extensively determined by the collective dynamics, even above the cold neutron range. Here we show that the Sköld approximation maintains its effectiveness in producing the correct cross section values also in the deuterium case. This confirms that the true key point for reliable computational estimates of the neutron TCS of the hydrogen liquids is, together with a good knowledge of the static structure factor, the modeling of the self part, which must take into due account quantum delocalization effects on the translational single-molecule dynamics. We demonstrate that both CMD and ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) simulations provide similar results for the velocity autocorrelation function of liquid D2 and, consequently, for the neutron double differential cross section and its integrals. This second investigation completes and reinforces the validity of the proposed quantum method for the prediction of the scattering law of these cryogenic liquids, so important for cold neutron production and related condensed matter research.

  18. Decay kinetics of the excited S{sub 1} state of the cyanine dye Cy{sup +}I{sup -} (thiacarbocyanine iodide): The computation of quantum yields for different pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Odinokov, A. V.; Basilevsky, M. V.; Petrov, N. Kh.

    2011-10-14

    This work explains the unordinary solvent effect which was observed in the photochemical decay kinetics for the cyanine dye thiacarbocyanine iodide (Cy{sup +}I{sup -}) in binary solvent mixtures toluene/dimethylsulfoxide. The interpretation is formulated in terms of the probability density F(R) describing the distribution of interionic distances R in the ion pair Cy{sup +}I{sup -} and depending on the solvent composition. The proper normalization of this distribution is expressed via the degree of association {alpha} for the ion pair in a given solvent mixture. The {alpha} values are, in turn, extracted by means of the mass action law from the ionic association constants computed in a separate publication. The detailed kinetic scheme includes the empirical parametrization of the R-dependent kinetic constants for different decay channels. The multiparameter fitting procedure represents, with the reasonable parameter values, the dependence of the observed quantum yields on the solvent composition.

  19. Microfabricated tin-film electrodes for protein and DNA sensing based on stripping voltammetric detection of Cd(II) released from quantum dots labels.

    PubMed

    Kokkinos, Christos; Economou, Anastasios; Petrou, Panagiota S; Kakabakos, Sotirios E

    2013-11-19

    A novel disposable microfabricated tin-film electrochemical sensor was developed for the detection of proteins and DNA. The sensor was fabricated on a silicon wafer through photolithography to define the sensor geometry followed by tin sputtering. A sandwich-type immunoassay with biotinylated reporter antibody was employed for the determination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human serum samples. For the detection of C533G mutation of the RET gene, biotinylated oligonucleotide probes were used. The biotinylated biomolecular probes were labeled with streptavidin (STV)-conjugated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs); quantification of the analytes was performed through acidic dissolution of the QDs and stripping voltammetric detection of the Cd(II) released. The proposed QD-based electrochemical sensor overcomes the limitations of existing voltammetric sensors and provides a mercury-free sensing platform with scope for mass-production and further potential for application in clinical diagnostics.

  20. Time-dependent quantum wave packet study of the Ar+H{sub 2}{sup +}{yields}ArH{sup +}+H reaction on a new ab initio potential energy surface for the ground electronic state (1{sup 2}A Prime )

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Mei; Liu Xinguo; Tan Ruishan; Li Hongzheng; Xu Wenwu

    2013-05-07

    A new global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state (1{sup 2}A Prime ) of the Ar+H{sub 2}{sup +}{yields}ArH{sup +}+H reaction has been constructed by multi-reference configuration interaction method with Davidson correction and a basis set of aug-cc-pVQZ. Using 6080 ab initio single-point energies of all the regions for the dynamics, a many-body expansion function form has been used to fit these points. The quantum reactive scattering dynamics calculations taking into account the Coriolis coupling (CC) were carried out on the new potential energy surface over a range of collision energies (0.03-1.0 eV). The reaction probabilities and integral cross sections for the title reaction were calculated. The significance of including the CC quantum scattering calculation has been revealed by the comparison between the CC and the centrifugal sudden approximation calculation. The calculated cross section is in agreement with the experimental result at collision energy 1.0 eV.

  1. A de Novo mutation in the coding sequence for neurophysin-II (Pro{sup 24} {yields} Leu) is associated with onset and transmission of autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    SciTech Connect

    Repaske, D.R.; Browning, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    The molecular basis of autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, a hereditary deficiency of vasopressin, was determined by nucleotide sequence analysis of the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin-II gene. A C{yields}T mutation at nucleotide 1761 was detected in one allele of this gene in each affected individual in three generations of one family. This mutant gene encodes a normal arginine vasopressin peptide, but predicts a substitution of leucine for proline at amino acid 24 of neurophysin-II, the arginine vasopressin carrier protein. This mutation was not detected in 50 control individuals, thus demonstrating that it is not a common silent genetic polymorphism. The disease arose in the second generation of the studied family, and the chromosome 20 carrying this new mutation was identified by polymorphic CA microsatellite haplotype analysis. The first affected individual inherited this chromosome segment from her mother, who had neither the disease nor this mutation in her somatic cell DNA. Third generation individuals who subsequently inherited this mutation were affected. These data demonstrate that this amino acid substitution in neurophysin-II causes this disease. Two possibilities to explain the mechanism by which clinical deficiency of arginine vasopressin develops even in the presence of one normal arginine vasopressin-neurophysin-II allele are discussed. 40 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Carbonyliron-olefin photochemistry: Quantum yields for the sequential substitution of two CO groups in pentacarbonyliron by (E)-cyclooctene. Synthesis of the first stable (. eta. sup 2 -olefin) sub 3 Fe(CO) sub 2 complex

    SciTech Connect

    Angermund, H.; Bandyopadhyay, A.K.; Grevels, F.; Mark, F. )

    1989-06-21

    Multiple photosubstitution of CO groups in pentacarbonyliron by an olefin has been investigated by using (E)-cyclooctene as a model olefin exhibiting exceptional coordination properties. The quantum yields {Phi}{sub 1} and {Phi}{sub 2} for sequential conversion of Fe(CO){sub 5} into ({eta}{sup 2}-(E)-C{sub 8}H{sub 14})Fe(CO){sub 4} (1) and ({eta}{sup 2}-(E)-C{sub 8}H{sub 14}){sub 2}Fe(CO){sub 3} (2), respectively, when evaluated using the appropriate formalism for internal light filter corrections (presented in detail in the Appendix), are found to be constant up to high conversion: {Phi}{sub 1} = 0.80 at 302 nm and 0.77 at 254 nm, {Phi}{sub 2} = 0.59 at 302 nm and 0.82 at 254 nm. The wavelength dependence of {Phi}{sub 2} is interpreted in terms of 2 different ligand field excited states of 1, providing for varying CO vs olefin photodetachment. The overall quantum yield for the generation of 2 from Fe(CO){sub 5} (ca. 0.20 at 60% conversion of pentacarbonyliron) is discussed in the context of carbonyliron photocatalyzed olefin isomerization, which is known to involve (labile) ({eta}{sup 2}-olefin){sub 2}Fe(CO){sub 3} as the active catalyst. The synthesis of ({eta}{sup 2}-(E)-C{sub 8}H{sub 14}){sub 3}Fe(CO){sub 2} (3), which is the first isolated representative of this type of complex, is achieved by irradiation of 2 in the presence of excess (E)-cyclooctene, whereby liberated CO is required to be rigorously removed by an inert-gas stream.

  3. Rapid detection of mutations by conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis: Application to the identification of three new mutations in the type II procollagen gene and a fourth family with the Arg{sub 519}{yields}Cys base substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.J.; Rock, M.; McCarron, S.

    1994-09-01

    Conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) detects differences as small as a single base mismatch in DNA heteroduplexes of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. The altered migration of heteroduplexes versus homoduplexes is resolved in a polyacrylamide-based gel electrophoresis system. The technique was used here to detect conformational changes in the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1) in patients with growth plate defects. PCR products which displayed heteroduplex species were directly sequenced and all revealed either base substitutions or base deletions. Three of the base substitutions resulted in the identification of new mutations. These include a Gly{sub 691}{yields}Arg substitution in a proband with hypochondrogenesis, a Gly{sub 975}{yields}Ser base substitution in a family with late-onset spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SEDT) and precocious osteoarthritis (POA), and a Gly{sub 988}{yields}Arg mutation in another patient with hypochondrogenesis. A fourth substitution was found to be the fourth example of an Arg{sub 519}{yields}Cys point mutation in a family with SEDT and POA. All mutations were confirmed by restriction site analysis. These results illustrate the utility of the CSGE method for the rapid detection of mutations in PCR products without the need for special equipment, primers or sample preparation.

  4. 2.3 µm range InP-based type-II quantum well Fabry-Perot lasers heterogeneously integrated on a silicon photonic integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruijun; Sprengel, Stephan; Boehm, Gerhard; Muneeb, Muhammad; Baets, Roel; Amann, Markus-Christian; Roelkens, Gunther

    2016-09-01

    Heterogeneously integrated InP-based type-II quantum well Fabry-Perot lasers on a silicon waveguide circuit emitting in the 2.3 µm wavelength range are demonstrated. The devices consist of a "W"-shaped InGaAs/GaAsSb multi-quantum-well gain section, III-V/silicon spot size converters and two silicon Bragg grating reflectors to form the laser cavity. In continuous-wave (CW) operation, we obtain a threshold current density of 2.7 kA/cm2 and output power of 1.3 mW at 5 °C for 2.35 μm lasers. The lasers emit over 3.7 mW of peak power with a threshold current density of 1.6 kA/cm2 in pulsed regime at room temperature. This demonstration of heterogeneously integrated lasers indicates that the material system and heterogeneous integration method are promising to realize fully integrated III-V/silicon photonics spectroscopic sensors in the 2 µm wavelength range.

  5. 2.3 µm range InP-based type-II quantum well Fabry-Perot lasers heterogeneously integrated on a silicon photonic integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruijun; Sprengel, Stephan; Boehm, Gerhard; Muneeb, Muhammad; Baets, Roel; Amann, Markus-Christian; Roelkens, Gunther

    2016-09-01

    Heterogeneously integrated InP-based type-II quantum well Fabry-Perot lasers on a silicon waveguide circuit emitting in the 2.3 µm wavelength range are demonstrated. The devices consist of a "W"-shaped InGaAs/GaAsSb multi-quantum-well gain section, III-V/silicon spot size converters and two silicon Bragg grating reflectors to form the laser cavity. In continuous-wave (CW) operation, we obtain a threshold current density of 2.7 kA/cm2 and output power of 1.3 mW at 5 °C for 2.35 μm lasers. The lasers emit over 3.7 mW of peak power with a threshold current density of 1.6 kA/cm2 in pulsed regime at room temperature. This demonstration of heterogeneously integrated lasers indicates that the material system and heterogeneous integration method are promising to realize fully integrated III-V/silicon photonics spectroscopic sensors in the 2 µm wavelength range. PMID:27607711

  6. Quantum Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidar, Daniel A.; Brun, Todd A.

    2013-09-01

    Prologue; Preface; Part I. Background: 1. Introduction to decoherence and noise in open quantum systems Daniel Lidar and Todd Brun; 2. Introduction to quantum error correction Dave Bacon; 3. Introduction to decoherence-free subspaces and noiseless subsystems Daniel Lidar; 4. Introduction to quantum dynamical decoupling Lorenza Viola; 5. Introduction to quantum fault tolerance Panos Aliferis; Part II. Generalized Approaches to Quantum Error Correction: 6. Operator quantum error correction David Kribs and David Poulin; 7. Entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes Todd Brun and Min-Hsiu Hsieh; 8. Continuous-time quantum error correction Ognyan Oreshkov; Part III. Advanced Quantum Codes: 9. Quantum convolutional codes Mark Wilde; 10. Non-additive quantum codes Markus Grassl and Martin Rötteler; 11. Iterative quantum coding systems David Poulin; 12. Algebraic quantum coding theory Andreas Klappenecker; 13. Optimization-based quantum error correction Andrew Fletcher; Part IV. Advanced Dynamical Decoupling: 14. High order dynamical decoupling Zhen-Yu Wang and Ren-Bao Liu; 15. Combinatorial approaches to dynamical decoupling Martin Rötteler and Pawel Wocjan; Part V. Alternative Quantum Computation Approaches: 16. Holonomic quantum computation Paolo Zanardi; 17. Fault tolerance for holonomic quantum computation Ognyan Oreshkov, Todd Brun and Daniel Lidar; 18. Fault tolerant measurement-based quantum computing Debbie Leung; Part VI. Topological Methods: 19. Topological codes Héctor Bombín; 20. Fault tolerant topological cluster state quantum computing Austin Fowler and Kovid Goyal; Part VII. Applications and Implementations: 21. Experimental quantum error correction Dave Bacon; 22. Experimental dynamical decoupling Lorenza Viola; 23. Architectures Jacob Taylor; 24. Error correction in quantum communication Mark Wilde; Part VIII. Critical Evaluation of Fault Tolerance: 25. Hamiltonian methods in QEC and fault tolerance Eduardo Novais, Eduardo Mucciolo and

  7. The effects of side-chain-induced disorder on the emission spectra and quantum yields of oligothiophene nano-aggregates. A combined experimental and MD-TDDFT study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hong, Jiyun; Jeon, SuKyung; Kim, Janice J.; Devi, Diane; Chacon-Madrid, Kelly; Lee, Wynee; Koo, Seung Moh; Wildeman, Jurjen; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Peteanu, Linda A.; et al

    2014-07-24

    Oligomeric thiophenes are commonly-used components in organic electronics and solar cells. These molecules stack and/or aggregate readily under the processing conditions used to form thin films for these applications, significantly altering their optical and charge-transport properties. To determine how these effects depend on the substitution pattern of the thiophene main chains, nano-aggregates of three sexi-thiophene (6T) oligomers having different alkyl substitution patterns were formed using solvent poisoning techniques and studied using steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. The results indicate the substantial role played by the side-chain substituents in determining the emissive properties of these species. Both the measured spectral changesmore » and their dependence on substitution are well modeled by combined quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations connect the side-chain-induced disorder, which determines the favorable chain packing configurations within the aggregates, with their measured electronic spectra.« less

  8. Expression of a higher plant psbA gene in Synechocystis 6803 yields a functional hybrid photosystem II reaction center complex.

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, P J; Rögner, M; Diner, B A

    1991-01-01

    The psbA gene codes for the D1 polypeptide of the photosystem II reaction center complex and is found in all photosynthetic organisms that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. Here we describe the construction and characterization of a strain of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 in which the three endogenous psbA genes are replaced by a single psbA gene from the chloroplast genome of the higher plant Poa annua. The resulting chimeric strain, KWPAS, grows photoautotrophically with a doubling time of 26 hours compared with 20 hours for wild-type Synechocystis 6803. The mutant oxidizes water to oxygen at light-saturated rates comparable with wild type, despite differences in 15% of the primary structure of D1 between these species. RNA gel blot analysis indicates the presence in KWPAS of a psbA transcript of approximately 1.25 kilobases, consistent with the chloroplast promoter also acting as a promoter in Synechocystis. By using antibodies specific for the carboxyl-terminal extension of the D1 polypeptide of higher plants, we showed that the D1 polypeptide synthesized by KWPAS is post-translationally modified at the carboxyl terminus, probably through processing. A detailed biophysical analysis of the chimeric photosystem II complex indicated that the rates of forward electron transfer are similar to wild type. The rates of charge recombination between the donor and acceptor sides of the reaction center are, however, accelerated by as much as a factor of nine (QA- to S2) and are the most likely explanation for the lower rate of photoautotrophic growth in the mutant. We conclude that the psbA gene from a higher plant can be expressed in cyanobacteria and its product processed and assembled into a functional chimeric photosystem II reaction center. PMID:1840918

  9. Quantum-chemical calculations of the metallofullerene yields in the X@C{sub 74}, L@C{sub 74}, and Z@C{sub 82} series

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlík, Filip; Slanina, Zdeněk; Nagase, Shigeru

    2015-01-22

    The contribution reports computations for Al@C{sub 82}, Sc@C{sub 82}, Y@C{sub 82} and La@C{sub 82} based on encapsulation into the IPR (isolated pentagon rule) C{sub 2ν} C{sub 82} cage and also on Mg@C{sub 74}, Ca@C{sub 74}, Sr@C{sub 74} and Ba@C{sub 74} based on encapsulation into the only C{sub 74} IPR cage as well as for three selected lanthanoids La@C{sub 74}, Yb@C{sub 74}, and Lu@C{sub 74}. Their structural and energetic characteristics are used for evaluations of the relative production yields, using the encapsulation Gibbs-energy and saturated metal pressures. It is shown that the results can be well related to the ionization potentials of the free metal atoms.

  10. Quantum chemical approach for condensed-phase thermochemistry (II): Applications to formation and combustion reactions of liquid organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Nakai, Hiromi

    2015-03-01

    The harmonic solvation model (HSM), which was recently developed for evaluating condensed-phase thermodynamics by quantum chemical calculations (Nakai and Ishikawa, 2014), was applied to formation and combustion reactions of simple organic molecules. The conventional ideal gas model (IGM) considerably overestimated the entropies of the liquid molecules. The HSM could significantly improve this overestimation; mean absolute deviations for the Gibbs energies of the formation and combustion reactions were (49.6, 26.7) for the IGM and (9.7, 5.4) for the HSM in kJ/mol.

  11. Reply to 'Comment II on 'Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers''

    SciTech Connect

    Karimipour, V.

    2006-07-15

    In the preceding Comment [Jian-Zhong Du, Su-Juan Qin, Qiao-Yan Wen, and Fu-Chen Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 74, 016301 (2006)], it has been shown that in a quantum secret sharing protocol proposed in [S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)], one of the receivers can cheat by splitting the entanglement of the carrier and intercepting the secret, without being detected. In this reply we show that a simple modification of the protocol prevents the receivers from this kind of cheating.

  12. Quantum jumps in the PEMFC science and technology from the 1960s to the year 2000. Part II. Engineering, technology development and application aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costamagna, Paola; Srinivasan, Supramaniam

    The technology of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) has now reached the test-phase, and engineering development and optimization are vital in order to achieve to the next step of the evolution, i.e. the realization of commercial units. This paper highlights the most important technological progresses in the areas of (i) water and thermal management, (ii) scale-up from single cells to cell stacks, (iii) bipolar plates and flow fields, and (iv) fuel processing. Modeling is another aspect of the technological development, since modeling studies have significantly contributed to the understanding of the physico-chemical phenomena occurring in a fuel cell, and also have provided a valuable tool for the optimization of structure, geometry and operating conditions of fuel cells and stacks. The 'quantum jumps' in this field are reviewed, starting from the studies at the electrode level up to the stack and system size, with particular emphasis on (i) the 'cluster-network' model of perfluorosulfonic membranes, and the percolative dependence of the membrane proton conductivity on its water content, (ii) the models of charge and mass transport coupled to electrochemical reaction in the electrodes, and (iii) the models of water transport trough the membrane, which have been usefully applied for the optimization of water management of PEMFCs. The evolution of PEMFC applications is discussed as well, starting from the NASA's Gemini Space Flights to the latest developments of fuel cell vehicles, including the evolutions in the areas of portable power sources and residential and building applications.

  13. Excited-state quantum phase transitions in systems with two degrees of freedom: II. Finite-size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Stránský, Pavel; Macek, Michal; Leviatan, Amiram; Cejnar, Pavel

    2015-05-15

    This article extends our previous analysis Stránský et al. (2014) of Excited-State Quantum Phase Transitions (ESQPTs) in systems of dimension two. We focus on the oscillatory component of the quantum state density in connection with ESQPT structures accompanying a first-order ground-state transition. It is shown that a separable (integrable) system can develop rather strong finite-size precursors of ESQPT expressed as singularities in the oscillatory component of the state density. The singularities originate in effectively 1-dimensional dynamics and in some cases appear in multiple replicas with increasing excitation energy. Using a specific model example, we demonstrate that these precursors are rather resistant to proliferation of chaotic dynamics. - Highlights: • Oscillatory components of state density and spectral flow studied near ESQPTs. • Enhanced finite-size precursors of ESQPT caused by fully/partly separable dynamics. • These precursors appear due to criticality of a subsystem with lower dimension. • Separability-induced finite-size effects disappear in case of fully chaotic dynamics.

  14. Electric control of inverted gap and hybridization gap in type-II InAs/GaSb quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lun-Hui; Liu, Chao-Xing; Xu, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Zhou, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The quantum spin Hall effect has been predicted theoretically and observed experimentally in InAs/GaSb quantum wells as a result of inverted band structures, for which electron bands in InAs layers are below heavy-hole bands in GaSb layers in energy. The hybridization between electron bands and heavy-hole bands leads to a hybridization gap away from k =0 . A recent puzzling observation in experiments is that when the system is tuned to more inverted regime by a gate voltage (a larger inverted gap at k =0 ), the hybridization gap decreases. Motivated by this experiment, we explore the dependence of the hybridization gap as a function of external electric fields based on the eight-band Kane model. We identify two regimes when varying the electric fields: (1) Both inverted and hybridization gaps increase and (2) the inverted gap increases while the hybridization gap decreases. Based on the effective model, we find that light-hole bands in GaSb layers play an important role in determining the hybridization gap. In addition, a large external electric field can induce a strong Rashba splitting and also influence the hybridization gap.

  15. Electric control of inverted gap and hybridization gap in type II InAs/GaSb quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lun-Hui; Liu, Chao-Xing; Xu, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Zhou, Yi

    The quantum spin Hall effect has been predicted theoretically and observed experimentally in InAs/GaSb quantum wells as a result of inverted band structures, for which electron bands in InAs layers are below heavy hole bands in GaSb layers in energy. The hybridization between electron bands and heavy hole bands leads to a hybridization gap away from k = 0 . A recent puzzling observation in experiments is that when the system is tuned to more inverted regime by a gate voltage (a larger inverted gap at k = 0), the hybridization gap decreases. Motivated by this experiment [ref. 1], we explore the dependence of hybridization gap as a function of external electric fields based on eight-band Kane model. We identify two regimes when varying electric fields: (1) both inverted and hybridization gaps increase and (2) inverted gap increases while hybridization gap decreases. We analyze the effective model and find that light-hole bands in GaSb layers play an important role in determining hybridization gap. In addition, large exernal electric field can induce strong Rashba splitting and also influence hybridization gap. Our results are consistent with experimental observations. Reference: [ 1 ] Lingjie Du, et.al., arXiv:1508.04509 (2015).

  16. Electron states in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Dhayal, Suman S.; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Ruda, Harry E.; Nair, Selvakumar V.

    2014-11-28

    In this work, the electronic structures of quantum dots (QDs) of nine direct band gap semiconductor materials belonging to the group II-VI and III-V families are investigated, within the empirical tight-binding framework, in the effective bond orbital model. This methodology is shown to accurately describe these systems, yielding, at the same time, qualitative insights into their electronic properties. Various features of the bulk band structure such as band-gaps, band curvature, and band widths around symmetry points affect the quantum confinement of electrons and holes. These effects are identified and quantified. A comparison with experimental data yields good agreement with the calculations. These theoretical results would help quantify the optical response of QDs of these materials and provide useful input for applications.

  17. MODELING THE QUANTUM INTERFERENCE SIGNATURES OF THE Ba II D{sub 2} 4554 A LINE IN THE SECOND SOLAR SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Smitha, H. N.; Nagendra, K. N.; Sampoorna, M.; Stenflo, J. O. E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in E-mail: stenflo@astro.phys.ethz.ch

    2013-05-10

    Quantum interference effects play a vital role in shaping the linear polarization profiles of solar spectral lines. The Ba II D{sub 2} line at 4554 A is a prominent example, where the F-state interference effects due to the odd isotopes produce polarization profiles, which are very different from those of the even isotopes that have no F-state interference. It is therefore necessary to account for the contributions from the different isotopes to understand the observed linear polarization profiles of this line. Here we do radiative transfer modeling with partial frequency redistribution (PRD) of such observations while accounting for the interference effects and isotope composition. The Ba II D{sub 2} polarization profile is found to be strongly governed by the PRD mechanism. We show how a full PRD treatment succeeds in reproducing the observations, while complete frequency redistribution alone fails to produce polarization profiles that have any resemblance to the observed ones. However, we also find that the line center polarization is sensitive to the temperature structure of the model atmosphere. To obtain a good fit to the line center peak of the observed Stokes Q/I profile, a small modification of the FALX model atmosphere is needed, by lowering the temperature in the line-forming layers. Because of the pronounced temperature sensitivity of the Ba II D{sub 2} line it may not be a suitable tool for Hanle magnetic-field diagnostics of the solar chromosphere, because there is currently no straightforward way to separate the temperature and magnetic-field effects from each other.

  18. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical study of the structure of a new paramagnetic dimeric palladium(II,III) complex with creatine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitewa, Mariana; Enchev, Venelin; Bakalova, Tatyana

    2002-05-01

    The structure and coordination mode of the newly synthesized dimeric paramagnetic Pd(II,III) complex are studied using magneto-chemical, EPR and IR spectroscopic methods. In order to perform reliable assignment of the IR bands, the structure and IR spectrum of the free creatine were calculated using ab initio method. For calculation of the configuration of its deprotonated and doubly deprotonated forms the semiempirical AM1 method was used.

  19. Electron Excitation Cross Sections for the C II Transitions 2s(exp 2)2p P-2(exp 0) yields 2s2p(exp 2) P-4, D-2, and S-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Zuo, M.; Chutjian, A.; Tayal, S. S.; Williams, I. D.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the transitions 2s(exp 2) 2p-2(exp 0) yield 2s2p(exp 2)P-4, D-2, and S-2 in C II. The transition wavelengths (energies) are 2324 A (5.34 eV), 1335 x (9.29 eV), and 1036 A (11.97 eV), respectively. Use is made of electron energy-loss and merged beams methods. The energy range covered is from below each threshold (4 - 11 eV) to 15-24 eV. As in previous work with O II, care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction in the C II beam, to account for contributions from nearby energy-loss features, and to collect the full angular range of inelastically scattered electrons. A comparison is made for each transition between experiment and new 8-state R-matrix calculations. Subject headings: atomic data ultraviolet: general

  20. Photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, photon yield of O2 evolution, photosynthetic capacity, and carotenoid composition during the midday depression of net CO2 uptake in Arbutus unedo growing in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Demmig-Adams, B; Adams, W W; Winter, K; Meyer, A; Schreiber, U; Pereira, J S; Krüger, A; Czygan, F C; Lange, O L

    1989-03-01

    During the "midday depression" of net CO2 exchange in the mediterranean sclerophyllous shrub Arbutus unedo, examined in the field in Portugal during August of 1987, several parameters indicative of photosynthetic competence were strongly and reversibly affected. These were the photochemical efficiency of photosystem (PS) II, measured as the ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence, as well as the photon yield and the capacity of photosynthetic O2 evolution at 10% CO2, of which the apparent photon yield of O2 evolution was most depressed. Furthermore, there was a strong and reversible increase in the content of the carotenoid zeaxanthin in the leaves that occurred at the expense of both violaxanthin and β-carotene. Diurnal changes in fluorescence characteristics were interpreted to indicate three concurrent effects on the photochemical system. First, an increase in the rate of radiationless energy dissipation in the antenna chlorophyll, reflected by changes in 77K fluorescence of PSII and PSI as well as in chlorophyll a fluorescence at ambient temperature. Second, a state shift characterized by an increase in the proportion of energy distributed to PSI as reflected by changes in PSI fluorescence. Third, an effect lowering the photon yield of O2 evolution and PSII fluorescence at ambient temperature without affecting PSII fluorescence at 77K which would be expected from a decrease in the activity of the water splitting enzyme system, i.e. a donor side limitation. PMID:24212431

  1. Quantum Cryptography II: How to re-use a one-time pad safely even if P=NP.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Charles H; Brassard, Gilles; Breidbart, Seth

    2014-01-01

    When elementary quantum systems, such as polarized photons, are used to transmit digital information, the uncertainty principle gives rise to novel cryptographic phenomena unachievable with traditional transmission media, e.g. a communications channel on which it is impossible in principle to eavesdrop without a high probability of being detected. With such a channel, a one-time pad can safely be reused many times as long as no eavesdrop is detected, and, planning ahead, part of the capacity of these uncompromised transmissions can be used to send fresh random bits with which to replace the one-time pad when an eavesdrop finally is detected. Unlike other schemes for stretching a one-time pad, this scheme does not depend on complexity-theoretic assumptions such as the difficulty of factoring.

  2. Quantum Cryptography II: How to re-use a one-time pad safely even if P=NP.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Charles H; Brassard, Gilles; Breidbart, Seth

    2014-01-01

    When elementary quantum systems, such as polarized photons, are used to transmit digital information, the uncertainty principle gives rise to novel cryptographic phenomena unachievable with traditional transmission media, e.g. a communications channel on which it is impossible in principle to eavesdrop without a high probability of being detected. With such a channel, a one-time pad can safely be reused many times as long as no eavesdrop is detected, and, planning ahead, part of the capacity of these uncompromised transmissions can be used to send fresh random bits with which to replace the one-time pad when an eavesdrop finally is detected. Unlike other schemes for stretching a one-time pad, this scheme does not depend on complexity-theoretic assumptions such as the difficulty of factoring. PMID:25400534

  3. Modeling Spitzer Observations of VV Ser. II. An Extended Quantum-heated Nebula and a Disk Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Evans, Neal J., II; Geers, Vincent C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Spiesman, William

    2007-02-01

    We present mid-infrared Spitzer IRAC and MIPS images of the UX Orionis star VV Ser and the surrounding cloud. The 5.6-70 μm images show bright, localized, and nebulous emission extended over 4' centered on VV Ser. This nebulosity is due to transiently heated grains excited by UV photons emitted by VV Ser. Imprinted on the nebulosity is a wedge-shaped dark band, centered on the star. We interpret this as the shadow cast by the inner regions of a near-edge-on disk, allowing the PAHs to be excited only outside of this shadow. We extend an axisymmetric radiative transfer model of the VV Ser disk described in a companion paper to include quantum-heated PAH molecules and very small grains (VSGs) in the thermal cooling approximation. The presence of a disk shadow strongly constrains the inclination as well as the position angle of the disk. The nebulosity at 5.6-8.0 μm and the 2175 Å absorption feature seen in an archival spectrum from the IUE can be fit using only PAHs, consistent with the main carrier of the 2175 Å feature being due to the graphite-like structure of the PAHs. The PAH component is found to be relatively smoothly distributed in the cloud, while the population of VSGs emitting at 20-70 μm is strongly concentrated ~50'' to the southeast of VV Ser. Depending on the adopted PAH opacity, the abundance of PAHs in the surrounding cloud is constrained to 5%+/-2% of the total dust mass. Although relatively rare, quantum-heated nebulosities surrounding single, well-defined stars are well-suited for gaining unique insights into the physics of very small particles in molecular clouds.

  4. Cigarette tar yields in relation to mortality from lung cancer in the cancer prevention study II prospective cohort, 1982-8

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Thun, Michael J; Mondul, Alison M; Calle, Eugenia E

    2004-01-01

    Objective To assess the risk of lung cancer in smokers of medium tar filter cigarettes compared with smokers of low tar and very low tar filter cigarettes. Design Analysis of the association between the tar rating of the brand of cigarette smoked in 1982 and mortality from lung cancer over the next six years. Multivariate proportional hazards analyses used to assess hazard ratios, with adjustment for age at enrolment, race, educational level, marital status, blue collar employment, occupational exposure to asbestos, intake of vegetables, citrus fruits, and vitamins, and, in analyses of current and former smokers, for age when they started to smoke and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Setting Cancer prevention study II (CPS-II). Participants 364 239 men and 576 535 women, aged ≥ 30 years, who had either never smoked, were former smokers, or were currently smoking a specific brand of cigarette when they were enrolled in the cancer prevention study. Main outcome measure Death from primary cancer of the lung among participants who had never smoked, former smokers, smokers of very low tar (≤ 7 mg tar/cigarette) filter, low tar (8-14 mg) filter, high tar (≥ 22 mg) non-filter brands and medium tar conventional filter brands (15-21 mg). Results Irrespective of the tar level of their current brand, all current smokers had a far greater risk of lung cancer than people who had stopped smoking or had never smoked. Compared with smokers of medium tar (15-21 mg) filter cigarettes, risk was higher among men and women who smoked high tar (≥ 22 mg) non-filter brands (hazard ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.73, and 1.64, 1.26 to 2.15, respectively). There was no difference in risk among men who smoked brands rated as very low tar (1.17, 0.95 to 1.45) or low tar (1.02, 0.90 to 1.16) compared with those who smoked medium tar brands. The same was seen for women (0.98, 0.80 to 1.21, and 0.95, 0.82 to 1.11, respectively). Conclusion The increase in lung cancer

  5. Quantum phase slip noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum phase slips (QPSs) generate voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires. Employing the Keldysh technique and making use of the phase-charge duality arguments, we develop a theory of QPS-induced voltage noise in such nanowires. We demonstrate that quantum tunneling of the magnetic flux quanta across the wire yields quantum shot noise which obeys Poisson statistics and is characterized by a power-law dependence of its spectrum SΩ on the external bias. In long wires, SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T →0 . The quantum coherent nature of QPS noise yields nonmonotonous dependence of SΩ on T at small Ω .

  6. Quantum Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Giulio; Chirikov, Boris

    2006-11-01

    Preface; Acknowledgments; Introduction: 1. The legacy of chaos in quantum mechanics G. Casati and B. V. Chirikov; Part I. Classical Chaos and Quantum Localization: 2. Stochastic behaviour of a quantum pendulum under a periodic perturbation G. Casati, B. V. Chirikov, F. M. Izrailev and J. Ford; 3. Quantum dynamics of a nonintegrable system D. R. Grempel, R. E. Prange and S. E. Fishman; 4. Excitation of molecular rotation by periodic microwave pulses. A testing ground for Anderson localization R. Blümel, S. Fishman and U. Smilansky; 5. Localization of diffusive excitation in multi-level systems D. K. Shepelyansky; 6. Classical and quantum chaos for a kicked top F. Haake, M. Kus and R. Scharf; 7. Self-similarity in quantum dynamics L. E. Reichl and L. Haoming; 8. Time irreversibility of classically chaotic quantum dynamics K. Ikeda; 9. Effect of noise on time-dependent quantum chaos E. Ott, T. M. Antonsen Jr and J. D. Hanson; 10. Dynamical localization, dissipation and noise R. F. Graham; 11. Maximum entropy models and quantum transmission in disordered systems J.-L. Pichard and M. Sanquer; 12. Solid state 'atoms' in intense oscillating fields M. S. Sherwin; Part II. Atoms in Strong Fields: 13. Localization of classically chaotic diffusion for hydrogen atoms in microwave fields J. E. Bayfield, G. Casati, I. Guarneri and D. W. Sokol; 14. Inhibition of quantum transport due to 'scars' of unstable periodic orbits R. V. Jensen, M. M. Sanders, M. Saraceno and B. Sundaram; 15. Rubidium Rydberg atoms in strong fields G. Benson, G. Raithel and H. Walther; 16. Diamagnetic Rydberg atom: confrontation of calculated and observed spectra C.-H. Iu, G. R. Welch, M. M. Kash, D. Kleppner, D. Delande and J. C. Gay; 17. Semiclassical approximation for the quantum states of a hydrogen atom in a magnetic field near the ionization limit M. Y. Kuchiev and O. P. Sushkov; 18. The semiclassical helium atom D. Wintgen, K. Richter and G. Tanner; 19. Stretched helium: a model for quantum chaos

  7. Quantum Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Giulio; Chirikov, Boris

    1995-04-01

    Preface; Acknowledgments; Introduction: 1. The legacy of chaos in quantum mechanics G. Casati and B. V. Chirikov; Part I. Classical Chaos and Quantum Localization: 2. Stochastic behaviour of a quantum pendulum under a periodic perturbation G. Casati, B. V. Chirikov, F. M. Izrailev and J. Ford; 3. Quantum dynamics of a nonintegrable system D. R. Grempel, R. E. Prange and S. E. Fishman; 4. Excitation of molecular rotation by periodic microwave pulses. A testing ground for Anderson localization R. Blümel, S. Fishman and U. Smilansky; 5. Localization of diffusive excitation in multi-level systems D. K. Shepelyansky; 6. Classical and quantum chaos for a kicked top F. Haake, M. Kus and R. Scharf; 7. Self-similarity in quantum dynamics L. E. Reichl and L. Haoming; 8. Time irreversibility of classically chaotic quantum dynamics K. Ikeda; 9. Effect of noise on time-dependent quantum chaos E. Ott, T. M. Antonsen Jr and J. D. Hanson; 10. Dynamical localization, dissipation and noise R. F. Graham; 11. Maximum entropy models and quantum transmission in disordered systems J.-L. Pichard and M. Sanquer; 12. Solid state 'atoms' in intense oscillating fields M. S. Sherwin; Part II. Atoms in Strong Fields: 13. Localization of classically chaotic diffusion for hydrogen atoms in microwave fields J. E. Bayfield, G. Casati, I. Guarneri and D. W. Sokol; 14. Inhibition of quantum transport due to 'scars' of unstable periodic orbits R. V. Jensen, M. M. Sanders, M. Saraceno and B. Sundaram; 15. Rubidium Rydberg atoms in strong fields G. Benson, G. Raithel and H. Walther; 16. Diamagnetic Rydberg atom: confrontation of calculated and observed spectra C.-H. Iu, G. R. Welch, M. M. Kash, D. Kleppner, D. Delande and J. C. Gay; 17. Semiclassical approximation for the quantum states of a hydrogen atom in a magnetic field near the ionization limit M. Y. Kuchiev and O. P. Sushkov; 18. The semiclassical helium atom D. Wintgen, K. Richter and G. Tanner; 19. Stretched helium: a model for quantum chaos

  8. An Acoustic Charge Transport Imager for High Definition Television Applications: Reliability Modeling and Parametric Yield Prediction of GaAs Multiple Quantum Well Avalanche Photodiodes. Degree awarded Oct. 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, W. D.; Brennan, K. F.; Summers, C. J.; Yun, Ilgu

    1994-01-01

    Reliability modeling and parametric yield prediction of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) avalanche photodiodes (APDs), which are of interest as an ultra-low noise image capture mechanism for high definition systems, have been investigated. First, the effect of various doping methods on the reliability of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) avalanche photodiode (APD) structures fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated. Reliability is examined by accelerated life tests by monitoring dark current and breakdown voltage. Median device lifetime and the activation energy of the degradation mechanism are computed for undoped, doped-barrier, and doped-well APD structures. Lifetimes for each device structure are examined via a statistically designed experiment. Analysis of variance shows that dark-current is affected primarily by device diameter, temperature and stressing time, and breakdown voltage depends on the diameter, stressing time and APD type. It is concluded that the undoped APD has the highest reliability, followed by the doped well and doped barrier devices, respectively. To determine the source of the degradation mechanism for each device structure, failure analysis using the electron-beam induced current method is performed. This analysis reveals some degree of device degradation caused by ionic impurities in the passivation layer, and energy-dispersive spectrometry subsequently verified the presence of ionic sodium as the primary contaminant. However, since all device structures are similarly passivated, sodium contamination alone does not account for the observed variation between the differently doped APDs. This effect is explained by the dopant migration during stressing, which is verified by free carrier concentration measurements using the capacitance-voltage technique.

  9. Intermediate quantum maps for quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    Giraud, O.; Georgeot, B.

    2005-10-15

    We study quantum maps displaying spectral statistics intermediate between Poisson and Wigner-Dyson. It is shown that they can be simulated on a quantum computer with a small number of gates, and efficiently yield information about fidelity decay or spectral statistics. We study their matrix elements and entanglement production and show that they converge with time to distributions which differ from random matrix predictions. A randomized version of these maps can be implemented even more economically and yields pseudorandom operators with original properties, enabling, for example, one to produce fractal random vectors. These algorithms are within reach of present-day quantum computers.

  10. Part i: Lie-Backlund Theory and Linearization of Differential Equations. Part II: Monte Carlo Simulations of 1-D Quantum Spin Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, John J.

    Part I begins with an account of groups of Lie -Back-lund (L-B) tangent transformations; it is then shown that L-B symmetry operators depending on integrals (nonlocal variables), such as discussed by Konopelchenko and Mokhnachev (1979), are related by change of variables to the L-B operators which involve no more than derivatives. A general method is set down for transforming a given L-B operator into a new one, by any invertible transformation depending on (. . ., D(,x)('-1) u, u, u(,x), . . .). It is shown that once a given differential equation admits a L-B operator, there is in general a very large number of related ("secondary") equations which admit the same operator. The L-B Theory involving nonlocal variables is used to characterize group theoretically the linearization both of the Burgers equation, u(,t) + uu(,x) - u(,xx) = 0, and of the o.d.e. u(,xx) + (omega)('2)(x)u + Ku('-3) = 0. Secondary equations are found to play an important role in understanding the group theoretical background to the linearization of differential equations. Part II deals with Monte Carlo simulations of the l-d quantum Heisenberg and XY-models, using an approach suggested by Suzuki (1976). The simulation is actually carried out on a 2-d, m x N, Isinglike system, equivalent to the original N-spin quantum system when m (--->) (INFIN). The results for m (LESSTHEQ) 10 and kT/(VBAR)J(VBAR) (GREATERTHEQ) .0125 are good enough to show that the method is generally applicable to quantum spin models; however some difficulties caused by singular bonding in the classical lattice (Wiesler 1982) and by the generation of unwanted states have to be taken into account in practice. The finite-size scaling method of Fisher and Ferdinard is adapted for use near T = 0 in the ferromagnetic Heisenberg model; applied to the simulation data it shows that the low temperature susceptibiltiy behaves at T('-(gamma)), where (gamma) = 1.32 (+OR-) 10%. Also, simple and potentially useful finite-size scaling

  11. Investigations of quantum efficiency in type-II InAs/GaSb very long wavelength infrared superlattice detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaochao; Jiang, Dongwei; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Gang; Wang, Dongbo; Yu, Qingjiang; Zhao, Liancheng

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the quantum efficiency (QE) of InAs/GaSb T2SL very long wavelength Infrared (VLWIR) photodetectors with 50% cutoff of 12.7 μm. Due to the small depletion width and similar absorption coefficient in the T2SL material system, the minority-carrier diffusion length was determined as the key element to improve the QE of VLWIR T2SL photodetectors. The minority-carrier diffusion length was estimated by a comparison of the experimental data with the Hovel model. Our result suggest that the short hole diffusion length (Lh ∼ 520 nm) and the large its ratio to the width of this region (xn/Lh) are considered against the photo-excited carrier collection in the T2SL photodetectors. In addition, the influence of surface recombination velocity (Sh) on the QE of the T2SL photodetectors is also studied. The change of QE with Sh is not so significant due to the relatively low absorption coefficient and short hole diffusion length in our photodetector.

  12. Quantum field theory for the three-body constrained lattice Bose gas. II. Application to the many-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, S.; Baranov, M.; Daley, A. J.; Zoller, P.

    2010-08-01

    We analyze the ground-state phase diagram of attractive lattice bosons, which are stabilized by a three-body onsite hardcore constraint. A salient feature of this model is an Ising-type transition from a conventional atomic superfluid to a dimer superfluid with vanishing atomic condensate. The study builds on an exact mapping of the constrained model to a theory of coupled bosons with polynomial interactions, proposed in a related paper [S. Diehl, M. Baranov, A. Daley, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. B 82, 064509 (2010).10.1103/PhysRevB.82.064509]. In this framework, we focus by analytical means on aspects of the phase diagram which are intimately connected to interactions, and are thus not accessible in a mean-field plus spin-wave approach. First, we determine shifts in the mean-field phase border, which are most pronounced in the low-density regime. Second, the investigation of the strong coupling limit reveals the existence of a “continuous supersolid,” which emerges as a consequence of enhanced symmetries in this regime. We discuss its experimental signatures. Third, we show that the Ising-type phase transition, driven first order via the competition of long-wavelength modes at generic fillings, terminates into a true Ising quantum critical point in the vicinity of half filling.

  13. Photocatalytic activity of transition-metal-ion-doped coordination polymer (CP): photoresponse region extension and quantum yields enhancement via doping of transition metal ions into the framework of CPs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Xin; Cui, Zhong-Ping; Gao, Xin; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2014-06-21

    To improve photocatalytic activity of a coordination polymer (CP) in the visible light region, five different transition metal ions (Fe(3+), Cr(3+), Ru(3+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+)) were introduced into its framework through an ion-exchange process. Among all the resulting transition metal ion doped coordination polymers (TMI/CPs), the one doped with Fe(3+) took on the most excellent photocatalytic activity and the highest quantum yields in the visible light region, decomposing 94% Rhodamine B (RhB) in 8 hours. It can be attributed to the doping of Fe(3+), which reduced the band gap (Eg) of the original CP, facilitating photocatalysis of the obtained polymer. Compared with the coordination polymer with Fe(3+) as a dopant, products doped with other metal ions presented weaker photocatalytic activities in the visible light region, while under the irradiation of ultraviolet light, they showed favorable photocatalytic properties. The results suggest that to dope transition metal ions into the framework of CPs would be an ideal option for enhancing the photocatalytic activity of coordination polymers.

  14. Dynamics of exciton recombination in strong magnetic fields in ultrathin GaAs/AlAs quantum wells with indirect band gap and type-II band alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamirzaev, T. S.; Debus, J.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Glazov, M. M.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Bayer, M.

    2016-07-01

    The exciton recombination dynamics is studied experimentally and theoretically in two-monolayer-thick GaAs/AlAs quantum wells characterized by an indirect band gap and a type-II band alignment. At cryogenic temperatures, the lifetimes of the excitons that are indirect both in real and k space are in the millisecond range. The exciton recombination time and the photoluminescence (PL) intensity are strongly dependent on strength and orientation of an applied magnetic field. In contrast to the very weak influence of an in-plane field, at 2 K temperature a field applied parallel to the growth axis drastically slows down the recombination and reduces the PL intensity. With increasing temperature the magnetic field effects on PL intensity and decay time are vanishing. The experimental data are well described by a model for the exciton dynamics that takes into account the magnetic-field-induced redistribution of the indirect excitons between their bright and dark states. It allows us to evaluate the lower bound of the heavy-hole longitudinal g factor of 2.5, the radiative recombination time for the bright excitons of 0.34 ms, and the nonradiative recombination time of the bright and dark excitons of 8.5 ms.

  15. Trapping of muscle relaxant methocarbamol degradation product by complexation with copper(II) ion: spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Ahmed M; Shehab, Ola R

    2014-07-15

    Structural properties of methocarbamol (Mcm) were extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically using FT IR, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis., geometry optimization, Mulliken charge, and molecular electrostatic potential. Stability arises from hyper-conjugative interactions, charge delocalization and H-bonding was analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Mcm was decomposed in ethanol/water mixture at 80°C to guaifenesin [(RS)-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)propane-1,2-diol] and carbamate ion [NH2COO(-)], where the degradation mechanism was explained by trapping the carbamate ion via the complexation with copper(II) ion. The structure of the isolated complex ([Cu(NH2COO)2(H2O)]⋅4H2O) was elucidated by spectral, thermal, and magnetic tools. Electronic spectra were discussed by TD-DFT and the descriptions of frontier molecular orbitals and the relocations of the electron density were determined. Calculated g-tensor values showed best agreement with experimental values from EPR when carried out using both the B3LYP and B3PW91 functional. PMID:24674917

  16. Trapping of muscle relaxant methocarbamol degradation product by complexation with copper(II) ion: Spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Ahmed M.; Shehab, Ola R.

    2014-07-01

    Structural properties of methocarbamol (Mcm) were extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically using FT IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis., geometry optimization, Mulliken charge, and molecular electrostatic potential. Stability arises from hyper-conjugative interactions, charge delocalization and H-bonding was analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Mcm was decomposed in ethanol/water mixture at 80 °C to guaifenesin [(RS)-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)propane-1,2-diol] and carbamate ion [NH2COO-], where the degradation mechanism was explained by trapping the carbamate ion via the complexation with copper(II) ion. The structure of the isolated complex ([Cu(NH2COO)2(H2O)]ṡ4H2O) was elucidated by spectral, thermal, and magnetic tools. Electronic spectra were discussed by TD-DFT and the descriptions of frontier molecular orbitals and the relocations of the electron density were determined. Calculated g-tensor values showed best agreement with experimental values from EPR when carried out using both the B3LYP and B3PW91 functional.

  17. Thermal baths as quantum resources: more friends than foes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Shahmoon, Ephraim; Zwick, Analia

    2015-12-01

    In this article we argue that thermal reservoirs (baths) are potentially useful resources in processes involving atoms interacting with quantized electromagnetic fields and their applications to quantum technologies. One may try to suppress the bath effects by means of dynamical control, but such control does not always yield the desired results. We wish instead to take advantage of bath effects, that do not obliterate ‘quantumness’ in the system-bath compound. To this end, three possible approaches have been pursued by us. (i) Control of a quantum system faster than the correlation time of the bath to which it couples: such control allows us to reveal quasi-reversible/coherent dynamical phenomena of quantum open systems, manifest by the quantum Zeno or anti-Zeno effects (QZE or AZE, respectively). Dynamical control methods based on the QZE are aimed not only at protecting the quantumness of the system, but also diagnosing the bath spectra or transferring quantum information via noisy media. By contrast, AZE-based control is useful for fast cooling of thermalized quantum systems. (ii) Engineering the coupling of quantum systems to selected bath modes: this approach, based on field-atom coupling control in cavities, waveguides and photonic band structures, allows one to drastically enhance the strength and range of atom-atom coupling through the mediation of the selected bath modes. More dramatically, it allows us to achieve bath-induced entanglement that may appear paradoxical if one takes the conventional view that coupling to baths destroys quantumness. (iii) Engineering baths with appropriate non-flat spectra: this approach is a prerequisite for the construction of the simplest and most efficient quantum heat machines (engines and refrigerators). We may thus conclude that often thermal baths are ‘more friends than foes’ in quantum technologies.

  18. Quantum Social Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haven, Emmanuel; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Physics Concepts in Social Science? A Discussion: 1. Classical, statistical and quantum mechanics: all in one; 2. Econophysics: statistical physics and social science; 3. Quantum social science: a non-mathematical motivation; Part II. Mathematics and Physics Preliminaries: 4. Vector calculus and other mathematical preliminaries; 5. Basic elements of quantum mechanics; 6. Basic elements of Bohmian mechanics; Part III. Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Psychology: Basic Questions and Answers: 7. A brief overview; 8. Interference effects in psychology - an introduction; 9. A quantum-like model of decision making; Part IV. Other Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Economics, Finance and Brain Sciences: 10. Financial/economic theory in crisis; 11. Bohmian mechanics in finance and economics; 12. The Bohm-Vigier Model and path simulation; 13. Other applications to economic/financial theory; 14. The neurophysiological sources of quantum-like processing in the brain; Conclusion; Glossary; Index.

  19. Direct water-phase synthesis of lead sulfide quantum dots encapsulated by β-lactoglobulin for in vivo second near infrared window imaging with reduced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Kong, Yifei; Wang, Wei; Fang, Hongwei; Wo, Yan; Zhou, Dejian; Wu, Ziying; Li, Yunxia; Chen, Shiyi

    2016-03-14

    Compared to conventional fluorescence imaging in the visible (400-700 nm) and NIR-I regions (700-900 nm), optical fluorescence imaging in the second near infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1400 nm) offers reduced photon scattering, deeper tissue penetration and lower auto-fluorescence. Despite excellent imaging capabilities, current NIR-II probes have not yet reached their full potential due to weak quantum yield, low water solubility and suboptimal biocompatibility. To address these problems, we report herein a new NIR-II fluorescent PbS quantum dots (QDs) that are fabricated in water using β-lactoglobulin (LG) as a biological template. The LG-PbS QDs exhibit satisfactory dispersibility, relatively high quantum yield and favorable biocompatibility, and therefore are suitable for high-resolution in vivo imaging applications.

  20. Holographic Quantum States

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, Tobias J.; Eisert, Jens; Verstraete, Frank

    2010-12-31

    We show how continuous matrix product states of quantum fields can be described in terms of the dissipative nonequilibrium dynamics of a lower-dimensional auxiliary boundary field by demonstrating that the spatial correlation functions of the bulk field correspond to the temporal statistics of the boundary field. This equivalence (1) illustrates an intimate connection between the theory of continuous quantum measurement and quantum field theory, (2) gives an explicit construction of the boundary field allowing the extension of real-space renormalization group methods to arbitrary dimensional quantum field theories without the introduction of a lattice parameter, and (3) yields a novel interpretation of recent cavity QED experiments in terms of quantum field theory, and hence paves the way toward observing genuine quantum phase transitions in such zero-dimensional driven quantum systems.

  1. Characterization of the Sr(2+)- and Cd(2+)-Substituted Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II by Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Calculations.

    PubMed

    Pitari, Fabio; Bovi, Daniele; Narzi, Daniele; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2015-09-29

    The Mn4CaO5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex is the catalytic core of the Photosystem II (PSII) enzyme, responsible for the water splitting reaction in oxygenic photosynthesis. The role of the redox-inactive ion in the cluster has not yet been fully clarified, although several experimental data are available on Ca2+-depleted and Ca2+-substituted PSII complexes, indicating Sr2+-substituted PSII as the only modification that preserves oxygen evolution. In this work, we investigated the structural and electronic properties of the PSII catalytic core with Ca2+ replaced with Sr2+ and Cd2+ in the S2 state of the Kok−Joliot cycle by means of density functional theory and ab initio molecular dynamics based on a quantum mechanics/ molecular mechanics approach. Our calculations do not reveal significant differences between the substituted and wild-type systems in terms of geometries, thermodynamics, and kinetics of two previously identified intermediate states along the S2 to S3 transition, namely, the open cubane S2 A and closed cubane S2 B conformers. Conversely, our calculations show different pKa values for the water molecule bound to the three investigated heterocations. Specifically, for Cd-substituted PSII, the pKa value is 5.3 units smaller than the respective value in wild type Ca-PSII. On the basis of our results, we conclude that, assuming all the cations sharing the same binding site, the induced difference in the acidity of the binding pocket might influence the hydrogen bonding network and the redox levels to prevent the further evolution of the cycle toward the S3 state.

  2. Quantum computing of semiclassical formulas.

    PubMed

    Georgeot, B; Giraud, O

    2008-04-01

    We show that semiclassical formulas such as the Gutzwiller trace formula can be implemented on a quantum computer more efficiently than on a classical device. We give explicit quantum algorithms which yield quantum observables from classical trajectories, and which alternatively test the semiclassical approximation by computing classical actions from quantum evolution. The gain over classical computation is in general quadratic, and can be larger in some specific cases.

  3. Biomimetic mono- and dinuclear Ni(I) and Ni(II) complexes studied by X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuth, N.; Gehring, H.; Horn, B.; Holze, P.; Kositzki, R.; Schrapers, P.; Limberg, C.; Haumann, M.

    2016-05-01

    Five biomimetic mono- or dinuclear nickel complexes featuring Ni(I) or Ni(II) sites were studied by X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Ni K-edge XANES spectra and Kβ main and satellite emission lines were collected on powder samples. The pre-edge absorption transitions (core-to-valence excitation) and Kβ2,5 emission transitions (valence-to-core decay) were calculated using DFT (TPSSh/TZVP) on crystal structures. This yielded theoretical ctv and vtc spectra in near-quantitative agreement with the experiment, showing the adequacy of the DFT approach for electronic structure description, emphasizing the sensitivity of the XAS/XES spectra for ligation/redox changes at nickel, and revealing the configuration of unoccupied and occupied valence levels, as well as the spin-coupling modes in the dinuclear complexes. XAS/XES-DFT is valuable for molecular and electronic structure analysis of synthetic complexes and of nickel centers in H2 or COx converting metalloenzymes.

  4. Quantum percolation by Arnoldi-Saad diagonalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hisao

    1998-03-01

    A quantum percolation problem is studied in two and three dimensions numerically by approximately diagonalizing the corresponding Hamiltonian using the Arnoldi-Saad method. In this problem, the randomness is implemented as random site percolation with probability p for site occupation but is reflected as a random hopping term v_ij in the tight-binding Hamiltonian: H = sumi ɛi |i>| + sum_v_ij|i>quantum percolation problems but also yields an apparently anomalous behavior of the central gap as a function of p.

  5. Quantum groups, non-commutative differential geometry and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schupp, P

    1993-12-09

    The topic of this thesis is the development of a versatile and geometrically motivated differential calculus on non-commutative or quantum spaces, providing powerful but easy-to-use mathematical tools for applications in physics and related sciences. A generalization of unitary time evolution is proposed and studied for a simple 2-level system, leading to non-conservation of microscopic entropy, a phenomenon new to quantum mechanics. A Cartan calculus that combines functions, forms, Lie derivatives and inner derivations along general vector fields into one big algebra is constructed for quantum groups and then extended to quantum planes. The construction of a tangent bundle on a quantum group manifold and an BRST type approach to quantum group gauge theory are given as further examples of applications. The material is organized in two parts: Part I studies vector fields on quantum groups, emphasizing Hopf algebraic structures, but also introducing a ``quantum geometric`` construction. Using a generalized semi-direct product construction we combine the dual Hopf algebras A of functions and U of left-invariant vector fields into one fully bicovariant algebra of differential operators. The pure braid group is introduced as the commutant of {Delta}(U). It provides invariant maps A {yields} U and thereby bicovariant vector fields, casimirs and metrics. This construction allows the translation of undeformed matrix expressions into their less obvious quantum algebraic counter parts. We study this in detail for quasitriangular Hopf algebras, giving the determinant and orthogonality relation for the ``reflection`` matrix. Part II considers the additional structures of differential forms and finitely generated quantum Lie algebras -- it is devoted to the construction of the Cartan calculus, based on an undeformed Cartan identity.

  6. Micellar Effects on Photoinduced Electron Transfer in Aqueous Solutions Revisited: Dramatic Enhancement of Cage Escape Yields in Surfactant Ru(II) Diimine Complex/[Ru(NH3)6](2+) Systems.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rebecca E; Schmehl, Russell H

    2016-08-30

    The effect of cationic micelle incorporation on light induced electron transfer, charge separation and back electron transfer between an aqueous electron donor, [Ru(NH3)6](2+), and a series of Ru(II) diimine complex chromophores/acceptors, is presented. The chromophores have the general formula [(bpy)2Ru(LL)](2+) (LL = bpy; 4-R-4'-methyl-2,2'-bpy, R = pentyl (MC5), terdecyl (MC13), heptadecyl (MC17); 4,4'-di(heptadecyl)-2,2'-bpy (DC17)). Of the five chromophores, the MC13, MC17, and DC17 complexes associate with the added micelle forming surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Quenching of the luminescence of the bpy and MC5 complexes by [Ru(NH3)6](2+) is unaffected by addition of surfactant, while rate constants for quenching of the MC13 and MC17 complexes are decreased. Cage escape yields following photoinduced electron transfer to generate [(bpy)2Ru(LL)](+) and [Ru(NH3)6](3+) are approximately 0.1 for all the water-soluble chromophores (excluding DC17) in the absence of added CTAB. In the presence of surfactant, the cage escape yields dramatically increase for the MC13 (0.4) and MC17 (0.6) complexes, while remaining unchanged for [Ru(bpy)3](2+) and the MC5 complex. Back electron transfer of the solvent separated ions is also strongly influenced by the presence of surfactant. For the MC13 and MC17 complexes, back electron transfer rate constants decrease by factors of 270 and 190, respectively. The MC5 complex exhibits two component back electron transfer, with the fast component having a rate constant close to that in the absence of surfactant and a slow component nearly 200 times smaller. Results are interpreted in terms of the partitioning of the 2+ and 1+ forms of the chromophores between aqueous and micellar phases. The extended lifetimes of the radical ions may prove useful in coupling the strong reductants formed to kinetically facile catalysts for reduction of water to hydrogen. PMID:27486891

  7. A quantum protective mechanism in photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, Adriana; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2015-03-01

    Since the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, living systems have developed protective mechanisms against reactive oxygen species. During charge separation in photosynthetic reaction centres, triplet states can react with molecular oxygen generating destructive singlet oxygen. The triplet product yield in bacteria is observed to be reduced by weak magnetic fields. Reaction centres from plants' photosystem II share many features with bacterial reaction centres, including a high-spin iron whose function has remained obscure. To explain observations that the magnetic field effect is reduced by the iron, we propose that its fast-relaxing spin plays a protective role in photosynthesis by generating an effective magnetic field. We consider a simple model of the system, derive an analytical expression for the effective magnetic field and analyse the resulting triplet yield reduction. The protective mechanism is robust for realistic parameter ranges, constituting a clear example of a quantum effect playing a macroscopic role vital for life.

  8. Quantum computing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Shen; Long, Gui-Lu; Bai, Feng-Shan; Feng, Song-Lin; Zheng, Hou-Zhi

    2001-01-01

    Quantum computing is a quickly growing research field. This article introduces the basic concepts of quantum computing, recent developments in quantum searching, and decoherence in a possible quantum dot realization. PMID:11562459

  9. Determination of lateral size distribution of type-II ZnTe/ZnSe stacked submonolayer quantum dots via spectral analysis of optical signature of the Aharanov-Bohm excitons

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Haojie; Dhomkar, Siddharth; Roy, Bidisha; Kuskovsky, Igor L.; Shuvayev, Vladimir; Deligiannakis, Vasilios; Tamargo, Maria C.; Ludwig, Jonathan; Smirnov, Dmitry; Wang, Alice

    2014-10-28

    For submonolayer quantum dot (QD) based photonic devices, size and density of QDs are critical parameters, the probing of which requires indirect methods. We report the determination of lateral size distribution of type-II ZnTe/ZnSe stacked submonolayer QDs, based on spectral analysis of the optical signature of Aharanov-Bohm (AB) excitons, complemented by photoluminescence studies, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, and numerical calculations. Numerical calculations are employed to determine the AB transition magnetic field as a function of the type-II QD radius. The study of four samples grown with different tellurium fluxes shows that the lateral size of QDs increases by just 50%, even though tellurium concentration increases 25-fold. Detailed spectral analysis of the emission of the AB exciton shows that the QD radii take on only certain values due to vertical correlation and the stacked nature of the QDs.

  10. A non-doped phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with above 31% external quantum efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Oswald, Iain W H; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Guijiang; Jia, Huiping; Qiao, Qiquan; Chen, Yonghua; Hoshikawa-Halbert, Jason; Gnade, Bruce E

    2014-12-23

    The demonstrated square-planar Pt(II)-complex has reduced triplet-triplet quenching and therefore a near unity quantum yield in the neat thin film. A non-doped phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PhOLED) based on this emitter achieves (31.1 ± 0.1)% external quantum efficiency without any out-coupling, which shows that a non-doped PhOLED can be comparable in efficiency to the best doped devices with very complicated device structures. PMID:25219957

  11. Molecule-induced quantum confinement in single-walled carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hida, Akira; Ishibashi, Koji

    2015-04-01

    A method of fabricating quantum-confined structures with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has been developed. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy revealed that a parabolic confinement potential appeared when collagen model peptides were attached to both ends of an individual SWNT via the formation of carboxylic anhydrides. On the other hand, the confinement potential was markedly changed by yielding the peptide bonds between the SWNT and the collagen model peptides. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements showed that a type-II quantum dot was produced in the obtained heterostructure.

  12. 7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... adjusted on an administrative county-wide basis for: (i) Yield variations due to different farming practices in the administrative county such as irrigated, non-irrigated, and organic practices; and (ii... missing crop years actual yield. (h) If producers add land in the farming operation and do not...

  13. 7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... adjusted on an administrative county-wide basis for: (i) Yield variations due to different farming practices in the administrative county such as irrigated, non-irrigated, and organic practices; and (ii... missing crop years actual yield. (h) If producers add land in the farming operation and do not...

  14. 7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adjusted on an administrative county-wide basis for: (i) Yield variations due to different farming practices in the administrative county such as irrigated, non-irrigated, and organic practices; and (ii... missing crop years actual yield. (h) If producers add land in the farming operation and do not...

  15. Extended hydrodynamic approach to quantum-classical nonequilibrium evolution. I. Theory.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, David; Hughes, Keith H; Micha, David A; Burghardt, Irene

    2011-02-14

    A mixed quantum-classical formulation is developed for a quantum subsystem in strong interaction with an N-particle environment, to be treated as classical in the framework of a hydrodynamic representation. Starting from the quantum Liouville equation for the N-particle distribution and the corresponding reduced single-particle distribution, exact quantum hydrodynamic equations are obtained for the momentum moments of the single-particle distribution coupled to a discretized quantum subsystem. The quantum-classical limit is subsequently taken and the resulting hierarchy of equations is further approximated by various closure schemes. These include, in particular, (i) a Grad-Hermite-type closure, (ii) a Gaussian closure at the level of a quantum-classical local Maxwellian distribution, and (iii) a dynamical density functional theory approximation by which the hydrodynamic pressure term is replaced by a free energy functional derivative. The latter limit yields a mixed quantum-classical formulation which has previously been introduced by I. Burghardt and B. Bagchi, Chem. Phys. 134, 343 (2006).

  16. Photovoltaic Detector Based on Type II Heterostructure with Deep AlSb/InAsSb/AlSb Quantum Well in the Active Region for the Mid-Infrared Spectral Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, G. G.; Mikhailova, M. P.; Andreev, I. A.; Moiseev, K. D.; Ivanov, E. V.; Mikhailov, M. Yu; Yakovlev, Yu P.

    2013-08-01

    Photodetectors for the spectral range 2-4 μm, based on an asymmetric type-II heterostructure p-InAs/AlSb/InAsSb/AlSb/(p, n)-GaSb with a single deep quantum well (QW) or three deep QWs at the heterointerface, have been grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and analysed. The transport, luminescent, photoelectric, current-voltage, and capacitance-voltage characteristics of these structures have been examined. A high-intensity positive and negative luminescence was observed in the spectral range 3-4 μm at high temperatures (300-400 K). The photosensitivity spectra were in the range 1.2-3.6 μm (T = 77 K). Large values of quantum efficiency (η = 0.6-0.7), responsivity (Sλ = 0.9-1.4 A·W1), and detectivity D*λ 3.5·1011 to 1010 cm·Hz1/2·W-1) were obtained at T = 77-200 K. The small capacitance of the structures (C = 1.5 pF at V = -1 V and T = 300 K) enabled an estimate of the response time of the photodetector at τ = 75 ps, which corresponds to a bandwidth of about 6 GHz. Photodetectors of this kind are promising for heterodyne detection of the emission of quantum-cascade lasers and IR spectroscopy.

  17. Yield loss in susceptible cultivars of spring rapeseed due to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Lange, R M; Gossmann, M; Büttner, C

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, reports of spring rapeseed plants (Brassica napus L.) exhibiting wilt symptoms were received by agricultural extension personnel from farmers near Fort Vermillion and Andrew, Alberta, Canada. Fungal colonies recovered from affected plants after surface disinfection were identified as Fusarium oxysporum by comparison of morphology on carnation leaf and potato dextrose agars with literature descriptions and reference cultures. Root-dip inoculation of young rapeseed plants with spore suspensions prepared from recovered F. oxysporum colonies resulted in rapid development of symptoms seen in the field. An initial estimate of yield loss in an affected field near Andrew was performed by removing all rapeseed plants from three 1 m2 quadrats. Each plant was evaluated according to a simple three point severity scale, and then the seed from each plant was individually threshed and weighed. Fully- and partially-wilted plants yielded 0.2 and 19.3% of asymptomatic plants, respectively. In 2000, wilt symptoms were observed at a plot research site near Ranfurly, Alberta. Disease symptoms were restricted to one B. napus cultivar, Nexera 705. A similar procedure to that used at Andrew in 1999 was applied at Ranfurly, except quadrat size was 2.5 m2, and replicated comparisons were made between Nexera 705 and an unaffected cultivar, Quantum. The average number of unaffected Quantum plants was 99.4%, while only 66.9% of Nexera 705 plants were asymptomatic. No Quantum plants were severely wilted, while 11.7% of Nexera 705 plants were wilted. Yield of Nexera 705 was 38.6% of Quantum. In 2004, the impact of fusarium wilt on yield of 6 susceptible and 9 resistant B. napus cultivars was determined at nine locations in western Canada. Cultivars were selected on the basis of survey results and agronomist's reports. Across all sites, yield of the most severely affected cultivar, 45A55, was 15.9% lower than the least severely affected cultivar 3455. At the most severely affected site

  18. Quantum plasmonic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wenjiang; Lawrie, Benjamin J.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2015-11-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors can reach the quantum noise limit of the optical readout field in various configurations. We demonstrate that two-mode intensity squeezed states produce a further enhancement in sensitivity compared with a classical optical readout when the quantum noise is used to transduce an SPR sensor signal in the Kretschmann configuration. The quantum noise reduction between the twin beams when incident at an angle away from the plasmonic resonance, combined with quantum noise resulting from quantum anticorrelations when on resonance, results in an effective SPR-mediated modulation that yields a measured sensitivity 5 dB better than that with a classical optical readout in this configuration. The theoretical potential of this technique points to resolving particle concentrations with more accuracy than is possible via classical approaches to optical transduction.

  19. Quantum plasmonic sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Wenjiang; Lawrie, Benjamin J.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2015-11-04

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors can reach the quantum noise limit of the optical readout field in various configurations. We demonstrate that two-mode intensity squeezed states produce a further enhancement in sensitivity compared with a classical optical readout when the quantum noise is used to transduce an SPR sensor signal in the Kretschmann configuration. The quantum noise reduction between the twin beams when incident at an angle away from the plasmonic resonance, combined with quantum noise resulting from quantum anticorrelations when on resonance, results in an effective SPR-mediated modulation that yields a measured sensitivity 5 dB better than that with a classical optical readout in this configuration. Furthermore, the theoretical potential of this technique points to resolving particle concentrations with more accuracy than is possible via classical approaches to optical transduction.

  20. Quantum plasmonic sensing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fan, Wenjiang; Lawrie, Benjamin J.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2015-11-04

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors can reach the quantum noise limit of the optical readout field in various configurations. We demonstrate that two-mode intensity squeezed states produce a further enhancement in sensitivity compared with a classical optical readout when the quantum noise is used to transduce an SPR sensor signal in the Kretschmann configuration. The quantum noise reduction between the twin beams when incident at an angle away from the plasmonic resonance, combined with quantum noise resulting from quantum anticorrelations when on resonance, results in an effective SPR-mediated modulation that yields a measured sensitivity 5 dB better than that withmore » a classical optical readout in this configuration. Furthermore, the theoretical potential of this technique points to resolving particle concentrations with more accuracy than is possible via classical approaches to optical transduction.« less

  1. Calculation of wave-functions with frozen orbitals in mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods. II. Application of the local basis equation.

    PubMed

    Ferenczy, György G

    2013-04-01

    The application of the local basis equation (Ferenczy and Adams, J. Chem. Phys. 2009, 130, 134108) in mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) and quantum mechanics/quantum mechanics (QM/QM) methods is investigated. This equation is suitable to derive local basis nonorthogonal orbitals that minimize the energy of the system and it exhibits good convergence properties in a self-consistent field solution. These features make the equation appropriate to be used in mixed QM/MM and QM/QM methods to optimize orbitals in the field of frozen localized orbitals connecting the subsystems. Calculations performed for several properties in divers systems show that the method is robust with various choices of the frozen orbitals and frontier atom properties. With appropriate basis set assignment, it gives results equivalent with those of a related approach [G. G. Ferenczy previous paper in this issue] using the Huzinaga equation. Thus, the local basis equation can be used in mixed QM/MM methods with small size quantum subsystems to calculate properties in good agreement with reference Hartree-Fock-Roothaan results. It is shown that bond charges are not necessary when the local basis equation is applied, although they are required for the self-consistent field solution of the Huzinaga equation based method. Conversely, the deformation of the wave-function near to the boundary is observed without bond charges and this has a significant effect on deprotonation energies but a less pronounced effect when the total charge of the system is conserved. The local basis equation can also be used to define a two layer quantum system with nonorthogonal localized orbitals surrounding the central delocalized quantum subsystem.

  2. Approximating random quantum optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, B.; Laumann, C. R.; Läuchli, A. M.; Moessner, R.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2013-06-01

    We report a cluster of results regarding the difficulty of finding approximate ground states to typical instances of the quantum satisfiability problem k-body quantum satisfiability (k-QSAT) on large random graphs. As an approximation strategy, we optimize the solution space over “classical” product states, which in turn introduces a novel autonomous classical optimization problem, PSAT, over a space of continuous degrees of freedom rather than discrete bits. Our central results are (i) the derivation of a set of bounds and approximations in various limits of the problem, several of which we believe may be amenable to a rigorous treatment; (ii) a demonstration that an approximation based on a greedy algorithm borrowed from the study of frustrated magnetism performs well over a wide range in parameter space, and its performance reflects the structure of the solution space of random k-QSAT. Simulated annealing exhibits metastability in similar “hard” regions of parameter space; and (iii) a generalization of belief propagation algorithms introduced for classical problems to the case of continuous spins. This yields both approximate solutions, as well as insights into the free energy “landscape” of the approximation problem, including a so-called dynamical transition near the satisfiability threshold. Taken together, these results allow us to elucidate the phase diagram of random k-QSAT in a two-dimensional energy-density-clause-density space.

  3. Exciton scattering approach for branched conjugated molecules and complexes. II. Extraction of the exciton scattering parameters from quantum-chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Malinin, Sergey V; Tretiak, Sergei; Chernyak, Vladimir Y

    2008-11-01

    We obtain the parameters of the exciton scattering (ES) model from the quantum-chemical calculations of the electronic excitations in simple phenylacetylene-based molecules. We determine the exciton dispersion and the frequency-dependent scattering matrices which describe scattering properties of the molecular ends as well as of meta- and orthoconjugated links. The extracted functions are smooth, which confirms the validity of the ES picture. We find a good agreement between the ES and quantum-chemical results for the excitation energies in simple test molecules. PMID:19045338

  4. Seeded emulsion polymerization as a powerful tool for the biofunctionalization of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habercorn, Lasse; Merkl, Jan-Philip; Kloust, Hauke Christian; Feld, Artur; Ostermann, Johannes; Schmidtke, Christian; Wolter, Christopher; Janschel, Marcus; Weller, Horst

    2016-05-01

    With the polymer encapsulation of quantum dots via seeded emulsion polymerization we present a powerful tool for the preparation of fluorescent nanoparticles with an extraordinary stability in aqueous solution. The method of the seeded emulsion polymerization allows a straightforward and simple in situ functionalization of the polymer shell under preserving the optical properties of the quantum dots. These requirements are inevitable for the application of semiconductor nanoparticles as markers for biomedical applications. Polymer encapsulated quantum dots have shown only a marginal loss of quantum yields when they were exposed to copper(II)-ions. Under normal conditions the quantum dots were totally quenched in presence of copper(II)-ions. Furthermore, a broad range of in situ functionalized polymer-coated quantum dots were obtained by addition of functional monomers or surfactants like fluorescent dye molecules, antibodies or specific DNA aptamers. Furthermore the emulsion polymerization can be used to prepare multifunctional hybrid systems, combining different nanoparticles within one construct without any adverse effect of the properties of the starting materials.1,2

  5. On the quantum Zeno effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazato, Hiromichi; Namiki, Mikio; Pascazio, Saverio; Rauch, Helmut

    1995-02-01

    The limit of infinitely frequent measurements (continuous observation), yielding the quantum Zeno paradox, is critically analyzed and shown to be unphysical. A specific example involving neutron spin is considered and some practical estimates are given.

  6. Predawn respiration rates during flowering are highly predictive of yield response in Gossypium hirsutum when yield variability is water-induced.

    PubMed

    Snider, John L; Chastain, Daryl R; Meeks, Calvin D; Collins, Guy D; Sorensen, Ronald B; Byrd, Seth A; Perry, Calvin D

    2015-07-01

    Respiratory carbon evolution by leaves under abiotic stress is implicated as a major limitation to crop productivity; however, respiration rates of fully expanded leaves are positively associated with plant growth rates. Given the substantial sensitivity of plant growth to drought, it was hypothesized that predawn respiration rates (RPD) would be (1) more sensitive to drought than photosynthetic processes and (2) highly predictive of water-induced yield variability in Gossypium hirsutum. Two studies (at Tifton and Camilla Georgia) addressed these hypotheses. At Tifton, drought was imposed beginning at the onset of flowering (first flower) and continuing for three weeks (peak bloom) followed by a recovery period, and predawn water potential (ΨPD), RPD, net photosynthesis (AN) and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) were measured throughout the study period. At Camilla, plants were exposed to five different irrigation regimes throughout the growing season, and average ΨPD and RPD were determined between first flower and peak bloom for all treatments. For both sites, fiber yield was assessed at crop maturity. The relationships between ΨPD, RPD and yield were assessed via non-linear regression. It was concluded for field-grown G. hirsutum that (1) RPD is exceptionally sensitive to progressive drought (more so than AN or Fv/Fm) and (2) average RPD from first flower to peak bloom is highly predictive of water-induced yield variability. PMID:26125121

  7. High Yield Non-detergent Isolation of Photosystem I-Light-harvesting Chlorophyll II Membranes from Spinach Thylakoids: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF THE PS I ANTENNAE IN HIGHER PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Bell, Adam J; Frankel, Laurie K; Bricker, Terry M

    2015-07-24

    Styrene-maleic acid copolymer was used to effect a non-detergent partial solubilization of thylakoids from spinach. A high density membrane fraction, which was not solubilized by the copolymer, was isolated and was highly enriched in the Photosystem (PS) I-light-harvesting chlorophyll (LHC) II supercomplex and depleted of PS II, the cytochrome b6/f complex, and ATP synthase. The LHC II associated with the supercomplex appeared to be energetically coupled to PS I based on 77 K fluorescence, P700 photooxidation, and PS I electron transport light saturation experiments. The chlorophyll (Chl) a/b ratio of the PS I-LHC II membranes was 3.2 ± 0.9, indicating that on average, three LHC II trimers may associate with each PS I. The implication of these findings within the context of higher plant PS I antenna organization is discussed.

  8. Quantum fields and poisson processes II: Interaction of boson-boson and boson-fermion fields with a cut-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, J.; Gaveau, B.; Rideau, G.

    1985-05-01

    Quantum field evolutions are written as expectation values with respect to Poisson processes in two simple models: interaction of two boson fields (with conservation of the number of particles in one field) and interaction of a boson with a fermion field. The introduction of a cut-off ensures that the expectation values are well-defined.

  9. Investigation of the photophysical and photochemical properties of peripherally tetra-substituted water-soluble zwitterionic and cationic zinc(ii) phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Senem; Durmuş, Mahmut; Yıldız, Salih Zeki

    2016-06-21

    In this study, 4-{4-[N-((3-dimethylamino)propyl)amide]phenoxy}phthalonitrile () and its zinc(ii) phthalocyanine derivative () were synthesized for the first time. 4-(N-((3-Dimethylamino)propyl)amide)phenoxy substituted zinc(ii) phthalocyanine () was converted to its water-soluble sulfobetaine (), betaine () and N-oxide () containing zwitterionic and quaternized cationic () derivatives. All newly synthesized compounds () were characterized by the combination of UV-vis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, mass spectroscopy techniques and elemental analysis. The photophysical (fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) and photochemical (singlet oxygen quantum yields) properties were investigated in DMSO for all the synthesized zinc(ii) phthalocyanines () and in both DMSO and aqueous solutions for zwitterionic and cationic phthalocyanines () for the specification of their capability as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The binding behavior of water soluble phthalocyanines () to the bovine serum albumin protein was also examined for the determination of their transportation ability in the blood stream. PMID:27253970

  10. Investigation of the photophysical and photochemical properties of peripherally tetra-substituted water-soluble zwitterionic and cationic zinc(ii) phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Senem; Durmuş, Mahmut; Yıldız, Salih Zeki

    2016-06-21

    In this study, 4-{4-[N-((3-dimethylamino)propyl)amide]phenoxy}phthalonitrile () and its zinc(ii) phthalocyanine derivative () were synthesized for the first time. 4-(N-((3-Dimethylamino)propyl)amide)phenoxy substituted zinc(ii) phthalocyanine () was converted to its water-soluble sulfobetaine (), betaine () and N-oxide () containing zwitterionic and quaternized cationic () derivatives. All newly synthesized compounds () were characterized by the combination of UV-vis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, mass spectroscopy techniques and elemental analysis. The photophysical (fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) and photochemical (singlet oxygen quantum yields) properties were investigated in DMSO for all the synthesized zinc(ii) phthalocyanines () and in both DMSO and aqueous solutions for zwitterionic and cationic phthalocyanines () for the specification of their capability as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The binding behavior of water soluble phthalocyanines () to the bovine serum albumin protein was also examined for the determination of their transportation ability in the blood stream.

  11. Quantum Complexity in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, G.

    Carbon has a unique position among elements in the periodic table. It produces an allotrope, graphene, a mechanically robust two dimensional semimetal. The multifarious properties that graphene exhibits has few parallels among elemental metals. From simplicity, namely carbon atoms connected by pure sp2 bonds, a wealth of novel quantum properties emerge. In classical complex systems such as a spin glass or a finance market, several competing agents or elements are responsible for unanticipated and difficult to predict emergent properties. The complex (sic) structure of quantum mechanics is responsbile for an unanticipated set of emergent properties in graphene. We call this quantum complexity. In fact, most quantum systems, phenomena and modern quantum field theory could be viewed as examples of quantum complexity. After giving a brief introduction to the quantum complexity we focus on our own work, which indicates the breadth in the type of quantum phenomena that graphene could support. We review our theoretical suggestions of, (i) spin-1 collective mode in netural graphene, (ii) relativistic type of phenomena in crossed electric and magnetic fields, (iii) room temperature superconductivity in doped graphene and (iv) composite Fermi sea in neutral graphene in uniform magnetic field and (v) two-channel Kondo effect. Except for the relativistic type of phenomena, the rest depend in a fundamental way on a weak electron correlation that exists in the broad two-dimensional band of graphene.

  12. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  13. The electronic structure of the adducts of nickel(II) and cobalt(II) acetylacetonate with 2,2ʹ-dipyridyl by the method of quantum chemical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissarov, A. A.; Korochentsev, V. V.; Vovna, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    The electronic structure of the nickel(II) and cobalt(II) bis-acetylacetonate with the additional 2,2ʹ-dipyridyl ligand is investigated using density functional theory calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Additional ligand effect on geometry, charges, electronic structure and X-ray photoelectron spectrum is studied. Our calculations show that the electron-donating ability of the 2,2ʹ-dipyridyl ligand is low. The computed data is compared with experimental data.

  14. Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinfurter, Harald; Zeilinger, Anton

    Quantum entanglement lies at the heart of the new field of quantum communication and computation. For a long time, entanglement was seen just as one of those fancy features which make quantum mechanics so counterintuitive. But recently, quantum information theory has shown the tremendous importance of quantum correlations for the formulation of new methods of information transfer and for algorithms exploiting the capabilities of quantum computers.This chapter describes the first experimental realizations of quantum communication schemes using entangled photon pairs. We show how to make communication secure against eavesdropping using entanglement-based quantum cryptography, how to increase the information capacity of a quantum channel by quantum dense coding and, finally, how to communicate quantum information itself in the process of quantum teleportation.

  15. Mathematical modelling of the light response curve of photoinhibition of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Tyystjärvi, Esa; Hakala, Marja; Sarvikas, Päivi

    2005-06-01

    The light response curves of the acceptor and donor side mechanisms of photoinhibition of Photosystem II were calculated, using Arabidopsis as a model organism. Acceptor-side photoinhibition was modelled as double reduction of QA, noting that non-photochemical quenching has the same effect on the quantum yield of QA double reduction in closed PSII centres as it has on the quantum yield of electron transport in open centres. The light response curve of acceptor-side photoinhibition in Arabidopsis shows very low efficiency under low intensity light and a relatively constant quantum yield above light saturation of photosynthesis. To calculate the light response curve of donor-side photoinhibition, we built a model describing the concentration of the oxidized primary donor P680 + during steady-state photosynthesis. The model is based on literature values of rate constants of electron transfer reactions of PSII, and it was fitted with fluorescence parameters measured in the steady state. The modelling analysis showed that the quantum yield of donor-side photoinhibition peaks under moderate light. The deviation of the acceptor and donor side mechanisms from the direct proportionality between photoinhibition and photon flux density suggests that these mechanisms cannot solely account for photoinhibition in vivo, but contribution of a reaction whose quantum yield is independent of light intensity is needed. Furthermore, a simple kinetic calculation suggests that the acceptor-side mechanism may not explain singlet oxygen production by photoinhibited leaves. The theoretical framework described here can be used to estimate the yields of different photoinhibition mechanisms under different wavelengths or light intensities.

  16. I.I. Rabi Prize in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics Talk: Novel Quantum Physics in Few- and Many-body Atomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Cheng

    2011-05-01

    Recent cold atom researches are reaching out far beyond the realm that was conventionally viewed as atomic physics. Many long standing issues in other physics disciplines or in Gedanken-experiments are nowadays common targets of cold atom physicists. Two prominent examples will be discussed in this talk: BEC-BCS crossover and Efimov physics. Here, cold atoms are employed to emulate electrons in superconductors, and nucleons in nuclear reactions, respectively. The ability to emulate exotic or thought systems using cold atoms stems from the precisely determined, simple, and tunable interaction properties of cold atoms. New experimental tools have also been devised toward an ultimate goal: a complete control and a complete characterization of a few- or many-body quantum system. We are tantalizingly close to this major milestone, and will soon open new venues to explore new quantum phenomena that may (or may not!) exist in scientists' dreams.

  17. Brassinosteroids regulate the thylakoid membrane architecture and the photosystem II function.

    PubMed

    Krumova, S; Zhiponova, M; Dankov, K; Velikova, V; Balashev, K; Andreeva, T; Russinova, E; Taneva, S

    2013-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones known to positively affect photosynthesis. In this work we investigated the architecture and function of photosynthetic membranes in mature Arabidopsis rosettes of BR gain-of-function (overexpressing the BR receptor BR INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), BRI1OE) and loss-of-function (bri1-116 with inactive BRI1 receptor, and constitutive photomorphogenesis and dwarfism (cpd) deficient in BR biosynthesis) mutants. Data from atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and polarographic determination of oxygen yields revealed major structural (enlarged thylakoids, smaller photosystem II supercomplexes) and functional (strongly inhibited oxygen evolution, reduced photosystem II quantum yield) changes in all the mutants with altered BR response compared to the wild type plants. The recorded thermal dependences showed severe thermal instability of the oxygen yields in the BR mutant plants. Our results suggest that an optimal BR level is required for the normal thylakoid structure and function.

  18. Submonolayer Uniformity of Type II InAs/GaInSb W-shaped Quantum Wells Probed by Full-Wafer Photoluminescence Mapping in the Mid-infrared Spectral Range.

    PubMed

    Dyksik, Mateusz; Motyka, Marcin; Sęk, Grzegorz; Misiewicz, Jan; Dallner, Matthias; Weih, Robert; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven

    2015-12-01

    The spatial uniformity of GaSb- and InAs substrate-based structures containing type II quantum wells was probed by means of large-scale photoluminescence (PL) mapping realized utilizing a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The active region was designed and grown in a form of a W-shaped structure with InAs and GaInSb layers for confinement of electrons and holes, respectively. The PL spectra were recorded over the entire 2-in. wafers, and the parameters extracted from each spectrum, such as PL peak energy position, its linewidth and integrated intensity, were collected in a form of two-dimensional spatial maps. Throughout the analysis of these maps, the wafers' homogeneity and precision of the growth procedure were investigated. A very small variation of PL peak energy over the wafer indicates InAs quantum well width fluctuation of only a fraction of a monolayer and hence extraordinary thickness accuracy, a conclusion further supported by high uniformity of both the emission intensity and PL linewidth.

  19. Quantum simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, I. M.; Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Simulating quantum mechanics is known to be a difficult computational problem, especially when dealing with large systems. However, this difficulty may be overcome by using some controllable quantum system to study another less controllable or accessible quantum system, i.e., quantum simulation. Quantum simulation promises to have applications in the study of many problems in, e.g., condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, atomic physics, quantum chemistry, and cosmology. Quantum simulation could be implemented using quantum computers, but also with simpler, analog devices that would require less control, and therefore, would be easier to construct. A number of quantum systems such as neutral atoms, ions, polar molecules, electrons in semiconductors, superconducting circuits, nuclear spins, and photons have been proposed as quantum simulators. This review outlines the main theoretical and experimental aspects of quantum simulation and emphasizes some of the challenges and promises of this fast-growing field.

  20. Quantum Effects in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2014-08-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Mančal; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  1. Quantum Mechanics in Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Aeppli, G.

    2009-08-20

    Atomic physics is undergoing a large revival because of the possibility of trapping and cooling ions and atoms both for individual quantum control as well as collective quantum states, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. The present lectures start from the 'atomic' physics of isolated atoms in semiconductors and insulators and proceed to coupling them together to yield magnets undergoing quantum phase transitions as well as displaying novel quantum states with no classical analogs. The lectures are based on: G.-Y. Xu et al., Science 317, 1049-1052 (2007); G. Aeppli, P. Warburton, C. Renner, BT Technology Journal, 24, 163-169 (2006); H. M. Ronnow et al., Science 308, 392-395 (2005) and N. Q. Vinh et al., PNAS 105, 10649-10653 (2008).

  2. One-pot green synthesis of oxygen-rich nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots and their potential application in pH-sensitive photoluminescence and detection of mercury(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bingfang; Zhang, Liangliang; Lan, Chuanqing; Zhao, Jingjin; Su, Yubin; Zhao, Shulin

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen doping has been a powerful method to modulate the properties of carbon materials for various applications, and N-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have gained remarkable interest because of their unique chemical, electronic, and optical properties. Herein, we introduce a facile one-pot solid-phase synthesis strategy for N-doped GQDs using citric acid (CA) as the carbon source and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) as the N source. The as-prepared N-GQDs with oxygen-rich functional groups are uniform with an average diameter of 12.5 nm. Because of the introduction of nitrogen atoms, N-GQDs exhibit excitation-wavelength-independent fluorescence with the maximum emission at 445 nm, and a high quantum yield of 18% is achieved at an excitation wavelength of 346 nm. Furthermore, a highly efficient fluorosensor based on the as-prepared N-GQDs was developed for the detection of Hg(2+) because of the effective quenching effect of metal ions via nonradiative electron transfer. This fluorosensor exhibits high sensitivity toward Hg(2+) with a detection limit of 8.6 nM. The selectivity experiments reveal that the fluorescent sensor is specific for Hg(2+). Most importantly, the practical use of the sensor based on N-GQDs for Hg(2+) detection was successfully demonstrated in river-water samples. PMID:26003702

  3. One-pot green synthesis of oxygen-rich nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots and their potential application in pH-sensitive photoluminescence and detection of mercury(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bingfang; Zhang, Liangliang; Lan, Chuanqing; Zhao, Jingjin; Su, Yubin; Zhao, Shulin

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen doping has been a powerful method to modulate the properties of carbon materials for various applications, and N-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have gained remarkable interest because of their unique chemical, electronic, and optical properties. Herein, we introduce a facile one-pot solid-phase synthesis strategy for N-doped GQDs using citric acid (CA) as the carbon source and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) as the N source. The as-prepared N-GQDs with oxygen-rich functional groups are uniform with an average diameter of 12.5 nm. Because of the introduction of nitrogen atoms, N-GQDs exhibit excitation-wavelength-independent fluorescence with the maximum emission at 445 nm, and a high quantum yield of 18% is achieved at an excitation wavelength of 346 nm. Furthermore, a highly efficient fluorosensor based on the as-prepared N-GQDs was developed for the detection of Hg(2+) because of the effective quenching effect of metal ions via nonradiative electron transfer. This fluorosensor exhibits high sensitivity toward Hg(2+) with a detection limit of 8.6 nM. The selectivity experiments reveal that the fluorescent sensor is specific for Hg(2+). Most importantly, the practical use of the sensor based on N-GQDs for Hg(2+) detection was successfully demonstrated in river-water samples.

  4. Quantum Criticality and Black Holes

    SciTech Connect

    Sachdev, Subir

    2007-08-22

    I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.

  5. Quantum Criticality and Black Holes

    ScienceCinema

    Sachdev, Subir [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2016-07-12

    I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.

  6. Quantum Theory and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastin, Ted

    2009-07-01

    List of participants; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. The function of the colloquium - editorial; 2. The conceptual problem of quantum theory from the experimentalist's point of view O. R. Frisch; Part II. Niels Bohr and Complementarity: The Place of the Classical Language: 3. The Copenhagen interpretation C. F. von Weizsäcker; 4. On Bohr's views concerning the quantum theory D. Bohm; Part III. The Measurement Problem: 5. Quantal observation in statistical interpretation H. J. Groenewold; 6. Macroscopic physics, quantum mechanics and quantum theory of measurement G. M. Prosperi; 7. Comment on the Daneri-Loinger-Prosperi quantum theory of measurement Jeffrey Bub; 8. The phenomenology of observation and explanation in quantum theory J. H. M. Whiteman; 9. Measurement theory and complex systems M. A. Garstens; Part IV. New Directions within Quantum Theory: What does the Quantum Theoretical Formalism Really Tell Us?: 10. On the role of hidden variables in the fundamental structure of physics D. Bohm; 11. Beyond what? Discussion: space-time order within existing quantum theory C. W. Kilmister; 12. Definability and measurability in quantum theory Yakir Aharonov and Aage Petersen; 13. The bootstrap idea and the foundations of quantum theory Geoffrey F. Chew; Part V. A Fresh Start?: 14. Angular momentum: an approach to combinatorial space-time Roger Penrose; 15. A note on discreteness, phase space and cohomology theory B. J. Hiley; 16. Cohomology of observations R. H. Atkin; 17. The origin of half-integral spin in a discrete physical space Ted Bastin; Part VI. Philosophical Papers: 18. The unity of physics C. F. von Weizsäcker; 19. A philosophical obstacle to the rise of new theories in microphysics Mario Bunge; 20. The incompleteness of quantum mechanics or the emperor's missing clothes H. R. Post; 21. How does a particle get from A to B?; Ted Bastin; 22. Informational generalization of entropy in physics Jerome Rothstein; 23. Can life explain quantum mechanics? H. H

  7. Exact quantum dynamics study of the O{sup +}+H{sub 2}(v=0,j=0){yields}OH{sup +}+H ion-molecule reaction and comparison with quasiclassical trajectory calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Rodrigo; Lucas, Josep M.; Gimenez, Xavier; Aguilar, Antonio; Gonzalez, Miguel

    2006-04-14

    The close-coupling hyperspherical (CCH) exact quantum method was used to study the title barrierless reaction up to a collision energy (E{sub T}) of 0.75 eV, and the results compared with quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) calculations to determine the importance of quantum effects. The CCH integral cross section decreased with E{sub T} and, although the QCT results were in general quite similar to the CCH ones, they presented a significant deviation from the CCH data within the 0.2-0.6 eV collision energy range, where the QCT method did not correctly describe the reaction probability. A very good accord between both methods was obtained for the OH{sup +} vibrational distribution, where no inversion of population was found. For the OH{sup +} rotational distributions, the agreement between the CCH and QCT results was not as good as in the vibrational case, but it was satisfactory in many conditions. The kk{sup '} angular distribution showed a preferential forward character, and the CCH method produced higher forward peaks than the QCT one. All the results were interpreted considering the potential energy surface and plots of a representative sampling of reactive trajectories.

  8. Quantum reduction to Bianchi I models in loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodendorfer, N.

    2015-04-01

    We propose a quantum symmetry reduction of loop quantum gravity to Bianchi I spacetimes. To this end, we choose the diagonal metric gauge for the spatial diffeomorphism constraint at the classical level, leading to an RBohr gauge theory, and quantize the resulting theory via loop quantum gravity methods. Constraints which lead classically to a suitable reduction are imposed at the quantum level. The dynamics of the resulting model turn out to be very simple and manifestly coincide with those of a polymer quantization of a Bianchi I model for the simplest choice of full theory quantum states compatible with the Bianchi I reduction. In particular, the "improved" μ ¯ dynamics of loop quantum cosmology can be obtained by modifying the regularization of the Hamiltonian constraint with similar ideas, in turn yielding insights into the full theory dynamics.

  9. Eight-band k·p modeling of InAs/InGaAsSb type-II W-design quantum well structures for interband cascade lasers emitting in a broad range of mid infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Ryczko, K.; Sęk, G.; Misiewicz, J.

    2013-12-14

    Band structure properties of the type-II W-design AlSb/InAs/GaIn(As)Sb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells have been investigated theoretically in a systematic manner and with respect to their use in the active region of interband cascade laser for a broad range of emission in mid infrared between below 3 to beyond 10 μm. Eight-band k·p approach has been utilized to calculate the electronic subbands. The fundamental optical transition energy and the corresponding oscillator strength have been determined in function of the thickness of InAs and GaIn(As)Sb layers and the composition of the latter. There have been considered active structures on two types of relevant substrates, GaSb and InAs, introducing slightly modified strain conditions. Additionally, the effect of external electric field has been taken into account to simulate the conditions occurring in the operational devices. The results show that introducing arsenic as fourth element into the valence band well of the type-II W-design system, and then altering its composition, can efficiently enhance the transition oscillator strength and allow additionally increasing the emission wavelength, which makes this solution prospective for improved performance and long wavelength interband cascade lasers.

  10. Auger recombination in In(Ga)Sb/InAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, T. Reuterskiöld Hedlund, C.; Gustafsson, O.; Berggren, J.; Ernerheim-Jokumsen, C.; Soldemo, M.; Weissenrieder, J.; Götelid, M.; Hammar, M.; Karim, A.; Wang, Q.

    2015-01-05

    We report on the epitaxial formation of type II In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}Sb/InAs and InSb/InAs quantum dot ensembles using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Employing scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we determine spatial quantum dot dimensions smaller than the de Broglie wavelength of InGaSb, which strongly indicates a three dimensional hole confinement. Photoluminescence spectroscopy at low temperatures yields an enhanced radiative recombination in the mid-infrared regime at energies of 170–200 meV. This luminescence displays a strong excitation power dependence with a blueshift indicating a filling of excited quantum dot hole states. Furthermore, a rate equation model is used to extract the Auger recombination coefficient from the power dependent intensity at 77 K yielding values of 1.35 × 10{sup −28} cm{sup 6}/s for In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}Sb/InAs quantum dots and 1.47 × 10{sup −27} cm{sup 6}/s for InSb/InAs quantum dots, which is about one order of magnitude lower as previously obtained values for InGaSb superlattices.

  11. Cloning of a quantum measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Sedlak, Michal

    2011-10-15

    We analyze quantum algorithms for cloning of a quantum measurement. Our aim is to mimic two uses of a device performing an unknown von Neumann measurement with a single use of the device. When the unknown device has to be used before the bipartite state to be measured is available we talk about 1{yields}2 learning of the measurement, otherwise the task is called 1{yields}2 cloning of a measurement. We perform the optimization for both learning and cloning for arbitrary dimension d of the Hilbert space. For 1{yields}2 cloning we also propose a simple quantum network that achieves the optimal fidelity. The optimal fidelity for 1{yields}2 learning just slightly outperforms the estimate and prepare strategy in which one first estimates the unknown measurement and depending on the result suitably prepares the duplicate.

  12. Quantum ontologies

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1988-12-01

    Quantum ontologies are conceptions of the constitution of the universe that are compatible with quantum theory. The ontological orientation is contrasted to the pragmatic orientation of science, and reasons are given for considering quantum ontologies both within science, and in broader contexts. The principal quantum ontologies are described and evaluated. Invited paper at conference: Bell's Theorem, Quantum Theory, and Conceptions of the Universe, George Mason University, October 20-21, 1988. 16 refs.

  13. Synthesis of Non-blinking Semiconductor Quantum Dots Emitting in the Near-Infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Allison M.; Mangum, Benjamin D.; Piryatinski, Andrei; Park, Young-Shin; Htoon, Han; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.

    2012-06-21

    Our previous work demonstrates that Quasi-Type II CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots with thick shells (3-5 nm) exhibit unique photophysical characteristics, including improved chemical robustness over typical thin-shelled core/shell systems and the elimination of blinking through suppression of nonradiative Auger recombination. Here we describe a new thick-shelled heterostructure, InP/CdS, which exhibits a Type II bandgap alignment producing near-infrared (NIR) emission. Samples with a range of shell thicknesses were synthesized, enabling shell-thickness-dependent study of the absorbance and emission spectra, fluorescence lifetimes, and quantum yields. InP/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell structures were also synthesized to reduce cadmium exposure for applications in the biological environment. Single particle spectroscopy indicates reduced blinking and improved photostability with increasing shell thickness, resulting in thick-shelled dots that are appropriate for single-particle tracking measurements with NIR emission.

  14. Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2010-01-01

    The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…

  15. Synthesis, fluorescence study and biological evaluation of three Zn(II) complexes with Paeonol Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Dong-dong; Yang, Zheng-yin; Qi, Gao-fei

    2009-10-01

    The synthesis of three Paeonol Schiff base ligand and their Zn(II) complexes are reported. The complexes were fully characterized by IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and molar conductivity. The experiment results show the three Zn(II) complexes can emit bright fluorescence at room temperature in DMF solution and solid state. The fluorescence quantum yields ( Φ) of three Schiff base ligands and their Zn(II) complexes were calculated using quinine sulfate as the reference with a known ΦR of 0.546 in 1.0N sulfuric acid. Furthermore, in order to develop these Zn(II) complexes' biological value, the antioxidant activities against hydroxyl radicals (OH rad ) were evaluated. The results show the three complexes possess excellent ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals.

  16. Philosophy of Quantum Information and Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokulich, Alisa; Jaeger, Gregg

    2010-06-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Quantum Entanglement and Nonlocality: 1. Nonlocality beyond quantum mechanics Sandu Popescu; 2. Entanglement and subsystems, entanglement beyond subsystems, and all that Lorenza Viola and Howard Barnum; 3. Formalism locality in quantum theory and quantum gravity Lucien Hardy; Part II. Quantum Probability: 4. Bell's inequality from the contextual probabilistic viewpoint Andrei Khrennikov; 5. Probabilistic theories: what is special about quantum mechanics? Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; 6. What probabilities tell about quantum systems, with application to entropy and entanglement John Myers and Hadi Madjid; 7. Bayesian updating and information gain in quantum measurements Leah Henderson; Part III. Quantum Information: 8. Schumacher information and the philosophy of physics Arnold Duwell; 9. From physics to information theory and back Wayne Myrvold; 10. Information, immaterialism, and instrumentalism: old and new in quantum information Chris Timpson; Part IV. Quantum Communication and Computing: 11. Quantum computation: where does the speed-up come from? Jeff Bub; 12. Quantum mechanics, quantum computing and quantum cryptography Tai Wu.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Fluorescence Properties of Zn(II) and Cu(II) Complexes: DNA Binding Study of Zn(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    Lavaee, Parirokh; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza; Mague, Joel T; Esmaeili, Abbas Ali; Abnous, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Zinc(II) and copper(II) complexes containing Schiff base, 2- methoxy-6((E)-(phenylimino) methyl) phenol ligand (HL) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR, and single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The fluorescence properties and quantum yield of zinc complex were studied. Our data showed that Zn complex could bind to DNA grooves with Kb = 10(4) M(-1). Moreover, Zn complex could successfully be used in staining of DNA following agarose gel electrophoresis. MTT assay showed that Zn complex was not cytotoxic in MCF-7 cell line. Here, we introduce a newly synthesized fluorescence probe that can be used for single and double stranded DNA detection in both solution and agarose gels.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization and Fluorescence Properties of Zn(II) and Cu(II) Complexes: DNA Binding Study of Zn(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    Lavaee, Parirokh; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza; Mague, Joel T; Esmaeili, Abbas Ali; Abnous, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Zinc(II) and copper(II) complexes containing Schiff base, 2- methoxy-6((E)-(phenylimino) methyl) phenol ligand (HL) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR, and single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The fluorescence properties and quantum yield of zinc complex were studied. Our data showed that Zn complex could bind to DNA grooves with Kb = 10(4) M(-1). Moreover, Zn complex could successfully be used in staining of DNA following agarose gel electrophoresis. MTT assay showed that Zn complex was not cytotoxic in MCF-7 cell line. Here, we introduce a newly synthesized fluorescence probe that can be used for single and double stranded DNA detection in both solution and agarose gels. PMID:26538363

  19. Quantum memristors

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, P.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.

    2016-01-01

    Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems. PMID:27381511

  20. Quantum memristors.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, P; Egusquiza, I L; Di Ventra, M; Sanz, M; Solano, E

    2016-01-01

    Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems. PMID:27381511