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Sample records for ii survival pattern

  1. Mortality in over 350,000 Insured Swedish Dogs from 1995–2000: II. Breed-Specific Age and Survival Patterns and Relative Risk for Causes of Death

    PubMed Central

    Egenvall, A; Bonnett, BN; Hedhammar, Å; Olson, P

    2005-01-01

    This study continues analysis from a companion paper on over 350,000 insured Swedish dogs up to 10 years of age contributing to more than one million dog-years at risk during 1995–2000. The age patterns for total and diagnostic mortality and for general causes of death (trauma, tumour, locomotor, heart and neurological) are presented for numerous breeds. Survival estimates at five, eight and 10 years of age are calculated. Survival to 10 years of age was 75% or more in Labrador and golden retrievers, miniature and toy poodles and miniature dachshunds and lowest in Irish wolfhounds (91% dead by 10 years). Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the relative risk for general and more specific causes of death between breeds accounting for gender and age effects, including two-way interactions. Older females had tumour as a designated cause of death more often than males in most breeds, but not in the Bernese mountain dog. Information presented in this and the companion paper inform our understanding of the population level burden of disease, and support decision-making at the population and individual level about health promotion efforts and treatment and prognosis of disease events. PMID:16261925

  2. Type II Migration and Giant Planet Survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Type II migration, in which a newly formed large planet opens a gap in its precursor circumstellar nebula and subsequently evolves with it, has been implicated as a delivery mechanism responsible for close stellar companions. Large scale migration is possible in a viscously spreading disk of surface density sigma (r,t) when most of it is sacrificed to the primary in order to promote a small portion of the disk to much higher angular momentum orbits. Embedded planets generally follow its evolution unless their own angular momentum is comparable to that of the disk. The fraction of the starting disk mass, M (sub d) = 2pi integral rsigma(r,0)dr, that is consumed by the star depends on the distance at which material escapes the disk's outer boundary. If the disk is allowed to expand indefinitely, virtually all of the disk will fall into the primary in order to send a vanishingly small portion to infinity. For such a case, it is difficult to explain the survival of any giant planets, including Jupiter and Saturn. Realistically, however, there are processes that could truncate a disk at a finite distance, r(sub d). Recent numerical modeling has illustrated that planets can survive in this case. We show here that much of these results can be understood by simple conservation arguments.

  3. DO GIANT PLANETS SURVIVE TYPE II MIGRATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-09-10

    Planetary migration is one of the most serious problems to systematically understand the observations of exoplanets. We clarify that the theoretically predicted type II, migration (like type I migration) is too fast, by developing detailed analytical arguments in which the timescale of type II migration is compared with the disk lifetime. In the disk-dominated regime, the type II migration timescale is characterized by a local viscous diffusion timescale, while the disk lifetime is characterized by a global diffusion timescale that is much longer than the local one. Even in the planet-dominated regime where the inertia of the planet mass reduces the migration speed, the timescale is still shorter than the disk lifetime except in the final disk evolution stage where the total disk mass decays below the planet mass. This suggests that most giant planets plunge into the central stars within the disk lifetime, and it contradicts the exoplanet observations that gas giants are piled up at r {approx}> 1 AU. We examine additional processes that may arise in protoplanetary disks: dead zones, photoevaporation of gas, and gas flow across a gap formed by a type II migrator. Although they make the type II migration timescale closer to the disk lifetime, we show that none of them can act as an effective barrier for rapid type II migration with the current knowledge of these processes. We point out that gas flow across a gap and the fraction of the flow accreted onto the planets are uncertain and they may have the potential to solve the problem. Much more detailed investigation for each process may be needed to explain the observed distribution of gas giants in extrasolar planetary systems.

  4. Mechanism of histone survival during transcription by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Kulaeva, Olga I; Studitsky, Vasily M

    2010-01-01

    This work is related to and stems from our recent NSMB paper, "Mechanism of chromatin remodeling and recovery during passage of RNA polymerase II" (December 2009). Synopsis. Recent genomic studies from many laboratories have suggested that nucleosomes are not displaced from moderately transcribed genes. Furthermore, histones H3/H4 carrying the primary epigenetic marks are not displaced or exchanged (in contrast to H2A/H2B histones) during moderate transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in vivo. These exciting observations suggest that the large molecule of Pol II passes through chromatin structure without even transient displacement of H3/H4 histones. The most recent analysis of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-type mechanism of chromatin remodeling in vitro (described in our NSMB 2009 paper) suggests that nucleosome survival is tightly coupled with formation of a novel intermediate: a very small intranucleosomal DNA loop (Ø-loop) containing transcribing Pol II. In the submitted manuscript we critically evaluate one of the key predictions of this model: the lack of even transient displacement of histones H3/H4 during Pol II transcription in vitro. The data suggest that, indeed, histones H3/H4 are not displaced during Pol II transcription in vitro. These studies are directly connected with the observation in vivo on the lack of exchange of histones H3/H4 during Pol II transcription.

  5. Modelling survival: exposure pattern, species sensitivity and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight; Cedergreen, Nina; Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Focks, Andreas; Gabsi, Faten; Gergs, André; Goussen, Benoit; Jager, Tjalling; Kramer, Nynke I; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Poulsen, Veronique; Reichenberger, Stefan; Schäfer, Ralf B; Van den Brink, Paul J; Veltman, Karin; Vogel, Sören; Zimmer, Elke I; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test the ability of GUTS to predict survival of aquatic organisms across different pesticide exposure patterns, time scales and species. Firstly, using synthetic data, we identified experimental data requirements which allow for the estimation of all parameters of the GUTS proper model. Secondly, we assessed how well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates to build species sensitivity distributions for different exposure patterns. We find that GUTS adequately predicts survival across exposure patterns that vary over time. When toxicity is assessed for time-variable concentrations species may differ in their responses depending on the exposure profile. This can result in different species sensitivity rankings and safe levels. The interplay of exposure pattern and species sensitivity deserves systematic investigation in order to better understand how organisms respond to stress, including humans. PMID:27381500

  6. Modelling survival: exposure pattern, species sensitivity and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight; Cedergreen, Nina; Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Focks, Andreas; Gabsi, Faten; Gergs, André; Goussen, Benoit; Jager, Tjalling; Kramer, Nynke I.; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Poulsen, Veronique; Reichenberger, Stefan; Schäfer, Ralf B.; van den Brink, Paul J.; Veltman, Karin; Vogel, Sören; Zimmer, Elke I.; Preuss, Thomas G.

    2016-07-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test the ability of GUTS to predict survival of aquatic organisms across different pesticide exposure patterns, time scales and species. Firstly, using synthetic data, we identified experimental data requirements which allow for the estimation of all parameters of the GUTS proper model. Secondly, we assessed how well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates to build species sensitivity distributions for different exposure patterns. We find that GUTS adequately predicts survival across exposure patterns that vary over time. When toxicity is assessed for time-variable concentrations species may differ in their responses depending on the exposure profile. This can result in different species sensitivity rankings and safe levels. The interplay of exposure pattern and species sensitivity deserves systematic investigation in order to better understand how organisms respond to stress, including humans.

  7. Modelling survival: exposure pattern, species sensitivity and uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight; Cedergreen, Nina; Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Focks, Andreas; Gabsi, Faten; Gergs, André; Goussen, Benoit; Jager, Tjalling; Kramer, Nynke I.; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Poulsen, Veronique; Reichenberger, Stefan; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Van den Brink, Paul J.; Veltman, Karin; Vogel, Sören; Zimmer, Elke I.; Preuss, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test the ability of GUTS to predict survival of aquatic organisms across different pesticide exposure patterns, time scales and species. Firstly, using synthetic data, we identified experimental data requirements which allow for the estimation of all parameters of the GUTS proper model. Secondly, we assessed how well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates to build species sensitivity distributions for different exposure patterns. We find that GUTS adequately predicts survival across exposure patterns that vary over time. When toxicity is assessed for time-variable concentrations species may differ in their responses depending on the exposure profile. This can result in different species sensitivity rankings and safe levels. The interplay of exposure pattern and species sensitivity deserves systematic investigation in order to better understand how organisms respond to stress, including humans. PMID:27381500

  8. MiRNA expression patterns predict survival in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to define new prognostic subgroups in patients with glioblastoma a miRNA screen (> 1000 miRNAs) from paraffin tissues followed by a bio-mathematical analysis was performed. Methods 35 glioblastoma patients treated between 7/2005 - 8/2008 at a single institution with surgery and postoperative radio(chemo)therapy were included in this retrospective analysis. For microarray analysis the febit biochip "Geniom® Biochip MPEA homo-sapiens" was used. Total RNA was isolated from FFPE tissue sections and 1100 different miRNAs were analyzed. Results It was possible to define a distinct miRNA expression pattern allowing for a separation of distinct prognostic subgroups. The defined miRNA pattern was significantly associated with early death versus long-term survival (split at 450 days) (p = 0.01). The pattern and the prognostic power were both independent of the MGMT status. Conclusions At present, this is the first dataset defining a prognostic role of miRNA expression patterns in patients with glioblastoma. Having defined such a pattern, a prospective validation of this observation is required. PMID:22074483

  9. Child survival and changing fertility patterns in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Z A

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country with high fertility and high infant and child mortality, and declines in total mortality and substantial development initiatives. The discussion considers whether fertility patterns in Pakistan can be related to changes in child mortality, and whether current and future changes in fertility influence child survival favorably. Omran's study linked large family size to child survival. Resources, which are divided, become more important deficits in households below the poverty line: a situation common in Pakistan. High fertility is associated with short birth intervals, which are related to higher infant and child mortality. In Pakistan, the spacing and mortality link was found among both poverty and higher socioeconomic households. There is some support for the notion that it is birth weight and general health that are linked to survival rather than competition for resources. Other studies link the maternal age at birth and birth order with child mortality (Alam and Cleland). Trussel argues for limiting births in high risk ages of under 20 years and over 35 years. The exact casual link is not well documented. Institutional and community factors are also considered important in influencing child survival: sanitation, potable water, access to roads, electricity, health and family planning services, and sewage. Young infants are more vulnerable to these factors. Bangladesh and some Indian states have shown that population programs and raising per captia incomes are necessary to fertility decline. In India, female autonomy, access to education, and more equal income distribution were considered more important than economic development to child survival. In Pakistan, Sathar and Kazi have linked at least 2 years of elementary, maternal education with reductions in child mortality. The pervasiveness of female illiteracy hinders the chances of child survival. Sex preferences also impact on female children. The probably impacts of declines in breast

  10. Time-specific patterns of nest survival for ducks and passerines breeding in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Terry L.; Grant, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    In many bird species, survival can vary with the age of the nest, with the date a nest was initiated, or among years within the same nesting area. A literature review showed that patterns of survival vary in relation to nest age and date and are often contradictory. Inconsistencies could be a result of temporal variation in the environment or life-history differences among species. We examined patterns of nest survival in relation to nest age, date, and year for several duck and passerine species nesting at a single location in North Dakota during 1998–2003. We predicted that if environment shaped nest survival patterns, then temporal patterns in survival might be similar among three species of upland nesting ducks, and also among three species of grassland passerines nesting at the same site. We expected that survival patterns would differ between ducks and passerines because of relatively disparate life histories and differences in predators that prey on their nests. Nest survival was rarely constant among years, seasonally, or with age of the nest for species that we studied. As predicted, the pattern of survival was similar among duck species, driven mainly by differences in nest survival associated with nest initiation date. The pattern of survival also was similar among passerine species, but nest survival was more influenced by nest age than by date. Our findings suggest that some but not all variation in temporal patterns of nest survival in grassland birds reported in the literature can be explained on the basis of temporal environmental variation. Because patterns of survival were dissimilar among ducks and passerines, it is likely that mechanisms such as predation or brood parasitism have variable influences on productivity of ducks and passerines nesting in the same area. Our results indicate that biologists and managers should not assume that temporal environmental variations, especially factors that affect nest survival, act similarly on all

  11. On structural patterns in H II regions

    SciTech Connect

    Feibelman, W.A. )

    1989-05-01

    High-resolution photographs of H II regions show that a large number of stars embedded in the nebulosities appear to be surrounded by emply spaces. This phenomenon seems to be quite common but has escaped attention up to now. The effect is not a photographic one, nor does it arise in the half-tone reproduction processes employed in publications, but no satisfactory explanation is apparent. 9 refs.

  12. Incidence and Survival Patterns of Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Kyle J.; Lehmann, Ashton E.; Remenschneider, Aaron; Dedmon, Matthew; Meier, Josh; Gray, Stacey T.; Lin, Derrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine trends in sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) survival patterns in the United States. Design Retrospective review of national database. Participants All cases of SNUC in the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results program from 1973 to 2010 were examined. Main Outcome Measures Age-adjusted incidence and survival rates were calculated and stratified by demographic information and treatment modality. Cohort analysis was performed to analyze survival patterns over time. Results A total of 318 SNUC cases were identified. Age-adjusted incidence rate (IR) was 0.02 per 100,000. Incidence was greater in males (IR: 0.03) than females (IR: 0.01; p = 0.03). Overall 5- and 10-year relative survival rate was 34.9% and 31.3%, respectively. Overall median survival was 22.1 months. Median survival following surgery combined with radiation was 41.9 months. Five-year relative survival rate following surgery, radiation, or surgery combined with radiation was 38.7%, 36.0%, and 39.1%, respectively. Median survival from 1973–1986 and 1987–2010 was 14.5 and 23.5 months, respectively. Conclusions This study provides new data regarding survival patterns of SNUC in the United States, confirming survival benefit with surgery and radiation as well as identifying a trend toward improved survival in recent decades. PMID:25844294

  13. Bioconvective patterns, synchrony, and survival. [in light-limited growth model of motile algae culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1990-01-01

    With and without bioconvective pattern formation, a theoretical model predicts growth in light-limited cultures of motile algae. At the critical density for pattern formation, the resulting doubly exponential population curves show an inflection. Such growth corresponds quantitatively to experiments in mechanically unstirred cultures. This attaches survival value to synchronized pattern formation.

  14. A Multiscale Survival Process for Modeling Human Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianyang; Cui, Peng; Song, Chaoming; Zhu, Wenwu; Yang, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Human activity plays a central role in understanding large-scale social dynamics. It is well documented that individual activity pattern follows bursty dynamics characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. Here we study a large-scale online chatting dataset consisting of 5,549,570 users, finding that individual activity pattern varies with timescales whereas existing models only approximate empirical observations within a limited timescale. We propose a novel approach that models the intensity rate of an individual triggering an activity. We demonstrate that the model precisely captures corresponding human dynamics across multiple timescales over five orders of magnitudes. Our model also allows extracting the population heterogeneity of activity patterns, characterized by a set of individual-specific ingredients. Integrating our approach with social interactions leads to a wide range of implications. PMID:27023682

  15. Protein kinase C beta II suppresses colorectal cancer by regulating IGF-1 mediated cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Catríona M.; Phelan, James; Callender, Julia A.; Cathcart, Mary Clare; Mehigan, Brian; McCormick, Paul; Dalton, Tara; Coffey, John C.; Newton, Alexandra C.; O'sullivan, Jacintha; Kiely, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive efforts, cancer therapies directed at the Protein Kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases have failed in clinical trials. These therapies have been directed at inhibiting PKC and have, in some cases, worsened disease outcome. Here we examine colon cancer patients and show not only that PKC Beta II is a tumour suppressor, but patients with low levels of this isozyme have significantly decreased disease free survival. Specifically, analysis of gene expression levels of all PKC genes in matched normal and cancer tissue samples from colon cancer patients revealed a striking down-regulation of the gene coding PKC Beta in the cancer tissue (n = 21). Tissue microarray analysis revealed a dramatic down-regulation of PKC Beta II protein levels in both the epithelial and stromal diseased tissue (n = 166). Of clinical significance, low levels of the protein in the normal tissue of patients is associated with a low (10%) 10 year survival compared with a much higher (60%) survival in patients with relatively high levels of the protein. Consistent with PKC Beta II levels protecting against colon cancer, overexpression of PKC Beta II in colon cancer cell lines reveals that PKC Beta II reverses transformation in cell based assays. Further to this, activation of PKC Beta II results in a dramatic downregulation of IGF-I-induced AKT, indicating a role for PKCs in regulating IGF-1 mediated cell survival. Thus, PKC Beta II is a tumour suppressor in colon cancer and low levels serve as a predictor for poor survival outcome. PMID:26989024

  16. Incorporating movement patterns to improve survival estimates for juvenile bull trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowerman, Tracy; Budy, Phaedra

    2012-01-01

    Populations of many fish species are sensitive to changes in vital rates during early life stages, but our understanding of the factors affecting growth, survival, and movement patterns is often extremely limited for juvenile fish. These critical information gaps are particularly evident for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a threatened Pacific Northwest char. We combined several active and passive mark–recapture and resight techniques to assess migration rates and estimate survival for juvenile bull trout (70–170 mm total length). We evaluated the relative performance of multiple survival estimation techniques by comparing results from a common Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) model, the less widely used Barker model, and a simple return rate (an index of survival). Juvenile bull trout of all sizes emigrated from their natal habitat throughout the year, and thereafter migrated up to 50 km downstream. With the CJS model, high emigration rates led to an extreme underestimate of apparent survival, a combined estimate of site fidelity and survival. In contrast, the Barker model, which allows survival and emigration to be modeled as separate parameters, produced estimates of survival that were much less biased than the return rate. Estimates of age-class-specific annual survival from the Barker model based on all available data were 0.218±0.028 (estimate±SE) for age-1 bull trout and 0.231±0.065 for age-2 bull trout. This research demonstrates the importance of incorporating movement patterns into survival analyses, and we provide one of the first field-based estimates of juvenile bull trout annual survival in relatively pristine rearing conditions. These estimates can provide a baseline for comparison with future studies in more impacted systems and will help managers develop reliable stage-structured population models to evaluate future recovery strategies.

  17. Comments on "Child Survival and Changing Fertility Patterns in Pakistan".

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, K A

    1992-01-01

    The distillation of Zeba Sathar's article on the determinants of fertility decline and child mortality decline is that marriage age and contraceptive surgery could be important factors in bringing about changes in both fertility and child mortality in Pakistan. The concern is that 80 out of 115 million Pakistanis live in rural areas where marriage age is very low and program efforts are limited or nonexistent. The question is raised about how to effectuate changes in attitudes in rural areas to increase marriage age. Another point is made about the simplicity of explanations for fertility and mortality change, when the reality is a complex host of interactive socioeconomic, cultural, social, and program factors that are responsible for fertility at present levels. The suggestion is for development of a more appropriate model of fertility at the micro level which illuminates the interaction of these factors in determining fertility. Sathar is reported to have concluded that the impact of infant and child mortality on fertility was inconclusive. The changing patterns of fertility are likely to bring about a change in the demand for children and a lesser preference for gender; this status change for women will further reduce child mortality and fertility. Large family sizes are postulated to be associated with close spacing and greater concentrations of children under 5 years of age competing for physical resources and having a high risk of infection with inadequate parental attention and care. These conditions occur in families with low income and little parental education. Institutional and community services also affect child mortality. There are also examples of educational opportunity and income equality as factors bringing about demographic change in Sri Lanka and Kerala, India. The author speculates that an outcome of development is increased educational attainment and more equitable distribution of income. Low levels of maternal education are associated with

  18. Stage II Adenocarcinoma of the Endometrium: Adjuvant Radiotherapy and Recurrence Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Cozad, Scott C.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: Review patterns of recurrence for Stage II endometrial cancer in a community practice. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with endometrial cancer diagnosed between 1985-2002. Patients were excluded for Stages I, III, or IV or treatment with preoperative pelvic radiation (external beam radiation therapy [EBRT]). Results: Eighty-six patients with a mean follow-up of 70 months are reported. Higher risk patients were selected for adjuvant radiation with no apparent differences for those receiving only EBRT compared with EBRT with brachytherapy. Five-year actuarial vaginal, pelvic sidewall/nodal, and metastatic control rates were 100% and 100%, 96.9% and 100%, and 79% and 84.2% for patients receiving EBRT or EBRT with brachytherapy. Overall survival rates were 70.5% and 75.8%, and cause-specific survival rates were 78.8% and 82.9% for those receiving EBRT or EBRT with brachytherapy. A select group was observed and experienced one vaginal recurrence with overall and cause-specific survival rates of 100%. Conclusion: In higher risk patients with Stage II, adjuvant EBRT achieves excellent vaginal and pelvic sidewall/nodal control without apparent benefit from additional brachytherapy. Select patients may not require adjuvant treatment.

  19. Intra-annual patterns in adult band-tailed pigeon survival estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Overton, Cory T.; Howe, Kristy H.

    2015-01-01

    Implications: We present the first inter-seasonal analysis of survival probability of the Pacific coast race of band-tailed pigeons and illustrate important temporal patterns that may influence future species management including harvest strategies and disease monitoring.

  20. Comparison of Risk Factors and survival of Type 1 and Type II Endometrial Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Tahira Y.; Chishti, Uzma; Aziz, Aliya B.; Sheikh, Irfan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare risk factors and progression free survival of type 1 & 2 endometrial cancers. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 149 patients with early stage endometrial carcinoma treated between 1997 and 2012 in Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi was performed. Results: A total of 149 patients were analyzed. Type I tumors accounted for 92% of cases in the study while 8% were type II tumors. The mean age, BMI, parity, co-morbidities (hypertension & Diabetes), family history and history of polycystic disease were comparable in both groups. Overall better survival (113 Vs 24 months) was observed for type I endometrial cancer. Conclusion: Both types of endometrial cancer may share common etiologic factors. Despite the limitation of small numbers in one group this study confirms better survival in type 1 endometrial cancer. PMID:27648033

  1. Comparison of Risk Factors and survival of Type 1 and Type II Endometrial Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Tahira Y.; Chishti, Uzma; Aziz, Aliya B.; Sheikh, Irfan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare risk factors and progression free survival of type 1 & 2 endometrial cancers. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 149 patients with early stage endometrial carcinoma treated between 1997 and 2012 in Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi was performed. Results: A total of 149 patients were analyzed. Type I tumors accounted for 92% of cases in the study while 8% were type II tumors. The mean age, BMI, parity, co-morbidities (hypertension & Diabetes), family history and history of polycystic disease were comparable in both groups. Overall better survival (113 Vs 24 months) was observed for type I endometrial cancer. Conclusion: Both types of endometrial cancer may share common etiologic factors. Despite the limitation of small numbers in one group this study confirms better survival in type 1 endometrial cancer.

  2. Comparison of the clinicopathological characteristics and the survival outcomes between the Siewert type II/III adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Han; Chen, Xin-Zu; Liu, Kai; Anil, Kumar; Yang, Kun; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes in Siewert type II and Siewert type III tumors. The clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes were analyzed in patients diagnosed with Siewert II/III tumors, who underwent transabdominal gastrectomy from Jan 2006 to Dec 2010. A total of 321 patients diagnosed with Siewert II/III tumors who underwent gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. Siewert III tumors are larger and have a higher proportion of Borrmann 3-4 types than Siewert II tumors (p < 0.05). For Siewert II and the Siewert III tumors, the 3-year overall survival rate was 59.1 versus 57.1 %, respectively, and the median survival time was 46.0 (31.5-60.5) months versus 46.0 (31.3-60.7) months, respectively. Positive proximal resection margin, large tumor size, Borrmann 3-4 types, poor or undifferentiated degree and advanced T stages and N stages were found to be poor prognostic risk factors for the overall survival outcomes by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the differentiation degree (poor and undifferentiated) and advanced T and N stages were independent prognostic factors for poor overall survival. Siewert III tumors were larger and had a lower differentiation degree than Siewert II tumors, whereas there was no difference in the survival outcomes.

  3. Immunotoxin Against a Donor MHC Class II Molecule Induces Indefinite Survival of Murine Kidney Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, K.; Nowocin, A. K.; Meader, L.; Edwards, L. A.; Smith, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Rejection of donor organs depends on the trafficking of donor passenger leukocytes to the secondary lymphoid organs of the recipient to elicit an immune response via the direct antigen presentation pathway. Therefore, the depletion of passenger leukocytes may be clinically applicable as a strategy to improve graft survival. Because major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II+ cells are most efficient at inducing immune responses, selective depletion of this population from donor grafts may dampen the alloimmune response and prolong graft survival. In a fully MHC mismatched mouse kidney allograft model, we describe the synthesis of an immunotoxin, consisting of the F(ab′)2 fragment of a monoclonal antibody against the donor MHC class II molecule I‐Ak conjugated with the plant‐derived ribosomal inactivating protein gelonin. This anti–I‐Ak gelonin immunotoxin depletes I‐Ak expressing cells specifically in vitro and in vivo. When given to recipients of kidney allografts, it resulted in indefinite graft survival with normal graft function, presence of Foxp3+ cells within donor grafts, diminished donor‐specific antibody formation, and delayed rejection of subsequent donor‐type skin grafts. Strategies aimed at the donor arm of the immune system using agents such as immunotoxins may be a useful adjuvant to existing recipient‐orientated immunosuppression. PMID:26799449

  4. Negative synergism of rainfall patterns and predators affects frog egg survival.

    PubMed

    Touchon, Justin Charles; Warkentin, Karen Michelle

    2009-07-01

    1. The importance of rainfall is recognized in arid habitats, but has rarely been explored in ecosystems not viewed as rainfall limited. In addition, most attempts to study how rainfall affects organismal survival have focused on long-term rainfall metrics (e.g. monthly or seasonal patterns) instead of short-term measures. For organisms that are short lived or are sensitive to desiccation, short-term patterns of rainfall may provide insight to understanding what determines survival in particular habitats. 2. We monitored daily rainfall and survival of arboreal eggs of the treefrog Dendropsophus ebraccatus at two ponds during the rainy season in central Panama. Desiccation and predation were the primary sources of egg mortality and their effects were not independent. Rainfall directly reduced desiccation mortality by hydrating and thickening the jelly surrounding eggs. In addition, rainfall reduced predation on egg clutches. 3. To elucidate the mechanism by which rainfall alters predation, we exposed experimentally hydrated and dehydrated egg clutches to the two D. ebraccatus egg predators most common at our site, ants and social wasps. Ants and wasps preferentially preyed on dehydrated clutches and ants consumed dehydrated eggs three times faster than hydrated eggs. 4. Rainfall patterns are expected to change and the responses of organisms that use rainfall as a reliable cue to reproduce may prove maladaptive. If rainfall becomes more sporadic, as is predicted to happen during this century, it may have negative consequences for desiccation-sensitive organisms. PMID:19486379

  5. Movement patterns, habitat use, and survival of Lahontan cutthroat trout in the Truckee River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexiades, Alexander V.; Peacock, Mary M.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, hybridization, and competition with nonnative salmonids are viewed as major threats to Lahontan cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi. Understanding Lahontan cutthroat trout behavior and survival is a necessary step in the reintroduction and establishment of naturally reproducing populations of Lahontan cutthroat trout. We used weekly radiotelemetry monitoring to examine movement patterns, habitat use, and apparent survival of 42 hatchery-reared Lahontan cutthroat trout in a 16.5-km stretch of the Truckee River, Nevada, across three reaches separated by barriers to upstream movement. We found differences in total movement distances and home range sizes of fish in different reaches within our study area. Fish used pool habitats more than fast water habitats in all reaches. Time of year, stream temperature, and fish standard length covariates had the strongest relationship with apparent survival. Monthly apparent survival was lowest in January, which coincided with the lowest flows and temperatures during the study period. Our results verify the mobility of Lahontan cutthroat trout and indicate that conditions during winter may limit the survival and reintroduction success in the portions of the Truckee River evaluated in this study.

  6. Seed deposition patterns and the survival of seeds and seedlings of the palm Euterpe edulis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizo, Marco A.; Simão, Isaac

    2001-08-01

    The seed deposition pattern created by a seed disperser is one of the components of the efficiency of a species as seed disperser, and ultimately may influence the recruitment of a plant species. In this study, we used the seeds of a bird-dispersed forest palm, Euterpe edulis, to investigate the effects of two distinct seed deposition patterns created by birds that defecate (clumped pattern) and regurgitate seeds (loose-clumped pattern) on the survival of seeds experimentally set in an E. edulis-rich site, and of seedlings grown under shade-house conditions. The study was conducted in the lowland forest of Parque Estadual Intervales, SE Brazil. Clumped and loose-clumped seeds were equally preyed upon by rodents and insects. Although clumped and isolated seedlings had the same root weight after 1 year, the isolated seedlings survived better and presented more developed shoots, suggesting intraspecific competition among clumped seedlings. Our results indicate that animals that deposit E. edulis seeds in faecal clumps (e.g. cracids, tapirs) are less efficient seed dispersers than those that regurgitate seeds individually (e.g. trogons, toucans). Intraspecific competition among seedlings growing from faecal clumps is a likely process preventing the occurrence of clumps of adult palms.

  7. Diversity of Survival Patterns among Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genotypes Subjected to Food-Related Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Elhadidy, Mohamed; Álvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the resistance patterns to food-related stresses of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains belonging to specific genotypes. A total of 33 E. coli O157:H7 strains were exposed to seven different stress conditions acting as potential selective pressures affecting the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to humans through the food chain. These stress conditions included cold, oxidative, osmotic, acid, heat, freeze-thaw, and starvation stresses. The genotypes used for comparison included lineage-specific polymorphism, Shiga-toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion sites, clade type, tir (A255T) polymorphism, Shiga toxin 2 subtype, and antiterminator Q gene allele. Bacterial resistance to different stressors was calculated by determining D-values (times required for inactivation of 90% of the bacterial population), which were then subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses. In addition, a relative stress resistance value, integrating resistance values to all tested stressors, was calculated for each bacterial strain and allowed for a ranking-type classification of E. coli O157:H7 strains according to their environmental robustness. Lineage I/II strains were found to be significantly more resistant to acid, cold, and starvation stress than lineage II strains. Similarly, tir (255T) and clade 8 encoding strains were significantly more resistant to acid, heat, cold, and starvation stress than tir (255A) and non-clade 8 strains. Principal component analysis, which allows grouping of strains with similar stress survival characteristics, separated strains of lineage I and I/II from strains of lineage II, which in general showed reduced survival abilities. Results obtained suggest that lineage I/II, tir (255T), and clade 8 strains, which have been previously reported to be more frequently associated with human disease cases, have greater multiple stress resistance than strains of other genotypes. The results from this

  8. Movement patterns and study area boundaries: Influences on survival estimation in capture-mark-recapture studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, G.E.; Letcher, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The inability to account for the availability of individuals in the study area during capture-mark-recapture (CMR) studies and the resultant confounding of parameter estimates can make correct interpretation of CMR model parameter estimates difficult. Although important advances based on the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model have resulted in estimators of true survival that work by unconfounding either death or recapture probability from availability for capture in the study area, these methods rely on the researcher's ability to select a method that is correctly matched to emigration patterns in the population. If incorrect assumptions regarding site fidelity (non-movement) are made, it may be difficult or impossible as well as costly to change the study design once the incorrect assumption is discovered. Subtleties in characteristics of movement (e.g. life history-dependent emigration, nomads vs territory holders) can lead to mixtures in the probability of being available for capture among members of the same population. The result of these mixtures may be only a partial unconfounding of emigration from other CMR model parameters. Biologically-based differences in individual movement can combine with constraints on study design to further complicate the problem. Because of the intricacies of movement and its interaction with other parameters in CMR models, quantification of and solutions to these problems are needed. Based on our work with stream-dwelling populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, we used a simulation approach to evaluate existing CMR models under various mixtures of movement probabilities. The Barker joint data model provided unbiased estimates of true survival under all conditions tested. The CJS and robust design models provided similarly unbiased estimates of true survival but only when emigration information could be incorporated directly into individual encounter histories. For the robust design model, Markovian emigration (future

  9. The ability to survive intracellular freezing in nematodes is related to the pattern and distribution of ice formed.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Méliane R; Wharton, David A

    2016-07-01

    A few species of nematodes can survive extensive intracellular freezing throughout all their tissues, an event that is usually thought to be fatal to cells. How are they able to survive in this remarkable way? The pattern and distribution of ice formed, after freezing at -10°C, can be observed using freeze substitution and transmission electron microscopy, which preserves the former position of ice as white spaces. We compared the pattern and distribution of ice formed in a nematode that survives intracellular freezing well (Panagrolaimus sp. DAW1), one that survives poorly (Panagrellus redivivus) and one with intermediate levels of survival (Plectus murrayi). We also examined Panagrolaimus sp. in which the survival of freezing had been compromised by starvation. Levels of survival were as expected and the use of vital dyes indicated cellular damage in those that survived poorly (starved Panagrolaimus sp. and P. murrayi). In fed Panagrolaimus sp. the intracellular ice spaces were small and uniform, whereas in P. redivivus and starved Panagrolaimus sp. there were some large spaces that may be causing cellular damage. The pattern and distribution of ice formed was different in P. murrayi, with a greater number of individuals having no ice or only small intracellular ice spaces. Control of the size of the ice formed is thus important for the survival of intracellular freezing in nematodes.

  10. The ability to survive intracellular freezing in nematodes is related to the pattern and distribution of ice formed.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Méliane R; Wharton, David A

    2016-07-01

    A few species of nematodes can survive extensive intracellular freezing throughout all their tissues, an event that is usually thought to be fatal to cells. How are they able to survive in this remarkable way? The pattern and distribution of ice formed, after freezing at -10°C, can be observed using freeze substitution and transmission electron microscopy, which preserves the former position of ice as white spaces. We compared the pattern and distribution of ice formed in a nematode that survives intracellular freezing well (Panagrolaimus sp. DAW1), one that survives poorly (Panagrellus redivivus) and one with intermediate levels of survival (Plectus murrayi). We also examined Panagrolaimus sp. in which the survival of freezing had been compromised by starvation. Levels of survival were as expected and the use of vital dyes indicated cellular damage in those that survived poorly (starved Panagrolaimus sp. and P. murrayi). In fed Panagrolaimus sp. the intracellular ice spaces were small and uniform, whereas in P. redivivus and starved Panagrolaimus sp. there were some large spaces that may be causing cellular damage. The pattern and distribution of ice formed was different in P. murrayi, with a greater number of individuals having no ice or only small intracellular ice spaces. Control of the size of the ice formed is thus important for the survival of intracellular freezing in nematodes. PMID:27143749

  11. Comparing Population Patterns to Processes: Abundance and Survival of a Forest Salamander following Habitat Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Clint R. V.; Roloff, Gary J.; Thames, Rachael E.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat degradation resulting from anthropogenic activities poses immediate and prolonged threats to biodiversity, particularly among declining amphibians. Many studies infer amphibian response to habitat degradation by correlating patterns in species occupancy or abundance with environmental effects, often without regard to the demographic processes underlying these patterns. We evaluated how retention of vertical green trees (CANOPY) and coarse woody debris (CWD) influenced terrestrial salamander abundance and apparent survival in recently clearcut forests. Estimated abundance of unmarked salamanders was positively related to CANOPY (Canopy  = 0.21 (0.02–1.19; 95% CI), but not CWD (CWD  = 0.11 (−0.13–0.35) within 3,600 m2 sites, whereas estimated abundance of unmarked salamanders was not related to CANOPY (Canopy  = −0.01 (−0.21–0.18) or CWD (CWD  = −0.02 (−0.23–0.19) for 9 m2 enclosures. In contrast, apparent survival of marked salamanders within our enclosures over 1 month was positively influenced by both CANOPY and CWD retention (Canopy  = 0.73 (0.27–1.19; 95% CI) and CWD  = 1.01 (0.53–1.50). Our results indicate that environmental correlates to abundance are scale dependent reflecting habitat selection processes and organism movements after a habitat disturbance event. Our study also provides a cautionary example of how scientific inference is conditional on the response variable(s), and scale(s) of measure chosen by the investigator, which can have important implications for species conservation and management. Our research highlights the need for joint evaluation of population state variables, such as abundance, and population-level process, such as survival, when assessing anthropogenic impacts on forest biodiversity. PMID:24718498

  12. Racial Patterns of Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Incidence and Survival in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Scott V.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare incidence and survival of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) subtypes among US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Patients with PTCL (age ≥ 15 years; 2000 to 2012) were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries. Race/ethnicity was categorized as non-Hispanic white, black, Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic white, or American Indian/Alaskan native. Age-standardized annual incidence rates and incidence rate ratios were estimated with 95% CIs, and case-case odds ratios were estimated by race/ethnicity using polytomous regression. Survival was estimated from SEER follow-up data with Cox regression. Results Thirteen thousand one hundred seven patients with PTCL were identified. Annual PTCL incidence was highest in blacks and lowest in Native Americans. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, blacks had a higher incidence of PTCL not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and a lower incidence of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL); Asians/Pacific Islanders had a higher incidence of AITL, extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma and NK-cell leukemia (ENKCL), and ATLL and a lower incidence of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma; Hispanics had a higher incidence of AITL and ENKCL; and Native Americans had a lower incidence of PTCL-NOS (all P < .05). The ratio of ENKCL to PCTL-NOS among Native Americans, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanic whites was approximately three- to four-fold the same ratio among non-Hispanic whites. Survival varied significantly by race/ethnicity (P < .001), with blacks in particular experiencing shorter survival for most subtypes. Conclusion Striking variation in incidence, proportions of PTCL subtypes, and survival was observed. Aspects of these PTCL subtype patterns, such as for ENKCL and ATLL, were similar to corresponding global populations. Despite the small population size and limited number of Native American

  13. [Recurrence and survival rate of advanced gastric cancer after preoperative EAP-II intra-arterial infusion therapy].

    PubMed

    Masuyama, M; Taniguchi, H; Takeuchi, K; Miyata, K; Koyama, H; Tanaka, H; Higashida, T; Koishi, Y; Mugitani, T; Yamaguchi, T

    1994-09-01

    Ninety-eight patients with advanced gastric cancers underwent gastrectomy from Jan. 1989 to Dec. 1991. For these patients, preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy using EAP-II (etoposide 100 mg, epirubicin 20 mg, carboplatin 100 mg) was given to 24 patients. In this report, the recurrence and survival rate of these patients were investigated. After curative resection, the survival rate of patients with EAP-II 36 months after operation was 76.9%, while that of patients without EAP-II was 78.6%. There were no significant differences between these two groups. Two peritoneal carcinomatoses and two liver metastases were seen in patients with EAP-II (recurrence rate, 30.7%). Eight recurrences were observed in patients without preoperative injection therapy (peritoneal dissemination, 4; local recurrence, 3; lymph node recurrence, 1). Previously, we reported that drugs were remarkably accumulated in gastric cancer tissue and regional lymph nodes after EAP-II intra-arterial injection therapy. This high accumulation might cause no local or lymph node recurrence was seen in patient with EAP-II. Thus, it was concluded that preoperative EAP-II intra-arterial injection may prevent local and lymph node recurrences, and that further study of the combination and dose of anti-cancer drug needed to improve the postoperative survival rate in advanced gastric cancer patients.

  14. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not associated with improved survival for all high-risk factors in stage II colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Verhoeff, S R; van Erning, F N; Lemmens, V E P P; de Wilt, J H W; Pruijt, J F M

    2016-07-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy can be considered in high-risk stage II colon cancer comprising pT4, poor/undifferentiated grade, vascular invasion, emergency surgery and/or <10 evaluated lymph nodes (LNs). Adjuvant chemotherapy administration and its effect on survival was evaluated for each known risk factor. All patients with high-risk stage II colon cancer who underwent resection and were diagnosed in the Netherlands between 2008 and 2012 were included. After stratification by risk factor(s) (vascular invasion could not be included), Cox regression was used to discriminate the independent association of adjuvant chemotherapy with the probability of death. Relative survival was used to estimate disease-specific survival. A total of 4,940 of 10,935 patients with stage II colon cancer were identified as high risk, of whom 790 (16%) patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with a pT4 received adjuvant chemotherapy more often (37%). Probability of death in pT4 patients receiving chemotherapy was lower compared to non-recipients (3-year overall survival 91% vs. 73%, HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.28-0.66). The relative excess risk (RER) of dying was also lower for pT4 patients receiving chemotherapy compared to non-recipients (3-year relative survival 94% vs. 85%, RER 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.74). For patients with only poor/undifferentiated grade, emergency surgery or <10 LNs evaluated, no association between receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy and survival was observed. In high-risk stage II colon cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with higher survival in pT4 only. To prevent unnecessary chemotherapy-induced toxicity, further refinement of patient subgroups within stage II colon cancer who could benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy seems indicated.

  15. pN0(i+) Breast Cancer: Treatment Patterns, Locoregional Recurrence, and Survival Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Karam, Irene; Lesperance, Maria F.; Berrang, Tanya; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott; Truong, Pauline T.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To examine treatment patterns, recurrence, and survival outcomes in patients with pN0(i+) breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 5999 women with AJCC (6th edition) pT1-3, pN0-N1a, M0 breast cancer diagnosed between 2003 and 2006. Of these, 4342 (72%) had pN0, 96 (2%) had pN0(i+), 349 (6%) had pNmic (micrometastases >0.2 mm to ≤2 mm), and 1212 (20%) had pN1a (1-3 positive macroscopic nodes) disease. Treatment characteristics and 5-year Kaplan-Meier local recurrence, regional recurrence (RR), locoregional recurrence (LRR), and overall survival were compared between nodal subgroups. Multivariable analysis was performed using Cox regression modeling. A 1:3 case-match analysis examined outcomes in pN0(i+) cases compared with pN0 controls matched for similar tumor and treatment characteristics. Results: Median follow-up was 4.8 years. Adjuvant systemic therapy use increased with nodal stage: 81%, 92%, 95%, and 94% in pN0, pN0(i+), pNmic, and pN1a disease, respectively (P<.001). Nodal radiation therapy (RT) use also increased with nodal stage: 1.7% in pN0, 27% in pN0(i+), 33% in pNmic, and 63% in pN1a cohorts (P<.001). Five-year Kaplan-Meier outcomes in pN0 versus pN0(i+) cases were as follows: local recurrence 1.7% versus 3.7% (P=.20), RR 0.5% versus 2.2% (P=.02), and LRR 2.1% versus 5.8% (P=.02). There were no RR events in 26 patients with pN0(i+) disease who received nodal RT and 2 RR events in 70 patients who did not receive nodal RT. On multivariable analysis, pN0(i+) was not associated with worse locoregional control or survival. On case-match analysis, LRR and overall survival were similar between pN0(i+) and matched pN0 counterparts. Conclusions: Nodal involvement with isolated tumor cells is not a significant prognostic factor for LRR or survival in this study's multivariable and case-match analyses. These data do not support the routine use of nodal RT in the setting of pN0(i+) disease. Prospective studies are needed to define optimal

  16. Prevalence and temporal pattern of hospital readmissions for patients with type I and type II diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lv, Yuanjun; Li, Changping; Cui, Zhuang; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Repeated hospitalisation for patients is common and costly, yet partly preventable. However, we know little about readmissions for patients with diabetes in China. The current study aims to assess the frequency and temporal pattern of and risk factors for all-cause readmission among hospitalised patients with diabetes in Tianjin, China. Method This retrospective, cohort analysis used the Tianjin Basic Medical Insurance Register System data of 2011. The patterns of and the reasons for all-cause readmissions for patients with diabetes were described. The differences of readmission-free survival (RFS) between newly and previously diagnosed patients were compared. Time-dependent Cox models were established to identify the risk factors for readmission at different time intervals after discharge. Results Readmission rates were approximately 30%, with the most common diagnoses of cerebral infarction (for type I) or diabetes (for type II) for patients with diabetes. The majority of patients were readmitted to the hospital after more than 90 days, followed by 8–30 days (all p=0.002). Approximately 37.2% and 42.8% of readmitted patients with type I and type II diabetes were diagnosed previously, and the RFS rates for previously diagnosed patients were significantly lower than for newly diagnosed patients at any time interval after discharge. Prior history of diabetes (all p<0.05), length of stay (all p<0.01) and reimbursement ratio (90% vs >92%, all p<0.0002) were consistently associated with the RFS for patients readmitted to the hospital at <7, 8–30, 31–60 and 61–90 days. Conclusions Hospital readmissions among patients with diabetes were affected by the diagnosis status. Patient characteristics and the quality of healthcare might regulate short-interval and long-interval hospital readmission, respectively, after discharge. PMID:26525716

  17. Neonatal Idiotypic Exposure Alters Subsequent Cytokine, Pathology, and Survival Patterns in Experimental Schistosoma mansoni Infections

    PubMed Central

    Angela Montesano, M.; Colley, Daniel G.; Eloi-Santos, Silvana; Freeman, George L.; Secor, W. Evan

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to maternal idiotypes (Ids) or antigens might predispose a child to develop an immunoregulated, asymptomatic clinical presentation of schistosomiasis. We have used an experimental murine system to address the role of Ids in this immunoregulation. Sera from mice with 8-wk Schistosoma mansoni infection, chronic (20-wk infection) moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS), or chronic hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) were passed over an S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) immunoaffinity column to prepare Ids (8WkId, MSS Id, HSS Id). Newborn mice were injected with 8WkId, MSS Id, HSS Id, or normal mouse immunoglobulin (NoMoIgG) and infected with S. mansoni 8 wk later. Mice exposed to 8WkId or MSS Id as newborns had prolonged survival and decreased morbidity compared with mice that received HSS Id or NoMoIgG. When stimulated with SEA, 8WkId, or MSS Id, spleen cells from mice neonatally injected with 8WkId or MSS Id produced more interferon γ than spleen cells from mice neonatally injected with HSS Id or NoMoIgG. Furthermore, neonatal exposure to 8WkId or MSS Id, but not NoMoIgG or HSS Id, led to significantly smaller granuloma size and lower hepatic fibrosis levels in infected mice. Together, these results indicate that perinatal exposure to appropriate anti-SEA Ids induces long-term effects on survival, pathology, and immune response patterns in mice subsequently infected with S. mansoni. PMID:9989978

  18. Heartbeat control in leeches. II. Fictive motor pattern.

    PubMed

    Wenning, Angela; Hill, Andrew A V; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2004-01-01

    The rhythmic beating of the tube-like hearts in the medicinal leech is driven and coordinated by rhythmic activity in segmental heart motor neurons. The motor neurons are controlled by rhythmic inhibitory input from a network of heart interneurons that compose the heartbeat central pattern generator. In the preceding paper, we described the constriction pattern of the hearts in quiescent intact animals and showed that one heart constricts in a rear-to-front wave (peristaltic coordination mode), while the other heart constricts in near unison over its length (synchronous coordination mode) and that they regularly switch coordination modes. Here we analyze intersegmental and side-to-side-coordination of the fictive motor pattern for heartbeat in denervated nerve cords. We show that the intersegmental phase relations among heart motor neurons in both coordination modes are independent of heartbeat period. This finding enables us to combine data from different experiments to form a detailed analysis of the relative phases, duty cycle, and intraburst spike frequency of the bursts of the segmental heart motor neurons. The fictive motor pattern and the constriction pattern seen in intact leeches closely match in their intersegmental and side-to-side coordination, indicating that sensory feedback is not necessary for properly phased intersegmental coordination. Moreover, the regular switches in coordination mode of the fictive motor pattern mimic those seen in intact animals indicating that these switches likely arise by a central mechanism.

  19. Novel gene ashwin functions in Xenopus cell survival and anteroposterior patterning.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sonali S; Alexander, Tara B; Uzman, J Akif; Lou, Chih-Hong; Gohil, Himika; Sater, Amy K

    2006-07-01

    The novel gene ashwin was isolated in a differential display screen for genes activated or up-regulated early in neural specification. ashwin is expressed maternally and zygotically, and it is up-regulated in the neural ectoderm after the midgastrula stage. It is expressed in the neural plate and later in the embryonic brain, eyes, and spinal cord. Overexpression of ashwin in whole embryos leads to anterior truncations and other defects. However, a second Organizer does not form, and the secondary axial structures may result from splitting of the Organizer, rather than axis duplication. Morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated reduction in ashwin expression leads to lethality or abnormalities in gastrulation, as well as significant apoptosis in midgastrula embryos. Apoptosis is also observed in midgastrula embryos overexpressing ashwin. Coexpression of ashwin with the bone morphogenetic protein-4 antagonist noggin has a synergistic effect on neural-specific gene expression in isolated animal cap ectoderm. Ashwin has no previously characterized domains, although two nuclear localization signals can be identified. Orthologues have been identified in the human, mouse, chicken, and pufferfish genomes. Our results suggest that ashwin regulates cell survival and anteroposterior patterning.

  20. Ewing's sarcoma. Radiographic pattern of healing and bony complications in patients with long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Ehara, S.; Kattapuram, S.V.; Egglin, T.K. )

    1991-10-01

    The radiographic appearance of Ewing's sarcoma was studied retrospectively in 22 patients who survived 5 years or longer after diagnosis and treatment. Expected changes from treatment, including regression of the extraosseous soft tissue mass, periostitis, and reconstitution of the cortex, occurred in all patients. Local recurrence occurred in one patient 10 years after complete remission whereas secondary osteosarcoma occurred more than 5 years after complete remission in two other cases. Both recurrent and secondary tumors presented as new lytic foci at the site of the original primary lesion. Lytic changes from radiation (radiation osteitis) may develop more than 2 years after treatment and in this sample; such findings were widely distributed in the radiation port. The authors conclude that bone remodeling and postradiation changes occur slowly over 2 years after treatment, and that any localized lysis at the primary site is suspicious for recurrence or secondary neoplasm. Knowledge of the expected changes and patterns of local recurrence and secondary neoplasms helps one to detect any significant change in its early phase.

  1. Meniscal ossification. II. The normal pattern in the tiger knee.

    PubMed

    Ganey, T M; Ogden, J A; Abou-Madi, N; Colville, B; Zdyziarski, J M; Olsen, J H

    1994-04-01

    Examination of knee menisci of Bengal tigers revealed ossicles within the cartilaginous anterior horn of each medial meniscus. This ossification was not evident in the neonatal animal, but was present in animals aged 20 months or older. The ossicle appeared prior to the completion of skeletal maturation at the knee, and was composed of normal remodeling trabecular bone. While most animals had a single, variably sized ossicle, multiple ossicles also occurred. The meniscal cartilage apposed to the femoral articulation exhibited a distinct columnar pattern in the region of the ossicle, in contrast to the non-columnar pattern throughout the bulk of the meniscus, including the ossicle side apposed to the tibial plateau. In this particular large mammalian species medial meniscal ossification appears to be a normal anatomical variation that progressively develops following birth, and may serve as a model for the phylogenetic (developmental) theory of etiology.

  2. Meniscal ossification. II. The normal pattern in the tiger knee.

    PubMed

    Ganey, T M; Ogden, J A; Abou-Madi, N; Colville, B; Zdyziarski, J M; Olsen, J H

    1994-04-01

    Examination of knee menisci of Bengal tigers revealed ossicles within the cartilaginous anterior horn of each medial meniscus. This ossification was not evident in the neonatal animal, but was present in animals aged 20 months or older. The ossicle appeared prior to the completion of skeletal maturation at the knee, and was composed of normal remodeling trabecular bone. While most animals had a single, variably sized ossicle, multiple ossicles also occurred. The meniscal cartilage apposed to the femoral articulation exhibited a distinct columnar pattern in the region of the ossicle, in contrast to the non-columnar pattern throughout the bulk of the meniscus, including the ossicle side apposed to the tibial plateau. In this particular large mammalian species medial meniscal ossification appears to be a normal anatomical variation that progressively develops following birth, and may serve as a model for the phylogenetic (developmental) theory of etiology. PMID:7517071

  3. Canine splenic haemangiosarcoma: influence of metastases, chemotherapy and growth pattern on post-splenectomy survival and expression of angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Göritz, M; Müller, K; Krastel, D; Staudacher, G; Schmidt, P; Kühn, M; Nickel, R; Schoon, H-A

    2013-07-01

    Splenic haemangiosarcomas (HSAs) from 122 dogs were characterized and classified according to their patterns of growth, survival time post splenectomy, metastases and chemotherapy. The most common pattern of growth was a mixture of cavernous, capillary and solid tumour tissue. Survival time post splenectomy was independent of the growth pattern; however, it was influenced by chemotherapy and metastases. Immunohistochemical assessment of the expression of angiogenic factors (fetal liver kinase-1, angiopoietin-2, angiopoietin receptor-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor A) and conventional endothelial markers (CD31, factor VIII-related antigen) revealed variable expression, particularly in undifferentiated HSAs. Therefore, a combination of endothelial markers should be used to confirm the endothelial origin of splenic tumours. PMID:23276383

  4. Survival of plant seeds, their UV screens, and nptII DNA for 18 months outside the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, David; Zalar, Andreja; Leach, Sydney

    2012-05-01

    The plausibility that life was imported to Earth from elsewhere can be tested by subjecting life-forms to space travel. Ultraviolet light is the major liability in short-term exposures (Horneck et al., 2001 ), and plant seeds, tardigrades, and lichens-but not microorganisms and their spores-are candidates for long-term survival (Anikeeva et al., 1990 ; Sancho et al., 2007 ; Jönsson et al., 2008 ; de la Torre et al., 2010 ). In the present study, plant seeds germinated after 1.5 years of exposure to solar UV, solar and galactic cosmic radiation, temperature fluctuations, and space vacuum outside the International Space Station. Of the 2100 exposed wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) seeds, 23% produced viable plants after return to Earth. Survival was lower in the Arabidopsis Wassilewskija ecotype and in mutants (tt4-8 and fah1-2) lacking UV screens. The highest survival occurred in tobacco (44%). Germination was delayed in seeds shielded from solar light, yet full survival was attained, which indicates that longer space travel would be possible for seeds embedded in an opaque matrix. We conclude that a naked, seed-like entity could have survived exposure to solar UV radiation during a hypothetical transfer from Mars to Earth. Chemical samples of seed flavonoid UV screens were degraded by UV, but their overall capacity to absorb UV was retained. Naked DNA encoding the nptII gene (kanamycin resistance) was also degraded by UV. A fragment, however, was detected by the polymerase chain reaction, and the gene survived in space when protected from UV. Even if seeds do not survive, components (e.g., their DNA) might survive transfer over cosmic distances.

  5. Survival of plant seeds, their UV screens, and nptII DNA for 18 months outside the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, David; Zalar, Andreja; Leach, Sydney

    2012-05-01

    The plausibility that life was imported to Earth from elsewhere can be tested by subjecting life-forms to space travel. Ultraviolet light is the major liability in short-term exposures (Horneck et al., 2001 ), and plant seeds, tardigrades, and lichens-but not microorganisms and their spores-are candidates for long-term survival (Anikeeva et al., 1990 ; Sancho et al., 2007 ; Jönsson et al., 2008 ; de la Torre et al., 2010 ). In the present study, plant seeds germinated after 1.5 years of exposure to solar UV, solar and galactic cosmic radiation, temperature fluctuations, and space vacuum outside the International Space Station. Of the 2100 exposed wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) seeds, 23% produced viable plants after return to Earth. Survival was lower in the Arabidopsis Wassilewskija ecotype and in mutants (tt4-8 and fah1-2) lacking UV screens. The highest survival occurred in tobacco (44%). Germination was delayed in seeds shielded from solar light, yet full survival was attained, which indicates that longer space travel would be possible for seeds embedded in an opaque matrix. We conclude that a naked, seed-like entity could have survived exposure to solar UV radiation during a hypothetical transfer from Mars to Earth. Chemical samples of seed flavonoid UV screens were degraded by UV, but their overall capacity to absorb UV was retained. Naked DNA encoding the nptII gene (kanamycin resistance) was also degraded by UV. A fragment, however, was detected by the polymerase chain reaction, and the gene survived in space when protected from UV. Even if seeds do not survive, components (e.g., their DNA) might survive transfer over cosmic distances. PMID:22680697

  6. CasExpress reveals widespread and diverse patterns of cell survival of caspase-3 activation during development in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Austin Xun; Sun, Gongping; Argaw, Yewubdar G; Wong, Jessica O; Easwaran, Sreesankar; Montell, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    Caspase-3 carries out the executioner phase of apoptosis, however under special circumstances, cells can survive its activity. To document systematically where and when cells survive caspase-3 activation in vivo, we designed a system, CasExpress, which drives fluorescent protein expression, transiently or permanently, in cells that survive caspase-3 activation in Drosophila. We discovered widespread survival of caspase-3 activity. Distinct spatial and temporal patterns emerged in different tissues. Some cells activated caspase-3 during their normal development in every cell and in every animal without evidence of apoptosis. In other tissues, such as the brain, expression was sporadic both temporally and spatially and overlapped with periods of apoptosis. In adults, reporter expression was evident in a large fraction of cells in most tissues of every animal; however the precise patterns varied. Inhibition of caspase activity in wing discs reduced wing size demonstrating functional significance. The implications of these patterns are discussed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10936.001 PMID:27058168

  7. Tile Patterns with LOGO--Part II: Tile Patterns from Rep Tiles Using LOGO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clason, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a recursive LOGO method for dissecting polygons into congruent parts (rep tiles) similar to the original polygon, thereby producing unexpected patterns. A list of descriptions for such dissections is included along with suggestions for modifications that allow extended student explorations into tile patterns. (JJK)

  8. Temporal and spatial patterns in emergence and early survival of perennial plants in the Sonoran Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, Janice E.; Turner, R.M.; Burgess, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    Seedling emergence and survival of 15 perennial species were studied for six years in a 557-m2 permanent plot at Tumamoc Hill, Arizona, USA, an ungrazed site in the northern Sonoran Desert. The minimum rain required for germination and emergence ranged from 17.5 to 35.6 mm. Few species emerged in every year of the study. First-year survival averaged across all 15 species was 3.7%; only 0.1% of seedlings lived as long as four years. The odds of survival in the first year improved with increased rain. About three times as many seedlings died from predation as desiccation. In 2-m2 subplots, mortality of three woody species in the first 30 days after emergence appeared to be independent of seedling density. Short-, moderate-, and long-lived species displayed distinct survival strategies. Long-lived species compensated for generally poor seedling survival by frequent germination and emergence. Moderate-lived species exhibited highly episodic germination and emergence, a potentially risky behavior that might have been offset to some extent by relatively good long-term survival. Short-lived species had the highest seedling survival. Because these species can bloom in their first year, good early survival meant that some individuals were able to reproduce before they died.

  9. Does chemotherapy improve survival in high-risk stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin?

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Michael G. . E-mail: michael_poulsen@health.qld.gov.au; Rischin, Danny; Porter, Ian; Walpole, Euan; Harvey, Jennifer; Hamilton, Chris; Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The effectiveness of synchronous carboplatin, etoposide, and radiation therapy in improving survival was evaluated by comparison of a matched set of historic control subjects with patients treated in a prospective Phase II study that used synchronous chemotherapy and radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients were included in the analysis if they had disease localized to the primary site and nodes, and they were required to have at least one of the following high-risk features: recurrence after initial therapy, involved nodes, primary size greater than 1 cm, or gross residual disease after surgery. All patients who received chemotherapy were treated in a standardized fashion as part of a Phase II study (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group TROG 96:07) from 1997 to 2001. Radiation was delivered to the primary site and nodes to a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, and synchronous carboplatin (AUC 4.5) and etoposide, 80 mg/m{sup 2} i.v. on Days 1 to 3, were given in Weeks 1, 4, 7, and 10. The historic group represents a single institution's experience from 1988 to 1996 and was treated with surgery and radiation alone, and patients were included if they fulfilled the eligibility criteria of TROG 96:07. Patients with occult cutaneous disease were not included for the purpose of this analysis. Because of imbalances in the prognostic variables between the two treatment groups, comparisons were made by application of Cox's proportional hazard modeling. Overall survival, disease-specific survival, locoregional control, and distant control were used as endpoints for the study. Results: Of the 102 patients who had high-risk Stage I and II disease, 40 were treated with chemotherapy (TROG 96:07) and 62 were treated without chemotherapy (historic control subjects). When Cox's proportional hazards modeling was applied, the only significant factors for overall survival were recurrent disease, age, and the presence of residual disease

  10. Identification of Gene Expression Pattern Related to Breast Cancer Survival Using Integrated TCGA Datasets and Genomic Tools

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Duan, Huilong; Li, Haomin

    2015-01-01

    Several large-scale human cancer genomics projects such as TCGA offered huge genomic and clinical data for researchers to obtain meaningful genomics alterations which intervene in the development and metastasis of the tumor. A web-based TCGA data analysis platform called TCGA4U was developed in this study. TCGA4U provides a visualization solution for this study to illustrate the relationship of these genomics alternations with clinical data. A whole genome screening of the survival related gene expression patterns in breast cancer was studied. The gene list that impacts the breast cancer patient survival was divided into two patterns. Gene list of each of these patterns was separately analyzed on DAVID. The result showed that mitochondrial ribosomes play a more crucial role in the cancer development. We also reported that breast cancer patients with low HSPA2 expression level had shorter overall survival time. This is widely different to findings of HSPA2 expression pattern in other cancer types. TCGA4U provided a new perspective for the TCGA datasets. We believe it can inspire more biomedical researchers to study and explain the genomic alterations in cancer development and discover more targeted therapies to help more cancer patients. PMID:26576432

  11. Causes of mortality and temporal patterns in breeding season survival of lesser prairie-chickens in shinnery oak prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.

    2015-01-01

    Baseline survival and mortality data for lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) are lacking for shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) prairies. An understanding of the causes and timing of mortalities and breeding season survival in this ecoregion is important because shinnery oak prairies have hotter and drier environmental conditions, as well as different predator communities compared with the northern distribution of the species. The need for this information has become more pressing given the recent listing of the species as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We investigated causes of mortality and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the 6-month breeding season (1 Mar–31 Aug) of 2008–2011 on the Texas Southern High Plains, USA. We recorded 42 deaths of radiotagged individuals, and our results indicated female mortalities were proportionate among avian and mammalian predation and other causes of mortality but survival was constant throughout the 6-month breeding season. Male mortalities were constant across avian and mammalian predation and other causes, but more mortalities occurred in June compared with other months. Male survival also varied by month, and survival probabilities were lower in June–August. We found predation on leks was rare, mortalities from fence collisions were rare, female survival did not decrease during incubation or brood-rearing, and survival was influenced by drought. Our study corroborated recent studies that suggested lesser prairie-chickens are living at the edge of their physiological tolerances to environmental conditions in shinnery oak prairies. As such, lesser prairie-chickens in our study experienced different patterns of mortality and survival that we attributed to hot, dry conditions during the breeding season. Specifically, and converse to other studies on lesser prairie-chicken survival and mortality, drought positively influenced female survival because females did not incubate eggs

  12. Family patterns of development dyslexia, Part II: Behavioral phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, P.H.; Melngailis, I.; Bedrosian, M.

    1995-12-18

    The motor control of bimanual coordination and motor speech was compared between first degree relatives from families with at least 2 dyslexic family members, and families where probands were the only affected family members. Half of affected relatives had motor coordination deficits; and they came from families in which probands also showed impaired motor coordination. By contrast, affected relatives without motor deficits came from dyslexia families where probands did not have motor deficits. Motor coordination deficits were more common and more severe among affected offspring in families where both parents were affected than among affected offspring in families where only one parent was affected. However, motor coordination deficits were also more common and more severe in affected parents when both parents were affected than among affected parents in families where only one parent was affected. We conclude that impaired temporal resolution in motor action identifies a behavioral phenotype in some subtypes of developmental dyslexia. The observed pattern of transmission for motor deficits and reading impairment in about half of dyslexia families was most congruent with a genetic model of dyslexia in which 2 codominant major genes cosegregate in dyslexia pedigrees where the proband is also motorically impaired. 54 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Molecules and dust in Cassiopeia A. II. Dust sputtering and diagnosis of supernova dust survival in remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscaro, Chiara; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    We study the dust evolution in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. We follow the processing of dust grains that formed in the Type II-b supernova ejecta by modelling the sputtering of grains. The dust is located in dense ejecta clumps that are crossed by the reverse shock. We also investigate further sputtering in the inter-clump medium gas once the clumps have been disrupted by the reverse shock. The dust evolution in the dense ejecta clumps of Type II-P supernovae and their remnants is also explored. We study oxygen-rich clumps that describe the oxygen core of the ejecta, and carbon-rich clumps that correspond to the outermost carbon-rich ejecta zone. We consider the various dust components that form in the supernova, several reverse shock velocities and inter-clump gas temperatures, and derive grain-size distributions and masses for the dust as a function of time. Both non-thermal sputtering within clumps and thermal sputtering in the inter-clump medium gas are studied. We find that non-thermal sputtering in the clumps is important for all supernova types and accounts for reducing the grain population by ~ 40% to 80% in mass, depending on the clump gas over-density, the grain type and size, and the shock velocity in the clump. A Type II-b SN forms small grains that are sputtered within the clumps and in the inter-clump medium. For Cas A, silicate grains do not survive thermal sputtering in the inter-clump medium, while alumina, silicon carbide, and carbon dust may survive in the remnant. Our derived masses of currently processed silicate, alumina and carbon grains agree well with the values derived from the observations of warm dust, and seem to indicate that the dust is currently being processed within clumps by non-thermal sputtering. Out of the ~ 0.03M⊙ of dust formed in the ejecta, between 30% and 60% of this mass is present today in Cas A, and only 6% to 11% of the initial mass will survive the remnant phase. Grains formed in Type II-P supernovae are

  14. Pattern-recognition system application to EBR-II plant-life extension

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.W.; Radtke, W.H.; Mott, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    A computer-based pattern-recognition system, the System State Analyzer (SSA), is being used as part of the EBR-II plant-life extension program for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. The SSA is used for surveillance of the EBR-II primary system instrumentation, primary sodium pumps, and plant heat balances. Early results of this surveillance indicate that the SSA can detect instrumentation degradation and system performance degradation over varying time intervals, and can provide derived signal values to replace signals from failed critical sensors. These results are being used in planning for extended-life operation of EBR-II.

  15. Wolbachia Has Two Different Localization Patterns in Whitefly Bemisia tabaci AsiaII7 Species.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peiqiong; He, Zhan; Li, Shaojian; An, Xuan; Lv, Ning; Ghanim, Murad; Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Ren, Shun-Xiang; Qiu, Bao-Li

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a cosmopolitan insect species complex that harbors the obligate primary symbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum and several facultative secondary symbionts including Wolbachia, which have diverse influences on the host biology. Here, for the first time, we revealed two different localization patterns of Wolbachia present in the immature and adult stages of B. tabaci AsiaII7 cryptic species. In the confined pattern, Wolbachia was restricted to the bacteriocytes, while in the scattered pattern Wolbachia localized in the bacteriocytes, haemolymph and other organs simultaneously. Our results further indicated that, the proportion of B. tabaci AsiaII7 individuals with scattered Wolbachia were significantly lower than that of confined Wolbachia, and the distribution patterns of Wolbachia were not associated with the developmental stage or sex of whitefly host. This study will provide a new insight into the various transmission routes of Wolbachia in different whitefly species. PMID:27611575

  16. Wolbachia Has Two Different Localization Patterns in Whitefly Bemisia tabaci AsiaII7 Species

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Peiqiong; He, Zhan; Li, Shaojian; An, Xuan; Lv, Ning; Ghanim, Murad; Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Ren, Shun-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a cosmopolitan insect species complex that harbors the obligate primary symbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum and several facultative secondary symbionts including Wolbachia, which have diverse influences on the host biology. Here, for the first time, we revealed two different localization patterns of Wolbachia present in the immature and adult stages of B. tabaci AsiaII7 cryptic species. In the confined pattern, Wolbachia was restricted to the bacteriocytes, while in the scattered pattern Wolbachia localized in the bacteriocytes, haemolymph and other organs simultaneously. Our results further indicated that, the proportion of B. tabaci AsiaII7 individuals with scattered Wolbachia were significantly lower than that of confined Wolbachia, and the distribution patterns of Wolbachia were not associated with the developmental stage or sex of whitefly host. This study will provide a new insight into the various transmission routes of Wolbachia in different whitefly species. PMID:27611575

  17. Improved five year survival after combined radiotherapy-chemotherapy for Stage I-II non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Monfardini, S.; Banfi, A.; Bonadonna, G.; Rilke, F.; Milani, F.; Valagussa, P.; Lattuada, A.

    1980-02-01

    In order to improve the prognosis of patients with localized non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) who are treated with radiotherapy (RT), a prospective controlled study utilizing a combined modality approach was carried out in patients with pathologic Stage I-II NHL. After treatment with regional RT, patients in complete remission were randomized to receive either no further therapy or 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone (CVP). At 5 years from completion of irradiation, the relapse-free survival was 46.3% after RT and 72.1% after RT plus CVP (P=0.005). The corresponding findings for the overall survival calculated from the beginning of irradiation were 55.8 and 82.8% respectively (P=0.03). The favorable effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on relapse-free survival were statistically significant only in the subgroup with diffuse histology. In patients who relapsed after RT alone, the salvage therapy failed to induce a high incidence of second durable remission. Adjuvant chemotherapy is indicated to improve the curve rate in pathologic stage I-II NHL with diffuse histology when regional RT is utilized.

  18. Microbial Patterns Signaling via Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 5 Contribute to Epithelial Repair, Growth and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Shaykhiev, Renat; Behr, Jürgen; Bals, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Epithelial cells (ECs) continuously interact with microorganisms and detect their presence via different pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Ligation of epithelial TLRs by pathogens is usually associated with the induction of pro-inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial factors. In this study, using human airway ECs as a model, we found that detection of microbial patterns via epithelial TLRs directly regulates tissue homeostasis. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and microbial patterns signaling via TLR2 and TLR5 induce a set of non-immune epithelial responses including cell migration, wound repair, proliferation, and survival of primary and cancerous ECs. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) gene targeting, receptor-tyrosine kinase microarray and inhibition studies, we determined that TLR and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediate the stimulating effect of microbial patterns on epithelial repair. Microbial patterns signaling via Toll-like receptors 2 and 5 contribute to epithelial repair, growth and survival. This effect is independent of hematopoietic and other cells as well as inflammatory cytokines suggesting that epithelia are able to regulate their integrity in an autonomous non-inflammatory manner by sensing microbes directly via TLRs. PMID:18167552

  19. Temporal patterns in growth and survival of the round goby Neogobius melanostomus.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M P; Mensinger, A F

    2013-01-01

    Monthly, overwinter and annual instantaneous growth rates for round goby Neogobius melanostomus were calculated with maximal growth occurring in July and August and almost no growth observed between ice appearance (October) and melt (March). Annual absolute growth rates averaged 27·3 ± 1·9 mm for males and 19·8 ± 2·4 mm for females. The most parsimonious Cormack-Jolly-Seber model indicated that both the survival and recapture probabilities were dependent on sampling date, but not sex. Survival estimates remained high throughout the 13 month study with a median weekly survival probability of 0·920 (25 and 75% quartiles: 0·767 and 0·991), an overwinter survival probability of 99% and an annual survival rate of 67%. Survival probabilities were lowest for both sexes near the completion of the N. melanostomus reproductive season in July and August which supports existing evidence of higher mortality after reproduction, while challenging the paradigm that male N. melanostomus suffer comparatively higher mortality as a result of reproduction than females. Evidence indicating that growth and mortality rates are highest at the end of the reproductive season not only highlights seasonal variability in N. melanostomus natural history, but may also guide the control of this invasive species to periods when they are most vulnerable.

  20. Human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II exhibit different DNase I protection patterns.

    PubMed

    Altman, R; Harrich, D; Garcia, J A; Gaynor, R B

    1988-04-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) are human retroviruses which normally infect T-lymphoid cells. HTLV-I infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, and HTLV-II is associated with an indolent form of hairy-cell leukemia. To identify potential transcriptional regulatory elements of these two related human retroviruses, we performed DNase I footprinting of both the HTLV-I and HTLV-II long terminal repeats (LTRs) by using extracts prepared from uninfected T cells, HTLV-I and HTLV-II transformed T cells, and HeLa cells. Five regions of the HTLV-I LTR and three regions of the HTLV-II LTR showed protection by DNase I footprinting. All three of the 21-base-pair repeats previously shown to be important in HTLV transcriptional regulation were protected in the HTLV-I LTR, whereas only one of these repeats was protected in the HTLV-II LTR. Several regions exhibited altered protection in extracts prepared from lymphoid cells as compared with HeLa cells, but there were minimal differences in the protection patterns between HTLV-infected and uninfected lymphoid extracts. A number of HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTR fragments which contained regions showing protection in DNase I footprinting were able to function as inducible enhancer elements in transient CAT gene expression assays in the presence of the HTLV-II tat protein. The alterations in the pattern of the cellular proteins which bind to the HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTRs may in part be responsible for differences in the transcriptional regulation of these two related viruses.

  1. β-Catenin Expression Pattern in Stage I and II Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Gamallo, Carlos; Palacios, José; Moreno, Gema; Calvo de Mora, Jorge; Suárez, Asunción; Armas, Alvaro

    1999-01-01

    The immunohistochemical expression pattern of β-catenin has been correlated with β-catenin gene mutations, clinicopathological features, and disease outcome in 69 stage I and II ovarian carcinomas. β-Catenin expression was localized in the nuclei, in addition to the cytoplasm and membrane, in 11 tumors (16%): nine endometrioid carcinomas with widespread nuclear expression and two serous carcinomas with focal nuclear expression. The remaining 58 carcinomas (84%) only had membranous β-catenin expression. All but one of the endometrioid carcinomas with nuclear β-catenin expression had considerable squamous metaplasia, and five of these cases had large areas of endometrioid tumor of low malignant potential. In addition, β-catenin nuclear expression was observed in atypical epithelial cells in endometriotic glands adjacent to an endometrioid carcinoma. Sequencing was performed on 25 tumors and corresponding normal tissue: all 13 endometrioid tumors as well as 12 carcinomas of other histological types (four serous, two clear cell, two mucinous, and two mixed). There were oncogenic mutations in the phosphorylation sequence for GSK-3β in exon 3 of the β-catenin gene in seven endometrioid carcinomas with β-catenin nuclear expression. Three mutations affected codon 32 (D32G, D32Y, and D32Y), one affected codon 33 (S33C), two affected codon 37 (S37C and S37F), and one affected codon 41 (T41A). No mutations were observed in the other 18 carcinomas analyzed, comprising two endometrioid and two serous carcinomas with β-catenin nuclear expression, and 14 carcinomas of different histological types with only membranous expression. In the univariate and multivariate survival analyses, β-catenin nuclear expression was selected as an indicator of good prognosis, because no patient whose tumor expressed β-catenin in the nuclei showed relapses or died, in contrast to the 19 relapses and deaths among patients with tumors that only had β-catenin membranous expression

  2. Mitochondrial complex II is a source of the reserve respiratory capacity that is regulated by metabolic sensors and promotes cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Pfleger, J; He, M; Abdellatif, M

    2015-01-01

    The survival of a cell depends on its ability to meet its energy requirements. We hypothesized that the mitochondrial reserve respiratory capacity (RRC) of a cell is a critical component of its bioenergetics that can be utilized during an increase in energy demand, thereby, enhancing viability. Our goal was to identify the elements that regulate and contribute to the development of RRC and its involvement in cell survival. The results show that activation of metabolic sensors, including pyruvate dehydrogenase and AMP-dependent kinase, increases cardiac myocyte RRC via a Sirt3-dependent mechanism. Notably, we identified mitochondrial complex II (cII) as a target of these metabolic sensors and the main source of RRC. Moreover, we show that RRC, via cII, correlates with enhanced cell survival after hypoxia. Thus, for the first time, we show that metabolic sensors via Sirt3 maximize the cellular RRC through activating cII, which enhances cell survival after hypoxia. PMID:26225774

  3. The survival of PAHs and hydrocarbon nanoparticles in H II regions: theory and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micelotta, Elisabetta; Bocchio, Marco; Rémy-Ruyer, Aurélie; Köhler, Melanie; Ysard, Nathalie; Jones, Anthony Peter

    2015-08-01

    Observations show that emission from the Unidentified Infrared (UIR) bands is strongly suppressed in H II regions. UIR bands are generally attributed to vibrational relaxation of FUV - excited Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules or hydrocarbon nanoparticles containing aromatic domains. If the strongly reduced UIR emission in H II regions has to be ascribed to the suppression of the carriers, an efficient destruction mechanism needs to be found in order to explain observations. Our previous work has shown that collisional dissociation induced by ions and electrons is not effective in H II regions. On the other hand, various studies indicate that small PAHs (< 50 carbon atoms) are quickly destroyed by UV photons.In this study, we model the photo-processing of large PAHs (> 50 carbon atoms) and hydrocarbon nanoparticles of similar size under a set of physical conditions representative of well studied H II regions. We provide expressions for the particles lifetimes as a function of the grain size and intensity and hardness of the interstellar radiation field. The expected infrared emission is derived and compared with observations from galactic and extragalactic sources, including II Zw 40, a compact blue dwarf considered as a prototypical H II galaxy.This work allows us to clarify whether processing by UV photons is indeed responsible for the observed lack of infrared emission in H II regions.

  4. Declining Use of Radiotherapy in Stage I and II Hodgkin's Disease and Its Effect on Survival and Secondary Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Koshy, Matthew; Rich, Shayna E.; Mahmood, Usama; Kwok, Young

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Concerns regarding long-term toxicities have led some to withhold radiotherapy (RT) for the treatment of Stage I and II Hodgkin's disease (HD). The present study was undertaken to assess the use of RT for HD and its effect on overall survival and the development of secondary malignancies. Methods and Materials: The present study included data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from patients aged {>=}20 years who had been diagnosed with Stage I or II HD between 1988 and 2006. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox multivariate regression model was used to analyze trends. Results: A total of 12,247 patients were selected, and 51.5% had received RT. The median follow-up for the present cohort was 4.9 years, with 21% of the cohort having >10 years of follow-up. Between 1988 and 1991, 62.9% had undergone RT, but between 2004 and 2006, only 43.7% had undergone RT (p < .001). The 5-year overall survival rate was 76% for patients who had not received RT and 87% for those who had (p < .001). The hazard ratio adjusted for other variables in the regression model showed that patients who had not undergone RT (hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.72-2.02) was associated with significantly worse survival compared with patients who had received RT. The actuarial rate of developing a second malignancy was 14.6% vs. 15.0% at 15 years for those who had and had not undergone RT, respectively (p = .089). Conclusions: The present study is one of the largest studies to examine the role of RT for Stage I and II HD. Our results revealed a survival benefit with the addition of RT with no increase in the development of secondary malignancies compared with patients who had not received RT. Furthermore, the present nationwide study revealed a >20% absolute decrease in the use of RT from 1988 to 2006.

  5. Population ecology of the mallard VIII: Winter distribution patterns and survival rates of winter-banded mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.

    1987-01-01

    In the present report we address questions about winter distribution patterns and survival rates of North American mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Inferences are based on analyses of banding and recovery data from both winter and preseason banding period. The primary wintering range of the mallard was dividded into 45 minor reference areas and 15 major reference areas which were used to summarize winter banding data. Descriptive tables and figures on the recovery distributions of winter-banded mallards are presented. Using winter recoveries of preseason-banded mallards, we found apparent differences between recovery distribution of young versus adult birds from the same breeding ground reference areas. However, we found no sex-specific differences in winter recovery distribution patterns. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded birds also provided evidence that mallards exhibited some degree of year-to-year variation in wintering ground location. The age- and sex-specificity of such variation was tested using winter recoveries of winter-banded birds, and results indicated that subadult (first year) birds were less likely to return to the same wintering grounds the following year than adults. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded mallards during 1950-58 differed from distributions in 1966-76. These differences could have resulted from either true distributional shifts or geographic changes in hunting pressure. Survival and recovery rates were estimated from winter banding data. We found no evidence of differences in survival or recovery rates between subadult and adult mallards. Thus, the substantial difference between survival rates of preseason-banded young and adult mallards must result almost entirely from higher mortality of young birds during the approximate period, August-January. Male mallards showed higher survival than females, corroborating inferences based on preseason data. Tests with winter banding and band recovery data indicated

  6. Survival Patterns in United States (US) Medicare Enrollees with Non-CML Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN)

    PubMed Central

    Price, Gregory L.; Davis, Keith L.; Karve, Sudeep; Pohl, Gerhardt; Walgren, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Non-CML myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) include essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and myelofibrosis (MF). Reported median overall survival (OS) ranges from a few to several years for MF, a decade or more for ET and PV. The study objective was to compare US survival rates of ET, PV, and MF patients with matched non-MPN/non-cancer controls in a nationally representative database. Patients and Methods Data were taken retrospectively from the Survey, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Medicare enrollees with a new SEER MPN diagnosis between Jan 1, 2001 and Dec 31, 2007 were eligible. First MPN diagnosis was required at or after Medicare enrollment to allow for continuous follow-up. Non-MPN/non-cancer control groups were selected from Medicare separately for each MPN subtype and demographically matched to cases at a ratio of 5∶1. Survival was determined starting from the case diagnosis date using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results A total of 3,364 MPN patients (n = 1,217 ET; 1,625 PV; 522 MF) met the inclusion criteria and were matched to controls. Mean age was 78.4, 76.1, and 77.4 years for ET, PV, and MF, respectively, and percent female was 63, 50, and 41. Median OS was significantly (p<0.05) lower for MPN cases vs. controls (ET: 68 vs. 101 months; PV: 65 vs. 104; MF: 24 vs. 106). Conclusions In the US Medicare population, survival in MF patients was worse than that of patients with ET or PV and significantly worse than matched controls. Survival of patients with ET or PV was substantially inferior to matched controls. These findings have implications for the clinical management of MPN patients and underscore the need for effective therapies in all MPN subtypes. PMID:24618579

  7. Metastatic pattern, local relapse, and survival of patients with myxoid liposarcoma: a retrospective study of 45 patients.

    PubMed

    Fuglø, Hanna M; Maretty-Nielsen, Katja; Hovgaard, Dorrit; Keller, Johnny Ø; Safwat, Akmal A; Petersen, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the metastatic pattern of the histological subtype myxoid liposarcoma (MLS) with no or few round cells. Methods. Forty-five patients (F/M = 27/18, mean age 49 (range 17-85) years) were diagnosed with MLS at two Danish sarcoma centres in the period 1995-2004. A retrospective review of patients' files combined with an extraction of survival data from the Danish Centralised Civil Register was performed. Results. Seven patients had distant metastases during the observation period. Two patients had metastases at the time of diagnosis, while metastases occurred within 2.5 years in four patients, and in one patient 11.9 years after primary diagnosis. All metastases occurred at extrapulmonary sites. The first local relapse occurred within 3 years after surgery in six patients, in one patient after 4.0 years, and in one patient 7.7 years after surgery. The 5- and 10-year overall survival was 80% and 69%, respectively. Both the 5- and 10-year distant metastases-free survival was, respectively, 86%. The 5- and 10-year local relapse-free survival was, respectively, 83% and 80%. Conclusions. Patients with MLS had only extra-pulmonary metastases, and no lung metastases were found. Most local relapses and distant metastases occurred within the first 2-3 years after surgery.

  8. Metastatic Pattern, Local Relapse, and Survival of Patients with Myxoid Liposarcoma: A Retrospective Study of 45 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fuglø, Hanna M.; Hovgaard, Dorrit; Keller, Johnny Ø.; Safwat, Akmal A.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the metastatic pattern of the histological subtype myxoid liposarcoma (MLS) with no or few round cells. Methods. Forty-five patients (F/M = 27/18, mean age 49 (range 17–85) years) were diagnosed with MLS at two Danish sarcoma centres in the period 1995–2004. A retrospective review of patients' files combined with an extraction of survival data from the Danish Centralised Civil Register was performed. Results. Seven patients had distant metastases during the observation period. Two patients had metastases at the time of diagnosis, while metastases occurred within 2.5 years in four patients, and in one patient 11.9 years after primary diagnosis. All metastases occurred at extrapulmonary sites. The first local relapse occurred within 3 years after surgery in six patients, in one patient after 4.0 years, and in one patient 7.7 years after surgery. The 5- and 10-year overall survival was 80% and 69%, respectively. Both the 5- and 10-year distant metastases-free survival was, respectively, 86%. The 5- and 10-year local relapse-free survival was, respectively, 83% and 80%. Conclusions. Patients with MLS had only extra-pulmonary metastases, and no lung metastases were found. Most local relapses and distant metastases occurred within the first 2-3 years after surgery. PMID:23864817

  9. Technical considerations in the study of /sup 111/In-oxine labelled platelet survival patterns in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Sharefkin, J.; Rich, N.M.

    1982-04-01

    A detailed technique for labelling canine platelets with /sup 111/In-oxine for the study of platelet survival patterns in four to six dogs at a time was developed. Useful modifications of earlier methods included splitting of the platelet rich plasma into multiple aliquots to improve pelleting efficiency at low gravity forces, use of saved platelet poor plasma to flush out injection syringes, and prompt use of commercial /sup 111/In-oxine sources 3 to 5 minutes after mixing with Ringer's Citrate Dextrose. Avoidable pitfalls of the method included excessive lengths of incubation time in plasma free medium and loss of labelling efficacy by exposure of the chelate to iron or other metal contaminants in glassware. The method was used to study changes in platelet survival time in dogs with large synthetic arterial prostheses, and gave results in good agreement with earlier studies using /sup 51/Cr labelled platelets.

  10. Nest survival patterns in Eurasian Bittern: effect of nest age, time and habitat variables

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Determining the key factors affecting the reproductive success of nesting birds is crucial in order to better understand the population dynamics of endangered species and to introduce effective conservation programmes for them. Inhabiting a variety of wetland habitats, aquatic birds actively select safe nesting sites so as to protect their nests against predators. The main aim of the present work was to assess the effect of temporal and habitat variables on the daily nest survival rate of Eurasian Bitterns colonizing semi–natural fishpond habitat in eastern Poland. MARK software was used for the modelling. Eurasian Bittern nests were most vulnerable to depredation at the beginning of the breeding season. This was probably because the reedbed vegetation at this time was not yet dense enough to effectively conceal the nests. There was a positive relationship between nest age and the daily survival rate. Two of the habitat variables analysed were of the greatest significance: water depth and vegetation density. In the Eurasian Bittern population studied here, nests built over deep water and in dense vegetation had the best chances of survival. The results of this work may be useful in the preparation of plans for the conservation and management of populations of this rare and endangered species. Conservation and restoration efforts that attempt to maintain high water levels will be especially beneficial to this avian species that is dependent on wetland ecosystems for breeding. PMID:27350897

  11. Nest survival patterns in Eurasian Bittern: effect of nest age, time and habitat variables.

    PubMed

    Polak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Determining the key factors affecting the reproductive success of nesting birds is crucial in order to better understand the population dynamics of endangered species and to introduce effective conservation programmes for them. Inhabiting a variety of wetland habitats, aquatic birds actively select safe nesting sites so as to protect their nests against predators. The main aim of the present work was to assess the effect of temporal and habitat variables on the daily nest survival rate of Eurasian Bitterns colonizing semi-natural fishpond habitat in eastern Poland. MARK software was used for the modelling. Eurasian Bittern nests were most vulnerable to depredation at the beginning of the breeding season. This was probably because the reedbed vegetation at this time was not yet dense enough to effectively conceal the nests. There was a positive relationship between nest age and the daily survival rate. Two of the habitat variables analysed were of the greatest significance: water depth and vegetation density. In the Eurasian Bittern population studied here, nests built over deep water and in dense vegetation had the best chances of survival. The results of this work may be useful in the preparation of plans for the conservation and management of populations of this rare and endangered species. Conservation and restoration efforts that attempt to maintain high water levels will be especially beneficial to this avian species that is dependent on wetland ecosystems for breeding. PMID:27350897

  12. Survival patterns of patients on maintenance hemodialysis for end stage renal disease in Ethiopia: summary of 91 cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease is an important challenge for health systems around the world. Access for care of the disease in Ethiopia is extremely limited. The main purpose of the study was to investigate survival pattern and assess risk factors for poor outcome of patients on maintenance hemodialysis for end stage renal disease in Ethiopia. Methods Medical records of patients on maintenance hemodialysis for end stage renal disease at Saint Gabriel General Hospital between 2002 and 2010 were reviewed. The data was collected by complete review of patient’s clinical data. Descriptive statistics was used for most variables and Chi-square test, where necessary, was used to test the association among various variables. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was done to assess both short and long term survival. P-values of < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results A total of 190 patients were registered for hemodialysis at the hospital 91 of which were included in the final assessment. Mean age at dialysis initiation was 58 ± 15 years. Fifty-five (60.4%) of the patients had prior history of diabetes. Almost all of them had serum creatinine of > 5mg/dl and some degree of anemia at dialysis initiation. Forty-one (45.1%) deaths occurred during dialysis treatment and 21 (23.1%) of patients died within the first 90 days of starting dialysis. Only 42.1% of them survived longer than a year. The frequently registered causes of death were septicemia (34.1%) and cardiovascular diseases (29.3%). Use of catheter as vascular access was associated with decreased short term and long term survival. Conclusion Dialysis as treatment modality is extremely scarce in Ethiopia and affordable to only the rich. Survival pattern in those on the treatment is less satisfactory and short of usual standards in the developed world and needs further investigation. We thus recommend a large scale analysis of national dialysis

  13. Three-dimensional Patterns and Redistribution of Myosin II and Actin in Mitotic Dictyostelium Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neujahr, Ralph; Heizer, Christina; Albrecht, Richard; Ecke, Maria; Schwartz, Jean-Marc; Weber, Igor; Gerisch, Günther

    1997-01-01

    Myosin II is not essential for cytokinesis in cells of Dictyostelium discoideum that are anchored on a substrate (Neujahr, R., C. Heizer, and G. Gerisch. 1997. J. Cell Sci. 110:123–137), in contrast to its importance for cell division in suspension (DeLozanne, A., and J.A. Spudich. 1987. Science. 236:1086–1091; Knecht, D.A., and W.F. Loomis. 1987. Science. 236: 1081–1085.). These differences have prompted us to investigate the three-dimensional distribution of myosin II in cells dividing under one of three conditions: (a) in shaken suspension, (b) in a fluid layer on a solid substrate surface, and (c) under mechanical stress applied by compressing the cells. Under the first and second conditions outlined above, myosin II does not form patterns that suggest a contractile ring is established in the furrow. Most of the myosin II is concentrated in the regions that flank the furrow on both sides towards the poles of the dividing cell. It is only when cells are compressed that myosin II extensively accumulates in the cleavage furrow, as has been previously described (Fukui, Y., T.J. Lynch, H. Brzeska, and E.D. Korn. 1989. Nature. 341:328–331), i.e., this massive accumulation is a response to the mechanical stress. Evidence is provided that the stress-associated translocation of myosin II to the cell cortex is a result of the dephosphorylation of its heavy chains. F-actin is localized in the dividing cells in a distinctly different pattern from that of myosin II. The F-actin is shown to accumulate primarily in protrusions at the two poles that ultimately form the leading edges of the daughter cells. This distribution changes dynamically as visualized in living cells with a green fluorescent protein–actin fusion. PMID:9412473

  14. Total Laryngectomy Versus Larynx Preservation for T4a Larynx Cancer: Patterns of Care and Survival Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, Surbhi; Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Li, Jiaqi; Cohen, Roger B.; Ahn, Peter H.; Lukens, John N.; Chalian, Ara A.; Weinstein, Gregory S.; O'Malley, Bert W.; Lin, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: To examine practice patterns and compare survival outcomes between total laryngectomy (TL) and larynx preservation chemoradiation (LP-CRT) in the setting of T4a larynx cancer, using a large national cancer registry. Methods and Materials: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified 969 patients from 2003 to 2006 with T4a squamous cell larynx cancer receiving definitive treatment with either initial TL plus adjuvant therapy or LP-CRT. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess predictors of undergoing surgery. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier and propensity score–adjusted and inverse probability of treatment–weighted Cox proportional hazards methods. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for unmeasured confounders. Results: A total of 616 patients (64%) received LP-CRT, and 353 (36%) received TL. On multivariable logistic regression, patients with advanced nodal disease were less likely to receive TL (N2 vs N0, 26.6% vs 43.4%, odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.73; N3 vs N0, 19.1% vs 43.4%, OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.77), whereas patients treated in high case-volume facilities were more likely to receive TL (46.1% vs 31.5%, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.27-2.48). Median survival for TL versus LP was 61 versus 39 months (P<.001). After controlling for potential confounders, LP-CRT had inferior overall survival compared with TL (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.57), and with the inverse probability of treatment–weighted model (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.49). This survival difference was shown to be robust on additional sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Most patients with T4a larynx cancer receive LP-CRT, despite guidelines suggesting TL as the preferred initial approach. Patients receiving LP-CRT had more advanced nodal disease and worse overall survival. Previous studies of (non-T4a) locally advanced larynx cancer showing no difference in survival between LP-CRT and TL may not

  15. Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cassondra L.; Hagelin, Julie C.; Kooyman, Gerald L.

    2015-01-01

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below −40°C and forage in −1.8°C waters. Their ability to maintain 38°C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy feathers) are reported absent in penguins. In studies modelling the heat transfer properties and the potential biomimetic applications of penguin plumage design, the insulative properties of penguin plumage have been attributed to the single afterfeather attached to contour feathers. This attribution of the afterfeather as the sole insulation component has been repeated in subsequent studies. Our results demonstrate the presence of both plumules and filoplumes in the penguin body plumage. The downy plumules are four times denser than afterfeathers and play a key, previously overlooked role in penguin survival. Our study also does not support the report that emperor penguins have the highest contour feather density. PMID:26490794

  16. Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cassondra L; Hagelin, Julie C; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2015-10-22

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below -40°C and forage in -1.8°C waters. Their ability to maintain 38°C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy feathers) are reported absent in penguins. In studies modelling the heat transfer properties and the potential biomimetic applications of penguin plumage design, the insulative properties of penguin plumage have been attributed to the single afterfeather attached to contour feathers. This attribution of the afterfeather as the sole insulation component has been repeated in subsequent studies. Our results demonstrate the presence of both plumules and filoplumes in the penguin body plumage. The downy plumules are four times denser than afterfeathers and play a key, previously overlooked role in penguin survival. Our study also does not support the report that emperor penguins have the highest contour feather density.

  17. Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cassondra L; Hagelin, Julie C; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2015-10-22

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below -40°C and forage in -1.8°C waters. Their ability to maintain 38°C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy feathers) are reported absent in penguins. In studies modelling the heat transfer properties and the potential biomimetic applications of penguin plumage design, the insulative properties of penguin plumage have been attributed to the single afterfeather attached to contour feathers. This attribution of the afterfeather as the sole insulation component has been repeated in subsequent studies. Our results demonstrate the presence of both plumules and filoplumes in the penguin body plumage. The downy plumules are four times denser than afterfeathers and play a key, previously overlooked role in penguin survival. Our study also does not support the report that emperor penguins have the highest contour feather density. PMID:26490794

  18. Airway in Class I and Class II skeletal pattern: A computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Deepthi; Varma, Sapna; Ajith, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A normal airway is required for the normal growth of the craniofacial structures. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the airway in Class I and Class II skeletal pattern and to see if there is any association between the airway and maxillomandibular relationship. Materials and Methods: Peripheral nervous system computed tomography scans of 30 patients were divided into two groups as Class I (ANB ≤ 4.5°), Class II (ANB ≥ 4.5°). The Dolphin three-dimensional version 11 was used to assess the airway. Statistical Analysis: Correlations between the variables were tested with the Pearson correlation coefficient. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the averages between the two groups. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The ANB angle was negatively correlated with all the airway parameters. The airway area and volume was significantly reduced in Class II subjects compared to Class I. Conclusion: The results suggest a strong association between the airway and skeletal pattern showing a reduced airway in Class II patients with a high ANB angle. PMID:26321823

  19. The Activation Pattern of Blood Leukocytes in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Is Correlated to Survival

    PubMed Central

    Millrud, Camilla Rydberg; Månsson Kvarnhammar, Anne; Uddman, Rolf; Björnsson, Sven; Riesbeck, Kristian; Cardell, Lars Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is known to cause substantial immunosuppression. The present study was designed to characterize blood leukocyte activation in HNSCC and to investigate if the individual activation pattern could be related to tumor progress and survival. The leukocyte activation profile of HNSCC patients and healthy controls was assessed with flow cytometry. HNSCC patients displayed increased numbers of monocytes, neutrophils and total leukocytes as well as an enhanced neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. In addition, patients had a higher percentage of CD69+, CD71+ and CD98+ T cell subsets and NK cells, and a reduced expression of L-selectin in CD14highCD16+ monocytes and neutrophils, when compared to controls. These changes could be correlated to both tumor burden and spread to lymph nodes. Among the cancer patients an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, a low neutrophil and CD14high CD16+ monocyte activation state and an elevated CD4/CD8 ratio were related to poor survival. In contrast, a high percentage of CD98+ Th cells appeared to be associated with a better outcome. Taken together, the present data indicate that HNSCC causes activation of blood leukocytes and that the individual activation pattern can be linked to prognosis. PMID:23251433

  20. Revisiting survival differences by race and ethnicity among hemodialysis patients: the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bruce M; Joffe, Marshall M; Pisoni, Ronald L; Port, Friedrich K; Feldman, Harold I

    2006-10-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients who are identified as belonging to racial or ethnic minority groups have longer survival than non-Hispanic white HD patients. This study sought to determine to what extent this survival difference is explained by comprehensive adjustment for measurable case-mix and treatment characteristics. A cohort analysis was conducted among 6677 patients between 1996 and 2001 in the American arm of the first phase of the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study, a prospective observational study. Using multivariable proportional hazards analysis, all-cause mortality by racial/ethnic category was compared before and after adjustment for other patient-level variables that are associated with mortality. Factors that influence the statistical associations of race/ethnicity with mortality were explored. The statistically significant (P < 0.001) associations of racial/ethnic minority categories with lower mortality in unadjusted analyses were attenuated or lost in the multivariable model. Compared with non-Hispanic white patients, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for mortality was 0.86 (0.72 to 1.03) for Hispanic patients; among non-Hispanic patients, the HR (95% CI) were 0.97 (0.85 to 1.11) for black patients, 0.82 (0.56 to 1.20) for Asian patients, 0.95 (0.52 to 1.73) for Native American patients, and 0.95 (0.60 to 1.50) for patients of other races (overall P = 0.66). The survival advantages for racial/ethnic minority categories were explained most notably by the combined influence of unbalanced distributions of numerous demographic, morbidity, nutritional, and laboratory variables. The associations of race/ethnicity with survival varied little by duration of ESRD and were not influenced substantially by different rates of kidney transplantation among patients who were on HD. The survival advantages for racial and ethnic minority groups on HD are explained largely by measurable case-mix and treatment characteristics

  1. A retrospective study of correlation of morphologic patterns, MIB1 proliferation index, and survival analysis in 134 cases of plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Ghodke, Kiran; Shet, Tanuja; Epari, Sridhar; Sengar, Manju; Menon, Hari; Gujral, Sumeet

    2015-06-01

    Plasmacytoma classified into solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) and extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is characterized by infiltrate of plasma cells of diverse maturity and by their monoclonal immunoglobulin products. Both SPB and EMP represent different groups of neoplasm in terms of location, tumor progression, and overall survival rate. There is a need for features that indicate likelihood of myeloma in patients with plasmacytoma without other manifestations. This study was an attempt to study the morphologic patterns of plasmacytoma (SPB and EMP), MIB1 proliferation index, and correlation of these with clinicopathologic features and survival of the patients. The study group comprised of 134 cases of plasmacytoma (88 SPB and 46 EMP) over duration of 8 years and were graded as per Bartl's histologic grading system. Commonest site was vertebral body in SPB (36%) and upper aerodigestive tract in EMP (48%). On serum electrophoresis, overall M band was detected in 41% cases. Both SPB and EMP on histology revealed similar morphologic features. MIB1 proliferation index ranged from less than 1% to 80%. It was slightly higher in EMP in comparison with SPB (P value = .002). Seventy percent of cases, which progressed to multiple myeloma (MM) showed MIB1 labeling index more than 10%; however, it was not statistically significant in predicting the disease progression. With the median follow-up of 19 months (range, 1-99 months), 10 SPB had disease progression of which 7 converted to MM, and 3 developed EMP, with a median interval of 21 months (range, 8-75 months) for the development of MM and 3 months (range, 3-9 months) for the progression to EMP. Five-year survival for EMP varied by site, with poorest survival in brain/central nervous system EMP as compared with EMP at other sites. To conclude, grade and MIB1 proliferation index help in predicting aggressive course in plasmacytoma.

  2. Linking Splicing to Pol II Transcription Stabilizes Pre-mRNAs and Influences Splicing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Martin J; Yang, Chin-Rang; Kotlajich, Matthew V

    2006-01-01

    RNA processing is carried out in close proximity to the site of transcription, suggesting a regulatory link between transcription and pre-mRNA splicing. Using an in vitro transcription/splicing assay, we demonstrate that an association of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription and pre-mRNA splicing is required for efficient gene expression. Pol II-synthesized RNAs containing functional splice sites are protected from nuclear degradation, presumably because the local concentration of the splicing machinery is sufficiently high to ensure its association over interactions with nucleases. Furthermore, the process of transcription influences alternative splicing of newly synthesized pre-mRNAs. Because other RNA polymerases do not provide similar protection from nucleases, and their RNA products display altered splicing patterns, the link between transcription and RNA processing is RNA Pol II-specific. We propose that the connection between transcription by Pol II and pre-mRNA splicing guarantees an extended half-life and proper processing of nascent pre-mRNAs. PMID:16640457

  3. Evaluation of postradiotherapy PSA patterns and correlation with 10-year disease free survival outcomes for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zelefsky, Michael J. . E-mail: zelefskm@mskcc.org; Ben-Porat, Leah; Chan, Heather M.; Fearn, Paul A.; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To describe the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) pattern profiles observed after external beam radiotherapy with and without short-term neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ST-ADT) and to report the association of established posttreatment PSA patterns with long-term disease-free survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,665 patients were treated with conformal external beam radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Of 570 patients who had the requisite >10 consecutive PSA measurements for statistical analysis, 194 patients received a median of 3 months of ADT before radiotherapy and 376 were treated with radiotherapy alone. The median follow up was 103 months. Results: In the group treated with ST-ADT, three distinct postradiotherapy PSA patterns were identified: a stable trend (44%), an increasing trend followed by stabilization of the PSA (25%), and an increasing trend (31%). Among the subgroup that demonstrated a rising and subsequent stabilizing patterns, PSA levels had gradually risen to a median value of 0.9 ng/mL after therapy, stabilized, and remained durably suppressed. The only identified trends among patients treated with external beam radiotherapy without ST-ADT were declining PSA levels followed by stable PSA trends or declining patterns followed by rising levels. Patients whose PSA levels stabilized after an initial rise or those with slowly rising PSA profiles had a lower incidence of distant metastasis compared to those with accelerated rises after therapy. Conclusions: For those treated with external beam radiotherapy in conjunction with ST-ADT, a significant percentage who develop a rising PSA after treatment are expected to manifest subsequent stabilization at plateaued levels of approximately 1.0 ng/mL, which can remain durably suppressed. The likelihood of distant metastasis in these patients is low despite the PSA stabilization at levels 1.0 ng/mL or higher and comparable to outcomes observed for those

  4. Declining ring-necked pheasants in the Klamath Basin, California: II. Survival, productivity, and cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, Robert A.; Buhler, D.R.; Henny, Charles J.; Drew, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Cover condition and its influence on nesting success, survival, and body condition of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) were evaluated at Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge (TLNWR) and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge (LKNWR). Inadequate nesting cover was responsible for extremely low nest success early in the nesting season at TLNWR. Later in the season at TLNWR, spring-planted crops provided cover to conceal nesting and renesting hens; however, only 0.07 young were produced (to 1 August) per hen during the study. The extremely low reproductive rates were well below those required to maintain a stable population. At TLNWR, most adult mortality during spring and early summer (before crops provided adequate cover) apparently resulted from predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). This mortality occurred weeks before insecticide applications. Hard winters (cold temperatures and heavy snowfall) periodically reduce the pheasant population in the Klamath Basin and again greatly reduced numbers during the last year of this study. Unfortunately, pheasant populations declined under the conditions found during this study and were unable to recover from the hard winter of 1992 to 1993. Mean body mass and tarsal length of adult hen pheasants at TLNWR, which is intensively farmed, were less than those for hens at LKNWR, which is not intensively farmed. Results of our study suggest that TLNWR hens may have been nutritionally stressed, and that the amount and distribution of vegetative cover needs to be improved at TLNWR. Habitat management of edge cover along agricultural crops should feature perennial grasses and legumes with small tracts of land interspersed throughout the agricultural fields to provide alternative cover for wildlife in general including pheasants.

  5. A pooled analysis of overall survival in COMFORT-I and COMFORT-II, 2 randomized phase III trials of ruxolitinib for the treatment of myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Gotlib, Jason; Cervantes, Francisco; Mesa, Ruben A; Sarlis, Nicholas J; Peng, Wei; Sandor, Victor; Gopalakrishna, Prashanth; Hmissi, Abdel; Stalbovskaya, Viktoriya; Gupta, Vikas; Harrison, Claire; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2015-09-01

    Ruxolitinib, a potent Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor, resulted in rapid and durable improvements in splenomegaly and disease-related symptoms in the 2 phase III COMFORT studies. In addition, ruxolitinib was associated with prolonged survival compared with placebo (COMFORT-I) and best available therapy (COMFORT-II). We present a pooled analysis of overall survival in the COMFORT studies using an intent-to-treat analysis and an analysis correcting for crossover in the control arms. Overall, 301 patients received ruxolitinib (COMFORT-I, n=155; COMFORT-II, n=146) and 227 patients received placebo (n=154) or best available therapy (n=73). After a median three years of follow up, intent-to-treat analysis showed that patients who received ruxolitinib had prolonged survival compared with patients who received placebo or best available therapy [hazard ratio=0.65; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.46-0.90; P=0.01]; the crossover-corrected hazard ratio was 0.29 (95%CI: 0.13-0.63). Both patients with intermediate-2- or high-risk disease showed prolonged survival, and patients with high-risk disease in the ruxolitinib group had survival similar to that of patients with intermediate-2-risk disease in the control group. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival at week 144 was 78% in the ruxolitinib arm, 61% in the intent-to-treat control arm, and 31% in the crossover-adjusted control arm. While larger spleen size at baseline was prognostic for shortened survival, reductions in spleen size with ruxolitinib treatment correlated with longer survival. These findings are consistent with previous reports and support that ruxolitinib offers a survival benefit for patients with myelofibrosis compared with conventional therapies. (clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: COMFORT-I, NCT00952289; COMFORT-II, NCT00934544).

  6. Vagrant western red-shouldered hawks: origins, natal dispersal patterns, and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloom, Peter H.; Scott, J. Michael; Papp, Joseph M.; Thomas, Scott E.; Kidd, Jeff W.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a 40-year study of the western Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus elegans) involving the banding of 2742 nestlings in southern California from 1970 to 2009 (this study) plus 127 nestlings banded in other California studies (1956–2008) and the analyses of 119 records of subsequent recovery from the Bird Banding Laboratory (1957–2009). Of the Red-shouldered Hawks recovered, 109 (91.6%) moved 100 km (long-distance dispersers). Three (2.5%), all long-distance dispersers, were vagrants (recovered outside the species' range of residency), and were found 374 to 843 km northeast and south of their banding locations in the Mojave, Great Basin, and Vizcaino deserts. The distribution of directions of short-distance dispersal was bipolar, closely corresponding with the northwest—southeast orientation of the species' range in southern California, while that of long-distance dispersers was mainly to the north. One of 10 long-distance dispersers, a nonvagrant, survived well into the age of breeding (103.0 months), whereas eight of the other nine perished before 14.5 months. The implications of vagrancy for conservation of this resident subspecies are that a relatively small source area can contribute genetic material over a vastly larger receiving area but rarely does so because of high mortality rates. Nonetheless, the movements of vagrants we documented provide evidence for the species' potential to populate new landscapes in response to changing environmental conditions and to maintain genetic heterogeneity within existing populations.

  7. Survival patterns and mortality in the North American population of silvered leaf monkeys (Trachypithecus cristatus).

    PubMed

    Shelmidine, Nichole; McAloose, Denise; McCann, Colleen

    2013-03-01

    This study examines mortality in the North American (N.A.) population of silvered leaf monkeys (Trachypithecus cristatus) maintained in Association of Zoos and Aquarium's zoos. Understanding the causes of death associated with mortality rates (MR) can highlight relative susceptibility to intrinsic/extrinsic factors and differences between age and sex classes. Overall, life tables can provide insight into a species' population dynamics. We expect that the MR will fit the general mammalian and primate trends of a U-shaped curve when graphed, that males will have a higher MR and shorter life expectancy than females and that infant survival will be higher in captivity than in wild populations. Our results indicate that the N.A. captive population fits expected MR trends of a U-shaped curve. However, no differences in MR or life expectancy were found between the sexes. Infant survivorship did not differ from the wild or other leaf monkey populations (both captive and wild). The majority of infant deaths occurred on day 1 of life (52.8% of all infant deaths) and infant survivorship to 1 year was 66%. Neonates (n = 6, 31.6%) and infants (n = 4, 44.4%) died from trauma, juveniles (n = 2, 33.3%) from nutritional reasons, adults from non-infectious diseases (n = 7, 29.2%) and from post-surgical complications (n = 7, 29.2%), and older adults from idiopathic diseases (n = 4, 26.7%) and non-infectious diseases (n = 4, 26.7%). Only older adult males died from degenerative diseases (i.e., heart failure, n = 3, 42.9%). In general, this captive population demonstrated some similar trends to those observed in mammalian and Old World monkey populations.

  8. Food patterns associated with blood lipids are predictive of coronary heart disease: the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Sarah A; Mishra, Gita D; Brunner, Eric J

    2009-08-01

    Analysis of the epidemiological effects of overall dietary patterns offers an alternative approach to the investigation of the role of diet in CHD. We analysed the role of blood lipid-related dietary patterns using a two-step method to confirm the prospective association of dietary pattern with incident CHD. Analysis is based on 7314 participants of the Whitehall II study. Dietary intake was measured using a 127-item FFQ. Reduced rank regression (RRR) was used to derive dietary pattern scores using baseline serum total and HDL-cholesterol, and TAG levels as dependent variables. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and incident CHD (n 243) over 15 years of follow-up. Increased CHD risk (hazard ratio (HR) for top quartile: 2.01 (95% CI 1.41, 2.85) adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity and energy misreporting) was observed with a diet characterised by high consumption of white bread, fried potatoes, sugar in tea and coffee, burgers and sausages, soft drinks, and low consumption of French dressing and vegetables. The diet-CHD relationship was attenuated after adjustment for employment grade and health behaviours (HR for top quartile: 1.81; 95% CI 1.26, 2.62), and further adjustment for blood pressure and BMI (HR for top quartile: 1.57; 95% CI 1.08, 2.27). Dietary patterns are associated with serum lipids and predict CHD risk after adjustment for confounders. RRR identifies dietary patterns using prior knowledge and focuses on the pathways through which diet may influence disease. The present study adds to the evidence that diet is an important risk factor for CHD. PMID:19327192

  9. Self-organized MBE growth of II VI epilayers on patterned GaSb substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissmann, H.; Tran Anh, T.; Rogaschewski, S.; von Ortenberg, M.

    1999-05-01

    We report on the self-organized MBE growth of II-VI epilayers on patterned and unpatterned GaSb substrates resulting in quantum wires and quantum wells, respectively. The HgSe : Fe quantum wires were grown on (0 0 1)GaSb substrates with a buffer of lattice-matched ZnTe 1- xSe x. Due to the anisotropic growth of HgSe on the A-oriented stripes roof-like overgrowth with a definite ridge was obtained. Additional Fe doping in the direct vicinity of the ridge results in a highly conductive quantum wire.

  10. Prediction of an organism's inactivation patterns from three single survival ratios determined at the end of three non-isothermal heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Maria G; Normand, Mark D; Peleg, Micha

    2008-08-15

    Traditionally, an organism's heat resistance parameters have been determined from a set of experimental isothermal survival data. Sometimes, however, even approximating an isothermal profile, and/or obtaining counts at sufficiently short time intervals, is extremely difficult for technical and logistic reasons. The problem would be avoided if the survival parameters could be calculated from the final survival ratios determined at the end of non-isothermal heat treatments with known temperature profiles. Theoretically, if the heat resistance were characterized by three unknown survival parameters, they could be extracted by solving three simultaneous dynamic survival curves' equations. In practice, because of the three equation's complexity - they are themselves the numerical solutions of three differential rate equations - and because the experimental final survival ratios might have a scatter, realistic estimates of the survival parameters require short cut and averaging methods for their calculation. Such a method has been tried with published dynamic inactivation data on Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli. The concept was validated by the ability of the Weibullian-Log logistic model, whose three survival parameters had been obtained directly from final experimental survival ratios only, to predict entire non-isothermal survival curves that had not been used in the model's formulation. The methodology need not be restricted to Weibullian and simpler survival patterns but its practicality might be lost if there are more than three survival parameters. In principle, the same procedure can be extended to biochemical processes that occur during heat preservation, especially at very high temperatures. Estimating inactivation kinetic parameters without isothermal data could also facilitate the quantification of microbial survival under realistic processing conditions and in the actual food rather than in a surrogate medium.

  11. A scoring system based on artificial neural network for predicting 10-year survival in stage II A colon cancer patients after radical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wu; Lu, Shi-Xun; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Li, Pei-Xing; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 20% patients with stage II A colon cancer will develop recurrent disease post-operatively. The present study aims to develop a scoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting 10-year survival outcome. The clinical and molecular data of 117 stage II A colon cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were used for training set and test set; poor pathological grading (score 49), reduced expression of TGFBR2 (score 33), over-expression of TGF-β (score 45), MAPK (score 32), pin1 (score 100), β-catenin in tumor tissue (score 50) and reduced expression of TGF-β in normal mucosa (score 22) were selected as the prognostic risk predictors. According to the developed scoring system, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups, which were supposed with higher, moderate and lower risk levels. As a result, for the 3 subgroups, the 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 16.7%, 62.9% and 100% (P < 0.001); and the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 16.7%, 61.8% and 98.8% (P < 0.001) respectively. It showed that this scoring system for stage II A colon cancer could help to predict long-term survival and screen out high-risk individuals for more vigorous treatment. PMID:27008710

  12. A scoring system based on artificial neural network for predicting 10-year survival in stage II A colon cancer patients after radical surgery.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian-Hong; Fang, Yu-Jing; Li, Cai-Xia; Ou, Qing-Jian; Jiang, Wu; Lu, Shi-Xun; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Li, Pei-Xing; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De Sen

    2016-04-19

    Nearly 20% patients with stage II A colon cancer will develop recurrent disease post-operatively. The present study aims to develop a scoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting 10-year survival outcome. The clinical and molecular data of 117 stage II A colon cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were used for training set and test set; poor pathological grading (score 49), reduced expression of TGFBR2 (score 33), over-expression of TGF-β (score 45), MAPK (score 32), pin1 (score 100), β-catenin in tumor tissue (score 50) and reduced expression of TGF-β in normal mucosa (score 22) were selected as the prognostic risk predictors. According to the developed scoring system, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups, which were supposed with higher, moderate and lower risk levels. As a result, for the 3 subgroups, the 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 16.7%, 62.9% and 100% (P < 0.001); and the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 16.7%, 61.8% and 98.8% (P < 0.001) respectively. It showed that this scoring system for stage II A colon cancer could help to predict long-term survival and screen out high-risk individuals for more vigorous treatment.

  13. Spatial harmonics and pattern specification in early Drosophila development. Part II. The four colour wheels model.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, S A; Goodwin, B C

    1990-06-01

    We review the evidence presented in Part I showing that transcripts and protein products of maternal, gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes exhibit increasingly complex, multipeaked longitudinal waveforms in the early Drosophila embryo. The central problem we address in Part II is the use the embryo makes of these wave forms to specify longitudinal pattern. Based on the fact that mutants of many of these genes generate deletions and mirror symmetrical duplications of pattern elements on length scales ranging from about half the egg to within segments, we propose that position is specified by measuring a "phase angle" by use of the ratios of two or more variables. Pictorially, such a phase angle can be thought of as a colour on a colour wheel. Any such model contains a phaseless singularity where all or many phases, or colours, come together. We suppose as well that positional values sufficiently close to the singularity are meaningless, hence a "dead zone". Duplications and deletions are accounted for by deformation of the cycle of morphogen values occurring along the antero-posterior axis. If the cycle of values surrounds the singularity and lies outside the dead zone, pattern is normal. If the curve transects the dead zone, pattern elements are deleted. If the curve lies entirely on one side of the singularity, pattern elements are deleted and others are duplicated with mirror symmetry. The existence of different wavelength transcript patterns in maternal, gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes and the roles of those same genes in generating deletions and mirror symmetrical duplications on a variety of length scales lead us to propose that position is measured simultaneously on at least four colour wheels, which cycle different numbers of times along the anterior-posterior axis. These yield progressively finer grained positional information. Normal pattern specification requires a unique angle, outside of the dead zone, from each of the four wheels

  14. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-02-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care.

  15. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care. PMID:8196033

  16. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-02-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care. PMID:8196033

  17. Evaluation of mandibular length in subjects with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using the cervical vertebrae maturation.

    PubMed

    Generoso, Rodrigo; Sadoco, Elaine Cristina; Armond, Mônica Costa; Gameiro, Gustavo Hauber

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular size in boys and girls with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, taking into consideration the bone maturation stage, as defined by the cervical vertebrae maturation. One hundred and sixty cephalometric radiographs were obtained from subjects (aged between 7 and 12 years) with Class I or Class II skeletal patterns, according to the ANB angle and WITS appraisal. The Class I sample consisted of 80 subjects (40 boys, 40 girls). The Class II sample also consisted of 80 subjects (40 boys, 40 girls). On a cross-sectional basis, mandibular length (Co-Gn) was compared between groups and genders. The between-stages changes were also evaluated, with the cervical vertebrae analysis used for establishing the bone maturation stages at CS2, CS3, CS4 and CS5. The results were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. The mandibular length differed between skeletal patterns only at the earlier stages of development. In the Class I pattern, the mandibular lengths of boys were greater than those of girls at stages CS2, CS4 and CS5, whereas in the Class II pattern, the mandibular lengths of boys were greater than those of girls at stages CS2, CS3 and CS4. The present results indicate a sexual dimorphism in the mandibular length at almost all stages of bone maturation, in exception of the CS5 stage in Class II.

  18. Fringe Pattern of the PEP-II Synchrotron-Light Interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Alan; /SLAC

    2005-09-19

    Synchrotron-light interferometry is used to measure the vertical beam sizes in the high-energy and low-energy rings (HER and LER) of the PEP-II B Factory at SLAC. Light from a point in a dipole magnet is diffracted by two slits and then imaged onto a CCD camera. A curve fitting algorithm matches the measured interference fringes to a calculated pattern that includes the effect on the modulation depth of the fringes due to both the small but nonzero source size and the narrow bandpass of the optical filter. These formulas are derived here. Next, an additional focusing term from the primary mirror in the vacuum chamber is considered. The mirror needs extensive cooling due to the intense fan of synchrotron x-rays and is likely to have a slight stress-induced curvature, which must be considered to determine the true source size.

  19. Laser beam scanning by rotary mirrors. II. Conic-section scan patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Y

    1995-10-01

    Part II of this study is an application of the general theory of Part I to the following scanners: the galvanometer-based scanner, the paddle scanner, and the regular polygon. The scan field produced by these scanners is (or approximates) a circular cone. Therefore the scan pattern on the plane of observation can be one of the following curves, circle, ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola, depending on the position and orientation of the plane. Special topics to be addressed are (1) the effect of input offset, (2) the locus of the instantaneous scan center and the waist of the scan field, (3) the scanning on curved surfaces, and (4) the generalization of the scan-field expression. In Part III, X-Y scanning will be studied. PMID:21060489

  20. Prognostic interaction patterns in diabetes mellitus II: A random-matrix-theory relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Aparna; Pawar, Amit Kumar; Jalan, Sarika

    2015-08-01

    We analyze protein-protein interactions in diabetes mellitus II and its normal counterpart under the combined framework of random matrix theory and network biology. This disease is the fifth-leading cause of death in high-income countries and an epidemic in developing countries, affecting around 8 % of the total adult population in the world. Treatment at the advanced stage is difficult and challenging, making early detection a high priority in the cure of the disease. Our investigation reveals specific structural patterns important for the occurrence of the disease. In addition to the structural parameters, the spectral properties reveal the top contributing nodes from localized eigenvectors, which turn out to be significant for the occurrence of the disease. Our analysis is time-efficient and cost-effective, bringing a new horizon in the field of medicine by highlighting major pathways involved in the disease. The analysis provides a direction for the development of novel drugs and therapies in curing the disease by targeting specific interaction patterns instead of a single protein.

  1. Prognostic interaction patterns in diabetes mellitus II: A random-matrix-theory relation.

    PubMed

    Rai, Aparna; Pawar, Amit Kumar; Jalan, Sarika

    2015-08-01

    We analyze protein-protein interactions in diabetes mellitus II and its normal counterpart under the combined framework of random matrix theory and network biology. This disease is the fifth-leading cause of death in high-income countries and an epidemic in developing countries, affecting around 8% of the total adult population in the world. Treatment at the advanced stage is difficult and challenging, making early detection a high priority in the cure of the disease. Our investigation reveals specific structural patterns important for the occurrence of the disease. In addition to the structural parameters, the spectral properties reveal the top contributing nodes from localized eigenvectors, which turn out to be significant for the occurrence of the disease. Our analysis is time-efficient and cost-effective, bringing a new horizon in the field of medicine by highlighting major pathways involved in the disease. The analysis provides a direction for the development of novel drugs and therapies in curing the disease by targeting specific interaction patterns instead of a single protein.

  2. Segal crystallinity index revisited by the simulation of X-ray diffraction patterns of cotton cellulose Iβ and cellulose II.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sunghyun; French, Alfred D; Condon, Brian D; Concha, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The Segal method estimates the amorphous fraction of cellulose Iβ materials simply based on intensity at 18° 2θ in an X-ray diffraction pattern and was extended to cellulose II using 16° 2θ intensity. To address the dependency of Segal amorphous intensity on crystal size, cellulose polymorph, and the degree of polymorphic conversion, we simulated the diffraction patterns of cotton celluloses (Iβ and II) and compared the simulated amorphous fractions with the Segal values. The diffraction patterns of control and mercerized cottons, respectively, were simulated with perfect crystals of cellulose Iβ (1.54° FWHM) and cellulose II (2.30° FWHM) as well as 10% and 35% amorphous celluloses. Their Segal amorphous fractions were 15% and 31%, respectively. The higher Segal amorphous fraction for control cotton was attributed to the peak overlap. Although the amorphous fraction was set in the simulation, the peak overlap induced by the increase of FWHM further enhanced the Segal amorphous intensity of cellulose Iβ. For cellulose II, the effect of peak overlap was smaller; however the lower reflection of the amorphous cellulose scattering in its Segal amorphous location resulted in smaller Segal amorphous fractions. Despite this underestimation, the relatively good agreement of the Segal method with the simulation for mercerized cotton was attributed to the incomplete conversion to cellulose II. The (1-10) and (110) peaks of cellulose Iβ remained near the Segal amorphous location of cellulose II for blends of control and mercerized cotton fibers.

  3. Interfacial behavior and film patterning of redox-active cationic copper(II)-containing surfactants.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Jeffery A; Allard, Marco M; Wu, Libo; Heeg, Mary Jane; da Rocha, Sandro R P; Verani, Cláudio N

    2008-01-01

    Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a novel series of single-tail amphiphiles LPyCn (Py=pyridine, Cn=C18, C16, C14, C10) and their copper(II)-containing complexes, which are of relevance for patterned films. The N-(pyridine-2-ylmethyl)alkyl-1-amine ligands and their complexes [CuIICl2(LPyC18)] (1), [CuIICl2(LPyC16)] (2), [CuIICl2(LPyC14)] (3), [CuIIBr2(LPyC18)] (4), [CuIIBr2(LPyC16)] (5), and [CuIIBr2(LPyC10)] (6) were synthesized, isolated, and characterized by means of mass spectrometry, IR and NMR spectroscopies, and elemental analysis. Complexes 1, 2, 3, and 6 had their molecular structure solved by X-ray diffraction methods, which showed that the local geometry around the metal center is distorted square planar. With the aim of using these species as precursors for redox-responsive films, an assessment of their electrochemical properties involved cyclic voltammetry in different solvents, with different supporting electrolytes and scan rates. Density functional theory calculations of relevant species in bulk and at interfaces were used to evaluate their electronic structure and dipole moments. The morphology and order of the resulting films at the air/water interface were studied by isothermal compression and Brewster angle microscopy. Biphasic patterned Langmuir films were observed for all complexes except 3 and 6, and dependence on the chain length and the nature of the halogen coligand determine the characteristics of the isotherms and their intricate topology. Complexes 3 and 6, which have shorter chain lengths, failed to exhibit organization. These results exemplify the first comprehensive study of the behavior of single-tail metallosurfactants, which are likely to lead to high-end technological applications based on their patterned films. PMID:18792023

  4. Protein immobilization on Ni(II) ion patterns prepared by microcontact printing and dip-pen nanolithography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Ching; Reinhoudt, David N; Otto, Cees; Velders, Aldrik H; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2010-02-23

    An indirect method of protein patterning by using Ni(II) ion templates for immobilization via a specific metal-protein interaction is described. A nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) allows oriented binding of histidine-tagged proteins via complexation with late first-row transition metal ions, such as Ni(II). Patterns of nickel(II) ions were prepared on NTA SAM-functionalized glass slides by microcontact printing (microCP) and dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) to obtain micrometer and submicrometer scale patterns. Consecutive dipping of the slides in 6His-protein solutions resulted in the formation of protein patterns, as was subsequently proven by AFM and confocal fluorescence microscopy. This indirect method prevents denaturation of fragile biomolecules caused by direct printing or writing of proteins. Moreover, it yields well-defined patterned monolayers of proteins and, in principle, is indifferent for biomolecules with a high molecular weight. This approach also enabled us to characterize the transfer of Ni(II) ions on fundamental parameters of DPN, such as writing speeds and tip-surface contact times, while writing with the smallest possible ink "molecules" (i.e., metal ions). PMID:20104881

  5. Variations in cancer survival and patterns of care across Europe: roles of wealth and health-care organization.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Gemma; Trama, Annalisa; Capocaccia, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Cancer survival varies markedly across Europe. We analyzed variations in all-cancer 5-year relative survival in relation to macroeconomic and health-care indicators, and 5-year relative survival for three major cancers (colorectal, prostate, breast) in relation to application of standard treatments, to serve as baseline for monitoring the efficacy of new European initiatives to improve cancer survival. Five-year relative survival data were from the European cancer registry-based study of cancer patients' survival and care (EUROCARE-4). Macroeconomic and health system data were from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and European Observatory on Health Care Systems. Information on treatments given was from EUROCARE studies. Total national health spending varied widely across Europe and correlated linearly with survival (R = 0.8). Countries with high spending had high numbers of diagnostic and radiotherapy units, and 5-year relative survival was good (>50%). The treatments given for major cancers also varied; advanced stage at diagnosis was associated with poor 5-year relative survival and low odds of receiving standard treatment for breast and colorectal cancer.

  6. Complement component 3 deficiency prolongs MHC-II disparate skin allograft survival by increasing the CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells population.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Quan-You; Liang, Shen-Ju; Li, Gui-Qing; Lv, Yan-Bo; Li, You; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Gui-Lian; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that complement system contributes to allograft rejection. However, its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Herein, we investigate the role of complement component 3 (C3) in a single MHC-II molecule mismatched murine model of allograft rejection using C3 deficient mice (C3(-/-)) as skin graft donors or recipients. Compared with C3(+/+) B6 allografts, C3(-/-) B6 grafts dramatically prolonged survival in MHC-II molecule mismatched H-2(bm12) B6 recipients, indicating that C3 plays a critical role in allograft rejection. Compared with C3(+/+) allografts, both Th17 cell infiltration and Th1/Th17 associated cytokine mRNA levels were clearly reduced in C3(-/-) allografts. Moreover, C3(-/-) allografts caused attenuated Th1/Th17 responses, but increased CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cell expression markedly in local intragraft and H-2(bm12) recipients. Depletion of Treg cells by anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) negated the survival advantages conferred by C3 deficiency. Our results indicate for the first time that C3 deficiency can prolong MHC-II molecule mismatched skin allograft survival, which is further confirmed to be associated with increased CD4(+) CD25(+) Treg cell population expansion and attenuated Th1/Th17 response. PMID:27641978

  7. Complement component 3 deficiency prolongs MHC-II disparate skin allograft survival by increasing the CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells population

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Quan-you; Liang, Shen-ju; Li, Gui-qing; Lv, Yan-bo; Li, You; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Gui-lian; Zhang, Ke-qin

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that complement system contributes to allograft rejection. However, its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Herein, we investigate the role of complement component 3 (C3) in a single MHC-II molecule mismatched murine model of allograft rejection using C3 deficient mice (C3−/−) as skin graft donors or recipients. Compared with C3+/+ B6 allografts, C3−/− B6 grafts dramatically prolonged survival in MHC-II molecule mismatched H-2bm12 B6 recipients, indicating that C3 plays a critical role in allograft rejection. Compared with C3+/+ allografts, both Th17 cell infiltration and Th1/Th17 associated cytokine mRNA levels were clearly reduced in C3−/− allografts. Moreover, C3−/− allografts caused attenuated Th1/Th17 responses, but increased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cell expression markedly in local intragraft and H-2bm12 recipients. Depletion of Treg cells by anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) negated the survival advantages conferred by C3 deficiency. Our results indicate for the first time that C3 deficiency can prolong MHC-II molecule mismatched skin allograft survival, which is further confirmed to be associated with increased CD4+ CD25+ Treg cell population expansion and attenuated Th1/Th17 response. PMID:27641978

  8. Time-course pattern of blood 25-hydroxycholecalciferol is a significant predictor of survival outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer: a clinical practice-based study.

    PubMed

    Obermannova, R; Dusek, L; Greplova, K; Jarkovsky, J; Sterba, J; Vyzula, R; Demlova, R; Zdrazilova-Dubska, L; Valik, D

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the epidemiology of common malignancies including colorectal cancer. We studied consecutive blood levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD) in relation to other clinical and laboratory variables in metastatic colorectal cancer patients to ascertain whether their variations may be prognostic or predictive parameters of survival outcomes. Eighty four patients treated with first-line oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab were included. The patients were enrolled on the intent-to-treat basis considering their performance status, comorbidities and laboratory parameters to be medically apt for intensive chemotherapy. Overall survival and progression-free survival were selected as the primary outcomes. Progression free survival and overall survival medians were 15.4 months and 41.2 months, respectively. The cut-off levels of 40 nmol/l for 25-OHD and 11 µg/l for first CEA were identified to be clinical decision levels stratifying patients to the respective prognostic groups. We found that the most consistent outcome predictors were i) any patient surgery, ii) CEA and, independently, iii) time-related blood levels of 25-OHD. We confirmed fundamental and consistent vitamin D deficiency in metastatic colorectal cancer. We demonstrated that all patients with at least one blood level above 40 nmol/l versus all below this cut-off showed profound differences in their disease outcomes. The primary disease stage or time to metastatic stage did not influence the predictive power of blood 25-OHD levels, implying that the time-course pattern of 25-OHD but not the first single measurement may be an independent prognostic factor. PMID:26458311

  9. Glioblastoma treatment patterns, survival, and healthcare resource use in real-world clinical practice in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Girvan, Allicia C; Carter, Gebra C; Li, Li; Kaltenboeck, Anna; Ivanova, Jasmina; Koh, Maria; Stevens, Jessi; Hayes-Larson, Eleanor; Lahn, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glioblastoma (GB) treatment remains challenging because of recurrence and poorly defined treatment options after first-line therapy. To better understand real-world application of treatment paradigms and their impact on outcomes, we describe patterns of treatment, outcomes, and use of cancer-related healthcare resource for glioblastoma in the USA. Methods: A retrospective, online chart-abstraction study was conducted; each participating oncologist contributed ≤5 charts. Patients were ≥18 years with biopsy-confirmed primary or secondary newly diagnosed GB on or after 1 January 2010, had received first- and second-line therapies, and had information collected for ≥3 months after initiation of second-line therapy or until death. Assessments were descriptive and included Kaplan– Meier analyses from initiation to end of second-line therapy, disease progression, or death. Results: One hundred sixty physicians contributed information on 503 patient charts. During first-line therapy, patients most commonly underwent temozolomide monotherapy (76.5%). During second-line therapy, patients most commonly underwent bevacizumab monotherapy (58.1%). Median duration of second-line therapy was 130 days; median time to disease progression was 113 days. Median survival was 153 days. Use of supportive care was observed to be numerically higher in first- compared with second-line therapy except for anti-depressants, growth factors, and stimulants. Frequently used resources included corticosteroids (78.8% of patients in first-line and 62.6% in second-line therapies), anti-epileptics (45.8% and 41.5%) and narcotic opioids (45.3% and 41.4%). Conclusions: Most GB patients received temozolomide during first-line therapy and bevacizumab monotherapy or combination therapy during second-line therapy. Use of supportive care appeared to be higher in first- compared with second-line therapy for some agents. PMID:25834620

  10. Tumor marker analyses in patients with brain metastases: patterns of practice and implications for survival prediction research.

    PubMed

    Nieder, Carsten; Dalhaug, Astrid; Haukland, Ellinor; Mannsåker, Bård; Pawinski, Adam

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to explore patterns of practice of tumor marker analyses and potential prognostic impact of abnormal markers in patients with brain metastases from solid tumors. Previously, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and albumin were identified as relevant biomarkers. We performed a retrospective analysis of 120 patients with known LDH and albumin treated with whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in two different situations: (1) brain metastases detected at initial cancer diagnosis (n = 46) and (2) brain metastases at later time points (n = 74, median interval 13 months). Twenty-six patients (57 %) from group 1 had at least one tumor marker analyzed, and 11 patients (24 %) had abnormal results. Twenty-two patients (30 %) from group 2 had at least one tumor marker analyzed, and 16 patients (22 %) had abnormal results. When assuming that LDH and albumin would be standard tests before WBRT, additional potential biomarkers were found in 36 % of patients with normal LDH and albumin. Marker positivity rates were for example 80 % for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in colorectal cancer and 79 % for CA 15-3 in breast cancer. Abnormal markers were associated with presence of liver metastases. CA 15-3 values above median predicted shorter survival in patients with breast cancer (median 1.9 vs. 13.8 months, p = 0.1). Comparable trends were not observed for various markers in other tumor types. In conclusion, only a minority of patients had undergone tumor marker analyses. Final group sizes were too small to perform multivariate analyses or draw definitive conclusions. We hypothesize that CA 15-3 could be a promising biomarker that should be studied further.

  11. Hendra virus survival does not explain spillover patterns and implicates relatively direct transmission routes from flying foxes to horses.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gerardo; Plowright, Raina; Chen, Carla; Kault, David; Selleck, Paul; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-06-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is lethal to humans and horses, and little is known about its epidemiology. Biosecurity restrictions impede advances, particularly on understanding pathways of transmission. Quantifying the environmental survival of HeV can be used for making decisions and to infer transmission pathways. We estimated HeV survival with a Weibull distribution and calculated parameters from data generated in laboratory experiments. HeV survival rates based on air temperatures 24 h after excretion ranged from 2 to 10 % in summer and from 12 to 33 % in winter. Simulated survival across the distribution of the black flying fox (Pteropus alecto), a key reservoir host, did not predict spillover events. Based on our analyses we concluded that the most likely pathways of transmission did not require long periods of virus survival and were likely to involve relatively direct contact with flying fox excreta shortly after excretion.

  12. Hendra virus survival does not explain spillover patterns and implicates relatively direct transmission routes from flying foxes to horses.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gerardo; Plowright, Raina; Chen, Carla; Kault, David; Selleck, Paul; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-06-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is lethal to humans and horses, and little is known about its epidemiology. Biosecurity restrictions impede advances, particularly on understanding pathways of transmission. Quantifying the environmental survival of HeV can be used for making decisions and to infer transmission pathways. We estimated HeV survival with a Weibull distribution and calculated parameters from data generated in laboratory experiments. HeV survival rates based on air temperatures 24 h after excretion ranged from 2 to 10 % in summer and from 12 to 33 % in winter. Simulated survival across the distribution of the black flying fox (Pteropus alecto), a key reservoir host, did not predict spillover events. Based on our analyses we concluded that the most likely pathways of transmission did not require long periods of virus survival and were likely to involve relatively direct contact with flying fox excreta shortly after excretion. PMID:25667321

  13. Segal crystallinity index revisited by the simulation of X-ray diffraction patterns of cotton cellulose IB and cellulose II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Segal method estimates the amorphous fraction of cellulose IB materials simply based on intensity at 18o 20 in an X-ray diffraction pattern and was extended to cellulose II using 16o 2O intensity. To address the dependency of Segal amorphous intensity on crystal size, cellulose polymorph, and th...

  14. Survival, Growth and Reproduction of Non-Native Nile Tilapia II: Fundamental Niche Projections and Invasion Potential in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Michael R.; Wu, Wei; Peterson, Mark S.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.; Schofield, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental niche of invasive species facilitates our ability to predict both dispersal patterns and invasion success and therefore provides the basis for better-informed conservation and management policies. Here we focus on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758), one of the most widely cultured fish worldwide and a species that has escaped local aquaculture facilities to become established in a coastal-draining river in Mississippi (northern Gulf of Mexico). Using empirical physiological data, logistic regression models were developed to predict the probabilities of Nile tilapia survival, growth, and reproduction at different combinations of temperature (14 and 30°C) and salinity (0–60, by increments of 10). These predictive models were combined with kriged seasonal salinity data derived from multiple long-term data sets to project the species' fundamental niche in Mississippi coastal waters during normal salinity years (averaged across all years) and salinity patterns in extremely wet and dry years (which might emerge more frequently under scenarios of climate change). The derived fundamental niche projections showed that during the summer, Nile tilapia is capable of surviving throughout Mississippi's coastal waters but growth and reproduction were limited to river mouths (or upriver). Overwinter survival was also limited to river mouths. The areas where Nile tilapia could survive, grow, and reproduce increased during extremely wet years (2–368%) and decreased during extremely dry years (86–92%) in the summer with a similar pattern holding for overwinter survival. These results indicate that Nile tilapia is capable of 1) using saline waters to gain access to other watersheds throughout the region and 2) establishing populations in nearshore, low-salinity waters, particularly in the western portion of coastal Mississippi. PMID:22848533

  15. Survival, growth and reproduction of non-native Nile tilapia II: fundamental niche projections and invasion potential in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowe, Michael R.; Wu, Wei; Peterson, Mark S.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.; Schofield, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental niche of invasive species facilitates our ability to predict both dispersal patterns and invasion success and therefore provides the basis for better-informed conservation and management policies. Here we focus on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758), one of the most widely cultured fish worldwide and a species that has escaped local aquaculture facilities to become established in a coastal-draining river in Mississippi (northern Gulf of Mexico). Using empirical physiological data, logistic regression models were developed to predict the probabilities of Nile tilapia survival, growth, and reproduction at different combinations of temperature (14 and 30°C) and salinity (0–60, by increments of 10). These predictive models were combined with kriged seasonal salinity data derived from multiple long-term data sets to project the species' fundamental niche in Mississippi coastal waters during normal salinity years (averaged across all years) and salinity patterns in extremely wet and dry years (which might emerge more frequently under scenarios of climate change). The derived fundamental niche projections showed that during the summer, Nile tilapia is capable of surviving throughout Mississippi's coastal waters but growth and reproduction were limited to river mouths (or upriver). Overwinter survival was also limited to river mouths. The areas where Nile tilapia could survive, grow, and reproduce increased during extremely wet years (2–368%) and decreased during extremely dry years (86–92%) in the summer with a similar pattern holding for overwinter survival. These results indicate that Nile tilapia is capable of 1) using saline waters to gain access to other watersheds throughout the region and 2) establishing populations in nearshore, low-salinity waters, particularly in the western portion of coastal Mississippi.

  16. Akt Activation and Inhibition of Cytochrome C Release: Mechanistic Insights into Leptin-promoted Survival of Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Liang, Zhen-Wei; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Hu, Bo; Xing, Xiang-Bin; Cai, Wei-Bin

    2015-10-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) increases the risk of perinatal death, partly due to defects in lung development. Leptin, a polypeptide hormone, is involved in fetal lung development. We previously demonstrated that treatment with exogenous leptin during gestation significantly promotes fetal lung maturity in the rat model of FGR. In this study, to delineate the molecular pathways through which leptin may enhance fetal lung development, we investigated the impact of leptin treatment on the survival of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), essential leptin-responsive cells involved in lung development, in a rat model of FGR. The rat model of FGR was induced in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats by partial uterine artery and vein ligation. In vivo and in vitro analyses of fetal lung tissues and freshly-isolated cultured AECs, respectively, showed that leptin protects type II AECs from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Further molecular studies revealed the role of Akt activation in the leptin-mediated promotion of survival of type II AECs. The data also showed that the anti-apoptotic effects of leptin are dependent on phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation, and involve the down-regulation of caspases 3 and 9, upregulation of pro-survival proteins Bcl-2, and p-Bad, and inhibition of the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Taken together, our data suggested that leptin enhances the maturity of fetal lungs by mediating the regulation of caspase-3 and -9 during hypoxia-induced apoptosis of type II AECs and provide support for the potential of leptin as a therapeutic agent for promoting lung development in FGR.

  17. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  18. Prolonged Survival in a Case of Chemotherapy-Sensitive Gastric Cancer That Produced Alpha-Fetoprotein and Protein Induced by Vitamin K Antagonist-II.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Naotaka; Takahashi, Emiko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Amaike, Manami; Nohara, Mako; Nagao, Kazuhiro; Ebi, Masahide; Funaki, Yasushi; Sasaki, Makoto; Kasugai, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    The number of reported cases of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer has gradually increased, with a reported prevalence of 1.3-1.5% of all gastric cancer cases. However, reports of gastric cancer accompanied by elevated serum levels of both AFP and protein induced by vitamin K antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) are rare. The prognosis of AFP- and PIVKA-II-producing gastric cancer has been reported to be very poor because the tumor cells were considered to have a high malignant potential and the cancer progressed rapidly. We described a case of gastric cancer producing AFP and PIVKA-II in which chemotherapy was effective and resulted in prolonged survival, and these two tumor markers were useful for monitoring the treatment response. Routine health screening using upper abdominal ultrasonography revealed hepatic tumors in an apparently healthy 65-year-old man. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple hepatic tumors, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a Bormann type 3 tumor in the lower stomach. A biopsy specimen confirmed that the tumor was immunohistochemically positive for AFP, PIVKA-II, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. After chemotherapy, the gastric tumor appeared as a small elevated lesion on EGD, and CT revealed a remarkable reduction in the size of the metastatic liver tumors. The patient is still alive, 35 months after the initial chemotherapy. PMID:26034473

  19. NX-PVKA levels before and after hepatectomy of hepatocellular carcinoma as predictors of patient survival: a preliminary evaluation of an improved assay for PIVKA-II.

    PubMed

    Nanashima, Atsushi; Abo, Takafumi; Taura, Naota; Shibata, Hideki; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Takagi, Katsunori; Arai, Junichi; Oyama, Shousaburou; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2013-06-01

    Although the protein-induced vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) is used as a prognostic marker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a newly-improved assay, NX-PVKA (PIVKA-II measured using P-11 and P-16 antibodies) and NX-PVKA-R (ratio of PIVKA-II and NX-PVKA), are more accurate markers of PIVKA-II. We conducted a prospectively preliminary analysis of the relationship between NX-PVKA-R and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in 22 patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy and measured changes of this marker's levels after treatment. Median value of PIVKA-II (80 mAU/ml), NX-PVKA (60 mAU/ml), NX-PVKA-R (1.5) and NX-PVKA-D (difference of markers, 15 mAU/ml) were determined. Tumor relapse was observed in six patients, and the one year relapse-free survival rate was 88%. Correlation between PIVKA-II or alpha-fetoprotein levels and NX-PVKA, NX-PVKA-R or -D levels was significant (p<0.001). NX-PVKA-R was significantly correlated with tumor size (p<0.05). In patients who underwent pre-treatment before hepatectomy, PIVKA-II, NX-PVKA and NX-PVKA-R tended to be higher than in patients without pre-treatment, but this difference was not significant (p>0.10). For macroscopic findings, NX-PVKA-R for the confluent-nodular type was significantly higher than that for the simple-nodular type (p<0.05). The tumor-free survival rate in the group with a high NX-PVKA-R was significantly lower than that in the group with a low NX-PVKA-R group (p<0.05). In patients with tumor recurrence, postoperative NX-PVKA-R increased again. We conclude that a high value of NX-PVKA-R after hepatectomy for HCC reflects malignant potential and predicts early recurrence in patients with HCC.

  20. Patterns of autoreactivity to collagen type II in autoimmune MRL/l mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tarkowski, A; Holmdahl, R; Rubin, K; Klareskog, L; Nilsson, L A; Gunnarsson, K

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanisms for secretion of antibodies against native and denatured collagen type II have been studied in spontaneously arthritic MRL/l mice. Circulating antibodies were quantified by an ELISA assay and frequencies of specific antibody secreting spleen cells by an ELISPOT assay. The degree of humoral immunity to collagen type II increased at late stages of the disease (6 months of age) whereas severe synovitis was seen earlier (5 months of age). Both the appearance of anti-collagen II producing cells and development of synovitis was preceded by and not correlated with a general state of polyclonal B cell activation. In MRL/l mice, collagen II specific antibodies appeared spontaneously and titres were largely unaffected by collagen II immunization. The levels of circulating anti-collagen II antibodies in MRL/l mice were lower, and the antibodies displayed lower avidities and different specificities as compared with the antibodies generated in collagen II high responder DBA/l mice after immunization with collagen II. It is suggested that the antibody response in MRL/l mice against collagen type II does not need MHC-restricted T cell help and that induction of antibody production to collagen II in MRL/l mice is triggered by joint cartilage destruction and subsequent collagen II release. PMID:3516469

  1. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Cannell; Adrian S. Sabau

    2005-09-30

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The first part of the project involved preparation of reports on the state of the art at that time for all the areas under consideration (die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy). The primary R&D focus during Phase I was on the wax material since the least was known about it. The main R&D accomplishments during this phase were determination of procedures for obtaining the thermal conductivity and viscoelastic properties of an unfilled wax and validating those procedures. Phase II focused on die-wax and shell-alloy systems. A wax material model was developed based on results obtained during the previous R&D phase, and a die-wax model was successfully incorporated into and used in commercial computer programs. Current computer simulation programs have complementary features. A viscoelastic module was available in ABAQUS but unavailable in ProCAST, while the mold-filling module was available in ProCAST but unavailable in ABAQUS. Thus, the numerical simulation results were only in good qualitative agreement with experimental results, the predicted shrinkage factors being approximately 2.5 times larger than those measured. Significant progress was made, and results showed that the testing and modeling of wax material had great potential for industrial applications. Additional R&D focus was placed on one shell-alloy system. The fused-silica shell mold and A356 aluminum alloy were considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. It was very important to obtain accurate temperature data from actual castings, and significant effort was made to obtain temperature profiles in

  2. Survival disparities in Australia: an analysis of patterns of care and comorbidities among indigenous and non-indigenous cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians have lower overall cancer survival which has not yet been fully explained. To address this knowledge deficit, we investigated the associations between comorbidities, cancer treatment and survival in Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Queensland, Australia. Methods A cohort study of 956 Indigenous and 869 non-Indigenous patients diagnosed with cancer during 1998–2004, frequency-matched on age, sex, remoteness of residence and cancer type, and treated in Queensland public hospitals. Survival after cancer diagnosis, and effect of stage, treatment, and comorbidities on survival were examined using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Overall Indigenous people had more advanced cancer stage (p = 0.03), more comorbidities (p < 0.001), and received less cancer treatment (77% vs. 86%, p = 0.001). Among patients without comorbidities and social disadvantage, there was a lower uptake of treatment among Indigenous patients compared to non-Indigenous patients. For those who received treatment, time to commencement, duration and dose of treatment were comparable. Unadjusted cancer survival (HR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.15-1.48) and non-cancer survival (HR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.57-3.63) were lower in the Indigenous relative to non-Indigenous patients over the follow-up period. When adjusted for clinical factors, there was no difference in cancer-specific survival between the groups (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.96-1.27). One-year survival was lower for Indigenous people for all-causes of death (adjusted HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.12-1.83). Conclusion In this study, Indigenous Australians received less cancer treatment, had more comorbidities and had more advanced cancer stage at diagnosis, factors which contribute to poorer cancer survival. Moreover, for patients with a more favourable distribution of such prognostic factors, Indigenous patients received less treatment overall relative to non-Indigenous patients. Personalised cancer care

  3. Investigating patterns and processes of demographic variation: environmental correlates of pre-breeding survival in red-billed choughs Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax.

    PubMed

    Reid, J M; Bignal, E M; Bignal, S; McCracken, D I; Bogdanova, M I; Monaghan, P

    2008-07-01

    1. Quantifying the pattern of temporal and spatial variation in demography, and identifying the factors that cause this variation, are essential steps towards understanding the structure and dynamics of any population. 2. One critical but understudied demographic rate is pre-breeding survival. We used long-term colour-ringing data to quantify temporal (among-year) and spatial (among-nest site) variation in pre-breeding survival in red-billed choughs (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) inhabiting Islay, Scotland, and identified environmental correlates of this variation. 3. Random-effects capture-mark-recapture models demonstrated substantial temporal and spatial process variance in first-year survival; survival from fledging to age 1 year varied markedly among choughs fledged in different years and fledged from different nest sites. Spatial variance exceeded temporal variance across choughs fledged from well-studied nest sites. 4. The best-supported models of temporal variation suggested that first-year survival was higher in years following high tipulid larvae abundance and when weather conditions favoured increased invertebrate productivity and/or availability to foraging choughs. These variables explained up to 80% of estimated temporal process variance. 5. The best-supported models of spatial variation suggested that first-year survival was higher in choughs fledged from nest sites that were further from exposed coasts and closer to flocking areas, and surrounded by better habitat and higher chough density. These variables explained up to 40% of estimated spatial process variance. 6. Importantly, spatio-temporal models indicated interactive effects of weather, tipulid abundance, local habitat and local chough density on first-year survival, suggesting that detrimental effects of poor weather and low tipulid abundance may be reduced in choughs fledged from nest sites surrounded by better foraging habitat and lower chough density. 7. These analyses demonstrate substantial

  4. Comparison of survival outcomes between transthoracic and transabdominal surgical approaches in patients with Siewert-II/III esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma: a single-institution retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weihan; Chen, Xinzu; Liu, Kai; Yang, Kun; Chen, Xiaolong; Zhao, Ying; Zhao, Yongfan; Chen, Jiaping; Chen, Longqi; Hu, Jiankun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the survival outcomes of transabdominal (TA) and transthoracic (TT) surgical approaches in patients with Siewert-II/III esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in patients with Siewert-II/III esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma who underwent either TT or TA operations in the West China Hospital between January 2006 and December 2009. Results A total of 308 patients (109 in the TT and 199 in the TA groups) were included in this study with a follow-up rate of 87.3%. The median (P25, P75) number of harvested perigastric lymph nodes was 8 (5, 10) in the TT group and 23 (16, 34) in the TA group (P<0.001), and the number of positive perigastric lymph nodes was 2 (0, 5) in the TT group and 3 (1, 8) in the TA group (P<0.004). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 36% in the TT group and 51% in the TA group (P=0.005). Subgroup analysis by Siewert classification showed that 5-year OS rates for patients with Siewert II tumors were 38% and 48% in TT and TA groups, respectively (P=0.134), whereas the 5-year OS rate for patients with Siewert III tumors was significantly lower in the TT group than that in the TA group (33% vs. 53%; P=0.010). Multivariate analysis indicated that N2 and N3 stages, R1/R2 resection and a TT surgical approach were prognostic factors for poor OS. Conclusions Improved perigastric lymph node dissection may be the main reason for better survival outcomes observed with a TA gastrectomy approach than with TT gastrectomy for Siewert III tumor patients. PMID:27647969

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis of phase I/II targeted therapy combined with radiotherapy in patients with glioblastoma multiforme: quality of report, toxicity, and survival.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Marcos A; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Blanchard, Pierre; Lefeuvre, Delphine; Levy, Antonin; Touat, Mehdi; Louvel, Guillaume; Dhermain, Frédéric; Soria, Jean-Charles; Deutsch, Eric; Le Teuff, Gwénaël

    2015-06-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of severe adverse events (SAE) reported in early trials combining molecularly targeted therapies (MTT) with radiotherapy (RT), and to compare them to standard therapy. A summary data meta-analysis was performed and compared to the historical standard. Inclusion criteria were phase I and/or II trials published between 2000 and 2011, with glioblastoma multiforme patients treated with RT and MTT. Pooled incidence rates (IR) of SAE were estimated as well as the pooled median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Nineteen prospective trials (9 phase I, 1 phase I/II and 9 phase II) out of 29 initially selected were included (n = 755 patients). The exact number of patients who had experienced SAE was mentioned in 37 % of the trials, concerning only 17 % of the patients. Information such as the period during which adverse events were monitored, the planned treatment duration, and late toxicity were not reported in the trials. The pooled IR of overall SAE was 131.2 (95 % CI 88.8-193.7) per 1000 person-months compared to 74.7 (63.6-87.8) for standard therapy (p < 0.01). Significant differences were observed for gastrointestinal events (p = 0.05) and treatment-related deaths (p = 0.02), in favour of standard therapy. No significant difference was observed in PFS and OS. Reporting a summary of toxicity data in early clinical trials should be stringently standardized. The use of MTT with RT compared to standard therapy increased SAE while yielded comparable survival in glioblastoma multiforme patients.

  6. Comparison of survival outcomes between transthoracic and transabdominal surgical approaches in patients with Siewert-II/III esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma: a single-institution retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weihan; Chen, Xinzu; Liu, Kai; Yang, Kun; Chen, Xiaolong; Zhao, Ying; Zhao, Yongfan; Chen, Jiaping; Chen, Longqi; Hu, Jiankun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the survival outcomes of transabdominal (TA) and transthoracic (TT) surgical approaches in patients with Siewert-II/III esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in patients with Siewert-II/III esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma who underwent either TT or TA operations in the West China Hospital between January 2006 and December 2009. Results A total of 308 patients (109 in the TT and 199 in the TA groups) were included in this study with a follow-up rate of 87.3%. The median (P25, P75) number of harvested perigastric lymph nodes was 8 (5, 10) in the TT group and 23 (16, 34) in the TA group (P<0.001), and the number of positive perigastric lymph nodes was 2 (0, 5) in the TT group and 3 (1, 8) in the TA group (P<0.004). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 36% in the TT group and 51% in the TA group (P=0.005). Subgroup analysis by Siewert classification showed that 5-year OS rates for patients with Siewert II tumors were 38% and 48% in TT and TA groups, respectively (P=0.134), whereas the 5-year OS rate for patients with Siewert III tumors was significantly lower in the TT group than that in the TA group (33% vs. 53%; P=0.010). Multivariate analysis indicated that N2 and N3 stages, R1/R2 resection and a TT surgical approach were prognostic factors for poor OS. Conclusions Improved perigastric lymph node dissection may be the main reason for better survival outcomes observed with a TA gastrectomy approach than with TT gastrectomy for Siewert III tumor patients.

  7. Diurnal Cortisol Patterns, Future Diabetes, and Impaired Glucose Metabolism in the Whitehall II Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Context: The hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis is thought to play a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, evidence for an association between cortisol and future glucose disturbance is sparse. Objective: The aim was to examine the association of diurnal cortisol secretion with future T2D and impaired glucose metabolism in a community-dwelling population. Design: This is a prospective cohort study of salivary cortisol measured at the 2002–2004 clinical examination of the Whitehall II study, United Kingdom. We measured cortisol (nmol/l) from six saliva samples obtained over the course of a day: at waking, +30 minutes, +2.5 hours, +8 hours, +12 hours, and bedtime. Participants who were normoglycemic in 2002–2004 (phase 7) were reexamined in 2012–2013 (phase 11). Setting: The occupational cohort was originally recruited in 1985–1988. Participants: A total of 3270 men and women with an average age of 60.85 years at phase 7 (2002–2004). Outcome Measures: Incident T2D and impaired fasting glucose in 2012–2013 were measured. Results: Raised evening cortisol at phase 7 was predictive of new-onset T2D at phase 11 (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.37) with a trend for a flatter slope in participants with incident T2D (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.99–1.33). When expanding this analysis to a broader category of glucose disturbance we found that a flattened diurnal cortisol slope at phase 7 was predictive of future impaired fasting glucose or T2D at phase 11 (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02–1.22), as was high bedtime cortisol (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01–1.20). Conclusions: In this nonclinical population, alterations in diurnal cortisol patterns were predictive of future glucose disturbance. PMID:26647151

  8. Contrasting patterns of survival and dispersal in multiple habitats reveal an ecological trap in a food-caching bird.

    PubMed

    Norris, D Ryan; Flockhart, D T Tyler; Strickland, Dan

    2013-11-01

    A comprehensive understanding of how natural and anthropogenic variation in habitat influences populations requires long-term information on how such variation affects survival and dispersal throughout the annual cycle. Gray jays Perisoreus canadensis are widespread boreal resident passerines that use cached food to survive over the winter and to begin breeding during the late winter. Using multistate capture-recapture analysis, we examined apparent survival and dispersal in relation to habitat quality in a gray jay population over 34 years (1977-2010). Prior evidence suggests that natural variation in habitat quality is driven by the proportion of conifers on territories because of their superior ability to preserve cached food. Although neither adults (>1 year) nor juveniles (<1 year) had higher survival rates on high-conifer territories, both age classes were less likely to leave high-conifer territories and, when they did move, were more likely to disperse to high-conifer territories. In contrast, survival rates were lower on territories that were adjacent to a major highway compared to territories that did not border the highway but there was no evidence for directional dispersal towards or away from highway territories. Our results support the notion that natural variation in habitat quality is driven by the proportion of coniferous trees on territories and provide the first evidence that high-mortality highway habitats can act as an equal-preference ecological trap for birds. Reproductive success, as shown in a previous study, but not survival, is sensitive to natural variation in habitat quality, suggesting that gray jays, despite living in harsh winter conditions, likely favor the allocation of limited resources towards self-maintenance over reproduction.

  9. Survival and SOS induction in cisplatin-treated Escherichia coli deficient in Pol II, RecBCD and RecFOR functions.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Resham; Beck, Doris J

    2002-11-01

    Cisplatin is a potent anticancer agent forming intrastrand-crosslinks in DNA. The efficacy of cisplatin in chemotherapy can be limited by the development of tumor resistances such as elevated DNA repair or damage tolerance. In Escherichia coli, cisplatin treatment causes induction of the SOS regulon resulting in elevated levels of DNA Pol II, DNA Pol IV, DNA Pol V, the cell division inhibitor SfiA (SulA), homologous recombination (HR) and DNA repair. In this work, the roles of Pol II and HR in facilitating resistance of E. coli to cisplatin are studied. SOS induction levels were measured by beta-galactosidase assays in cisplatin-treated and untreated E. coli PQ30 that has the lacZ gene fused to the sfiA promoter. Comparative studies were carried out with derivatives of PQ30 constructed by P1 transduction that have transposon insertions in the polB gene, the recB gene blocking the RecBCD pathway of HR and genes of the RecFOR pathway of HR. Resistance of E. coli strains to cisplatin as determined by plating experiments decreased in the following order: parent PQ30 strain, polB > recO, recR, recF > recB. Both the RecBCD and RecFOR pathways of HR are important for survival when E. coli is exposed to cisplatin, because treatment of double mutants deficient in both pathways reduced colony forming ability to 37% in 6-9min in comparison to 39-120min for single mutants. Pol II and RecF appear to function in two distinct pathways to initiate replication blocked due to damage caused by cisplatin because function of Pol II was required for survival in mutants deficient in the RecFOR pathway after 2h of cisplatin treatment. In contrast, Pol II was not required for survival in recB mutants. SOS induction was delayed in RecFOR deficient mutants but occurred at high levels in the recB mutant soon after cisplatin treatment in a RecFOR-dependent way. An SfiA independent, DNA damage dependent pathway is apparently responsible for the filamentous cells observed after cisplatin or MMC

  10. Survival patterns in white-tailed and mule deer after oral inoculation with a standardized, conspecific prion dose.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Sirochman, Michael A; Jewell, Jean E; Williams, Elizabeth S

    2012-04-01

    We orally inoculated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with a standardized, conspecific prion dose and collected biologic samples throughout the disease course. Mule deer (PRNP genotype 225SS) and PRNP genotype 96GG white-tailed deer succumbed along similar trajectories, but 96GS- and 96SS-genotype individuals tended to survive longer.

  11. Comparative Study of LDR (Manchester System) and HDR Image-guided Conformal Brachytherapy of Cervical Cancer: Patterns of Failure, Late Complications, and Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Kailash Dyk, Sylvia van; Bernshaw, David; Rajasooriyar, Chrishanthi; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To compare patterns of failure, late toxicities, and survival in locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated by either low-dose-rate (LDR) or conformal high-dose-rate (HDRc) brachytherapy as a part of curative radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective comparative study of 217 advanced cervix cancer patients was conducted; 90 of these patients received LDR and 127 received HDRc brachytherapy. All patients were staged using International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) rules, had pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and were treated with concurrent cisplatin chemoradiotherapy. Both groups matched for FIGO stage, MRI tumor volume, and uterine invasion status. Results: Local and pelvic failures were similar 12-13% and 14% both in both groups. Abdominal and systemic failures in LDR group were 21% and 24%, whereas corresponding failures in HDRc group were 20% and 24%. Sixty-eight percent (87/127) of patients treated by HDRc remained asymptomatic, whereas 42% (38/90) of patients were asymptomatic from the bowel and bladder symptoms after treatment with LDR. The 5-year OS rate was 60% (SE = 4%). The 5-year failure-free survival rate was 55% (SE = 3%). There was no significant difference between the groups. Conclusions: Image-guided HDRc planning led to a large decrease in late radiation effects in patients treated by HDRc. Patterns of failure and survival were similar in patients treated either by LDR or HDRc.

  12. Patterns of practice and survival in a retrospective analysis of 1722 adult astrocytoma patients treated between 1985 and 2001 in 12 Italian radiation oncology centers

    SciTech Connect

    Magrini, Stefano Maria . E-mail: magrini@med.unibs.it; Ricardi, Umberto; Santoni, Riccardo; Krengli, Marco; Lupattelli, Marco; Cafaro, Ines; Scoccianti, Silvia; Menichelli, Claudia; Bertoni, Filippo; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Buglione, Michela; Pirtoli, Luigi

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze the patterns of practice and survival in a series of 1722 adult astrocytoma patients treated in 12 Italian radiotherapy centers. Methods and Materials: A total of 1722 patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy (90% World Health Organization [WHO] Grade 3-4, 62% male, 44% aged >60 years, 25% with severe neurologic deficits, 44% after gross total resection, 52% with high-dose radiotherapy, and 16% with chemotherapy). Variations in the clinical-therapeutic features in three subsequent periods (1985 through 2001) were evaluated, along with overall survival for the different subgroups. Results: The proportion of women, of older patients, of those with worse neurologic performance status (NPS), with WHO Grade 4, and with smaller tumors increased with time, as did the proportion of those treated with radical surgery, hypofractionated radiotherapy, and more sophisticated radiotherapy techniques, after staging procedures progressively became more accurate. The main prognostic factors for overall survival were age, sex, neurologic performance status, WHO grade, extent of surgery, and radiation dose. Conclusions: Recently, broader selection criteria for radiotherapy were adopted, together with simpler techniques, smaller total doses, and larger fraction sizes for the worse prognostic categories. Younger, fit patients are treated more aggressively, more often in association with chemotherapy. Survival did not change over time. The accurate evaluation of neurologic status is therefore of utmost importance before the best treatment option for the individual patient is chosen.

  13. Rcan1-1L overexpression induces mitochondrial autophagy and improves cell survival in angiotensin II-exposed cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Hongyan; Li, Yongqiang; Yan, Lijie; Yang, Haitao; Wu, Jintao; Qian, Peng; Li, Bing; Wang, Shanling

    2015-07-01

    Mitochondrial autophagy is an important adaptive stress response and can be modulated by various key molecules. A previous study found that the regulator of calcineurin 1-1L (Rcan1-1L) may regulate mitochondrial autophagy and cause mitochondria degradation in neurocytes. However, the effect of Rcan1-1L on cardiomyocytes has not been determined. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of Rcan1-1L in angiotensin II (Ang II)-exposed human cardiomyocytes. Above all, Human adult cardiac myocytes (HACMs) were exposed to 200 nmol/L Ang II for 4 days. Enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production, cytochrome C release and mitochondrial permeability were observed in these cells, which were blocked by valsartan. Consistently, Ang II exposure significantly reduced cardiomyocyte viability. However, transfection of Rcan1-1L vector promoted cell viability and ameliorated the apoptosis caused by Ang II. Rcan1-1L clearly promoted mitochondrial autophagy in HACMs, with elevated autophagy protein (ATG) 5 and light chain 3 (LC3) expression. Transient mitochondrial biogenesis and reduced cytochrome C release was also induced by Rcan1-1L. Additionally, Rcan1-1L significantly inhibited calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling. We thus conclude that Rcan1-1L may play a protective role in Ang II-treated cardiomyocytes through the induction of mitochondrial autophagy, and may be an alternative method of cardiac protection. - Highlights: • Transfection of Rcan1-1L into HACMs promoted cell viability and reduced apoptosis. • Transfection of Rcan1-1L promoted mitochondrial autophagy in HACMs. • Rcan1-1L inhibited the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells signaling.

  14. Alternate lunch patterns in high schools. II. Student and foodstaff reactions.

    PubMed

    Harper, J M; Mackin, S D; Sjogren, D O; Jansen, G R

    1980-09-01

    Reactions to alternate menu patterns used in high school lunches were measured. Students rated food in Basic 4 and free-choice patterns more positively than Type A. The environment in the lunchroom was not rated differently with different menu patterns. Based on overall student reactions, the free-choice pattern was preferred. School lunch managers found the free-choice pattern more difficult to serve because of reimbursement and pricing problems but felt there was less plate waste and better student response with this system. PMID:7410756

  15. Absence of effects from immunocontraception on seasonal birth patterns and foal survival among barrier island wild horses.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Jay F; Turner, Allison

    2003-01-01

    Despite a large body of safety data, concern exists that porcine zonae pellucidae (PZP) immunocontraception--used to manage wild horse populations--may cause out-of-season births with resulting foal mortality. Our study at Assateague, Maryland indicated the effects of immunocontraception on season of birth and foal survival between 1990 and 2002 on wild horses from Assateague Island. Among 91 mares never treated, 69 (75.8%) of foals were born in April, May, and June (in season). Among 77 treated mares, 50 (64.9%) were born in season. Of 29 mares foaling within 1 year after treatment (contraceptive failures), 20 (68.9%) were born in season. Of 48 mares treated for greater than 2 years then withdrawn from treatment, 30 (62.5%) of 48 foals were born in season. There were no significant differences (p <.05) between either treatment group or untreated mares. Survival did not differ significantly among foals born in or out of season or among foals born to treated or untreated mares. Data indicate a lack of effect of PZP contraception on season of birth or foal survival on barrier island habitats.

  16. Private practice results of dental implants. Part I: survival and evaluation of risk factors--Part II: surgical and prosthetic complications.

    PubMed

    Kourtis, Stefanos G; Sotiriadou, Stella; Voliotis, Stamatis; Challas, Anastasios

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study is to present the clinical data from the use of implants that were placed and restored in four independent private dental offices. In part I, the survival rate was calculated and the failure causes were associated with some potential risk factors. In part II, the surgical and prosthetic complications were also recorded and associated both with failures and clinical factors. During 1990-2002 (mean observation 4.6 years), 1692 dental implants were placed and restored in 405 patients in 4 private clinics following the same treatment protocol. The prosthetic restorations included fixed partial dentures, single crowns, and overdentures. The results were statistically analyzed and survival rate probability curves were calculated according to Kaplan-Meier analysis. Part I: Seventy-four implants (4.4%) in a total of 1692 implants failed. The mean of time elapsed before removal of the failed implants was 40 months. The failure rate was higher in the maxilla in patients with metabolic diseases, in D4 bone quality, in smokers, and in patients with insufficient oral hygiene. Part II: Surgical complications happened to 65 implants (3.8%). Prosthetic complications appeared in 152 implants (9%). The overall survival rate (95.6%) in a period of 1 to 12 years is comparable to other studies. The early failures represented a high percentage of failures. Peri-implantitis was the main cause of late failures. The results of this study indicate that the use of implants in private clinics is a safe and predictable method for the treatment of partially or completely edentulous patients, if the proper clinical protocol is followed. The need of a severe recall program must also be emphasized.

  17. Radiation Therapy Administration and Survival in Stage I/II Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, Adam J. Desai, Amrita

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors associated with the use of radiation therapy and associated survival outcomes in early-stage marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Methods and Materials: We extracted data on adult patients with stage I/II MALT lymphoma diagnoses between 1998 and 2010 recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. We studied factors associated with radiation therapy administration in a logistic regression model and described the cumulative incidence of lymphoma-related death (LRD) according to receipt of the treatment. The association of radiation therapy with survival was explored in multivariate models with adjustment for immortal time bias. Results: Of the 7774 identified patients, 36% received radiation therapy as part of the initial course of treatment. Older patients; black or Hispanic men; white, Hispanic, and black women; and socioeconomically disadvantaged and underinsured patients had a significantly lower chance of receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy administration was associated with a lower chance of LRD in most sites. In cutaneous, ocular, and salivary MALT lymphomas, the 5-year estimate of LRD after radiation therapy was 0%. The association of radiation therapy with overall survival in different lymphoma sites was heterogeneous, and statistically significant in cutaneous (hazard ratio 0.45, P=.009) and ocular (hazard ratio 0.47, P<.0001) locations after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Demographic factors are associated with the use of radiation therapy in MALT lymphoma. Clinicians should be sensitive to those disparities because the administration of radiation therapy may be associated with improved survival, particularly in cutaneous and ocular lymphomas.

  18. The pattern of excitation of human lower limb motoneurones by probable group II muscle afferents.

    PubMed

    Simonetta-Moreau, M; Marque, P; Marchand-Pauvert, V; Pierrot-Deseilligny, E

    1999-05-15

    1. Heteronymous group II effects were investigated in the human lower limb. Changes in firing probability of single motor units in quadriceps (Q), biceps (Bi), semitendinosus (ST), gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and tibialis anterior (TA) were studied after electrical stimuli between 1 and 3 times motor threshold (MT) applied to common peroneal (CP), superficial (SP) and deep (DP) peroneal, Bi and GM nerves in those nerve-muscle combinations without recurrent inhibition. 2. Stimulation of the CP and Bi nerves evoked in almost all of the explored Q motor units a biphasic excitation with a low-threshold early peak, attributable to non-monosynaptic group I excitation, and a higher threshold late peak. When the CP nerve was cooled (or the stimulation applied to a distal branch, DP), the increase in latency was greater for the late than for the early peak, indicating that the late excitation is due to stimulation of afferents with a slower conduction velocity than group I fibres, presumably in the group II range. In ST motor units the group II excitation elicited by stimulation of the GM and SP nerves was particularly large and frequent, and the non-monosynaptic group I excitation was often replaced by an inhibition. 3. A late group II-induced excitation from CP to Q motoneurones and from GM and SP to ST motoneurones was also observed when using the H reflex as a test. 4. The electrical threshold and conduction velocity of the largest diameter fibres evoking the group II excitation were estimated to be 2.1 and 0.65 times those of the fastest Ia afferents, respectively. In the combinations tested in the present investigation the group II input seemed to be primarily of muscle origin. 5. The potent heteronymous group II excitation of motoneurones of both flexors and extensors of the knee contrasted with the absence of a group II effect from DP to GM and from GM to TA. In none of the combinations explored was there any evidence for group II inhibition of motoneurones. The

  19. Pattern of humoral reactivity to type II collagen in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Boissier, M C; Chiocchia, G; Texier, B; Fournier, C

    1989-01-01

    Humoral immunity directed against type II collagen (CII) is a common although not specific feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We have shown that 10 to 15% of the sera either from RA patients (n = 88) or from healthy controls (n = 149) reacted with native human CII. Conversely, autoantibodies to the alpha-1 (II) chains were significantly more frequent in the RA group (26.1% versus 6.0%, P<0.001), suggestingthatdenaturedCII may bean autoantigenin RA. Thus, human CII was cleaved with cyanogen bromide (CB), and immunoblotting techniques were performed on 19 RA and 21 normal sera. Among the four major CB peptides, CB10 and CB11 were recognized by most of the sera tested without distinction between normal or RA sera. Inhibition experiments using an ELISA have shown that: (i) antibodies to the native CII molecule did not cross-react with those recognizing the CB peptides, and vice-versa; (ii) the binding of the sera to native CII was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with alpha-1 (II) chains, and vice-versa; (iii) pre-incubation of the sera with CB peptides partially blocked the binding to alpha-1 (II) chains, whereas pre-incubation of the sera with alpha-1 (II) chains totally inhibited the reactivity against CB peptides; and (iv) a substantial proportion of the epitopes recognized by anti-CII autoantibodies was neither species specific nor type specific. Taken together, these findings reveal the existence of several populations of anti-CII autoantibodies: some antibodies react exclusively with conformational determinants of the CII molecule, and others are directed towards linear structures of alpha-1 (II) chains. Images Fig. 3 PMID:12412745

  20. Studies in Pattern Detection in Normal and Autistic Children. II. Reproduction and Production of Color Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Uta

    1970-01-01

    Findings are consistent with the hypothesis of an input processing deficit in autistic children. Autistic children were insensitive to differences in the structures present and tended to impose their own simple stereotyped patterns. Normal children imposed such patterns in the absence of structured input only. Paper reports work which has been…

  1. Contrasting patterns of selection acting on MHC class I and class II DRB genes in the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota).

    PubMed

    Kuduk, K; Johanet, A; Allainé, D; Cohas, A; Radwan, J

    2012-08-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes code for proteins that play a critical role in the immune system response. The MHC genes are among the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates, presumably due to balancing selection. The two MHC classes appear to differ in the rate of evolution, but the reasons for this variation are not well understood. Here, we investigate the level of polymorphism and the evolution of sequences that code for the peptide-binding regions of MHC class I and class II DRB genes in the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota). We found evidence for four expressed MHC class I loci and two expressed MHC class II loci. MHC genes in marmots were characterized by low polymorphism, as one to eight alleles per putative locus were detected in 38 individuals from three French Alps populations. The generally limited degree of polymorphism, which was more pronounced in class I genes, is likely due to bottleneck the populations undergone. Additionally, gene duplication within each class might have compensated for the loss of polymorphism at particular loci. The two gene classes showed different patterns of evolution. The most polymorphic of the putative loci, Mama-DRB1, showed clear evidence of historical positive selection for amino acid replacements. However, no signal of positive selection was evident in the MHC class I genes. These contrasting patterns of sequence evolution may reflect differences in selection pressures acting on class I and class II genes.

  2. Stromal Caveolin-1 Is Associated With Response and Survival in a Phase II Trial of nab-Paclitaxel With Carboplatin for Advanced NSCLC Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bertino, Erin M.; Williams, Terence M.; Nana-Sinkam, S. Patrick; Shilo, Konstantin; Chatterjee, Moumita; Mo, Xiaokui; Rahmani, Meliha; Phillips, Gary S.; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A.; Otterson, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    In this phase II trial, carboplatin with nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel as first-line therapy for advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was evaluated. Most patients had squamous cell histology. Tumor-associated stromal caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression was correlated with improved response rate and survival in NSCLC patients who received nab-paclitaxel in this phase II trial. These results suggest Cav-1 might serve as a potential biomarker in this patient population. Background The combination of bevacizumab with platinum-based chemotherapy results in greater response rate (RR) and overall survival (OS) in advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Bevacizumab is contraindicated in patients with squamous histology or hemoptysis. Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel is a novel formulation of paclitaxel with greater dose tolerance and improved efficacy. We hypothesized that nab-paclitaxel and carboplatin would be superior to alternative doublets in advanced NSCLC patients ineligible for bevacizumab. Patients and Methods We conducted a single-arm phase II trial (NCT00729612) with carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel on day 1 of a 21-day cycle to evaluate RR (primary end point), safety, toxicity, and OS. Eligibility included: squamous histology, hemoptysis, or ongoing anticoagulation. Correlative studies included immunohistochemistry for secreted protein acid rich in cysteine (SPARC) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). Results Sixty-three patients were enrolled. Most patients had squamous cell carcinoma (n = 48); other reasons for eligibility included hemoptysis (n = 11) and anticoagulation (n = 2). Toxicity Grade ≥ 3/4 included neuropathy, cytopenias, and fatigue. RR was 38% (24 partial response/0 complete response); 20 patients had stable disease (32%). Median progression-free survival was 5 months and median OS was 9.7 months. Immunohistochemistry for SPARC and Cav-1 was performed in 38 and 37 patients respectively. Although no association was found for

  3. Prognostic Impact of Erythropoietin Expression and Erythropoietin Receptor Expression on Locoregional Control and Survival of Patients Irradiated for Stage II/III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Setter, Cornelia; Dahl, Olav; Schild, Steven E.; Noack, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: Prognostic factors can guide the physician in selecting the optimal treatment for an individual patient. This study investigates the prognostic value of erythropoietin (EPO) and EPO receptor (EPO-R) expression of tumor cells for locoregional control and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Fourteen factors were investigated in 62 patients irradiated for stage II/III NSCLC, as follows: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), histology, grading, TNM/American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, surgery, chemotherapy, pack years (average number of packages of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the number of years smoked), smoking during radiotherapy, hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy, EPO expression, and EPO-R expression. Additionally, patients with tumors expressing both EPO and EPO-R were compared to those expressing either EPO or EPO-R and to those expressing neither EPO nor EPO-R. Results: On univariate analysis, improved locoregional control was associated with AJCC stage II cancer (p < 0.048), surgery (p < 0.042), no smoking during radiotherapy (p = 0.024), and no EPO expression (p = 0.001). A trend was observed for a KPS of >70 (p = 0.08), an N stage of 0 to 1 (p = 0.07), and no EPO-R expression (p = 0.10). On multivariate analysis, AJCC stage II and no EPO expression remained significant. No smoking during radiotherapy was almost significant. On univariate analysis, improved survival was associated with N stage 0 to 1 (p = 0.009), surgery (p = 0.039), hemoglobin levels of {>=}12 g/d (p = 0.016), and no EPO expression (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, N stage 0 to 1 and no EPO expression maintained significance. Hemoglobin levels of {>=}12 g/d were almost significant. On subgroup analyses, patients with tumors expressing both EPO and EPO-R had worse outcomes than those expressing either EPO or EPO-R and those expressing neither EPO nor RPO-R. Conclusions: EPO expression of tumor cells

  4. Carcinoma of the cervical stump: comparison of radiation therapy factors, survival and patterns of failure with carcinoma of the intact uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Igboeli, P.; Kapp, D.S.; Lawrence, R.; Schwartz, P.E.

    1983-02-01

    Eighty-nine patients with previously untreated invasive carcinoma of the cervical stump were seen at Yale-New Haven Hospital from 1953 through 1977. This represented 9.4% of the carcinomas of the cervix seen during this time period. Eighty-five of the 89 patients (95.5%) had ''true'' cancers of the cervical stump diagnosed 2 years or more after subtotal hysterectomy, while 4 of the 89 patients (4.5%) had ''coincident'' cancers diagnosed within 2 years of the subtotal hysterectomy. All cervical cancers were staged by the F.I.G.O. classification. Patient characteristics, methods of management, failure sites and survival of patients with carcinoma of the cervical stump were compared to those patients with carcinoma in the intact uterus. Patients with cervical stump cancers were treated in a similar manner to those with carcinomas of the intact uterus, using a combination of external beam irradiation and intracavitary radium. The stump cancer patients had a similar stage distribution to the patients with cancers of the intact uterus but, on the average, they were older and received less irradiation. The patterns of failure were similar on a stage for stage basis, but the survival and disease-free survival for stump cancer patients were superior to those of the patients with carcinoma of the intact uterus.

  5. Surviving the Messinian Salinity Crisis? Divergence patterns in the genus Dendropoma (Gastropoda: Vermetidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Marta; Alda, Fernando; Oliverio, Marco; Templado, José; Machordom, Annie

    2015-10-01

    Four genetically distinct clades were recently described under the name Dendropoma petraeum, a Mediterranean endemic vermetid gastropod. The aim of this work is to date the processes that drove to the diversification within this taxon and to relate them to the corresponding historical events occurred in the Mediterranean Sea. Sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear markers were obtained from specimens collected in 29 localities spanning over 4000km across the entire distribution range of D. petraeum species complex. The phylogenetic and coalescent-based analyses confirmed the four well-supported and largely differentiated lineages of D. petraeum, clearly delimited geographically along a west-east axis within the Mediterranean Sea: Western, Tyrrhenian-Sicilian, Ionian-Aegean and Levantine lineages. Divergence time estimates, obtained using a range of known substitution rates for other marine gastropods, indicated two main stages of diversification. In the first period (between 9.5 and 4.5mya), the ancestral D. petraeum diverged into the current four lineages. The most recent period occurred between 3.72 and 0.66mya in the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, and included the main within-lineage diversification events. Therefore, if the divergence time between the major lineages of Dendropoma in the Mediterranean actually predated or coincided with the Messinian Salinity Crisis, then they should have survived to this dramatic period within the Mediterranean, as supported by Bayes Factors model comparison. Conversely, if the divergence started after the crisis, congruent with the idea that no true marine organism survived the Messinian Salinity Crisis, then our results indicate substitution rates of Dendropoma much higher than usual (5.16% per million years for COI, 3.04% for 16S). More recent climate changes seem to have conditioned the demographic history of each lineage differently. While Western and Tyrrhenian-Sicilian lineages both underwent an increase in their

  6. Surviving the Messinian Salinity Crisis? Divergence patterns in the genus Dendropoma (Gastropoda: Vermetidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Marta; Alda, Fernando; Oliverio, Marco; Templado, José; Machordom, Annie

    2015-10-01

    Four genetically distinct clades were recently described under the name Dendropoma petraeum, a Mediterranean endemic vermetid gastropod. The aim of this work is to date the processes that drove to the diversification within this taxon and to relate them to the corresponding historical events occurred in the Mediterranean Sea. Sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear markers were obtained from specimens collected in 29 localities spanning over 4000km across the entire distribution range of D. petraeum species complex. The phylogenetic and coalescent-based analyses confirmed the four well-supported and largely differentiated lineages of D. petraeum, clearly delimited geographically along a west-east axis within the Mediterranean Sea: Western, Tyrrhenian-Sicilian, Ionian-Aegean and Levantine lineages. Divergence time estimates, obtained using a range of known substitution rates for other marine gastropods, indicated two main stages of diversification. In the first period (between 9.5 and 4.5mya), the ancestral D. petraeum diverged into the current four lineages. The most recent period occurred between 3.72 and 0.66mya in the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, and included the main within-lineage diversification events. Therefore, if the divergence time between the major lineages of Dendropoma in the Mediterranean actually predated or coincided with the Messinian Salinity Crisis, then they should have survived to this dramatic period within the Mediterranean, as supported by Bayes Factors model comparison. Conversely, if the divergence started after the crisis, congruent with the idea that no true marine organism survived the Messinian Salinity Crisis, then our results indicate substitution rates of Dendropoma much higher than usual (5.16% per million years for COI, 3.04% for 16S). More recent climate changes seem to have conditioned the demographic history of each lineage differently. While Western and Tyrrhenian-Sicilian lineages both underwent an increase in their

  7. NRPB3, the third largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, is essential for stomatal patterning and differentiation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Guan, Liping; Qian, Pingping; Xu, Fan; Wu, Zhongliang; Wu, Yujun; He, Kai; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Jia; Hou, Suiwen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stomata are highly specialized epidermal structures that control transpiration and gas exchange between plants and the environment. Signal networks underlying stomatal development have been previously uncovered but much less is known about how signals involved in stomatal development are transmitted to RNA polymerase II (Pol II or RPB), which plays a central role in the transcription of mRNA coding genes. Here, we identify a partial loss-of-function mutation of the third largest subunit of nuclear DNA-dependent Pol II (NRPB3) that exhibits an increased number of stomatal lineage cells and paired stomata. Phenotypic and genetic analyses indicated that NRPB3 is not only required for correct stomatal patterning, but is also essential for stomatal differentiation. Protein-protein interaction assays showed that NRPB3 directly interacts with two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, FAMA and INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1), indicating that NRPB3 serves as an acceptor for signals from transcription factors involved in stomatal development. Our findings highlight the surprisingly conserved activating mechanisms mediated by the third largest subunit of Pol II in eukaryotes. PMID:26989174

  8. NRPB3, the third largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, is essential for stomatal patterning and differentiation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Guan, Liping; Qian, Pingping; Xu, Fan; Wu, Zhongliang; Wu, Yujun; He, Kai; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Jia; Hou, Suiwen

    2016-05-01

    Stomata are highly specialized epidermal structures that control transpiration and gas exchange between plants and the environment. Signal networks underlying stomatal development have been previously uncovered but much less is known about how signals involved in stomatal development are transmitted to RNA polymerase II (Pol II or RPB), which plays a central role in the transcription of mRNA coding genes. Here, we identify a partial loss-of-function mutation of the third largest subunit of nuclear DNA-dependent Pol II (NRPB3) that exhibits an increased number of stomatal lineage cells and paired stomata. Phenotypic and genetic analyses indicated that NRPB3 is not only required for correct stomatal patterning, but is also essential for stomatal differentiation. Protein-protein interaction assays showed that NRPB3 directly interacts with two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, FAMA and INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1), indicating that NRPB3 serves as an acceptor for signals from transcription factors involved in stomatal development. Our findings highlight the surprisingly conserved activating mechanisms mediated by the third largest subunit of Pol II in eukaryotes. PMID:26989174

  9. [Establishment of full-sib families of Branchiostoma japonicum and the relationship between early development patterns and larvae survival rates].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ye; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2013-10-01

    One general requirement of individual laboratory animals is that they have known genetic backgrounds. However, ensuring such genetic similarity is difficult, and can be facilitated by breeding a full strain for experimentation. To this end, the authors bred 34 full-sib families of amphioxus larvae/embryos. Due to the high mortality of the embryos and larvae, only seven full-sib families of juvenile amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum were obtained. Among them, the highest and lowest survival ratios were 32.4% and 1.67%, respectively, whereas the shortest metamorphosis and longest larva duration were 24 d and 42 d, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility of establishing full-sib families of amphioxus, and provide fundamental data needed for the future breeding of amphioxus strains.

  10. [Establishment of full-sib families of Branchiostoma japonicum and the relationship between early development patterns and larvae survival rates].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ye; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2013-10-01

    One general requirement of individual laboratory animals is that they have known genetic backgrounds. However, ensuring such genetic similarity is difficult, and can be facilitated by breeding a full strain for experimentation. To this end, the authors bred 34 full-sib families of amphioxus larvae/embryos. Due to the high mortality of the embryos and larvae, only seven full-sib families of juvenile amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum were obtained. Among them, the highest and lowest survival ratios were 32.4% and 1.67%, respectively, whereas the shortest metamorphosis and longest larva duration were 24 d and 42 d, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility of establishing full-sib families of amphioxus, and provide fundamental data needed for the future breeding of amphioxus strains. PMID:24115654

  11. Studies in Enrollment Trends and Patterns. Part II--Summer Quarter: 1940-1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Calvin F.; Watson, F. Jean

    This is the second part of a report on major facets of institutional change at the University of Washington. Part II is a detailed analysis of Summer Quarter students and covers: class differentials in enrollment trends; trends in undergraduate students by major field and college; trends in graduate and professional students by major field and…

  12. Spawning areas of eastern Baltic cod revisited: Using hydrodynamic modelling to reveal spawning habitat suitability, egg survival probability, and connectivity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Lehmann, A.; Petereit, C.; Nissling, A.; Ustups, D.; Bergström, U.; Hüssy, K.

    2016-04-01

    In the highly variable environment of the Baltic Sea two genetically distinct cod stocks exist, one west of the island of Bornholm, which is referred to as the western stock, and one to the east of Bornholm, the eastern stock. A hydrodynamic model combined with a Lagrangian particle tracking technique was utilised to provide spatially and temporally resolved long-term information on environmentally-related (i) spawning habitat size, (ii) egg/yolk-sac larval survival, (iii) separation of causes of mortality, and (iv) connectivity between spawning areas of eastern Baltic cod. Simulations were performed to quantify processes generating heterogeneity in spatial distribution of cod eggs and yolk sac larvae up to the first-feeding stage. The spatial extent of cod eggs represented as virtual drifters is primarily determined by oxygen and salinity conditions at spawning, which define the habitat requirement to which cod's physiology is suited for egg development. The highest habitat suitability occurred in the Bornholm Basin, followed by the Gdansk Deep, while relatively low habitat suitability was obtained for the Arkona and the Gotland Basin. During drift egg and yolk sac larval survival is to a large extent affected by sedimentation. Eggs initially released in the western spawning grounds (Arkona and Bornholm Basin) were more affected by sedimentation than those released in the eastern spawning grounds (Gdansk Deep and Gotland Basin). Highest relative survival of eastern Baltic cod eggs occurred in the Bornholm Basin, with a pronounced decrease towards the Gdansk Deep and the Gotland Basin. Relatively low survival rates in the Gdansk Deep and in the Gotland Basin were attributable to oxygen-dependent mortality. Low oxygen content had almost no impact on survival in the Arkona Basin. For all spawning areas temperature dependent mortality was only evident after severe winters. Egg buoyancy in relation to topographic features like bottom sills and strong bottom slopes

  13. Ultra-High Pressure Driver and Nozzle Survivability in the RDHWT/MARIAH II Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Costantino, M.; Brown, G.; Raman, K.; Miles, R.; Felderman, J.

    2000-06-02

    An ultra-high pressure device provides a high enthalpy (> 2500 kJ/kg), low entropy (< 5 kJ/kg-K) air source for the RDHWT/MARIAH II Program Medium Scale Hypersonic Wind Tunnel. The design uses stagnation conditions of 2300 MPa (330,000 Psi) and 750 K (900 F) in a radial configuration of intensifiers around an axial manifold to deliver pure air at 100 kg/s mass flow rates for run times suitable for aerodynamic, combustion, and test and evaluation applications. Helium injection upstream of the nozzle throat reduces the throat wall recovery temperature to about 1200 K and reduces the oxygen concentration at the nozzle wall.

  14. A phase II randomised clinical trial comparing cisplatin, paclitaxel and ifosfamide with cisplatin, paclitaxel and epirubicin in newly diagnosed advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: long-term survival analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fruscio, R; Colombo, N; Lissoni, A A; Garbi, A; Fossati, R; Ieda', N; Torri, V; Mangioni, C

    2008-01-01

    To test the feasibility and efficacy of epirubicin and ifosfamide added to first-line chemotherapy with cisplatin and paclitaxel in a phase II randomised clinical trial. Patients with histologically proven epithelial ovarian cancer were randomly assigned to receive first-line polychemotherapy with cisplatin/paclitaxel/epirubicin (CEP) or cisplatin/paclitaxel/ifosfamide (CIP) for six cycles every 21 days. Two hundred and eight patients were randomised between the two treatment arms and the median number of cycles per patient was six. Toxicity was predominantly haematological with both regimens; however, anaemia, leucopaenia, neutropaenic fever and use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors and transfusion were significantly more frequent in the CIP treatment arm. Response rates were 85% (95% confidence interval (CI) 77–93%) in the CIP arm and 90% (95% CI 84–96%) in the CEP arm; complete response rates were 48 and 52%. After a median follow-up of 82 months, median overall survival (OS) was 51 and 65 months; 5-year survival rates were respectively 43 and 50%. In this clinical trial, both regimens showed good efficacy, but toxicity was heavier with the CIP regimen. Considering that more than 50% of patients were suboptimally debulked after the first surgery, OS seems to be longer than is commonly reported. This unexpected finding might be a consequence of the close surgical surveillance and aggressive chemotherapeutic approach. PMID:18253120

  15. Overall Survival Analysis of a Phase II Randomized Controlled Trial of a Poxviral-Based PSA-Targeted Immunotherapy in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kantoff, Philip W.; Schuetz, Thomas J.; Blumenstein, Brent A.; Glode, L. Michael; Bilhartz, David L.; Wyand, Michael; Manson, Kelledy; Panicali, Dennis L.; Laus, Reiner; Schlom, Jeffrey; Dahut, William L.; Arlen, Philip M.; Gulley, James L.; Godfrey, Wayne R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Therapeutic prostate-specific antigen (PSA) –targeted poxviral vaccines for prostate cancer have been well tolerated. PROSTVAC-VF treatment was evaluated for safety and for prolongation of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in a randomized, controlled, and blinded phase II study. Patients and Methods In total, 125 patients were randomly assigned in a multicenter trial of vaccination series. Eligible patients had minimally symptomatic castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer (mCRPC). PROSTVAC-VF comprises two recombinant viral vectors, each encoding transgenes for PSA, and three immune costimulatory molecules (B7.1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3). Vaccinia-based vector was used for priming followed by six planned fowlpox-based vector boosts. Patients were allocated (2:1) to PROSTVAC-VF plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or to control empty vectors plus saline injections. Results Eighty-two patients received PROSTVAC-VF and 40 received control vectors. Patient characteristics were similar in both groups. The primary end point was PFS, which was similar in the two groups (P = .6). However, at 3 years post study, PROSTVAC-VF patients had a better OS with 25 (30%) of 82 alive versus 7 (17%) of 40 controls, longer median survival by 8.5 months (25.1 v 16.6 months for controls), an estimated hazard ratio of 0.56 (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.85), and stratified log-rank P = .0061. Conclusion PROSTVAC-VF immunotherapy was well tolerated and associated with a 44% reduction in the death rate and an 8.5-month improvement in median OS in men with mCRPC. These provocative data provide preliminary evidence of clinically meaningful benefit but need to be confirmed in a larger phase III study. PMID:20100959

  16. A simulation study of predictive ability measures in a survival model II: explained randomness and predictive accuracy.

    PubMed

    Choodari-Oskooei, B; Royston, P; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2012-10-15

    Several R(2) -type measures have been proposed to evaluate the predictive ability of a survival model. In Part I, we classified the measures into four categories and studied the measures in the explained variation category. In this paper, we study the remaining measures in a similar fashion, discussing their strengths and shortcomings. Simulation studies are used to examine the performance of the measures with respect to the criteria we set out in Part I. Our simulation studies showed that among the measures studied in this paper, the measures proposed by Kent and O'Quigley ρ(W)(2) (and its approximation ρ(W,A)(2)) and Schemper and Kaider R(SK)(2) perform better with respect to our criteria. However, our investigations showed that ρ(W)(2) is adversely affected by the distribution of covariate and the presence of influential observations. The results show that the other measures perform poorly, primarily because they are affected either by the degree of censoring or the follow-up period.

  17. Pattern formation in directional solidification under shear flow. II. Morphologies and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Marietti, Y; Debierre, J M; Bock, T M; Kassner, K

    2001-06-01

    In the preceding paper, we have established an interface equation for directional solidification under the influence of a shear flow parallel to the interface. This equation is asymptotically valid near the absolute stability limit. The flow, described by a nonlocal term, induces a lateral drift of the whole pattern due to its symmetry-breaking properties. We find that at not-too-large flow strengths, the transcritical nature of the transition to hexagonal patterns shows up via a hexagonal modulation of the stripe pattern even when the linear instability threshold of the flowless case has not yet been attained. When the flow term is large, the linear description of the drift velocity breaks down and transitions to flow-dominated morphologies take place. The competition between flow-induced and diffusion-induced patterns (controlled by the temperature gradient) leads to new phenomena such as the transition to a different lattice structure in an array of hexagonal cells. Several methods to characterize the morphologies and their transitions are investigated and compared. In particular, we consider two different ways of defining topological defects useful in the description of patterns and we discuss how they are related to each other.

  18. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2005-09-01

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The wax patterns are used to create a ceramic shell by the application of a series of ceramic coatings, and the alloy is cast into the dewaxed shell mold (Fig. 1.1). However, the complexity of shape and the close dimensional tolerances required in the final casting make it difficult to determine tooling dimensions. The final linear dimension of the casting depends on the cumulative effects of the linear expansions or contractions in each step of the investment casting process (Fig. 1.2). In most cases, the mold geometry or cores restrict the shrinkage of the pattern or the cast part, and the final casting dimensions may be affected by time-dependent processes such as viscoelastic deformation of the wax, and viscoplastic creep and plastic deformations of the shell and alloy. The pattern die is often reworked several times to produce castings whose dimensions are within acceptable tolerances. To date, investment casting technology has been based on hands-on training and experience. Technical literature is limited to experimental, phenomenological studies aimed at obtaining empirical correlations for quick and easy application in industry. The goal of this project was to predict casting dimensions for investment castings in order to meet blueprint nominal during the first casting run. Several interactions have to be considered in a coupled manner to determine the shrinkage factors: these are the die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy interactions (as illustrated in Fig. 1.3). In this work, the deformations of the die-wax and shell-alloy systems were considered in a coupled manner, while the coupled deformation of the wax-shell system was not considered. Future work is needed in order to

  19. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus display reduced toe-obstacle clearance with altered gait patterns during obstacle-crossing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Wei; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Lu, Tung-Wu; Chen, Hao-Ling; Liu, Hwa-Chang

    2010-01-01

    Patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported to be at high risk of falls that may be further increased by the effects of challenging activities such as obstacle-crossing. The purpose of this study was to compare the end-point trajectory and joint kinematic and kinetic patterns of the lower extremities between healthy subjects and individuals with DM during obstacle-crossing with the leading limb. Fourteen patients with type II DM, with no to minimal peripheral neuropathy (PN), and 14 healthy controls walked and crossed obstacles of three different heights (10%, 20% and 30% of leg length) while kinematic and kinetic data were measured using a motion analysis system and two forceplates. Compared to normal, the DM group had similar walking speeds and horizontal footobstacle distances but significantly reduced leading toe-obstacle clearances, suggesting an increased risk of tripping over the obstacle. When the swing toe was above the obstacle, the DM group showed greater pelvic anterior tilt, stance ankle dorsiflexion, and smaller swing hip abduction, with reduced hip abductor moments but greater knee flexor and ankle plantarflexor and adductor moments. It is suggested that patients with type II DM, with no or minimal PN, should also be targeted for prevention of falls. Possible therapeutic interventions to decrease falls for those with DM may include strengthening of the knee flexors and ankle plantarflexor muscles, together with proprioception and balance training. PMID:19875290

  20. Patterns of evolution of MHC class II genes of crows (Corvus) suggest trans-species polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Eimes, John A; Townsend, Andrea K; Sepil, Irem; Nishiumi, Isao; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of genes that code for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is that alleles often share more similarity between, rather than within species. There are two likely mechanisms that can explain this pattern: convergent evolution and trans-species polymorphism (TSP), in which ancient allelic lineages are maintained by balancing selection and retained by descendant species. Distinguishing between these two mechanisms has major implications in how we view adaptation of immune genes. In this study we analyzed exon 2 of the MHC class IIB in three passerine bird species in the genus Corvus: jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos japonensis) American crows (C. brachyrhynchos) and carrion crows (C. corone orientalis). Carrion crows and American crows are recently diverged, but allopatric, sister species, whereas carrion crows and jungle crows are more distantly related but sympatric species, and possibly share pathogens linked to MHC IIB polymorphisms. These patterns of evolutionary divergence and current geographic ranges enabled us to test for trans-species polymorphism and convergent evolution of the MHC IIB in crows. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MHC IIB sequences revealed several well supported interspecific clusters containing all three species, and there was no biased clustering of variants among the sympatric carrion crows and jungle crows. The topologies of phylogenetic trees constructed from putatively selected sites were remarkably different than those constructed from putatively neutral sites. In addition, trees constructed using non-synonymous substitutions from a continuous fragment of exon 2 had more, and generally more inclusive, supported interspecific MHC IIB variant clusters than those constructed from the same fragment using synonymous substitutions. These phylogenetic patterns suggest that recombination, especially gene conversion, has partially erased the signal of allelic ancestry in these species. While clustering of

  1. Patterns of evolution of MHC class II genes of crows (Corvus) suggest trans-species polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Sepil, Irem; Nishiumi, Isao; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of genes that code for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is that alleles often share more similarity between, rather than within species. There are two likely mechanisms that can explain this pattern: convergent evolution and trans-species polymorphism (TSP), in which ancient allelic lineages are maintained by balancing selection and retained by descendant species. Distinguishing between these two mechanisms has major implications in how we view adaptation of immune genes. In this study we analyzed exon 2 of the MHC class IIB in three passerine bird species in the genus Corvus: jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos japonensis) American crows (C. brachyrhynchos) and carrion crows (C. corone orientalis). Carrion crows and American crows are recently diverged, but allopatric, sister species, whereas carrion crows and jungle crows are more distantly related but sympatric species, and possibly share pathogens linked to MHC IIB polymorphisms. These patterns of evolutionary divergence and current geographic ranges enabled us to test for trans-species polymorphism and convergent evolution of the MHC IIB in crows. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MHC IIB sequences revealed several well supported interspecific clusters containing all three species, and there was no biased clustering of variants among the sympatric carrion crows and jungle crows. The topologies of phylogenetic trees constructed from putatively selected sites were remarkably different than those constructed from putatively neutral sites. In addition, trees constructed using non-synonymous substitutions from a continuous fragment of exon 2 had more, and generally more inclusive, supported interspecific MHC IIB variant clusters than those constructed from the same fragment using synonymous substitutions. These phylogenetic patterns suggest that recombination, especially gene conversion, has partially erased the signal of allelic ancestry in these species. While clustering of

  2. Survival Outcome Assessed According to Tumor Response and Shrinkage Pattern in Patients with EGFR Mutation–Positive Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Gefitinib or Erlotinib

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) are associated with a marked therapeutic response to EGFR–tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Clinical indicators of the likely survival benefit of EGFR-TKI treatment in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations have not been identified, however. We therefore evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) according to tumor response and tumor shrinkage pattern in such patients. Methods: Among 145 EGFR mutation–positive NSCLC patients treated with EGFR-TKIs, 68 individuals were selected for analysis. Results: Of the 68 selected patients, 6 achieved a complete response (CR), 42 a partial response (PR), and 14 stable disease (SD). Both PFS and OS were significantly longer in patients who achieved a CR or PR than in those who experienced SD. Multivariate analysis showed that a response (CR or PR) to EGFR-TKIs was significantly associated with both PFS and OS. Among the CR/PR group, the median maximal tumor shrinkage relative to baseline was 56%, and the median time to response (TTR) was 4.2 weeks. The subsets of these patients who experienced rapid tumor regression (TTR of ≤4.2 weeks) or a high degree of tumor shrinkage (≥56%) did not show a more favorable PFS or OS compared with those who experienced slow tumor regression or a low degree of tumor shrinkage. Conclusion: Response (CR or PR) may represent the optimal surrogate for efficacy among EGFR mutation–positive NSCLC patients treated with EGFR-TKIs. PMID:24419417

  3. Nodal Stage of Surgically Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Its Effect on Recurrence Patterns and Overall Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Varlotto, John M.; Yao, Aaron N.; DeCamp, Malcolm M.; Ramakrishna, Satvik; Recht, Abe; Flickinger, John; Andrei, Adin; Reed, Michael F.; Toth, Jennifer W.; Fizgerald, Thomas J.; Higgins, Kristin; Zheng, Xiao; Shelkey, Julie; and others

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) for patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with N2 involvement. We investigated the relationship between nodal stage and local-regional recurrence (LR), distant recurrence (DR) and overall survival (OS) for patients having an R0 resection. Methods and Materials: A multi-institutional database of consecutive patients undergoing R0 resection for stage I-IIIA NSCLC from 1995 to 2008 was used. Patients receiving any radiation therapy before relapse were excluded. A total of 1241, 202, and 125 patients were identified with N0, N1, and N2 involvement, respectively; 161 patients received chemotherapy. Cumulative incidence rates were calculated for LR and DR as first sites of failure, and Kaplan-Meier estimates were made for OS. Competing risk analysis and proportional hazards models were used to examine LR, DR, and OS. Independent variables included age, sex, surgical procedure, extent of lymph node sampling, histology, lymphatic or vascular invasion, tumor size, tumor grade, chemotherapy, nodal stage, and visceral pleural invasion. Results: The median follow-up time was 28.7 months. Patients with N1 or N2 nodal stage had rates of LR similar to those of patients with N0 disease, but were at significantly increased risk for both DR (N1, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-2.59; P=.001; N2, HR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.55-3.48; P<.001) and death (N1, HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81; P<.001; N2, HR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.78-3.04; P<.001). LR was associated with squamous histology, visceral pleural involvement, tumor size, age, wedge resection, and segmentectomy. The most frequent site of LR was the mediastinum. Conclusions: Our investigation demonstrated that nodal stage is directly associated with DR and OS but not with LR. Thus, even some patients with, N0-N1 disease are at relatively high risk of local recurrence. Prospective

  4. Soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities: survival and patterns of failure with conservative surgery and postoperative irradiation compared to surgery alone

    SciTech Connect

    Leibel, S.A.; Tranbaugh, R.F.; Wara, W.M.; Beckstead, J.H.; Bovill, E.G.; Phillips, T.L.

    1982-09-15

    Between 1960 and 1978, 81 patients received their primary treatment for localized soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities, buttock and shoulder at the University of California, San Francisco. Initial treatment consisted of surgery alone in 47 patients, planned conservative surgery followed by radiation therapy in 29 patients, and irradiation alone in five patients. The two- and five-year determinate survival for all cases was 86% and 73%, respectively. The local control rate achieved with surgery alone was related to the extent of surgery. Eighty-seven percent (14/16) of the patients undergoing amputation were locally controlled. Seventy-two percent (8/11) were treated with wide en bloc resection and had local tumor control while only 30% (6/20) having simple excision were controlled. The local control rate with surgery and postoperative irradiation was 90% (26/29). No patients treated with irradiation therapy alone were controlled. This review suggests that local tumor control achieved with limb preserving conservative surgery and postoperative irradiation is superior to limited surgery alone. The survival and patterns of failure of patients undergoing radical surgery is comparable to combined treatment with the risk-benefit ratio favoring the latter. (JMT)

  5. A perfect storm: How tumor biology, genomics, and health care delivery patterns collide to create a racial survival disparity in breast cancer and proposed interventions for change.

    PubMed

    Daly, Bobby; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that there is a significant racial divide in breast cancer incidence and mortality rates. African American women are less likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer than white women but are more likely to die from it. This review explores the factors that may contribute to the racial survival disparity. Consideration is paid to what is known about the role of differences in tumor biology, genomics, cancer screening, and quality of cancer care. It is argued that it is the collision of 2 forces, tumor biology and genomics, with patterns of care that leads to the breast cancer mortality gap. The delays, misuse, and underuse of treatment for African American patients are of increased significance when these patients are presenting with more aggressive forms of breast cancer. In the current climate of health care reform ushered in by the Affordable Care Act, this article also evaluates interventions to close the disparity gap. Prior interventions have been too narrowly focused on the patient rather than addressing the system and improving care across the continuum of breast cancer evaluation and treatment. Lastly, areas of future investigation and policy initiatives aimed at reducing the racial survival disparity in breast cancer are discussed. PMID:25960198

  6. A perfect storm: How tumor biology, genomics, and health care delivery patterns collide to create a racial survival disparity in breast cancer and proposed interventions for change.

    PubMed

    Daly, Bobby; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that there is a significant racial divide in breast cancer incidence and mortality rates. African American women are less likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer than white women but are more likely to die from it. This review explores the factors that may contribute to the racial survival disparity. Consideration is paid to what is known about the role of differences in tumor biology, genomics, cancer screening, and quality of cancer care. It is argued that it is the collision of 2 forces, tumor biology and genomics, with patterns of care that leads to the breast cancer mortality gap. The delays, misuse, and underuse of treatment for African American patients are of increased significance when these patients are presenting with more aggressive forms of breast cancer. In the current climate of health care reform ushered in by the Affordable Care Act, this article also evaluates interventions to close the disparity gap. Prior interventions have been too narrowly focused on the patient rather than addressing the system and improving care across the continuum of breast cancer evaluation and treatment. Lastly, areas of future investigation and policy initiatives aimed at reducing the racial survival disparity in breast cancer are discussed.

  7. Survival Outcomes and Patterns of Recurrence in Patients with Stage III or IV Oropharyngeal Cancer Treated with Primary Surgery or Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Robyn; Warkentin, Heather; Ghosh, Sunita; Scrimger, Rufus; Jha, Naresh; Parliament, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare and contrast the patterns of failure in patients with locally advanced squamous cell oropharyngeal cancers undergoing curative-intent treatment with primary surgery or radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy. Methods and materials Two hundred and thirty-three patients with stage III or IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent curative-intent treatment from 2006-2012, were reviewed. The median length of follow-up for patients still alive at the time of analysis was 4.4 years. Data was collected retrospectively from a chart review. Results One hundred and thirty-nine patients underwent primary surgery +/- adjuvant therapy, and 94 patients underwent primary radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy (CRT). Demographics were similar between the two groups, except primary radiotherapy patients had a higher age-adjusted Charleston co-morbidity score (CCI). Twenty-nine patients from the surgery group recurred; 15 failed distantly only, seven failed locoregionally, and seven failed both distantly and locoregionally. Twelve patients recurred who underwent chemoradiotherapy; ten distantly alone, and two locoregionally. One patient who underwent radiotherapy (RT) alone failed distantly. Two and five-year recurrence-free survival rates for patients undergoing primary RT were 86.6% and 84.9% respectively. Two and five-year recurrence-free survival rates for primary surgery was 80.9% and 76.3% respectively (p=0.21). There was no significant difference in either treatment when they were stratified by p16 status or smoking status. Conclusions Our analysis does not show any difference in outcomes for patients treated with primary surgery or radiotherapy. Although the primary pattern of failure in both groups was distant metastatic disease, some local failures may be preventable with careful delineation of target volumes, especially near the base of skull region. PMID:27610285

  8. Hierarchical crack pattern as formed by successive domain divisions. II. From disordered to deterministic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, S.; Platkiewicz, J.; Andreotti, B.; Adda-Bedia, M.; Couder, Y.

    2005-04-01

    Hierarchical crack patterns, such as those formed in the glaze of ceramics or in desiccated layers of mud or gel, can be understood as a successive division of two-dimensional domains. We present an experimental study of the division of a single rectangular domain in drying starch and show that the dividing fracture essentially depends on the domain size, rescaled by the thickness of the cracking layer e . Utilizing basic assumptions regarding the conditions of crack nucleation, we show that the experimental results can be directly inferred from the equations of linear elasticity. Finally, we discuss the impact of these results on hierarchical crack patterns, and in particular the existence of a transition from disordered cracks at large scales—the first ones—to a deterministic behavior at small scales—the last cracks.

  9. Mathematical modeling of cement paste microstructure by mosaic pattern. Part II. Application

    SciTech Connect

    Tennis, P.D.; Xi, Y.; Jennings, H.M.

    1997-07-01

    A model based on mosaic pattern analysis is shown to have the potential to describe the complex shapes and spatial distribution of phases in the microstructures of multiphase materials. Several characteristics of both micrographs of portland cement pastes and images generated using the few parameters of the model are determined and, for the most part, agreement is good. The advantage is that spatial features of the microstructures can be captured by a few parameters. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  10. Disequilibrium patterns of the peptide transporter loci within the HLA class II region

    SciTech Connect

    Klitz, W.; Stephens, C.J.; Carrington, M.

    1994-09-01

    Disequilibrium between genetic markers is expected to decline monotonically with recombinational map distance. We present evidence from the HLA class II region which seems to violate this principle. Pairwise disequilibrium values from a sample of northern Europeans were calculated for six loci ranging in physical separation from 7 kb to 550 kb. The histocompatibility loci DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 located on the distal end of the class II region behave as a single evolutionary unit within which extremely high linkage disequilibrium exists. Lower but significant levels of disequilibrium are present between these loci and DPB1 located at the proximal edge of the HLA complex. The peptide transporter loci TAP1 and TAP2, located in the intervening region, reveal no disequilibrium with each other and low or negligible disequilibrium with the flanking loci. This evidence suggests either a high rate of gene conversion in the TAP loci which mixes TAP alleles among haplotypes while maintaining the flanking markers, or recombinational hot spots near and between the TAP loci operating in combination with selection to preserve particular combinations of alleles at the flanking histocompatibility loci. Whatever explanation proves correct, this work demonstrates that the lack of association of TAP alleles with a DR-DQ associated disease cannot be used as evidence for a centromeric boundary of influence on that disease.

  11. Weekly paclitaxel with trastuzumab and pertuzumab in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer: overall survival and updated progression-free survival results from a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Smyth, L M; Iyengar, N M; Chen, M F; Popper, S M; Patil, S; Wasserheit-Lieblich, C; Argolo, D F; Singh, J C; Chandarlapaty, S; Sugarman, S M; Comen, E A; Drullinsky, P R; Traina, T A; Troso-Sandoval, T; Baselga, J; Norton, L; Hudis, C A; Dang, C T

    2016-07-01

    We previously reported progression-free survival (PFS) results on a phase II trial of weekly paclitaxel, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) treated in the first- and second-line setting. Here, we report results for overall survival (OS) and updated PFS after an additional year of follow-up. Patients with HER2-positive MBC with 0-1 prior treatment were eligible. Treatment consisted of paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2)) weekly, and trastuzumab (loading dose 8 mg/kg → 6 mg/kg) and pertuzumab (loading dose 840 mg → 420 mg) every 3 weeks, all given intravenously. Primary endpoint was 6-month PFS. Secondary endpoints included median PFS, 6-month and median OS. Evaluable patients received at least one full dose of treatment. From January 2011 to December 2013, 69 patients were enrolled: 51 (74 %) and 18 (26 %) treated in first- and second-line metastatic settings, respectively. As of July 1, 2015, the median follow-up was 33 months (range 3-49 months; 67 patients were evaluable for efficacy). The median OS was 44 months (95 % CI 37.5-NR) overall and 44 months (95 % CI 38.3-NR) and 37.5 months (95 % CI 30.3-NR) for patients with 0 and 1 prior metastatic treatment, respectively; 6-month OS was 98 % (95 % CI 90-1). The 6-month PFS was 86 % (95 % CI 75-93) overall and 89 % (95 % CI 76-95) and 78 % (95 % CI 51-91) for patients with 0 and 1 prior therapy, respectively; and median PFS was 21.4 months (95 % CI 14.1-NR) overall and 25.7 months (95 % CI 14.1-NR) and 16.9 months (95 % CI 8.5-NR) for patients with 0-1 prior treatment, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated. Updated analysis demonstrates that weekly paclitaxel, when added to trastuzumab and pertuzumab, is associated with a favorable OS and PFS and offers an alternative to docetaxel-based therapy. http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT0127604.

  12. Molecule survival in magnetized protostellar disk winds. II. Predicted H2O line profiles versus Herschel/HIFI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvart, W.; Cabrit, S.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Ferreira, J.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The origin of molecular protostellar jets and their role in extracting angular momentum from the accreting system are important open questions in star formation research. In the first paper of this series we showed that a dusty magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) disk wind appeared promising to explain the pattern of H2 temperature and collimation in the youngest jets. Aims: We wish to see whether the high-quality H2O emission profiles of low-mass protostars, observed for the first time by the HIFI spectrograph on board the Herschel satellite, remain consistent with the MHD disk wind hypothesis, and which constraints they would set on the underlying disk properties. Methods: We present synthetic H2O line profiles predictions for a typical MHD disk wind solution with various values of disk accretion rate, stellar mass, extension of the launching area, and view angle. We compare them in terms of line shapes and intensities with the HIFI profiles observed by the WISH key program towards a sample of 29 low-mass Class 0 and Class 1 protostars. Results: A dusty MHD disk wind launched from 0.2-0.6 AU AU to 3-25 AU can reproduce to a remarkable degree the observed shapes and intensities of the broad H2O component observed in low-mass protostars, both in the fundamental 557 GHz line and in more excited lines. Such a model also readily reproduces the observed correlation of 557 GHz line luminosity with envelope density, if the infall rate at 1000 AU is 1-3 times the disk accretion rate in the wind ejection region. It is also compatible with the typical disk size and bolometric luminosity in the observed targets. However, the narrower line profiles in Class 1 sources suggest that MHD disk winds in these sources, if present, would have to be slower and/or less water rich than in Class 0 sources. Conclusions: MHD disk winds appear as a valid (though not unique) option to consider for the origin of the broad H2O component in low-mass protostars. ALMA appears ideally suited to

  13. The evolutionary history of vertebrate cranial placodes II. Evolution of ectodermal patterning.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Gerhard; Patthey, Cedric; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2014-05-01

    Cranial placodes are evolutionary innovations of vertebrates. However, they most likely evolved by redeployment, rewiring and diversification of preexisting cell types and patterning mechanisms. In the second part of this review we compare vertebrates with other animal groups to elucidate the evolutionary history of ectodermal patterning. We show that several transcription factors have ancient bilaterian roles in dorsoventral and anteroposterior regionalisation of the ectoderm. Evidence from amphioxus suggests that ancestral chordates then concentrated neurosecretory cells in the anteriormost non-neural ectoderm. This anterior proto-placodal domain subsequently gave rise to the oral siphon primordia in tunicates (with neurosecretory cells being lost) and anterior (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, and lens) placodes of vertebrates. Likewise, tunicate atrial siphon primordia and posterior (otic, lateral line, and epibranchial) placodes of vertebrates probably evolved from a posterior proto-placodal region in the tunicate-vertebrate ancestor. Since both siphon primordia in tunicates give rise to sparse populations of sensory cells, both proto-placodal domains probably also gave rise to some sensory receptors in the tunicate-vertebrate ancestor. However, proper cranial placodes, which give rise to high density arrays of specialised sensory receptors and neurons, evolved from these domains only in the vertebrate lineage. We propose that this may have involved rewiring of the regulatory network upstream and downstream of Six1/2 and Six4/5 transcription factors and their Eya family cofactors. These proteins, which play ancient roles in neuronal differentiation were first recruited to the dorsal non-neural ectoderm in the tunicate-vertebrate ancestor but subsequently probably acquired new target genes in the vertebrate lineage, allowing them to adopt new functions in regulating proliferation and patterning of neuronal progenitors.

  14. Comparison of methaqualone excretion patterns using Abuscreen ONLINE and EMIT II immunoassays and GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Brenner, C; Hui, R; Passarelli, J; Wu, R; Brenneisen, R; Bracher, K; ElSohly, M A; Ghodoussi, V D; Salamone, S J

    1996-05-17

    A study was performed to compare the ONLINE and EMIT II immunoassays with gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analysis of methaqualone metabolites on urine using samples obtained from a clinical study. Urine was collected over a 72 h period from six healthy adults (4 male, 2 female) after oral dosing with 200 mg methaqualone (MTQ). Each urine sample was analyzed by ONLINE and EMIT II. The samples were then analyzed by GC/MS, hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase and again analyzed by GC/MS. Both immunoassays showed greater than 600 ng/ml concentrations of drug in each sample by the second void and remained highly positive for the rest of the 72 h. Unhydrolyzed samples analyzed by GC/MS showed both low concentrations of MTQ as well as its five major hydroxylated metabolites. The hydrolyzed samples analyzed by GC/MS showed high concentrations of the hydroxylated metabolites with the 2'-hydroxy and 3'-hydroxy metabolites being present at the highest concentrations, the 4'-hydroxy metabolite at a lower amount and the 6-hydroxy and 2-hydroxy metabolites at the lowest concentrations. The GC/MS data coupled with the antibody cross-reactivity data indicate that the major species in clinical samples that cross-react in both immunoassays are the conjugated forms of the hydroxylated metabolites of MTQ. Therefore when confirming by GC/MS after an immunoassay screen it would be prudent to confirm for the major hydroxylated metabolites as glucuronides of MTQ instead of the parent drug.

  15. Laser Patterning of Diamond. Part II. Surface Nondiamond Carbon Formation and its Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley, J.; Jaye, C; Bohon, J; Rao, T; Fischer, D

    2009-01-01

    As diamond becomes more prevalent for electronic and research applications, methods of patterning diamond will be required. One such method, laser ablation, has been investigated in a related work. We report on the formation of surface nondiamond carbon during laser ablation of both polycrystalline and single-crystal synthetic diamonds. Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was used to confirm that the nondiamond carbon layer formed during the ablation was amorphous, and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to estimate the thickness of this layer to be {approx} 60 nm. Ozone cleaning was used to remove the nondiamond carbon layer.

  16. [Biomechanical analysis of locomotion patterns in the lower limb. II. Forces in joints].

    PubMed

    Gruber, K; Legal, H; Ruder, H

    1983-01-01

    After the introduction of a tri-sectional schematic model of the human body it was possible to investigate the simple dynamic locomotion pattern (braking process after a free fall); from this, the effective weight force and the ground recoil forces could be calculated. Once the external forces and the locomotion pattern are known the forces in the knee and hip joint can be determined with simplified joint structures, both for static bending of the knee as well as for the braking process during locomotion. This general calculation of internal forces is performed according to the so-called cross-section principle, since even this permits a basic comparison to be made between the forces acting at rest and during movement. The calculations show that during movement there is a relatively slight increase in the forces in the hip joint; on the other hand, following a free fall from 1.5 m and up to a kneebending angle of 100 degrees, the bearing force in the knee joint during braking increases to 21 times body weight. Thus, there is a massive increase in the internal forces during movement owing to the need for transmission of torque. Conclusions can be drawn from this concerning the development o much greater than f gonarthrosis in cases where there has been relatively little previous damage (for example), recurrent effusions, slight defects of the leg axes, slight instabilities of capsular ligaments).

  17. A Bortezomib-Based Regimen Offers Promising Survival and Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis in Myeloablative HLA-Mismatched and Unrelated Donor Transplantation: A Phase II Trial.

    PubMed

    Koreth, John; Kim, Haesook T; Lange, Paulina B; Bindra, Bhavjot; Reynolds, Carol G; Chammas, Marie J; Armand, Philippe; Cutler, Corey S; Ho, Vincent T; Glotzbecker, Brett; Nikiforow, Sarah; Ritz, Jerome; Blazar, Bruce R; Soiffer, Robert J; Antin, Joseph H; Alyea, Edwin P

    2015-11-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients lacking HLA-matched related donors have increased graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Bortezomib added to reduced-intensity conditioning can offer benefit in T cell-replete HLA-mismatched HSCT and may also benefit myeloablative conditioning (MAC) transplants. We conducted a phase II trial of short-course bortezomib plus standard tacrolimus/methotrexate after busulfan/fludarabine MAC in 34 patients with predominantly myeloid malignancies. Fourteen (41%) received 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) and 20 (59%) received 7/8 HLA-mismatched related/unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cell grafts. Median age was 49 years (range, 21 to 60), and median follow-up was 25 months (range, 11 to 36). The regimen was well tolerated. No dose modifications were required. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment occurred at a median of 14 (range, 10 to 33) and 17 (range, 10 to 54) days, respectively. Median 30-day donor chimerism was 99% (range, 90 to 100), and 100-day grades II to IV and III to IV acute GVHD incidence was 32% and 12% respectively. One-year chronic GVHD incidence was 50%. Two-year cumulative incidence of both NRM and relapse was 16%. Two-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 70% and 71%, respectively. Outcomes were comparable to an 8/8 MUD MAC cohort (n = 45). Immune reconstitution was robust. Bortezomib-based MAC HSCT is well tolerated, with HLA-mismatched outcomes comparable with 8/8 MUD MAC HSCT, and is suitable for randomized evaluation. (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01323920.).

  18. Irregular Liesegang-type patterns in gas phase revisited. II. Statistical correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Guzmán, José C.; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Müller, Markus F.

    2016-05-01

    We present a statistical analysis of Liesegang-type patterns formed in a gaseous HCl-NH3 system by ammonium chloride precipitation along glass tubes, as described in Paper I [J. C. Torres-Guzmán et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 174701 (2016)] of this work. We focus on the detection and characterization of short and long-range correlations within the non-stationary sequence of apparently irregular precipitation bands. To this end we applied several techniques to estimate spatial correlations stemming from different fields, namely, linear auto-correlation via the power spectral density, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), and methods developed in the context of random matrix theory (RMT). In particular RMT methods disclose well pronounced long-range correlations over at least 40 bands in terms of both, band positions and intensity values. By using a variant of the DFA we furnish proof of the nonlinear nature of the detected long-range correlations.

  19. Calibration artefacts in radio interferometry - II. Ghost patterns for irregular arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnholds, S. J.; Grobler, T. L.; Smirnov, O. M.

    2016-04-01

    Calibration artefacts, like the self-calibration bias, usually emerge when data are calibrated using an incomplete sky model. In the first paper of this series, in which we analysed calibration artefacts in data from the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, we showed that these artefacts take the form of spurious positive and negative sources, which we refer to as ghosts or ghost sources. We also developed a mathematical framework with which we could predict the ghost pattern of an east-west interferometer for a simple two-source test case. In this paper, we extend our analysis to more general array layouts. This provides us with a useful method for the analysis of ghosts that we refer to as extrapolation. Combining extrapolation with a perturbation analysis, we are able to (1) analyse the ghost pattern for a two-source test case with one modelled and one unmodelled source for an arbitrary array layout, (2) explain why some ghosts are brighter than others, (3) define a taxonomy allowing us to classify the different ghosts, (4) derive closed form expressions for the fluxes and positions of the brightest ghosts, and (5) explain the strange two-peak structure with which some ghosts manifest during imaging. We illustrate our mathematical predictions using simulations of the KAT-7 (seven-dish Karoo Array Telescope) array. These results show the explanatory power of our mathematical model. The insights gained in this paper provide a solid foundation to study calibration artefacts in arbitrary, i.e. more complicated than the two-source example discussed here, incomplete sky models or full synthesis observations including direction-dependent effects.

  20. Identification of Type II Interferon Receptors in Geese: Gene Structure, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Shun; Qi, Yulin; Zhou, Qin; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-01-01

    Interferon γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1) and IFNGR2 are two cell membrane molecules belonging to class II cytokines, which play important roles in the IFN-mediated antiviral signaling pathway. Here, goose IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 were cloned and identified for the first time. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that relatively high levels of goose IFNγ mRNA transcripts were detected in immune tissues, including the harderian gland, cecal tonsil, cecum, and thymus. Relatively high expression levels of both IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 were detected in the cecal tonsil, which implicated an important role of IFNγ in the secondary immune system of geese. No specific correlation between IFNγ, IFNGR1, and IFNGR2 expression levels was observed in the same tissues of healthy geese. IFNγ and its cognate receptors showed different expression profiles, although they appeared to maintain a relatively balanced state. Furthermore, the agonist R848 led to the upregulation of goose IFNγ but did not affect the expression of goose IFNGR1 or IFNGR2. In summary, trends in expression of goose IFNγ and its cognate receptors showed tissue specificity, as well as an age-related dependency. These findings may help us to better understand the age-related susceptibility to pathogens in birds. PMID:26345454

  1. Identification of Type II Interferon Receptors in Geese: Gene Structure, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Expression Patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Shun; Qi, Yulin; Zhou, Qin; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-01-01

    Interferon γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1) and IFNGR2 are two cell membrane molecules belonging to class II cytokines, which play important roles in the IFN-mediated antiviral signaling pathway. Here, goose IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 were cloned and identified for the first time. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that relatively high levels of goose IFNγ mRNA transcripts were detected in immune tissues, including the harderian gland, cecal tonsil, cecum, and thymus. Relatively high expression levels of both IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 were detected in the cecal tonsil, which implicated an important role of IFNγ in the secondary immune system of geese. No specific correlation between IFNγ, IFNGR1, and IFNGR2 expression levels was observed in the same tissues of healthy geese. IFNγ and its cognate receptors showed different expression profiles, although they appeared to maintain a relatively balanced state. Furthermore, the agonist R848 led to the upregulation of goose IFNγ but did not affect the expression of goose IFNGR1 or IFNGR2. In summary, trends in expression of goose IFNγ and its cognate receptors showed tissue specificity, as well as an age-related dependency. These findings may help us to better understand the age-related susceptibility to pathogens in birds.

  2. Discordant patterns of linkage disequilibrium of the peptide-transporter loci within the HLA class II region

    SciTech Connect

    Klitz, W.; Grote, M.; Stephens, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Disequilibrium between genetic markers is expected to decline monotonically with recombinational map distance. We present evidence from the HLA class II region that seems to violate this principle. Pairwise disequilibrium values were calculated for six loci ranging in physical separation from 15 kb to 550 kb. The histocompatibility loci DRB1, DQA1, and DQBI, located on the distal end of the class II region, behave as a single evolutionary unit within which extremely high linkage disequilibrium exists. Lower but still significant levels of disequilibrium are present between these loci and DPB1, located at the proximal edge of the HLA complex. The peptide-transporter loci TAP1 and TAP2, located in the intervening region, reveal no disequilibrium with each other and low or negligible disequilibrium with the flanking loci. The action of two genetic processes is required to account for this phenomenon: a recombinational hotspot operating between TAP1 and TAP2, to eliminate disequilibrium between these loci, and at the same time selection operating on particular combinations of alleles across the DR-DP region, to create disequilibrium in the favored haplotypes. The forces producing the patterns of disequilibrium observed here have implications for the mapping of trait loci and disease genes: markers of TAP1, for example, would give a false impression as to the influence of DPB1 on a trait known to be associated with DQB1. 44 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. MHC class II genes in the European badger (Meles meles): characterization, patterns of variation, and transcription analysis.

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry

    2012-04-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) comprises many genes, some of which are polymorphic with numerous alleles. Sequence variation among alleles is most pronounced in exon 2 of the class II genes, which encodes the α1 and β1 domains that form the antigen-binding site (ABS) for the presentation of peptides. The MHC thus plays an important role in pathogen defense. European badgers (Meles meles) are a good species in which to study the MHC, as they harbor a variety of pathogens. We present the first characterization of MHC class II genes, isolated from genomic DNA (gDNA) and complementary DNA (cDNA), in the European badger. Examination of seven individuals revealed four DRB, two DQB, two DQA, and two DRA putatively functional gDNA sequences. All of these sequences, except DRA, exhibited high variability in exon 2; DRB had the highest variability. The ABS codons demonstrated high variability, due potentially to balancing selection, while non-ABS codons had lower variability. Positively selected sites were detected in DRB and DQA. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated trans-species polymorphism of class II genes. Comparison with cDNA from whole blood revealed that only DRB had a transcription pattern reflecting the alleles that were present in the gDNA, while the other three genes had disparities between gDNA and cDNA. Only one sequence was transcribed, even though two gDNA sequences were present, from each of both DQB and DRA. Our characterization of badger MHC sequences forms a basis for further studies of MHC variability, mate choice, and pathogen resistance in this, and other, species. PMID:22038175

  4. Sequencing of Local Therapy Affects the Pattern of Treatment Failure and Survival in Children With Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors of the Central Nervous System

    SciTech Connect

    Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Beltran, Chris; Wu, Shengjie; Sharma, Shelly; Boop, Frederick A.; Jenkins, Jesse J.; Helton, Kathleen J.; Wright, Karen D.; Broniscer, Alberto; Kun, Larry E.; Gajjar, Amar

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the pattern of treatment failure associated with current therapeutic paradigms for childhood atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT). Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with AT/RT of the central nervous system treated at our institution between 1987 and 2007 were retrospectively evaluated. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and cumulative incidence of local failure were correlated with age, sex, tumor location, extent of disease, and extent of surgical resection. Radiotherapy (RT) sequencing, chemotherapy, dose, timing, and volume administered after resection were also evaluated. Results: Thirty-one patients at a median age of 2.3 years at diagnosis (range, 0.45-16.87 years) were enrolled into protocols that included risk- and age-stratified RT. Craniospinal irradiation with focal tumor bed boost (median dose, 54 Gy) was administered to 18 patients. Gross total resection was achieved in 16. Ten patients presented with metastases at diagnosis. RT was delayed more than 3 months in 20 patients and between 1 and 3 months in 4; 7 patients received immediate postoperative irradiation preceding high-dose alkylator-based chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 48 months, the cumulative incidence of local treatment failure was 37.5% {+-} 9%; progression-free survival was 33.2% {+-} 10%; and OS was 53.5% {+-} 10%. Children receiving delayed RT ({>=}1 month postoperatively) were more likely to experience local failure (hazard ratio [HR] 1.23, p = 0.007); the development of distant metastases before RT increased the risk of progression (HR 3.49, p = 0.006); and any evidence of disease progressionbefore RT decreased OS (HR 20.78, p = 0.004). Disease progression occurred in 52% (11/21) of children with initially localized tumors who underwent gross total resection, and the progression rate increased proportionally with increasing delay from surgery to RT. Conclusions: Delayed RT is associated with a higher rate of local and metastatic

  5. Emergence of patterns in random processes. II. Stochastic structure in random events.

    PubMed

    Newman, William I

    2014-06-01

    Random events can present what appears to be a pattern in the length of peak-to-peak sequences in time series and other point processes. Previously, we showed that this was the case in both individual and independently distributed processes as well as for Brownian walks. In addition, we introduced the use of the discrete form of the Langevin equation of statistical mechanics as a device for connecting the two limiting sets of behaviors, which we then compared with a variety of observations from the physical and social sciences. Here, we establish a probabilistic framework via the Smoluchowski equation for exploring the Langevin equation and its expected peak-to-peak sequence lengths, and we introduce a concept we call "stochastic structure in random events," or SSRE. We extend the Brownian model to include antipersistent processes via autoregressive (AR) models. We relate the latter to describe the behavior of Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, and we devise a further test for the validity of the Langevin and AR models. Given our analytic results, we show how the Langevin equation can be adapted to describe population cycles of three to four years observed among many mammalian species in biology.

  6. Emergence of patterns in random processes. II. Stochastic structure in random events.

    PubMed

    Newman, William I

    2014-06-01

    Random events can present what appears to be a pattern in the length of peak-to-peak sequences in time series and other point processes. Previously, we showed that this was the case in both individual and independently distributed processes as well as for Brownian walks. In addition, we introduced the use of the discrete form of the Langevin equation of statistical mechanics as a device for connecting the two limiting sets of behaviors, which we then compared with a variety of observations from the physical and social sciences. Here, we establish a probabilistic framework via the Smoluchowski equation for exploring the Langevin equation and its expected peak-to-peak sequence lengths, and we introduce a concept we call "stochastic structure in random events," or SSRE. We extend the Brownian model to include antipersistent processes via autoregressive (AR) models. We relate the latter to describe the behavior of Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, and we devise a further test for the validity of the Langevin and AR models. Given our analytic results, we show how the Langevin equation can be adapted to describe population cycles of three to four years observed among many mammalian species in biology. PMID:25019731

  7. Call patterns and basilar papilla tuning in cricket frogs. II. Intrapopulation variation and allometry.

    PubMed

    Keddy-Hector, A C; Wilczynski, W; Ryan, M J

    1992-01-01

    We determined the influence of body size on the male advertisement call's dominant frequency and basilar papilla's (BP) tuning in male and female cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) in two Texas populations (Wimberley and Stengel Ranch). In both populations, call and tuning characters correlated negatively with body size; females were larger than males and their BPs were tuned to a lower frequency. Analysis of covariance showed that neither the sex difference in tuning nor the population differences in calls or tuning were due to the difference in body size alone, but instead represented differences in the allometric relationships of each character with body size. The analysis implied that differences between sexes or populations were due more to shifts in the Y-intercept rather than the slope of the relationship with body size. This suggests a developmental model in which sexes or populations possess resonant structures in the ear or larynx with similar growth rates but different starting points or initial growth phases, resulting in different frequency characteristics as adults. The examination of the relationship between female BP tuning and male call dominant frequency predicts potentially different patterns of sexual selection in the two populations, with the Wimberley population males subject to much greater directional selection for low frequency calls.

  8. Emergence of patterns in random processes. II. Stochastic structure in random events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, William I.

    2014-06-01

    Random events can present what appears to be a pattern in the length of peak-to-peak sequences in time series and other point processes. Previously, we showed that this was the case in both individual and independently distributed processes as well as for Brownian walks. In addition, we introduced the use of the discrete form of the Langevin equation of statistical mechanics as a device for connecting the two limiting sets of behaviors, which we then compared with a variety of observations from the physical and social sciences. Here, we establish a probabilistic framework via the Smoluchowski equation for exploring the Langevin equation and its expected peak-to-peak sequence lengths, and we introduce a concept we call "stochastic structure in random events," or SSRE. We extend the Brownian model to include antipersistent processes via autoregressive (AR) models. We relate the latter to describe the behavior of Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, and we devise a further test for the validity of the Langevin and AR models. Given our analytic results, we show how the Langevin equation can be adapted to describe population cycles of three to four years observed among many mammalian species in biology.

  9. Cobalt (II) chloride promoted formation of honeycomb patterned cellulose acetate films.

    PubMed

    Naboka, Olga; Sanz-Velasco, Anke; Lundgren, Per; Enoksson, Peter; Gatenholm, Paul

    2012-02-01

    CoCl(2) containing honeycomb patterned films were prepared from cellulose acetate (CA)/CoCl(2)/acetone solutions by the breath figure method in a wide range of humidities. Size and pore regularity depend on the CA/CoCl(2) molar ratio and humidity. When replacing CoCl(2) with Co(NO(3))(2) or CoBr(2), no formation of ordered porosity in the cellulose acetate films is observed. According to data from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the key role in the formation of honeycomb structures can be attributed to the physical and chemical properties of CoCl(2) - hygroscopicity, low interaction with CA, and extraction from CA/CoCl(2)/acetone solution by water droplets condensed on the surface of the CA/CoCl(2) solution. Obtained films are prospective for using in catalysis, hydrogen fuel cells, and optical sensing materials.

  10. Metabolomic and mass isotopomer analysis of liver gluconeogenesis and citric acid cycle: II. Heterogeneity of metabolite labeling pattern.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Kasumov, Takhar; Kombu, Rajan S; Zhu, Shu-Han; Cendrowski, Andrea V; David, France; Anderson, Vernon E; Kelleher, Joanne K; Brunengraber, Henri

    2008-08-01

    In this second of two companion articles, we compare the mass isotopomer distribution of metabolites of liver gluconeogenesis and citric acid cycle labeled from NaH(13)CO(3) or dimethyl [1,4-(13)C(2)]succinate. The mass isotopomer distribution of intermediates reveals the reversibility of the isocitrate dehydrogenase + aconitase reactions, even in the absence of a source of alpha-ketoglutarate. In addition, in many cases, a number of labeling incompatibilities were found as follows: (i) glucose versus triose phosphates and phosphoenolpyruvate; (ii) differences in the labeling ratios C-4/C-3 of glucose versus (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate)/(dihydroxyacetone phosphate); and (iii) labeling of citric acid cycle intermediates in tissue versus effluent perfusate. Overall, our data show that gluconeogenic and citric acid cycle intermediates cannot be considered as sets of homogeneously labeled pools. This probably results from the zonation of hepatic metabolism and, in some cases, from differences in the labeling pattern of mitochondrial versus extramitochondrial metabolites. Our data have implications for the use of labeling patterns for the calculation of metabolic rates or fractional syntheses in liver, as well as for modeling liver intermediary metabolism.

  11. Comparison of interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Khumsarn, Nattida; Patanaporn, Virush; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Results Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. Conclusion In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns. PMID:27358819

  12. A randomized trial of the effect of a plant-based dietary pattern on additional breast cancer events and survival: the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study.

    PubMed

    Pierce, John P; Faerber, Susan; Wright, Fred A; Rock, Cheryl L; Newman, Vicky; Flatt, Shirley W; Kealey, Sheila; Jones, Vicky E; Caan, Bette J; Gold, Ellen B; Haan, Mary; Hollenbach, Kathryn A; Jones, Lovell; Marshall, James R; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Stefanick, Marcia L; Thomson, Cynthia; Wasserman, Linda; Natarajan, Loki; Thomas, Ronald G; Gilpin, Elizabeth A

    2002-12-01

    The Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study is a multisite randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of a high-vegetable, low-fat diet, aimed at markedly raising circulating carotenoid concentrations from food sources, in reducing additional breast cancer events and early death in women with early-stage invasive breast cancer (within 4 years of diagnosis). The study randomly assigned 3088 such women to an intensive diet intervention or to a comparison group between 1995 and 2000 and is expected to follow them through 2006. Two thirds of these women were under 55 years of age at randomization. This research study has a coordinating center and seven clinical sites. Randomization was stratified by age, stage of tumor and clinical site. A comprehensive intervention program that includes intensive telephone counseling, cooking classes and print materials helps shift the dietary pattern of women in the intervention. Through an innovative telephone counseling program, dietary counselors encourage women in the intervention group to meet the following daily behavioral targets: five vegetable servings, 16 ounces of vegetable juice, three fruit servings, 30 g of fiber and 15-20% energy from fat. Adherence assessments occur at baseline, 6, 12, 24 or 36, 48 and 72 months. These assessments can include dietary intake (repeated 24-hour dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaire), circulating carotenoid concentrations, physical measures and questionnaires about health symptoms, quality of life, personal habits and lifestyle patterns. Outcome assessments are completed by telephone interview every 6 months with medical record verification. We will assess evidence of effectiveness by the length of the breast cancer event-free interval, as well as by overall survival separately in all the women in the study as well as specifically in women under and over the age of 55 years.

  13. HLA class II susceptibility pattern for type 1 diabetes (T1D) in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Kiani, J; Hajilooi, M; Furst, D; Rezaei, H; Shahryari-Hesami, S; Kowsarifard, S; Zamani, A; Solgi, G

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the HLA-DRB1/HLA-DQB1 susceptibility and protection pattern for type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a population from Hamadan, north-west of Iran. A total of 133 patients with T1D were tested for HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles using PCR-SSP compared to 100 ethnic-matched healthy controls. Alleles and haplotypes frequencies were compared between both groups. The most susceptible alleles for disease were HLA-DRB1*03:01, DRB1*04:02, DQB1*02:01 and DQB1*03:02, and protective alleles were HLA-DRB1*07:01, *11:01, *13:01, *14:01 and DRB1*15 and HLA-DQB1*06:01, *06:02 and *06:03. Haplotype analysis revealed that patients with T1D had higher frequencies of DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01 (OR = 4.86, P < 10(-7) ) and DRB1*04:02-DQB1*03:02 (OR = 9.93, P < 10(-7) ) and lower frequencies of DRB1*07:01-DQB1*02:01 (P = 0.0005), DRB1*11:01-DQB1*03:01 (P = 0.001), DRB1*13:01-DQB1*06:03 (P = 0.002) and DRB1*15-DQB1*06:01 (P = 0.001) haplotypes compared to healthy controls. Heterozygote combination of both susceptible haplotypes (DR3/DR4) confers the highest risk for T1D (RR = 18.80, P = 4 × 10(-5) ). Additionally, patients with homozygote diplotype, DR3/DR3 and DR4/DR4, showed a similar risk with less extent to heterozygote combination (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.01, respectively). Our findings not only confirm earlier reports from Iranians but also are in line with Caucasians and partly with Asians and some African patients with T1D. Remarkable differences were the identification of DRB1*04:01-DQB1*03:02, DRB1*07:01-DQB1*03:03 and DRB1*16-DQB1*05:02 as neutral and DRB1*13:01-DQB1*06:03 as the most protective haplotypes in this study.

  14. CO2 induced seawater acidification impacts sea urchin larval development II: gene expression patterns in pluteus larvae.

    PubMed

    Stumpp, M; Dupont, S; Thorndyke, M C; Melzner, F

    2011-11-01

    Extensive use of fossil fuels is leading to increasing CO(2) concentrations in the atmosphere and causes changes in the carbonate chemistry of the oceans which represents a major sink for anthropogenic CO(2). As a result, the oceans' surface pH is expected to decrease by ca. 0.4 units by the year 2100, a major change with potentially negative consequences for some marine species. Because of their carbonate skeleton, sea urchins and their larval stages are regarded as likely to be one of the more sensitive taxa. In order to investigate sensitivity of pre-feeding (2 days post-fertilization) and feeding (4 and 7 days post-fertilization) pluteus larvae, we raised Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos in control (pH 8.1 and pCO(2) 41 Pa e.g. 399 μatm) and CO(2) acidified seawater with pH of 7.7 (pCO(2) 134 Pa e.g. 1318 μatm) and investigated growth, calcification and survival. At three time points (day 2, day 4 and day 7 post-fertilization), we measured the expression of 26 representative genes important for metabolism, calcification and ion regulation using RT-qPCR. After one week of development, we observed a significant difference in growth. Maximum differences in size were detected at day 4 (ca. 10% reduction in body length). A comparison of gene expression patterns using PCA and ANOSIM clearly distinguished between the different age groups (two-way ANOSIM: Global R=1) while acidification effects were less pronounced (Global R=0.518). Significant differences in gene expression patterns (ANOSIM R=0.938, SIMPER: 4.3% difference) were also detected at day 4 leading to the hypothesis that differences between CO(2) treatments could reflect patterns of expression seen in control experiments of a younger larva and thus a developmental artifact rather than a direct CO(2) effect. We found an up regulation of metabolic genes (between 10%and 20% in ATP-synthase, citrate synthase, pyruvate kinase and thiolase at day 4) and down regulation of calcification related genes

  15. Different patterns of stromal and cancer cell thymidine phosphorylase reactivity in non-small-cell lung cancer: impact on tumour neoangiogenesis and survival.

    PubMed Central

    Koukourakis, M. I.; Giatromanolaki, A.; Kakolyris, S.; O'Byrne, K. J.; Apostolikas, N.; Skarlatos, J.; Gatter, K. C.; Harris, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    Angiogenesis is recognized as an important step in tumour pathogenesis that is related to invasion and metastatic spread and which consequently results in poor clinical outcome. In this study, we have examined the role of tumour stroma-activated fibroblasts and macrophage infiltration in the development of the angiogenic and metastatic phenotype in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 141 cases of early stage I-II NSCLC treated with surgery alone were analysed. The JC-70 (anti-CD31) MAb was used for the assessment of vascular grade. The P-GF.44C MAb was used to assess thymidine phosphorylase (TP) reactivity in cancer cells, stromal fibroblasts and macrophages. Cancer cell TP overexpression related to high vascular grade and to advanced T stage (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.02). Expression of TP in stromal fibroblasts also correlated with high angiogenesis (P = 0.01), but was independent of cancer cell expression. Fibroblast TP overexpression was related to abundant stroma (P = 0.003), suggesting that TP may be a marker of active stroma. Moreover, intense macrophage infiltration was associated with fibroblast TP reactivity, regardless of the amount of stroma, suggesting that macrophages may be a major contributor to TP expression in stroma. Survival analysis showed that cancer cell TP overexpression was related to poor prognosis (P = 0.005). Although stroma TP is related to angiogenesis, in the low vascular grade group it defined a group of patients with better prognosis (P = 0.02). It may be that fibroblast TP reactivity is an indirect marker of tumour infiltration by functional macrophages, which have an antitumour effect. We conclude that stromal macrophage and fibroblast TP reactivity may have an important role in non-small-cell lung cancer behaviour. Understanding the role of stromal fibroblasts and inflammatory cells and their interaction with oncoprotein expression is essential for the elucidation of lung cancer pathogenesis. Images Figure 1 PMID:9635852

  16. Patterns of Müllerian Inhibiting Substance Type II and Candidate Type I Receptors in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer†

    PubMed Central

    Basal, E.; Ayeni, T.; Zhang, Q.; Langstraat, C.; Donahoe, P.K.; Pepin, D.; Yin, X.; Leof, E.; Cliby, W.

    2016-01-01

    The MIS pathway is a potential therapeutic target in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): signaling requires both type II (T2R) and type I receptors (T1R), and results in growth inhibition. MISR2 is expressed in EOC, but the prevalence and relative contributions of candidate T1R remain unknown. We sought to: a) determine expression of T1R in EOC; b) assess impact of T1R expression with clinical outcomes; c) verify MIS-dependent Smad signaling and growth inhibition in primary EOC cell cultures. Tissue microarrays (TMA) were developed for analysis of T1Rs (ALK2/3/6) and MISR2 expression. Primary cell cultures were initiated from ascites harvested at surgery which were used to characterize response to MIS. TMA’s from 311 primary cancers demonstrated the most common receptor combinations were: MISR2+/ALK2+3+6+ (36%); MISR2+/ALK2+3+6- (34%); MISR2-/ALK2+3+6- (18%); and MISR2-/ALK2+3+6+ (6.8%). No differences in overall survival (OS) were noted between combinations. The ALK6 receptor was least often expressed T1R and was associated with lower OS in early stage disease only (p =0.03). Most primary cell cultures expressed MISR2 (14/22 (63.6%)): 95% of these express ALK 2 and ALK3, whereas 54.5% expressed ALK6. MIS-dependent Smad phosphorylation was seen in the majority of cultures (75%). Treatment with MIS led to reduced cell viability at an average of 71% (range: 57–87%) in primary cultures. MIS signaling is dependent upon the presence of both MISR2 and specific T1R. In the majority of EOC, the T1R required for MIS-dependent signaling are present and such cells demonstrate appropriate response to MIS. PMID:26917267

  17. Phase II Trial of Cetuximab, Gemcitabine, and Oxaliplatin Followed by Chemoradiation With Cetuximab for Locally Advanced (T4) Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Correlation of Smad4(Dpc4) Immunostaining With Pattern of Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Christopher H.; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Yordy, John S.; Staerkel, Gregg A.; Javle, Milind M.; Safran, Howard; Haque, Waqar; Hobbs, Bridgett D.; Krishnan, Sunil; Fleming, Jason B.; Das, Prajnan; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Wolff, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This phase II trial was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of cetuximab, gemcitabine, and oxaliplatin followed by cetuximab, capecitabine, and radiation therapy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Patients and Methods Treatment-naive eligible patients (n = 69) received intravenous gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2) and oxaliplatin (100 mg/m2) every 2 weeks for four doses, followed by radiation (50.4 Gy to the gross tumor only) with concurrent capecitabine (825 mg/m2 twice daily on radiation treatment days). Cetuximab (500 mg/m2) was started on day 1 of chemotherapy and was continued every 2 weeks during chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Diagnostic cytology specimens were immunostained for Smad4(Dpc4) expression. Results Median overall survival time was 19.2 months (95% CI, 14.2 to 24.2 months), and 1-year, 2-year, and 4-year actuarial overall survival rates were 66.0%, 25.02%, and 11.3%, respectively. Acneiform rash correlated with improved survival (P = .001), but initial CA19-9, borderline resectable initial stage, and surgical resection (n = 7) did not. The 1-year and 2-year radiographic local progression rates were 22.8% and 61.0%, respectively. The worst acute toxic effects were GI toxicity (32% and 10% for grades 2 and 3, respectively); fatigue (26% and 6% for grades 2 and 3, respectively); sensory neuropathy (9% and 1% for grades 2 and 3, respectively); and acneiform rash (54% and 3% for grades 2 and 3, respectively). Smad4(Dpc4) expression correlated with a local rather than a distant dominant pattern of disease progression (P = .016). Conclusion This regimen appears effective and has acceptable toxicity. The primary end point (1-year overall survival rate > 45%) was met, with encouraging survival duration. Smad4(Dpc4) immunostaining correlated with the pattern of disease progression. Prospective validation of Smad4(Dpc4) expression in cytology specimens as a predictive biomarker is warranted and may lead to personalized treatment

  18. DNA methylation status of cyp17-II gene correlated with its expression pattern and reproductive endocrinology during ovarian development stages of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Ding, YuXia; He, Feng; Wen, HaiShen; Li, JiFang; Ni, Meng; Chi, MeiLi; Qian, Kun; Bu, Yan; Zhang, DongQian; Si, YuFeng; Zhao, JunLi

    2013-09-15

    Cytochrome P450c17-II (cyp17-II, 17α-hydroxylase) is responsible for the production of steroid hormones during oocyte maturation in vertebrates. The comparative expression pattern of cyp17-II gene during the gonadal development stages will provide important insights into its function of gonadal development. In addition, epigenetic modification especially DNA methylation plays a vital role in regulation of gene expression. The adult female Japanese flounder at different ovarian development stage (from stages II to V) was obtained in this experiment. The expression of cyp17-II gene in the ovary of Japanese flounder during the gonadal development stages was measured by quantitative PCR. Reproductive traits included gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasma estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) were also measured. Moreover, whole CpG dinucleotides methylation status of the two CpG rich regions in cyp17-II coding region was detected by bisulfate sequencing. In the ovary, the cyp17-II gene had the lowest mRNA expression at the early ovarian development stage, but then increased afterward. The variation trends of T and E2 level were consistent with the cyp17-II expression pattern in ovary. In contrast, the whole methylation levels of each CpG rich region (exon 4 and 6) in cyp17-II coding region were declined from stages II to IV, then increased at stage V. The methylation levels of whole CpG sites in each CpG rich region were inversely correlated with the values of ovarian cyp17-II gene expression, T and E2 level, and GSI. Based on the present study, we proposed that cyp17-II may regulate the level of steroid hormone, and then stimulate the oocyte growth and maturation. The cyp17-II gene transcriptional activity was possibly affected by the methylation level of CpG rich regions in coding region. These findings will help in the study of the molecular mechanism of fish reproduction and endocrine physiology.

  19. MHC class II DRB diversity, selection pattern and population structure in a neotropical bat species, Noctilio albiventris

    PubMed Central

    Schad, J; Dechmann, D K N; Voigt, C C; Sommer, S

    2011-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have a crucial role in the immune response of vertebrates, alter the individual odour and are involved in shaping mating preferences. Pathogen-mediated selection, sexual selection and maternal–fetal interactions have been proposed as the main drivers of frequently observed high levels of polymorphism in functionally important parts of the MHC. Bats constitute the second largest mammalian order and have recently emerged as important vectors of infectious diseases. In addition, Chiroptera are interesting study subjects in evolutionary ecology in the context of olfactory communication, mate choice and associated fitness benefits. Thus, it is surprising that they belong to the least studied mammalian taxa in terms of their MHC diversity. In this study, we investigated the variability in the functionally important MHC class II gene DRB, evidence for selection and population structure in the group-living lesser bulldog bat, Noctilio albiventris, in Panama. We found a single expressed, polymorphic Noal-DRB gene. The substitution pattern of the nucleotide sequences of the 18 detected alleles provided evidence for positive selection acting above the evolutionary history of the species in shaping MHC diversity. Roosting colonies were not genetically differentiated but females showed lower levels of heterozygosity than males, which might be a sign that the sexes differ in the selection pressures acting on the MHC. This study provides the prerequisites for further investigations of the role of the individual MHC constitution in parasite resistance, olfactory communication and mate choice in N. albiventris and other bats. PMID:21245894

  20. Effects of Macroscopic Pattern Density and O2 Addition on Chamber Stability during Silicon Nitride Layer Etching in UNITY II-IEM Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Woon Suck; Kim, Kil Ho; Kim, Jong Il; Lee, Joon Hyun; Won, Yong Sik; Choi, Seon Ho; Hwang, Chung Ho; Lee, Dai Hoon

    2002-04-01

    Effects of the wafer level pattern density on chamber particle generation during silicon nitride (Si3N4) layer etching have been studied in the medium density plasma source, UNITY II-IEM. It was found that the macroscopic pattern density of the etched layer strongly affects the etching environment and subsequently affects the chamber stability. The abrupt change in the macroscopic pattern density of the etched layer, especially when the pattern density is lowered, can sometimes results in the hazardous chamber particle generation. Experiments were performed in order to cope with the chamber particle generation induced by the macroscopic pattern density variation. Controlling the F/C ratio within the plasma by varying the amount of feeding O2 gas was proven to be an efficient way to prevent the occurrence of the chamber particles. Based on our experimental results, the mechanism for the chamber particle generation and that for the reduction will be discussed.

  1. Treatment and survival patterns of Chinese patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 2005 and 2009 in Southwest China: An observational, population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zuxiang; Wei, Jia; Lu, Xuesong; Zheng, Hong; Zhong, Xiaorong; Gao, Weiguo; Chen, Yunqin; Jing, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer is a significant health issue both globally and within China. Here, we present epidemiological data for female patients diagnosed with breast cancer and treated at West China Hospital, Sichuan University, between 2005 and 2009. Patients who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 2005 and 2009 were enrolled. Data cut-off in this analysis was October 2013, allowing a minimum of 3 years' follow-up, or follow-up until death. Data were collected and subject to statistical analyses to assess relationships between patient and cancer characteristics, treatment patterns and long-term outcomes. A total of 2252 women with breast cancer were included in the analyses. Luminal B was the most common subtype of breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-positive (nonluminal) was the least common. Most patients had early-stage disease (stage ≤IIIa) at diagnosis. Patients with luminal A appeared to have the best overall survival (OS), compared with other subtypes. Hormone-receptor positivity was associated with improved prognosis, compared with negativity (OS hazard ratio [HR] 0.5). Late-stage compared with early-stage disease at diagnosis was associated with much poorer OS across all patients and tumor subtypes. Clear differences were apparent between breast cancer subtypes and the response to treatment. The interaction of breast cancer subtypes, treatments and disease stage is complex. One of the most important factors for improved prognosis is diagnosis and treatment at an early-stage of disease. With breast cancer becoming an increasingly important health concern, this highlights the importance of establishing systems and protocols to identify and treat patients with breast cancer as early as possible. PMID:27336872

  2. Fulvestrant 500 mg Versus Anastrozole 1 mg for the First-Line Treatment of Advanced Breast Cancer: Overall Survival Analysis From the Phase II FIRST Study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Matthew J.; Llombart-Cussac, Antonio; Feltl, David; Dewar, John A.; Jasiówka, Marek; Hewson, Nicola; Rukazenkov, Yuri; Robertson, John F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare overall survival (OS) for fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole as first-line endocrine therapy for advanced breast cancer. Patients and Methods The Fulvestrant First-Line Study Comparing Endocrine Treatments (FIRST) was a phase II, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial. Postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor–positive, locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer who had no previous therapy for advanced disease received either fulvestrant 500 mg (days 0, 14, 28, and every 28 days thereafter) or anastrozole 1 mg (daily). The primary end point (clinical benefit rate [72.5% and 67.0%]) and a follow-up analysis (median time to progression [23.4 months and 13.1 months]) have been reported previously for fulvestrant 500 mg and anastrozole, respectively. Subsequently, the protocol was amended to assess OS by unadjusted log-rank test after approximately 65% of patients had died. Treatment effect on OS across several subgroups was examined. Tolerability was evaluated by adverse event monitoring. Results In total, 205 patients were randomly assigned (fulvestrant 500 mg, n = 102; anastrozole, n = 103). At data cutoff, 61.8% (fulvestrant 500 mg, n = 63) and 71.8% (anastrozole, n = 74) had died. The hazard ratio (95% CI) for OS with fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole was 0.70 (0.50 to 0.98; P = .04; median OS, 54.1 months v 48.4 months). Treatment effects seemed generally consistent across the subgroups analyzed. No new safety issues were observed. Conclusion There are several limitations of this OS analysis, including that it was not planned in the original protocol but instead was added after time-to-progression results were analyzed, and that not all patients participated in additional OS follow-up. However, the present results suggest fulvestrant 500 mg extends OS versus anastrozole. This finding now awaits prospective confirmation in the larger phase III FALCON (Fulvestrant and Anastrozole Compared in Hormonal Therapy Naïve Advanced Breast

  3. Human B lymphoblastoid cells contain distinct patterns of cathepsin activity in endocytic compartments and regulate MHC class II transport in a cathepsin S-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Lautwein, Alfred; Kraus, Marianne; Reich, Michael; Burster, Timo; Brandenburg, J; Overkleeft, Herman S; Schwarz, Gerold; Kammer, Winfried; Weber, Ekkehard; Kalbacher, Hubert; Nordheim, Alfred; Driessen, Christoph

    2004-05-01

    Endocytic proteolysis represents a major functional component of the major histocompatibility complex class II antigen-presentation machinery. Although transport and assembly of class II molecules in the endocytic compartment are well characterized, we lack information about the pattern of endocytic protease activity along this pathway. Here, we used chemical tools that visualize endocytic proteases in an activity-dependent manner in combination with subcellular fractionation to dissect the subcellular distribution of the major cathepsins (Cat) CatS, CatB, CatH, CatD, CatC, and CatZ as well as the asparagine-specific endoprotease (AEP) in human B-lymphoblastoid cells (BLC). Endocytic proteases were distributed in two distinct patterns: CatB and CatZ were most prominent in early and late endosomes but absent from lysosomes, and CatH, CatS, CatD, CatC, and AEP distributed between late endosomes and lysosomes, suggesting that CatB and CatZ might be involved in the initial proteolytic attack on a given antigen. The entire spectrum of protease activity colocalized with human leukocyte antigen-DM and the C-terminal and N-terminal processing of invariant chain (Ii) in late endosomes. CatS was active in all endocytic compartments. Surprisingly and in contrast with results from dendritic cells, inhibition of CatS activity by leucine-homophenylalanine-vinylsulfone-phenol prevented N-terminal processing of Ii but did not alter the subcellular trafficking or surface delivery of class II complexes, as deferred from pulse-chase analysis in combination with subcellular fractionation and biotinylation of cell-surface protein. Thus, BLC contain distinct activity patterns of proteases in endocytic compartments and regulate the intracellular transport and surface-delivery of class II in a CatS-independent manner. PMID:14966190

  4. mRNA expression patterns for GH, PRL, SL, IGF-I and IGF-II during altered feeding status in rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Ayson, Felix G; de Jesus-Ayson, Evelyn Grace T; Takemura, Akihiro

    2007-01-15

    Feeding time is a major synchronizer of many physiological rhythms in many organisms. Alteration in the nutritional status, specifically fasting, also affects the secretion rhythms of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). In this study, we investigated whether the expression patterns for the mRNAs of GH, prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL) in the pituitary gland, and insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in the liver of juvenile rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) follow a rhythm according to feeding time and whether these hormone rhythms changes with starvation. Hormone mRNA levels were determined by real time PCR. The daily expression pattern for the mRNAs of GH, PRL and SL was not altered whether food was given in the morning (10:00 h) or in the afternoon (15:00 h). The daily GH mRNA expression pattern, however, was affected when food was not available for 3 days. In contrast, the daily expression pattern for IGF-I mRNA reaches its peak at roughly 5-6h after feeding. This pattern, however, was not observed with IGF-II mRNA. During 15-day starvation, GH mRNA levels in starved fish were significantly higher than the control fish starting on the 9th day of starvation until day 15. The levels returned to normal after re-feeding. In contrast to GH, PRL mRNA levels in starved fish were significantly lower than the control group starting on the 6th day of starvation until 3 days after re-feeding. SL mRNA levels were not significantly different between the control and starved group at anytime during the experiment. Both IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA levels in starved group were significantly higher than the control fish on the 3rd and 6th day of starvation. mRNA levels of both IGF-I and II in the starved fish decreased starting on the 9th day of starvation. While IGF-I mRNA levels in the starved group continued to decrease as starvation progressed, IGF-II mRNA levels were not significantly different from the control during the rest of the

  5. Concussion-Management Practice Patterns of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II and III Athletic Trainers: How the Other Half Lives

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Thomas A.; Burdette, Glenn; Kelly, Kassandra

    2015-01-01

    Context The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has published concussion-management practice guidelines consistent with recent position and consensus statements. Whereas NCAA Division I athletic trainers appear highly compliant, little is known about the concussion-management practice patterns of athletic trainers at smaller institutions where staffing and resources may be limited. Objective To descriptively define the concussion-management practice patterns of NCAA Division II and III athletic trainers. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Web-based questionnaire. Patients or Other Participants A total of 755 respondents (response rate = 40.2%) from NCAA Division II and Division III institutions. Main Outcome Measure(s) The primary outcome measures were the rate of multifaceted concussion-assessment techniques, defined as 3 or more assessments; the specific practice patterns of each assessment battery; and tests used during a clinical examination. Results Most respondents indicated using a multifaceted assessment during acute assessment (Division II = 76.9%, n = 473; Division III = 76.0%, n = 467) and determination of recovery (Division II = 65.0%, n = 194; Division III = 63.1%, n = 288) but not at baseline (Division II = 43.1%, n = 122; Division III = 41.0%, n = 176). Typically, when a postconcussion assessment was initiated, testing occurred daily until baseline values were achieved, and most respondents (80.6% [244/278]) reported using a graded exercise protocol before return to participation. Conclusions We found limited use of the multifaceted assessment battery at baseline but higher rates at both acute assessment and return-to-participation time points. A primary reason cited for not using test-battery components was a lack of staffing or funding for the assessments. We observed limited use of neuropsychologists to interpret neuropsychological testing. Otherwise, most respondents reported concussion-management protocols consistent with

  6. Magnetic domain patterns on strong perpendicular magnetization of Co/Ni multilayers as spintronics materials: II. Numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Kazue; Suzuki, Masahiko; Kojima, Kazuki; Yasue, Tsuneo; Akutsu, Noriko; Diño, Wilson Agerico; Kasai, Hideaki; Bauer, Ernst; Koshikawa, Takanori

    2013-10-01

    Magnetic domains in ultrathin films form domain patterns, which strongly depend on the magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic anisotropy in Co/Ni multilayers changes with the number of layers. We provide a model to simulate the experimentally observed domain patterns. The model assumes a layer-dependent magnetic anisotropy. With the anisotropy parameter estimated from experimental data, we reproduce the magnetic domain patterns.

  7. Alveolar and symphysis regions of patients with skeletal class II division 1 anomalies with different vertical growth patterns

    PubMed Central

    Esenlik, Elcin; Sabuncuoglu, Fidan Alakus

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the alveolar and symphysis region properties in hyper-, hypo-, and normodivergent Class II division 1 anomalies. Methods: Pretreatment lateral cephalograms of 111 young adult female patients with skeletal Class II division 1 anomalies were compared to those of 54 Class I normal subjects (control group). Class II cases were divided into hyperdivergent (n = 58), hypodivergent (n = 19), and normodivergent groups (n = 34). The heights and widths of the symphysis and alveolus and the depth of maxillary palate were measured on the lateral cephalograms. Results: Mean symphysis width was wider in the hypodivergent Class II group than in the other groups, while mean symphysis height was similar among all groups. Maxillary palatal depth, upper incisor angle, upper and lower molar alveolar heights, and Id–Id′ width were also similar among groups. Conclusion: Symphysis width is the main factor in the differential diagnosis of Class II division 1 anomaly rather than symphysis height and hypodivergent Class II Division 1 anomaly is more suitable for mandibular incisors movements. PMID:22509114

  8. Coastal coho salmon research in the West Fork Smith River: Patterns of coho salmon size and survival within a complex watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective habitat restoration planning requires the ability to anticipate fish population responses to altered habitats. The EPA has conducted network-scale research to document habitat-specific growth and survival of juvenile salmonids in a complex watershed. These findings ha...

  9. Tensor GSVD of Patient- and Platform-Matched Tumor and Normal DNA Copy-Number Profiles Uncovers Chromosome Arm-Wide Patterns of Tumor-Exclusive Platform-Consistent Alterations Encoding for Cell Transformation and Predicting Ovarian Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Schomay, Theodore E.; Aiello, Katherine A.; Alter, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs). We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient’s prognosis, is independent of the tumor’s stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell’s immortality, and a patient’s shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival. In Xq

  10. Investigation of long chain omega-3 PUFAs on arterial blood pressure, vascular reactivity and survival in angiotensin II-infused Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bürgin-Maunder, Corinna S; Nataatmadja, Maria; Vella, Rebecca K; Fenning, Andrew S; Brooks, Peter R; Russell, Fraser D

    2016-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory vascular disease. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) decrease inflammation and oxidative stress in an angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mouse model of AAA. This study investigated the effects of LC n-3 PUFAs on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in fourteen angiotensin II-infused ApoE(-/-) male mice. Blood pressure was obtained using a non-invasive tail cuff method and whole blood was collected by cardiac puncture. Vascular reactivity of the thoracic aorta was assessed using wire myography and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was determined by immunohistochemistry. A high LC n-3 PUFA diet increased the omega-3 index and reduced the n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio. At day 10 post-infusion with angiotensin II, there was no difference in systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure in mice fed the high or low n-3 PUFA diets. The high LC n-3 PUFA diet resulted in a non-significant trend for delay in time to death from abdominal aortic rupture. Vascular reactivity and eNOS activation remained unchanged in mice fed the high compared to the low LC n-3 PUFA diet. This study argues against direct improvement in vascular reactivity in ApoE(-/-) mice that were supplemented with n-3 PUFA for 8 weeks prior to infusion with angiotensin II.

  11. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth

  12. Spike Pattern Structure Influences Synaptic Efficacy Variability under STDP and Synaptic Homeostasis. II: Spike Shuffling Methods on LIF Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Zedong; Zhou, Changsong

    2016-01-01

    Synapses may undergo variable changes during plasticity because of the variability of spike patterns such as temporal stochasticity and spatial randomness. Here, we call the variability of synaptic weight changes during plasticity to be efficacy variability. In this paper, we investigate how four aspects of spike pattern statistics (i.e., synchronous firing, burstiness/regularity, heterogeneity of rates and heterogeneity of cross-correlations) influence the efficacy variability under pair-wise additive spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) and synaptic homeostasis (the mean strength of plastic synapses into a neuron is bounded), by implementing spike shuffling methods onto spike patterns self-organized by a network of excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons. With the increase of the decay time scale of the inhibitory synaptic currents, the LIF network undergoes a transition from asynchronous state to weak synchronous state and then to synchronous bursting state. We first shuffle these spike patterns using a variety of methods, each designed to evidently change a specific pattern statistics; and then investigate the change of efficacy variability of the synapses under STDP and synaptic homeostasis, when the neurons in the network fire according to the spike patterns before and after being treated by a shuffling method. In this way, we can understand how the change of pattern statistics may cause the change of efficacy variability. Our results are consistent with those of our previous study which implements spike-generating models on converging motifs. We also find that burstiness/regularity is important to determine the efficacy variability under asynchronous states, while heterogeneity of cross-correlations is the main factor to cause efficacy variability when the network moves into synchronous bursting states (the states observed in epilepsy). PMID:27555816

  13. Spike Pattern Structure Influences Synaptic Efficacy Variability under STDP and Synaptic Homeostasis. II: Spike Shuffling Methods on LIF Networks.

    PubMed

    Bi, Zedong; Zhou, Changsong

    2016-01-01

    Synapses may undergo variable changes during plasticity because of the variability of spike patterns such as temporal stochasticity and spatial randomness. Here, we call the variability of synaptic weight changes during plasticity to be efficacy variability. In this paper, we investigate how four aspects of spike pattern statistics (i.e., synchronous firing, burstiness/regularity, heterogeneity of rates and heterogeneity of cross-correlations) influence the efficacy variability under pair-wise additive spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) and synaptic homeostasis (the mean strength of plastic synapses into a neuron is bounded), by implementing spike shuffling methods onto spike patterns self-organized by a network of excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons. With the increase of the decay time scale of the inhibitory synaptic currents, the LIF network undergoes a transition from asynchronous state to weak synchronous state and then to synchronous bursting state. We first shuffle these spike patterns using a variety of methods, each designed to evidently change a specific pattern statistics; and then investigate the change of efficacy variability of the synapses under STDP and synaptic homeostasis, when the neurons in the network fire according to the spike patterns before and after being treated by a shuffling method. In this way, we can understand how the change of pattern statistics may cause the change of efficacy variability. Our results are consistent with those of our previous study which implements spike-generating models on converging motifs. We also find that burstiness/regularity is important to determine the efficacy variability under asynchronous states, while heterogeneity of cross-correlations is the main factor to cause efficacy variability when the network moves into synchronous bursting states (the states observed in epilepsy). PMID:27555816

  14. Instability and Pattern Formation in Three-Species Food Chain Model via Holling Type II Functional Response on a Circular Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abid, Walid; Yafia, R.; Aziz Alaoui, M. A.; Bouhafa, H.; Abichou, A.

    2015-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of food chain predator-prey model. This model is given by a reaction-diffusion system defined on a circular spatial domain, which includes three-state variables namely, prey and intermediate predator and top predator and incorporates the Holling type II and a modified Leslie-Gower functional response. The aim of this paper is to investigate theoretically and numerically the asymptotic behavior of the interior equilibrium of the model. The local and global stabilities of the positive steady-state solution and the conditions that enable the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation and Turing instability in the circular spatial domain are proved. In the end, we carry out numerical simulations to illustrate how biological processes can affect spatiotemporal pattern formation in a disc spatial domain and different types of spatial patterns with respect to different time steps and diffusion coefficients are obtained.

  15. 3-D Reconstruction of Macular Type II Cell Innervation Patterns in Space-Flight and Control Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel Dorothy; Montgomery, K.; Linton, S.; Cheng, R.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A semiautomated method for reconstructing objects from serial thin sections has been developed in the Biocomputation Center. The method is being used to completely, for the first time, type II hair cells and their innervations. The purposes are to learn more about the fundamental circuitry of the macula on Earth and to determine whether changes in connectivities occur under space flight conditions. Data captured directly from a transmission electron microscope via a video camera are sent to a graphics workstation. There, the digitized micrographs are mosaicked into sections and contours are traced, registered and displayed by semiautomated methods. Current reconstructions are of type II cells from the medial part of rat maculas collected in-flight on the Space Life Sciences-2 mission, 4.5 hrs post-flight, and from a ground control. Results show that typical type II cells receive processes from tip to six nearby calyces or afferents. Nearly all processes are elongated and have bouton-like enlargements; some have numerous vesicles. Multiple (2 to 4) processes from a single calyx to a type II cell are common, and approximately 1/3 of the processes innervale 2 or 3 type II cells or a neighboring cluster. From 2% to 6% of the cells resemble type I cells morphologically but have demi-calyces. Thus far, increments in synaptic number in type II cells of flight rats are prominent along processes that supply two hair cells. It is clear that reconstruction methods provide insights into details of macular circuitry not obtainable by other techniques. The results demonstrate a morphological basis for interactions between adjacent receptive fields through feed back-feed forward connections, and for dynamic alterations in receptive field range and activity during preprocessing of linear acceleratory information by the maculas. The reconstruction method we have developed will find further applications in the study of the details of neuronal architecture of more complex systems, to

  16. Estimation of the non-isothermal inactivation patterns of Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 spores in soups from their isothermal survival data.

    PubMed

    Periago, P M; van Zuijlen, A; Fernandez, P S; Klapwijk, P M; ter Steeg, P F; Corradini, M G; Peleg, M

    2004-09-01

    The isothermal survival curves of the heat resistant spores of Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4, in the range of 117-125 degrees C, were determined in chicken, mushroom and pea soups by the capillary method. They were all non-linear with a noticeable upper concavity and could be described by the equation log(10) [N(t)/N(0)]=-b(T)t(n) with a fixed power, n, of the order of 0.7-0.8. The temperature dependence of b(T) could be described by the equation b(T)=log(e)[1+exp[k(T-T(c))

  17. Part I: In-situ fluorometric quantification of microalgal neutral lipids. Part II: Thermal degradation behavior of investment casting polymer patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongfang

    Research described in this dissertation covers two topics. Part-I is focused on in-situ determination of neutral lipid content of microalgae using a lipophilic fluorescent dye. The traditional Nile red stain-based method for detecting microalgal intracellular lipids is limited due to varying composition and thickness of rigid cell walls. In this study, the addition of dilute acid and heating of solution, were found to greatly enhance staining efficiency of Nile red for microalgal species evaluated. Oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion stabilized by a non-ionic surfactant was employed as a pseudo-standard that mimics lipid-bearing microalgal cells suspended in water. The average neutral lipid contents determined were very close to the results obtained by traditional gravimetric method and solid phase extraction. Part II of the dissertation explores thermo-physico-chemical properties of polymeric pattern materials, including expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam, polyurethane foam, and epoxy stereolithography (SLA) patterns, that are used in investment casting. Density, elastic modulus, expansion coefficient, thermal degradation behavior, etc. were experimentally investigated for their effects on metal casting quality. The reduction in toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) generated during thermal decomposition of polyurethane pattern was achieved by increasing either oxidant level or residence time in heated zone. Thermal degradation kinetics of the pattern materials were examined with a thermogravimetric analysis and activation energies were determined by Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods.

  18. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume II: Experiment Salmonid Survival with Combined PIT-CWT Tagging.

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Ken

    1997-06-01

    Experiment designs to estimate the effect of transportation on survival and return rates of Columbia River system salmonids are discussed along with statistical modeling techniques. Besides transportation, river flow and dam spill are necessary components in the design and analysis otherwise questions as to the effects of reservoir drawdowns and increased dam spill may never be satisfactorily answered. Four criteria for comparing different experiment designs are: (1) feasibility, (2) clarity of results, (3) scope of inference, and (4) time to learn. In this report, alternative designs for conducting experimental manipulations of smolt tagging studies to study effects of river operations such as flow levels, spill fractions, and transporting outmigrating salmonids around dams in the Columbia River system are presented. The principles of study design discussed in this report have broad implications for the many studies proposed to investigate both smolt and adult survival relationships. The concepts are illustrated for the case of the design and analysis of smolt transportation experiments. The merits of proposed transportation studies should be measured relative to these principles of proper statistical design and analysis.

  19. Care Groups II: A Summary of the Child Survival Outcomes Achieved Using Volunteer Community Health Workers in Resource-Constrained Settings.

    PubMed

    Perry, Henry; Morrow, Melanie; Davis, Thomas; Borger, Sarah; Weiss, Jennifer; DeCoster, Mary; Ricca, Jim; Ernst, Pieter

    2015-09-01

    The Care Group approach, described in detail in a companion paper in this journal, uses volunteers to convey health promotion messages to their neighbors. This article summarizes the available evidence on the effectiveness of the Care Group approach, drawing on articles published in the peer-reviewed literature as well as data from unpublished but publicly available project evaluations and summary analyses of these evaluations. When implemented by strong international NGOs with adequate funding, Care Groups have been remarkably effective in increasing population coverage of key child survival interventions. There is strong evidence that Care Groups can reduce childhood undernutrition and reduce the prevalence of diarrhea. Finally, evidence from multiple sources, comprising independent assessments of mortality impact, vital events collected by Care Group Volunteers themselves, and analyses using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST), that Care Groups are effective in reducing under-5 mortality. For example, the average decline in under-5 mortality, estimated using LiST, among 8 Care Group projects was 32%. In comparison, among 12 non-Care Group child survival projects, the under-5 mortality declined, on average, by an estimated 11%. Care Group projects cost in the range of US$3-$8 per beneficiary per year. The cost per life saved is in the range of $441-$3,773, and the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted is in the range of $15-$126. The Care Group approach, when implemented as described, appears to be highly cost-effective based on internationally accepted criteria. Care Groups represent an important and promising innovative, low-cost approach to increasing the coverage of key child survival interventions in high-mortality, resource-constrained settings. Next steps include further specifying the adjustments needed in government health systems to successfully incorporate the Care Group approach, testing the feasibility of these adjustments and of the

  20. Care Groups II: A Summary of the Child Survival Outcomes Achieved Using Volunteer Community Health Workers in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Melanie; Davis, Thomas; Borger, Sarah; Weiss, Jennifer; DeCoster, Mary; Ricca, Jim; Ernst, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The Care Group approach, described in detail in a companion paper in this journal, uses volunteers to convey health promotion messages to their neighbors. This article summarizes the available evidence on the effectiveness of the Care Group approach, drawing on articles published in the peer-reviewed literature as well as data from unpublished but publicly available project evaluations and summary analyses of these evaluations. When implemented by strong international NGOs with adequate funding, Care Groups have been remarkably effective in increasing population coverage of key child survival interventions. There is strong evidence that Care Groups can reduce childhood undernutrition and reduce the prevalence of diarrhea. Finally, evidence from multiple sources, comprising independent assessments of mortality impact, vital events collected by Care Group Volunteers themselves, and analyses using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST), that Care Groups are effective in reducing under-5 mortality. For example, the average decline in under-5 mortality, estimated using LiST, among 8 Care Group projects was 32%. In comparison, among 12 non-Care Group child survival projects, the under-5 mortality declined, on average, by an estimated 11%. Care Group projects cost in the range of US$3–$8 per beneficiary per year. The cost per life saved is in the range of $441–$3,773, and the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted is in the range of $15–$126. The Care Group approach, when implemented as described, appears to be highly cost-effective based on internationally accepted criteria. Care Groups represent an important and promising innovative, low-cost approach to increasing the coverage of key child survival interventions in high-mortality, resource-constrained settings. Next steps include further specifying the adjustments needed in government health systems to successfully incorporate the Care Group approach, testing the feasibility of these adjustments and of the

  1. Re-entry survivability and risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fudge, Michael L.

    1998-11-01

    estimates are presented for selected generic upper stage or spacecraft components, a Soyuz launch vehicle second stage, and for a Delta II launch vehicle second stage and its significant components. Significant similarity is demonstrated between the type and dispersion pattern of the recovered debris from the January 1997 Delta II 2nd stage event and the simulation of that reentry and breakup.

  2. Cardiac power index, mean arterial pressure, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II are strong predictors of survival and response to revascularization in cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Batric; Fay, Renaud; Cravoisy-Popovic, Aurelie; Levy, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Short-term prognostic factors in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) have previously been established using only hemodynamic parameters without taking into account classic intensive care unit (ICU) severity score or organ failure/support. The aim of this study was to assess early predictors of in-hospital mortality of a monocentric cohort of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by early CS. We retrospectively studied 85 consecutive patients with CS complicating acute myocardial infarction and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade 3 after percutaneous coronary revascularization. All patients were managed according to the following algorithm: initial resuscitation by a mobile medical unit or in-hospital critical care physician unit followed by percutaneous coronary revascularization and CS management in the ICU. Prehospital CS was diagnosed in 69% of cases, initially complicated by an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in 64% of cases. All patients were treated with vasopressors, 82% were ventilated, and 22% underwent extrarenal epuration. The 28-day mortality rate was 39%. Under multivariate analysis, initial cardiac power index, mean arterial pressure of less than 75 mmHg at hour 6 of ICU management, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II were independent predictive factors of in-hospital mortality. In conclusion, parameters directly related to cardiac performance and vascular response to vasopressors and admission Simplified Acute Physiology Score II are strong predictors of in-hospital mortality.

  3. Elm leaves 'warned' by insect egg deposition reduce survival of hatching larvae by a shift in their quantitative leaf metabolite pattern.

    PubMed

    Austel, Nadine; Eilers, Elisabeth J; Meiners, Torsten; Hilker, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Plants may take insect eggs on their leaves as a warning of future herbivory and intensify their defence against feeding larvae. Responsible agents are, however, largely unknown, and little knowledge is available on this phenomenon in perennial plants. We investigated how egg deposition affects the anti-herbivore defence of elm against the multivoltine elm leaf beetle. Prior egg deposition caused changes in the quality of feeding-damaged leaves that resulted in increased larval mortality and reduced reproductive capacity of the herbivore by harming especially female larvae. Chemical analyses of primary and secondary leaf metabolites in feeding-damaged, egg-free (F) and feeding-damaged, egg-deposited (EF)-leaves revealed only small differences in concentrations when comparing metabolites singly. However, a pattern-focused analysis showed clearly separable patterns of (F) and (EF)-leaves because of concentration differences in especially nitrogen and phenolics, of which robinin was consumed in greater amounts by larvae on (EF) than on (F)-leaves. Our study shows that insect egg deposition mediates a shift in the quantitative nutritional pattern of feeding-damaged leaves, and thus might limit the herbivore's population growth by reducing the number of especially female herbivores. This may be a strategy that pays off in a long run particularly in perennial plants against multivoltine herbivores.

  4. Strain-hardening extrusion—II. Analysis of slip-line fields based on experimental flow patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conning, S. W.; Farmer, L. E.; Oxley, P. L. B.

    1982-08-01

    A METHOD of constructing slip-line fields based on experimental extrusion flow patterns was described in a previous paper. Such fields provide a basis for constructing representative solutions of strain-hardening flow problems. In this paper, after proving some theoretical results on the structure of such solutions, a method of analyzing slip-line fields is described and some typical results presented. The analysis comprises computation of the velocity solution and construction from it of a set of streamlines for comparison with the original flow pattern; computation of the total strain by integration along the streamlines, its graduation and adjustment to meet the boundary conditions; estimation of the stress field (shear stress k and mean pressure p) and check for consistency; and computation of the forces on the boundary of the plastic region and their resultant.

  5. Latent Fingermark Aging Patterns (Part II): Color Contrast Between Ridges and Furrows as One Indicator of Degradation.

    PubMed

    De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Barrot Feixat, Carme; Tasker, Jack; McGarr, Luke; Stow, Karen; Carreras-Marin, Clara; Turbany Oset, Jaume; Gené Badia, Manel

    2016-07-01

    Currently, no established methodology exists to determine degradation patterns of latent fingermarks by visual means. This article is the second in a series of reports exploring quantifiable degradation-related parameters, which focuses on color contrast changes between fingermark ridges and furrows over time. Experiment variables included type of secretion (eccrine and sebaceous), substrate (glass and plastic), and exposure to natural light (dark, shade, and direct light). Fingermarks were sequentially visualized with titanium dioxide powder and photographed. Image histogram profiles were evaluated and combined with statistical analysis of color data values. Results indicate that sebaceous depositions on glass were generally less degraded by the effect of environmental conditions compared with those on plastic. In addition, aging in darkness was not always the best condition for preservation, and direct exposure to light seemed to inhibit visual degradation under certain conditions. Overall, the technique provided sufficient sensitivity to discern degradation patterns of fingermarks. PMID:27364272

  6. Latent Fingermark Aging Patterns (Part II): Color Contrast Between Ridges and Furrows as One Indicator of Degradation.

    PubMed

    De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Barrot Feixat, Carme; Tasker, Jack; McGarr, Luke; Stow, Karen; Carreras-Marin, Clara; Turbany Oset, Jaume; Gené Badia, Manel

    2016-07-01

    Currently, no established methodology exists to determine degradation patterns of latent fingermarks by visual means. This article is the second in a series of reports exploring quantifiable degradation-related parameters, which focuses on color contrast changes between fingermark ridges and furrows over time. Experiment variables included type of secretion (eccrine and sebaceous), substrate (glass and plastic), and exposure to natural light (dark, shade, and direct light). Fingermarks were sequentially visualized with titanium dioxide powder and photographed. Image histogram profiles were evaluated and combined with statistical analysis of color data values. Results indicate that sebaceous depositions on glass were generally less degraded by the effect of environmental conditions compared with those on plastic. In addition, aging in darkness was not always the best condition for preservation, and direct exposure to light seemed to inhibit visual degradation under certain conditions. Overall, the technique provided sufficient sensitivity to discern degradation patterns of fingermarks.

  7. Quantitative assessment of evidential weight for a fingerprint comparison. Part II: a generalisation to take account of the general pattern.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Cedric; Evett, Ian W; Skerrett, James E; Mateos-Garcia, Ismael

    2012-01-10

    The authors have proposed a quantitative method for assessing weight of evidence in the case where a fingermark from a crime scene is compared with a set of control prints from the ten fingers of a suspect. The approach is based on the notion of calculating a Likelihood Ratio (LR) that addresses a pair of propositions relating to the individual who left the crime mark. The current method considers only information extracted from minutiae, such as location, direction and type. It does not consider other information usually taken into account by fingerprint examiners, such as the general pattern of the ridge flow on the mark and the control prints. In this paper, we propose an improvement to our model that allows a fingerprint examiner to take advantage of pattern information when assessing the evidential weight to be assigned to a fingerprint comparison. We present an extension of the formal analysis proposed earlier and we illustrate our approach with an example.

  8. Beyond Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffenson, Dave

    1975-01-01

    The author argues that environmentalists need to realize that the present ecological crisis is essentially a value crisis, not merely a fight for survival alone. He envisions a complete value change for the human population and advocates the incorporation of value strategies into all environmental education programs immediately. (MA)

  9. Hemithoracic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy After Pleurectomy/Decortication for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Toxicity, Patterns of Failure, and a Matched Survival Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, William W.; Rice, David C.; Allen, Pamela K.; Tsao, Anne S.; Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe Y.; Tang, Chad; Pan, Hubert Y.; Welsh, James W.; Mehran, Reza J.; Gomez, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate safety, efficacy, and recurrence after hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication (PD-IMRT) and after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP-IMRT). Methods and Materials: In 2009-2013, 24 patients with mesothelioma underwent PD-IMRT to the involved hemithorax to a dose of 45 Gy, with an optional integrated boost; 22 also received chemotherapy. Toxicity was scored with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Pulmonary function was compared at baseline, after surgery, and after IMRT. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time to locoregional failure, and time to distant metastasis. Failures were in-field, marginal, or out of field. Outcomes were compared with those of 24 patients, matched for age, nodal status, performance status, and chemotherapy, who had received EPP-IMRT. Results: Median follow-up time was 12.2 months. Grade 3 toxicity rates were 8% skin and 8% pulmonary. Pulmonary function declined from baseline to after surgery (by 21% for forced vital capacity, 16% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and 19% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P for all = .01]) and declined still further after IMRT (by 31% for forced vital capacity [P=.02], 25% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second [P=.01], and 30% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P=.01]). The OS and PFS rates were 76% and 67%, respectively, at 1 year and 56% and 34% at 2 years. Median OS (28.4 vs 14.2 months, P=.04) and median PFS (16.4 vs 8.2 months, P=.01) favored PD-IMRT versus EPP-IMRT. No differences were found in grade 4-5 toxicity (0 of 24 vs 3 of 24, P=.23), median time to locoregional failure (18.7 months vs not reached, P not calculable), or median time to distant metastasis (18.8 vs 11.8 months, P=.12). Conclusions: Hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication produced little high-grade toxicity but

  10. Organ specific analysis of the anaerobic primary metabolism in rice and wheat seedlings II: light exposure reduces needs for fermentation and extends survival during anaerobiosis.

    PubMed

    Mustroph, Angelika; Boamfa, Elena I; Laarhoven, Lucas J J; Harren, Frans J M; Pörs, Yvonne; Grimm, Bernhard

    2006-12-01

    Low oxygen stress in plants can occur during flooding and compromise the availability and utilization of carbohydrates in root and shoot tissues. Low-oxygen-tolerant rice and -sensitive wheat plants were analyzed under anaerobiosis in light to evaluate main factors of the primary metabolism that affect sensitivity against oxygen deprivation: activity of glycolysis and the rate of photosynthesis. Relatively stable ATP contents (93 and 58% of aerated control levels after 24 h anaerobiosis) in illuminated shoot tissues account for enhanced tolerance of rice and wheat seedlings to anaerobiosis upon light exposure in comparison to anoxia in darkness. Although the photosynthetic process was inhibited during low oxygen stress, which was partly due to CO(2) deficiency, more light-exposed than dark-incubated seedlings survived. Illuminated plants could tolerate a 70% lower anaerobic ethanol production in shoots in comparison to darkness, although still an 18-times higher ethanol production rate was determined in rice than in wheat leaves. In conclusion, light-exposed plants grown under anaerobiosis may recycle low amounts of generated oxygen between photosynthesis and dissimilation and generate additional energy not only from substrate phosphorylation during glycolysis but also from other sources like cyclic electron transport. PMID:16802177

  11. Automatic analysis of the electromyographic interference pattern. Part II: Findings in control subjects and in some neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Nandedkar, S D; Sanders, D B; Stålberg, E V

    1986-01-01

    The electromyographic (EMG) interference pattern (IP) was measured in the biceps muscle of 16 normal male and 17 normal female subjects. The activity, upper centile amplitude (UCA), and the number of small segments (NSS) (defined in a companion paper) were measured from 500-msec epochs of the IP. The normal values of these features were defined separately for men and women by plotting the UCA and NSS values against activity for each epoch and defining an area on these plots, called a "cloud," that contained more than 90% of the datum points from each study. The mean deviation of the individual datum points from the overall mean values was also calculated for each study. A study in one muscle is considered to be normal if more than 90% of the datum points from that muscle are within the normal clouds and the deviation values are within their normal range. In patients with neuropathy, the characteristic pattern was increased UCA with normal or decreased NSS. In patients with myopathy, NSS was increased and the UCA was normal or decreased. In all studies, the interpretations of the IP from the plots agreed with qualitative assessments of the IP made independently by an electromyographer. The use of these features to understand and quantitate the changes in the motor units produced by disease is demonstrated by serial studies performed in a patient with motor neuron disease.

  12. Oblique shock breakout in supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. II. Numerical solutions for non-relativistic pattern speeds

    SciTech Connect

    Salbi, Pegah; Matzner, Christopher D.; Ro, Stephen; Levin, Yuri

    2014-07-20

    Non-spherical explosions develop non-radial flows as the pattern of shock emergence progresses across the stellar surface. In supernovae, these flows can limit ejecta speeds, stifle shock breakout emission, and cause collisions outside the star. Similar phenomena occur in stellar and planetary collisions, tidal disruption events, accretion-induced collapses, and propagating detonations. We present two-dimensional, nested-grid Athena simulations of non-radial shock emergence in a frame comoving with the breakout pattern, focusing on the adiabatic, non-relativistic limit in a plane stratified envelope. We set boundary conditions using a known self-similar solution and explore the role of box size and resolution on the result. The shock front curves toward the stellar surface, and exhibits a kink from which weak discontinuities originate. Flow around the point of shock emergence is neither perfectly steady nor self-similar. Waves and vortices, which are not predominantly due to grid effects, emanate from this region. The post-shock flow is deflected along the stellar surface and its pressure disturbs the stellar atmosphere upstream of the emerging shock. We use the numerical results and their analytical limits to predict the effects of radiation transfer and gravity, which are not included in our simulations.

  13. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtype distribution, geodemographic patterns, and survival in the US: A longitudinal analysis of the National Cancer Data Base from 1998 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamadani, Mohammed; Habermann, Thomas M; Cerhan, James R; Macon, William R; Maurer, Matthew J; Go, Ronald S

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was introduced in 2001. However, its incorporation into clinical practice is not well-described. We studied the distribution of NHL subtypes in adults diagnosed from 1998 to 2011, evaluated time trends, geo-demographic correlates, and changes in 5-year overall survival (OS). We obtained data prospectively collected by the National Cancer Data Base, which covers 70% of US cancer cases. There were 596,476 patients diagnosed with NHL. The major subtypes were diffuse large B-cell (32.5%), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL; 18.6%), follicular (17.1%), marginal zone (8.3%), mantle cell (4.1%), peripheral T-cell not-otherwise-specified (1.7%), Burkitt (1.6%), hairy cell (1.1%), lymphoplasmacytic (1.1%), and NHL not-otherwise-specified (10.8%). Over the study period, the proportion of NHL not-otherwise-specified declined by half, while marginal zone lymphoma doubled. The distribution of major and rare NHL subtypes varied according to demographics but less so geographically or by type of treatment facility. We noted several novel findings among Hispanics (lower proportion of CLL/SLL, but higher Burkitt lymphoma and nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma), Asians (higher enteropathy-associated T-cell and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas), Blacks (higher hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma), and Native Americans (similar proportions of CLL/SLL and nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma as Asians). With the exception of peripheral T-cell not-otherwise-specified and hairy cell leukemia, 5-year OS has improved for all the major NHL subtypes. PMID:26096944

  14. Survival pattern in patients with acute organophosphate poisoning on mechanical ventilation: A retrospective intensive care unit-based study in a tertiary care teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed M; Das, Bikramjit; Nadeem, Abu; Samal, Rajiv K

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Organophosphorus (OP) compound poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in India. The aim of the study was to study the outcomes and predictors of mortality in patients with acute OP poisoning requiring mechanical ventilation. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in the intensive care unit and 117 patients were included. Diagnosis was performed from the history taken either from the patient or from the patient's relatives. Demographic data, month of the year, mode of poisoning, common age group, duration of mechanical ventilation, time of starting pralidoxime (PAM), and mortality were recorded. Chi square test, Pearson correlation test, and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used. Data are presented as mean ± SD. Results: 91.86% (79/86) of cases were suicidal and remaining cases were accidental. Duration of mechanical ventilation varied from less than 48 hours to more than 7 days. Mortality rate was 33.3%, 7.2%, and 100% in those who required mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days, 5 to 7 days, and 2 to 4 days, respectively. Lag time was less than 6 hrs in 13 patients and all of them survived. 17.1% and 28.1% patients died in whom PAM was started 6 to 12 hrs and 13 to 24 hrs after poisoning, respectively. There was statistically significant positive correlation between lag time of starting of PAM with duration of mechanical ventilation and total dose of PAM (P < 0.0001). None of the predictors age, lag time, severity of poisoning, and duration of ventilation were independent predictors of death. Overall mortality rate was 18.6%. Conclusion: Mortality from OP compound poisoning is directly proportionate to the severity of poisoning, delay in starting PAM, and duration of mechanical ventilation. Death is not dependent on a single factor, rather contributory to these factors working simultaneously. PMID:24700893

  15. Forms of forward quadrupedal locomotion. II. A comparison of posture, hindlimb kinematics, and motor patterns for upslope and level walking.

    PubMed

    Carlson-Kuhta, P; Trank, T V; Smith, J L

    1998-04-01

    To gain insight into the neural mechanisms controlling different forms of quadrupedal walking of normal cats, data on postural orientation, hindlimb kinematics, and motor patterns of selected hindlimb muscles were assessed for four grades of upslope walking, from 25 to 100% (45 degrees incline), and compared with similar data for level treadmill walking (0.6 m/s). Kinematic data for the hip, knee, ankle, and metatarsophalangeal joints were obtained from digitizing ciné film that was synchronized with electromyographic (EMG) records from 13 different hindlimb muscles. Cycle periods, the structure of the step cycle, and paw-contact sequences were similar at all grades and typical of lateral-sequence walking. Also, a few half-bound and transverse gallop steps were assessed from trials at the 100% grade; these steps had shorter cycle periods than the walking steps and less of the cycle (68 vs. 56%) was devoted to stance. Each cat assumed a crouched posture at the steeper grades of upslope walking and stride length decreased, whereas the overall position of the stride shifted caudally with respect to the hip joint. At the steeper grades, the range and duration of swing-related flexion increased at all joints, the stance-phase yield was absent at the knee and ankle joints, and the range of stance-phase extension at knee and ankle joints increased. Patterns of muscle activity for upslope and level walking were similar with some notable exceptions. At the steeper grades, the EMG activity of muscles with swing-related activity, such as the digit flexor muscle, the flexor digitorum longus (FDL), and the knee flexor muscle, the semitendinosus (ST), was prolonged and continued well into midswing. The EMG activity of stance-related muscles also increased in amplitude with grade, and three muscles not active during the stance phase of level walking had stance activity that increased in amplitude and duration at the steepest grades; these muscles were the ST, FDL, and extensor

  16. Patterns of hospital resource utilization of children with leukemia and CNS tumors: a comparison of children who survive and those who die within 3 years of diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Karrie Cummings; Rimar, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Hospital admissions for children with cancer tend to be longer than admissions for adults with cancer and longer, more frequent, and more costly than other pediatric admissions. The two childhood cancers most commonly requiring hospitalization are leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system (CNS tumors). Determining the best use of limited financial resources and preparing children and their parents for what to expect requires a better understanding of the patterns and cost of hospital resource utilization by children with cancer. Both hospital administrators and third-party payers can use this understanding to better allocate resources and plan the care of children with cancer in the future. Because many parents of children with cancer struggle financially due to the high cost of treatments, time off of work, and other non-medical expenses, more education in this area may help parents to prepare, thus alleviating some of the uncertainty and unexpected financial costs associated with childhood cancer.

  17. Neuronal death and perinatal lethality in voltage-gated sodium channel alpha(II)-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Planells-Cases, R; Caprini, M; Zhang, J; Rockenstein, E M; Rivera, R R; Murre, C; Masliah, E; Montal, M

    2000-06-01

    Neural activity is crucial for cell survival and fine patterning of neuronal connectivity during neurodevelopment. To investigate the role in vivo of sodium channels (NaCh) in these processes, we generated knockout mice deficient in brain NaChalpha(II). NaChalpha(II)(-/-) mice were morphologically and organogenically indistinguishable from their NaChalpha(+/-) littermates. Notwithstanding, NaChalpha(II)(-/-) mice died perinatally with severe hypoxia and massive neuronal apoptosis, notably in the brainstem. Sodium channel currents recorded from cultured neurons of NaChalpha(II)(-/-) mice were sharply attenuated. Death appears to arise from severe hypoxia consequent to the brainstem deficiency of NaChalpha(II). NaChalpha(II) expression is, therefore, redundant for embryonic development but essential for postnatal survival.

  18. HUMEX, a study on the survivability and adaptation of humans to long-duration exploratory missions, part II: Missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Facius, R.; Reichert, M.; Rettberg, P.; Seboldt, W.; Manzey, D.; Comet, B.; Maillet, A.; Preiss, H.; Schauer, L.; Dussap, C. G.; Poughon, L.; Belyavin, A.; Reitz, G.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Gerzer, R.

    2006-01-01

    Space exploration programmes, currently under discussion in the US and in Europe, foresee human missions to Mars to happen within the first half of this century. In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA) has conducted a study on the human responses, limits and needs for such exploratory missions, the so-called HUMEX study (ESA SP-1264). Based on a critical assessment of the limiting factors for human health and performance and the definition of the life science and life support requirements performed in the frame of the HUMEX study, the following major critical items have been identified: (i) radiation health risks, mainly occurring during the interplanetary transfer phases and severely augmented in case of an eruption of a solar particle event; (ii) health risks caused by extended periods in microgravity with an unacceptable risk of bone fracture as a consequence of bone demineralisation; (iii) psychological risks as a consequence of long-term isolation and confinement in an environment so far not experienced by humans; (iv) the requirement of bioregenerative life support systems complementary to physico-chemical systems, and of in situ resource utilisation to reach a closure of the life support system to the highest degree possible. Considering these constraints, it has been concluded that substantial research and development activities are required in order to provide the basic information for appropriate integrated risk managements, including efficient countermeasures and tailored life support. Methodological approaches should include research on the ISS, on robotic precursors missions to Mars, in ground-based simulation facilities as well as in analogue natural environments on Earth.

  19. Mortality patterns among industrial workers exposed to chloroprene and other substances. II. Mortality in relation to exposure.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Gary M; Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Cunningham, Michael; Esmen, Nurtan A; Hall, Thomas A; Phillips, Margaret L

    2007-03-20

    , RSC or liver cancer and exposure to CD and/or VC using both the unlagged and lagged exposure measures: duration, average intensity or cumulative exposure to CD or VC; time since first CD or VC exposure; and duration of CD exposure or time since first CD exposure in presence or absence of VC exposure. We observed elevated and statistically significantly elevated RRs for some analysis subgroups, but these were due to inordinately low death rates in the baseline categories. With the possible exception of all cancer mortality in plant G, our additional adjustment of RRs for pay type revealed no evidence of positive confounding by smoking. We conclude that exposures to CD or VC at the levels encountered in the four study sites do not elevate mortality risks from all cancers, RSC or liver cancer. This conclusion is corroborated by our analysis of general mortality patterns among the CD cohort reported in our companion paper [G. Marsh, A. Youk, J. Buchanich, M. Cunningham, N. Esmen, T. Hall, M. Phillips, Mortality patterns among industrial workers exposed to chloroprene and other substances. I. General mortality patterns, Chem.-Biol. Interact., submitted for publication]. PMID:17007827

  20. Long-term Survival Outcomes Following Internal Mammary Node Irradiation in Stage II-III Breast Cancer: Results of a Large Retrospective Study With 12-Year Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jee Suk; Park, Won; Kim, Yong Bae; Lee, Ik Jae; Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol; Choi, Doo Ho; Suh, Chang-Ok; Huh, Seung Jae

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of internal mammary node irradiation (IMNI) on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in breast cancer patients treated with modified radical mastectomy and postoperative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1994 and 2002, 396 patients with stage II-III breast cancer were treated with postmastectomy radiation therapy with (n=197) or without (n=199) IMNI. Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. IMNI was administered at the clinical discretion of the treating physician. Median RT dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45.0-59.4 Gy) in 28 fractions, with inclusion of the supraclavicular fossa in 96% of patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 99.7% of the patients and endocrine therapy to 53%. Results: The median follow-up was 149 months (range, 124-202). IMNI patients had more advanced nodal stage and non-high grade tumors than those without IMNI (P<.001). Otherwise, disease and treatment characteristics were well balanced. The 10-year DFS with and without IMNI was 65% and 57%, respectively (P=.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that IMNI was an independent, positive predictor of DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; P=.02). Benefits of IMNI in DFS were seen most apparently in N2 patients (HR, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.74) and inner/central tumors (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.90). The 10-year OS with and without IMNI was 72% and 66%, respectively (P=.62). The 10-year DFS and OS were 61%, and 69%, respectively. Conclusions: Internal mammary node irradiation significantly improved DFS in postmastectomy breast cancer patients. Pending long-term results from randomized trials, treatment of internal mammary nodes should be considered in postmastectomy radiation therapy.

  1. Automated and visual measurements of estrous behavior and their sources of variation in Holstein heifers. II: Standing and lying patterns.

    PubMed

    Silper, Bruna F; Polsky, Liam; Luu, John; Burnett, Tracy A; Rushen, Jeffrey; de Passillé, Anne Marie; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2015-08-01

    Lying (LY) and standing (ST) behavior of Holstein heifers (n = 57) was studied from Day -7 to Day +2 relative to estrus (Day 0) using leg-mounted accelerometers. A total of 269 estrus episodes were studied. The objectives were to quantify the effects of estrus on ST and LY patterns, identify sources of variation, and provide insight into new approaches for the use of sensors in estrus detection. The sensors were used to obtain ST bout frequency (bouts per day), total daily ST time, and mean bout duration and duration of the longest bout for ST and LY on a daily basis. Estrus episodes were identified using walking activity peaks and validated by ovarian ultrasonography. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to analyze the effects of estrus order (pubertal vs. second and greater), season, time of estrus onset, category of baseline walking activity, and number of heifers simultaneously in estrus on ST and LY variables. Overall, ST bout frequency was lower, whereas mean ST bout duration, duration of the longest ST bout, and total daily ST time were longer on Day 0 (P < 0.05). The longest ST bout increased from 232 ± 5 minutes on Day -7 to 488 ± 16 minutes on Day 0 (P < 0.05), and on Day 0, it started within -2 to 4 hours of time of estrus onset. Measurements of ST bouts varied the most on Day 0 (coefficient of variation = 21.5%-52.8%). The pubertal estrus was characterized by smaller increase in mean ST bout duration, longest ST bout duration, and total daily ST time (P < 0.05) compared to the second and greater episodes. Second and greater episodes had greater longest LY bout on Day +1, but on Day 0 it was not different from other nonestrus days (P < 0.01). The longest ST bout on Day 0 was longer for heifers with high baseline walking activity and for episodes occurring during the cold season (P < 0.05). The effect of estrus on ST variables for morning-onset episodes was observed only on Day 0. Episodes with afternoon and night onset showed the effect of estrus spread

  2. P16.16INFLUENCE OF DETERMINATION OF PROGRESSION ON PATTERNS OF FLAIR FAILURE ANALYSIS IN PATIENTS WITH GRADE III ANAPLASTIC ASTROCYTOMA (AA) AND ASSOCIATION OF PATTERN OF FAILURE (POF) WITH SURVIVAL

    PubMed Central

    Kazda, T.; Hardie, J.G.; Pafundi, D.H.; Brinkmann, D.H.; Laack, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: RANO criteria have recently been proposed as response guidelines for contrast-enhancing high grade gliomas, but the utility of these guidelines has not been established in AA. In this report we evaluated the utility of RANO criteria in determining progression and POF in AA and evaluated the association of POF with overall survival (OS). MATERIALS/METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of MR images for 21 consecutive patients with AA and radiologically-proven recurrence after irradiation at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN). Three different criteria for identification of progression were used for each patient: 1) standard RANO-based criteria (RANO-C; most often met by development of new contrast enhancement or enlargement of contrast-enhancing lesion), 2) RANO criteria for progression based on significant FLAIR increase (RANO-F) and 3) clinical progression based on oncologist interpretation of imaging and clinical status usually resulting in change in treatment (Clinical). Time to progression was assessed among the three criteria using Friedman's test, and pairwise criteria using a sign test. After subtraction of tumor volume occurring on the best-response MR study, final structure was dosimetrically analyzed and different POF were characterized by the % volume encompassed within the 95% dose as follows: central (V95% ≥ 95%), in-field (80% ≤ V95% < 95%), marginal (20% ≤ V95% < 80%), or distant (V95% < 20%). RESULTS: Time to progression based on RANO criteria preceeded the clinical diagnosis of progression by a median of 3.13 months (9.2 vs 12.6 mo p < 0.0001, Sign test). New or progressive contrast enhancement (RANO-C) was almost entirely central or in-field (95% and 5%, respectively). POF of FLAIR component differed based on timepoint used to determine progression. FLAIR POF was significantly more often marginal or distant when progression was defined clinically compared to either RANO-C or RANO-F criteria (p = .03 and .007

  3. Probing S-state advancements and recombination pathways in photosystem II with a global fit program for flash-induced oxygen evolution pattern.

    PubMed

    Pham, Long Vo; Messinger, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II catalyzes the oxidation of water to molecular oxygen. Four decades ago, measurements of flash-induced oxygen evolution have shown that the OEC steps through oxidation states S(0), S(1), S(2), S(3) and S(4) before O(2) is released and the S(0) state is reformed. The light-induced transitions between these states involve misses and double hits. While it is widely accepted that the miss parameter is S state dependent and may be further modulated by the oxidation state of the acceptor side, the traditional way of analyzing each flash-induced oxygen evolution pattern (FIOP) individually did not allow using enough free parameters to thoroughly test this proposal. Furthermore, this approach does not allow assessing whether the presently known recombination processes in photosystem II fully explain all measured oxygen yields during Si state lifetime measurements. Here we present a global fit program that simultaneously fits all flash-induced oxygen yields of a standard FIOP (2 Hz flash frequency) and of 11-18 FIOPs each obtained while probing the S(0), S(2) and S(3) state lifetimes in spinach thylakoids at neutral pH. This comprehensive data treatment demonstrates the presence of a very slow phase of S(2) decay, in addition to the commonly discussed fast and slow reduction of S(2) by YD and QB(-), respectively. Our data support previous suggestions that the S(0)→S(1) and S(1)→S(2) transitions involve low or no misses, while high misses occur in the S(2)→S(3) or S(3)→S(0) transitions. PMID:27033305

  4. Probing S-state advancements and recombination pathways in photosystem II with a global fit program for flash-induced oxygen evolution pattern.

    PubMed

    Pham, Long Vo; Messinger, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II catalyzes the oxidation of water to molecular oxygen. Four decades ago, measurements of flash-induced oxygen evolution have shown that the OEC steps through oxidation states S(0), S(1), S(2), S(3) and S(4) before O(2) is released and the S(0) state is reformed. The light-induced transitions between these states involve misses and double hits. While it is widely accepted that the miss parameter is S state dependent and may be further modulated by the oxidation state of the acceptor side, the traditional way of analyzing each flash-induced oxygen evolution pattern (FIOP) individually did not allow using enough free parameters to thoroughly test this proposal. Furthermore, this approach does not allow assessing whether the presently known recombination processes in photosystem II fully explain all measured oxygen yields during Si state lifetime measurements. Here we present a global fit program that simultaneously fits all flash-induced oxygen yields of a standard FIOP (2 Hz flash frequency) and of 11-18 FIOPs each obtained while probing the S(0), S(2) and S(3) state lifetimes in spinach thylakoids at neutral pH. This comprehensive data treatment demonstrates the presence of a very slow phase of S(2) decay, in addition to the commonly discussed fast and slow reduction of S(2) by YD and QB(-), respectively. Our data support previous suggestions that the S(0)→S(1) and S(1)→S(2) transitions involve low or no misses, while high misses occur in the S(2)→S(3) or S(3)→S(0) transitions.

  5. Treatment Patterns, Costs, and Survival among Medicare-Enrolled Elderly Patients Diagnosed with Advanced Stage Gastric Cancer: Analysis of a Linked Population-Based Cancer Registry and Administrative Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Karve, Sudeep; Liepa, Astra M; Hess, Lisa M; Kaye, James A; Calingaert, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess real-world treatment patterns, health care utilization, costs, and survival among Medicare enrollees with locally advanced/unresectable or metastatic gastric cancer receiving standard first-line chemotherapy. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database (2000~2009). The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) first diagnosed with locally advanced/unresectable or metastatic gastric cancer between July 1, 2000 and December 31, 2007 (first diagnosis defined the index date); (2) ≥65 years of age at index; (3) continuously enrolled in Medicare Part A and B from 6 months before index through the end of follow-up, defined by death or the database end date (December 31, 2009), whichever occurred first; and (4) received first-line treatment with fluoropyrimidine and/or a platinum chemo-therapy agent. Results In total, 2,583 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age at index was 74.8±6.0 years. Over 90% of patients died during follow-up, with a median survival of 361 days for the overall post-index period and 167 days for the period after the completion of first-line chemotherapy. The mean total gastric cancer-related cost per patient over the entire post-index follow-up period was United States dollar (USD) 70,808±56,620. Following the completion of first-line chemotherapy, patients receiving further cancer-directed treatment had USD 25,216 additional disease-related costs versus patients receiving supportive care only (P<0.001). Conclusions The economic burden of advanced gastric cancer is substantial. Extrapolating based on published incidence estimates and staging distributions, the estimated total disease-related lifetime cost to Medicare for the roughly 22,200 patients expected to be diagnosed with this disease in 2014 approaches USD 300 millions. PMID:26161282

  6. Population-based survival-cure analysis of ER-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lan; Johnson, Karen A; Mariotto, Angela B; Dignam, James J; Feuer, Eric J

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the trends over time in age and stage specific population-based survival of estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer patients by examining the fraction of cured patients and the median survival time for uncured patients. Cause-specific survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program for cases diagnosed during 1992-1998 were used in mixed survival cure models to evaluate the cure fraction and the extension in survival for uncured patients. Survival trends were compared with adjuvant chemotherapy data available from an overlapping patterns-of-care study. For stage II N+ disease, the largest increase in cure fraction was 44-60% (P = 0.0257) for women aged >or=70 in contrast to a 7-8% point increase for women aged <50 or 50-69 (P = 0.056 and 0.038, respectively). For women with stage III disease, the increases in the cure fraction were not statistically significant, although women aged 50-69 had a 10% point increase (P = 0.103). Increases in cure fraction correspond with increases in the use of adjuvant chemotherapy, particularly for the oldest age group. In this article, for the first time, we estimate the cure fraction for ER- patients. We notice that at age >o5r=70, the accelerated increase in cure fraction from 1992 to 1998 for women with stage II N+ compared with stage III suggests a selective benefit for chemotherapy in the lower stage group.

  7. Drift Rather than Selection Dominates MHC Class II Allelic Diversity Patterns at the Biogeographical Range Scale in Natterjack Toads Bufo calamita

    PubMed Central

    Zeisset, Inga; Beebee, Trevor J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci has gained great popularity in recent years, partly due to their function in protecting vertebrates from infections. This is of particular interest in amphibians on account of major threats many species face from emergent diseases such as chytridiomycosis. In this study we compare levels of diversity in an expressed MHC class II locus with neutral genetic diversity at microsatellite loci in natterjack toad (Bufo (Epidalea) calamita) populations across the whole of the species’ biogeographical range. Variation at both classes of loci was high in the glacial refugium areas (REF) and much lower in postglacial expansion areas (PGE), especially in range edge populations. Although there was clear evidence that the MHC locus was influenced by positive selection in the past, congruence with the neutral markers suggested that historical demographic events were the main force shaping MHC variation in the PGE area. Both neutral and adaptive genetic variation declined with distance from glacial refugia. Nevertheless, there were also some indications from differential isolation by distance and allele abundance patterns that weak effects of selection have been superimposed on the main drift effect in the PGE zone. PMID:24937211

  8. Patterns of selection and allele diversity of class I and class II major histocompatibility loci across the species range of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    McClelland, Erin K; Ming, Tobi J; Tabata, Amy; Kaukinen, Karia H; Beacham, Terry D; Withler, Ruth E; Miller, Kristina M

    2013-09-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), an important component of the vertebrate immune system, provides an important suite of genes to examine the role of genetic diversity at non-neutral loci for population persistence. We contrasted patterns of diversity at the two classical MHC loci in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), MHC class I (UBA) and MHC class II (DAB), and neutral microsatellite loci across 70 populations spanning the species range from Washington State to Japan. There was no correlation in allelic richness or heterozygosity between MHC loci or between MHC loci and microsatellites. The two unlinked MHC loci may be responding to different selective pressures; the distribution of FST values for the two loci was uncorrelated, and evidence for both balancing and directional selection on alleles and lineages of DAB and UBA was observed in populations throughout the species range but rarely on both loci within a population. These results suggest that fluctuating selection has resulted in the divergence of MHC loci in contemporary populations. PMID:24033436

  9. Personality drives physiological adjustments and is not related to survival

    PubMed Central

    Bijleveld, Allert I.; Massourakis, Georgina; van der Marel, Annemarie; Dekinga, Anne; Spaans, Bernard; van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary function and maintenance of variation in animal personality is still under debate. Variation in the size of metabolic organs has recently been suggested to cause and maintain variation in personality. Here, we examine two main underlying notions: (i) that organ sizes vary consistently between individuals and cause consistent behavioural patterns, and (ii) that a more exploratory personality is associated with reduced survival. Exploratory behaviour of captive red knots (Calidris canutus, a migrant shorebird) was negatively rather than positively correlated with digestive organ (gizzard) mass, as well as with body mass. In an experiment, we reciprocally reduced and increased individual gizzard masses and found that exploration scores were unaffected. Whether or not these birds were resighted locally over the 19 months after release was negatively correlated with their exploration scores. Moreover, a long-term mark–recapture effort on free-living red knots with known gizzard masses at capture confirmed that local resighting probability (an inverse measure of exploratory behaviour) was correlated with gizzard mass without detrimental effects on survival. We conclude that personality drives physiological adjustments, rather than the other way around, and suggest that physiological adjustments mitigate the survival costs of exploratory behaviour. Our results show that we need to reconsider hypotheses explaining personality variation based on organ sizes and differential survival. PMID:24671971

  10. Daily expression patterns for mRNAs of GH, PRL, SL, IGF-I and IGF-II in juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, during 24-h light and dark cycles.

    PubMed

    Ayson, Felix G; Takemura, Akihiro

    2006-12-01

    Most animals respond to changes in the external environment in a rhythmic fashion. In teleost fishes, daily rhythms are observed in plasma concentrations of some hormones but it is not clear whether these rhythms are exogenous or are entrained by predictable cues. We investigated whether the expression patterns for the mRNAs of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL) in the pituitary gland, and insulin-like growth factor-I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in the liver, follow a daily rhythm when juvenile rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) are reared under a normal 24-h light and dark cycle (LD), and when they are exposed to either continuous light (LL) or darkness (DD). Hormone mRNA levels were determined by real time PCR. Under LD conditions, GH mRNA expression in the pituitary was significantly lower during the light phase than during the dark phase suggesting a diurnal rhythm of expression. The rhythm disappeared when fish were exposed to LL or DD conditions. PRL mRNA expression pattern was irregular in all 3 conditions. Very low levels of SL mRNA were observed during the mid day under LD conditions. The expression pattern of SL mRNA became irregular under LL and DD conditions. No pattern could be observed in the expression profile of IGF-I and II mRNA in the liver during LD and LL conditions but a single peak in mRNA level was observed under DD conditions in both IGF-I and II. The results indicate that except for GH, the daily expression pattern for the mRNAs of the hormones examined do not seem to follow a rhythm according to light and dark cycles.

  11. Two Genes Might Help Predict Breast Cancer Survival

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160503.html Two Genes Might Help Predict Breast Cancer Survival Research suggests that tracking DNA activity patterns ... activity of two genes may help predict certain breast cancer patients' chances of survival and guide their treatment, ...

  12. 1998-1999 Patterns of Care Study process survey of national practice patterns using breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy in the management of Stage I-II breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Lori J. . E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu; Moughan, Jennifer; White, Julia; Winchester, David P.; Owen, Jean; Wilson, J. Frank

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: The Patterns of Care Study survey process evaluation has been an effective means of assessing the evaluation and treatment practices used by radiation oncologists in the United States for Stage I-II breast cancer. The current 1998-1999 report updates the previous 1989 and 1993-1994 analyses and reflects the recent changes in surgery and systemic therapy observed nationally in the management of early-stage disease. Methods and Materials: A weighted sample size of 71,877 patient records of women treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy (RT) was obtained from a stratified two-stage sampling of 353 patient records. These cases were centrally reviewed from academic and private radiation oncology practices across the United States. The data collected included patient characteristics, clinical and pathologic factors, and surgical and RT details. The results were compared with those of previous Patterns of Care Study survey reports. Results: Of the patients in the current survey, 97% had undergone mammography before biopsy. A review of the primary tumor pathologic findings indicated improved quantification of an intraductal component from 7.0% in 1993-1994 to 20.4% in 1998-1999 (p = 0.01). The tumor characteristics were better defined, with estrogen and progesterone receptor measurement performed in 91.4% and 91.3% in the 1998-1999 survey vs. 83.7% and 80.3% in the 1989 survey, respectively (p = 0.03 and p = 0.002, respectively). Axillary dissection was performed in 82.2% in the present survey compared with 93.6% in the 1993-1994 survey (p = 0.0004); sentinel node biopsy was performed in 20.1% of the present cases. The use of CT for planning was increased in the current survey, with 22.9% cases CT planned vs. 9% in 1993-1994 (p = 0.10). In the present survey, 100% had received whole breast RT. When a supraclavicular field was added, the dose was prescribed to a specified depth in 67.5% of cases, most commonly 3 cm. When an axillary field was added

  13. Plasma miR-200b in ovarian carcinoma patients: distinct pattern of pre/post-treatment variation compared to CA-125 and potential for prediction of progression-free survival

    PubMed Central

    Kapetanakis, Nikiforos-Ioannis; Uzan, Catherine; Jimenez-Pailhes, Anne-Sophie; Gouy, Sébastien; Bentivegna, Enrica; Morice, Philippe; Caron, Olivier; Gourzones-Dmitriev, Claire; Le Teuff, Gwénaël; Busson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian carcinomas (OvCa) are highly heterogeneous malignancies. We investigated four circulating plasma microRNAs (miR-21, miR-34a, miR-200b and miR-205) as candidate biomarkers. Using qPCR, we assessed the plasma concentration of these markers in 101 women, including 51 previously untreated OvCa patients, 25 healthy women and 25 patients bearing benign pelvic lesions. For a subset of 33 OvCa patients, the assay was repeated at the end of the primary treatment. The pattern of variations (post- minus pre-treatment) of concentration was compared to that of CA-125. A Cox regression model was used to study the association between variations and the progression-free survival (PFS). Plasma miR-200b proved to have a greater average concentration in OvCa samples (median 2−ΔΔCt = 15.18) than in samples linked to non-malignant lesions (median 2−ΔΔCt = 1.26, p-value = 0.0004). Its concentration was highly heterogeneous among OvCa patients, without any correlations with the FIGO stage and the pre-treatment CA-125 level. The decrease in CA-125 concentration was constant and often dramatic, while the variations of miR-200b concentration were much more diverse. The variation of miR-200b was marginally associated with the PFS (hazard ratio=2.95 95%CI=[0.94; 9.28], p=0.06) while miR-200b as a continuous time-dependent variable was significantly associated (HR=1.06 [1.02; 1.10], p=0.003). This study is the first direct empirical evidence that miR-200b can provide additional information, independent of CA-125 in OvCa patients. PMID:26416421

  14. Stage-specific survival and recurrence in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma in Europe – a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Svedman, Fernanda Costa; Pillas, Demetris; Taylor, Aliki; Kaur, Moninder; Linder, Ragnar; Hansson, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background Given the increasing incidence in cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and the recent changes in the treatment landscape, it is important to understand stage-specific overall and recurrence-free survival patterns in Europe. Despite publications such as EUROCARE-5, there is limited information on stage-specific survival for CMM in Europe. Method We carried out a systematic literature review to provide an up-to-date summary of stage-specific survival and recurrence-free survival patterns in patients with CMM in Europe. Studies were included if they were published in Medline during the past 12 years and included information on stage-specific survival and/or recurrence in CMM. Results Of the 8,749 studies identified, 26 studies were included, representing nine countries. Collectively, the studies covered a population of 152,422 patients and included data from 1978 to 2011. Randomized clinical trials and single-center observational studies comprised the most common study designs, including five large registry-based studies. Stage-specific information for survival and recurrence varied: 5-year overall survival: 95%–100% (stage I), 65%–92.8% (stage II), 41%–71% (stage III), and 9%–28% (stage IV); 5-year relapse-free survival was reported less frequently: 56% (stage II), and 28%–44% (stage III). Studies reporting survival by sentinel node (SN) status reported 5-year overall survival as 80%–95% for negative SN (stage I/II) and 35%–75% for positive SN (stage III) status; recurrence-free survival at 5 years: 76%–90% for negative and 35%–58% for positive SN status. Some studies included comparisons of survival by key patient sociodemographic characteristics, suggesting that these have a substantial influence on survival and recurrence estimates. Conclusion The studies identified in this review show large variations in stage-specific overall and recurrence-free survival by study type and by country. Owing to differing study designs and populations, it

  15. On the Survival Stage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Steven

    1997-01-01

    Presents a survival expert's model of survival. Characterizes survival in terms of being prepared for a crisis, escaping the immediate threat, avoiding disorientation and fear, and the survival routine, which includes hope, flexibility, and humor. Notes the impact of posttrauma situations and the need for continued vigilance. (RJM)

  16. Treatment patterns, overall survival, healthcare resource use and costs in elderly Medicare beneficiaries with chronic myeloid leukemia using second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors as second-line therapy.

    PubMed

    Smith, B Douglas; Liu, Jun; Latremouille-Viau, Dominick; Guerin, Annie; Fernandez, Daniel; Chen, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Objective Though the median age at diagnosis is 64 years, few studies focus on elderly (≥65 years) patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This study examines healthcare outcomes among elderly Medicare beneficiaries with CML who started nilotinib or dasatinib after imatinib. Research design and methods Patients were identified in the Medicare Research Identifiable Files (2006-2012) and had continuous Medicare Parts A, B, and D coverage. Main outcome measures Treatment patterns, overall survival (OS), monthly healthcare resource utilization and medical costs were measured from the second-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) initiation (index date) to end of Medicare coverage. Results Despite similar adherence, dasatinib patients (N = 379) were more likely to start on the recommended dose (74% vs. 53%; p < 0.001), and to have dose reductions (21% vs. 11%, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.94; p = 0.002) or dose increases (9% vs. 7%; adjusted HR = 1.81; p = 0.048) than nilotinib patients (N = 280). Fewer nilotinib patients discontinued (59% vs. 67%; adjusted HR = 0.80; p = 0.026) or switched to another TKI (21% vs. 29%; adjusted HR = 0.72; p = 0.044) than dasatinib patients. Nilotinib patients had longer median OS (>4.9 years vs. 4.0 years; p = 0.032) and 37% lower mortality risk than dasatinib patients (adjusted HR = 0.63; p = 0.008). Nilotinib patients had 23% fewer inpatient admissions, 30% fewer emergency room visits, 13% fewer outpatient visits (all p < 0.05), and lower monthly medical costs (by $513, p = 0.024) than dasatinib patients. Limitations Lack of clinical assessment (disease phase and response to first-line therapy) and retrospective nature of study (unobservable potential confounding factors, non-randomized treatment choice). Conclusions In the current study of elderly CML patients, initiation of second-line TKIs frequently occurs at doses lower than the recommended starting doses and

  17. Impact of Postoperative Radiation Therapy on Survival in Patients With Complete Resection and Stage I, II, or IIIA Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Adjuvant Chemotherapy: The Adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association (ANITA) Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Douillard, Jean-Yves Rosell, Rafael; De Lena, Mario; Riggi, Marcello; Hurteloup, Patrick; Mahe, Marc-Andre

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) on survival in the Adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association (ANITA) randomized study of adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: ANITA is a randomized trial of adjuvant cisplatin and vinorelbine chemotherapy vs. observation in completely resected non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) Stages IB to IIIA. Use of PORT was recommended for pN+ disease but was not randomized or mandatory. Each center decided whether to use PORT before initiation of the study. We describe here the survival of patients with and without PORT within each treatment group of ANITA. No statistical comparison of survival was performed because this was an unplanned subgroup analysis. Results: Overall, 232 of 840 patients received PORT (33.3% in the observation arm and 21.6% in the chemotherapy arm). In univariate analysis, PORT had a deleterious effect on the overall population survival. Patients with pN1 disease had an improved survival from PORT in the observation arm (median survival [MS] 25.9 vs. 50.2 months), whereas PORT had a detrimental effect in the chemotherapy group (MS 93.6 months and 46.6 months). In contrast, survival was improved in patients with pN2 disease who received PORT, both in the chemotherapy (MS 23.8 vs. 47.4 months) and observation arm (median 12.7 vs. 22.7 months). Conclusion: This retrospective evaluation suggests a positive effect of PORT in pN2 disease and a negative effect on pN1 disease when patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. The results support further evaluation of PORT in prospectively randomized studies in completely resected pN2 NSCLC.

  18. Five Thousand American Families -- Patterns of Economic Progress. Volume II: Special Studies of the First Five Year's of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, James N., Ed.

    Volume II of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics presents special studies from the matrix of data which allowed further policy relevant analysis. The ten special studies, each corresponding to a chapter in the volume, are as follows: Housing and Homeownership; Residential Mobility and Family Housing Adjustments; Modes of Travel to Work; The…

  19. Neutron structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with methazolamide: mapping the solvent and hydrogen-bonding patterns of an effective clinical drug

    DOE PAGES

    Aggarwal, Mayank; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.; Velazquez, Hector; Fisher, S. Zoë; Smith, Jeremy C.; McKenna, Robert

    2016-07-22

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the interconversion of CO 2 and HCO 3 − , and their inhibitors have long been used as diuretics and as a therapeutic treatment for many disorders such as glaucoma and epilepsy. Acetazolamide (AZM) and methazolamide (MZM, a methyl derivative of AZM) are two of the classical CA inhibitory drugs that have been used clinically for decades. The jointly refined X-ray/neutron structure of MZM in complex with human CA isoform II (hCA II) has been determined to a resolution of 2.2 Å with an R cryst of ∼16.0%. Presented in this article, along withmore » only the second neutron structure of a clinical drug-bound hCA, is an in-depth structural comparison and analyses of differences in hydrogen-bonding network, water-molecule orientation and solvent displacement that take place upon the binding of AZM and MZM in the active site of hCA II. Even though MZM is slightly more hydrophobic and displaces more waters than AZM, the overall binding affinity ( K i ) for both of the drugs against hCA II is similar (∼10 n M ). The plausible reasons behind this finding have also been discussed using molecular dynamics and X-ray crystal structures of hCA II–MZM determined at cryotemperature and room temperature. This study not only allows a direct comparison of the hydrogen bonding, protonation states and solvent orientation/displacement of AZM and MZM, but also shows the significant effect that the methyl derivative has on the solvent organization in the hCA II active site.« less

  20. A Winter Survival Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    The article is a condensation of materials from the winter survival unit of a Canadian snow ecology course. The unit covers: cold physiology, frostbite, snowblindness, hypothermia, winter campout, and survival strategies. (SB)

  1. Survivability Versus Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, James J., Sr.

    2014-01-01

    Develop Survivability vs Time Model as a decision-evaluation tool to assess various emergency egress methods used at Launch Complex 39B (LC 39B) and in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) on NASAs Kennedy Space Center. For each hazard scenario, develop probability distributions to address statistical uncertainty resulting in survivability plots over time and composite survivability plots encompassing multiple hazard scenarios.

  2. Reproduction is adapted to survival characteristics across geographically isolated medfly populations.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hans-Georg; Wu, Shuang; Diamantidis, Alexandros D; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Carey, James R

    2009-12-22

    We propose the hypothesis that individual longitudinal trajectories of fertility are closely coupled to varying survival schedules across geographically isolated populations of the same species, in such a way that peak reproduction takes place before substantial increases in mortality are observed. This reproductive adaptation hypothesis is investigated for medflies through a statistical analysis of biodemographic data that were obtained for female medflies from six geographically far apart regions. The following results support the hypothesis: (i) both survival and reproductive schedules differ substantially between these populations, where early peaks and subsequently fast declining reproduction are observed for short-lived and protracted reproductive schedules for long-lived flies; (ii) when statistically adjusting reproduction for the observed differences in survival, the differences in reproductive schedules largely vanish, and thus the observed differences in fertility across the populations can be explained by differences in population-specific longevity; and (iii) specific survival patterns of the medflies belonging to a specific population predict the individual reproductive schedule for the flies in this population. The analysis is based on innovative statistical tools from functional data analysis. Our findings are consistent with an adaptive mechanism whereby trajectories of fertility evolve in response to specific constraints inherent in the population survival schedules.

  3. Heat transfer through the flat surface of Rutherford superconducting cable samples with novel pattern of electrical insulation immersed in He II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strychalski, M.; Chorowski, M.; Polinski, J.

    2014-05-01

    Future accelerator magnets will be exposed to heat loads that exceed even by an order of magnitude presently observed heat fluxes transferred to superconducting magnet coils. To avoid the resistive transition of the superconducting cables, the efficiency of heat transfer between the magnet structure and the helium must be significantly increased. This can be achieved through the use of novel concepts of the cable’s electrical insulation wrapping, characterized by an enhanced permeability to helium while retaining sufficient electrical resistivity. This paper presents measurement results of the heat transfer through Rutherford NbTi cable samples immersed in a He II bath and subjected to the pressure loads simulating the counteracting of the Lorentz forces observed in powered magnets. The Rutherford cable samples that were tested used different electrical insulation wrapping schemes, including the scheme that is presently used and the proposed scheme for future LHC magnets. A new porous polyimide cable insulation with enhanced helium permeability was proposed in order to improve the evacuation of heat form the NbTi coil to He II bath. These tests were performed in a dedicated Claudet-type cryostat in pressurized He II at 1.9 K and 1 bar.

  4. Surviving Atmospheric Spacecraft Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Conley, Catharine A.

    2003-01-01

    In essence, to survival a spacecraft breakup an animal must not experience a lethal event. Much as with surviving aircraft breakup, dissipation of lethal forces via breakup of the craft around the organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. As spacecraft can travel higher and faster than aircraft, it is often assumed that spacecraft breakup is not a survivable event. Similarly, the belief that aircraft breakup or crashes are not survivable events is still prevalent in the general population. As those of us involved in search and rescue know, it is possible to survive both aircraft breakup and crashes. Here we make the first report of an animal, C. elegans, surviving atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications implied for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  5. Sources of variation in waterfowl survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Barker, R.J.; Nichols, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the need to manage hunted populations of waterfowl (Anatidae), biologists have studied many demographic traits of waterfowl by analyzing band recoveries. These analyses have produced the most extensive and best estimates of survival available for any group of birds. Using these data, we examined several factors that might explain variation among annual survival rates to explore large-scale patterns that might be useful in understanding waterfowl population dynamics. We found that geography, body mass, and tribe (i.e. phylogeny) were important in explaining variation in average waterfowl survival rates.

  6. Relative survival multistate Markov model.

    PubMed

    Huszti, Ella; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Alioum, Ahmadou; Binquet, Christine; Quantin, Catherine

    2012-02-10

    Prognostic studies often have to deal with two important challenges: (i) separating effects of predictions on different 'competing' events and (ii) uncertainty about cause of death. Multistate Markov models permit multivariable analyses of competing risks of, for example, mortality versus disease recurrence. On the other hand, relative survival methods help estimate disease-specific mortality risks even in the absence of data on causes of death. In this paper, we propose a new Markov relative survival (MRS) model that attempts to combine these two methodologies. Our MRS model extends the existing multistate Markov piecewise constant intensities model to relative survival modeling. The intensity of transitions leading to death in the MRS model is modeled as the sum of an estimable excess hazard of mortality from the disease of interest and an 'offset' defined as the expected hazard of all-cause 'natural' mortality obtained from relevant life-tables. We evaluate the new MRS model through simulations, with a design based on registry-based prognostic studies of colon cancer. Simulation results show almost unbiased estimates of prognostic factor effects for the MRS model. We also applied the new MRS model to reassess the role of prognostic factors for mortality in a study of colorectal cancer. The MRS model considerably reduces the bias observed with the conventional Markov model that does not permit accounting for unknown causes of death, especially if the 'true' effects of a prognostic factor on the two types of mortality differ substantially.

  7. Analysis of the dental morphology of Plio-Pleistocene hominids. II. Mandibular molars--study of cusp areas, fissure pattern and cross sectional shape of the crown.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, B A; Abbott, S A; Graham, S H

    1983-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the absolute and relative size of individual cusps, the arrangement of the primary fissure system and the shape of coronal cross sections of the tooth crown have been used to investigate the pattern of variation in Plio-Pleistocene hominid mandibular molar teeth. Teeth were either grouped into one of six taxonomic categories or considered as individual cases. Univariate analysis of relative cusp areas shows that the two taxonomic categories of 'robust' hominids from East and Southern Africa have relatively small mesial cusps, but a relatively large entoconid and hypoconulid and Principal Component plots of the data show that the 'robust' categories can be distinguished on the basis of relative cusp size. Other evidence suggests that these differences are not likely to be the result of allometric phenomena. Fissure pattern was analysed using the X/Y coordinates of defined reference points. Patterns were compared by Procrustes analysis and the relationships between teeth contained in the resulting similarity matrix were portrayed using Principal Coordinates plots and a nearest neighbours table. The positions of the posterior fovea and the mesial longitudinal fissure were important for distinguishing taxonomic categories. The shape of the coronal profiles proved difficult to quantify, but there were consistent and distinct differences between the South African 'robust' sample and teeth included within the East African Homo category. When these results are combined with those of a previous study of overall crown size and the distribution of extra cusps, they allow the affinities of isolated teeth or contentious specimens to be assessed. For example, our results show that KNM-ER 1506 and 1802 are more similar to the East African Homo group than any other category, and they indicate that though SK 1587 and 1588 are small teeth, they nonetheless are closest to the South African 'robust' category in terms of relative cusp size, fissure pattern and

  8. Geographic patterns in the reproductive ecology of Agave lechuguilla (Agavaceae) in the Chihuahuan desert. II. Genetic variation, differentiation, and inbreeding estimates.

    PubMed

    Silva-Montellano, Arturo; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2003-05-01

    Plants with natural variation in their floral traits and reproductive ecology are ideal subjects for analyzing the effects of natural selection and other evolutionary forces on genetic structure of natural populations. Agave lechuguilla shows latitudinal changes in floral morphology, color, and nectar production along its distribution through north-central Mexico. Both the type and abundance of its pollinators also change with latitude. Using starch electrophoresis, we examined the levels and patterns of variation of 13 polymorphic allozyme loci in 11 populations of A. lechuguilla. The overall level of genetic variability was high (H(e) = 0.394), but the levels of genetic variation had no geographic pattern. However, the southern populations exhibited an excess of heterozygotes in relation to expectations for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, whereas the northern populations had an excess of homozygotes. Total differentiation among populations was low (θ = 0.083), although gene flow estimates (Nm) varied among groups of populations: southern populations had the lowest levels of genetic differentiation, suggesting high levels of gene flow; northern populations had greater levels of genetic differentiation (θ = 0.115), suggesting low gene flow among them. The patterns and inferences of the genetic structure of the population at the molecular level is consistent with variation in floral traits and pollinator visitation rates across the range of the species. PMID:21659165

  9. Geographic patterns in the reproductive ecology of Agave lechuguilla (Agavaceae) in the Chihuahuan desert. II. Genetic variation, differentiation, and inbreeding estimates.

    PubMed

    Silva-Montellano, Arturo; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2003-05-01

    Plants with natural variation in their floral traits and reproductive ecology are ideal subjects for analyzing the effects of natural selection and other evolutionary forces on genetic structure of natural populations. Agave lechuguilla shows latitudinal changes in floral morphology, color, and nectar production along its distribution through north-central Mexico. Both the type and abundance of its pollinators also change with latitude. Using starch electrophoresis, we examined the levels and patterns of variation of 13 polymorphic allozyme loci in 11 populations of A. lechuguilla. The overall level of genetic variability was high (H(e) = 0.394), but the levels of genetic variation had no geographic pattern. However, the southern populations exhibited an excess of heterozygotes in relation to expectations for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, whereas the northern populations had an excess of homozygotes. Total differentiation among populations was low (θ = 0.083), although gene flow estimates (Nm) varied among groups of populations: southern populations had the lowest levels of genetic differentiation, suggesting high levels of gene flow; northern populations had greater levels of genetic differentiation (θ = 0.115), suggesting low gene flow among them. The patterns and inferences of the genetic structure of the population at the molecular level is consistent with variation in floral traits and pollinator visitation rates across the range of the species.

  10. Using the Iterative Input variable Selection (IIS) algorithm to assess the relevance of ENSO teleconnections patterns on hydro-meteorological processes at the catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrame, Ludovica; Carbonin, Daniele; Galelli, Stefano; Castelletti, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Population growth, water scarcity and climate change are three major factors making the understanding of variations in water availability increasingly important. Therefore, reliable medium-to-long range forecasts of streamflows are essential to the development of water management policies. To this purpose, recent modelling efforts have been dedicated to seasonal and inter-annual streamflow forecasts based on the teleconnection between "at-site" hydro-meteorological processes and low frequency climate fluctuations, such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This work proposes a novel procedure for first detecting the impact of ENSO on hydro-meteorological processes at the catchment scale, and then assessing the potential of ENSO indicators for building medium-to-long range statistical streamflow prediction models. Core of this procedure is the adoption of the Iterative Input variable Selection (IIS) algorithm that is employed to find the most relevant forcings of streamflow variability and derive predictive models based on the selected inputs. The procedure is tested on the Columbia (USA) and Williams (Australia) Rivers, where ENSO influence has been well-documented, and then adopted on the unexplored Red River basin (Vietnam). Results show that IIS outcomes on the Columbia and Williams Rivers are consistent with the results of previous studies, and that ENSO indicators can be effectively used to enhance the streamflow forecast models capabilities. The experiments on the Red River basin show that the ENSO influence is less pronounced, inducing little effects on the basin hydro-meteorological processes.

  11. 20 CFR 222.23 - Relationship as surviving divorced spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (3) He or she either— (i) Was the natural parent of the employee's child; or (ii) Had been married to... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relationship as surviving divorced spouse... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or...

  12. 20 CFR 222.23 - Relationship as surviving divorced spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (3) He or she either— (i) Was the natural parent of the employee's child; or (ii) Had been married to... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship as surviving divorced spouse. 222... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or...

  13. 20 CFR 222.23 - Relationship as surviving divorced spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (3) He or she either— (i) Was the natural parent of the employee's child; or (ii) Had been married to... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relationship as surviving divorced spouse... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or...

  14. The impact of induction duration and the number of high-dose cycles on the long-term survival of women with metastatic breast cancer treated with high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue: an analysis of sequential phase I/II trials from the Dana-Farber/Beth Israel STAMP program.

    PubMed

    Elias, A D; Ibrahim, J; Richardson, P; Avigan, D; Joyce, R; Reich, E; McCauley, M; Wheeler, C; Frei, E

    2002-01-01

    Although high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with stem cell rescue for the treatment of women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is currently a controversial strategy, we report the long-term outcomes of women undergoing high-dose therapy for MBC over the past 12 years while participating in a sequence of research studies transitioning between a single to a double intensification approach. Univariate and multivariate analyses provide a framework to understand the prognostic factors important for event-free and overall survival. Between May 1988 and April 1998, we enrolled 188 women with MBC into 3 trials of previously reported sequential transplantation strategies. Trial I (long induction/single transplantation) accepted 62 women in partial or complete response to an unspecified induction therapy and treated them with high-dose CTCb (cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, and carboplatin) supported by marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC). Trial II (long induction/double transplantation) accepted 68 women in partial or complete response to an unspecified induction therapy, and mobilized stem cells with 2 cycles of AF (doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil) with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). These women then received 1 cycle of high-dose single-agent melphalan followed 3 to 5 weeks later by CTCb, each with marrow or PBPC support. Trial III (short induction/double transplantation) enrolled 58 women prior to chemotherapy treatment for metastatic disease. Induction/mobilization consisted of 2 cycles given 14 days apart of doxorubicin and G-CSF. In contrast to trials I and II, patients with stable disease or better response to induction were eligible to proceed ahead with 2 cycles of HDC, 1 being CTCb and the other being dose escalated paclitaxel together with high-dose melphalan (TxM). These 2 HDC regimens were administered 5 weeks apart. TxM was given first in 32 patients and CTCb was given first in 26 patients. The median follow-up periods for trials I, II, and

  15. The impact of induction duration and the number of high-dose cycles on the long-term survival of women with metastatic breast cancer treated with high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue: an analysis of sequential phase I/II trials from the Dana-Farber/Beth Israel STAMP program.

    PubMed

    Elias, A D; Ibrahim, J; Richardson, P; Avigan, D; Joyce, R; Reich, E; McCauley, M; Wheeler, C; Frei, E

    2002-01-01

    Although high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with stem cell rescue for the treatment of women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is currently a controversial strategy, we report the long-term outcomes of women undergoing high-dose therapy for MBC over the past 12 years while participating in a sequence of research studies transitioning between a single to a double intensification approach. Univariate and multivariate analyses provide a framework to understand the prognostic factors important for event-free and overall survival. Between May 1988 and April 1998, we enrolled 188 women with MBC into 3 trials of previously reported sequential transplantation strategies. Trial I (long induction/single transplantation) accepted 62 women in partial or complete response to an unspecified induction therapy and treated them with high-dose CTCb (cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, and carboplatin) supported by marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC). Trial II (long induction/double transplantation) accepted 68 women in partial or complete response to an unspecified induction therapy, and mobilized stem cells with 2 cycles of AF (doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil) with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). These women then received 1 cycle of high-dose single-agent melphalan followed 3 to 5 weeks later by CTCb, each with marrow or PBPC support. Trial III (short induction/double transplantation) enrolled 58 women prior to chemotherapy treatment for metastatic disease. Induction/mobilization consisted of 2 cycles given 14 days apart of doxorubicin and G-CSF. In contrast to trials I and II, patients with stable disease or better response to induction were eligible to proceed ahead with 2 cycles of HDC, 1 being CTCb and the other being dose escalated paclitaxel together with high-dose melphalan (TxM). These 2 HDC regimens were administered 5 weeks apart. TxM was given first in 32 patients and CTCb was given first in 26 patients. The median follow-up periods for trials I, II, and

  16. ASURV: Astronomical SURVival Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.; Isobe, T.; LaValley, M.

    2014-06-01

    ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.

  17. Scoring Systems in Assessing Survival of Critically Ill ICU Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sekulic, Ana D.; Trpkovic, Sladjana V.; Pavlovic, Aleksandar P.; Marinkovic, Olivera M.; Ilic, Aleksandra N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine which of the most commonly used scoring systems for evaluation of critically ill patients in the ICU is the best and simplest to use in our hospital. Material/Methods This prospective study included 60 critically ill patients. After admittance to the ICU, APACHE II, SAPS II, and MPM II0 were calculated. During further treatment in the ICU, SOFA and MPM II were calculated at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h and 7 days after admittance using laboratory and radiological measures. Results In comparison with survivors, non-survivors were older (p<0.01) and spent significantly more days on mechanical ventilation (p<0.01). ARDS was significantly more common in patients who survived compared to those who did not (chi-square=7.02, p<0.01), which is not the case with sepsis (chi-square=0.388, p=0.53). AUROC SAPS II was 0.690, and is only slightly higher than the other 2 AUROC incipient scoring systems, MPM II and APACHE II (0.654 and 0.623). The APACHE II has the highest specificity (81.8%) and MPM II the highest sensitivity (85.2%). MPM II7day AUROC (1.0) shows the best discrimination between patients who survived and those who did not. MPM II48 (0.836), SOFA72 (0.821) and MPM II72 (0.817) also had good discrimination scores. Conclusions APACHE II and SAPS II measured on admission to the ICU were significant predictors of complications. MPM II7day has the best discriminatory power, followed by SOFA7day and MPM II48. MPM II7day has the best calibration followed by SOFA7day and APACHE II. PMID:26336861

  18. A role for Fas II in the stabilization of motor neuron branches during pruning in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Sarita; Fernandes, Joyce J

    2005-09-01

    During insect metamorphosis, the nervous system is extensively remodeled resulting in the development of new circuits that will execute adult-specific behaviors. The peripheral remodeling seen during development of innervation to the Dorsal Longitudinal (flight) Muscle (DLM) in Drosophila involves an initial retraction of larval neuromuscular junctions followed by adult-specific branch outgrowth. Subsequently, a phase of pruning occurs during which motor neuron branches are pruned back to reveal the stereotypic pattern of multiple contact points (or arbors) along the length of each DLM fiber. In this study, we show that the cell adhesion molecule, Fasciclin II (Fas II), is important for generating the stereotypic pattern. In Fas II hypomorphs, the number of contact points is increased, and the phenotype is rescued by targeted expression of Fas II in either synaptic partner. Arbor development has three distinct phases: outgrowth and elaboration, pruning and stabilization, and expansion of stabilized arbors. Fas II is expressed during the first two phases. A subset of branches is labeled during the elaboration phase, which is likely to initiate a stabilization pathway allowing branches to survive the pruning phase. However, since not all Fas II positive branches are retained, we propose that it primes branches for stabilization. Our data suggest that Fas II functions to restrict branch length and arbor expanse.

  19. Optimizing nest survival and female survival: Consequences of nest site selection for Canada Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Grand, J.B.; Fondell, T.F.; Anthony, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between attributes of nest sites used by Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in the Copper River Delta, Alaska, and patterns in nest and female survival. We aimed to determine whether nest site attributes related to nest and female survival differed and whether nest site attributes related to nest survival changed within and among years. Nest site attributes that we examined included vegetation at and surrounding the nest, as well as associations with other nesting birds. Optimal nest site characteristics were different depending on whether nest survival or female survival was examined. Prior to 25 May, the odds of daily survival for nests in tall shrubs and on islands were 2.92 and 2.26 times greater, respectively, than for nests in short shrub sites. Bald Eagles (Halieaeetus leucocephalus) are the major predator during the early breeding season and their behavior was likely important in determining this pattern. After 25 May, when eagle predation is limited due to the availability of alternative prey, no differences in nest survival among the nest site types were found. In addition, nest survival was positively related to the density of other Canada Goose nests near the nest site. Although the number of detected mortalities for females was relatively low, a clear pattern was found, with mortality three times more likely at nest sites dominated by high shrub density within 50 m than at open sites dominated by low shrub density. The negative relationship of nest concealment and adult survival is consistent with that found in other studies of ground-nesting birds. Physical barriers that limited access to nest sites by predators and sites that allowed for early detection of predators were important characteristics of nest site quality for Canada Geese and nest site quality shifted within seasons, likely as a result of shifting predator-prey interactions.

  20. Patterns of Broken Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, R. W.; Park, G. B.; Changala, P. B.; Baraban, J. H.; Stanton, J. F.; Merer, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    Spectroscopy - it is all about patterns. Some patterns look so indescribably complicated that, unlike pornography, you do not know one when you see one. It is tempting to say that, at high vibrational excitation, interactions among normal mode basis states are so strong and widespread that all patterns are obliterated. But this is not true. When normal mode frequencies are in near integer multiple ratios, polyads emerge. A polyad is a robust pattern often comprising many vibrational eigenstates. Each such pattern might span many hundreds of cm^{-1}, and it is inevitable that several unrelated polyad patterns overlap. When polyads overlap, it might seem impossible to disentangle them. However, the key to disentanglement is that polyads come in families in which successive generations are related by harmonic oscillator matrix element selection and scaling rules. Families of polyads are described by families of scaling-based effective Hamiltonian matrices, {H}^{{eff}}. No matter how complex and overlapped, the polyad {H}^{{eff}} serves as a magic decoder for picking out the polyad pattern. Sometimes the polyad patterns are systematically broken (a meta-pattern), owing to proximity to an isomerization barrier, as occurs in highly excited bending levels of the S_{1} state of HCCH, which encode the trans-cis minimum energy isomerization path. Quantum Chemists often dismiss {H}^{{eff}} models, precisely because they are models that do not express the full dimensionality of the complete Hamiltonian. But an {H}^{{eff}} explains rather than describes. Shunning {H}^{{eff}}s is like throwing out the baby with the bath water. Don't do it!

  1. Reentry survivability modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fudge, Michael L.; Maher, Robert L.

    1997-10-01

    Statistical methods for expressing the impact risk posed to space systems in general [and the International Space Station (ISS) in particular] by other resident space objects have been examined. One of the findings of this investigation is that there are legitimate physical modeling reasons for the common statistical expression of the collision risk. A combination of statistical methods and physical modeling is also used to express the impact risk posed by re-entering space systems to objects of interest (e.g., people and property) on Earth. One of the largest uncertainties in the expressing of this risk is the estimation of survivable material which survives reentry to impact Earth's surface. This point was recently demonstrated in dramatic fashion by the impact of an intact expendable launch vehicle (ELV) upper stage near a private residence in the continental United States. Since approximately half of the missions supporting ISS will utilize ELVs, it is appropriate to examine the methods used to estimate the amount and physical characteristics of ELV debris surviving reentry to impact Earth's surface. This paper examines reentry survivability estimation methodology, including the specific methodology used by Caiman Sciences' 'Survive' model. Comparison between empirical results (observations of objects which have been recovered on Earth after surviving reentry) and Survive estimates are presented for selected upper stage or spacecraft components and a Delta launch vehicle second stage.

  2. Bacterial survival in laundered fabrics.

    PubMed

    Walter, W G; Schillinger, J E

    1975-03-01

    Bacterial survival was determined in linens (i) inoculated with Staphylococcus auerus (ii), taken from hospital isolation patients' beds, and (iii) used by students in their homes. Two different washers using temperatures of 38, 49, 54 and 60 C, respectively, for different times were empolyed along with a commercial tumbler dryer. Findings, after macerating the linens in Waring blender and enumerating on nonselective media, indicate that acceptable levels of survivors can be acheived in motel and hotel linens by an 8- to 10-min wash cycle at 54 C followed by adequate drying. However, it is recommended that a wash cycle with 60 C for 10 to 13 min be employed for linens in health care factilities. The microbial significance of various laundering practices is discussed. PMID:1090256

  3. Bacterial Survival in Laundered Fabrics

    PubMed Central

    Walter, William G.; Schillinger, John E.

    1975-01-01

    Bacterial survival was determined in linens (i) inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ii), taken from hospital isolation patients' beds, and (iii) used by students in their homes. Two different washers using temperatures of 38, 49, 54 and 60 C, respectively, for different times were employed along with a commercial tumbler dryer. Findings, after macerating the linens in a Waring blender and enumerating on nonselective media, indicate that acceptable levels of survivors can be achieved in motel and hotel linens by an 8- to 10-min wash cycle at 54 C followed by adequate drying. However, it is recommended that a wash cycle with 60 C for 10 to 13 min be employed for linens in health care factilities. The microbial significance of various laundering practices is discussed. PMID:1090256

  4. Age-specific patterns of genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Fecundity and its genetic covariance with age-specific mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, M.; Promislow, D.E.L.; Khazaeli, A.A.; Curtsinger, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Under the mutation accumulation model of senescence, it was predicted that the additive genetic variance (V{sub A}) for fitness traits will increase with age. We measured age-specific mortality and fecundity from 65,134 Drosophila melanogaster and estimated genetic variance components, based on reciprocal crosses of extracted second chromosome lines. Elsewhere we report the results for mortality. Here, for fecundity, we report a biomodal pattern for V{sub A} with peaks at 3 days and at 17-31 days. Under the antagonistic pleiotropy model of senescence, it was predicted that negative correlations will exist between early and late life history traits. For fecundity itself we find positive genetic correlations among age classes >3 days but negative nonsignificant correlations between fecundity at 3 days and at older age classes. For fecundity vs. age-specific mortality, we find positive fitness correlations (negative genetic correlations) among the traits at all ages >3 days but a negative fitness correlation between fecundity at 3 days and mortality at the oldest ages (positive genetic correlations). For age-specific mortality itself we find overwhelmingly positive genetic correlations among all age classes. The data suggest that mutation accumulation may be a major source of standing genetic variance for senescence. 75 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Spatio-temporal patterns of photosystem II activity and plasma-membrane proton flows in Chara corallina cells exposed to overall and local illumination.

    PubMed

    Bulychev, Alexander; Vredenberg, Wim

    2003-11-01

    Pulse-amplitude modulated microfluorometry and an extracellular pH microprobe were used to examine light-induced spatial heterogeneity of photosynthetic and H(+)-transporting activities in cells of Chara corallina Klein ex Willd. Subcellular domains featuring different PSII photochemical activities were found to conform to alternate alkaline and acid zones produced near the cell surface, with peaks of PSII activity correlating with the position of acid zones. Buffers eliminated pH variations near the cell surface but did not destroy the variations in PSII photochemical yield (deltaF/Fm'). When a dark-adapted cell was exposed to actinic light, the PSII effective yield decreased within 5-15 min in the alkaline regions but rose after the initial decline in the acid regions. The light-induced decrease in deltaF/Fm' in the alkaline regions occurred prior to or synchronously with the steep rise in local pH. The kinetics of deltaF/Fm', Fm', and F observed in alkaline regions under overall illumination of Chara cells were replaced by those typical of acid regions, when the illumination area size was restricted to 1.5-2 mm. The data show that photoinduced patterns in photosynthetic activity are not predetermined by the particular structural organization of alkaline and acid cell regions but are subject to dynamic changes.

  6. Intramolecular charge transfer in aminobenzonitriles and tetrafluoro counterparts: fluorescence explained by competition between low lying excited states and radiationless deactivation. Part II: influence of substitution on luminescence patterns.

    PubMed

    Segado, Mireia; Mercier, Yannick; Gómez, Isabel; Reguero, Mar

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we study the mechanisms of charge transfer, luminescence and radiationless decay of three derivatives of 4-aminobenzonitrile (ABN): dimethyl-ABN (DMABN) and the tetrafluorinated derivatives, ABN-4F and DMABN-4F. Our CASSCF/CASPT2 computations explain the different luminescence patterns observed in these three compounds and in comparison with the parent system, ABN, in spite of their similar architecture. We have found that the modifications made by the different substitutions in ABN tune the relative energies of the locally excited (LE) and charge transfer (CT) excited states due to electronic and structural factors. In all cases, the only potentially emitting species of CT character is the twisted-ICT. The increasing stabilization of this later species in the series formed by ABN-4F, DMABN and DMABN-4F explains the increasing intensity of the anomalous emission band in these compounds. Nevertheless, other factors like probability of emission vs. nonradiative decay must have also been taken into account. In fact fluoro-substitution increases the accessibility to conical intersections of the excited states with the ground state, opening an internal conversion channel that decreases the fluorescence quantum yield in the fluorinated derivatives. Our results also show that the involvement of the π-σ* state in the CT process is only possible in ABN-4F, but even in this case it is not probable.

  7. Survival during the Breeding Season: Nest Stage, Parental Sex, and Season Advancement Affect Reed Warbler Survival

    PubMed Central

    Wierucka, Kaja; Halupka, Lucyna; Klimczuk, Ewelina; Sztwiertnia, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Avian annual survival has received much attention, yet little is known about seasonal patterns in survival, especially of migratory passerines. In order to evaluate survival rates and timing of mortality within the breeding season of adult reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), mark-recapture data were collected in southwest Poland, between 2006 and 2012. A total of 612 individuals (304 females and 308 males) were monitored throughout the entire breeding season, and their capture-recapture histories were used to model survival rates. Males showed higher survival during the breeding season (0.985, 95% CI: 0.941–0.996) than females (0.869, 95% CI: 0.727–0.937). Survival rates of females declined with the progression of the breeding season (from May to August), while males showed constant survival during this period. We also found a clear pattern within the female (but not male) nesting cycle: survival was significantly lower during the laying, incubation, and nestling periods (0.934, 95% CI: 0.898–0.958), when birds spent much time on the nest, compared to the nest building and fledgling periods (1.000, 95% CI: 1.00–1.000), when we did not record any female mortality. These data (coupled with some direct evidence, like bird corpses or blood remains found next to/on the nest) may suggest that the main cause of adult mortality was on-nest predation. The calculated survival rates for both sexes during the breeding season were high compared to annual rates reported for this species, suggesting that a majority of mortality occurs at other times of the year, during migration or wintering. These results have implications for understanding survival variation within the reproductive period as well as general trends of avian mortality. PMID:26934086

  8. Effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on survival, development, growth and sex ratios of wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles. II: agriculturally relevant exposures to Roundup WeatherMax® and Vision® under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, C; Navarro-Martín, L; Robertson, C; Park, B; Jackman, P; Pauli, B D; Trudeau, V L

    2014-09-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are currently the most commonly used herbicides in the world. They have been shown to affect survival, growth, development and sexual differentiation of tadpoles under chronic laboratory exposures but this has not been investigated under more environmentally realistic conditions. The purpose of this study is (1) to determine if an agriculturally relevant exposure to Roundup WeatherMax®, a relatively new and understudied formulation, influences the development of wood frog tadpoles (Lithobates sylvaticus) through effects on the mRNA levels of genes involved in the control of metamorphosis; (2) to compare results to the well-studied Vision® formulation (containing the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate [IPA] and polyethoxylated tallowamine [POEA] surfactant) and to determine which ingredient(s) in the formulations are responsible for potential effects on development; and (3) to compare results to recent field studies that used a similar experimental design. In the present laboratory study, wood frog tadpoles were exposed to an agriculturally relevant application (i.e., two pulses) of Roundup WeatherMax® and Vision® herbicides as well as the active ingredient (IPA) and the POEA surfactant of Vision®. Survival, development, growth, sex ratios and mRNA levels of genes involved in tadpole metamorphosis were measured. Results show that Roundup WeatherMax® (2.89 mg acid equivalent (a.e.)/L) caused 100% mortality after the first pulse. Tadpoles treated with a lower concentration of Roundup WeatherMax® (0.21 mg a.e./L) as well as Vision® (2.89 mg a.e./L), IPA and POEA had an increased condition factor (based on length and weight measures in the tadpoles) relative to controls at Gosner stage (Gs) 36/38. At Gs42, tadpoles treated with IPA and POEA had a decreased condition factor. Also at Gs42, the effect on condition factor was dependent on the sex of tadpoles and significant treatment effects were only detected in males. In most cases

  9. Extensive characterization of the immunophenotype and pattern of cytokine production by distinct subpopulations of normal human peripheral blood MHC II+/lineage− cells

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, J; Bueno, C; Alguero, M C; Sanchez, M L; Cañizo, M C; Fernandez, M E; Vaquero, J M; Laso, F J; Escribano, L; San Miguel, J F; Orfao, A

    1999-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) represent the most powerful professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) in the immune system. The aim of the present study was to analyse, on a single-cell basis by multiparametric flow cytometry with simultaneous four-colour staining and a two-step acquisition procedure, the immunophenotypic profile and cytokine production of DC from 67 normal whole peripheral blood (PB) samples. Two clearly different subsets of HLA-II+/lineage− were identified on the basis of their distinct phenotypic characteristics: one DC subset was CD33strong+ and CD123dim+ (0.16 ± 0.06% of the PB nucleated cells and 55.9 ± 11.9% of all PB DC) and the other, CD33dim+ and CD123strong+ (0.12 ± 0.04% of PB nucleated cells and 44.53 ± 11.5% of all PB DC). Moreover, the former DC subpopulation clearly showed higher expression of the CD13 myeloid-associated antigen, the CD29 and CD58 adhesion molecules, the CD2, CD5 and CD86 costimulatory molecules, the CD32 IgG receptor and the CD11c complement receptor. In addition, these cells showed stronger HLA-DR and HLA-DQ expression and a higher reactivity for the IL-6 receptor α-chain (CD126) and for CD38. In contrast, the CD123strong+/CD33dim+ DC showed a stronger reactivity for the CD4 and CD45RA molecules, whereas they did not express the CD58, CD5, CD11c and CD13 antigens. Regarding cytokine production, our results show that while the CD33strong+/CD123dim+ DC are able to produce significant amounts of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β (97 ± 5% of positive cells), IL-6 (96 ± 1.1% of positive cells), IL-12 (81.5 ± 15.5% of positive cells) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (84 ± 22.1% of positive cells) as well as chemokines such as IL-8 (99 ± 1% of positive cells), the functional ability of the CD123strong+/CD33dim+ DC subset to produce cytokines under the same conditions was almost null. Our results therefore clearly show the presence of two distinct subsets of DC in normal human PB, which differ not only in

  10. A randomized trial of diet and physical activity in women treated for stage II-IV ovarian cancer: Rationale and design of the Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES): An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG-225) Study.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Crane, Tracy E; Miller, Austin; Garcia, David O; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Alberts, David S

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancer death in United States women. Efforts to improve progression free survival (PFS) and quality of life (QoL) after treatment for ovarian cancer are necessary. Observational studies suggest that lifestyle behaviors, including diet and physical activity, are associated with lower mortality in this population. The Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES) NRG 0225 study is a randomized, controlled trial designed to test the hypothesis that a 24month lifestyle intervention will significantly increase PFS after oncological therapy for stage II-IV ovarian cancer. Women are randomized 1:1 to a high vegetable and fiber, low-fat diet with daily physical activity goals or an attention control group. Secondary outcomes to be evaluated include QoL and gastrointestinal health. Moreover an a priori lifestyle adherence score will be used to evaluate relationships between adoption of the diet and activity goals and PFS. Blood specimens are collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 24months for analysis of dietary adherence (carotenoids) in addition to mechanistic biomarkers (lipids, insulin, telomere length). Women are enrolled at NRG clinic sites nationally and the telephone based lifestyle intervention is delivered from The University of Arizona call center by trained health coaches. A study specific multi-modal telephone, email, and SMS behavior change software platform is utilized for information delivery, coaching and data capture. When completed, LIVES will be the largest behavior-based lifestyle intervention trial conducted among ovarian cancer survivors. PMID:27394382

  11. Surviving at extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougan, Lorna

    2015-11-01

    Wherever we look on Earth - even in the most inhospitable places - we find life. But how do organisms manage to survive such difficult conditions? Lorna Dougan explains how physicists are helping to unravel the properties of “extremophile” life.

  12. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  13. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  14. Seniors' survival trajectories and the illness connection.

    PubMed

    Montbriand, Muriel J

    2004-04-01

    In a recent life history research, 100 out of 190 randomly selected seniors from a Canadian prairie city determined that their lives were survival trajectories, many with connections to their present illnesses. Seniors told of surviving the Great Depression and World War II, making hard decisions, and experiencing adversities that changed their life courses and perceptions. Completed in 2003, this 5-year study consisted of two phases. The first phase, an ethnomethod, sought the meaning seniors ascribe to illness and healing. The second phase was a reentry of the initial data. Highlighting seniors' stories shows how hard decisions evolved and contrasts can be made in seniors' narratives. Through seniors' analyses of their own lives, findings in this inquiry demonstrate how the price of survival is embedded in ways of perceiving adverse experiences. Those who avoided facing adversities in making difficult decisions were those who now blame illnesses on life experiences. PMID:15068573

  15. Seniors' survival trajectories and the illness connection.

    PubMed

    Montbriand, Muriel J

    2004-04-01

    In a recent life history research, 100 out of 190 randomly selected seniors from a Canadian prairie city determined that their lives were survival trajectories, many with connections to their present illnesses. Seniors told of surviving the Great Depression and World War II, making hard decisions, and experiencing adversities that changed their life courses and perceptions. Completed in 2003, this 5-year study consisted of two phases. The first phase, an ethnomethod, sought the meaning seniors ascribe to illness and healing. The second phase was a reentry of the initial data. Highlighting seniors' stories shows how hard decisions evolved and contrasts can be made in seniors' narratives. Through seniors' analyses of their own lives, findings in this inquiry demonstrate how the price of survival is embedded in ways of perceiving adverse experiences. Those who avoided facing adversities in making difficult decisions were those who now blame illnesses on life experiences.

  16. Survival thresholds and mortality rates in adaptive dynamics: conciliating deterministic and stochastic simulations.

    PubMed

    Perthame, Benoît; Gauduchon, Mathias

    2010-09-01

    Deterministic population models for adaptive dynamics are derived mathematically from individual-centred stochastic models in the limit of large populations. However, it is common that numerical simulations of both models fit poorly and give rather different behaviours in terms of evolution speeds and branching patterns. Stochastic simulations involve extinction phenomenon operating through demographic stochasticity, when the number of individual 'units' is small. Focusing on the class of integro-differential adaptive models, we include a similar notion in the deterministic formulations, a survival threshold, which allows phenotypical traits in the population to vanish when represented by few 'individuals'. Based on numerical simulations, we show that the survival threshold changes drastically the solution; (i) the evolution speed is much slower, (ii) the branching patterns are reduced continuously and (iii) these patterns are comparable to those obtained with stochastic simulations. The rescaled models can also be analysed theoretically. One can recover the concentration phenomena on well-separated Dirac masses through the constrained Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the limit of small mutations and large observation times. PMID:19734200

  17. Intraliposomal chemical activation patterns of liposomal cis-bis-neodecanoato-trans-R,R-1,2-diaminocyclohexane platinum (II) (L-NDDP)-a potential antitumour agent.

    PubMed

    Maclean, D S; Khokhar, A R; Tyle, P; Perez-Soler, R

    2000-01-01

    L-NDDP is a liposome-entrapped platinum compound currently in phase 2 clinical trials that has been shown to undergo intraliposomal activation. The degradation/activation kinetics of liposome entrapped cis-bis-neodecanoato-trans-R,R-1,2-diamminocyclohexane platinum (II) [L-NDDP] at different conditions of pH, and temperature is presented. Liposomes were reconstituted in a solution of 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) in water (pH 5) at room temperature (formulation conditions currently used in the ongoing clinical trials). In the temperature experiments, L-NDDP 0.9% sodium chloride liposomes were incubated in a water-bath at 40, 60, and 80 degrees C. In the pH experiments, these solutions were compared to water, phosphate with and without chloride ion present, phosphate buffer without chloride ion at pH 3.1, 5.0, and 7.4, and glycine buffer with and without chloride ion. In 0.9% sodium chloride at room temperature, the chemical degradation/activation of liposome-bound NDDP was biphasic, with most of the degradation (approximately 45% conversion) occurring during the first hour after formation of the liposome suspension. NDDP degradation was pH dependent: when using pH 3 phosphate buffer as a reconstituting solution, liposome-bound NDDP degraded rapidly, whereas in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer it was stable for > 72 h. NDDP degradation was also temperature-dependent, the 50% point decreasing from 12 h at 25 degrees C to 9.5 h at 40 degrees C, 3.8 h at 60 degrees C, and 0.3 h at 80 degrees C when using 0.9% NaCl in water as a reconstituting solution. Using glycine buffer solution with and without NaCl at room temperature, no NDDP degradation over a 72 h period was observed at 25 degrees C; however, at 40 degrees C, only 68% NDDP remained intact at 72 h. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) analysis of the eluting fractions after injection of L-NDDP samples reconstituted in chloride-containing and non chloride-containing solutions clearly indicated that the formation of

  18. Cooling pattern and mineralization history of the Saint Sylvestre and western Marche leucogranite pluton, French Massif Central: II. Thermal modelling and implications for the mechanisms of uranium mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaillet, S.; Cuney, M.; le Carlier de Veslud, C.; Cheilletz, A.; Royer, J. J.

    1996-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2-D) thermal modelling of the Saint Sylvestre-western Marche leucogranite complex (northwestern Limousin, French Massif Central, FMC) was conducted to help constrain the cooling history and the uranium mineralization postdating the time of intrusion by 40-50 m.y. Numerical simulation of the post-emplacement cooling of the complex (<700°C) indicates that the pluton thermally equilibrated with its country rocks (at around 360-400°C and a mean depth of 10.5 km) by conduction in as little as 4 m.y. after its intrusion age (324 ± 4 Ma). Integration of the regional 40Ar/39Ar muscovite data in the 2-D model with an assumed universal Ar closure temperature of 325 ± 25°C reveals several sub-stages in the subsolidus cooling of the complex. The cooling pattern regionally defined by the muscovite data indicates that cooling was driven by the extensional exhumation and erosion of the thickened crust (+ intrusion) at a mean denudation rate of 0.3 mm y-1 Complete cooling below 325°C ended at 301 Ma via a transient faster denudation rate of 1.5 mm y-1 at the Westphalian-Stephanian boundary. The genetic relationships between the fluid circulations, the mineralization, and the cooling history of the pluton are discussed with particular emphasis on the tectonic process driving exhumation (extension). The initiation of the regional uplift at ∼320 Ma triggered at depth the circulation of in situ derived low-density aqueous fluids that reacted with the granite to form large vertical dissolution conduits (episyenites) characterized by the strong leaching of SiO2. The hydrothermal alteration was further enhanced during uplift by the structurally focused throughput of large volumes of aqueous fluids along brittle faults cutting across the laccolith. These conduits acted more than 20-30 m.y. after the trap formation as preferential channelways for the U-ore deposition at 270-280 Ma, due to sustained hydrothermal circulation adjacent to the high-heat producing

  19. Dispersal and survival of a polygynandrous passerine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Heather R.; Kendall, Steve J.; Wild, Teri C.; Powell, Abby N.

    2015-01-01

    Although sex biases in survival and dispersal are thought to be linked to avian mating systems, little is known about these demographic patterns in less common mating strategies such as polygynandry. We investigated breeding-site fidelity, natal philopatry, and apparent survival of the polygynandrous Smith's Longspur (Calcarius pictus) over a 7-yr period at 2 areas in Alaska's Brooks Range. We used capture–recapture histories of 243 color-banded adults and 431 juveniles to estimate annual survival and determined dispersal patterns from 34 adults that were found breeding within the study areas over multiple years. Most adults (88%) returned to nest in the same breeding neighborhood as in previous years; mean dispersal distance was 300.9 ± 74.2 m and did not differ between sexes. Juveniles exhibited low natal philopatry; only 4% of banded hatch-year birds were resighted as adults during subsequent years. Those that did return dispersed, on average, 1,674.4 ± 465.8 m from their natal nests (n = 6). Model-averaged survival estimates indicated that annual survival of adult females (50–58%) was only slightly lower than that of males (60–63%); juvenile survival was 41% but was paired with a low (13%) encounter probability. We attribute the lack of sex bias in adult dispersal to this species' polygynandrous mating strategy. Within this system, there are multiple mates within a breeding neighborhood. We argue that natural selection may favor females that remain on the same, familiar breeding site, because they do not have to disperse to a new area to find a suitable mate. Dispersal among breeding populations most likely occurs by juveniles returning as adults. Our findings support hypotheses that suggest a relationship between dispersal and mating strategy and provide some of the first insight into the demographic patterns of a polygynandrous passerine.

  20. Nuclear fractal dimension in oral squamous cell carcinoma: a novel method for the evaluation of grading, staging, and survival.

    PubMed

    Mincione, Gabriella; Di Nicola, Marta; Di Marcantonio, Maria Carmela; Muraro, Raffaella; Piattelli, Adriano; Rubini, Corrado; Penitente, Enrico; Piccirilli, Marcello; Aprile, Giuseppe; Perrotti, Vittoria; Artese, Luciano

    2015-10-01

    Fractal dimension (FD) in tissue specimens from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was evaluated. FD values in different stages of OSCC, and the correlations with clinicopathological variables and patient survival were investigated. Histological sections from OSCC and control non-neoplastic mucosa specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for pathological analysis and with Feulgen for nuclear evaluation. FD in OSCC groups vs. controls revealed statistically significant differences (P < 0.001). In addition, a progressive increase of FD from stage I and II lesions and stage III and IV lesions was observed, with statistically significant differences (P = 0.003). Moreover, different degrees of tumor differentiation showed a significant difference in the average nuclear FD values (P = 0.001). A relationship between FD and patients' survival was also detected with lower FD values associated to longer survival time and higher FD values with shorter survival time (P = 0.034). These data showed that FD significantly increased during OSCC progression. Thus, FD could represent a novel prognostic tool for OSCC, as FD values significantly correlated with patient survival. Fractal geometry could give insights into tumor morphology and could become an useful tool for analyzing irregular tumor growth patterns.

  1. Pattern of care and effectiveness of treatment for glioblastoma patients in the real world: Results from a prospective population-based registry. Could survival differ in a high-volume center?

    PubMed Central

    Brandes, Alba A.; Franceschi, Enrico; Ermani, Mario; Tosoni, Alicia; Albani, Fiorenzo; Depenni, Roberta; Faedi, Marina; Pisanello, Anna; Crisi, Girolamo; Urbini, Benedetta; Dazzi, Claudio; Cavanna, Luigi; Mucciarini, Claudia; Pasini, Giuseppe; Bartolini, Stefania; Marucci, Gianluca; Morandi, Luca; Zunarelli, Elena; Cerasoli, Serenella; Gardini, Giorgio; Lanza, Giovanni; Silini, Enrico Maria; Cavuto, Silvio; Baruzzi, Agostino

    2014-01-01

    Background As yet, no population-based prospective studies have been conducted to investigate the incidence and clinical outcome of glioblastoma (GBM) or the diffusion and impact of the current standard therapeutic approach in newly diagnosed patients younger than aged 70 years. Methods Data on all new cases of primary brain tumors observed from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2010, in adults residing within the Emilia-Romagna region were recorded in a prospective registry in the Project of Emilia Romagna on Neuro-Oncology (PERNO). Based on the data from this registry, a prospective evaluation was made of the treatment efficacy and outcome in GBM patients. Results Two hundred sixty-seven GBM patients (median age, 64 y; range, 29–84 y) were enrolled. The median overall survival (OS) was 10.7 months (95% CI, 9.2–12.4). The 139 patients ≤aged 70 years who were given standard temozolomide treatment concomitant with and adjuvant to radiotherapy had a median OS of 16.4 months (95% CI, 14.0–18.5). With multivariate analysis, OS correlated significantly with KPS (HR = 0.458; 95% CI, 0.248–0.847; P = .0127), MGMT methylation status (HR = 0.612; 95% CI, 0.388–0.966; P = .0350), and treatment received in a high versus low-volume center (HR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.328–0.986; P = .0446). Conclusions The median OS following standard temozolomide treatment concurrent with and adjuvant to radiotherapy given to (72.8% of) patients aged ≤70 years is consistent with findings reported from randomized phase III trials. The volume and expertise of the treatment center should be further investigated as a prognostic factor. PMID:26034628

  2. Contributions of the maternal uterine environment and piglet genotype on weaning survivability potential: II. Piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between Meishan and White crossbred gilts.

    PubMed

    Miles, J R; Vallet, J L; Ford, J J; Freking, B A; Oliver, W T; Rempel, L A

    2015-04-01

    .01) in WC piglets regardless of MUE. Serum NEFA levels were greater (P = 0.02) in piglets from MS dams throughout the lactation period. This study demonstrated that WC dams were superior to MS dams for piglet growth during lactation, in agreement with previous crossbreeding studies. However, blood components measured displayed complex interactions between the piglet and maternal breed, which signify possible mechanisms for improved preweaning survivability but slower lactational growth of MS piglets.

  3. Hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas producing protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yasuo; Notohara, Kenji

    2006-10-01

    We describe a rare case of hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas with production of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). The patient was a 49-year-old woman admitted because of high serum levels of PIVKA-II (1.63 AU/ml) and AFP (623 ng/ml) and abnormal ultrasonographic findings of the pancreas, found incidentally at medical checkup. Both ultrasonography and computed tomography showed swelling of the pancreas with small areas of low density, but no hepatic lesions. The serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were not increased. A PIVKA-II and AFP-producing pancreatic cancer was strongly suspected, and total pancreatectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed that the tumor cells were arranged in trabecular and solid patterns with bile production, and were immunohistochemically positive for PIVKA-II and AFP, resembling hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The tumor was diagnosed as hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas, and the patient has survived 48 months after initial diagnosis. It is important that hepatoid carcinoma be considered as a possible malignant tumor of the pancreas, and simultaneous measurement of the serum levels of AFP and PIVKA-II will enable earlier diagnosis. This is the first report describing hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas producing PIVKA-II.

  4. Surviving atmospheric spacecraft breakup.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J; McLamb, William

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft travel higher and faster than aircraft, making breakup potentially less survivable. As with aircraft breakup, the dissipation of lethal forces via spacecraft breakup around an organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. By employing a knowledge of space and aviation physiology, comparative physiology, and search-and-rescue techniques, we were able to correctly predict and execute the recovery of live animals following the breakup of the space shuttle Columbia. In this study, we make what is, to our knowledge, the first report of an animal, Caenorhabditis elegans, surviving the atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft that was supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  5. Surviving atmospheric spacecraft breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; McLamb, William

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft travel higher and faster than aircraft, making breakup potentially less survivable. As with aircraft breakup, the dissipation of lethal forces via spacecraft breakup around an organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. By employing a knowledge of space and aviation physiology, comparative physiology, and search-and-rescue techniques, we were able to correctly predict and execute the recovery of live animals following the breakup of the space shuttle Columbia. In this study, we make what is, to our knowledge, the first report of an animal, Caenorhabditis elegans, surviving the atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft that was supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  6. Survival after judicial hanging.

    PubMed

    Sabermoghaddam, Mohsen; Abad, Mohsen; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Mozaffari, Nasrollah

    2015-06-01

    Hanging is known not only as a common method of suicide but also as a capital punishment method in some countries. Although several cases have been reported to survive after the attempted suicidal/accidental hanging, to the extent of our knowledge, no modern case of survival after judicial hanging exists. We reported a case of an individual who revived after modern judicial hanging despite being declared dead. The case was admitted with poor clinical presentations and the Glasgow Coma Scale of 6/15. The victim received all the standard supportive intensive care and gained complete clinical recovery.

  7. Survival after judicial hanging.

    PubMed

    Sabermoghaddam, Mohsen; Abad, Mohsen; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Mozaffari, Nasrollah

    2015-06-01

    Hanging is known not only as a common method of suicide but also as a capital punishment method in some countries. Although several cases have been reported to survive after the attempted suicidal/accidental hanging, to the extent of our knowledge, no modern case of survival after judicial hanging exists. We reported a case of an individual who revived after modern judicial hanging despite being declared dead. The case was admitted with poor clinical presentations and the Glasgow Coma Scale of 6/15. The victim received all the standard supportive intensive care and gained complete clinical recovery. PMID:25747958

  8. A join point survival model for brain tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Vovoras, Dimitris; Vrionis, Frank D; Tsokos, Chris P; Prokhel, Keshav

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between medical improvements and the survival experienced by the patient population, it would be useful to find out when and how much the cancer treatment breakthroughs and early diagnosis have significantly improved the prognosis of brain cancer patients. A join point model facilitates the identification of trends with significant change-points in survival; the main goal of such a model would be to find out when cancer survival starts exhibiting a pattern of improvement. The model will be applied to grouped relative survival data for major cancer sites from the 'Surveillance, epidemiology and end results' program of the National Cancer Institute.

  9. Education for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, James E., Jr.

    In this address, James E. Allen, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Education and U.S. Commissioner of Education, discusses the relationship of education to the problem of ecological destruction. He states that the solutions to the problems of air, water, and soil pollution may be found in redirected education. This "education for survival" can serve to…

  10. Communications Survival Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Shirley Porter; Braden, Bill

    The purpose of the Communications Survival Kit is to serve as a guide for counselors to assist in planning, developing and implementing a public relations program for the guidance department at the local school level. The kit contains practical information in three categories. First is a rationale for a public relations (PR) program, what PR is…

  11. Unix survival guide.

    PubMed

    Stein, Lincoln D

    2007-01-01

    For a mixture of historical and practical reasons, much of the bioinformatics software discussed in this series runs on Linux, Mac OSX, Solaris, or one of the many other Unix variants. This appendix provides the novice with easy-to-understand information needed to survive in the Unix environment.

  12. Independence and Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, H. Thomas

    Independent schools that are of viable size, well managed, and strategically located to meet competition will survive and prosper past the current financial crisis. We live in a complex technological society with insatiable demands for knowledgeable people to keep it running. The future will be marked by the orderly selection of qualified people,…

  13. Survivability via Control Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  14. The Option for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, R. Stephen

    1971-01-01

    Suggests formula for survival that takes a thermodynamic view which holds that we must recycle waste while the thermodynamic potential still is moderately high. Otherwise they are lost, as helium is lost when it leaves Earth's atmosphere and goes into space. The idea that the Earth is a closed system is a myth; it collapses each time we put our…

  15. Education for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of current approaches to education and concludes that none of these is sufficient to meet the challenges that now face the human race. It argues instead for a new concept of education for survival. (Contains 1 note.)

  16. Surviving Tight Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Discusses several strategies recommended by small business experts to help for-profit and non-profit child care centers survive a financial crisis. Strategies include: identifying the source of the problem, monitoring cash flow, reducing or deferring expenditures, expediting regular income and exploring new sources of income, patiently working…

  17. Altruism: A natural strategy for enhancing survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenfeld, Alejandro F.; Luis Gruver, José; Albano, Ezequiel V.; Havlin, Shlomo

    2006-09-01

    We study the influence of altruistic behavior in a prey-predator model permitting the preys to commit suicide by confronting the predators instead of escaping. Surprising, altruistic behavior at microscopic (local) scale, leads to the emergence of new complex macroscopic (global) phenomena characterized by dramatic changes in the dynamic topology of the prey-predator spatiotemporal distribution, yielding spiral patterns. We show that such dynamics enhances the prey's survivability.

  18. Metal-to-Ligand Charge-Transfer Emissions of Ruthenium(II) Pentaammine Complexes with Monodentate Aromatic Acceptor Ligands and Distortion Patterns of their Lowest Energy Triplet Excited States.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia Nung; Mazumder, Shivnath; Zhang, Xiu Zhu; Schlegel, H Bernhard; Chen, Yuan Jang; Endicott, John F

    2015-09-01

    This is the first report of the 77 K triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)MLCT) emission spectra of pentaammine-MDA-ruthenium(II) ([Ru(NH3)5(MDA)](2+)) complexes, where MDA is a monodentate aromatic ligand. The emission spectra of these complexes and of the related trans-[Ru(NH3)4(MDA) (MDA')](2+) complexes are closely related, and their emission intensities are very weak. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the energies of the lowest (3)MLCT excited states of Ru-MDA complexes are either similar to or lower than those of the lowest energy metal-centered excited states ((3)MC(X(Y))), that the barrier to internal conversion at 77 K is large compared to kBT, and that the (3)MC(X(Y)) excited states are weakly bound. The [Ru(NH3)5py](2+) complex is an exception to the general pattern: emission has been observed for the [Ru(ND3)5(d5-py)](2+) complex, but its lifetime is apparently very short. DFT modeling indicates that the excited state distortions of the different (3)MC excited states are very large and are in both Ru-ligand bonds along a single Cartesian axis for each different (3)MC excited state, nominally resulting in (3)MC(X(Y)), (3)MC((X)Y), and (3)MC(Z) lowest energy metal-centered states. The (3)MC(X(Y)) and (3)MC((X)Y) states appear to be the pseudo-Jahn-Teller distorted components of a (3)MC((XY)) state. The (3)MC(X(Y)) states are distorted up to 0.5 Å in each H3N-Ru-NH3 bond along a single Cartesian axis in the pentaammine and trans-tetraammine complexes, whereas the (3)MC(Z) states are found to be dissociative. DFT modeling of the (3)MLCT excited state of [Ru(NH3)5(py)](2+) indicates that the Ru center has a spin density of 1.24 at the (3)MLCT energy minimum and that the (3)MLCT → (3)MC(Z) crossing is smooth with a very small barrier (<0.5 kcal/mol) along the D3N-Ru-py distortion coordinate, implying strong (3)MLCT/(3)MC excited state configurational mixing. Furthermore, the DFT modeling indicates that the long

  19. Hypertabastic survival model.

    PubMed

    Tabatabai, Mohammad A; Bursac, Zoran; Williams, David K; Singh, Karan P

    2007-10-26

    A new two-parameter probability distribution called hypertabastic is introduced to model the survival or time-to-event data. A simulation study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the hypertabastic distribution in comparison with popular distributions. We then demonstrate the application of the hypertabastic survival model by applying it to data from two motivating studies. The first one demonstrates the proportional hazards version of the model by applying it to a data set from multiple myeloma study. The second one demonstrates an accelerated failure time version of the model by applying it to data from a randomized study of glioma patients who underwent radiotherapy treatment with and without radiosensitizer misonidazole. Based on the results from the simulation study and two applications, the proposed model shows to be a flexible and promising alternative to practitioners in this field.

  20. Survival of extreme opinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Huang, Ding-wei

    2009-12-01

    We study the survival of extreme opinions in various processes of consensus formation. All the opinions are treated equally and subjected to the same rules of changing. We investigate three typical models to reach a consensus in each case: (A) personal influence, (B) influence from surroundings, and (C) influence to surroundings. Starting with uniformly distributed random opinions, our calculated results show that the extreme opinions can survive in both models (A) and (B), but not in model (C). We obtain a conclusion that both personal influence and passive adaptation to the environment are not sufficient enough to eradicate all the extreme opinions. Only the active persuasion to change the surroundings eliminates the extreme opinions completely.

  1. Doubly robust survival trees.

    PubMed

    Steingrimsson, Jon Arni; Diao, Liqun; Molinaro, Annette M; Strawderman, Robert L

    2016-09-10

    Estimating a patient's mortality risk is important in making treatment decisions. Survival trees are a useful tool and employ recursive partitioning to separate patients into different risk groups. Existing 'loss based' recursive partitioning procedures that would be used in the absence of censoring have previously been extended to the setting of right censored outcomes using inverse probability censoring weighted estimators of loss functions. In this paper, we propose new 'doubly robust' extensions of these loss estimators motivated by semiparametric efficiency theory for missing data that better utilize available data. Simulations and a data analysis demonstrate strong performance of the doubly robust survival trees compared with previously used methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037609

  2. How worms survive desiccation

    PubMed Central

    Erkut, Cihan; Penkov, Sider; Fahmy, Karim; Kurzchalia, Teymuras V.

    2012-01-01

    While life requires water, many organisms, known as anhydrobiotes, can survive in the absence of water for extended periods of time. Although discovered 300 years ago, we know very little about the fascinating phenomenon of anhydrobiosis. In this paper, we summarize our previous findings on the desiccation tolerance of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larva. A special emphasis is given to the role of trehalose in protecting membranes against desiccation. We also propose a simple mechanism for this process. PMID:24058825

  3. Comment on 'Are survival rates for northern spotted owls biased?'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, A.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Anthony, R.G.; Burnham, K.P.; White, Gary C.; Forsman, E.D.; Anderson, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Loehle et al. recently estimated survival rates from radio-telemetered northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina (Merriam, 1898)) and suggested that survival rates estimated for this species from capture-recapture studies were negatively biased, which subsequently resulted in the negatively biased estimates of rates of population change (lambda) reported by Anthony et al. (Wildl. Monogr. No. 163, pp. 1-47 (2006)). We argue that their survival estimates were inappropriate for comparison with capture-recapture estimates because (i) the manner in which they censored radio-telemetered individuals had the potential to positively bias their survival estimates, (ii) their estimates of survival were not valid for evaluating bias, and (iii) the size and distribution of their radiotelemetry study areas were sufficiently different from capture-recapture study areas to preclude comparisons. In addition, their inferences of negative bias in rates of population change estimated by Anthony et al. were incorrect and reflected a misunderstanding about those estimators.

  4. Carbonaceous Survivability on Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, Luann; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In order to gain knowledge about the potential contributions of comets and cosmic dust to the origin of life on Earth, we need to explore the survivability of their potential organic compounds on impact and the formation of secondary products that may have arisen from the chaotic events sustained by the carriers as they fell to Earth. We have performed a series of hypervelocity impact experiments using carbon-bearing impactors (diamond, graphite, kerogens, PAH crystals, and Murchison and Nogoya meteorites) into Al plate targets at velocities - 6 km/s. Estimated peak shock pressures probably did not exceed 120 GPa and peak shock temperatures were probably less than 4000 K for times of nano- to microsecs. Nominal crater dia. are less than one mm. The most significant results of these experiments are the preservation of the higher mass PAHs (e. g., pyrene relative to napthalene) and the formation of additional alkylated PAHs. We have also examined the residues of polystyrene projectiles impacted by a microparticle accelerator into targets at velocities up to 15 km/s. This talk will discuss the results of these experiments and their implications with respect to the survival of carbonaceous deliverables to early Earth. The prospects of survivability of organic molecules on "intact" capture of cosmic dust in space via soft: and hard cosmic dust collectors will also be discussed.

  5. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: a survival study.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J C; Fleischman, E H; Kagan, A R; Streeter, O E

    1990-09-01

    Ninety-four patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma were treated at Southern California Permanente Medical Group Facilities between 1965 and 1988. This retrospective analysis of survival in these patients is compared according to surgical and/or supportive management. Group I patients received supportive care only, including pleurodesis as needed. This group included the majority of patients. Group II patients were managed largely with debulking procedures including decortication and pleurectomy. Group III patients received extrapleural pneumonectomy. This group included the two long-term survivors of the entire group. This study of survival points out the need for a cooperative protocol as well as the consistent use of proper modern preoperative staging in an attempt to select patients who benefit from extrapleural pneumonectomy.

  6. Marangoni patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagu, N. Nirmal; Strombom, Evelyn; Palumbo, Daniel; Caicedo, Carlos; Shinbrot, Troy

    2010-11-01

    We study Marangoni patterns that emerge when common food dye is dropped into a dish of shallow water. These patterns consist of tendrils and spots that sharpen over time before eventually fading. We demonstrate that the patterns can be modeled using coupled reaction-diffusion equations, where the "reaction" terms appear due to a nonlinear dependence of surface tension on dye concentration. We show using a spatio-temporal metric that these patterns are distinct from previously described Turing patterns.

  7. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    SciTech Connect

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  8. Survival of the strategist

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1994-10-01

    Competition and privatization are two significant trends in the global power market. Surviving in this competitive environment will require developers to maximize their strategic advantages. The logjam in project development is caused by a variety of market factors. Political, regulatory and financing barriers combine to impede the development flow in many countries. Also, a lack of expertise in dealing with the unfamiliar business and cultural environments of developing markets is frustrating developers efforts to break through barriers. In response, many companies are reexamining markets and formulating new approaches to international development.

  9. Camouflage predicts survival in ground-nesting birds.

    PubMed

    Troscianko, Jolyon; Wilson-Aggarwal, Jared; Stevens, Martin; Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2016-01-01

    Evading detection by predators is crucial for survival. Camouflage is therefore a widespread adaptation, but despite substantial research effort our understanding of different camouflage strategies has relied predominantly on artificial systems and on experiments disregarding how camouflage is perceived by predators. Here we show for the first time in a natural system, that survival probability of wild animals is directly related to their level of camouflage as perceived by the visual systems of their main predators. Ground-nesting plovers and coursers flee as threats approach, and their clutches were more likely to survive when their egg contrast matched their surrounds. In nightjars - which remain motionless as threats approach - clutch survival depended on plumage pattern matching between the incubating bird and its surrounds. Our findings highlight the importance of pattern and luminance based camouflage properties, and the effectiveness of modern techniques in capturing the adaptive properties of visual phenotypes. PMID:26822039

  10. Camouflage predicts survival in ground-nesting birds

    PubMed Central

    Troscianko, Jolyon; Wilson-Aggarwal, Jared; Stevens, Martin; Spottiswoode, Claire N.

    2016-01-01

    Evading detection by predators is crucial for survival. Camouflage is therefore a widespread adaptation, but despite substantial research effort our understanding of different camouflage strategies has relied predominantly on artificial systems and on experiments disregarding how camouflage is perceived by predators. Here we show for the first time in a natural system, that survival probability of wild animals is directly related to their level of camouflage as perceived by the visual systems of their main predators. Ground-nesting plovers and coursers flee as threats approach, and their clutches were more likely to survive when their egg contrast matched their surrounds. In nightjars – which remain motionless as threats approach – clutch survival depended on plumage pattern matching between the incubating bird and its surrounds. Our findings highlight the importance of pattern and luminance based camouflage properties, and the effectiveness of modern techniques in capturing the adaptive properties of visual phenotypes. PMID:26822039

  11. Project Basic Instructional Guide. Volume II. Survival Skills. Instructional Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This bibliography consists of annotated listings of print and nonprint materials for grades K-12 on the following topics: (1) effects of drugs on the human body; (2) nutrition; (3) personal health; (4) environment protection; (5) using available community services; (6) legal and moral responsibility; (7) managing personal finances; (8) social…

  12. Slaying Dragons II: Survival Strategies for Changing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Mary R.

    1995-01-01

    Offers reflections on the roles of youth librarians. Topics include the impact of societal changes on library services; librarians as change agents for new technology; community needs; marketing and programming strategies; and cooperation and visibility. (LRW)

  13. SURVIV for survival analysis of mRNA isoform variation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shihao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Chengyang; Wu, Ying Nian; Xing, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid accumulation of clinical RNA-seq data sets has provided the opportunity to associate mRNA isoform variations to clinical outcomes. Here we report a statistical method SURVIV (Survival analysis of mRNA Isoform Variation), designed for identifying mRNA isoform variation associated with patient survival time. A unique feature and major strength of SURVIV is that it models the measurement uncertainty of mRNA isoform ratio in RNA-seq data. Simulation studies suggest that SURVIV outperforms the conventional Cox regression survival analysis, especially for data sets with modest sequencing depth. We applied SURVIV to TCGA RNA-seq data of invasive ductal carcinoma as well as five additional cancer types. Alternative splicing-based survival predictors consistently outperform gene expression-based survival predictors, and the integration of clinical, gene expression and alternative splicing profiles leads to the best survival prediction. We anticipate that SURVIV will have broad utilities for analysing diverse types of mRNA isoform variation in large-scale clinical RNA-seq projects. PMID:27279334

  14. Women's Schooling, Patterns of Fertility, and Child Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVine, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Expansion of women's schooling is associated with lower fertility and child mortality. This article provides demographic evidence and a framework for discovering how educational processes operate on maternal behavior. Findings from a study in Mexico focus on mother-infant interaction and social attitudes as important variables. Research needs are…

  15. 46 CFR 199.130 - Stowage of survival craft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... explosion, as far as practicable; and (7) So as not to require lifting from its stowed position in order to... stowed position to its embarkation position; or (ii) A survival craft that weights 185 kilograms (407.8...-launched liferaft must be stowed within reach of its lifting hook, unless some means of transfer...

  16. 46 CFR 199.130 - Stowage of survival craft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... explosion, as far as practicable; and (7) So as not to require lifting from its stowed position in order to... stowed position to its embarkation position; or (ii) A survival craft that weights 185 kilograms (407.8...-launched liferaft must be stowed within reach of its lifting hook, unless some means of transfer...

  17. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  18. Survival and complications following ventricular assist pumping for cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed Central

    Pennock, J L; Pierce, W S; Wisman, C B; Bull, A P; Waldhausen, J A

    1983-01-01

    Thirty patients (pts) have undergone ventricular assist pumping for up to 25.4 days (mean 6.8 days). Twenty-eight pts could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) after open heart operations and two pts sustained myocardial infarctions (MI), with cardiogenic shock unresponsive to medical therapy previous to surgery. Twenty-two pts required left ventricular assistance (LVA); 55% (12/22) were weaned from the pump and 32% (7/22) survived. Two pts required right ventricular assistance (RVA); both were weaned from the pump and survived. Six pts required right and left ventricular assistance (BVA) and none survived. Postoperative survival for program years 1976 through 1979 (14 pts) was 14% (2/14). Postoperative survival for program years 1980 through 1982 (16 pts) was 44% (7/16), reflecting improved pump insertion techniques (left atrial cannulation) and pt management. Since 1980, 12 pts have required LVA, nine have been weaned from the pump, and six pts have survived (50%). One pt has required RVA and has survived, and three pts requiring BVA did not survive. Seven pts have been alive and well 5, 9, 14, 19, 24, 30 and 36 months after surgery. Five are NYHA functional Class I status and two pts are NYHA Class II status. Current data indicates that single ventricular assistance in pts who cannot be weaned from CPB is "reasonable and therapeutic treatment to extend life." Images Fig. 1. PMID:6625718

  19. Tyrosinaemia II.

    PubMed

    Colditz, P B; Yu, J S; Billson, F A; Rogers, M; Molloy, H F; O'Halloran, M; Wilcken, B

    1984-08-18

    Four cases of tyrosinaemia type II (Richner-Hanhart syndrome) are reported. This syndrome consists of corneal erosions, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, and sometimes mental retardation. Presentation with photophobia and dendritic corneal ulceration or circumscribed palmoplantar keratoderma should alert the physician to the possible diagnosis of tyrosinaemia II. Early diagnosis is important, as the clinical picture can be modified by dietary restriction.

  20. Mechanisms of Fat Graft Survival.

    PubMed

    Pu, Lee L Q

    2016-02-01

    Although more fat grafting procedures have been performed by plastic surgeons with the primary goal to restore soft tissue loss, the actual mechanism on how fat graft survives remains less completely understood. An established old theory on fat graft survival is still based on the cell survival theory proposed by Peer in the early 1950s. On the basis of his preliminary experimental study, he proposed that the mechanism of fat graft survival is based on established early blood circulation through anastomosis of the fat graft and host blood vessels. Recently, several investigators have demonstrated new concepts of the fat graft survival: One further advanced the old Peer cell survival theory and another based on new discovery and understanding of adipose-derived stem cells. This article serves as a scientific review on how fat graft survives after in vivo transplantation based on a number of well-conducted experimental studies. Both the graft survival and graft replacement theories on how fat graft survives are true based on the previously mentioned well-conducted experimental studies. Each theory may play a role in fat graft survival. It is possible that graft survival may be more dominant in some patients but the graft replacement may be more dominant in other patients.

  1. A new approach to the "apparent survival" problem: estimating true survival rates from mark-recapture studies.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Virzi, Thomas; Boulton, Rebecca L; Lockwood, Julie L

    2012-07-01

    Survival estimates generated from live capture-mark-recapture studies may be negatively biased due to the permanent emigration of marked individuals from the study area. In the absence of a robust analytical solution, researchers typically sidestep this problem by simply reporting estimates using the term "apparent survival." Here, we present a hierarchical Bayesian multistate model designed to estimate true survival by accounting for predicted rates of permanent emigration. Initially we use dispersal kernels to generate spatial projections of dispersal probability around each capture location. From these projections, we estimate emigration probability for each marked individual and use the resulting values to generate bias-adjusted survival estimates from individual capture histories. When tested using simulated data sets featuring variable detection probabilities, survival rates, and dispersal patterns, the model consistently eliminated negative biases shown by apparent survival estimates from standard models. When applied to a case study concerning juvenile survival in the endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), bias-adjusted survival estimates increased more than twofold above apparent survival estimates. Our approach is applicable to any capture-mark-recapture study design and should be particularly valuable for organisms with dispersive juvenile life stages. PMID:22919897

  2. Postfledging survival of European starlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that mass at fledging and fledge date within the breeding season affect postfledging survival in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Nestlings were weighed on day 18 after hatch and tagged with individually identifiable patagial tags. Fledge date was recorded. Marked fledglings were resighted during weekly two-day intensive observation periods for 9 weeks postfledging. Post-fledging survival and sighting probabilities were estimated for each of four groups (early or late fledging by heavy or light fledging mass). Body mass was related to post-fledging survival for birds that fledged early. Results were not clear-cut for relative fledge date, although there was weak evidence that this also influenced survival. Highest survival probability estimates occurred in the EARLY-HEAVY group, while the lowest survival estimate occurred in the LATE-LIGHT group. Sighting probabilities differed significantly among groups, emphasizing the need to estimate and compare survival using models which explicitly incorporate sighting probabilities.

  3. Survival strategies in a changing practice environment.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Bruce M; Blau, Michael L

    2014-05-01

    A number of forces disrupt normal referral patterns to physicians, driving hospital consolidation, and changing the way medicine is practiced in the United States. Strategies have been implemented to keep services in-network and stem "leakage"-all in the name of population health management, reducing unit costs, and spreading financial risk among the insurers, hospitals, and physicians. To survive in the changing medical environment, independent unintegrated physicians need to consider different practice models. These models include accountable care organizations (ACOs), super groups, specialty networks, co-management agreements, professional service agreements (PSAs), and partnering with local hospitals. Each physician and physician group need to decide what works best for them and their geographical area. Physicians and physician groups may find that one or more of these models will improve their chance of economic survival. PMID:24650460

  4. Cold sea survival.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veghte, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Two prototype three-man life rafts were evaluated during the winter months in Arctic waters off Kodiak Island, Alaska, to assess potential survival problems and determine tolerance limits. Each raft incorporated thermal characteristics specifically designed for cold water. Water and air temperatures varied from 0 to +2 C and -5 to +4 C respectively. All subjects were removed upon reaching subjective tolerance. The results showed that none of the clothing assemblies was adequate to maintain a person in comfort even with dry boarding. No significant biochemical shifts in the blood or urine were found. The TUL raft was found to be superior in its thermal characteristics and afforded better subject protection. General tolerance for cold water immersion, wet and dry, and cold water raft exposures are depicted graphically, based on previously reported data.

  5. Process control for survival

    SciTech Connect

    Yocom, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    Increasing competition for a decreasing market mandates that the success of a company be determined by the manner in which it embraces quality. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is the most efficient means of dramatically improving quality and is essential to survival in the emerging electronic marketplace. During the three years that industry practitioners assembled to write IPC-PC-90, General Requirements for the Implementation of statistical Process Control, many heated discussions ensued about the actual definition of SPC. Some people view SPC as the application of Control Chart methods, others view it as the use of Statistical Experimental Design. Both are in some ways wrong and are limiting the scope of application. Those companies that have successfully applied SPC view it as a philosophy of statistical principles that will reduce variation in every phase of their business. 2 figs.

  6. Early failure of Class II resin composite versus Class II amalgam restorations placed by dental students.

    PubMed

    Overton, J D; Sullivan, Diane J

    2012-03-01

    Using the information from remake request slips in a dental school's predoctoral clinic, we examined the short-term survival of Class II resin composite restorations versus Class II dental amalgam restorations. In the student clinic, resin composite is used in approximately 58 percent of Class II restorations placed, and dental amalgam is used in the remaining 42 percent. In the period examined, Class II resin composite restorations were ten times more likely to be replaced at no cost to the patient than Class II dental amalgam restorations. A total of eighty-four resin composite restorations and six amalgam restorations were replaced due to an identified failure.

  7. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression analysis of cDNA encoding metalloprotein II (MP II) induced by single and combined metals (Cu(II), Cd(II)) in polychaeta Perinereis aibuhitensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dazuo; Zhou, Yibing; Zhao, Huan; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Sun, Na; Wang, Bin; Yuan, Xiutang

    2012-11-01

    We amplified and analyzed the complete cDNA of metalloprotein II (MP II) from the somatic muscle of the polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis, the full length cDNA is 904 bp encoding 119 amino acids. The MP II cDNA sequence was subjected to BLAST searching in NCBI and was found to share high homology with hemerythrin of other worms. MP II expression of P. aibuhitensis exposed to single and combined metals (Cu(II), Cd(II)) was analyzed using real time-PCR. MP II mRNA expression increased at the start of Cu(II) exposure, then decreased and finally return to the normal level. Expression pattern of MP II under Cd(II) exposure was time- and dose-dependent. MP II expression induced by a combination of Cd(II) and Cu(II) was similar to that induced by Cd(II) alone.

  8. Survival discriminants for differentiated thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.P.; Duda, R.B.; Recant, W.; Chmiel, J.S.; Sylvester, J.A.; Fremgen, A. )

    1990-10-01

    Since 1975, the American Cancer Society, Illinois Division, has published end results of major cancer sites drawn from patient data contributed voluntarily by hospital cancer registries throughout the state. The current study was undertaken, in part, to apprehend information regarding contested areas in the management of patients having differentiated (papillary/follicular) thyroid cancer. A total of 2,282 patients with either papillary or follicular carcinoma of the thyroid from 76 different Illinois hospitals and providing 10 years of follow-up information (life-table analysis) were retrospectively analyzed for demographic, disease, and treatment-related predictors of survival. Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards method was made for stage, age, race, sex, morphology, history of radiation exposure, presence of positive lymph nodes, initial surgical treatment, postoperative iodine 131 therapy, and replacement/suppressive thyroid hormone treatment. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) predictors of favorable survival after thyroid cancer were low stage (I and II), young age (less than 50 years), white race, female sex, and the administration, postoperatively, of either thyroid hormone or radioactive iodine. Factors that had no influence on survival were lymph node status, choice of initial surgical treatment, and a history of prior irradiation. We suggest that where a prospective clinical trial is impracticable, a retrospective analysis of a large and detailed database, such as that available from cooperating hospital-based tumor registries, may yet provide useful insights to solutions of cancer management problems.

  9. Lesotho: the politics of survival.

    PubMed

    Lye, W F

    1982-01-01

    In this discussion of the politics of survival in Lesotho, attention is directed to the historical foundations; the road to dependency, the emergence of a political economy; and political transitions. The 1.25 million citizens of Lesotho enjoy a precarious independence. In November 1981, the government welcomed Russian military advisers. Presumably the reason for this was to help defend itself against the Republic of South Africa. This action was only the most recent of a series of increasingly hostile acts and verbal barrages which confirm the persistent aversion of Lesotho toward South Africa. The behavior contrasts markedly with an equally persistent pattern, that of continuous consultations between the Prime Minister of Lesotho since independence in 1966 and every leader of South Africa. The fact that some 200,000 Sotho workers, almost 1/6 of the nation's populaton, cross annually into South Africa to earn their only possible means of income lends a special character to this relationship. It reveals both the depth of Lesotho's aversion while equally affirming its reluctant dependence. It also illuminates a reciprocal need on the part of South Africa, which causes them to tolerate the irritant. The key to understanding the recent history of Lesotho lies with this fundamental interdependence and aversion. In the context of declining living standards at home and the demand for labor by South Africa, at first on the nearby farms and after 1867 in the mines and cities, Lesotho's economy became increasingly subject to political forces beyond its control. During even the early days of Moshoeshoe's reign, he encouraged youths to leave their families to obtain work among the aliens. His original objective was to have the youths learn useful new techniques which could be applied to enrich Lesotho beyond the few coins they might earn. The central focus of foreign employment before long became routine jobs in the mines. By the last decade of the 19th century, Lesotho

  10. Lesotho: the politics of survival.

    PubMed

    Lye, W F

    1982-01-01

    In this discussion of the politics of survival in Lesotho, attention is directed to the historical foundations; the road to dependency, the emergence of a political economy; and political transitions. The 1.25 million citizens of Lesotho enjoy a precarious independence. In November 1981, the government welcomed Russian military advisers. Presumably the reason for this was to help defend itself against the Republic of South Africa. This action was only the most recent of a series of increasingly hostile acts and verbal barrages which confirm the persistent aversion of Lesotho toward South Africa. The behavior contrasts markedly with an equally persistent pattern, that of continuous consultations between the Prime Minister of Lesotho since independence in 1966 and every leader of South Africa. The fact that some 200,000 Sotho workers, almost 1/6 of the nation's populaton, cross annually into South Africa to earn their only possible means of income lends a special character to this relationship. It reveals both the depth of Lesotho's aversion while equally affirming its reluctant dependence. It also illuminates a reciprocal need on the part of South Africa, which causes them to tolerate the irritant. The key to understanding the recent history of Lesotho lies with this fundamental interdependence and aversion. In the context of declining living standards at home and the demand for labor by South Africa, at first on the nearby farms and after 1867 in the mines and cities, Lesotho's economy became increasingly subject to political forces beyond its control. During even the early days of Moshoeshoe's reign, he encouraged youths to leave their families to obtain work among the aliens. His original objective was to have the youths learn useful new techniques which could be applied to enrich Lesotho beyond the few coins they might earn. The central focus of foreign employment before long became routine jobs in the mines. By the last decade of the 19th century, Lesotho

  11. Reentry survival analysis of tumbling metallic hollow cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Hyung-seok; Kim, Kyu-hong

    2011-09-01

    The survival of orbital debris reentering the Earth's atmosphere is considered. The numerical approach of NASA's Object Reentry Survival Analysis Tool (ORSAT) is reviewed, and a new equation accounting for reradiation heat loss of hollow cylindrical objects is presented. Based on these, a code called Survivability Analysis Program for Atmospheric Reentry (SAPAR) has been developed, and the new equation for reradiation heat loss is validated. Using this equation in conjunction with the formulation used in ORSAT, a comparative case study on the Delta-II second stage cylindrical tank is given, demonstrating that the analysis using the proposed equation is in good agreement with the actual recovered object when a practical value for thermal emissivity is used. A detailed explanation of the revised formulation is given, and additional simulation results are presented. Finally, discussions are made to address the applicability of the proposed equation to be incorporated in future survival analyses of orbital debris.

  12. MHC heterozygosity and survival in red junglefowl.

    PubMed

    Worley, Kirsty; Collet, Julie; Spurgin, Lewis G; Cornwallis, Charlie; Pizzari, Tommaso; Richardson, David S

    2010-08-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) form a vital part of the vertebrate immune system and play a major role in pathogen resistance. The extremely high levels of polymorphism observed at the MHC are hypothesised to be driven by pathogen-mediated selection. Although the exact nature of selection remains unclear, three main hypotheses have been put forward; heterozygote advantage, negative frequency-dependence and fluctuating selection. Here, we report the effects of MHC genotype on survival in a cohort of semi-natural red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) that suffered severe mortality as a result of an outbreak of the disease coccidiosis. The cohort was followed from hatching until 250 days of age, approximately the age of sexual maturity in this species, during which time over 80% of the birds died. We show that on average birds with MHC heterozygote genotypes survived infection longer than homozygotes and that this effect was independent of genome-wide heterozygosity, estimated across microsatellite loci. This MHC effect appeared to be caused by a single susceptible haplotype (CD_c) the effect of which was masked in all heterozygote genotypes by other dominant haplotypes. The CD_c homozygous genotype had lower survival than all other genotypes, but CD_c heterozygous genotypes had survival probabilities equal to the most resistant homozygote genotype. Importantly, no heterozygotes conferred greater resistance than the most resistant homozygote genotype, indicating that the observed survival advantage of MHC heterozygotes was the product of dominant, rather than overdominant processes. This pattern and effect of MHC diversity in our population could reflect the processes ongoing in similarly small, fragmented natural populations. PMID:20618904

  13. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Elana; Quale, Chris; Haggstrom, David; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background The reasons for race/ethnicity (R/E) differences in breast cancer survival have been difficult to disentangle. Methods Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data were used to identify 41,020 women aged ≥68 years with incident breast cancer between 1994–1999 including African American (2479), Hispanic (1172), Asian/ Pacific Island (1086), and white women (35,878). A Cox proportional hazards model assessed overall and stage-specific (0/I, II/III, and IV) R/E differences in breast cancer survival after adjusting for mammography screening, tumor characteristics at diagnosis, biologic markers, treatment, comorbidity, and demographics. Results African American women had worse survival than white women, although controlling for predictor variables reduced this difference among all stage breast cancer (hazards ratio [HR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.97–1.20). Adjustment for predictors reduced, but did not eliminate, disparities in the analysis limited to women diagnosed with stage II/III disease (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.10–1.54). Screening mammography, tumor characteristics at diagnosis, biologic markers, and treatment each produced a similar reduction in HRs for women with stage II/III cancers. Asian and Pacific Island women had better survival than white women before and after accounting for all predictors (adjusted all stages HR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.47–0.79]; adjusted stage II/III HR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.47–0.79]). Hispanic women had better survival than white women in all and stage II/III analysis (all stage HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.75–1.04) and stage II/III analysis (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.75–1.04), although these findings did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant difference in survival by R/E noted among women diagnosed with stage IV disease. Conclusions Predictor variables contribute to, but do not fully explain, R/E differences in breast cancer survival for elderly American women. Future analyses

  14. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  15. Conditional Probability of Survival in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Polley, Mei-Yin C.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Chang, Susan M.; Butowski, Nicholas; Clarke, Jennifer L.; Prados, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The disease outcome for patients with cancer is typically described in terms of estimated survival from diagnosis. Conditional probability offers more relevant information regarding survival for patients once they have survived for some time. We report conditional survival probabilities on the basis of 498 patients with glioblastoma multiforme receiving radiation and chemotherapy. For 1-year survivors, we evaluated variables that may inform subsequent survival. Motivated by the trend in data, we also evaluated the assumption of constant hazard. Patients and Methods Patients enrolled onto seven phase II protocols between 1975 and 2007 were included. Conditional survival probabilities and 95% CIs were calculated. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate prognostic values of age, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), and prior progression 1-year post diagnosis. To assess the constant hazard assumption, we used a likelihood-ratio test to compare the Weibull and exponential distributions. Results The probabilities of surviving an additional year given survival to 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were 35%, 49%, 69%, and 93%, respectively. For patients who survived for 1 year, lower KPS and progression were significantly predictive of shorter survival (both P < .001), but age was not (hazard ratio, 1.22 for a 10-year increase; P = .25). The Weibull distribution fits the data significantly better than exponential (P = .02), suggesting nonconstant hazard. Conclusion Conditional probabilities provide encouraging information regarding life expectancy to survivors of glioblastoma multiforme. Our data also showed that the constant hazard assumption may be violated in modern brain tumor trials. For single-arm trials, we advise using individual patient data from historical data sets for efficacy comparisons. PMID:21969507

  16. THE ALTERNATIVE FOR SURVIVAL*

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The need of the time is to develop the traditional health care systems as a people oriented health care system. The factors that dominated the health care structure of our nation has been systematically pushing the traditional systems of medicine away from the people. In this background, an attempt has been made to reflect upon one's own experience, to understand the pattern of domination and to probe and suggest further on what could be the possible alternative development strategy and suggest specific tasks that would help define the development problematique in a meaningful manner in order to progress further in a self-determined manner PMID:22557469

  17. Will the olympics survive?.

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, T.

    1977-01-01

    The United States of America dominated 58 events in athletics, field and swimming, which between them accounted for 35 per cent of all events in the Munich Olympiad. 1972; these events favour taller individuals. But, in 25 per cent of other events (1) cycling, (2) fencing, (3) gymnastics, (4) judo, (5) weightlifting and (6) Graeco Roman wrestling the U.S.A. did not win a single medal. The failure of the U.S.A. to maintain her lead in Munich was largely due to weaknesses in these other events in many of which the potential medallists can be derived from the lower half of the height distribution (events 3 to 6). These weaknesses are Russia's strength and they continued to remain unstrengthened at Montreal. Also, the domination held by the U.S.A. in swimming was seriously challenged by East Germany. The present trends indicate that the U.S.A.'s ranking is likely to slip further to the third position in Moscow 1980. Factors inhibiting the survival of the Olympics are pointed. PMID:861436

  18. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor. PMID:27602193

  19. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  20. Surviving a Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor. PMID:27602193

  1. Determination of Survivable Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Niehaus, J. E.; Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Takahashi, F.; Easton, J. W.; Abbott, A. A.; Graf, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    At NASA, there exists no standardized design or testing protocol for spacecraft fire suppression systems (either handheld or total flooding designs). An extinguisher's efficacy in safely suppressing any reasonable or conceivable fire is the primary benchmark. That concept, however, leads to the question of what a reasonable or conceivable fire is. While there exists the temptation to over-size' the fire extinguisher, weight and volume considerations on spacecraft will always (justifiably) push for the minimum size extinguisher required. This paper attempts to address the question of extinguisher size by examining how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or other accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). Estimates of these quantities are determined as a function of fire size and mass of material burned. This then becomes the basis for determining the maximum size of a target fire for future fire extinguisher testing.

  2. Impact of metformin use on survival in locally-advanced, inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Inaya; Ferro, Adam; Cohler, Alan; Langenfeld, John; Surakanti, Sujani G.; Aisner, Joseph; Zou, Wei; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated survival outcomes in diabetic patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with concurrent metformin and definitive chemoradiation. Methods This single-institution, retrospective cohort study included 166 patients with NSCLC who were treated definitively with chemoradiation between 1999 and 2013. Of 40 patients who had type II diabetes, 20 (50%) were on metformin, and 20 (50%) were not on metformin. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS), and secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Kaplan Meier method and log-rank test were performed in survival analysis. Cox regression was utilized in univariate analysis of potential confounders. Results Median follow-up was 17.0 months. Compared with non-diabetic patients, diabetic patients on metformin demonstrated similar OS (16.3 vs. 14.3 mo, P=0.23), PFS (11.6 vs. 9.7 mo, P=0.26), LRRFS (14.1 vs. 11.9 mo, P=0.78), and DMFS (13.4 vs. 10.0 mo, P=0.69). Compared with diabetic patients not on metformin, diabetic patients on metformin also exhibited similar OS (14.3 vs. 19.2 mo, P=0.18), PFS (19.7 vs. 10.1 mo, P=0.38), LRRFS (11.9 vs. 15.5 mo, P=0.69), and DMFS (10.0 vs. 17.4 mo, P=0.12). Identified negative prognostic factors on included squamous cell histology, lower performance status, higher T stage, and non-caucasian ethnicity. Conclusions No statistically significant differences in survival or patterns of failure were found among the three cohorts in this small set of patients. No statistically significant differences in survival or patterns of failure were found between the three cohorts in this small set of patients. Though it is possible that metformin use may in fact have no effect on survival in NSCLC patients treated with definitive RT, larger-scale retrospective and prospective studies are implicated for clarification. PMID:25922712

  3. Biphasic survival analysis of trypanotolerance QTL in mice.

    PubMed

    Koudandé, O D; Thomson, P C; Bovenhuis, H; Iraqi, F; Gibson, J P; van Arendonk, J A M

    2008-04-01

    A marker-assisted introgression (MAI) experiment was conducted to transfer trypanotolerance quantitative trait loci (QTL) from a donor mouse strain, C57BL/6, into a recipient mouse strain, A/J. The objective was to assess the effect of three previously identified chromosomal regions on mouse chromosomes 1 (MMU1), 5 (MMU5) and 17 (MMU17) in different genetic backgrounds on the survival pattern following infection with Trypanosoma congolense. An exploratory data analysis revealed a biphasic pattern of time to death, with highly distinct early and late mortality phases. In this paper, we present survival analysis methods that account for the biphasic mortality pattern and results of reanalyzing the data from the MAI experiment. The analysis with a Weibull mixture model confirmed the biphasic pattern of time to death. Mortality phase, an unobserved variable, appears to be an important factor influencing survival time and is modeled as a binary outcome variable using logistic regression analysis. Accounting for this biphasic pattern in the analysis reveals that a previously observed sex effect on average survival is rather an effect on proportion of mice in the two mortality phases. The C57BL/6 (donor) QTL alleles on MMU1 and MMU17 act dominantly in the late mortality phase while the A/J (recipient) QTL allele on MMU17 acts dominantly in the early mortality phase. From this study, we found clear evidence for a biphasic survival pattern and provided models for its analysis. These models can also be used when studying defense mechanisms against other pathogens. Finally, these approaches provide further information on the nature of gene actions. PMID:18253157

  4. Surviving your new CEO.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Kevin P; Coyne, Edward J

    2007-05-01

    Almost 50% of the largest American firms will have a new CEO within the next four years; your company could very well be next. Senior executives know that a CEO transition means they're in for a round of firings, organizational reshuffles, and other unwelcome career changes. When your career suddenly depends on the views of a person you may not know, how worried should you be? According to the authors--very. They investigated the 2002-2004 CEO turnover rates of the top 1,000 U.S. companies and interviewed more than a dozen CEOs, each of whom had taken over at least one very large organization. Their study reveals that when a new CEO takes charge, remaining top managers are more likely than not to be shown the door. Those who leave often land in a lower position at a new company, work in a much smaller firm, or retire altogether. The news is not all grim, however. The interviewees offer some pointers on how to create a good impression and maximize your chances of survival and success under the new regime. Some of that advice may surprise you. One CEO pointed out, for instance, that "managers do not realize how much the CEO is looking for teammates on day one. I am amazed at how few people come through the door and say, 'I want to help. I may not be perfect, but I buy into your vision:" Other recommendations are more intuitive, such as learning the new CEO's working style, understanding her agenda, and helping her look good in her new position by achieving positive operating results--and soon. Along with the inevitable stresses, the authors point out, CEO transitions can provide opportunities. Whether you reinvigorate your career within your company or find fulfillment elsewhere, the key lies in deciding what you want to do--and then doing it right.

  5. Predicting Survival in ARDS.

    PubMed

    Karnik, Niteen D; Gupta, Anish V

    2015-11-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a fulminant clinical disorder of varied etiology, characterized by diffuse lung injury and severe hypoxemia. It is a leading cause of ICU admission and the associated high mortality has sparked a lot of research on etiology, outcome, scoring systems, mortality predictors, biomarkers including inflammatory cytokines and even genomics in ARDS. The previously used AECC (American European Consensus Conference) definition (1994) of ARDS was replaced by the recent Berlin definition (2012) so as to improve its validity and reliability.1,2 This would not only standardize patient enrollment into clinical trials but also help implement the results of these trials into clinical practice. Although various studies have shown a reduction in mortality due to ARDS, it has been largely attributed to the general improvement in critical care and the use of lung protection ventilation strategies.3-6 Hence focus on the etiology, co-morbidities, risk factors, complications and mortality predictors, is the need of the hour so as to improve survival. ARDS can occur secondary to multiple causes i.e. either due to direct lung involvement (pneumonia, lung contusion etc) or indirect alveolar damage by inflammatory cytokines (sepsis, trauma, burns, pancreatitis etc.). The causes of ARDS in tropical countries are varied with seasonal variation. Acute febrile illnesses (AFI) like malaria, leptospirosis and dengue usually predominate in the monsoons while H1N1 infection and pneumonias typically peak in the colder winter months. However, malaria, dengue and H1N1 have a potential to be perennial. PMID:27608777

  6. Infant survival in prematurity.

    PubMed

    CARTWRIGHT, E W

    1954-05-01

    Reduction of neonatal mortality and the rate of stillbirth may be expected from improved management of spontaneous labor and delivery.Neither roentgenographic measurement nor the inception of fetal movement or heartbeat nor any other single test is an index of fetal maturity; all must be considered together. Prenatal care, particularly supplemented diet, will help to avoid premature delivery, or at least to prolong pregnancy; since the fetus undergoes accelerated growth during the last weeks of pregnancy, even slight extension of gestation increases the chances for survival. Analgesia in the first stage of premature labor is contraindicated. Only low spinal anesthesia and other types of conduction anesthesia should be employed for later stages. The fetal membranes should be preserved as long as possible, but premature rupture does not call for immediate termination of pregnancy. Deep episiotomy and prophylactic outlet forceps are routinely employed to hasten the second stage of premature delivery and to protect the immature fetus. Breech presentation is managed by unassisted expulsion or by forceps extraction of the head. The umbilical cord is not immediately severed on delivery; administration of oxytocic drugs after the second stage of labor, combined with gentle stripping of the cord, results in rapid transfer of increased amount of placental blood. The airways of the infant should be immediately cleared. Artificial respiration may be necessary and it must be gentle.All premature infants should receive supplementary oxygen to render breathing regular and more efficient. They should be insulated immediately in controlled temperature and humidity, and they should be handled little.

  7. Presidential Survival in Tough Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Raymond C.

    Surviving the position of college president requires the development of a presidential survival kit filled with idiosyncratic items not normally associated with formal educational training. Strength, agility, control, and the ability to improvise are some of the talents required of a college president. In addition, the longevity and success of a…

  8. Patterning and templating for nanoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Galatsis, Kosmas; Wang, Kang L; Ozkan, Mihri; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Huang, Yu; Chang, Jane P; Monbouquette, Harold G; Chen, Yong; Nealey, Paul; Botros, Youssry

    2010-02-01

    The semiconductor industry will soon be launching 32 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology node using 193 nm lithography patterning technology to fabricate microprocessors with more than 2 billion transistors. To ensure the survival of Moore's law, alternative patterning techniques that offer advantages beyond conventional top-down patterning are aggressively being explored. It is evident that most alternative patterning techniques may not offer compelling advantages to succeed conventional top-down lithography for silicon integrated circuits, but alternative approaches may well indeed offer functional advantages in realising next-generation information processing nanoarchitectures such as those based on cellular, bioinsipired, magnetic dot logic, and crossbar schemes. This paper highlights and evaluates some patterning methods from the Center on Functional Engineered Nano Architectonics in Los Angeles and discusses key benchmarking criteria with respect to CMOS scaling.

  9. Foam patterns

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  10. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L

    2014-04-15

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth's biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this "geothermal glacial refugia" hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species.

  11. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth’s biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this “geothermal glacial refugia” hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species. PMID:24616489

  12. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L

    2014-04-15

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth's biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this "geothermal glacial refugia" hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species. PMID:24616489

  13. Using Survival Analysis to Understand Graduation of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schifter, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined when students with disabilities graduated high school and how graduation patterns differed for students based on selected demographic and educational factors. Utilizing statewide data on students with disabilities from Massachusetts from 2005 through 2012, the author conducted discrete-time survival analysis to estimate the…

  14. Marketing child survival.

    PubMed

    Grant, J P

    1984-01-01

    Growth monitoring charts, packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS), and vaccines, are inexpensive, life-saving, growth-protecting technologies which can enable parents to protect their children against the worst effects of poverty. Similarly, a matrix of current and easily understandable information about pregnancy, breast feeding, weaning, feeding during and immediately after illness, child spacing, and preparing and using home-made oral rehydration solutions, also could empower parents to protect the lives and the health of their children. The question arises as to how can these technologies and this information be put at the disposal of millions of families in the low-income world. The initial task of the Child Survival and Development Revolution is the communication of what is now possible, yet little is known about how to communicate information whose principal value is to the poor. There are 2 large-scale precedents: the Green Revolution, which in many instances succeeded in putting into the hands of thousands of small and large farmers the techniques and the knowledge which enabled them to double and treble the yields from their lands; and the campaign to put the knowledge and the means of family planning at the disposal of many millions of people. There are 2 lessons to be learned from these precedents: they have shown that the way to promote a people's technology and to put information at the disposal of the majority is by mobilizing all possible resources and working through all possible channels both to create the demand and to meet it; and neither the Green Revolution nor the family planning movement rally took off until they were viewed as political and economic priorities and given the full support of the nation's political leadership. Nowhere are these 2 lessons more clearly illustrated than in present-day Indonesia. Because the campaign for family planning was given high personal and political priority by the President, and because 85% of all family

  15. Developmental and evolutionary history affect survival in stressful environments.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Gareth R; Brodie, Edmund D; French, Susannah S

    2014-01-01

    The world is increasingly impacted by a variety of stressors that have the potential to differentially influence life history stages of organisms. Organisms have evolved to cope with some stressors, while with others they have little capacity. It is thus important to understand the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival in stressful environments. We present evidence of the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival of a freshwater vertebrate, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) in an osmotically stressful environment. We compared the survival of larvae in either NaCl or MgCl2 that were exposed to salinity either as larvae only or as embryos as well. Embryonic exposure to salinity led to greater mortality of newt larvae than larval exposure alone, and this reduced survival probability was strongly linked to the carry-over effect of stunted embryonic growth in salts. Larval survival was also dependent on the type of salt (NaCl or MgCl2) the larvae were exposed to, and was lowest in MgCl2, a widely-used chemical deicer that, unlike NaCl, amphibian larvae do not have an evolutionary history of regulating at high levels. Both developmental and evolutionary history are critical factors in determining survival in this stressful environment, a pattern that may have widespread implications for the survival of animals increasingly impacted by substances with which they have little evolutionary history.

  16. Developmental and Evolutionary History Affect Survival in Stressful Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Gareth R.; Brodie, Edmund D.; French, Susannah S.

    2014-01-01

    The world is increasingly impacted by a variety of stressors that have the potential to differentially influence life history stages of organisms. Organisms have evolved to cope with some stressors, while with others they have little capacity. It is thus important to understand the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival in stressful environments. We present evidence of the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival of a freshwater vertebrate, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) in an osmotically stressful environment. We compared the survival of larvae in either NaCl or MgCl2 that were exposed to salinity either as larvae only or as embryos as well. Embryonic exposure to salinity led to greater mortality of newt larvae than larval exposure alone, and this reduced survival probability was strongly linked to the carry-over effect of stunted embryonic growth in salts. Larval survival was also dependent on the type of salt (NaCl or MgCl2) the larvae were exposed to, and was lowest in MgCl2, a widely-used chemical deicer that, unlike NaCl, amphibian larvae do not have an evolutionary history of regulating at high levels. Both developmental and evolutionary history are critical factors in determining survival in this stressful environment, a pattern that may have widespread implications for the survival of animals increasingly impacted by substances with which they have little evolutionary history. PMID:24748021

  17. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  18. miRNAs in multiple myeloma – a survival relevant complex regulator of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Seckinger, Anja; MeiΔner, Tobias; Moreaux, Jérôme; Benes, Vladimir; Hillengass, Jens; Castoldi, Mirco; Zimmermann, Jürgen; Ho, Anthony D.; Jauch, Anna; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard; Hose, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose microRNAs regulate gene-expression in biological and pathophysiological processes, including multiple myeloma. Here we address i) What are the number and magnitude of changes in miRNA-expression between normal plasma cells and myeloma- or MGUS-samples, and the latter two? ii) What is the biological relevance and how does miRNA-expression impact on gene-expression? iii) Is there a prognostic significance, and what is its background? Experimental design Ninety-two purified myeloma-, MGUS-, normal plasma cell- and myeloma cell line-samples were investigated using miChip-arrays interrogating 559 human miRNAs. Impact on gene-expression was assessed by Affymetrix DNA-microarrays in two cohorts of myeloma patients (n = 677); chromosomal aberrations were assessed by iFISH, survival for 592 patients undergoing up-front high-dose chemotherapy. Results Compared to normal plasma cells, 67/559 miRNAs (12%) with fold changes of 4.6 to −3.1 are differentially expressed in myeloma-, 20 (3.6%) in MGUS-samples, and three (0.5%) between MGUS and myeloma. Expression of miRNAs is associated with proliferation, chromosomal aberrations, tumor mass, and gene expression-based risk-scores. This holds true for target-gene signatures of regulated mRNAs. miRNA-expression confers prognostic significance for event-free and overall survival, as do respective target-gene signatures. Conclusions The myeloma-miRNome confers a pattern of small changes of individual miRNAs impacting on gene-expression, biological functions, and survival. PMID:26472281

  19. Results of radiotherapy for stage I and II Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, G.S.; Ferree, C.R.; Raben, M.

    1982-06-01

    Fifty-six patients with pathologically staged I and II (A and B) Hodgkin's disease were treated with radiation therapy. Three-year relapse-free survival, total survival, and complications were analyzed. Chemotherapy was valuable as rescue treatment and as part of the initial treatment in patients with stage IIB disease. Complications were minimal.

  20. Survival and DNA degradation in anhydrobiotic tardigrades.

    PubMed

    Rebecchi, L; Cesari, M; Altiero, T; Frigieri, A; Guidetti, R

    2009-12-01

    Anhydrobiosis is a highly stable state of suspended animation in an organism due to its desiccation, which is followed by recovery after rehydration. Changes occurring during drying could damage molecules, including DNA. Using the anhydrobiotic tardigrade Paramacrobiotus richtersi as a model organism, we have evaluated the effects of environmental factors, such as temperature and air humidity level (RH), on the survival of desiccated animals and on the degradation of their DNA. Tardigrades naturally desiccated in leaf litter and tardigrades experimentally desiccated on blotting paper were considered. Replicates were kept at 37 degrees C and at different levels of RH for 21 days. RH values and temperature, as well as time of exposure to these environmental factors, have a negative effect on tardigrade survival and on the time required by animals to recover active life after desiccation. DNA damages (revealed as single strand breaks) occurred only in desiccated tardigrades kept for a long time at high RH values. These results indicate that during the anhydrobiotic state, damages take place and accumulate with time. Two hypotheses can be formulated to explain the results: (i) oxidative damages occur in desiccated specimens of P. richtersi, and (ii) high temperatures and high RH values change the state of the disaccharide trehalose, reducing its protective role.

  1. Correlation between donor age and the pattern of liver graft recovery after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yersiz, H; Shaked, A; Olthoff, K; Imagawa, D; Shackleton, C; Martin, P; Busuttil, R W

    1995-10-27

    We have observed an increased rate of delayed nonfunction (DNF) of liver grafts procured from older donors. The aim of this study was to correlate donor age and the patterns of graft failure after transplantation. Pattern of liver injury, synthetic function, and graft survival in recipients receiving liver grafts from donor older than age 50 (group I, n = 95) were compared with matched cohort of recipients transplanted with grafts from donors age 20-30 (group III, n = 50). Primary nonfunction (PNF) of the graft was defined as non-recoverable hepatocellular function necessitating emergency retransplantation within 72 hr. DNF was defined as marginal graft function necessitating retransplantation within one month. Recipient characteristics, including age and preoperative UNOS status, were similar between groups. Ischemic/reperfusion injury, reflected by SGOT and SGPT was more severe in older donors. PNF occurred at similar frequencies for all groups (7%). Normal liver function was regained in 76% of recipients in group I, and in 92% in group II. However, cholestatic pattern was observed in recipient of grafts from group I donors. Rapid rise in bilirubin, despite normalization of prothrombin time and liver transaminases, was the hallmark of DNF. DNF resulted in higher retransplantation rate in group I (24% vs. 8% in group II). Donor age did not affect patient survival. Liberalizing criteria for donor selection, and acceptance of older donors is a calculated risk. Over 75% of the recipients will regain normal liver function. However, a higher number of these grafts will exhibit slow recovery after transplantation, and a significant rate of DNF. Recognition of such pattern and early retransplantation should decrease mortality.

  2. Survivability of Deterministic Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, Frank; Schultz, Paul; Grabow, Carsten; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    The notion of a part of phase space containing desired (or allowed) states of a dynamical system is important in a wide range of complex systems research. It has been called the safe operating space, the viability kernel or the sunny region. In this paper we define the notion of survivability: Given a random initial condition, what is the likelihood that the transient behaviour of a deterministic system does not leave a region of desirable states. We demonstrate the utility of this novel stability measure by considering models from climate science, neuronal networks and power grids. We also show that a semi-analytic lower bound for the survivability of linear systems allows a numerically very efficient survivability analysis in realistic models of power grids. Our numerical and semi-analytic work underlines that the type of stability measured by survivability is not captured by common asymptotic stability measures.

  3. [Physical activity and cancer survival].

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Touillaud, Marina; Ferrari, Pietro; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Antoun, Sami; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie; Bachmann, Patrick; Duclos, Martine; Ninot, Grégory; Romieu, Gilles; Sénesse, Pierre; Behrendt, Jan; Balosso, Jacques; Pavic, Michel; Kerbrat, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Trédan, Olivier; Fervers, Béatrice

    2012-10-01

    Physical activity has been shown in large cohort studies to positively impact survival in cancer survivors. Existing randomized controlled trials showed a beneficial effect of physical activity on physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety and self-esteem; however, the small sample size, the short follow-up and the lack of standardization of physical activity intervention across studies impaired definite conclusion in terms of survival. Physical activity reduces adiposity and circulating estrogen levels and increases insulin sensitivity among other effects. A workshop was conducted at the International Agency for Research on Cancer in April 2011 to discuss the role of physical activity on cancer survival and the methodology to develop multicentre randomized intervention trials, including the type of physical activity to implement and its association with nutritional recommendations. The authors discuss the beneficial effect of physical activity on cancer survival with a main focus on breast cancer and report the conclusions from this workshop. PMID:24007856

  4. Survivability of Deterministic Dynamical Systems.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Frank; Schultz, Paul; Grabow, Carsten; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The notion of a part of phase space containing desired (or allowed) states of a dynamical system is important in a wide range of complex systems research. It has been called the safe operating space, the viability kernel or the sunny region. In this paper we define the notion of survivability: Given a random initial condition, what is the likelihood that the transient behaviour of a deterministic system does not leave a region of desirable states. We demonstrate the utility of this novel stability measure by considering models from climate science, neuronal networks and power grids. We also show that a semi-analytic lower bound for the survivability of linear systems allows a numerically very efficient survivability analysis in realistic models of power grids. Our numerical and semi-analytic work underlines that the type of stability measured by survivability is not captured by common asymptotic stability measures. PMID:27405955

  5. The Survival of the Wisest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salk, Jonas

    1975-01-01

    Suggests that humans differ from other living organisms in the ability to exercise learned behavior and the individual will, which may allow people to make the changes in values necessary to survive on this planet. (DW)

  6. Natural Freedom and Wilderness Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, George E.

    1978-01-01

    The "naturalism" of Jean Jacques Rousseau offers a philosophical base for wilderness survival: the renewal of participants in nature so that they can reenter civilization with a proper balance of natural and civil liberty. (MJB)

  7. Staying Alive: Problems of Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalheim, Bill

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an approach to the teaching of biological diversity using the theme of survival. Teaching methods for this approach and the advantages of its use are discussed. A suggested course outline is included. (CW)

  8. Survivability of Deterministic Dynamical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hellmann, Frank; Schultz, Paul; Grabow, Carsten; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The notion of a part of phase space containing desired (or allowed) states of a dynamical system is important in a wide range of complex systems research. It has been called the safe operating space, the viability kernel or the sunny region. In this paper we define the notion of survivability: Given a random initial condition, what is the likelihood that the transient behaviour of a deterministic system does not leave a region of desirable states. We demonstrate the utility of this novel stability measure by considering models from climate science, neuronal networks and power grids. We also show that a semi-analytic lower bound for the survivability of linear systems allows a numerically very efficient survivability analysis in realistic models of power grids. Our numerical and semi-analytic work underlines that the type of stability measured by survivability is not captured by common asymptotic stability measures. PMID:27405955

  9. [Physical activity and cancer survival].

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Touillaud, Marina; Ferrari, Pietro; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Antoun, Sami; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie; Bachmann, Patrick; Duclos, Martine; Ninot, Grégory; Romieu, Gilles; Sénesse, Pierre; Behrendt, Jan; Balosso, Jacques; Pavic, Michel; Kerbrat, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Trédan, Olivier; Fervers, Béatrice

    2012-10-01

    Physical activity has been shown in large cohort studies to positively impact survival in cancer survivors. Existing randomized controlled trials showed a beneficial effect of physical activity on physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety and self-esteem; however, the small sample size, the short follow-up and the lack of standardization of physical activity intervention across studies impaired definite conclusion in terms of survival. Physical activity reduces adiposity and circulating estrogen levels and increases insulin sensitivity among other effects. A workshop was conducted at the International Agency for Research on Cancer in April 2011 to discuss the role of physical activity on cancer survival and the methodology to develop multicentre randomized intervention trials, including the type of physical activity to implement and its association with nutritional recommendations. The authors discuss the beneficial effect of physical activity on cancer survival with a main focus on breast cancer and report the conclusions from this workshop.

  10. Multi-event capture–recapture modeling of host–pathogen dynamics among European rabbit populations exposed to myxoma and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses: common and heterogeneous patterns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Host–pathogen epidemiological processes are often unclear due both to their complexity and over-simplistic approaches used to quantify them. We applied a multi-event capture–recapture procedure on two years of data from three rabbit populations to test hypotheses about the effects on survival of, and the dynamics of host immunity to, both myxoma virus and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (MV and RHDV). Although the populations shared the same climatic and management conditions, MV and RHDV dynamics varied greatly among them; MV and RHDV seroprevalences were positively related to density in one population, but RHDV seroprevalence was negatively related to density in another. In addition, (i) juvenile survival was most often negatively related to seropositivity, (ii) RHDV seropositives never had considerably higher survival, and (iii) seroconversion to seropositivity was more likely than the reverse. We suggest seropositivity affects survival depending on trade-offs among antibody protection, immunosuppression and virus lethality. Negative effects of seropositivity might be greater on juveniles due to their immature immune system. Also, while RHDV directly affects survival through the hemorrhagic syndrome, MV lack of direct lethal effects means that interactions influencing survival are likely to be more complex. Multi-event modeling allowed us to quantify patterns of host–pathogen dynamics otherwise difficult to discern. Such an approach offers a promising tool to shed light on causative mechanisms. PMID:24708296

  11. Arcobacter butzleri survives within trophozoite of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, María P; Medina, Gustavo; Fernández, Heriberto

    2016-01-01

    The survival of three Arcobacter butzleri strains inside Acanthamoeba castellanii was assessed using axenic cultures of A. castellanii that were inoculated with the tested strains and incubated at 26°C under aerobic conditions for 240h. The behavior of bacteria in contact with amoebae was monitored using phase contrast microscopy. The bacterial survival rate within amoebae was assessed through counting colony forming units, using the gentamicin protection assay. All A. butzleri strains were able to survive during 240h within the amoebae, thus suggesting that (i) A. butzleri resists the amoebic digestion processes at least for the analyzed time; (ii) that A. castellanii could serve as an environmental reservoir for this bacterium, probably acting as a transmission vehicle for A. butzleri. PMID:26972277

  12. Customer service skills for survival.

    PubMed

    McAtee, L F

    1999-11-01

    As APICS practitioners, we all must share a common goal. How can we contribute to our company's success? Success can be measured in positive terms of market share, growth, profitability, return on investment, or some combination thereof. Each company must establish its own definition of success. For the purposes of this article, success will be equated to one word that we can all readily identify with: survival. What skills do we need to survive in the marketplace of the next millennium?

  13. Long-term haemodialysis survival

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Arne Høj; Hansen, Henrik Post

    2012-01-01

    Haemodialysis (HD) treatment for end-stage renal disease bears a poor prognosis. We present a case of a patient who, apart from two transplant periods lasting 8 months in all, was treated with conventional in-centre HD three times a week and who survived for 41 years. Patients should be aware that there is no theoretical upper limit for patient survival on HD. PMID:22833810

  14. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  15. BORE II

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migratemore » upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.« less

  16. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  17. Pattern Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Rebecca

    2006-03-01

    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  18. Psychosocial correlates of survival in advanced malignant disease?

    PubMed

    Cassileth, B R; Lusk, E J; Miller, D S; Brown, L L; Miller, C

    1985-06-13

    Prospective studies of the general population have isolated specific social and psychological factors as independent predictors of longevity. This study assesses the ability of these factors, plus two others said to influence survival in patients with cancer, to predict survival and the time to relapse after a diagnosis of cancer. Patients with unresectable cancers (n = 204) were followed to determine the length of survival. Patients with Stage I or II melanoma or Stage II breast cancer (n = 155) were followed to determine the time to relapse. Analysis of data on these 359 patients indicates that social and psychological factors individually or in combination do not influence the length of survival or the time to relapse (P less than 0.10). The specific diagnosis (F = 2.0, P = 0.06), performance status (F = 0.66, P = 0.62), extent of disease (F = 1.12, P = 0.89), and therapy (F = 1.08, P = 0.35) were also unrelated to the psychosocial factors studied. Although these factors may contribute to the initiation of morbidity, the biology of the disease appears to predominate and to override the potential influence of life-style and psychosocial variables once the disease process is established.

  19. Survival without recovery after mass extinctions

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, David

    2002-01-01

    Because many survivors of mass extinctions do not participate in postrecovery diversifications, and therefore fall into a pattern that can be termed “Dead Clade Walking” (DCW), the effects of mass extinctions extend beyond the losses observed during the event itself. Analyses at two taxonomic levels provide a first-order test of the prevalence of DCWs by using simple and very conservative operational criteria. For four of the Big Five mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic, the marine genera that survived the extinction suffered ≈10–20% attrition in the immediately following geologic stage that was significantly greater than the losses sustained in preextinction stages. The stages immediately following the three Paleozoic mass extinctions also account for 17% of all order-level losses in marine invertebrates over that interval, which is, again, significantly greater than that seen for the other stratigraphic stages (no orders are lost immediately after the end-Triassic or end-Cretaceous mass extinctions). DCWs are not evenly distributed among four regional molluscan time-series following the end-Cretaceous extinction, demonstrating the importance of spatial patterns in recovery dynamics. Although biotic interactions have been invoked to explain the differential postextinction success of clades, such hypotheses must be tested against alternatives that include stochastic processes in low-diversity lineages—which is evidently not a general explanation for the ordinal DCW patterns, because postextinction fates are not related to the size of extinction bottlenecks in Paleozoic orders—and ongoing physical environmental changes. PMID:12060760

  20. Survival without recovery after mass extinctions.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, David

    2002-06-11

    Because many survivors of mass extinctions do not participate in postrecovery diversifications, and therefore fall into a pattern that can be termed "Dead Clade Walking" (DCW), the effects of mass extinctions extend beyond the losses observed during the event itself. Analyses at two taxonomic levels provide a first-order test of the prevalence of DCWs by using simple and very conservative operational criteria. For four of the Big Five mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic, the marine genera that survived the extinction suffered approximately 10-20% attrition in the immediately following geologic stage that was significantly greater than the losses sustained in preextinction stages. The stages immediately following the three Paleozoic mass extinctions also account for 17% of all order-level losses in marine invertebrates over that interval, which is, again, significantly greater than that seen for the other stratigraphic stages (no orders are lost immediately after the end-Triassic or end-Cretaceous mass extinctions). DCWs are not evenly distributed among four regional molluscan time-series following the end-Cretaceous extinction, demonstrating the importance of spatial patterns in recovery dynamics. Although biotic interactions have been invoked to explain the differential postextinction success of clades, such hypotheses must be tested against alternatives that include stochastic processes in low-diversity lineages-which is evidently not a general explanation for the ordinal DCW patterns, because postextinction fates are not related to the size of extinction bottlenecks in Paleozoic orders-and ongoing physical environmental changes.

  1. Escherichia coli survival in waters: temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, R A; Pachepsky, Y; Hill, R L; Shelton, D R; Whelan, G

    2013-02-01

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q₁₀ model. This suggestion was made 34 years ago based on 20 survival curves taken from published literature, but has not been revisited since then. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the accuracy of the Q₁₀ equation, utilizing data accumulated since 1978. We assembled a database of 450 E. coli survival datasets from 70 peer-reviewed papers. We then focused on the 170 curves taken from experiments that were performed in the laboratory under dark conditions to exclude the effects of sunlight and other field factors that could cause additional variability in results. All datasets were tabulated dependencies "log concentration vs. time." There were three major patterns of inactivation: about half of the datasets had a section of fast log-linear inactivation followed by a section of slow log-linear inactivation; about a quarter of the datasets had a lag period followed by log-linear inactivation; and the remaining quarter were approximately linear throughout. First-order inactivation rate constants were calculated from the linear sections of all survival curves and the data grouped by water sources, including waters of agricultural origin, pristine water sources, groundwater and wells, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, estuaries and seawater, and wastewater. Dependency of E. coli inactivation rates on temperature varied among the water sources. There was a significant difference in inactivation rate values at the reference temperature between rivers and agricultural waters, wastewaters and agricultural waters, rivers and lakes, and wastewater and lakes. At specific sites, the Q₁₀ equation was more accurate in rivers and coastal waters than in lakes making the value of

  2. Mixture models for cancer survival analysis: application to population-based data with covariates.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, R; Capocaccia, R; Hakulinen, T; Soderman, B; Verdecchia, A

    1999-02-28

    The interest in estimating the probability of cure has been increasing in cancer survival analysis as the curability of many cancer diseases is becoming a reality. Mixture survival models provide a way of modelling time to death when cure is possible, simultaneously estimating death hazard of fatal cases and the proportion of cured case. In this paper we propose an application of a parametric mixture model to relative survival rates of colon cancer patients from the Finnish population-based cancer registry, and including major survival determinants as explicative covariates. Disentangling survival into two different components greatly facilitates the analysis and the interpretation of the role of prognostic factors on survival patterns. For example, age plays a different role in determining, from one side, the probability of cure, and, from the other side, the life expectancy of fatal cases. The results support the hypothesis that observed survival trends are really due to a real prognostic gain for more recently diagnosed patients.

  3. Phase I-II clinical trial of Californium-252. Treatment of stage IB carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Y; VanNagell, J R; Yoneda, J; Donaldson, E; Gallion, H; Rowley, K; Kryscio, R; Beach, J L

    1987-04-15

    Intracavitary Californium-252 combined with whole-pelvis photon radiotherapy was tested as the sole form of treatment for 22 patients with Stage IB carcinoma of the cervix. Californium-252 (Cf) is a fast neutron-emitting radioisotope currently being tested in trials of neutron brachytherapy (NT). The outcomes of the treated group of patients were traced for local tumor control, survival, patterns of failure, and complications. The Cf intracavitary therapy combined with whole-pelvis photon radiotherapy resulted in 95% 2-year and 91% 5-year actuarial survival. There were 9% Grade II-III complications by the Stockholm scale and 4% local failures. These results were obtained in an early clinical trial with a group of largely poor-risk patients with tumors of mean diameter of 4.3 cm.

  4. Cholinergic neuronotrophic factors: V. Segregation of survival- and neurite-promoting activities in heart-conditioned media.

    PubMed

    Adler, R; Varon, S

    1980-04-28

    Chick embryo ciliary ganglionic (CG) neurons will not survive in monolayer culture unless special supplements are provided in the medium. We have previously reported that two such supplements, chick embryo extract and medium conditioned over chick heart cell cultures (HCM) share the capacity to support survival of CG neurons but differ in their neurite-promoting effects. Thus, embryo extract elicited neuritic outgrowth only on collagen and HCM did so only on polyornithine (PORN), although both agents supported neuronal survival on both substrata. We report here the separation and quantitation of two different HCM components. One is a trophic agent which supports survival of CG neurons on either collagen or PORN, but does not seem to adsorb to either substratum. The other is a neurite-promoting factor (NPF) which adsorbs to PORN but not to collagen. Overnight incubation of HCM on PORN yields two products: (i) an NPF-deprived HCM, that has no neurite-promoting activity and (ii) an NPF-coated PORN, that promotes neuritic development of CG neurons trophically supported by either embryo extract or NPF-deprived HCM. CG requirements for neuritic outgrowth were also examined in explant cultures. No neurites were present after 24 h when explants were cultured in plain medium on PORN. Very extensive radial neuritic outgrowth was observed when explants were cultured in HCM on fresh PORN, or in NPF-deprived HCM on NPF-derivatized PORN. In contrast to what happens with dissociated cells, neuritic outgrowth was also present when ganglia were cultured in NPF-deprived HCM on fresh PORN. However, neurites grew radially only to a limited extent, after which they adopted a circular pattern grossly concentric to the ganglionic explant. It is proposed that explanted ciliary ganglia produce a neurite-promoting factor that coats the PORN substratum in widening circles.

  5. Probabilistic Survivability Versus Time Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, James J., Sr.

    2015-01-01

    This technical paper documents Kennedy Space Centers Independent Assessment team work completed on three assessments for the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program to assist the Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer (CSO) and GSDO management during key programmatic reviews. The assessments provided the GSDO Program with an analysis of how egress time affects the likelihood of astronaut and worker survival during an emergency. For each assessment, the team developed probability distributions for hazard scenarios to address statistical uncertainty, resulting in survivability plots over time. The first assessment developed a mathematical model of probabilistic survivability versus time to reach a safe location using an ideal Emergency Egress System at Launch Complex 39B (LC-39B); the second used the first model to evaluate and compare various egress systems under consideration at LC-39B. The third used a modified LC-39B model to determine if a specific hazard decreased survivability more rapidly than other events during flight hardware processing in Kennedys Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB).Based on the composite survivability versus time graphs from the first two assessments, there was a soft knee in the Figure of Merit graphs at eight minutes (ten minutes after egress ordered). Thus, the graphs illustrated to the decision makers that the final emergency egress design selected should have the capability of transporting the flight crew from the top of LC 39B to a safe location in eight minutes or less. Results for the third assessment were dominated by hazards that were classified as instantaneous in nature (e.g. stacking mishaps) and therefore had no effect on survivability vs time to egress the VAB. VAB emergency scenarios that degraded over time (e.g. fire) produced survivability vs time graphs that were line with aerospace industry norms.

  6. Multiple tumours in survival estimates.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Stefano; De Angelis, Roberta; Ciccolallo, Laura; Carrani, Eugenio; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Grande, Enrico; Zigon, Giulia; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-04-01

    In international comparisons of cancer registry based survival it is common practice to restrict the analysis to first primary tumours and exclude multiple cancers. The probability of correctly detecting subsequent cancers depends on the registry's running time, which results in different proportions of excluded patients and may lead to biased comparisons. We evaluated the impact on the age-standardised relative survival estimates of also including multiple primary tumours. Data from 2,919,023 malignant cancers from 69 European cancer registries participating in the EUROCARE-4 collaborative study were used. A total of 183,683 multiple primary tumours were found, with an overall proportion of 6.3% over all the considered cancers, ranging from 0.4% (Naples, Italy) to 12.9% (Iceland). The proportion of multiple tumours varied greatly by type of tumour, being higher for those with high incidence and long survival (breast, prostate and colon-rectum). Five-year relative survival was lower when including patients with multiple cancers. For all cancers combined the average difference was -0.4 percentage points in women and -0.7 percentage points in men, and was greater for older registries. Inclusion of multiple tumours led to lower survival in 44 out of 45 cancer sites analysed, with the greatest differences found for larynx (-1.9%), oropharynx (-1.5%), and penis (-1.3%). Including multiple primary tumours in survival estimates for international comparison is advisable because it reduces the bias due to different observation periods, age, registration quality and completeness of registration. The general effect of inclusion is to reduce survival estimates by a variable amount depending on the proportion of multiple primaries and cancer site.

  7. Prediction of Breast Cancer Survival Through Knowledge Discovery in Databases

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Hadi Lotfnezhad; Ahmadi, Maryam; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    The collection of large volumes of medical data has offered an opportunity to develop prediction models for survival by the medical research community. Medical researchers who seek to discover and extract hidden patterns and relationships among large number of variables use knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) to predict the outcome of a disease. The study was conducted to develop predictive models and discover relationships between certain predictor variables and survival in the context of breast cancer. This study is Cross sectional. After data preparation, data of 22,763 female patients, mean age 59.4 years, stored in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) breast cancer dataset were analyzed anonymously. IBM SPSS Statistics 16, Access 2003 and Excel 2003 were used in the data preparation and IBM SPSS Modeler 14.2 was used in the model design. Support Vector Machine (SVM) model outperformed other models in the prediction of breast cancer survival. Analysis showed SVM model detected ten important predictor variables contributing mostly to prediction of breast cancer survival. Among important variables, behavior of tumor as the most important variable and stage of malignancy as the least important variable were identified. In current study, applying of the knowledge discovery method in the breast cancer dataset predicted the survival condition of breast cancer patients with high confidence and identified the most important variables participating in breast cancer survival. PMID:25946945

  8. Prediction of breast cancer survival through knowledge discovery in databases.

    PubMed

    Lotfnezhad Afshar, Hadi; Ahmadi, Maryam; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-01-26

    The collection of large volumes of medical data has offered an opportunity to develop prediction models for survival by the medical research community. Medical researchers who seek to discover and extract hidden patterns and relationships among large number of variables use knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) to predict the outcome of a disease. The study was conducted to develop predictive models and discover relationships between certain predictor variables and survival in the context of breast cancer. This study is Cross sectional. After data preparation, data of 22,763 female patients, mean age 59.4 years, stored in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) breast cancer dataset were analyzed anonymously. IBM SPSS Statistics 16, Access 2003 and Excel 2003 were used in the data preparation and IBM SPSS Modeler 14.2 was used in the model design. Support Vector Machine (SVM) model outperformed other models in the prediction of breast cancer survival. Analysis showed SVM model detected ten important predictor variables contributing mostly to prediction of breast cancer survival. Among important variables, behavior of tumor as the most important variable and stage of malignancy as the least important variable were identified. In current study, applying of the knowledge discovery method in the breast cancer dataset predicted the survival condition of breast cancer patients with high confidence and identified the most important variables participating in breast cancer survival.

  9. BRM polymorphisms, pancreatic cancer risk and survival.

    PubMed

    Segedi, Maja; Anderson, Laura N; Espin-Garcia, Osvaldo; Borgida, Ayelet; Bianco, Teresa; Cheng, Dangxiao; Chen, Zhuo; Patel, Devalben; Brown, M Catherine; Xu, Wei; Reisman, David; Gallinger, Steven; Cotterchio, Michelle; Hung, Rayjean; Liu, Geoffrey; Cleary, Sean P

    2016-12-01

    Variant alleles of two promoter polymorphisms in the BRM gene (BRM-741, BRM-1321), create MEF2D transcription binding sites that lead to epigenetic silencing of BRM, the key catalytic component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. BRM suppression can be reversed pharmacologically.(1) Our group and others have reported associations with lung, head and neck, hepatocellular cancer risk,(1-3) and with lung and esophageal cancer prognosis (ASCO 2013; abstract 11057 & 4077). Herein, we assessed risk and survival associations with pancreatic cancer. A provincial population-based case-control study was conducted with 623 histologically confirmed pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases and 1,192 age/gender distribution-matched controls.(4) Survival of cases was obtained through the Ontario Cancer Registry. Logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression models were fitted, adjusting for relevant covariates. Median age was 65 y; 52% were male; Stage I (8%), II (55%), III (14%), IV (23%); 53% after curative resection, 79% after chemotherapy; and 83% had died. In the risk analysis, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were 1.01 (95% CI: 0.1-2.0) and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.7-1.3) for the homozygotes of BRM-741 and BRM-1321, respectively; aOR of double-homozygotes was 1.11 (95% CI: 0.80-1.53), compared to the double-wildtype. For the survival analysis, adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were 2.19 (95% CI: 1.9-2.5) for BRM-741 and 1.94 (95% CI: 1.7-2.2) for BRM-1321, per unit increase in variant alleles. Compared with the double-wildtype, aHR for carrying no, one, and two double-homozygotes were 2.14 (95% CI: 1.6-2.8), 4.17 (95% CI: 3.0-5.7), 8.03 (95% CI: 5.7-11.4), respectively. In conclusion, two functional promoter BRM polymorphisms were not associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma risk, but are strongly associated with survival. PMID:27487558

  10. Network Signatures of Survival in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vishal N.; Gokulrangan, Giridharan; Chowdhury, Salim A.; Chen, Yanwen; Sloan, Andrew E.; Koyutürk, Mehmet; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Chance, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    To determine a molecular basis for prognostic differences in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we employed a combinatorial network analysis framework to exhaustively search for molecular patterns in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. We identified a dysregulated molecular signature distinguishing short-term (survival<225 days) from long-term (survival>635 days) survivors of GBM using whole genome expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). A 50-gene subnetwork signature achieved 80% prediction accuracy when tested against an independent gene expression dataset. Functional annotations for the subnetwork signature included “protein kinase cascade,” “IκB kinase/NFκB cascade,” and “regulation of programmed cell death” – all of which were not significant in signatures of existing subtypes. Finally, we used label-free proteomics to examine how our subnetwork signature predicted protein level expression differences in an independent GBM cohort of 16 patients. We found that the genes discovered using network biology had a higher probability of dysregulated protein expression than either genes exhibiting individual differential expression or genes derived from known GBM subtypes. In particular, the long-term survivor subtype was characterized by increased protein expression of DNM1 and MAPK1 and decreased expression of HSPA9, PSMD3, and CANX. Overall, we demonstrate that the combinatorial analysis of gene expression data constrained by PPIs outlines an approach for the discovery of robust and translatable molecular signatures in GBM. PMID:24068912

  11. Cultural background and infant survival in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2006-05-01

    This study is premised on the hypothesis that ethnic specific socio-cultural practices such as dietary taboos and food avoidances on mothers and infants, as well as perceptions of disease aetiology and treatment patterns may be salient to understanding infant mortality differentials in Ghana. To inform policy, the paper explores if there are significant ethnic differences in infant survival, and whether such differences reflect socio-economic disparities or intrinsic factors. Using data from the 1998 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, there was evidence of significant ethnic differences in infant survival at the bivariate level. Using Asante mothers as reference, the risk of death was significantly higher among children whose mothers were Mole-Dagbani, Grussi, Gruma, Dagarti, Fanti and Other Akan. In the multivariate models, however, the higher mortality risks associated with these children significantly attenuated after controlling for the socio-economic and bio-demographic factors except for the Fanti. The findings are discussed with reference to the characteristics and cultural theoretical paradigms.

  12. Survival of freezing by free-living Antarctic soil nematodes.

    PubMed

    Convey, P; Worland, M R

    2000-01-01

    Free-living microbivorous nematodes become numerically dominant in Antarctic terrestrial faunas as environmental conditions become more severe, while also reaching very high levels of abundance in moist, vegetated habitats. Nematodes have little resistance to freezing via exogenous ice nucleation, such as would occur as their microhabitat freezes. We report the results of experiments testing the ability of seven maritime Antarctic nematode taxa to survive freezing in small water droplets at high sub-zero temperatures. Isolated individuals of these species possessed supercooling characteristics similar to those previously reported (supercooling points -6 to -25 degree C). When frozen in water at -3 to -6 degree C, most showed high (> 70%) survival both (i) after rapid cooling (1 degree C/min) to c. -60 degree C followed by immediate rewarming, and (ii) when held for 7-12 h at either -10 or -30 degree C, although the proportions surviving varied between species. We propose that the ability to survive freezing while fully hydrated at high sub-zero temperatures is one of the most important aspects of these species' survival tactics.

  13. Graft-versus-host disease treatment: predictors of survival.

    PubMed

    Levine, John E; Logan, Brent; Wu, Juan; Alousi, Amin M; Ho, Vincent; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Weisdorf, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is the major reason for nonrelapse mortality (NRM), and thus is a major determinant of long-term survival. Clinical trials of new aGVHD treatments are needed to identify approaches that will ultimately improve upon HCT survival. At present, it is not clear how quickly response to GVHD treatment needs to be established to reliably categorize patients at high risk for death or to promptly identify those who might benefit from alternate treatment. Therefore, we analyzed time to response from onset of aGVHD treatment in 180 patients who were enrolled on a national, randomized, phase II aGVHD treatment clinical trial whose initial treatment of GVHD consisted of high-dose steroids plus a second immunosuppressive agent. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether time to aGVHD treatment response predicts patient outcomes, especially survival. We used response at 14, 28, and 56 days from initiation of aGVHD treatment to categorize patients for NRM and survival. Multivariate analyses and specificity/sensitivity analyses identified that day 28 response (complete or partial response) best categorized patients by NRM and survival at 9 months from start of aGVHD treatment. If verified as a reliable predictor of late outcomes following other aGVHD treatment approaches, day 28 response should serve as a standard early endpoint for future trials of aGVHD therapy.

  14. Zinc concentration and survival in rats infected with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Tocco-Bradley, R; Kluger, M J

    1984-01-01

    Percent survival was measured in male rats injected intravenously with live Salmonella typhimurium when plasma and tissue zinc levels were manipulated. Alzet pumps implanted intraperitoneally infused zinc gluconate or sodium gluconate (controls) from the onset of infection to 72 h postinfection. Plasma and tissue zinc levels were manipulated by infusing (i) 180 micrograms of Zn per h to achieve supranormal plasma and tissue zinc concentrations, (ii) 120 micrograms of Zn per h to prevent the infection-induced fall and to maintain plasma zinc levels at noninfection levels while raising tissue levels above that of infected controls, and (iii) 30 micrograms of Zn per h to increase tissue zinc levels while allowing the infection-induced decrease in plasma zinc. Preventing the fall in plasma zinc while raising liver zinc to supranormal levels enhanced rather than reduced percent survival; raising plasma and liver zinc to supranormal levels returned survival to control levels. Loading the liver with an excess of zinc without changing plasma zinc (30 micrograms of Zn per h) did not increase percent survival in the infected host. Pretreatment or administration of zinc at the time of infection led to increased percent survival compared with administration of zinc 4 h after the onset of infection. PMID:6746092

  15. Surviving cancer without compromising aspirations.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Sandra

    2011-07-01

    This short paper is a reflection of how one person coped, survived and grew following numerous metastatic incidences over a 20 year period. Surviving cancer is a complex process but coping with the threat of regular recurrence has required a coping strategy that embraced the disease, set it aside and refused to compromise hopes, dreams and future life. Central to this personal journey has been the need to redefine normality, live with and set aside the fear of future metastases and death and find an answer and meaning in a changing biology, increased morbidity and possible mortality. This paper contends that not compromising the direction of travel and being able to focus on a career has ensured that survival was valuable and valued. A working environment in which students' problems have been immediate has produced different stressors. These have ultimately forced personal worries to be set aside, while living with cancer has become normal and accepted. PMID:21514884

  16. Surviving cancer without compromising aspirations.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Sandra

    2011-07-01

    This short paper is a reflection of how one person coped, survived and grew following numerous metastatic incidences over a 20 year period. Surviving cancer is a complex process but coping with the threat of regular recurrence has required a coping strategy that embraced the disease, set it aside and refused to compromise hopes, dreams and future life. Central to this personal journey has been the need to redefine normality, live with and set aside the fear of future metastases and death and find an answer and meaning in a changing biology, increased morbidity and possible mortality. This paper contends that not compromising the direction of travel and being able to focus on a career has ensured that survival was valuable and valued. A working environment in which students' problems have been immediate has produced different stressors. These have ultimately forced personal worries to be set aside, while living with cancer has become normal and accepted.

  17. Survival of Sami cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Soininen, Leena; Pokhrel, Arun; Dyba, Tadek; Pukkala, Eero; Hakulinen, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The incidence of cancer among the indigenous Sami people of Northern Finland is lower than among the Finnish general population. The survival of Sami cancer patients is not known, and therefore it is the object of this study. Study design The cohort consisted of 2,091 Sami and 4,161 non-Sami who lived on 31 December 1978 in the two Sami municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki, which are located in Northern Finland and are 300–500 km away from the nearest central hospital. The survival experience of Sami and non-Sami cancer patients diagnosed in this cohort during 1979–2009 was compared with that of the Finnish patients outside the cohort. Methods The Sami and non-Sami cancer patients were matched to other Finnish cancer patients for gender, age and year of diagnosis and for the site of cancer. An additional matching was done for the stage at diagnosis. Cancer-specific survival analyses were made using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modelling. Results There were 204 Sami and 391 non-Sami cancer cases in the cohort, 20,181 matched controls without matching with stage, and 7,874 stage-matched controls. In the cancer-specific analysis without stage variable, the hazard ratio for Sami was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.30) and for non-Sami 1.02 (0.86–1.20), indicating no difference between the survival of those groups and other patients in Finland. Likewise, when the same was done by also matching the stage, there was no difference in cancer survival. Conclusion Long distances to medical care or Sami ethnicity have no influence on the cancer patient survival in Northern Finland. PMID:22765936

  18. The Women's Guide to Surviving Graduate School. Graduate Survival Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner, Barbara; Trudeau, Patricia

    This guidebook offers advice to women students on surviving and thriving in graduate school. It takes the reader from the graduate school selection process to completing the program successfully. Written in a informal style, the 11 chapters include: (1) "Should You Go to Graduate School?" (pros and cons of attending graduate school, deciding what…

  19. Survival of Human Dental Plaque Flora in Various Transport Media

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Salam A.; Loesche, Walter J.

    1972-01-01

    Dental plaque samples from (i) subjects with no apparent oral disease, (ii) mentally retarded subjects with periodontal disease, and (iii) subjects with active caries were collected in three transport media viz. a dithiothreitol poised balanced mineral salt solution designated as reduced transport fluid (RTF), VMG II, and modified Stuart medium (SBL). The samples were dispersed by sonic treatment, diluted in the respective medium in which they were collected, and cultured on MM10 sucrose agar. The efficiency of the transport media in the survival of dental plaque flora was determined by comparing the quantitative recovery (expressed as percentage of the initial viable count) from the specimens stored for various lengths of time. The data showed a great variation in the recovery of the oral bacterial flora from the plaque samples. VMG II and SBL served better than RTF as storage media for non-disease-associated dental plaque cultured under strict anaerobic conditions. Recoveries of bacteria from periodontal plaque specimens stored in RTF were higher than SBL and VMG II under identical conditions. The organisms present in the carious plaque samples appeared to survive much better in RTF and VMG II than in SBL as determined by conventional anaerobic culturing technique. However, VMG II showed a higher recovery of organisms from these specimens with an increase in the storage period, suggesting multiplication of the plaque flora. RTF did not allow the growth of oral bacterial flora under all experimental conditions. On the basis of the relative performance of these media it is suggested that RTF is a satisfactory medium for the transport of oral bacteria present in the samples. PMID:4628799

  20. Survival analysis and neural nets.

    PubMed

    Liestøl, K; Andersen, P K; Andersen, U

    1994-06-30

    We consider feed-forward neural nets and their relation to regression models for survival data. We show how the back-propagation algorithm may be used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates in certain standard regression models for survival data, as well as in various generalizations of these. Examples concerning malignant melanoma and post-partum amenorrhoea during lactation are used as illustration. We conclude that although problems with the substantial number of parameters and their interpretation remain, the feed-forward neural network models are flexible extensions to the standard regression models and thereby candidates for use in prediction and exploratory analyses in larger data sets.

  1. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control.

  2. Complementary Gompertz survival models: decreasing alive versus increasing dead.

    PubMed

    Easton, Dexter M

    2009-05-01

    The survival patterns of many animals can be classified into one of two asymmetric sigmoid forms: One group can be predicted from the standard, classical Gompertz assumption that, with age, the number of individuals alive in the population decreases exponentially at an exponentially increasing rate. The other can be predicted from the alternative Gompertz assumption that, with age, the number of individuals that have died increases exponentially at an exponentially decreasing rate. The two models have similar mathematical forms, but the curves are not the same. In contrast to the standard, the alternative form has an early rapid fall and terminates in a gradual decay of the number of live individuals. It fits "non-Gompertzian" survival plots that are not predicted by the number-alive assumption. Analyses of published data show one or the other survival mode in various animal populations, depending on sex, genetic strain, nutrition, or activity.

  3. Pleistocene survival of an archaic dwarf baleen whale (Mysticeti: Cetotheriidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boessenecker, Robert W.

    2013-04-01

    Pliocene baleen whale assemblages are characterized by a mix of early records of extant mysticetes, extinct genera within modern families, and late surviving members of the extinct family Cetotheriidae. Although Pleistocene baleen whales are poorly known, thus far they include only fossils of extant genera, indicating Late Pliocene extinctions of numerous mysticetes alongside other marine mammals. Here a new fossil of the Late Neogene cetotheriid mysticete Herpetocetus is reported from the Lower to Middle Pleistocene Falor Formation of Northern California. This find demonstrates that at least one archaic mysticete survived well into the Quaternary Period, indicating a recent loss of a unique niche and a more complex pattern of Plio-Pleistocene faunal overturn for marine mammals than has been previously acknowledged. This discovery also lends indirect support to the hypothesis that the pygmy right whale ( Caperea marginata) is an extant cetotheriid, as it documents another cetotheriid nearly surviving to modern times.

  4. Growth patterns of craniopharyngiomas: clinical analysis of 226 patients.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jun; Qi, Songtao; Liu, Yi; Lu, Yuntao; Peng, Junxiang; Zhang, XiAn; Xu, YiKai; Huang, Guang-Long; Fan, Jun

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are rare epithelial tumors that are often associated with an enigmatic and unpredictable growth pattern. Understanding the growth patterns of these tumors has a direct impact on surgical planning and may enhance the safety of radical tumor removal. The aim of this study was to analyze the growth patterns and surgical treatment of CPs with a focus on the involvement of the hypothalamopituitary axis and the relationship of the tumor to the arachnoid membrane and surrounding structures. METHODS Clinical data from 226 consecutive patients with primary CP were retrospectively reviewed. Tumor location and the relationship of the tumor to the third ventricle floor and the pituitary stalk were evaluated using preoperative MRI and intraoperative findings. A topographic classification scheme was proposed based on the site of tumor origin and tumor development. The clinical relevance of this classification on patient presentation and outcomes was also analyzed. RESULTS The growth of CPs can be broadly divided into 3 groups based on the site of tumor origin and on tumor-meningeal relationships: Group I, infrasellar/infradiaphragmatic CPs (Id-CPs), which mainly occurred in children; Group II, suprasellar subarachnoid extraventricular CPs (Sa-CPs), which were mainly observed in adults and rarely occurred in children; and Group III, suprasellar subpial ventricular CPs (Sp-CPs), which commonly occurred in both adults and children. Tumors in each group may develop complex growth patterns during vertical expansion along the pituitary stalk. Tumor growth patterns were closely related to both clinical presentation and outcomes. Patients with Sp-CPs had more prevalent weight gain than patients with Id-CPs or Sa-CPs; the rates of significant weight gain were 41.7% for children and 16.7% for adults with Sp-CPs, 2.2% and 7.1% for those with Id-CPs, and 12.5% and 2.6% for those with Sa-CPs (p < 0.001). Moreover, patients with Sp-CPs had increased

  5. Mass spectrometry and potentiometry studies of Pb(II)-, Cd(II)- and Zn(II)-cystine complexes.

    PubMed

    Furia, Emilia; Aiello, Donatella; Di Donna, Leonardo; Mazzotti, Fabio; Tagarelli, Antonio; Thangavel, Hariprasad; Napoli, Anna; Sindona, Giovanni

    2014-01-21

    Cd(II)-, Pb(II)- and Zn(II)-cystine complexes were investigated by potentiometric and different mass spectrometric (MS) methodologies. Laser desorption mass spectrometry has provided both the composition and structure of metal-cystine complexes according to the speciation models proposed on the basis of the potentiometric data. Detection of neutral complexes was achieved by protonation or electrochemical reduction during mass spectrometric experiments. The redox activity of metal-cystine complexes was confirmed by laser desorption and charge transfer matrix assisted laser assisted MS experiments, which allowed us to observe the formation of complexes with a reduction of cystine. The stoichiometry of Cd(II)-, Pb(II)- and Zn(II)-cystine complexes was defined by observing the isotopic pattern of the investigated compound. The results suggest that interaction occurs through the carboxylate group of the ligand.

  6. Soil moisture and fungi affect seed survival in California grassland annual plants.

    PubMed

    Mordecai, Erin A

    2012-01-01

    Survival of seeds in the seed bank is important for the population dynamics of many plant species, yet the environmental factors that control seed survival at a landscape level remain poorly understood. These factors may include soil moisture, vegetation cover, soil type, and soil pathogens. Because many soil fungi respond to moisture and host species, fungi may mediate environmental drivers of seed survival. Here, I measure patterns of seed survival in California annual grassland plants across 15 species in three experiments. First, I surveyed seed survival for eight species at 18 grasslands and coastal sage scrub sites ranging across coastal and inland Santa Barbara County, California. Species differed in seed survival, and soil moisture and geographic location had the strongest influence on survival. Grasslands had higher survival than coastal sage scrub sites for some species. Second, I used a fungicide addition and exotic grass thatch removal experiment in the field to tease apart the relative impact of fungi, thatch, and their interaction in an invaded grassland. Seed survival was lower in the winter (wet season) than in the summer (dry season), but fungicide improved winter survival. Seed survival varied between species but did not depend on thatch. Third, I manipulated water and fungicide in the laboratory to directly examine the relationship between water, fungi, and survival. Seed survival declined from dry to single watered to continuously watered treatments. Fungicide slightly improved seed survival when seeds were watered once but not continually. Together, these experiments demonstrate an important role of soil moisture, potentially mediated by fungal pathogens, in driving seed survival.

  7. Soil Moisture and Fungi Affect Seed Survival in California Grassland Annual Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mordecai, Erin A.

    2012-01-01

    Survival of seeds in the seed bank is important for the population dynamics of many plant species, yet the environmental factors that control seed survival at a landscape level remain poorly understood. These factors may include soil moisture, vegetation cover, soil type, and soil pathogens. Because many soil fungi respond to moisture and host species, fungi may mediate environmental drivers of seed survival. Here, I measure patterns of seed survival in California annual grassland plants across 15 species in three experiments. First, I surveyed seed survival for eight species at 18 grasslands and coastal sage scrub sites ranging across coastal and inland Santa Barbara County, California. Species differed in seed survival, and soil moisture and geographic location had the strongest influence on survival. Grasslands had higher survival than coastal sage scrub sites for some species. Second, I used a fungicide addition and exotic grass thatch removal experiment in the field to tease apart the relative impact of fungi, thatch, and their interaction in an invaded grassland. Seed survival was lower in the winter (wet season) than in the summer (dry season), but fungicide improved winter survival. Seed survival varied between species but did not depend on thatch. Third, I manipulated water and fungicide in the laboratory to directly examine the relationship between water, fungi, and survival. Seed survival declined from dry to single watered to continuously watered treatments. Fungicide slightly improved seed survival when seeds were watered once but not continually. Together, these experiments demonstrate an important role of soil moisture, potentially mediated by fungal pathogens, in driving seed survival. PMID:22720037

  8. Spatial pattern affects diversity-productivity relationships in experimental meadow communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Lepš, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is

  9. Reading As a Survival Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Patricia E.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a technique for the development of survival reading activity packets for the science classroom. The reading packets described include labels from different food and medicine products and from magazine and newspaper articles. Three types of questions were used with each packet: factual, interpretive, and application. (DS)

  10. Wilderness Emergency: Surviving the Unexpected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fear, Gene

    In any unexpected survival experience, one must accept the situation with just what one has at the moment it happens, where it happens, and how it happens. Problem solving must be based on known body enemies that threaten life, their priority of influence, and their severity of threat to life. Solutions will depend on the body's energy supply,…

  11. Wilderness Survival and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Matt

    Outdoor education is often delivered through games and activities such as nature hikes or observing an ecosystem within a 1-foot circle on the ground. Often, participants look closely at the earth only for that brief moment. Wilderness survival is another way to teach about the outdoors. It offers skills that encourage participants to become more…

  12. Cool echidnas survive the fire.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Julia; Cooper, Christine Elizabeth; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-04-13

    Fires have occurred throughout history, including those associated with the meteoroid impact at the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) boundary that eliminated many vertebrate species. To evaluate the recent hypothesis that the survival of the K-Pg fires by ancestral mammals was dependent on their ability to use energy-conserving torpor, we studied body temperature fluctuations and activity of an egg-laying mammal, the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), often considered to be a 'living fossil', before, during and after a prescribed burn. All but one study animal survived the fire in the prescribed burn area and echidnas remained inactive during the day(s) following the fire and substantially reduced body temperature during bouts of torpor. For weeks after the fire, all individuals remained in their original territories and compensated for changes in their habitat with a decrease in mean body temperature and activity. Our data suggest that heterothermy enables mammals to outlast the conditions during and after a fire by reducing energy expenditure, permitting periods of extended inactivity. Therefore, torpor facilitates survival in a fire-scorched landscape and consequently may have been of functional significance for mammalian survival at the K-Pg boundary. PMID:27075255

  13. Top 10 Staff Survival Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Laurie

    1995-01-01

    Tips for camp staff on how to survive summer camp include not giving campers sugary drinks before bedtime, setting behavior limits with campers, setting an example by following camp rules, getting enough rest, being fair and consistent, controlling anger, being accountable for actions, asking questions, and being flexible. (LP)

  14. Expression of MMP-1/PAR-1 and patterns of invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma as potential prognostic markers

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hai-Xia; Chen, Yan; Ni, Bo-Xiong; Wang, Shan; Sun, Miao; Chen, Dong; Zheng, Jin-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 degrades type I collagen of the extracellular matrix and also activates protease activated receptor (PAR)-1 to induce angiogenesis. The aims of this study were to evaluate microvessel density (MVD) and the expression of PAR-1 and MMP-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) specimens with different patterns of invasion (POI) and to evaluate their association with clinical outcomes. Methods Seventy-four surgically obtained oral SCC samples were classified by POI according to hematoxylin-eosin staining. MVD and the localization and intensity of PAR-1 and MMP-1 expression were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results Of the 74 oral SCC samples, 18, 5, 34, and 17 showed type I, II, III, and IV POI, respectively. MVD and expression levels of MMP-1 and PAR-1 differed between POI types I–II and POI types III–IV. Patients with low tumor expression of MMP-1 and PAR-1 and low MVD had a longer survival time than those with high tumor expression of MMP-1 and PAR-1. Moreover, the survival time of patients with POI types III–IV was shorter than that of patients with POI types I–II. Conclusion POI combined with expression levels of MMP-1 and PAR-1 may be a valuable tool for assessing the clinical prognosis of patients with oral SCC. PMID:26170698

  15. Corticosteroids compromise survival in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Pitter, Kenneth L; Tamagno, Ilaria; Alikhanyan, Kristina; Hosni-Ahmed, Amira; Pattwell, Siobhan S; Donnola, Shannon; Dai, Charles; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Chang, Maria; Chan, Timothy A; Beal, Kathryn; Bishop, Andrew J; Barker, Christopher A; Jones, Terreia S; Hentschel, Bettina; Gorlia, Thierry; Schlegel, Uwe; Stupp, Roger; Weller, Michael; Holland, Eric C; Hambardzumyan, Dolores

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumour. Standard of care consists of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and concomitant and maintenance temozolomide (temozolomide/radiotherapy→temozolomide). Corticosteroids are commonly used perioperatively to control cerebral oedema and are frequently continued throughout subsequent treatment, notably radiotherapy, for amelioration of side effects. The effects of corticosteroids such as dexamethasone on cell growth in glioma models and on patient survival have remained controversial. We performed a retrospective analysis of glioblastoma patient cohorts to determine the prognostic role of steroid administration. A disease-relevant mouse model of glioblastoma was used to characterize the effects of dexamethasone on tumour cell proliferation and death, and to identify gene signatures associated with these effects. A murine anti-VEGFA antibody was used in parallel as an alternative for oedema control. We applied the dexamethasone-induced gene signature to The Cancer Genome Atlas glioblastoma dataset to explore the association of dexamethasone exposure with outcome. Mouse experiments were used to validate the effects of dexamethasone on survival in vivo Retrospective clinical analyses identified corticosteroid use during radiotherapy as an independent indicator of shorter survival in three independent patient cohorts. A dexamethasone-associated gene expression signature correlated with shorter survival in The Cancer Genome Atlas patient dataset. In glioma-bearing mice, dexamethasone pretreatment decreased tumour cell proliferation without affecting tumour cell viability, but reduced survival when combined with radiotherapy. Conversely, anti-VEGFA antibody decreased proliferation and increased tumour cell death, but did not affect survival when combined with radiotherapy. Clinical and mouse experimental data suggest that corticosteroids may decrease the effectiveness of treatment and shorten

  16. Plasticity and rectangularity in survival curves

    PubMed Central

    Weon, Byung Mook; Je, Jung Ho

    2011-01-01

    Living systems inevitably undergo a progressive deterioration of physiological function with age and an increase of vulnerability to disease and death. To maintain health and survival, living systems should optimize survival strategies with adaptive interactions among molecules, cells, organs, individuals, and environments, which arises plasticity in survival curves of living systems. In general, survival dynamics in a population is mathematically depicted by a survival rate, which monotonically changes from 1 to 0 with age. It would be then useful to find an adequate function to describe complicated survival dynamics. Here we describe a flexible survival function, derived from the stretched exponential function by adopting an age-dependent shaping exponent. We note that the exponent is associated with the fractal-like scaling in cumulative mortality rate. The survival function well depicts general features in survival curves; healthy populations exhibit plasticity and evolve towards rectangular-like survival curves, as examples in humans or laboratory animals. PMID:22355622

  17. AIAA Survivability Technical Committee Draft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Jim; Williamson, Joel

    1997-01-01

    A relatively new area of interest in aerospace systems survivability is the growing threat of spacecraft penetration by orbital debris. Orbital debris, or "space junk", is composed of the man-made remnants of non-functioning spacecraft still orbiting the Earth. NASA estimates that there are currently over 100,000 orbital debris particles 1 centimeter in diameter or larger that cannot be tracked by existing radar, with the population growing at approximately 4% per year in low earth orbits. With an average velocity of over 8.7 km/sec, these projectiles can penetrate and disable many vulnerable spacecraft systems. Since the likelihood of spacecraft penetration increases with spacecraft surface area, large spacecraft (such as the International Space Station) and communication satellite fleets (such as Iridium) have begun to adopt survivability enhancement strategies similar to those employed by combat aircraft. Collision avoidance maneuvers are commonly practiced by the Space Shuttle and are planned by the International Space Station to decrease their susceptibility to impact by trackable orbital debris; likewise, improved shielding, internal equipment placement, and improved crew operations following penetration can reduce the vulnerability of spacecraft to loss following orbital debris impact. Computer simulations such as the Manned Spacecraft and Crew Survivability (MSCSurv) program at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center have recently been developed to quantify and reduce the likelihood of crew or spacecraft loss following orbital debris penetration. The AIAA Survivability Technical Committee is working to enable the transfer of military-developed survivability technologies to help the aerospace industry cope with this growing threat.

  18. Plant pattern-recognition receptors.

    PubMed

    Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-07-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to would-be pathogens in their immediate environment. Yet, despite relying on innate immunity only, plants are resistant to most microbes. They employ pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) for sensitive and rapid detection of the potential danger caused by microbes and pests. Plant PRRs are either surface-localized receptor kinases (RKs) or receptor-like proteins (RLPs) containing various ligand-binding ectodomains that perceive pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In this review, I summarize our current knowledge of plant PRRs and their ligands, illustrating the multiple molecular strategies employed by plant PRRs to activate innate immune signaling to survive.

  19. Cancer survival in Barshi, India, 1993-2000.

    PubMed

    Jayant, K; Nene, B M; Dinshaw, K A; Badwe, R A; Panse, N S; Thorat, R V

    2011-01-01

    The rural cancer registry of Barshi, Paranda and Bhum, was the first of its kind in India and was established in 1987. Registration of cases is carried out entirely by active methods. Data on survival from 15 cancer sites or types registered during 1993-2000 are reported in this study. Follow-up has been carried out predominantly by active methods, with median follow-up time ranging between 2-49 months for different cancers. The proportion of histologically verified diagnosis for various cancers ranged between 73-98%; death certificates only (DCOs) comprised 0-2%; 98-100% of total registered cases were included for survival analysis. Complete follow-up at five years ranged between 96-100% for different cancers. The 5-year age-standardized relative survival rates for selected cancers were non-melanoma skin (86%), penis (63%), breast (61%), cervix (32%), mouth (23%), hypopharynx (11%) and oesophagus (4%). The 5-year relative survival by age group did not display any particular pattern. Five-year relative survival trend between 1988-1992 and 1993-2000 showed a marked decrease for cancers of the tongue, hypopharynx, stomach, rectum, larynx, lung and penis; but a notable increase for breast and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:21675411

  20. Melanoma-specific MHC-II expression represents a tumour-autonomous phenotype and predicts response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Douglas B.; Estrada, Monica V.; Salgado, Roberto; Sanchez, Violeta; Doxie, Deon B.; Opalenik, Susan R.; Vilgelm, Anna E.; Feld, Emily; Johnson, Adam S.; Greenplate, Allison R.; Sanders, Melinda E.; Lovly, Christine M.; Frederick, Dennie T.; Kelley, Mark C.; Richmond, Ann; Irish, Jonathan M.; Shyr, Yu; Sullivan, Ryan J.; Puzanov, Igor; Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Balko, Justin M.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-PD-1 therapy yields objective clinical responses in 30–40% of advanced melanoma patients. Since most patients do not respond, predictive biomarkers to guide treatment selection are needed. We hypothesize that MHC-I/II expression is required for tumour antigen presentation and may predict anti-PD-1 therapy response. In this study, across 60 melanoma cell lines, we find bimodal expression patterns of MHC-II, while MHC-I expression was ubiquitous. A unique subset of melanomas are capable of expressing MHC-II under basal or IFNγ-stimulated conditions. Using pathway analysis, we show that MHC-II(+) cell lines demonstrate signatures of ‘PD-1 signalling', ‘allograft rejection' and ‘T-cell receptor signalling', among others. In two independent cohorts of anti-PD-1-treated melanoma patients, MHC-II positivity on tumour cells is associated with therapeutic response, progression-free and overall survival, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ tumour infiltrate. MHC-II+ tumours can be identified by melanoma-specific immunohistochemistry using commercially available antibodies for HLA-DR to improve anti-PD-1 patient selection. PMID:26822383

  1. Patterns of Hydrocephalus Caused by Congenital Toxoplasma gondii Infection Associate With Parasite Genetics.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Samuel L; Wheeler, Kelsey M; McLone, David; Frim, David; Penn, Richard; Swisher, Charles N; Heydemann, Peter T; Boyer, Kenneth M; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Rabiah, Peter; Withers, Shawn; Montoya, Jose G; Wroblewski, Kristen; Karrison, Theodore; Grigg, Michael E; McLeod, Rima

    2015-12-15

    Four anatomical patterns of hydrocephalus secondary to congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection were identified and characterized for infants enrolled in the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study. Analysis of parasite serotype revealed that different anatomical patterns associate with Type-II vs Not-Exclusively Type-II strains (NE-II) (P = .035).

  2. Recent cancer survival in Germany: an analysis of common and less common cancers.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lina; Castro, Felipe A; Gondos, Adam; Krilaviciute, Agne; Barnes, Benjamin; Eberle, Andrea; Emrich, Katharina; Hentschel, Stefan; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-06-01

    The monitoring of cancer survival by population-based cancer registries is a prerequisite to evaluate the current quality of cancer care. Our study provides 1-, 5- and 10-year relative survival as well as 5-year relative survival conditional on 1-year survival estimates and recent survival trends for Germany using data from 11 population-based cancer registries, covering around one-third of the German population. Period analysis was used to estimate relative survival for 24 common and 11 less common cancer sites for the period 2007-2010. The German and the United States survival estimates were compared using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results 13 database. Trends in cancer survival in Germany between 2002-2004 and 2008-2010 were described. Five-year relative survival increased in Germany from 2002-2004 to 2008-2010 for most cancer sites. Among the 24 most common cancers, largest improvements were seen for multiple myeloma (8.0% units), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6.2% units), prostate cancer (5.2% units) and colorectal cancer (4.6% units). In 2007-2010, the survival disadvantage in Germany compared to the United States was largest for cancers of the mouth/pharynx (-11.0% units), thyroid (-6.8% units) and prostate (-7.5% units). Although survival estimates were much lower for elderly patients in both countries, differences in age patterns were observed for some cancer sites. The reported improvements in cancer survival might reflect advances in the quality of cancer care on the population level as well as increased use of screening in Germany. The survival differences across countries and the survival disadvantage in the elderly require further investigation.

  3. Use of the recursion formula of the Gompertz survival function to evaluate life-table data.

    PubMed

    Bassukas, I D

    1996-08-29

    The recursion formula of the Gompertz function is an established method for the analysis of growth processes. In the present study the recursion formula of the Gompertz survival function 1n S(t + s) = a + b x ln S(t) is introduced for the analysis of survival data, where S(t) is the survival fraction at age 1, s is the constant age increment between two consecutive measurements of the survival fraction and a and b are parameters. With the help of this method--and provided stroboscopial measurements of rates of survival are available--the Gompertz survival function, instead of the corresponding mortality function, can be determined directly using linear regression analysis. The application of the present algorithm is demonstrated by analysing two sets of data taken from the literature (survival of Drosophila imagoes and of female centenarians) using linear regression analysis to fit survival or mortality rates to the corresponding models. In both cases the quality of fit was superior by using the algorithm presently introduced. Moreover, survival functions calculated from the fits to the mortality law only poorly predict the survival data. On the contrary, the results of the present method not only fit to the measurements, but, for both sets of data the mortality parameters calculated by the present method are essentially identical to those obtained by a corresponding application of a non-linear Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm to fit the same sets of data to the explicit form of the Gompertz survival function. Taking into consideration the advantages of using a linear fit (goodness-of-fit test and efficient statistical comparison of survival patterns) the method of the recursion formula of the Gompertz survival function is the most preferable method to fit survival data to the Gompertz function.

  4. Recent cancer survival in Germany: an analysis of common and less common cancers.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lina; Castro, Felipe A; Gondos, Adam; Krilaviciute, Agne; Barnes, Benjamin; Eberle, Andrea; Emrich, Katharina; Hentschel, Stefan; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-06-01

    The monitoring of cancer survival by population-based cancer registries is a prerequisite to evaluate the current quality of cancer care. Our study provides 1-, 5- and 10-year relative survival as well as 5-year relative survival conditional on 1-year survival estimates and recent survival trends for Germany using data from 11 population-based cancer registries, covering around one-third of the German population. Period analysis was used to estimate relative survival for 24 common and 11 less common cancer sites for the period 2007-2010. The German and the United States survival estimates were compared using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results 13 database. Trends in cancer survival in Germany between 2002-2004 and 2008-2010 were described. Five-year relative survival increased in Germany from 2002-2004 to 2008-2010 for most cancer sites. Among the 24 most common cancers, largest improvements were seen for multiple myeloma (8.0% units), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6.2% units), prostate cancer (5.2% units) and colorectal cancer (4.6% units). In 2007-2010, the survival disadvantage in Germany compared to the United States was largest for cancers of the mouth/pharynx (-11.0% units), thyroid (-6.8% units) and prostate (-7.5% units). Although survival estimates were much lower for elderly patients in both countries, differences in age patterns were observed for some cancer sites. The reported improvements in cancer survival might reflect advances in the quality of cancer care on the population level as well as increased use of screening in Germany. The survival differences across countries and the survival disadvantage in the elderly require further investigation. PMID:25380088

  5. Survival of auditory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Michelle L; Pereira, Fred A

    2015-07-01

    The inability of mammals to regenerate auditory hair cells creates a pressing need to understand the means of enhancing hair cell survival following insult or injury. Hair cells are easily damaged by noise exposure, by ototoxic medications and as a consequence of aging processes, all of which lead to progressive and permanent hearing impairment as hair cells are lost. Significant efforts have been invested in designing strategies to prevent this damage from occurring since permanent hearing loss has a profound impact on communication and quality of life for patients. In this mini-review, we discuss recent progress in the use of antioxidants, anti-inflammatories and apoptosis inhibitors to enhance hair cell survival. We conclude by clarifying the distinction between protection and rescue strategies and by highlighting important areas of future research.

  6. Does Random Dispersion Help Survival?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinazi, Rinaldo B.

    2015-04-01

    Many species live in colonies that prosper for a while and then collapse. After the collapse the colony survivors disperse randomly and found new colonies that may or may not make it depending on the new environment they find. We use birth and death chains in random environments to model such a population and to argue that random dispersion is a superior strategy for survival.

  7. Dispersion as a Survival Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junior, Valdivino Vargas; Machado, Fábio Prates; Roldán-Correa, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    We consider stochastic growth models to represent population subject to catastrophes. We analyze the subject from different set ups considering or not spatial restrictions, whether dispersion is a good strategy to increase the population viability. We find out it strongly depends on the effect of a catastrophic event, the spatial constraints of the environment and the probability that each exposed individual survives when a disaster strikes.

  8. Survival of hendra virus in the environment: modelling the effect of temperature.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, J C; Kung, N Y; Selleck, P W; Field, H E

    2015-03-01

    Hendra virus (HeV), a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus recently emerged from bats, is a major concern to the horse industry in Australia. Previous research has shown that higher temperatures led to lower virus survival rates in the laboratory. We develop a model of survival of HeV in the environment as influenced by temperature. We used 20 years of daily temperature at six locations spanning the geographic range of reported HeV incidents to simulate the temporal and spatial impacts of temperature on HeV survival. At any location, simulated virus survival was greater in winter than in summer, and in any month of the year, survival was higher in higher latitudes. At any location, year-to-year variation in virus survival 24 h post-excretion was substantial and was as large as the difference between locations. Survival was higher in microhabitats with lower than ambient temperature, and when environmental exposure was shorter. The within-year pattern of virus survival mirrored the cumulative within-year occurrence of reported HeV cases, although there were no overall differences in survival in HeV case years and non-case years. The model examines the effect of temperature in isolation; actual virus survivability will reflect the effect of additional environmental factors.

  9. In vitro survival of human pathogenic fungi in Hawaiian beach sand.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J H

    1979-03-01

    In vitro studies utilizing 4 pathogenic fungi, Trichosporon cutaneum, Candida albicans, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, all known from Hawaiian beaches, indicate that they survive in the fluctuating beach habitat where they can serve as potential sources of infection for significant periods of time. Survival was measured by testing the viability of propagules at intervals for 6 months. All species survived 6 months under 1 or more experimental conditions. Survival patterns showed both increases and decreases depending upon the given parameters designed to simulate various beach conditions. Propagules inoculated on hair and horn (keratinized inoculum) did not remain viable longer than propagules from pure culture suspensions (non-keratinized). Microbial antagonism was not a major factor in survival. All species survived at least 1 month in non-sterile sand inoculated with keratinized propagules. This condition approximated the natural sand habitat. Alternate wetting and drying of sand caused an overall decrease in survival time except for M. gypseum (non-keratinized inoculum) at 37 degrees C in sterile sand and T. mentagrophytes (keratinized inoculum) at 37 degrees C in non-sterile sand. Temperature was important: increasing temperature resulted in a general decrease in survival time; 45 degrees C was definitely inhibitory, with the exception of T. cutaneum which survived that level for 6 months (keratinized inoculum). Salinity did not influence survival. PMID:375438

  10. Proline Mechanisms of Stress Survival

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xinwen; Zhang, Lu; Natarajan, Sathish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The imino acid proline is utilized by different organisms to offset cellular imbalances caused by environmental stress. The wide use in nature of proline as a stress adaptor molecule indicates that proline has a fundamental biological role in stress response. Understanding the mechanisms by which proline enhances abiotic/biotic stress response will facilitate agricultural crop research and improve human health. Recent Advances: It is now recognized that proline metabolism propels cellular signaling processes that promote cellular apoptosis or survival. Studies have shown that proline metabolism influences signaling pathways by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the mitochondria via the electron transport chain. Enhanced ROS production due to proline metabolism has been implicated in the hypersensitive response in plants, lifespan extension in worms, and apoptosis, tumor suppression, and cell survival in animals. Critical Issues: The ability of proline to influence disparate cellular outcomes may be governed by ROS levels generated in the mitochondria. Defining the threshold at which proline metabolic enzyme expression switches from inducing survival pathways to cellular apoptosis would provide molecular insights into cellular redox regulation by proline. Are ROS the only mediators of proline metabolic signaling or are other factors involved? Future Directions: New evidence suggests that proline biosynthesis enzymes interact with redox proteins such as thioredoxin. An important future pursuit will be to identify other interacting partners of proline metabolic enzymes to uncover novel regulatory and signaling networks of cellular stress response. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 998–1011. PMID:23581681

  11. Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.

    PubMed

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

    2000-07-22

    Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

  12. Illusory contour formation survives crowding.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jonathan Siu Fung; Cheung, Sing-Hang

    2012-06-12

    Flanked objects are difficult to identify using peripheral vision due to visual crowding, which limits conscious access to target identity. Nonetheless, certain types of visual information have been shown to survive crowding. Such resilience to crowding provides valuable information about the underlying neural mechanism of crowding. Here we ask whether illusory contour formation survives crowding of the inducers. We manipulated the presence of illusory contours through the (mis)alignment of the four inducers of a Kanizsa square. In the inducer-aligned condition, the observers judged the perceived shape (thin vs. fat) of the illusory Kanizsa square, manipulated by small rotations of the inducers. In the inducer-misaligned condition, three of the four inducers (all except the upper-left) were rotated 90°. The observers judged the orientation of the upper-left inducer. Crowding of the inducers worsened observers' performance significantly only in the inducer-misaligned condition. Our findings suggest that information for illusory contour formation survives crowding of the inducers. Crowding happens at a stage where the low-level featural information is integrated for inducer orientation discrimination, but not at a stage where the same information is used for illusory contour formation.

  13. Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.

    PubMed Central

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

    2000-01-01

    Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

  14. Topoisomerase II Mediates Meiotic Crossover Interference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangran; Wang, Shunxin; Yin, Shen; Hong, Soogil; Kim, Keun P.; Kleckner, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Summary Spatial patterning is a ubiquitous feature of biological systems. Meiotic crossovers provide an interesting example, defined by the classical phenomenon of crossover interference. Here, analysis of crossover patterns in budding yeast identifies a molecular pathway for interference. Topoisomerase II (Topo II) plays a central role, thus identifying a new function for this critical molecule. SUMOylation [of TopoII and axis component Red1] and ubiquitin-mediated removal of SUMOylated proteins are also required. These and other findings support the hypothesis that crossover interference involves accumulation, relief and redistribution of mechanical stress along the protein/DNA meshwork of meiotic chromosome axes, with TopoII required to adjust spatial relationships among DNA segments. PMID:25043020

  15. Nutrient stoichiometry in winter wheat: Element concentration pattern reflects developmental stage and weather

    PubMed Central

    Weih, M.; Pourazari, F.; Vico, G.

    2016-01-01

    At least 16 nutrient elements are required by plants for growth and survival, but the factors affecting element concentration and their temporal evolution are poorly understood. The objective was to investigate i) element concentration pattern in winter wheat as affected by crop developmental stage and weather, and ii) whether, in the short term, element stoichiometry reflects the type of preceding crop. We assessed the temporal trajectories of element concentration pattern (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na, Zn) across the life cycle (from seed to seed) of winter wheat field-grown in cool-temperate Sweden during two years with contrasting weather and when cultivated in monoculture or after different non-wheat preceding crops. We found strong influence of developmental stage on concentration pattern, with the greatest deviation from grain concentrations found in plants at the start of stem elongation in spring. Inter-annual differences in weather affected stoichiometry, but no evidence was found for a short-term preceding–crop effect on element stoichiometry. Winter wheat element stoichiometry is similar in actively growing plant tissues and seeds. Nitrogen exerts a strong influence on the concentration pattern for all elements. Three groups of elements with concentrations changing in concert were identified. PMID:27775050

  16. A Formal Basis for Safety Case Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    By capturing common structures of successful arguments, safety case patterns provide an approach for reusing strategies for reasoning about safety. In the current state of the practice, patterns exist as descriptive specifications with informal semantics, which not only offer little opportunity for more sophisticated usage such as automated instantiation, composition and manipulation, but also impede standardization efforts and tool interoperability. To address these concerns, this paper gives (i) a formal definition for safety case patterns, clarifying both restrictions on the usage of multiplicity and well-founded recursion in structural abstraction, (ii) formal semantics to patterns, and (iii) a generic data model and algorithm for pattern instantiation. We illustrate our contributions by application to a new pattern, the requirements breakdown pattern, which builds upon our previous work

  17. Maintenance of Melanophore Morphology and Survival Is Cathepsin and vps11 Dependent in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Clancey, Lauren F.; Beirl, Alisha J.; Linbo, Tor H.; Cooper, Cynthia D.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we characterize a Danio rerio zebrafish pigment cell mutant (melanophore integrity mutant), which displays a defect in maintenance of melanophore and iridophore number. Mapping and candidate gene analysis links the melanophore integrity mutant mutation to the vacuolar protein sorting 11 (vps11w66) gene. Quantification of vps11w66 chromatophores during larval stages suggests a decrease in number as compared to wildtype siblings. TUNEL analysis and treatment with the caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk, indicate that vps11w66chromatophore death is caspase independent. Western blot analysis of PARP-1 cleavage patterns in mutant lysates suggests that increases in pH dependent cathepsin activity is involved in the premature chromatophore death observed in vps11w66 mutants. Consistently, treatment with ALLM and Bafilomycin A1 (cathepsin/calpain and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase inhibitors, respectively), restore normal melanophore morphology and number in vps11w66 mutants. Last, LC3B western blot analysis indicates an increase in autophagosome marker, LC3B II in vps11w66 mutants as compared to wildtype control, but not in ALLM or Bafilomycin A1 treated mutants. Taken together, these data suggest that vps11 promotes normal melanophore morphology and survival by inhibiting cathepsin release and/or activity. PMID:23724125

  18. Survival of Western Sandpiper broods on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, D.R.; McCaffery, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    The rate of chick growth in high-latitude breeding shorebirds is rapid, but little is known about the effect of chick mass, growth, and brood movements on subsequent brood survival. To address these topics, we monitored chick growth patterns, daily brood movements, and survival of Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. We assessed the effect of chick age, mass, and hatch date on brood survival using Program MARK. We mapped brood locations daily, and compared brood movement patterns between successful and unsuccessful broods. Younger chicks survived at lower rates and moved shorter distances than older chicks. The overall probability of one or more chicks from a brood surviving to 15 days of age was 0.73 ± 0.05 SE. Brood survival declined seasonally, and broods with heavier chicks survived at higher rates than those with lighter chicks. On average, successful broods fledged 1.7 ± 0.1 SE chicks. Rate of chick growth was intermediate between those of high arctic and temperate-breeding shorebirds, and chick mass at hatching declined seasonally. Western Sandpiper brood survival was lowest when chicks were young, spatially clumped, and unable to maintain homeothermy, probably because young chicks were more vulnerable to both complete depredation events and extreme weather. Our data suggest that larger, older chicks are able to avoid predators by being spatially dispersed and highly mobile; thermal independence, achieved after approximately day five, enables chicks to better endure prolonged periods of cold and low food availability.

  19. Effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate on random skin flap survival in rats: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Qing-Bo; Gao, Xiang; Lin, Ding-Sheng; Chen, Yun; Cao, Bin; Zhou, Kai-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Partial necrosis of skin flaps continues to restrict the survival of local skin flaps following plastic and reconstructive surgeries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG), a salt of glycyrrhetinic acid that has been widely used in the therapy of chronic hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus infection, on random skin flap survival in rats. McFarlane flaps were established in 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly divided into three groups. Group I served as the control group and was injected with saline (10 mg/kg) once per day. Group II and group III were the experimental groups, and were injected with 10 mg/kg DG once and twice per day, respectively. On day 7, the survival area of the flap was measured. Tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemically evaluated. Tissue edema, neutrophil density, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated. The mean survival areas of the flaps of group II were significantly larger when compared with those of group I (P<0.05), and the rats of group III exhibited significantly higher survival areas than group II (P<0.05). Histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation showed that microvessel development and the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor were higher in the two experimental groups than in the control group. Furthermore, SOD activity was significantly increased (P<0.05), while the neutrophil density and MDA level were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in group II when compared with group I. Significant differences between group II and group III with regard to SOD activity and MDA level were also observed (P<0.05). Thus, DG may have a dose-dependent effect on promoting the survival of random skin flaps. PMID:27588181

  20. Hepatic expression patterns of aryl hydrocarbon receptor, pregnane X receptor, two cytochrome P450s and five phase II metabolism genes responsive to 17alpha-methyltestosterone in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yuan, Cong; Yang, Yanping; Wang, Zaizhao

    2014-05-01

    17Alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is widely used in aquaculture. Aquatic organisms can receive continuous exposure to residual MT throughout their lives. Aiming to evaluate the effects of MT on genes involved in biotransformation pathway, meanwhile attempting to unravel the MT metabolic pathway at the transcriptional level in fish, here we isolated the cDNAs of previously unreported AHR2, Sult1 st1, Ugt2a1 and Ugt2b6 in rare minnow, and predominantly investigated the hepatic transcriptional patterns of AHR2, PXR and five biotransformation genes after MT exposure in both genders adult rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus. The present findings suggest that AHR2 and PXR should play important roles in regulating biotransformation enzymes related to MT catabolism, moreover, CYP1A, CYP3A, SULT1 ST4, SULT1 ST6 and UGT2A1 may play certain roles in catabolism of MT in adult G. rarus. Additionally, UGT2A1 may make greater contribution than SULT1 ST4 and SULT1 ST6 in MT catabolism in males.

  1. The effect of perinatal anoxia on amino acid metabolism in the developing brain. Part II: The effect of perinatal anoxia on the free amino acid patterns in CSF of infants and children.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, K

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the effects of perinatal anoxia on the subsequent amino acid metabolism in the brain of children, free amino acid levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were determined in 15 children diagnosed as having cerebral palsy and/or mental retardation with perinatal anoxia, and 58 control children without anoxia, aged from 4 days to 12 yrs. There was no significant difference in total amino acid levels between anoxic children and the controls. In the controls, the Gln level in CSF was high, Arg, Asp and Glu levels in CSF were almost the same during infancy and childhood, and the levels of Orn, Lys, His, Tau, Thr, Ser, Asn, Gly, Ala, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Tyr and Phe in CSF decreased with age until pre-school age. In the newborns and infants among the anoxic children, the levels of most free amino acids in CSF were relatively high compared with those of the controls and, except Glu and Gln, decreased with age during infancy. The Orn, His, Gly, Tyr and Phe levels in CSF of anoxic children were lower than those of the controls in older infants. These results suggest that perinatal anoxia affected free amino acid patterns in CSF of newborns and infants and that the subsequent disturbance of amino acid metabolism in their brains remained after birth.

  2. Hepatic expression patterns of aryl hydrocarbon receptor, pregnane X receptor, two cytochrome P450s and five phase II metabolism genes responsive to 17alpha-methyltestosterone in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yuan, Cong; Yang, Yanping; Wang, Zaizhao

    2014-05-01

    17Alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is widely used in aquaculture. Aquatic organisms can receive continuous exposure to residual MT throughout their lives. Aiming to evaluate the effects of MT on genes involved in biotransformation pathway, meanwhile attempting to unravel the MT metabolic pathway at the transcriptional level in fish, here we isolated the cDNAs of previously unreported AHR2, Sult1 st1, Ugt2a1 and Ugt2b6 in rare minnow, and predominantly investigated the hepatic transcriptional patterns of AHR2, PXR and five biotransformation genes after MT exposure in both genders adult rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus. The present findings suggest that AHR2 and PXR should play important roles in regulating biotransformation enzymes related to MT catabolism, moreover, CYP1A, CYP3A, SULT1 ST4, SULT1 ST6 and UGT2A1 may play certain roles in catabolism of MT in adult G. rarus. Additionally, UGT2A1 may make greater contribution than SULT1 ST4 and SULT1 ST6 in MT catabolism in males. PMID:24814259

  3. Diversity of parasite complex II.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shigeharu; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Ohmori, Junko; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Parasites have developed a variety of physiological functions necessary for completing at least part of their life cycles in the specialized environments of surrounding the parasites in the host. Regarding energy metabolism, which is essential for survival, parasites adapt to the low oxygen environment in mammalian hosts by using metabolic systems that are very different from those of the hosts. In many cases, the parasite employs aerobic metabolism during the free-living stage outside the host but undergoes major changes in developmental control and environmental adaptation to switch to anaerobic energy metabolism. Parasite mitochondria play diverse roles in their energy metabolism, and in recent studies of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, the mitochondrial complex II plays an important role in anaerobic energy metabolism of parasites inhabiting hosts by acting as a quinol-fumarate reductase. In Trypanosomes, parasite complex II has been found to have a novel function and structure. Complex II of Trypanosoma cruzi is an unusual supramolecular complex with a heterodimeric iron-sulfur subunit and seven additional non-catalytic subunits. The enzyme shows reduced binding affinities for both substrates and inhibitors. Interestingly, this structural organization is conserved in all trypanosomatids. Since the properties of complex II differ across a wide range of parasites, this complex is a potential target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. In this regard, structural information on the target enzyme is essential for the molecular design of drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex II: Role in cellular physiology and disease. PMID:23333273

  4. Chromatin modification by the RNA Polymerase II elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Tanny, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) involves the coordinated action of numerous regulatory factors. Among these are chromatin-modifying enzymes, which generate a stereotypic and conserved pattern of histone modifications along transcribed genes. This pattern implies a precise coordination between regulators of histone modification and the RNAP II elongation complex. Here I review the pathways and molecular events that regulate co-transcriptional histone modifications. Insight into these events will illuminate the assembly of functional RNAP II elongation complexes and how the chromatin landscape influences their composition and function. PMID:25494544

  5. Linking habitat selection and predation risk to spatial variation in survival.

    PubMed

    DeCesare, Nicholas J; Hebblewhite, Mark; Bradley, Mark; Hervieux, David; Neufeld, Lalenia; Musiani, Marco

    2014-03-01

    A central assumption underlying the study of habitat selection is that selected habitats confer enhanced fitness. Unfortunately, this assumption is rarely tested, and in some systems, gradients of predation risk may more accurately characterize spatial variation in vital rates than gradients described by habitat selection studies. Here, we separately measured spatial patterns of both resource selection and predation risk and tested their relationships with a key demographic trait, adult female survival, for a threatened ungulate, woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou Gmelin). We also evaluated whether exposure to gradients in both predation risk and resource selection value was manifested temporally through instantaneous or seasonal effects on survival outcomes. We used Cox proportional hazards spatial survival modelling to assess the relative support for 5 selection- and risk-based definitions of habitat quality, as quantified by woodland caribou adult female survival. These hypotheses included scenarios in which selection ideally mirrored survival, risk entirely drove survival, non-ideal selection correlated with survival but with additive risk effects, an ecological trap with maladaptive selection and a non-spatial effect of annual variation in weather. Indeed, we found positive relationships between the predicted values of a resource selection function (RSF) and survival, yet subsequently incorporating an additional negative effect of predation risk greatly improved models further. This revealed a positive, but non-ideal relationship between selection and survival. Gradients in these covariates were also shown to affect individual survival probability at multiple temporal scales. Exposure to increased predation risk had a relatively instantaneous effect on survival outcomes, whereas variation in habitat suitability predicted by an RSF had both instantaneous and longer-term seasonal effects on survival. Predation risk was an additive source of hazard

  6. Surviving the Sudden Death of a Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funds Request Information Get Involved Surviving the Sudden Death of a Baby Home Grieving Families Surviving the ... Candle on For Families Who Have Experienced the Death of a Baby The numbers are staggering. Every ...

  7. 46 CFR 172.195 - Survival conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Under Subchapter O of This Chapter § 172.195 Survival conditions. A vessel is presumed to survive... that is closed by means of a weathertight door or hatch cover. This opening does not include an...

  8. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Yaicha D.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea—microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich) and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena) sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media) from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation) in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1

  9. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea.

    PubMed

    Winters, Yaicha D; Lowenstein, Tim K; Timofeeff, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea-microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich) and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena) sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media) from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation) in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1

  10. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea.

    PubMed

    Winters, Yaicha D; Lowenstein, Tim K; Timofeeff, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea-microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich) and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena) sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media) from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation) in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1

  11. Survival of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in basal-casein medium supplemented with sodium selenite

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S. )

    1988-01-01

    The trace substance selenium is known to influence several systems exhibiting a high rate of cellular proliferation. Data are reported on survival patterns and times in various developmental stages of Tribolium confusum Duval reared in a defined medium supplemented with sodium selenite. Insects reared from eggs hatching in a selenium medium (Se medium) show a prolonged time in the larval period and marked larval mortality compared with those reared on unsupplemented medium. Adults emerging in an Se medium show reduced survival compared with adults transferred to such medium 1 wk after emergence. Larval survival patterns mimic those of the adult, whereby younger larvae that are transferred to Se medium appear to be more sensitive than those exposed to Se medium later in the larval stage. Transfer of Se medium-reared adults to unsupplemented medium as pupae has a beneficial effect on survival compared with adults that emerged in Se medium 1 wk before transfer.

  12. 38 CFR 3.402 - Surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surviving spouse. 3.402..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Effective Dates § 3.402 Surviving spouse. Awards of pension, compensation, or dependency and indemnity compensation to or for a surviving spouse will...

  13. Parental behaviour of a precocial species: implications for juvenile survival

    PubMed Central

    Dreitz, Victoria J

    2009-01-01

    Parents determine habitat selection for precocial young by leading their young to foraging areas until the chicks attain full independence. There are potential benefits and costs to reproductive success associated with changing habitats while caring for young. This study investigated the relationship between different types of habitats and their quality on chick survival and brood movements of a declining upland shorebird, the mountain plover Charadrius montanus. From 2004 to 2006, a total of 153 mountain plover broods were monitored on the primary breeding habitats in eastern Colorado, USA; two shortgrass prairie habitats that were either occupied or unoccupied by black-tailed prairie dogs Cynomys ludovicianus and agricultural lands. Habitat quality hypotheses were tested using newly developed statistical applications to estimate survival of chicks and brood movement patterns. Chick survival and brood movements were influenced by habitat. Chick survival over the 30-day brood-rearing period was substantially higher on nesting habitat of shortgrass occupied by prairie dogs compared with agricultural land and shortgrass unoccupied by prairie dogs. The rate of brood movement away from shortgrass with prairie dogs was lower than shortgrass without prairie dogs, but higher than agricultural lands for each year of the study. This study suggests that complex processes influence how different habitats affect brood-rearing activity of mountain plovers. Even though broods moved off nesting habitat of shortgrass occupied by prairie dogs, this habitat had the highest survival rate and is highly important to mountain plover reproductive success. Synthesis and applications. In order to develop effective conservation strategies, the provision of adequate breeding habitat should include information on patterns of habitat selection for all stages of the breeding cycle, including the nesting and dependent young periods. From a conservation perspective, understanding the habitat use

  14. Parental behaviour of a precocial species: implications for juvenile survival.

    PubMed

    Dreitz, Victoria J

    2009-08-01

    Parents determine habitat selection for precocial young by leading their young to foraging areas until the chicks attain full independence. There are potential benefits and costs to reproductive success associated with changing habitats while caring for young. This study investigated the relationship between different types of habitats and their quality on chick survival and brood movements of a declining upland shorebird, the mountain plover Charadrius montanus.From 2004 to 2006, a total of 153 mountain plover broods were monitored on the primary breeding habitats in eastern Colorado, USA; two shortgrass prairie habitats that were either occupied or unoccupied by black-tailed prairie dogs Cynomys ludovicianus and agricultural lands. Habitat quality hypotheses were tested using newly developed statistical applications to estimate survival of chicks and brood movement patterns.Chick survival and brood movements were influenced by habitat. Chick survival over the 30-day brood-rearing period was substantially higher on nesting habitat of shortgrass occupied by prairie dogs compared with agricultural land and shortgrass unoccupied by prairie dogs. The rate of brood movement away from shortgrass with prairie dogs was lower than shortgrass without prairie dogs, but higher than agricultural lands for each year of the study.This study suggests that complex processes influence how different habitats affect brood-rearing activity of mountain plovers. Even though broods moved off nesting habitat of shortgrass occupied by prairie dogs, this habitat had the highest survival rate and is highly important to mountain plover reproductive success.Synthesis and applications. In order to develop effective conservation strategies, the provision of adequate breeding habitat should include information on patterns of habitat selection for all stages of the breeding cycle, including the nesting and dependent young periods. From a conservation perspective, understanding the habitat use of

  15. Vemurafenib Improves Survival for Patients with Metastatic Melanoma | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with metastatic melanoma whose tumors harbor a specific genetic mutation have improved overall survival with the targeted therapy vemurafenib (Zelboraf), according to longer-term follow-up data from a phase II clinical tria |

  16. Crossover studies with survival outcomes.

    PubMed

    Buyze, Jozefien; Goetghebeur, Els

    2013-12-01

    Crossover designs are well known to have major advantages when comparing the effect of two treatments which do not interact. With a right-censored survival endpoint, however, this design is quickly abandoned in favour of the more costly parallel design. Motivated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies which lacked power, we evaluate what may be gained in this setting and compare parallel with crossover designs. In a heterogeneous population, we find and explain a substantial increase in power for the crossover study using a non-parametric logrank test. With frailties in a proportional hazards model, crossover designs equally lead to substantially smaller variance for the subject-specific hazard ratio (HR), while the population-averaged HR sees negligible gain. Its efficiency benefit is recovered when the population-averaged HR is reconstructed from estimated subject-specific hazard rates. We derive the time point for treatment crossover that optimizes efficiency and end with the analysis of two recent HIV prevention trials. We find that a Cellulose sulphate trial could have hardly gained efficiency from a crossover design, while a Nonoxynol-9 trial stood to gain substantial power. We conclude that there is a role for effective crossover designs in important classes of survival problems. PMID:21715438

  17. Active tectonics and human survival strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Geoffrey; Bailey, Geoffrey; Sturdy, Derek

    1994-10-01

    Tectonic movements continuously remould the surface of Earth in response to plate motion. Yet such deformation is rarely taken into account when assessing landscape change and its impact on human land use, except perhaps as an occasional hazard to human life or a temporary disruption in the longer term patterns of human history. However, active tectonics also create and sustain landscapes that can be beneficial to human survival, forming a complex topography of potentially fertile sedimentary basins enclosed by mountain barriers that can facilitate the control and explotation of food resources, especially animal prey. We discuss the tectonic history of northwest Greece and show how the Paleolithic sites of the region are located to take advantage of tectonically created features at both a local and a regional scale. We suggest that the association of significant concentrations of early Paleolithic sites with tectonically acitve regions is not coincidental and that on the longer time spans of human biological evolution, active tectonics has been an important selective agent contributing to the development of the human species as an intelligent predator.

  18. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  19. Hibernation is associated with increased survival and the evolution of slow life histories among mammals.

    PubMed

    Turbill, Christopher; Bieber, Claudia; Ruf, Thomas

    2011-11-22

    Survival probability is predicted to underlie the evolution of life histories along a slow-fast continuum. Hibernation allows a diverse range of small mammals to exhibit seasonal dormancy, which might increase survival and consequently be associated with relatively slow life histories. We used phylogenetically informed GLS models to test for an effect of hibernation on seasonal and annual survival, and on key attributes of life histories among mammals. Monthly survival was in most cases higher during hibernation compared with the active season, probably because inactivity minimizes predation. Hibernators also have approximately 15 per cent higher annual survival than similar sized non-hibernating species. As predicted, we found an effect of hibernation on the relationships between life history attributes and body mass: small hibernating mammals generally have longer maximum life spans (50% greater for a 50 g species), reproduce at slower rates, mature at older ages and have longer generation times compared with similar-sized non-hibernators. In accordance with evolutionary theories, however, hibernating species do not have longer life spans than non-hibernators with similar survival rates, nor do they have lower reproductive rates than non-hibernators with similar maximum life spans. Thus, our combined results suggest that (i) hibernation is associated with high rates of overwinter and annual survival, and (ii) an increase in survival in hibernating species is linked with the coevolution of traits indicative of relatively slow life histories.

  20. Depolarization and neurotrophins converge on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway to synergistically regulate neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, A R; Mazzoni, I; Tudan, C; Boudreau, M; Kaplan, D R; Miller, F D

    1999-09-01

    In this report, we have examined the mechanisms whereby neurotrophins and neural activity coordinately regulate neuronal survival, focussing on sympathetic neurons, which require target-derived NGF and neural activity for survival during development. When sympathetic neurons were maintained in suboptimal concentrations of NGF, coincident depolarization with concentrations of KCl that on their own had no survival effect, synergistically enhanced survival. Biochemical analysis revealed that depolarization was sufficient to activate a Ras-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway (Ras-PI3-kinase-Akt), and function-blocking experiments using recombinant adenovirus indicated that this pathway was essential for approximately 50% of depolarization-mediated neuronal survival. At concentrations of NGF and KCl that promoted synergistic survival, these two stimuli converged to promote increased PI3-kinase-dependent Akt phosphorylation. This convergent PI3-kinase-Akt pathway was essential for synergistic survival. In contrast, inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II revealed that, while this molecule was essential for depolarization-induced survival, it had no role in KCl- induced Akt phosphorylation, nor was it important for synergistic survival by NGF and KCl. Thus, NGF and depolarization together mediate survival of sympathetic neurons via intracellular convergence on a Ras-PI3-kinase-Akt pathway. This convergent regulation of Akt may provide a general mechanism for coordinating the effects of growth factors and neural activity on neuronal survival throughout the nervous system.

  1. Patterns of failure after the reduced volume approach for elective nodal irradiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Ki Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the patterns of nodal failure after radiotherapy (RT) with the reduced volume approach for elective neck nodal irradiation (ENI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and Methods Fifty-six NPC patients who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy with the reduced volume approach for ENI were reviewed. The ENI included retropharyngeal and level II lymph nodes, and only encompassed the echelon inferior to the involved level to eliminate the entire neck irradiation. Patients received either moderate hypofractionated intensity-modulated RT for a total of 72.6 Gy (49.5 Gy to elective nodal areas) or a conventional fractionated three-dimensional conformal RT for a total of 68.4–72 Gy (39.6–45 Gy to elective nodal areas). Patterns of failure, locoregional control, and survival were analyzed. Results The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 3 to 80 months). The out-of-field nodal failure when omitting ENI was none. Three patients developed neck recurrences (one in-field recurrence in the 72.6 Gy irradiated nodal area and two in the elective irradiated region of 39.6 Gy). Overall disease failure at any site developed in 11 patients (19.6%). Among these, there were six local failures (10.7%), three regional failures (5.4%), and five distant metastases (8.9%). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 87.1%, and the distant failure-free rate was 90.4%; disease-free survival and overall survival at 3 years was 80% and 86.8%, respectively. Conclusion No patient developed nodal failure in the omitted ENI site. Our investigation has demonstrated that the reduced volume approach for ENI appears to be a safe treatment approach in NPC. PMID:27104162

  2. 20 CFR 725.213 - Duration of entitlement; surviving spouse or surviving divorced spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; surviving spouse or surviving divorced spouse. 725.213 Section 725.213 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION... Benefits) § 725.213 Duration of entitlement; surviving spouse or surviving divorced spouse. (a)...

  3. 20 CFR 725.212 - Conditions of entitlement; surviving spouse or surviving divorced spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; surviving spouse or surviving divorced spouse. 725.212 Section 725.212 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS... Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.212 Conditions of entitlement; surviving spouse or surviving...

  4. Growth and survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in some aromatic waters.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Y K; Ogunmodede, M S

    1991-01-01

    The ability of some aromatic waters at the in-use concentrations to enhance or inhibit the growth of microorganisms was determined by the antimicrobial preservative challenge method. Anise, chloroform, cinnamon, clove, dill, lemon, peppermint and rose waters were challenged with Ps. aeruginosa. Levels of the surviving cells at different times were determined by the pour plate method. The antimicrobial effect of the corresponding undiluted aromatic oils against Ps. aeruginosa was determined by the cup-plate method. Results showed that cinnamon water possesses profound and useful preservative activity against Ps. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effect of anise, chloroform and rose waters on Ps. aeruginosa is not much pronounced. Similarly, clove, dill and peppermint waters exhibited no significant preservative actions. Lemon water was found to enhance the growth of Ps. aeruginosa. The survival pattern of Ps. aeruginosa in the majority of the aromatic waters conforms with the antimicrobial actions of their undiluted oils.

  5. Increasing Tumor Volume is Predictive of Poor Overall and Progression-Free Survival: Secondary Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 93-11 Phase I-II Radiation Dose-Escalation Study in Patients with Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Werner-Wasik, Maria Swann, R. Suzanne; Bradley, Jeffrey; Graham, Mary; Emami, Bahman; Purdy, James; Sause, William

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 93-11 trial received radiation doses of 70.9, 77.4, 83.8, or 90.3 Gy. The locoregional control and survival rates were similar among the various dose levels. We investigated the effect of the gross tumor volume (GTV) on the outcome. Methods and Materials: The GTV was defined as the sum of the volumes of the primary tumor and involved lymph nodes. The tumor response, median survival time (MST), and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed separately for smaller ({<=}45 cm{sup 3}) vs. larger (>45 cm{sup 3}) tumors. Results: The distribution of the GTV was as follows: {<=}45 cm{sup 3} in 79 (49%) and >45 cm{sup 3} in 82 (51%) of 161 patients. The median GTV was 47.3 cm{sup 3}. N0 status and female gender were associated with better tumor responses. Patients with smaller ({<=}45 cm{sup 3}) tumors achieved a longer MST and better PFS than did patients with larger (>45 cm{sup 3}) tumors (29.7 vs. 13.3 months, p < 0.0001; and 15.8 vs. 8.3 months, p < 0.0001, respectively). Increasing the radiation dose had no effect on the MST or PFS. On multivariate analysis, only a smaller GTV was a significant prognostic factor for improved MST and PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.12, p = 0.0002; and HR, 2.0, p = 0.0002, respectively). The GTV as a continuous variable was also significantly associated with the MST and PFS (HR, 1.59, p < 0.0001; and HR, 1.39, p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: Radiation dose escalation up to 90.3 Gy did not result in improved MST or PFS. The tumor responses were greater in node-negative patients and women. An increasing GTV was strongly associated with decreased MST and PFS. Future radiotherapy trials patients might need to use stratification by tumor volume.

  6. Survival of female Lesser Scaup: Effects of body size, age, and reproductive effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotella, J.J.; Clark, R.G.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    In birds, larger females generally have greater breeding propensity, reproductive investment, and success than do smaller females. However, optimal female body size also depends on how natural selection acts during other parts of the life cycle. Larger female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) produce larger eggs than do smaller females, and ducklings from larger eggs survive better than those hatching from smaller eggs. Accordingly, we examined patterns of apparent annual survival for female scaup and tested whether natural selection on female body size primarily was stabilizing, a frequent assumption in studies of sexually dimorphic species in which males are the larger sex, or was directional, counter-acting reproductive advantages of large size. We estimated survival using mark-recapture methods for individually marked females from two study sites in Canada (Erickson, Manitoba; St. Denis, Saskatchewan). Structurally larger (adults) and heavier (ducklings) females had lower survival than did smaller individuals in Manitoba; no relationship was detected in adults from Saskatchewan. Survival of adult females declined with indices of increasing reproductive effort at both sites; consequently, the cost of reproduction could explain age-related patterns of breeding propensity in scaup. Furthermore, if larger females are more likely to breed than are smaller females, then cost of reproduction also may help explain why survival was lower for larger females. Overall, we found that advantages of large body size of female scaup during breeding or as young ducklings apparently were counteracted by natural selection favoring lightweight juveniles and structurally smaller adult females through higher annual survival.

  7. Bond failure patterns in vivo.

    PubMed

    Linklater, Rognvald A; Gordon, Peter H

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the presence and pattern of differences in bond failure between tooth types in vivo when bonding orthodontic brackets with the no-mix orthodontic composite adhesive Right-On. In vivo bond failure f