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Sample records for ii upper ebro

  1. The upper cenozoic evolution of the Duero and Ebro fluvial systems (N-Spain): part I. paleogeography; part II. geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    Lack of age dates in the terrigenous Cenozoic sediments of the Duero and the Ebro sedimentary basins has complicated tecto-stratic correlation across the two basins. We tentatively synthesize a range of existing studies and new data to construct a rough general paleogeography throughout Upper Cenozoic times. The more extensive erosion of the Ebro has been previously attributed to the earlier moment of opening. We tentatively analyse lithostratic data to conclude that the lower knick-point and different lithologies have also contributed to the deeper erosion in the Ebro Basin. We conclude from lithostratic data and field evidence that the W half of the Rioja was part of the Duero in earlier times and that the escarpment retreated westward through the Rioja in four subsequent episodes of erosion. The tilt of the NW Duero is a consequence of isostatic rebound to this erosion.

  2. The upper cenozoic evolution of the Duero and Ebro fluvial systems (N-Spain): part I. paleogeography; part II. geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    Lack of age dates in the terrigenous Cenozoic sediments of the Duero and the Ebro sedimentary basins has complicated tecto-stratic correlation across the two basins. We tentatively synthesize a range of existing studies and new data to construct a rough general paleogeography throughout Upper Cenozoic times. The more extensive erosion of the Ebro has been previously attributed to the earlier moment of opening. We tentatively analyse lithostratic data to conclude that the lower knick-point and different lithologies have also contributed to the deeper erosion in the Ebro Basin. We conclude from lithostratic data and field evidence that the W half of the Rioja was part of the Duero in earlier times and that the escarpment retreated westward through the Rioja in four subsequent episodes of erosion. The tilt of the NW Duero is a consequence of isostatic rebound to this erosion.

  3. The Upper Triassic alkaline magmatism of the western Neo-Tethys (Bajo Ebro, NE Spain): age and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, T.; Lago, M.; Gil, A.; Pocoví, A.; Galé, C.; Ubide, T.; Larrea, P.; Ramajo, J.; Tierz, P.

    2012-04-01

    A set of mafic rocks crop out in the north-western margin of the Neo-Tethys (eastern Spain and France). These rocks show three common features: 1) they were emplaced into Upper Triassic sediments (Keuper facies), 2) they are mainly basalts and dolerites and show an alkaline geochemical affinity and 3) these magmas rose to their emplacement level through deep fractures; some of the fractures were newly opened as a result of the Triassic extension (Triassic-Liassic rifting), whereas others had been generated during the Permian extension (Lower Permian rifting) and were reopened. Magmatic activity has also been recognized in these areas during the Jurassic, the Cretaceous and the Quaternary. The Bajo Ebro sector (NE Spain) comprises two types of Upper Triassic mafic rocks: 1) massive rocks emplaced as dikes, sills and basaltic lavas (10-12 meters in thickness and up to kilometric in extension) and 2) a wide range of pyroclasts (from ash grains to bombs) forming layers more than 100 meters thick, which are usually interbedded with argillites and carbonates. Protrusions of the sills into the overlying sediments, together with spilitization of the igneous rocks, suggest that the magmas emplaced into unconsolidated sediments. Furthermore, a level of epiclastic-basaltic breccias is recognized overlying the magmatic levels and below the dolostones of the Imón Formation (Rhaetian in age); these breccias are interpreted to represent an erosive episode which affected the magmatic rocks in emerged areas. According to these criteria, these rocks can be considered Upper Triassic (pre-Rhaetian) in age. The basaltic lavas show alkaline mineral assemblages composed of: olivine (Fo79-65), Ti-rich clinopyroxene (Fs3-15, En52-35, Wo50-42), plagioclase (An80-50), Ti-rich magnetite and apatite. Their major and trace element whole rock compositions show contents in SiO2 (41,3-49,3 w.%), Nb/Y (1,5-4,1), Zr/TiO2 (0,0057-0,013), V (157,8-292,1 ppm) and Ti/1000 (11,3-18,53) which indicate

  4. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    In the Ebro River Basin (Spain), the increase in water diversion for irrigation (following the increase in irrigated area) and the recovery of natural vegetation in the upper reaches, along with climate change have induced changes in the river flow and its associated salt loads. This study was supported by the Ebro River Basin Administration (CHE) and aimed to establish the trends in the salt concentrations and loads of the Ebro River at Tortosa (no 027, the extreme downstream gauging station). The CHE databases from 1972-73 to 2011-12, including mean monthly flows (Q) and concentration readings (electrical conductivity converted to total dissolved solids -TDS- by regression) from monthly grab samples, have been used. The trends were established by (i) harmonic regression analysis; (ii) linear regression by month; and (iii) the non-parametric Mann-Kendall method. Additionally, (iv) the regressions of TDS on Q in the current and previous months were established, allowing for analyzing separately the trends in TDS linked to- (TDSq) and independent of- (TDSaj) the observed changes in flow. In all cases, the trends were analyzed for different periods within the full span 1973-2012 (1973 to 2012, 1981 to 2012, 1990-2012 and 2001-2012), trying to account for periods with sensibly similar patterns of land use change. An increase in TDS was found for all the periods analyzed that was lower as shorter periods were used, suggesting that lower salinity changes might be taking place in the last years, possibly due to the reduction in the rate of irrigation development and to the on-going irrigation modernization process. The higher seasonal TDS increases were found in autumn and winter months and the increase in TDS was linked both to intrinsic changes in salinity (TDSaj) and to the observed decrease in flow (TDSq). On the other hand, the salt loads decreased, especially in autumn, as a result of the observed flow decrease. These results are based on the observed evolution of

  5. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir river basins (Spain).

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, María; Campo, Julián; Farré, Marinella; Pérez, Francisca; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers are characteristically irregular with changes in flow and located in high population density areas. This affects the concentration of pollutants in the aquatic environments. In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water, sediment and biota of the Ebro and Guadalquivir river basins (Spain). In water samples, of 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro and 9 in Guadalquivir. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA and PFOA. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, up to 251.3 ng L(-1) in Ebro and 742.9 ng L(-1) in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediments, 8 PFASs were detected in the samples from Ebro and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOA and PFOS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was, in dry weight, for PFOA (32.3 ng g(-1)) and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA (63.8 ng g(-1)). For biota, 12 PFASs were detected in fish from the Ebro River and only one (PFOS) in that from Guadalquivir. In the Ebro basin, the most frequents were PFBA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFOS and PFOSA. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was, in wet weight, for PFHxA with 1280.2 ng g(-1), and in Guadalquivir samples for PFOS with 79.8 ng g(-1). These compounds were detected in the whole course of the rivers including the upper parts. In some points contamination was due to point sources mostly related to human activities (e.g. ski resorts, military camps, urban areas.). However, there are also some areas clearly affected by diffuse sources as atmospheric deposition.

  6. Historical Heliophysical Series of the Ebro Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curto, J. J.; Solé, J. G.; Genescà, M.; Blanca, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    We present the contents of the historical heliophysical series collected at the Ebro Observatory, as well as the actions carried out to restore and save these data and to conserve the physical media containing the data and the telescopes that helped to obtain them. We also discuss the results obtained with these measurements, describe how we disseminated them, and report on the investigations that we have carried out with this information. We show the evolution of the local solar indices such as the Ebro Sunspot Number (ESN), the Ebro Group Sunspot Number (EGSN), or the Ebro Sunspot Area (ESA), which are derived directly from our data. For verification purposes, these local solar indices have been compared to the international sunspot numbers published by SILSO. Our data are reliable and correlate well with the respective international series. Finally, as an example of the possibilities that the Ebro series offer, we explain the use of these data to elucidate one of the recent problems in solar physics: the discontinuity in international data known as the Waldmeier discontinuity and, in general, the ratio between sunspots and sunspot groups. In the Ebro Observatory series, no discontinuity such as this is detected. We instead observe a rather stable ratio in the spot or group rates. This result is in agreement with the hypothesis of Svalgaard (2010, ASP CS-428, 297) that the Waldmeier discontinuity is produced only on a procedural level, perhaps by a change in the criteria used in Zürich by Waldmeier or by changing external conditions.

  7. Sedimentary evolution of the Pliocene and Pleistocene Ebro margin, northeastern Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alonso, B.; Field, M.E.; Gardner, J.V.; Maldonado, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits of the Spanish Ebro margin overlie a regional unconformity and contain a major disconformity. These unconformities, named Reflector M and Reflector G, mark the bases of two seismic sequences. Except for close to the upper boundary where a few small channel deposits are recognized, the lower sequence lacks channels. The upper sequence contains nine channel-levee complexes as well as base-of-slope aprons that represent the proximal part of the Valencia turbidite system. Diverse geometries and variations in seismic units distinguish shelf, slope, base-of-slope and basin-floor facies. Four events characterize the late Miocene to Pleistocene evolution of the Ebro margin: (a) formation of a paleodrainage system and an extensive erosion-to-depositional surface during the latest Miocene (Messinian), (b) deposition of hemipelagic units during the early Pliocene, (c) development of canyons during the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene, and (d) deposition of slope wedges, channel-levee complexes, and base-of-slope aprons alternating with hemipelagic deposition during the Pleistocene. Sea-level fluctuations influenced the evolution of the sedimentary sequences of the Ebro margin, but the major control was the sediment supply from the Ebro River. ?? 1990.

  8. Dissolved load transport in the Ebro River Basin (Spain): Impact of main lithologies and role of tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, E.; Negrel, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate, over more than 20 years, the export fluxes for dissolved loads at the Ebro River catchment scale. Data are compiled from the of the Confederacion Hidrografica del Ebro (CHE) databank. The spatial and temporal distribution of daily discharges, physico-chemical parameters and chemical data covering the last two decades (1981-2003) were investigated on five monitoring stations along the Ebro River (Mendavia, Castejon, Zaragoza, Sastago and Tortosa), as well as six stations at the outlet of the main tributaries (Arga, Aragon, Gallego, Jalon, Cinca and Segre). The dissolved load of the rivers at the Ebro Basin scale was characterized through the Electrical Conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and the major elements chemical data. The surface water can be classified into three main categories, a clear dominance of Ca-SO4 water type, a Ca-HCO3 type mainly encountered in the upper part of the basin and some data presenting a Na-Cl water type. The TDS values are highly variable, both in time and in space, in the range 390-1360 mg/L. The dissolved exportations to the Mediterranean Sea and the relative contribution of the different tributaries were calculated. The Ebro basin in its upper part (upstream Mendavia) contributes around 22.4% of the total exported flux near the outlet (Tortosa) over the studied period. The tributaries that mainly contribute to the total exported dissolved load are the Cinca and Segre (19% and 17% respectively). The Aragon, Gallego and Jalon contributions are very low, often less than 5% of the total exported flux. The specific TDS flux at the outlet of the Ebro is 70 +/- 23 t/km2/year and 108 +/- 24 t/km2/year upstream in Mendavia while the highest chemical erosion rate was calculated for the Arga with 251 +/- 55 t/km2/year. The dissolved export fluxes represent the major export from the Ebro basin, and the respective contribution of carbonate and evaporite (gypsum) with respect to the TDS was then calculated

  9. Some previous ABL measurements in the Duero and Ebro valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuxart, Joan

    2017-04-01

    Evapotranspiration in semi-arid regimes needs improved understanding and representation in numerical models. Most of the Iberian Peninsula (IP) upper soil in summer becomes dry which makes of it a good area for field campaigning and numerical modeling. The two large basins at the northern IP, Duero (essentially non-irrigated cereals) and Ebro (large irrigated areas surrounded by typical mediterranean vegetation), have already seen some ABL research efforts in the last decades. The CIBA site is located over a plateau in the centre of the Duero basin. The plateau has shallow soil over karstic rock, contrarily to the lower areas that are essentially sedimentary. There radiation and fluxes of biogenic gases have been measured during decades by the University of Valladolid. Since 1998 the renovated 100m tower has been used to study the ABL, focusing essentially in the nocturnal stably stratified regime, the mesoscale low-level jets, the effet of surface heterogeneities and fog events. Studies have been supplemented with use of satellital information and high-resolution mesoscale simulations. The center of the Ebro basin was the site of ABL measurements between 2008 and 2011, when a surface energy budget (SEB) station and a WindRASS were operating in the middle of a large vineyard, occasionally irrigated during the summer season, keeping the soil always with enough water content to sustain the needs of the vines. Similar topics as for the Duero basin were inspected, here supplemented by the effect of the surrounding topography and the wet-dry terrain heterogeneities, both contributing to intensify the strength of low-level circulations. The SEB imbalance was quantified and the terms compared to the ones from the ECMWF model, finding very significant differences. The SEB and WindRASS were installed in 2015 in the large Pyrenean valley of La Cerdanya, through which the Segre river (a main tributary of the Ebro) flows. The soil in this area usually retains enough water

  10. Monitoring of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, Maria; Campo, Julian; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia

    2015-04-01

    Relevant concentrations of a broad range of pollutants have been found in Spanish Mediterranean River basins, as consequence of anthropogenic pressures and overexploitation (Campo et al., 2014). In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water and sediment of the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain). PFASs are persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic, which make them a hazard to human health and wildlife. The Ebro and Guadalquivir Rivers are the two most important rivers of Spain. They are representative examples of Mediterranean rivers heavily managed, and previous researches have reported their high pesticide contamination (Masiá et al., 2013). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). In water samples, from 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro samples and 9 in Guadalquivir ones. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxS and PFOS. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, with 251.3 ng L-1 in Ebro and 742.9 ng L-1 in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediment samples, 8 PFASs were detected in those coming from Ebro basin and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOS and PFBS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was detected for PFOA, with 32.4 ng g-1 dw, and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA with 63.8 ng g-1 dw. Ubiquity of these compounds in the environment was proved with high PFAS concentration values detected in upper parts of the rivers. Results confirm that most of the PFASs are only partially eliminated during the secondary treatment suggesting that they can be a focal point of contamination to the rivers where they can bio-accumulate and produce adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Acknowledgment The Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness has supported this work through the projects SCARCE-CSD2009-00065, CGL2011

  11. Geotechnical characteristics and slope stability on the Ebro margin, western Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baraza, J.; Lee, H.J.; Kayen, R.E.; Hampton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Sedimentological and geotechnical analyses of core samples from the Ebro continental slope define two distinct areas on the basis of sediment type, physical properties and geotechnical behavior. The first area is the upper slope area (water depths of 200-500 m), which consists of upper Pleistocene prodeltaic silty clay with a low water content (34% dry weight average), low plasticity, and high overconsolidation near the seafloor. The second area, the middle and lower slope (water depths greater than 500 m), contains clay- and silt-size hemipelagic deposits with a high water content (90% average), high plasticity, and a low to moderate degree of overconsolidation near the sediment surface. Results from geotechnical tests show that the upper slope has a relatively high degree of stability under relatively rapid (undrained) static loading conditions, compared with the middle and lower slopes, which have a higher degree of stability under long-term (drained) static loading conditions. Under cyclic loading, which occurs during earthquakes, the upper slope has a higher degree of stability than the middle and lower slopes. For the surface of the seafloor, calculated critical earthquake accelerations that can trigger slope failures range from 0.73 g on the upper slope to 0.23 g on the lower slope. Sediment buried well below the seafloor may have a critical acceleration as low as 0.09 g on the upper slope and 0.17 g on the lower slope. Seismically induced instability of most of the Ebro slope seems unlikely given that an earthquake shaking of at least intensity VI would be needed, and such strong intensities have never been recorded in the last 70 years. Other cyclic loading events, such as storms or internal waves, do not appear to be direct causes of instability at present. Infrequent, particularly strong earthquakes could cause landslides on the Ebro margin slope. The Columbretes slide on the southwestern Ebro margin may have been caused by intense earthquake shaking

  12. [The Ebro River and the Camino de Santiago].

    PubMed

    Cuchí de la Cuesta, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Humans travel for many reasons; here we concentrate in pilgrimage and the role of the Ebro River as their means of transportation. The Camino de Santiago through the Ebro is linked to the devotion to Santa María del Pilar de Zaragoza, where according to the tradition appeared in flesh and body (January 2, 40, BC). Famous pilgrims are Luis VII of France, Lady Blanca, daughter of Carlos III. The Ebro's navigability allowed sustaining the fervor alive as it is proven by the many records found Catón, Estrabrón, Plinio, Avieno) describing its use for pilgrimage and commercial purposes.

  13. [Effect of functional appliance on upper airway in adolescent patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion].

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Zhou, Hui-Ling; Lou, Xin-Tian; Hu, Zheng; Shen, Gang

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of functional appliance on upper airway in adolescent patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion based on cone-beam CT (CBCT). Thirty adolescent patients (male:female=1:1) with skeletal Class II malocclusion and their 30 counterparts with skeletal Class I malocclusion were selected. Skeletal Class II malocclusion patients were treated with Activator for 12 months on average, meanwhile skeletal Class I malocclusion patients were treated with fixed appliance without extraction. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) films were taken before and 12 months after treatment. Films of skeletal Class II malocclusion patients were measured (items about skeletal and upper airway, and the outline of upper airway depicted with 3D reconstruction) and compared with the reference standards and the measurements of their counterpart patients with skeletal Class I malocclusion. Independent t test was performed in inter-group comparison and paired t test was performed in inner-group comparison using SAS 8.0 software package. Before treatment, patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion showed decreased SNB and APDI value, increased ANB, Wits, and OJ compared with standard value and value of skeletal Class I malocclusion patients. In addition, decreased MPW and PAS value, and downsized volume of upper airway and transverse diameter minimum were found in skeletal Class II malocclusion patients. After treatment with Activator, patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion showed increased MPW and PAS value, and enlarged volume of upper airway and transverse diameter minimum. All values of skeletal items of patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion showed trends to get close to the reference standards and the values of skeletal Class I malocclusion patients. There was no significant difference between different genders of the two groups. Patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion have constructed upper airways. Treatment with Activator can increase the MPW and PAS values and

  14. First results of the Ebro Delta Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, O. A.; Montanya, J.; Rison, W.; Aulich, G. D.; Pineda, N.; Soula, S.; Romero, D.; Rico, R.; Reglero, V.

    2011-12-01

    In the summer of 2011 a three-dimensional lightning mapping array (LMA) has been deployed in the Ebro delta and surrounding area, in eastern Spain. This area was chosen for its proximity to both summer storms over land and autumn/winter thunderstorms over sea, which often produce transient luminous events (mainly sprites and elves). The delta also offers a wide open and accessable space suitable for simultaneous high-speed camera, x/gamma-ray and electric field observations of lightning. Currently (August 2011) five of the twelve VHF band (64-68 MHz) sensors have been deployed within the delta and one sensor further inland. The first data collected shows excellent mapping capabilities for flashes close to the delta. The first flash chosen for analysis, a large one at the end of the life of a thunderstorm cluster on July 12th, started as an upward negative leader with its first sources close to the blade of a wind turbine located on the hills between Tortosa and the Ebro delta. The leader proceeded upward into the lower positive charge region (4 km), after 200 ms leaders entered the central negative charge region (6 km) and after about 500 ms, a negative leader explored the upper positive charge region (9 km). The flash eventually produced a cloud-to-ground lightning flash of negative polarity in the delta (confirmed by the LINET network), preceded by a negative leader to ground, and further intracloud channels. The mapped flash measured almost 40 km across and lasted for 2 seconds. Already a few flashes have been recorded simultaneously by a high-speed camera. The first sprites have been observed over the Balearic Sea early on July 30th. Individual LMA sensor data for sprite-producing lightning flashes at 125 km away showed surprisingly good quality signals and very low noise at the best sensor sites, the signals dropping off significantly beyond 170 km. The flashes had durations around 1 second and showed similar patterns of fluctuating emitted leader source power

  15. The Ebro Deep-Sea Fan system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Coumes, F.; Got, H.; Manaco, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Ebro Fan System consists of en echelon channel-levee complexes, 50??20 km in area and 200-m thick. A few strong reflectors in a generally transparent seismic facies identify the sand-rich channel floors and levee crests. Numerous continuous acoustic reflectors characterize overbank turbidites and hemipelagites that blanket abandoned channel-levee complexes. The interlobe areas between channel complexes fill with homogeneous mud and sand from mass flow and overbank deposition; these exhibit a transparent seismic character. The steep continental rise and sediment 'drainage' of Valencia Trough at the end of the channel-levee complexes prevent the development of distributary channels and midfan lobe deposits. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  16. [Effects of Fränkel II appliance on sagittal dimensions of upper airway in children].

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Xiao, Danna; Zhao, Zhihe

    2003-04-20

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Fränkel II appliance on the upper airway of children. The subjects consisted of 20 patients with Angle Class II, division I malocclusion (10 males and 10 females). The ages of all cases were ranged in 9-10 years. Each experimental subject was also served as self-control and cephalometric analysis was conducted. Compared with the results of pretreatment, the distance of PNS-Ba, SPP-SPPW, P-T, V-LPW and the Mcnamara line increased remarkably. The Fränkel II appliance can improve the sagittal dimensions of the upper airway in children.

  17. Late Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary facies on the Ebro continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, J.; Nelson, C.H.; Barber, J.H.; Giro, S.

    1990-01-01

    Late Pleistocene-Holocene history of the Ebro continental shelf of northeastern Spain is recorded in two main sedimentary units: (1) a lower, transgressive unit that covers the shelf and is exposed on the outer shelf south of 40??40???N, and (2) an upper, progradational, prodeltaic unit that borders the Ebro Delta and extends southward along the inner shelf. The lower transgressive unit includes a large linear shoal found at a water depth of 90 m and hardground mounds at water depths of 70-80 m. Some patches of earlier Pleistocene prodelta mud remain also, exposed or covered by a thin veneer of transgressive sand on the northern outer shelf. This relict sand sheet is 2-3 m thick and contains 9000-12,500 yr old oyster and other shells at water depths of 78-88 m. The upper prodelta unit covers most of the inner shelf from water depths of 20-80 m and extends from the present Ebro River Delta to an area to the southwest where the unit progressively thins and narrows. Interpretation of high-resolution seismic reflection data shows the following facies occurring progressively offshore: (1) a thick stratified facies with thin progradational "foresets beds", (2) a faintly laminated facies with sparse reflectors of low continuity, and (3) a thin transparent bottomset facies underlain by a prominent flat-lying reflector. Deposition in the northern half of the prodelta began as soon as the shoreline transgressed over the mid-shelf, but progradation of the southern half did not begin until about 1000-3000 yrs after the transgression. A classic deltaic progradational sequence is shown in the Ebro prodelta mud by (1) gradation of seismic facies away from the delta, (2) coarsening-upward sequences near the delta and fining-upward sequences in the distal mud belt deposits, and (3) thin storm-sand layers and shell lags in the nearshore stratified facies. The boundaries of the prodeltaic unit are controlled by increased current speeds on the outer shelf (where the shelf narrows) and

  18. Dynamics of Mediterranean late Quaternary fluvial activity: An example from the River Ebro (north Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria-Jáuregui, Ángel; González-Amuchástegui, María José; Mauz, Barbara; Lang, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Late Pleistocene and Holocene fluvial evolution of the upper River Ebro (Miranda basin, north Spain) is analysed using geomorphological, sedimentological, and optical dating techniques. Maximum regional crustal uplift of 0.98 m/ka approximately helped preserve a suite of terraces in the Miranda basin: 5 river terraces (T1-5) were identified and their formation attributed to MIS 6 (T1), MIS 5d (T2), MIS 4 (T3), MIS 2 (T4), MIS 1 (T5). Alluvium deposited in terraces T1, T2, T3, and T4 is well-sorted, clast-supported gravels; whereas the T5 deposit is exclusively composed of silt. Gravels were deposited during cold and dry periods when reduced vegetation cover on hillslopes increased sediment supply to the trunk river. Silt was deposited in overbank settings under warmer and wetter climate conditions when vegetation cover stabilised hillslopes and restricted sediment supply. It also resulted in lower peak discharge and reduced flow velocities over vegetated floodplains. The chronological sequence of terraces indicates that incision occurred during climatic transitions. We conclude that the upper River Ebro responded to fluctuations in sediment supply and discharge controlled by late Quaternary climate cycles.

  19. Morphological evolution of the Pyrenees and Ebro drainage basin: effect of a capture on the erosion of a mountain chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babault, J.; van den Driessche, J.; Bonnet, S.; Crave, A.

    2003-04-01

    In the Pyrenees, the existence of summit flat erosional surfaces is well known for a long time. This smoothed topography meets around 2000 m above sea level in the Axial Zone. The current relief is characterized by the deeply dissection of this surfaces by rivers of the Ebro drainage basin. These observations lead Boissevin (1934) and De Sitter (1952) to argue for a 2000 m post-orogenic uplift of the Pyrenean chain. However Molnar and England (1990) argue that climatic changes can also be responsible for the acceleration of erosional processes and the isostatic uplift of summit flat of the Pyrenees. The southern Pyrenees foreland fold thrust belt undergone a syn-tectonic and pos-tectonic burial allowing the development of the smoothed topography in the Axial Zone (Coney, 1996). Then it has been re-excavated to its present relief. It is assumed that the opening of the Valencia Trough and the Messinian desiccation crisis favoured the growth of a proto-Ebro river along the Catalan coastal range and the subsequent capture and re-excavation of the Pyrenees. In order to test the assumption of a burial of the Pyrenees and Ebro basin we reconstructed the paleo-topography of the Pyrenees and Ebro basin before the capture and we compare it to the present-day relief. The paleotopographic reconstruction is based on the field recognition of end-burial, post-tectonic sedimentary deposits and flat surfaces of the Axial Zone. We use elevations of the summit flat and crests plus elevations of the top of post-tectonic deposits to build a DEM of the Pyrenean paleotopography. From reconstruction, the volume of eroded material we calculate since capture (2.8 1013 m^3) is on the same order than the volume of sediments deposited within the Ebro margin calculated by Nelson (1990). The architecture of the sedimentary bodies on the Ebro margin shows an increase in sedimentary flux during the Pleistocene by 3 times superior than the flux of sediments during Pliocene and the amount of

  20. System Characterization of MAHI EXO-II: A Robotic Exoskeleton for Upper Extremity Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    French, James A; Rose, Chad G; O'Malley, Marcia K

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the performance characterization of the MAHI Exo-II, an upper extremity exoskeleton for stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation, as a means to validate its clinical implementation and to provide depth to the literature on the performance characteristics of upper extremity exoskeletons. Individuals with disabilities arising from stroke and SCI need rehabilitation of the elbow, forearm, and wrist to restore the ability to independently perform activities of daily living (ADL). Robotic rehabilitation has been proposed to address the need for high intensity, long duration therapy and has shown promising results for upper limb proximal joints. However, upper limb distal joints have historically not benefitted from the same focus. The MAHI Exo-II, designed to address this shortcoming, has undergone a static and dynamic performance characterization, which shows that it exhibits the requisite qualities for a rehabilitation robot and is comparable to other state-of-the-art designs.

  1. System Characterization of MAHI EXO-II: A Robotic Exoskeleton for Upper Extremity Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    French, James A.; Rose, Chad G.; O'Malley, Marcia K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the performance characterization of the MAHI Exo-II, an upper extremity exoskeleton for stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation, as a means to validate its clinical implementation and to provide depth to the literature on the performance characteristics of upper extremity exoskeletons. Individuals with disabilities arising from stroke and SCI need rehabilitation of the elbow, forearm, and wrist to restore the ability to independently perform activities of daily living (ADL). Robotic rehabilitation has been proposed to address the need for high intensity, long duration therapy and has shown promising results for upper limb proximal joints. However, upper limb distal joints have historically not benefitted from the same focus. The MAHI Exo-II, designed to address this shortcoming, has undergone a static and dynamic performance characterization, which shows that it exhibits the requisite qualities for a rehabilitation robot and is comparable to other state-of-the-art designs. PMID:25984380

  2. Estimated post-Messinian sediment supply and sedimentation rates on the Ebro continental margin, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    Because of the extensive data base of seismic profiles, radiometric ages, and stratigraphic time markers such as the subaerial Messinian surface, sedimentation rates and Ebro River sediment discharge can be estimated for different periods and environments of the Ebro continental margin. New values for sediment discharge (i.e., 6.2 versus previous estimates of 2-3.5 million t/yr) for the Holocene highstand are more reliable but remain minimum estimates because a small proportion of Ebro sediment advected to the Balearic Rise and Abyssal Plain cannot be accounted for, especially during lowstands. The general highstand conditions of the Pliocene, which were similar to those of the Holocene, resulted in a low discharge of Ebro River sediment (ca. 6.5 million t/yr) and an even thickness of sediment across the margin that deposited at rates of about 24-40 cm/ky. In contrast, sediment supply increased two-three times during the Pleistocene, the margin prograded rapidly and deposition occurred at rates of 101-165 cm/ky on the outer shelf and slope, but basin floor rates remained anomalously low (21-26 cm/ky) because sediment was drained and broadly dispersed eastward in Valencia Trough. During the late Pleistocene rise of sea level, the main depocenters progressively shifted shoreward and sedimentation rates greatly decreased from 175 cm/ky on the upper slope during the early transgression to 106 cm/ky on the outer shelf and then to 63 cm/ky on the mid-shelf during the late transgression as the river sediment discharge dropped to half by Holocene time. Maximal sedimentation rates occurred in active depocenters of sediment dispersal such as the Holocene delta (370 cm/ky) or the youngest Pleistocene Oropesa channel-levee complex (705 cm/ky) where deposition rates increased by an order of magnitude or more compared to average Ebro shelf (38 cm/ky) or base-of-slope rates in the Pleistocene (21 cm/ky). The sedimentation rates verify the importance of sea-level control on the

  3. Rotation of the upper first molar in Class I, II, and III patients

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Viganó, Cristiane; da Rocha, Viviane Ekerman; Junior, Laerte Ribeiro Menezes; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Ramos, Adilson Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mean rotation of the upper first molar (U1st M) in cast models from nontreated patients presenting: Class I, skeletal Class II, dental Class II, and skeletal Class III, comparing with Class I orthodontically treated patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred cast models were evaluated with five groups, composed of nontreated Class I (n = 20), dental Class II (n = 20), skeletal Class II (n = 20), skeletal Class III (n = 20), and treated Class I (n = 20). Measurements were taken from photocopies of the upper arches. The angle formed between a line crossing the mesiopalatal and the distal-buccalcusps of the U1st M and a line traced on mid palatal junction were measured in all samples. Results: One-way variance analysis showed that dental Class II group presented great mean rotation of the 1st molar (x = 78.95°, SD = 6.19) (P < 0.05), and in 85% of the patients from this group this angle was higher than 73°. Conclusions: The skeletal Class II and skeletal Class III groups showed similar mean position of the 1st molar, presenting rotation in approximately 50% of the patients. It can be concluded that upper molar rotation occurs mainly in dental Class II patients and shows higher mesial rotation angle. PMID:27011741

  4. Rotation of the upper first molar in Class I, II, and III patients.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Viganó, Cristiane; da Rocha, Viviane Ekerman; Junior, Laerte Ribeiro Menezes; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Ramos, Adilson Luiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mean rotation of the upper first molar (U1(st) M) in cast models from nontreated patients presenting: Class I, skeletal Class II, dental Class II, and skeletal Class III, comparing with Class I orthodontically treated patients. One hundred cast models were evaluated with five groups, composed of nontreated Class I (n = 20), dental Class II (n = 20), skeletal Class II (n = 20), skeletal Class III (n = 20), and treated Class I (n = 20). Measurements were taken from photocopies of the upper arches. The angle formed between a line crossing the mesiopalatal and the distal-buccalcusps of the U1(st) M and a line traced on mid palatal junction were measured in all samples. One-way variance analysis showed that dental Class II group presented great mean rotation of the 1(st) molar (x = 78.95°, SD = 6.19) (P < 0.05), and in 85% of the patients from this group this angle was higher than 73°. The skeletal Class II and skeletal Class III groups showed similar mean position of the 1(st) molar, presenting rotation in approximately 50% of the patients. It can be concluded that upper molar rotation occurs mainly in dental Class II patients and shows higher mesial rotation angle.

  5. Inorganic geochemistry of surface sediments of the Ebro shelf and slope, northwestern Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, J.V.; Dean, W.E.; Alonso, B.

    1990-01-01

    Distributions of major, minor, and trace elements in surface sediment of the continental shelf and upper slope of the northeastern Spanish continental margin reflect the influences of discharge from the Ebro River and changes in eustatic sea levels. Multivariate factor analysis of sediment geochemistry was used to identify five groupings of samples (factors) on the shelf and slope. The first factor is an aluminosilicate factor that represents detrital clastic material. The second factor is a highly variable amount of excess SiO2 and probably represents a quartz residuum originating from winnowing of relict detrital sediments. A carbonate factor (Factor 3) has no positive correlation with other geochemical parameters but is associated with the sand-size fraction. The carbonate in these sediments consists of a mixture of biogenic calcite and angular to subangular detrital grains. Organic carbon is associated with the aluminosilicate factor (Factor 1) but also factors out by itself (Factor 4); this suggests that there may be two sources of organic matter, terrestrial and marine. The fifth factor comprises upper slope sediments that contain high concentrations of manganese. The most likely explanation for these high manganese concentrations is precipitation of Mn oxyhydroxides at the interface between Mn-rich, oxygen-deficient, intermediate waters and oxygenated surface waters. During eustatic low sea levels of the glacial Pleistocene, the Ebro Delta built across the outer continental shelf and deposited sediment with fairly high contents of organic carbon and continental components. The period of marine transgression from eustatic low (glacial) to eustatic high (interglacial) sea levels was characterized by erosion of the outer shelf delta and surficial shelf sediments and the transport of sediment across the slope within numerous canyons. Once eustatic high sea level was reached, delta progradation resumed on the inner shelf. Today, coarse-grained sediment (silt and

  6. SAGE II long-term measurements of stratospheric and upper tropospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P.H.; Kent, G.S.; McCormick, M.P.; Thomason, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II solar occultation instrument has been making measurements on stratospheric aerosols and gases continually since October 1984. Observations from the SAGE II instrument provide a valuable long-term data set for study of the aerosol in the stratosphere and aerosol and cloud in the upper troposphere. The period of observation covers the decay phase of material injected by the El Chichon volcanic eruption in 1982, the years 1988--1990 when stratospheric aerosol levels approached background levels, and the period after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. The Mount Pinatubo eruption caused the largest perturbation in stratospheric aerosol loading in this century, with effects on stratospheric dynamics and chemistry. The SAGE II data sequence shows the global dispersion of aerosols following the Mount Pinatubo eruption, as well as the changes occurring in stratospheric aerosol mass and surface area. The downward transfer of stratospheric aerosols into the upper troposphere following the earlier eruption of El Chichon is clearly visible. Estimates have been made of the amount of volcanic material lying in the upper troposphere and the way in which this varies with latitude and season.

  7. The Ebro margin study, northwestern Mediterranean Sea - an introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, A.; Hans, Nelson C.

    1990-01-01

    The Ebro continental margin from the coast to the deep sea off northeastern Spain was selected for a multidisciplinary project because of the abundant Ebro River sediment supply, Pliocene and Quaternary progradation, and margin development in a restricted basin where a variety of controlling factors could be evaluated. The nature of this young passive margin for the last 5 m.y. was investigated with particular emphasis on marine circulation, sediment dynamics, sediment geochemistry, depositional facies, seismic stratigraphy, geotechnical properties, geological hazards and human influences. These studies show the importance of marine circulation, variation in sediment supply, sea-level oscillation and tectonic setting for the understanding of modern and ancient margin depositional processes and growth patterns. ?? 1990.

  8. Decadal-Scale Responses in Middle and Upper Stratospheric Ozone From SAGE II Version 7 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) version 7 (v7) ozone profiles are analyzed for their decadal-scale responses in the middle and upper stratosphere for 1991 and 1992-2005 and compared with those from its previous version 6.2 (v6.2). Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis is applied to time series of its ozone number density vs. altitude data for a range of latitudes and altitudes. The MLR models that are fit to the time series data include a periodic 11 yr term, and it is in-phase with that of the 11 yr, solar UV (Ultraviolet)-flux throughout most of the latitude/ altitude domain of the middle and upper stratosphere. Several regions that have a response that is not quite in-phase are interpreted as being affected by decadal-scale, dynamical forcings. The maximum minus minimum, solar cycle (SClike) responses for the ozone at the low latitudes are similar from the two SAGE II data versions and vary from about 5 to 2.5% from 35 to 50 km, although they are resolved better with v7. SAGE II v7 ozone is also analyzed for 1984-1998, in order to mitigate effects of end-point anomalies that bias its ozone in 1991 and the analyzed results for 1991-2005 or following the Pinatubo eruption. Its SC-like ozone response in the upper stratosphere is of the order of 4%for 1984-1998 vs. 2.5 to 3%for 1991-2005. The SAGE II v7 results are also recompared with the responses in ozone from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) that are in terms of mixing ratio vs. pressure for 1991-2005 and then for late 1992- 2005 to avoid any effects following Pinatubo. Shapes of their respective response profiles agree very well for 1992-2005. The associated linear trends of the ozone are not as negative in 1992-2005 as in 1984-1998, in accord with a leveling off of the effects of reactive chlorine on ozone. It is concluded that the SAGE II v7 ozone yields SC-like ozone responses and trends that are of better quality than those from v6.2.

  9. Dentofacial and upper airway characteristics of mild and severe class II division 1 subjects.

    PubMed

    Bollhalder, Julia; Hänggi, Michael P; Schätzle, Marc; Markic, Goran; Roos, Malgorzata; Peltomäki, Timo A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to assess whether mild and severe Class II division 1 subjects have craniofacial and upper airway characteristics, which relate to the severity of Class II as judged by overjet or ANB angle. The sample consisted of pre-treatment lateral cephalograms and dental casts of 131 males and 115 females (mean age 10.4 ± 1.6). Inclusion criteria were: healthy Caucasian subjects, at least ¾ Class II first molar relationship on both sides and overjet ≥ 4 mm. The cephalograms were traced and digitized. Distances and angular values were computed. Mild and severe Class II was defined by overjet (<10 mm/≥ 10 mm) or by ANB angle (<7 degrees/≥7 degrees). Statistics were performed with two-sample t-test and Pearson's correlation analysis. In the two overjet groups, significant differences were mainly found for incisor inclination while the two ANB groups differed significantly in SNA, WITS, Go-Pg, SpaSpp/MGo, SN/MGo, and Ar-Gn. The shortest airway distance between the soft palate and the posterior pharyngeal wall was significantly correlated to the NS/Ar angle. Statistical analysis revealed several significant correlations. Patients with a large overjet or ANB angle differed significantly from patients with a small overjet or ANB angle mainly in their incisor inclination. In the present sample, the overjet and to some extent also the ANB angle is determined by soft tissue or individual tooth position rather than by skeletal background. In retrognathic patients, a tendency towards smaller airway dimensions was found. However, statistical analysis did not reveal a strong connection between upper airway and dentoskeletal parameters, but a large interindividual variation.

  10. Upper Stratospheric Temperature Climatology Derived from SAGE II Observations: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P.-H.; Cunnold, D. M.; Wang, H. J.; Chu, W. P.; Thomason, L. W.

    2002-01-01

    This study shows that the temperature information in the upper stratosphere can be derived from the SAGE II 385-mn observations. The preliminary results indicate that the zonal mean temperature increases with altitude below 50 km and decreases above 50 km. At 50 km, a regional maximum of 263 K is located in the tropics, and a minimum of 261 K occurs in the subtropics in both hemispheres. The derived long-term temperature changes from 1985 to 1997 reveal a statistically significant negative trend of -2 to -2.5 K/decade in the tropical upper stratosphere and about -2 K/decade in the subtropics near the stratopause. At latitudes poleward of 50, the results show a statistically significant positive trend of about 1 K/decade in the upper stratosphere. The preliminary results also show large annual temperature oscillations in the extratropics with a maximum amplitude of approx. 8 K located at about 44 km near 50 in both hemispheres during local summer. In addition, the semiannual oscillation is found to be a maximum in the tropics with a peak amplitude of approx. 3.3 K located at about 42 km during the equinox.

  11. Integrated flood damage modelling in the Ebro river basin under hydrodynamic, socio-economic and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foudi, S.; Galarraga, I.; Osés, N.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a model of flood damage measurement. It studies the socio-economic and environmental potential damage of floods in the Ebro river basin. We estimate the damage to the urban, rural and environmental sectors. In these sectors, we make distinctions between residential, non residential, cultural, agricultural, public facilities and utilities, environmental and human subsectors. We focus on both the direct, indirect, tangible and intangible impacts. The residential damages refer to the damages on housing, costs of repair and cleaning as direct effects and the re-housing costs as an indirect effect. The non residential and agricultural impacts concern the losses to the economic sectors (industry, business, agricultural): production, capital losses, costs of cleaning and repairs for the direct costs and the consequences of the suspension of activities for the indirect costs. For the human sector, we refer to the physical impacts (injuries and death) in the direct tangible effects and to the posttraumatic stress as indirect intangible impact. The environmental impacts focus on a site of Community Interests (pSCIs) in the case study area. The case study is located the Ebro river basin, Spain. The Ebro river basin is the larger river basin in term of surface and water discharge. The Ebro river system is subject to Atlantic and Mediterranean climatic influences. It gathers most of its water from the north of Spain (in the Pyrenees Mountains) and is the most important river basin of Spain in term of water resources. Most of the flooding occurs during the winter period. Between 1900- 2010, the National Catalogue of Historical Floods identifies 372 events: meanly 33 events every 10 years and up to 58 during the 1990-2000. Natural floods have two origins: (i) persistent rainfalls in large sub basins raised up by high temperature giving rise to a rapid thaw in the Pyrenees, (ii) local rainfalls of short duration and high intensity that gives rise to rapid and

  12. Mesial rotation of upper first molars in Class II division 1 malocclusion in the mixed dentition: a controlled blind study.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Veronica; Baccetti, Tiziano; Defraia, Efisio; Cozza, Paola; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2011-11-01

    To compare the amount of upper molar rotation in subjects with Class II Division 1 malocclusion and subjects with normal occlusion in the intermediate and late mixed dentition phases. Dental cast measurements were performed in a sample of 120 Class II Division 1 subjects (CL2 group, 67 females and 53 males, mean age 9.4±1.1 years), and in a sample of 58 Class I subjects (CL1 group, 34 females and 24 males, mean age 9.7±1.2 years). Independent sample t tests were used for statistical comparisons (P<.05). The amount of upper molar rotation was significantly greater in CL2 group when compared with CL1 group as assessed by both the mesial and buccal molar cusp angles. No differences were found with regard to upper or lower arch depths, or upper intercanine width. CL2 group showed a significant deficiency in upper intermolar width along with a significant posterior transverse interarch discrepancy when compared with CL1 group. Subjects with Class II malocclusion in the mixed dentition present with mesial upper molar rotation in about 84% of the cases. The correction of molar rotation may provide between 1 and 2mm of gain in arch perimeter and of improvement in molar relationships per side in 5 out 6 Class II patients. Copyright © 2011 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  13. Ebro Lightning Mapping Array: sprite-producing lightning and ground-to-cloud-to-ground flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, O. A.; Montanyà, J.; Romero, D.; Pineda, N.; Soula, S.

    2012-04-01

    In the summer of 2011 a three-dimensional lightning mapping array (LMA) has been deployed in the Ebro delta and surrounding area in eastern Spain. This area was chosen for its proximity to both summer storms over land and cold season thunderstorms over sea, which often produce transient luminous mesospheric events (mainly sprites and elves). In 2011, six of the twelve VHF band (60-66 MHz) sensors were operational, and more followed in early 2012. The area is also covered by LS8000 interferometer and LINET detection systems which provide complementary data. The first flash analysed occurred at the end of the life of a thunderstorm cluster on July 12th and started as an upward negative leader launched by a windmill, growing into the lower positive charge region 3-4 km altitude above the windmills and at 5-7 km altitude eastward, into stratiform precipitation. Briefly, leaders expanded into the upper positive charge region (8-10 km). A downward negative leader reached the ground in the Ebro delta (visually confirmed and detected by LINET). It was followed by two more return strokes and further eastward expansion. The flash lasted 2 seconds and measured 38 km across. LINET and a SAFIR interferometer system did not detect the beginning of the upward flash. Several other complex flashes with horizontal extents larger than 60 km have been mapped since. Other interesting phenomena were observed as well: emissions detected every 3.15 seconds from some of the wind turbines (corona or short upward leaders), suggestive of the blade rotation, and aircraft flying around 8.5 km altitude through thunderstorm anvils showing up as sharp trails of pulses. From July till December 2011 at least 33 sprites were recorded roughly within 150 km from the Ebro LMA. The initial data show the sprites to occur mainly over the sources emitted during the period between the triggering +CG and the onset of the sprite, from ~6-8 km altitude (-15° to -30°C). This activity can be horizontally

  14. Real-time Hydro-NEXRAD II-derived Rainfall Data for the Upper Embarrass Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. K.; Rodriguez, A.; Singh, S.; Liu, Y.; Minsker, B. S.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2010-12-01

    A physically-based semi-distributed coupled water quantity and quality model for a watershed requires real-time rainfall data at high spatial resolution and temporal frequency. For example, the THREW model uses smaller discrete units called representative elementary watersheds (REWs), which represent the smallest elementary unit for hydrological modeling (Tian et al. 2006). Obtaining data at the REW scale presents a challenge because of the absence of rain-gauges inside the watershed and the complexities involved in processing data obtained from multiple radars covering the watershed. Recent development of a Web-based rainfall virtual sensor system and cyberinfrastructure at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and The University of Iowa facilitate processing multiple radar data to the REW level. The resulting rainfall estimates can then be archived or fed into the virtual sensor system for use in real-time modeling or for visualization in Google Earth. The NCSA virtual sensor system consists of: a Google Map-based web interface, a virtual sensor middleware layer, a semantic content management middleware called Tupelo, and workflow tools and services called Cyberintegrator. We are using the virtual sensor system to process rainfall data from the Hydro-NEXRAD II system, developed at The University of Iowa. The virtual sensor translates Hydro-NEXRAD II rainfall data into REW-scale rainfall estimates, and inputs the estimates into hydrologic and hydraulic models for the analysis of water quality and quantity in Upper Embarrass watershed in Illinois. The Hydro-NEXRAD II feed provides real-time rain-rate estimates on a nominal 2-km × 2-km rectangular grid (or more precisely, a 1-degree × 1-degree lat-long grid). Hydro-NEXRAD II quality-controls, synchronizes, merges, and preprocesses data from three NEXRAD radars covering the entire watershed. It provides updated rain-rate maps every 5 minutes and stores them on a web-folder from where the

  15. Reconstructing Northern Hemisphere upper-level fields during World War II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brönnimann, S.; Luterbacher, J.

    Monthly mean fields of temperature and geopotential height (GPH) from 700 to 100 hPa were statistically reconstructed for the extratropical Northern Hemisphere for the World War II period. The reconstruction was based on several hundred predictor variables, comprising temperature series from meteorological stations and gridded sea level pressure data (1939-1947) as well as a large amount of historical upper-air data (1939-1944). Statistical models were fitted in a calibration period (1948-1994) using the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data set as predictand. The procedure consists of a weighting scheme, principal component analyses on both the predictor variables and the predictand fields and multiple regression models relating the two sets of principal component time series to each other. According to validation experiments, the reconstruction skill in the 1939-1944 period is excellent for GPH at all levels and good for temperature up to 500 hPa, but somewhat worse for 300 hPa temperature and clearly worse for 100 hPa temperature. Regionally, high predictive skill is found over the midlatitudes of Europe and North America, but a lower quality over Asia, the subtropics, and the Arctic. Moreover, the quality is considerably better in winter than in summer. In the 1945-1947 period, reconstructions are useful up to 300 hPa for GPH and, in winter, up to 500 hPa for temperature. The reconstructed fields are presented for selected months and analysed from a dynamical perspective. It is demonstrated that the reconstructions provide a useful tool for the analysis of large-scale circulation features as well as stratosphere-troposphere coupling in the late 1930s and early 1940s.

  16. Annual variations of water vapor in the stratosphere and upper troposphere observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, M.P.; McMaster, L.R.; Chu, W.P. ); Chiou, E.W.; Larsen, J.C. ); Rind, D. ); Oltmans, S. )

    1993-03-20

    This paper presents a description of the annual variations of water vapor in the stratosphere and the upper troposphere derived from observations of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II). The altitude-time cross sections exhibit annually repeatable patterns in both hemispheres. The appearance of a yearly minimum in water vapor in both hemispheres at approximately the same time supports the idea of a common source(s) for stratospheric dry air. Annual patterns observed at northern mid-latitudes, like the appearance of a hygropause in winter and the weakening and upward shifting of the hygropause from January to May, agree with in situ balloon observations previously obtained over Boulder and Washington, DC. An increase in water vapor with altitude in the tropics is consistent with methane oxidation in the upper stratosphere to lower mesosphere as a source for water vapor. A poleward gradient is also shown as expected based on a Lagrangian mean circulation. A linear regression analysis using SAGE II data from January 1986 to December 1988 shows that little annual variation occurs in the middle and upper stratosphere with the region of large annual variability near the tropopause. The semi-annual variability is relatively marked at altitudes of 24 and 40 km in the tropics. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. GREAT II Upper Mississippi River (Guttenberg, Iowa to Saverton, Missouri) Water Quality Work Group Appendix.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ACCOMPLISHM ENT .. .. ...... 19 A. Water Quality Assessment Report .. ..... ....... 19 B. Point Source Discharge Map .. .. ....... ...... 19 C. Dredge... Diversity . .. ...... ........ ... 128 X Summary of the Present Status of Water Quality in the Upper Mississippi River. .. .... .. 134 GLOSSARY...Suspended Sediment Plumes: A report on the water quality of the Upper Return flows at the Rock Island and Mississippi River and a point- source discharge

  18. Pesticides in the Ebro River basin: Occurrence and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ccanccapa, Alexander; Masiá, Ana; Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2016-04-01

    In this study, 50 pesticides were analyzed in the Ebro River basin in 2010 and 2011 to assess their impact in water, sediment and biota. A special emphasis was placed on the potential effects of both, individual pesticides and their mixtures, in three trophic levels (algae, daphnia and fish) using Risk Quotients (RQs) and Toxic Units (TUs) for water and sediments. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon and carbendazim were the most frequent in water (95, 95 and 70% of the samples, respectively). Imazalil (409.73 ng/L) and diuron (150 ng/L) were at the highest concentrations. Sediment and biota were less contaminated. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon and diclofenthion were the most frequent in sediments (82, 45 and 21% of the samples, respectively). The only pesticide detected in biota was chlorpyrifos (up to 840.2 ng g(-1)). Ecotoxicological risk assessment through RQs showed that organophosphorus and azol presented high risk for algae; organophosphorus, benzimidazoles, carbamates, juvenile hormone mimic and other pesticides for daphnia, and organophosphorus, azol and juvenile hormone mimics for fish. The sum TUsite for water and sediments showed values < 1 for the three bioassays. In both matrices, daphnia and fish were more sensitive to the mixture of pesticide residues present. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. A complete terrestrial Oligocene magnetobiostratigraphy from the Ebro Basin, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberà, X.; Cabrera, L.; Marzo, M.; Parés, J. M.; Agustí, J.

    2001-04-01

    The integrated litho-, bio- and magnetostratigraphic cross-correlation of 11 continuous and correlatable sections in the southeastern Ebro Basin (NE Spain) produced a complete Oligocene magnetic polarity stratigraphy ranging from latest Eocene to earliest Miocene. The magnetic polarity zonation of the different alluvial and shallow lacustrine sections has been correlated to the GPTS using fossil mammals and the distinct sequence and pattern of polarity reversals. The composite magnetic polarity sequence defines a continuous sequence from Chron C15n to Chron 6Cn.2n, from 34.8 to 23.7 Ma (late Eocene-early Miocene). In addition, a few short normal and reverse polarity events that correlate to cryptochrons in the GPTS are found (i.e. in C11n.1r and C8n.1r). The resulting regional magneto-biostratigraphic framework based on fossil mammals is proposed to refine the dating of the European Oligocene biochronological mammal Paleogene units and correlate them with the standard Oligocene marine stages and the North American land mammal ages. The magnetochronology now established enables more precise dating of the late Eocene and Oligocene paleofloristic and paleofaunistic changes in southwestern Europe, which were coeval to ongoing global paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic changes on Earth caused by high latitude cooling and ice sheet development in eastern Antarctica.

  20. Sediment transport during flushing flows in the lower River Ebro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalla, R. J.; Vericat, D.; Palau, A.

    2009-04-01

    This study describes the sediment transport which occurred during several flushing flows between 2002 and 2008 in the impounded lower River Ebro (Northeast Spain). The experimental releases were designed and undertaken to control the excess of aquatic vegetation and enhance sediment-related processes in the river channel downstream the lowermost dams in the basin. Macrophytes cause problems to water users, especially to the hydroelectric and the nuclear power plants located in the vicinity of the river. Sediment transport results from flushing flows are compared with those observed during natural floods. Observations show distinct patterns of sediment transport owing to the particular channel conditions (i.e. exhaustion of fine sediment and removal of the surface layer). Flushing flows depict notably higher suspended sediment concentrations in relation to natural floods. Bed load rates during flushing flows are typically low and, because the flood duration is short, no incision is observed in the river bed. In spite of that, large quantities of macrophytes were removed. The combination of hydraulic and sedimentary parameters during the designed floods maximizes the ecological and management benefits of the experimental releases without significant adverse geomorphological impacts on the river channel.

  1. Factors controlling ebro deep-sea fan growth, Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Alonso, B.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, W.B.F.; Kastens, K.; O'Connel, S.

    1985-01-01

    Tectonic, sediment-source and sea-level factors control depositional patterns of the Ebro deep-sea fan system. In unstable, steep continental slope terrain, mass movement of material results in wide gullied canyons and formation of non-channelized debris aprons. These fan channels develop low sinuosity and generally traverse the continental rise without feeding into depositional lobes because of steep gradients (1:50 to 1:100) and sediment draining into the subsiding Valencia Valley graben. An abundance of sediment input points from mass failure and many river-fed canyons contributes to a depositional pattern of side-by-side debris aprons and separate channel-levee complexes. When a large sediment supply feeds a channel for a relatively long period 1) fan valley sinuosity increases: 2) channel walls are modified through undercutting, slumping, and crevasse splays: 3) channel bifurcation occurs: 4) incipient depositional lobe formation begins. Lowering of sea levels in Late Pleistocene time permitted the access of coarse river sediment to slope valleys and promoted deposition of numerous turbidites and active growth of the fan. During the Holocene, when sea levels have been high, a regime of hemipelagic sedimentation, mass movement, and debris apron sedimentation has dominated.

  2. Frequency and Intensity of drought events over Ebro River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, J. L.; Saa-Requejo, A.; Gascó, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Lately, several researchers have pointed out that climate change is expected to increase temperatures and lower rainfall in Mediterranean regions, simultaneously increasing the intensity of extreme rainfall events. These changes could have consequences regarding rainfall regime, erosion, sediment transport and water quality, soil management, and new designs in diversion ditches. Climate change is expected to result in increasingly unpredictable and variable rainfall, in amount and timing, changing seasonal patterns and increasing the frequency of extreme weather events. Consequently, the evolution of frequency and intensity of drought periods is of most important as in agro-ecosystems many processes will be affected by them. Realising the complex and important consequences of an increasing frequency of extreme droughts at the Ebro River basin, our aim is to study the evolution of drought events at this site statistically, with emphasis on the occurrence and intensity of them. For this purpose, fourteen meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station and no-rain period frequency as the consecutive numbers of days were extracted. Based on this data, we study changes in the probability distribution in several sub-periods. Moreover we used the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for identification of drought events in a year scale and then we use this index to fit log-linear models to the contingency tables between the SPI index and the sub-periods, this adjusted is carried out with the help of ANOVA inference. Funding provided by ENESA, under projects P030225764 and P070225564, and by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

  3. INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR THE UPPER PRIMARY. A TEACHER GUIDE, SEMESTER II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DELIKAN, ALFRED; AND OTHERS

    TELECAST PROGRAMS FOR THE UPPER PRIMARY GRADES WERE IN ART, MUSIC, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SCIENCE. A PREVIEW OF THE CONTENT OF EACH UNIT WAS GIVEN, TOGETHER WITH DETAILED INFORMATION FOR FOLLOWUP ACTIVITY. IN THE ART SERIES, IT WAS RECOMMENDED THAT PUPIL PARTICIPATION TAKE PLACE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFTER THE TELECAST. INDIVIDUAL CREATIVITY WAS…

  4. INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR THE UPPER PRIMARY. A TEACHER GUIDE, SEMESTER II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DELIKAN, ALFRED; AND OTHERS

    TELECAST PROGRAMS FOR THE UPPER PRIMARY GRADES WERE IN ART, MUSIC, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SCIENCE. A PREVIEW OF THE CONTENT OF EACH UNIT WAS GIVEN, TOGETHER WITH DETAILED INFORMATION FOR FOLLOWUP ACTIVITY. IN THE ART SERIES, IT WAS RECOMMENDED THAT PUPIL PARTICIPATION TAKE PLACE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFTER THE TELECAST. INDIVIDUAL CREATIVITY WAS…

  5. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is frequently used for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. Part I of this article series described in detail the characteristic USG picture of peripheral nerves and the proper examination technique, following the example of the median nerve. This nerve is among the most often examined peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part presents describes the normal anatomy and ultrasound picture of the remaining large nerve branches in the upper extremity and neck – the spinal accessory nerve, the brachial plexus, the suprascapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves. Their normal anatomy and ultrasonographic appearance have been described, including the division into individual branches. For each of them, specific reference points have been presented, to facilitate the location of the set trunk and its further monitoring. Sites for the application of the ultrasonographic probe at each reference point have been indicated. In the case of the ulnar nerve, the dynamic component of the examination was emphasized. The text is illustrated with images of probe positioning, diagrams of the normal course of the nerves as well as a series of ultrasonographic pictures of normal nerves of the upper limb. This article aims to serve as a guide in the ultrasound examination of the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity. It should be remembered that a thorough knowledge of the area's topographic anatomy is required for this type of examination. PMID:26674017

  6. The possible influence of upstream upper-level baroclinic processes on the development of the QE II storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uccellini, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of the QE II storm of September 9-11, 1978 presents evidence for the existence of upper-level baroclinic processes upstream of the rapidly developing cyclone. The analysis shows that a deepening shortwave trough was located 400 to 500 km upstream of the site of the storm 12 h prior to rapid cyclogenesis. The trough was associated with: (1) a polar jet marked by 65 m/s winds in its core and significant vertical and horizontal wind shear, (2) positive vorticity advection and divergence at the 300 mb level, and (3) an intense frontal zone that extended from 300 mb down to the surface. It also appears that a tropopause fold likely extruded stratospheric air down to the 700-800 mb level, 400-500 km upstream of the surface low and 12 h prior to the explosive development phase of the cyclone. These findings raise questions about Gyakum's (1983) assertion that the QE II storm developed in an area in which the baroclinic support was confined to the lower troposphere and the related assertion by Anthes et al. (1983) that upper-level forcing upstream of the area of rapid cyclogenesis was weak and apparently not important in this case.

  7. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II and III Aerosol Extinction Measurements in the Arctic Middle and Upper Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treffeisen, R. E.; Thomason, L. W.; Strom, J.; Herber, A. B.; Burton, S. P.; Yamanouchi, T.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, substantial effort has been expended toward understanding the impact of tropospheric aerosols on Arctic climate and chemistry. A significant part of this effort has been the collection and documentation of extensive aerosol physical and optical property data sets. However, the data sets present significant interpretive challenges because of the diverse nature of these measurements. Among the longest continuous records is that by the spaceborne Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II. Although SAGE tropospheric measurements are restricted to the middle and upper troposphere, they may be able to provide significant insight into the nature and variability of tropospheric aerosol, particularly when combined with ground and airborne observations. This paper demonstrates the capacity of aerosol products from SAGE II and its follow-on experiment SAGE III to describe the temporal and vertical variations of Arctic aerosol characteristics. We find that the measurements from both instruments are consistent enough to be combined. Using this combined data set, we detect a clear annual cycle in the aerosol extinction for the middle and upper Arctic troposphere.

  8. Large-scale coastal and fluvial models constrain the late Holocene evolution of the Ebro Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Kettner, Albert J.; Giosan, Liviu

    2017-09-01

    The distinctive plan-view shape of the Ebro Delta coast reveals a rich morphologic history. The degree to which the form and depositional history of the Ebro and other deltas represent autogenic (internal) dynamics or allogenic (external) forcing remains a prominent challenge for paleo-environmental reconstructions. Here we use simple coastal and fluvial morphodynamic models to quantify paleo-environmental changes affecting the Ebro Delta over the late Holocene. Our findings show that these models are able to broadly reproduce the Ebro Delta morphology, with simple fluvial and wave climate histories. Based on numerical model experiments and the preserved and modern shape of the Ebro Delta plain, we estimate that a phase of rapid shoreline progradation began approximately 2100 years BP, requiring approximately a doubling in coarse-grained fluvial sediment supply to the delta. River profile simulations suggest that an instantaneous and sustained increase in coarse-grained sediment supply to the delta requires a combined increase in both flood discharge and sediment supply from the drainage basin. The persistence of rapid delta progradation throughout the last 2100 years suggests an anthropogenic control on sediment supply and flood intensity. Using proxy records of the North Atlantic Oscillation, we do not find evidence that changes in wave climate aided this delta expansion. Our findings highlight how scenario-based investigations of deltaic systems using simple models can assist first-order quantitative paleo-environmental reconstructions, elucidating the effects of past human influence and climate change, and allowing a better understanding of the future of deltaic landforms.

  9. Uranium levels in Ebro Delta topsoils (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, J.; Roca, N.; López-Pancorbo, A.; Fernández-Sáncheza, R.; Tume, P.

    2012-04-01

    The sources of uranium in agricultural soils can be divided into two main groups: those inherent to the parent material and those produced by anthropic inputs. The use of phosphate fertilizers, the presence of old brown coal mines and a nuclear power plant located upstream from the studied area could contribute to the increase of this radionuclide. Monitoring the uranium levels in these soils is necessary due to the importance of the delta as a rice producing area. The main objective of this work was to analyze the uranium content in the considered soils and in the rice grains harvested in those soils. Soil and rice grain samples were taken in Ebro Delta, at a rice producing area in Tarragona Province, Spain. Top soils (0-5 and 5-20 cm) were analyzed for physical and chemical properties by standard methods. Soil samples were digested by the aqua regia methods for the determination of pseudototal uranium concentration. The available fraction was extracted with EDTA 0.05M at pH 7 and rice grains were measured by digestion with a mixture of HNO3:H2O (3:2) in hermetically closed Teflon containers and then heated in the microwave for two hours. All the extracts were determined by ICP-MS. The soils had basic pH (8.0 ± 0.2), a low salinity (ranged from 5.4 to 0.1 dS•m-1), a relatively high content of organic carbon (3.2 ± 1.8) and a loamy texture: silt (31.9% ± 14.8) and clay (25.7% ± 13.5). The average content for uranium pseudototal fraction was 0.51 mg•kg-1 (ranging from 0.25 to 0.95 mg•kg-1) and the average content for available uranium was 0.19 mg•kg-1 (ranging from 0.02 to 0.65 mg•kg-1). All values for U in rice grains were below 0.0007 mg•kg-1. The uranium content in these soils and rice were in agreement with safety levels cited in the literature. The pH, the salt content and organic matter content become the soil properties that acquire greater importance in the uranium availability.

  10. Distribution of extreme rainfall events over Ebro River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saa, Antonio; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Valencia, Jose Luis; Gascó, Jose Maria

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide a description of the heavy rainfall phenomenon on statistical tools from a Spanish region. We want to quantify the effect of the climate change to verify the rapidity of its evolution across the variation of the probability distributions. Our conclusions have special interest for the agrarian insurances, which may make estimates of costs more realistically. In this work, the analysis mainly focuses on: The distribution of consecutive days without rain for each gauge stations and season. We estimate density Kernel functions and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) for a network of station from the Ebro River basin until a threshold value u. We can establish a relation between distributional parameters and regional characteristics. Moreover we analyze especially the tail of the probability distribution. These tails are governed by law of power means that the number of events n can be expressed as the power of another quantity x : n(x) = x? . ? can be estimated as the slope of log-log plot the number of events and the size. The most convenient way to analyze n(x) is using the empirical probability distribution. Pr(X > x) ∞ x-?. The distribution of rainfall over percentile of order 0.95 from wet days at the seasonal scale and in a yearly scale with the same treatment of tails than in the previous section. The evolution of the distribution in the second XXth century and the impact on the extreme values model. After realized the analyses it does not appreciate difference in the distribution throughout the time which suggests that this region does not appreciate increase of the extreme values both for the number of dry consecutive days and for the value of the rainfall References: Coles, Stuart (2001). An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values,. Springer-Verlag Krishnamoorthy K. (2006), Handbook of Statistical Distributions with Applications, Chapman & Hall/CRC. Bodini A., Cossu A. (2010). Vulnerability assessment

  11. Hydrogeochemistry of the surface waters of the Ebro River Basin (Spain): a view through Li-B-Sr isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Guerrot, C.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Brenot, A.; Negrel, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we report hydrogen, oxygen, lithium, boron and strontium isotope measurements (δ2H, δ18O, δ7Li, δ11B and 87Sr/86Sr) together with major and trace elements in the dissolved load of 25 river samples collected within the Ebro River Basin in Spain. The Ebro River Basin is mainly dominated by carbonates and evaporites from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic terrains. The Ebro river mainstream was sampled at Amposta one time per month between June 2005 and May 2006. And secondly, the Ebro river along its main course and its main tributaries were sampled during one field campaign in April 2006. The main objective of the present work is to characterize the hydrogeochemistry of the surface waters within the Ebro River Basin and to constrain the behavior of Li and B and their isotopes during water/rock interactions at the scale of a large river basin having various lithologies with a specific aim to investigate spatio-temporal variations for both Li and B isotopes signatures within the Ebro River Basin. The main goal of this study is thus to determine the sources contributing to Li and B in the river waters of the Ebro Basin, as well as to characterize the controlling factors that can determine the distribution of Li and B and their isotopes in the river waters of the Ebro Basin. Stable water isotopes (δ2H, δ18O) show that all the river waters have a purely local origin from precipitation, without significant evaporation or water/rock interaction, as all points plot close to the general meteoric-water line. In the river waters, Li isotopic signatures (δ7Li) are comprised between +12.9 and +20.9‰, δ11B values are ranging from +9.9 to +25.0‰ and 87Sr/86Sr are between 0.70786 and 0.70897.

  12. Statistical methods for astronomical data with upper limits. II - Correlation and regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isobe, T.; Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.

    1986-01-01

    Statistical methods for calculating correlations and regressions in bivariate censored data where the dependent variable can have upper or lower limits are presented. Cox's regression and the generalization of Kendall's rank correlation coefficient provide significant levels of correlations, and the EM algorithm, under the assumption of normally distributed errors, and its nonparametric analog using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, give estimates for the slope of a regression line. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that survival analysis is reliable in determining correlations between luminosities at different bands. Survival analysis is applied to CO emission in infrared galaxies, X-ray emission in radio galaxies, H-alpha emission in cooling cluster cores, and radio emission in Seyfert galaxies.

  13. Statistical methods for astronomical data with upper limits. II - Correlation and regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isobe, T.; Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.

    1986-01-01

    Statistical methods for calculating correlations and regressions in bivariate censored data where the dependent variable can have upper or lower limits are presented. Cox's regression and the generalization of Kendall's rank correlation coefficient provide significant levels of correlations, and the EM algorithm, under the assumption of normally distributed errors, and its nonparametric analog using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, give estimates for the slope of a regression line. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that survival analysis is reliable in determining correlations between luminosities at different bands. Survival analysis is applied to CO emission in infrared galaxies, X-ray emission in radio galaxies, H-alpha emission in cooling cluster cores, and radio emission in Seyfert galaxies.

  14. I. Rupture properties of large subduction earthquakes. II. Broadband upper mantle structure of western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melbourne, Timothy Ian

    This thesis contains two studies, one of which employs geodetic data bearing on large subduction earthquakes to infer complexity of rupture duration, and the other is a high frequency seismological study of the upper mantle discontinuity structure under western North America and the East Pacific Rise. In the first part, we present Global Positioning System and tide gauge data which record the co-seismic deformation which accompanied the 1995 Mw8.0 Jalisco event offshore central Mexico, the 1994 Mw7.5 Sanriku event offshore Northern Honshu, Japan, and the 1995 Mw8.1 Antofagasta earthquake offshore Northern Chile. In two of the three cases we find that the mainshocks were followed by significant amounts of rapid, post-seismic deformation which is best and most easily explained by continued slip near the co-seismic rupture patch. This is the first documented case of rapid slip migration following a large earthquake, and is pertinent to earthquake prediction based on precursory deformation. As the three GPS data sets represent the best observations of large subduction earthquakes to date and two of them show significant amounts of aseismic energy release, they strongly suggest silent faulting may be common in certain types of subduction zones. This, in turn, bears on estimates of global moment release, seismic coupling, and our understanding of the natural hazards associated with convergent margins. The second part of this dissertation utilizes high frequency body waves to infer the upper mantle structure of western North America and the East Pacific Rise. An uncharacteristically large Mw5.9 earthquake located in Western Texas provided a vivid topside reflection off the 410 Km velocity discontinuity ("410"), which we model to infer the fine details of this structure. We find that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the 410 is not sharp, and our results help reconcile seismic observations of 410 structure with laboratory predictions. By analyzing differences between our

  15. The Charged Aerosol Release Experiment (Care II) to Study Artificial Dusty Plasmas in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Gatling, G.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.; Vierinen, J.; Bhatt, A.; Holzworth, R. H., II; McCarthy, M.; Gustavsson, B.; La Hoz, C.; Latteck, R.

    2015-12-01

    A sounding rocket launched from Andoya, Norway in September 2015 carried 37 rocket motors and a multi-instrument daughter payload into the ionosphere to study the generation of plasma wave electric fields and ionospheric density disturbances by the high-speed injection of dust particles. The primary purpose of the CARE II mission is to validate the dress-particle theory of enhanced incoherent scatter from a dusty plasma and to validate models of plasma instabilities driven by high-speed charged particles. The CARE II chemical payload produces 66 kg of micron-sized dust particles composed of aluminium oxide. In addition to the dust, simple molecular combustion products such as N2, H2, CO2, CO, H20 and NO will be injected into the bottomside of the F-layer. Charging of the dust and ion charge exchange with the molecules yields plasma particles moving at hypersonic velocities. Streaming instabilities and shear electric fields causes plasma turbulence that can be detected using ground radars and in situ plasma instruments. The instrument payload was separated from the chemical release payload soon after launch to measure electric field vectors, electron and ion densities, and integrated electron densities from the rocket to the ground. The chemical release of high speed dust was directed upward on the downleg of the rocket trajectory to intersect the F-Layer. The instrument section was about 600 meters from the dust injection module at the release time. Ground HF and UHF radars were operated to detected scatter and refraction by the modified ionosphere. Optical instruments from airborne and ground observatories were used to map the dispersal of the dust using scattered sunlight. The plasma interactions are being simulated with both fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) codes. CARE II is a follow-on to the CARE I rocket experiment conducted from Wallops Island Virginia in September 2009.

  16. The Role of Type II Spicules in the Upper Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the suggestion that most of the hot plasma in the Sun's co rona comes from type II spicule material that is heated as it is ejected from the chromosphere. This contrasts with the traditional view th at the corona is filled via chromospheric evaporation that results fr om coronal heating. We explore the observational consequences of a hy pothetical spicule dominated corona and conclude from the large discr epancy between predicted and actual observations that only a small fraction of the hot plasma can be supplied by spicules (<2% in active regions and <5% in the quiet Sun). The red- blue asymmetries of EUV spec tral lines and the ratio of lower transition region (LTR; T< or =0.1 MK) to coronal emission measures are both predicted to be 2 orders of magnitude larger than observed. Furthermore, hot spicule material would cool dramatically by adiabatic expansion as it rises into the corona, so coronal heating would be required to maintain the high temperatu res that are seen at all altitudes. The necessity of coronal heating is inescapable. Traditional coronal heating models predict far too little emission from the LTR, and we suggest that this emission comes pr imarily from the bulk of the spicule material that is heated to < or =0.1 MK and is visible in He II (304 ?A) as it falls back to the surf ace.

  17. ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. II. TRIGGERING, VISIBILITY, AND EFFECT ON UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Vissers, Gregal J. M.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Rutten, Robert J.

    2013-09-01

    We use high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to study the transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer H{alpha} line in emerging active regions that are called Ellerman bombs. Simultaneous sampling of Ca II 8542 A with the SST confirms that most Ellerman bombs also occur in the wings of this line, but with markedly different morphology. Simultaneous images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show that Ellerman bombs are also detectable in the photospheric 1700 A continuum, again with differing morphology. They are also observable in 1600 A SDO images, but with much contamination from C IV emission in transition-region features. Simultaneous SST spectropolarimetry in Fe I 6301 A shows that Ellerman bombs occur at sites of strong-field magnetic flux cancellation between small bipolar strong-field patches that rapidly move together over the solar surface. Simultaneous SDO images in He II 304 A, Fe IX 171 A, and Fe XIV 211 A show no clear effect of the Ellerman bombs on the overlying transition region and corona. These results strengthen our earlier suggestion, based on H{alpha} morphology alone, that the Ellerman bomb phenomenon is a purely photospheric reconnection phenomenon.

  18. Organic metamorphism in the Lower Mississippian-Upper Devonian Bakken shales-II: Soxhlet extraction.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.; Ging, T.; Love, A.; Anders, D.

    1986-01-01

    We report on Soxhlet extraction (and subsequent related analyses) of 39 Lower Mississippian-Upper Devonian Bakken shales from the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin, and analyses of 28 oils from the Basin. Because of the influence of primary petroleum migration, no increase in the relative or absolute concentrations of hydrocarbons or bitumen was observed at the threshold of intense hydrocarbon generation (TIHG), or during mainstage hydrocarbon generation in the Bakken shales. Thus, the maturation indices that have been so useful in delineating the TIHG and mainstage hydrocarbon generation in other studies were of no use in this study, where these events could clearly be identified only by Rock-Eval pyrolysis data. The data of this study demonstrate that primary petroleum migration is a very efficient process. Four distinctive classes of saturated hydrocarbon gas chromatograms from the Bakken shales arose from facies, maturation, and primary migration controls. As a consequence of maturation, the % of saturated hydrocarbons increased in the shale extract at the expense of decreases in the resins and asphaltenes. Measurements involving resins and asphaltenes appear to be excellent maturation indices in the Bakken shales. Two different and distinct organic facies were present in immature Bakken shales. -from Authors

  19. Distribution and sources of PAHs using three pine species along the Ebro River.

    PubMed

    Ratola, Nuno; Alves, Arminda; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià

    2012-01-01

    Needles of three pine species (Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinea and Pinus nigra) were analysed to assess the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 34 sites located throughout the Ebro River, in Northeast Spain. Overall, the concentration varied between 55 and 808 ng g(-1) (dry weight). The three- and four-ring PAHs were the most representative, with phenanthrene having 43% of the total PAH load and naphthalene showing a high incidence in rural areas. Despite matrix apparent similarities, P. halepensis needles revealed higher entrapment levels than P. nigra and P. pinea, the latter showing the lowest levels. The assessment of possible sources using PAH ratios (phenanthrene/anthracene and fluoranthene/pyrene) did not reveal a clear tendency regarding the distinction of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources in general, reflecting heterogeneous sources of PAHs in the Ebro area.

  20. Preliminary Results on TID (Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances) over Ebro from TEC Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-30

    IONOSPHERIC SECTION UNCLASSIFIED L F ALBERCA ET AL. 30 OCT 82 EOARD-TR-84-02 FIG 4/1 NL ""’Em""’ 1.2111 4 m26 ICRCPRSL’- N ET HRNAIOA 9UtA OFST*D* 12.2 I La...5MW-TR -8 4; C - 1• SCIENTIFIC REPORT N° 3 PRELIMINARY RESULTS ON TID OVER EBRO FROM TEC DATA L. F. Alberca S.I. J.O. Card’s S.I. E. Gald6n S.I...FROM TEC DATA L.F. Alberca , s.I. J.O. Cardds, s.l. E. Gald6n, s.I. OBSERVATORIO DEL EBRO IONOSPHERIC SECTION ROQUETES * (Tarragona) Spain THE RESEARCH

  1. A combined quality-control methodology in Ebro Delta (NE Spain) high frequency radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, P.; Piedracoba, S.; Soto-Navarro, J.; Alvarez-Fanjul, E.

    2015-08-01

    Ebro River Delta is a relevant marine protected area in the western Mediterranean. In order to promote the conservation of its ecosystem and support operational decision making in this sensitive area, a three site standard-range (13.5 MHz) CODAR SeaSonde High Frequency (HF) radar was deployed in 2013. Since there is a growing demand for reliable HF radar surface current measurements, the main goal of this work is to present a combined quality control methodology. Firstly, one year-long (2014) real-time web monitoring of nonvelocity-based diagnostic parameters is conducted in order to infer both radar site status and HF radar system performance. Signal-to-noise ratio at the monopole exhibited a consistent monthly evolution although some abrupt decreases (below 10 dB), occasionally detected in June for one of the radar sites, impacted negatively on the spatiotemporal coverage of total current vectors. It seemed to be a sporadic episode since radar site overall performance was found to be robust during 2014. Secondly, a validation of HF radar data with independent in situ observations from a moored current meter was attempted for May-October 2014. The accuracy assessment of radial and total vectors revealed a consistently high agreement. The directional accuracy of the HF radar was rated at better than 8°. The correlation coefficient and RMSE values emerged in the ranges 0.58-0.83 and 4.02-18.31 cm s-1, respectively. The analysis of the monthly averaged current maps for 2014 showed that the HF radar properly represented basic oceanographic features previously reported, namely: the predominant southwestward flow, the coastal clockwise eddy confined south of Ebro Delta mouth or the Ebro River impulsive-type freshwater discharge. Future works should include the use of verified HF radar data for the rigorous skill assessment of operational ocean circulation systems currently running in Ebro estuarine region like MyOcean IBI.

  2. Morpho-structure and sedimentology of the Holocene Ebro prodelta mud belt (northwestern Mediterranean Sea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, J.I.; Palanques, A.; Nelson, C.H.; Guillen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Ebro "mud belt" is a Holocene prodeltaic deposit which has developed around, and southwestward from, the present Ebro Delta plain, covering most of the inner and middle Ebro continental shelf. Seismic-reflection profiles of this mud belt exhibit a complex sigmoid-oblique configuration. Top-set strata dip gently seaward to the 20 m isobath, and overly the fore-set beds which are exposed in up to 40-60 m water depth. Top-set and fore-set beds have mostly parallel and high continuity reflectors. Thin, acoustically transparent bottom-set beds are present at the base of the fore-set beds and extend to the distal edge of the prodelta (60-80 m water depth), where they overly relict transgressive sand deposits. There is no evidence of mass movement. The suspended load discharged by the river is mainly transported alongshelf by advective processes. This dynamics produces thin clinoform deposits that extend alongshelf for tens of kilometres. Mud belt deposition began about 10,000-11,000 years BP. Accumulation rate ranges from less than 0.5 mm y-1 on the seaward and southern edges of the deposit to about 2.5 mm y-1 near the present river mouth. Copyright ?? 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Channel changes and floodplain management in the meandering middle Ebro River, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollero, Alfredo

    2010-05-01

    The 346 km of the middle Ebro River between Logroño and La Zaida is a free meandering channel in a wide floodplain. This reach contains a discontinuous riparian corridor, including valuable riparian forests and oxbow lakes. The Ebro has witnessed substantial changes in channel morphology, gravel bars, riparian vegetation and floodplain uses over the last 80 years. The growth in sinuosity, migrations and meander cut-offs have been frequent before 1981. Afterwards, bank protections and dykes have stabilized the channel. There has been a progressive and significant decrease of both the area covered by water and the gravel bars without plant colonization. As a result the width of the riparian corridor has been dramatically reduced for human use. The deceleration and near elimination of the free meander dynamics of the Ebro channel represent an important loss of natural heritage. Dams, land-use changes throughout the basin, and construction of flood defences that restrict the main channel have changed the river system behaviour, which urgently needs a management plan combining both improvement and risk reduction. The solution proposed is the creation of a "Fluvial Territory".

  4. Short- and medium-term grain size changes in deltaic beaches (Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillén, Jorge; Palanques, Albert

    1996-01-01

    The beach sediment of the Ebro Delta shows significant temporal grain size changes unrelated with seasonal processes. The evolution of the grain size during the 1988-1991 period shows coarsening and fining variations, with a general coarsening trend which ranges from 2.10 to 1.96 phi (about 8 · 10 -3 mm/year). This low-magnitude grain size change is considered significant because it is indicated by both mean values from the data set (textural zones) and individualized sampling points. The coarsening trend of the beach sediment in the Ebro Delta is mainly caused by the sedimentary deficit affecting the Ebro coast. The finer sand fractions of the sediment are progressively winnowed from the initial beach deposit without being replaced by new river sediment supplies. Superimposed on the general coarsening trend there exist grain size variations that may be related with processes of a shorter period such as changes in the sediment supplied from the river into the nearshore zone, variations in the wave energy affecting the beach, and man-induced actions, such as beach nourishment. The mean grain size of beach sediment sampled 20 years ago indicates that the coarsening gradient measured during the study period cannot be extrapolated to longer periods of time (decades). This work shows that processes of a different temporal scale but a similar magnitude must be integrated in order to explain the evolution of sediment grain size in deltaic beaches.

  5. Late Miocene sedimentary architecture of the Ebro Continental Margin (Western Mediterranean): implications to the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameselle, Alejandra L.; Urgeles, Roger; De Mol, Ben; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Canning, Jason C.

    2014-03-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) resulted from a significant multi-phase drop and subsequent reflooding of the Mediterranean Sea from 5.96 to 5.33 Ma. Well-developed drainage networks, characterized by step-like profiles and abrasion platforms, are associated to this event. The Ebro Continental Margin (Western Mediterranean) presents an additional complexity since the capture of the drainage of the adjacent subaerial Ebro Basin took place sometime prior to the Messinian stage. Using 3D seismic reflection data, this work provides new insights into the origin of the step-like profile of the Messinian erosional surface (MES) and timing of the capture of the subaerial Ebro Basin. The results obtained indicate a sedimentary-active continental slope and delta progradation during Middle-Late Miocene, in a normal regressive context associated to a pre-Messinian proto-Ebro River. The mature development attained by the Messinian Ebro River network during the MSC corroborates that the capture of the Ebro Basin occurred prior to the MSC. The configuration of the clinoforms below the MES suggests that deltaic sediments of the Messinian Paleo-Ebro River deposited during the Tortonian and initial Messinian sea-level drawdown. The MES formed at the top of the Tortonian Highstand, where a fluvial network was deeply carved, and in the topset region of the Messinian Falling Stage Systems Tract, where minor erosion occurred. Fluvial deposits are outstandingly preserved on the main valleys of the MES. Therefore, the step-like profile of the MES was not created during Zanclean inundation, but during the latest stages of the main Messinian sea-level fall and lowstand.

  6. Late Miocene sedimentary architecture of the Ebro Continental Margin (Western Mediterranean): Implications to the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameselle, Alejandra L.; Urgeles, Roger; De Mol, Ben; Camerlenghi, Angelo

    2014-05-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) resulted from a significant multi-phase drop and subsequent reflooding of the Mediterranean Sea during the Late Miocene. In a relatively short time span (5.96 to 5.33 Ma), partial desiccation of the basin and consequent subaerial exposure of the continental margins resulted in widespread erosion of continental shelves and slopes and regressive erosion along major fluvial valleys. Using 3D seismic reflection data from the Ebro Margin (Western Mediterranean), we provide new insights into the origin of the Messinian Erosional Surface (MES) and timing of the capture of the subaerial Ebro Basin. The observed sedimentary architecture of the Ebro Continental Margin indicates a sedimentary-active continental slope and delta progradation during Middle-Late Miocene, in a normal regressive context associated to a pre-Messinian proto-Ebro River. Configuration of the clinoforms below the MES suggests that deltaic sediments of the Messinian Paleo-Ebro River deposited during the Tortonian and initial Messinian sea-level drawdown. The MES formed at the top of the Tortonian Highstand, where a fluvial network was deeply carved, and in the topset region of the Messinian Falling Stage Systems Tract, where minor erosion occurred. The patterns of Messinian erosion and sedimentation produced a MES with a step-like profile. Significant Miocene progradation and the mature development attained by the Messinian Ebro River network during the MSC indicate that capture of the Ebro Basin occurred prior to the MSC. Fluvial deposits are outstandingly preserved on the main valleys of the MES indicating that re-flooding of the margin was extremely rapid. Therefore, the step-like profile of the MES was created during the latest stages of the main Messinian sea-level drawdown and lowstand.

  7. Pb, Cd, As, and Se concentrations in livers of dead wild birds from the Ebro Delta, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Guitart, R.; Mateo, R.; Cerradelo, S.; Puig-Casado, P. Autonomous Univ., Bellaterra ); Torra, M.; To-Figueras, J. )

    1994-08-01

    Wild bird populations are susceptible to the environmental presence of toxic elements and substances, especially those that are non-degradable and tend to concentrate through the food chain. Monitoring of such substances in selected bird species could be useful to evaluate the health condition of the species involved and to assess contamination in the ecosystem. One of the most important wild bird sanctuaries of Europe, the Ebro Delta, is situated in NE Spain. The Ebro Delta is an alluvial plain of about 32,000 ha. Because of its special hydrological conditions and geographical situation, the Ebro Delta supports an important and diverse bird population, estimated at 180,000 in the winter period, constituting 311 different species. Most of the Ebro Delta's surface is dedicated to agriculture, principally rice, also serving as an excellent wild bird habitat. Accordingly, agricultural pesticides could be a major problem for wildlife. But in the last few decades the Ebro River and the Tarragona coast have also undergone considerable industrial development. The area is now facing environmental threats by industrial activities, and the ecosystem is becoming contaminated with heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons and PCBS. Heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms have been reported, but metal and metalloid concentrations in birds have not been available. This study monitors lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) concentrations in bird livers from diverse trophic levels in the Ebro Delta. Pb, Cd and As are well recognized as toxic elements, while Se, although causing well known deleterious effects for humans and domestic animals, has only recently been recognized as toxic for aquatic birds. The determination of contaminant loads in several avian species would be useful to control and prevent, when possible, pathological conditions derived from toxic levels of these contaminants for wild bird populations living in the Ebro Delta. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Development of submarine canyons after the Mid-Pleistocene Transition on the Ebro margin, NW Mediterranean: The role of fluvial connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauffrey, Marie-Aline; Urgeles, Roger; Berné, Serge; Canning, Jason

    2017-02-01

    After the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), the Ebro Margin, like other Mediterranean deltaic margins, rebuilt through progradation and increasingly significant aggradation. The Plio-Quaternary transition from a ramp-like system to a ;new; margin with large clinoforms is an opportunity to understand the processes that govern canyon initiation and evolution. We used a 3D seismic data set located at the outer shelf - upper slope of the Ebro margin. We tied major bounding surfaces to chrono-stratigraphic constraints from borehole data or, for the most recent interval, from averaged accumulation rates derived from borehole stratigraphy. The major shelfal erosion surfaces are interpreted as sequence boundaries, tied to major glacial maxima. Along these surfaces, seismic attributes characterize the fluvial/canyon connection, viewed as one of the key factors in canyon development. The first appearance of ;proto-canyons; (dense networks of channels and gullies 50-100 m deep and 1-2 km wide) occurs in the late Zanclean. Their size increased progressively throughout the Pliocene and early Quaternary, in relation to the increase in clinoform heights. ;True canyons; (with distinct interfluves, more than 200 m deep and 3-4 km wide) appeared during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT, 1250-700 ka BP). The first evidence of direct connection between canyon heads and fluvial systems is observed during Marine Isotope Stage 22, one of the most pronounced glacial stages of the Quaternary. Similar connections also existed, at least, during MIS 16 and MIS 12, which are also stages of pronounced low sea level. The topography of fluvial channels in the outer shelf is not imaged in detail in the picked horizons at the resolution of our seismic data, but sinuous fluvial systems are very well imaged through amplitude and coherency attributes. Direct connection of fluvial systems during and after MIS 22 also favored headward erosion and the formation of shelf-indenting canyons, probably

  9. Recent Trends in the Ebro River Basin: Is It All "Just" Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Stefanie; Merz, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Water resources are under pressure from a variety of stressors such as industry, agriculture, water abstraction or pollution. Changing climate can potentially enhance the impact of these stressors, especially under water scarcity conditions. The aim of the GLOBAQUA project ("Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity") is, therefore, to analyze the combined effect of multiple stressors in the context of increasing water scarcity. As part of the GLOBAQUA project, this study examines recent trends in climate, water quantity and quality parameters in the Ebro River Basin in Northern Spain to identify stressors and determine their joint impact on water resources. Mann-Kendall trend analyses of temperature, precipitation, streamflow, groundwater level, streamwater and groundwater quality data (spanning between 15 and 40 years) were performed. Moreover, anthropogenic pressures such as land use and alteration of natural flow by reservoirs were considered. Climate data indicate increasing temperatures in the Ebro River Basin especially in summer and autumn, and decreasing precipitation particularly in summer. In contrast, precipitation mostly shows upwards trends in autumn, but these are counterbalanced by greater evapotranspiration due to higher temperatures. Overall, this results in annual and seasonal streamflow decreases at the majority of gauging stations. Declining trends in streamflow are most pronounced during summer and are also observed in subbasins without reservoirs. Diminishing water resources become also apparent in generally decreasing groundwater levels in the Ebro River Basin. This decrease is most pronounced in areas where groundwater serves as main origin for irrigation water, which demonstrates how land use acts as a local rather than regional driver of change. Increasing air temperatures correlate with increasing water temperatures over the past 30 years, which indicates the effect of changing climate on water

  10. Automatic control of pollutant on a shallow river using surface water systems: application to the Ebro River.

    PubMed

    Puig, V; Romera, J; Quevedo, J; Sarrate, R; Morales-Hernandez, M; Gonzalez-Sanchis, M; Garcia-Navarro, P

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of automatic control of pollutant on a shallow river using surface water systems is addressed using a benchmark test case based in the Ebro River. The Ebro River presents flooding episodes in the city of Zaragoza in Spring when snow melts in the Pyrenees. To avoid flooding and high pollutant levels in living areas, some lands outside the city are prepared to be flooded. Going one step further, this paper is focused on the pollutant level control at a certain point downstream of the river under flooding episodes, and several control strategies for that purpose are presented and tested.

  11. Characterizing the surface circulation in Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean) with HF radar and modeled current data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, P.; Piedracoba, S.; Sotillo, M. G.; Aznar, R.; Amo-Balandron, A.; Pascual, A.; Soto-Navarro, J.; Alvarez-Fanjul, E.

    2016-11-01

    Quality-controlled current observations from a High Frequency radar (HFR) network deployed in the Ebro River Delta (NW Mediterranean) were combined with outputs from IBI operational ocean forecasting system in order to comprehensively portray the ocean state and its variability during 2014. Accurate HFR data were used as benchmark for a rigorous validation of the Iberia-Biscay-Ireland (IBI) regional system, routinely operated in the frame of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). The analysis of skill metrics and monthly averaged current maps showed that IBI reasonably captured the prevailing dynamic features of the coastal circulation previously observed by the HFR, according to the moderate resemblance found in circulation patterns and the spatial distribution of eddy kinetic energy. The model skill assessment was completed with an exploration of dominant modes of spatiotemporal variability. The EOF analysis confirmed that the modeled surface current field evolved both in space and time according to three significantly dominant modes of variability which accounted for the 49.2% of the total variance, in close agreement with the results obtained for HFR (46.1%). The response of the subtidal surface current field to prevailing wind regime in the study area was examined in terms of induced circulation structures and immediacy of reaction by performing a conditional averaging approach and a time-lagged vector correlation analysis, respectively. This observations-model synergistic strategy has proved to be valid to operationally monitor the complex coastal circulation in Ebro Delta despite the observed model drawbacks in terms of reduced energy content in surface currents and some inaccuracies in the wind-driven low frequency response. This integrated methodology aids to improve the prognostic capabilities of IBI ocean forecasting system and also to facilitate high-stakes decision-making for coastal management in the Ebro River Delta marine

  12. Flow regime patterns and their controlling factors in the Ebro basin (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejarano, M. Dolores; Marchamalo, Miguel; García de Jalón, Diego; González del Tánago, Marta

    2010-05-01

    SummaryNatural intra-annual flow fluctuations vary between rivers, being a determining factor for aquatic insects, fish and riparian communities which are adapted to the habitat conditions and different flows throughout the seasons. Moreover, restoration of seasonal flow patterns plays an important role in achieving good ecological status of rivers, through the preservation and/or recovery of components and processes of natural river ecosystems. In this work we: (a) classify fluvial segments in the Ebro basin (North-Eastern Spain) according to the intra-annual variability of flows under natural conditions using statistical cluster analysis of monthly mean flow data; (b) characterise the resulting flow typologies according to several ecologically important hydrological variables; (c) analyse the relationships between flow regimes of fluvial segments and physical variables from their catchments; and finally (d) predict the most probable natural flow regime using logistic models based on the most determinant physical characteristics. Fifteen natural flow typologies were described in the Ebro basin, which were characterised in terms of flow fluctuation through the year as well as timing, flow ratio and duration of the maximum and minimum flows. Precipitation, biogeography and geology of catchments showed the highest correlations with flow regimes. Basin size, mean elevation and slope were also correlated. The logistic model we developed had a prediction success of 72% in the Ebro basin. The definition of the natural hydrological conditions (to which the biological communities are tailored), even when flow data are not available, is an important support in the management of river ecosystems. It is especially suitable for setting goals in aquatic ecosystem conservation or restoration projects.

  13. Characterizing the surface circulation in the Ebro Delta using a HF radar data-model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente Jimenez, Pablo; Piedracoba Varela, Silvia; Soto-Navarro, Javier; Garcia-Sotillo, Marcos; Alvarez Fanjul, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    One year-long (2014) quality-controlled current observations from a CODAR SeaSonde High Frequency (HF) radar network deployed in the Ebro Delta (northwestern Mediterranean) were combined with operational products provided by a regional ocean forecasting system named IBI (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland) in order to comprehensively portray the ocean state and its variability. First, accurate HF radar data were used as benchmark for the rigorous validation of IBI performance by means of the computation of skill metrics and quality indicators. The analysis of the monthly averaged current maps for 2014 showed that IBI properly captured the prevailing dynamic features of the coastal circulation observed by the HF radar, according to the resemblance of circulation patterns and the eddy kinetic energy spatial distribution. The model skill assessment was completed with an exploration of dominant modes of variability both in time and space. The EOF analysis confirmed that the modeled surface current field evolved in space and time according to three significantly dominant modes of variability which accounted for the 49.2% of the total variance, in close agreement with the results obtained for the HF radar (46.1%). The response of the subtidal surface current field to prevalent wind regimes in the study area was examined in terms of induced circulation structures by performing a conditional averaging approach. This data-model synergistic approach has proved to be valid to operationally monitor and describe the complex coastal circulation in Ebro Delta despite the observed model drawbacks in terms of reduced energy content in surface currents and some inaccuracies in the wind-driven low frequency response. This integrated methodology constitutes a powerful tool for improving operational ocean forecasting systems at European level within the frame of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). It also facilitates high-stakes decision-making for coastal management and

  14. Alterations of River Flow Caused By Dams. The Ebro River (ne Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalla, R. J.; Kondolf, G. M.

    The Ebro River drains 85,530 km2 of the Cantabrian Range, Pyrenees, and Iberian Massif in northeastern Spain, with a mean annual runoff of 13,400 106 m3 at Tortosa, where it debouches into the Mediterranean Sea, about 180 km south of Barcelona. One hundred eighty-seven reservoirs (two-thirds built between 1950 and 1975) built for hydroelectric production, irrigation, cooling water, and industrial and domestic uses, have a total capacity equivalent to 57% of the Ebro River's mean annual runoff. Gauging records are available from the Confederación Hidrográfica del Ebro (CHE), a government agency established in 1926 to manage the water resources in the Ebro River basin. We analyzed 38 gauging records from 22 rivers that, by virtue of their location within the drainage network and period of record, would reflect hydrological changes from reservoir construction and operation. From pre- and post-dam records, we analyzed changes in flood peaks, mean annual runoff, mean daily flows, and mean monthly flows for four distinct climatic zones. Most rivers showed reduction in flood magnitude, with average reduction of over 30% for Q2 and Q10. Greater reductions were associated with higher values of the Impounded Runoff index (IR, calculated as reservoir capacity divided by mean annual runoff). Despite similar values of IR, floods in the low-rainfall Mediterranean tributaries in the southeast part of the basin were more affected by reservoirs than those in the high-rainfall humid Atlantic tributaries in the western part of the basin, with a given percentage of regulation producing twice the flood reduction as in the humid Atlantic zone. Annual runoff did not show strong trends, but the variability of mean daily flows was reduced in most cases due to storing of winter floods and increased baseflows in summer for irrigation. Monthly flows ranged from virtually no change post-dam to complete inversion in seasonal pattern, the latter due to releases for irrigation in the summer

  15. Detection of major river bed changes in the River Ebro (north-eastern Spain)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espejo, R.; Torrent, J.; Roquero, C.

    1973-01-01

    The application or ERTS-1 data to determine the major river bed changes of the Ebro River in northeastern Spain is discussed. Image quality was good enough to permit a clear identification of the river course and bands MSS 5 and 7 proved to be the most useful for this purpose. Reflectance for band 5 was high due to the high sediment content of the water and sufficed to identify the river. Features like bodies of water related to old channels and depressions were only apparent in band 7.

  16. Modeling of rainfall events and trends through multifractal analysis on the Ebro River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Jose Luis; María Tarquis, Ana; Saá-Requejo, Antonio; Villeta, María; María Gascó, Jose

    2015-04-01

    Water supplies in the Ebro River Basin present high seasonal fluctuations, with extreme rainfall events during autumn and spring, and demands are increasingly stressed during summer. At the same time, repeated anomalous annual fluctuations in recent decades have become a serious concern for regional hydrology, agriculture and several related industries in the region. In fact, it has had a devastating impact, both socially and economically. In addition it has resulted in debate over the changing seasonal patterns of rainfall and the increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events. The aim of this work is to evaluate these challenges on the Ebro River Basin.For this purpose, 132 complete and regular spatial rainfall daily datasets (from 1931 to 2009) were analyzed. Each dataset corresponds to a grid of 25 km x 25 km and belongs to the area studied. First, classical statistical tests were applied to the series at annual scale to check the randomness and trends. No trends where found. Then, we analyzed the change in the rainfall variability pattern in the Ebro River Basin. We have used universal multifractal (UM) analysis, which estimates the concentration of the data around the precipitation average (C1, codimension average), the degree of multiscaling behavior in time (α index) and the maximum probable singularity in the rainfall distribution (γs). Daily rainfall series were subdivided (1931-1975 and 1965-2009) to study the difference between the two periods in these three UM parameters, in an attempt to relate them to geographical coordinates and relative positions in the river basin. The variations observed in C1 and α in some areas of the Ebro River Basin indicate that a precipitation regime change has begun in the last few decades, and therefore, this change should be considered in terms of its potential effects on the social and economical development of the region. This confirms some postulates drawn by conservative scientists who reject a catastrophic

  17. CBCT evaluation of the upper airway morphological changes in growing patients of class II division 1 malocclusion with mandibular retrusion using twin block appliance: a comparative research.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Liu, Hong; Cheng, Huijuan; Han, Yanzhao; Wang, Chunling; Chen, Yu; Song, Jinlin; Liu, Dongxu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after Twin Block (TB) treatment in growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion compared with untreated Class II patients by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Thirty growing patients who have completed TB treatment were recruited into TB group. The control group (n = 30) was selected from the patients with the same diagnosis and without TB treatment. CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) data of TB group and control data were collected. After three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and registration of T1 and T2 data, the morphological changes of upper airway during TB treatment were measured. The statistical differences between T1 and T2 data of TB group as well as T2 and control data were accessed by t-test. During the TB treatment, the mandible moved advanced by 3.52 ± 2.14 mm in the horizontal direction and 3.77 ± 2.10 mm in the vertical direction. The hyoid bone was in a more forward and inferior place. The upper airway showed a significant enlargement in nasopharynx, oropharynx and hypopharynx. In addition, the nasopharynx turned more circular, and the oropharynx became more elliptic in transverse shape. However, the transverse shape of the hypopharynx showed no significant difference. After comparison between T2 and control data, only the horizontal movement of the hyoid bone, the volumetric expansion of the oropharynx and hypopharynx, and changes of the oropharyngeal transverse shape showed significant difference. Compared to the untreated Class II patients, the upper airway of growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion showed a significant enlargement in the oropharynx and hypopharynx as well as a more elliptic transverse shape in the oropharynx, and the hyoid bone moved to an anterior position after TB treatment.

  18. Distribution and dispersal of suspended particulate matter on the Ebro continental shelf, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palanques, A.; Drake, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrographic data, water and bottom-sediment samples, and a GEOPROBE tripod experiment were used to examine the distribution and dynamics of suspended particulate matter on the Ebro shelf in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. In the absence of strong winds and storms, primary sediment supply from the Ebro River is dispersed along the shelf by a general southward flow. In such calm conditions, suspended-matter concentrations on the shelf are lower than 3 mg/l and transfer of material from the shelf to the slope takes place principally over the shelf edge north of the Columbretes Islands. Very fine sediment deposited in a mid-shelf mud belt (30-80 m deep) is cohesive and resistant to erosion. Only relatively rare, strong storms are able to resuspend particles from the deeper, central region of this cohesive deposit. When resuspension takes place, suspended-particulate-matter concentration increases and the general dispersal pattern of suspended matter is altered. Near the seafloor, distribution of suspended matter is greatly influenced by the distribution of the mid-shelf muds from which particles are resuspended. Resuspension occurs more intensively and frequently along the shallower (20-40 m) edge of the cohesive deposit and near the delta. ?? 1990.

  19. Are pesticide residues associated to rice production affecting oyster production in Delta del Ebro, NE Spain?

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Victoria; Riva, Carmen; Faria, Melissa; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; de Alda, Miren López; Barceló, Damià; Fernandez Tejedor, Margarita; Roque, Ana; Ginebreda, Antoni; Barata, Carlos

    2012-10-15

    Pesticide usage in Delta del Ebro (NE Spain) during the rice growing season has been associated with oyster episodes of mortality that occur early in summer. However, there are no studies that have directly evaluated pesticide levels and effects in oysters (Crassotrea gigas) cultured in Ebro's Bays. In this study pesticide levels in water, metal body burdens and up to 12 different biochemical markers were monitored in gills and digestive glands of oysters transplanted from May to June in 2008 and 2009. Biochemical responses evidenced clear differences in oysters from 2008 and 2009. Oysters transplanted in 2009 showed their antioxidant defenses unaffected from May to June and consequently increased levels of tissue damage measured as lipid peroxidation and DNA strand breaks and of mortality rates. Conversely oysters transplanted in 2008 increase their antioxidant defenses from May to June, had low levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage and low mortality rates. Some pesticides in water such as bentazone and propanil together with high temperatures and salinity levels were related with tissue damage in oyster transplanted in 2008 but the observed large differences between years indicate that abiotic factors alone could not explain the high mortalities observed in 2009. An analysis of recent reported studies pointed out in the direction that in addition to abiotic factors the use of oysters sensitive to diseases may explain the observed responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping the basement of Ebro Basin in Spain using ambient noise auto correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Paula; Schimmel, Martin

    2017-04-01

    It has been proved that seismic ambient noise may provide valuable information about the Earth's subsurface. Earlier studies successfully applied single-station autocorrelations of the recorded ambient noise to retrieve body wave reflections from the Moho. In this work, we extend this approach to higher frequency noise to map the basement of the sedimentary Ebro Basin in Spain. The Cenozoic Ebro basin had a complex evolution which generated a non-uniform basement structure. A basement high (Monegros High) divides the basin in two depocenters: the eastern depocenter has up to 3600 meter sedimentary thickness while the western one has up to 5000 meters. We tested two autocorrelation methods to retrieve the reflection response at 42 seismic stations (vertical component) located along the basin. The classical approach provided poor results, possibly due to background seismicity (mainly from the Pyrenees) and other signals which overprint the low-amplitude P-wave reflections from the basement. However, the second approach, the Phase Cross-Correlation, proved to be efficient to retrieve the reflection component of the Green's Function. It was possible to measure confidently the two-way time (TWT) of the P-wave basement reflections for 36 stations (85% of total). The results are compared with synthetic data and lithological profiles from wells. Using a constant velocity model, the TWTs were converted to depth to present a more detailed basement map of the basin. This work is funded by the Spanish Misterios Project CGL2013-48601-C2-1-R (MINECO).

  1. Bioaccumulation of natural radionuclides in molluscs from the Ebro Delta area.

    PubMed

    Fonollosa, E; Peñalver, A; Aguilar, C; Borrull, F

    2017-01-01

    (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U, (238)U, (232)Th and (230)Th were analysed in the edible part of four different species of bivalves typically produced and consumed in the Ebro Delta area. The results show that the main contributor to the radioactive content in these species was (210)Po, with values ranging between 263.1 ± 26.6 and 813.0 ± 72.9 Bq/kg (d.w.), which are higher than the usual reported activity levels in other geographical areas. This can probably be attributed to the activities of a phosphate industrial plant located upstream on the Ebro River, which may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes in the aquatic ecosystem. To determine the possible impact on health, the committed effective doses through the consumption of the different species were evaluated and the cumulative total annual effective dose for their consumption was estimated to 187.6 μSv/year, which is in the range of 200-1000 μSv/year given by UNSCEAR.

  2. [Morphological characteristics of upper alveolar bone around central incisor in Class II division 1 and division 2 malocclusion on cone-beam CT].

    PubMed

    Xia, Wen-qian; Gu, Yong-jia; Gao, Mei-qin

    2016-02-01

    During orthodontic treatment, the incisors in patients with Class II division 1 and division 2 malocclusion showed different clinical features, which determine the different ways to move the teeth to the suitable position. This study analyzed the morphology of alveolar bone around upper central incisor with cone-beam CT (CBCT). The sample consisted of 20 normal malocclusion and 40 patients with Class II malocclusion (division 1 20 cases and division 2 20 cases). CBCT images before orthodontic treatment were reconstructed by INVIVO 5.0 image processing software. Paired t test was used for statistical analysis with SPSS 19.0 software package. At the upper central incisors, the alveolar thickness between normal malocclusion and Class II division 1 and division 2 malocclusion had significant difference except the palate thickness between normal malocclusion and Class II division 2 malocclusion (P<0.05). Orthodontist should consider the relationship between the teeth position and alveolar bone shape comprehensively, choose the correct plan in order to avoid root desorption, alveolar bone loss, fenestration and other adverse reactions.

  3. K band SINFONI spectra of two z ~ 5 submillimeter galaxy systems: upper limits to the unobscured star formation from [O II] optical emission line searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, Guilherme S.; Colina, Luis; López, Javier Piqueras; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Arribas, Santiago

    2016-10-01

    We present deep SINFONI K-band integral field spectra of two submillimeter galaxy systems (SMG): BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0234, at z = 4.69 and 4.55, respectively. Spectra extracted for each object in the two systems do not show any signature of the [O ii]λλ3726, 29 Å emission-lines, placing upper flux limits of 3.9 and 2.5 × 10-18erg s-1 cm-2for BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0234, respectively. Using the relation between the star formation rate (SFR) and the luminosity of the [O ii] doublet, we estimate unobscured SFR upper limits of ~ 10-15 M⊙ yr-1and ~30-40 M⊙ yr-1for the objects of the two systems, respectively. For the SMGs, these values are at least two orders of magnitude lower than those derived from SED and IR luminosities. The differences on the SFR values would correspond to internal extinction of, at least, 3.4-4.9 and 2.1-3.6 mag in the visual for BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0234 SMGs, respectively. The upper limit for the [O ii]-derived SFR in one of the LAEs (Lyα2) in the BR1202-0725 system is at least one order of magnitude lower than the previous SFR derived from infrared tracers, while both estimates are in good agreement for Lyα1. The lower limits to the internal extinction in these two Lyman-alpha emitters are 0.6 mag and 1.3 mag, respectively. No evidence for [O ii] emission associated with Lyα1 is identified in our data, implying that residuals of the K-band sky emission lines after subtraction in medium-band imaging data could provide the adequate flux.

  4. Modes of development of slope canyons and their relation to channel and levee features on the Ebro sediment apron, off-shore northeastern Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, S.; Ryan, William B. F.; Normark, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Six submarine slope canyons in an area of the northwestern Mediterranean, offshore from the Ebro River and Delta, were surveyed with bathymetric swathmapping (SeaBeam) and mid-range side-looking sonar (SeaMARC I). All of the canyons have slightly winding paths with concave-upwards gradients that are relatively steep shallower than 1,200 m. Two major types of canyons are identified on the basis of their morphologic character at the base of the slope; Type-I canyons lead to an unchannelled base-of-slope deposit and Type-II canyons are continuous with channel-levee systems that cross the rise. Four Type-I canyons were surveyed in the area. Two of these are broad, U-shaped, steep (average gradients of 1:14), do not indent the shelf, and terminate downslope at debris-flow deposits. These two canyons, the most northern in the area, have rounded heads with extensive gullies separated by knife-edge ridges. Relief of the canyon walls is about equal on both sides of the canyons, although the right-hand walls (looking downslope) are generally steeper. The other two Type-I canyons in the area are similar in that they do not indent the shelf, but they are much smaller and shallower and coalesce before terminating in the base-of-slope region. The two Type-II canyons that feed leveed-channels are U-shaped with flatter floors, longer profiles and gentler gradients than Type-I canyons. They are closer to the Valencia Valley and have relatively small cross-sectional areas. We propose a four-stage evolutionary sequence to explain the development of the canyons observed in this section on the prograding Ebro margin. During the initial stage, slumping and erosion on the slope creates a network of small gullies. During the next stage, headward growth of one (or more) gully leads to a major indentation of the shelf. This is the critical factor for developing a channel that will incise the slope and provide a major conduit for moving sediment to the basin. Stage 3 is characterized by the

  5. Terrasses de la Riera dels Canyars (Gavà, Barcelona): the landscape of Heinrich Stadial 4 north of the "Ebro frontier" and implications for modern human dispersal into Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daura, J.; Sanz, M.; García, N.; Allué, E.; Vaquero, M.; Fierro, E.; Carrión, J. S.; López-García, J. M.; Blain, H. A.; Sánchez-Marco, A.; Valls, C.; Albert, R. M.; Fornós, J. J.; Julià, R.; Fullola, J. M.; Zilhão, J.

    2013-01-01

    Terrasses de la Riera dels Canyars is an Upper Pleistocene fluvial deposit containing the remains of large mammals, principally accumulated in the framework of hyena denning in the area, as well as a few artifacts. Radiocarbon-dated to ˜39.6 ka cal BP, the time of Heinrich Stadial (HS) 4, this site enables us to reconstruct the environmental conditions then prevalent in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula. The concentration in a single locus of finds generated by different agents relates to a flash-flood event, the rapidity of which, combined with the absence of archaeological, ecological or paleontological incongruities in the composition of the assemblage, warrants an assumption of broad contemporaneity for its contents. The ecofactual evidence (fauna, pollen, charcoal, phytoliths) indicates a steppe-dominated environment for the coastal areas between the Pyrenees and the Ebro delta; the dominant elements are cold- and dry-adapted species but a Mediterranean component is present, implying a less rigorous climate than farther north in Europe. The artifacts are clearly Upper Paleolithic, and assignment to the modern human-associated Aurignacian technocomplex is supported by the radiocarbon dates and the typology of a bilaterally retouched blade. This evidence is consistent with the notion that anatomical modernity spread across Europe over open landscape niches. Available pollen data from deep sea cores indicate that, during some of the interstadials of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3, a significant vegetation gradient existed at 40°N, broadly coincident with the "Ebro frontier:" temperate and warm temperate trees expanded significantly to the south, while steppe-tundra landscapes remained dominant to the north, a contrast best seen during Greenland Interstadial (GI) 8. Such an environmental boundary must have implied a durable barrier to diffusion and migration during interstadials. Under the cold and arid conditions of HS4, the site of Canyars shows that the Eurasian

  6. Temporal and spatial variability of stable isotopes of the water molecule in the Ebro River basin, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrel, Philippe; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Millot, Romain

    2014-05-01

    Variations in the stable-isotope O and H composition in a catchment's water balance are mainly caused by natural variations in the isotopic composition of rainfall, through the mixing with pre-existing waters and the influence of evaporation. Stable isotopes of water can be considered as conservative and as not being affected by exchanges with soil or rock. Stable isotopes were analysed in the surface waters along the course of the Ebro River, in main tributaries of the Ebro river, in some groundwater, and over a one year survey at the outlet. The global meteoric-water line is used to represent the meteoric input as well as the local rainwater characteristics measured in five stations, all surrounding the Ebro catchment. Mean weighted rain input showed enriched values for four stations and a depleted one for the latter (large continental circulation of air masses). The δ18O and δ2H relationships for surface- and ground waters collected in the Ebro catchment with other rivers draining the French side of the Pyrenees or along the Mediterranean Sea are compiled. Most of the points clearly plot close to the global and local meteoric-water lines reflecting a meteoric origin and a lack of significant evaporation or oxygen isotopes exchanges between water and the rock matrix. The tributaries present large variations in their δ18O and δ2H signatures but only the Guadalope river has an evaporated signal.ghe most depleted values are observed for the tributaries draining the Pyrenees agreeing with the Cauterets and Garonne river signatures on the French side. The Aragon, also draining the Pyrenees, has a more enriched signature that agree with the one observed in the Adour river on the French side. However, all tributaries have more depleted values than all mean rain water signal on the Ebro catchment as given by the local rain monitoring stations. If the Burgos station is considered as representative of long range continental transport, the depleted values in the

  7. Reconstructing the Santa Tecla flash flood in the Ondara River (Ebro Basin, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasch, J. C.; Tuset, J.; Ramos, M. C.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    and the hydrologic response of the basin. This hydrologic behaviour, that is the relation between the hyetograph and the hydrograph, was estimated taking into account rainfall duration (6-8 hours according to historical documents), basin characteristics, soil type, soil land use and cover and the antecedent soil moisture, using SCS Curve Number method. After that, a transfer Synthetic Unitary Hydrograph function and a wave propagation method (Muskingum) were applied to describe the discharge evolution and the water routing into the stream channel. The software used in this stage was the HEC-HMS (USACE). The results of the hydraulic simulation at the Sant Agustí street cross section were the following: a) a maximum water depth of 6.16 m above the original river bed, b) a mean water velocity of about 2 m•s-1, c) a peak flow of 996 m3•s-1 (increased by 480 m3•s-1 from the Cercavins River downstream Tàrrega), and d) a specific peak discharge of the event of 6.6 m3•s-1•km-2, which exceeds the values of the 500-year return period floods compiled from the Ebro drainage basin systematic database. From the information obtained in the flooded cellars, the sediment concentration during the peak flow was estimated in 11.2% (in volume), characteristic of a hyperconcentrated flow. The water level reached in the abovepresented cross section is partly explained by the recently discovered Sant Agustí Bridge, buried until now in the river bed. The results of the hydrologic modelling were: a) a surface runoff total volume of 12 hm3, b) a runoff coefficient of about 35.5%, c) a lagtime of 2.5-3 hours, and d) if the previous soil humidity for the Curve Number method was low (situation I), a total rainfall of 225 mm with a peak intensity higher than 100 mm•h-1 is needed; if the previous soil humidity for the Curve Number method was medium (situation II), a total rainfall of 156 mm with a peak intensity of about 70 mm•h-1 occurs. Rainfall values for medium previous moisture

  8. Carbon Sequestration in Mediterranean Tidal Wetlands: San Francisco Bay and the Ebro River Delta (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaway, J.; Fennessy, S.; Ibanez, C.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal wetlands accumulate soil carbon at relatively rapid rates, in large part because they build soil to counteract increases in sea-level rise. Because of the rapid rates of carbon sequestration, there is growing interest in evaluating carbon dynamics in tidal wetlands around the world; however, few measurements have been completed for mediterranean-type tidal wetlands, which tend to have relatively high levels of soil salinity, likely affecting both plant productivity and decomposition rates. We measured sediment accretion and carbon sequestration rates at tidal wetlands in two mediterranean regions: the San Francisco Bay Estuary (California, USA) and the Ebro River Delta (Catalonia, Spain). Sampling sites within each region represented a range of conditions in terms of soil salinity and plant communities, and these sites serve as potential analogs for long-term carbon sequestration in restored wetlands, which could receive credits under emerging policies for carbon management. Within San Francisco Bay, we collected six sediment cores per site at four salt marshes and two brackish tidal wetlands (two transects with three stations per transect at each site) in order to identify spatial variation both within and among wetlands in the Estuary. At the Ebro Delta, individual sediment cores were collected across 14 tidal wetland sites, including salt and brackish marshes from impounded areas, river mouths, coastal lagoon, and open bay settings. Cores were collected to 50 cm, and cores were dated using 137Cs and 210Pb. Most sites within San Francisco accreted 0.3-0.5 cm/yr, with slightly higher rates of accretion at low marsh stations; accretions rates based on 137Cs were slightly higher than those based on 210Pb, likely because of the shorter time frame covered by 137Cs dating. Accretion rates from the Ebro Delta sites were similar although more variable, with rates based on 137Cs ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 cm/yr and reflecting the wide range of conditions and management

  9. Analysis of the major floods in the Ebro River basin (Iberian Peninsula) since 1600 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carles Balasch, Josep; Monserrate, Adrián; Sánchez, Alberto; Abellà, Andreu; Tuset, Jordi; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Barriendos, Mariano

    2014-05-01

    The magnitude and main characteristics of the major floods of the Ebro River in the last 400 years, one of the most important rivers in the Western Mediterranean, have been reconstructed at several locations along the river system. The reconstruction of each flood peak flow was possible thanks to the previous collection of historical accounts, limnimarks (flood marks) and old maps and sketches with information of flooded sections and areas. Then, for each event, an iterative hydraulic simulation method with a one-dimensional hydraulic model (HEC- RAS) was applied to a DTM of the bed and floodplain morphologies. The roughness coefficients were estimated from present and historical information. To reduce the uncertainty of the hydraulic simulation, models were calibrated with present-day, gauged flows. Nevertheless, the uncertainty of some crucial variables was also evaluated. The Ebro flows from West to East and can, thus, be divided into two major catchments: the Western sub-basin, which gathers water from the Western Pyrenees and the Iberian Range down to Zaragoza (40,400 km2); and the Eastern sub-basin, the Segre-Cinca river system (22,800 km2), which drains the Central Pyrenees. Our objective is to reconstruct major floods in both sub-basins in order to assess how they propagated along the river down to Xerta, a village located near the outlet with a very rich flood record. Results for the studied period (1600-2013 AD) show a total of 9 major floods that exceeded 4000 m3·s-1 at Xerta . From a time point of view, a more intense flooding period is noticeable during the second half of the 19th Century, and a clear reduction appears in the second half of the 20th century due to the construction of reservoirs. The heaviest flood of this period was in October 1787, with a maximum peak discharge of 13,000 m3·s-1 (0.16 m3·s-1·km-2); this value is of the same order of magnitude than the greatest floods in other Mediterranean and European rivers of similar

  10. Temperature dependence of the upper critical field of type-II superconductors from isothermal magnetization data: Application to high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, I. L.; Ott, H. R.

    2002-10-01

    Using the Ginzburg-Landau theory in very general terms, we develop a simple scaling procedure which allows to establish the temperature dependence of the upper critical field Hc2 and the value of the superconducting critical temperature Tc of type-II superconductors from measurements of the reversible isothermal magnetization. An analysis of existing experimental data shows that the normalized dependencies of Hc2 on T/Tc are practically identical for all families of high-Tc superconductors at all temperatures for which the magnetization data are available.

  11. Factors controlling late Cenozoic continental margin growth from the Ebro Delta to the western Mediterranean deep sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Ebro continental margin sedimentation system originated with a Messinian fluvial system. This system eroded both a major subaerial canyon cutting the margin southeastward from the present Ebro Delta and an axial valley that drained northeastward down Valencia Trough. Post-Messinian submergence of this topography and the Pliocene regime of high sea levels resulted in a marine hemipelagic drape over the margin. Late Pliocene to Pleistocene glacial climatic cycles, drainagebasin deforestation, and sea-level lowstands combined to increase sediment supply, cause the margin to prograde, and create a regime of lowstand sediment-gravity flows in the deeper margin. The depositional patterns of regressive, transgressive and highstand sea-level regimes suggest that location of the sediment source near the present Ebro Delta throughout the late Cenozoic, southward current advection of sediment, and greater subsidence in the southern margin combined to cause generally asymmetric progradation of the margin to the southeast. Thicker, less stable deposits filling the Messinian subaerial canyon underwent multiple retrograde failures, eroded wide gullied canyons and formed unchanneled base-of-slope sediment aprons in the central margin area; other margin areas to the north and south developed a series of channel-levee complexes. On the basin floor, the formation of Valencia Valley over the Messinian subaerial valley and earlier faults led to draining of about 20% of the Ebro Pleistocene sediment from channel-levee complexes through the valley to prograde Valencia Fan as much as 500 km northeast of the margin. Thus, the Ebro margin has two growth directions, mainly southeastward during higher sea levels, and eastward to northeastward during lower sea levels. The northeastward draining of turbidity currents has produced unusually thin and widely dispersed turbidite systems compared to those on ponded basin floors. During the past few centuries, man's impact has exceeded natural

  12. Occurrence and fate of organochlorinated pesticides and PAH in agricultural soils from the Ebro River basin.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Alain; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià

    2009-08-01

    This study was aimed to assess the presence and fate of 22 organochlorinated pesticides (OCHs) and their degradation products and 16 Environmental Protection Agency-priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of the Ebro River basin (NE Spain) during a 3-year period. The study site is characterized by a long and active agricultural history where pesticides have largely been used. Soils were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This procedure was optimized in terms of multiresidue analysis and effective cleanup and proved to have excellent analytical performance (recoveries ranging between 71% and 133%, standard deviation <14%, and a method detection limit from 0.19 to 7.38 microg/kg). Soils form the Ebro basin showed a prevalence of 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE, found in 53% and 88% of the soil samples between 0.13 and 58.17 microg/kg-dw (dry weight), respectively, indicating a slight decreasing trend of DDT within time. PAHs were detected in all soil samples at concentrations up to 465 microg/kg-dw, and the phenanthrene/anthracene (<10) and fluoranthene/pyrene (>1) ratios indicated combustion processes as the main source attributing to the burning of weeds and vegetable wastes after harvesting. No traces of any of the OCHs and PAHs were detected in groundwater, indicating that leaching for agricultural fields is not an important process of transport for these compounds. Overall, we propose the need to perform a monitoring program to evaluate the temporal tendencies and potential impact of pesticides and PAH in soils.

  13. Presence of pyrethroid pesticides in water and sediments of Ebro River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feo, M. L.; Ginebreda, A.; Eljarrat, E.; Barceló, D.

    2010-11-01

    SummaryThe distribution of pyrethroid insecticides of the Ebro River Delta (NE Spain) was assessed by measuring concentrations in surface water and sediment samples. Pyrethroid extraction from water was carried out by ultrasound-assisted emulsification-extraction (UAEE), while the sediment was sonicated and cleaned up using Florisil cartridge. Method detection of limits (MLODs) for the 12 pyrethroids analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer in negative chemical ionization (GC-NCI-MS) ranged from 0.03 to 35.8 ng L -1 for water and 2.6 to 62.4 pg g -1 for sediment. Recoveries values were in the range of 47-105% for water and 51-105% for sediments, showing satisfactory robustness of the method for analyzing pyrethroids in water and sediment samples. Cypermethrin was detected in 22 water samples collected from Ebro River Delta, while deltamethrin was present only in three water samples at concentrations ranging from 0.73 ng L -1 to 57.2 ng L -1 and 2 ng L -1 to 58.8 ng L -1 for cypermethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. These concentration levels were higher than median lethal concentration (LC50) values found for deltamethrin and lower than LC50 values found for cypermethrin when short time toxic effects are considered. In sediment samples only cypermethrin was detected at concentration levels ranged from 8.27 ng g -1 to 71.9 ng g -1. These levels were higher than its LC50 values. Environmental dynamic behaviour and fate were also evaluated for cypermethrin measuring the sediment/water partition coefficient (ranging from 5.0 to 6.3) and kinetic data (half-life ranging between 13 and 50 days). Results were in good agreement to those reported in literature

  14. Sciatic nerve entrapment in the upper thigh caused by an injury sustained during World War II at the battle of Anzio. Case report.

    PubMed

    Oldershaw, John B; Salem, Ayman; Storrs, Bruce B; Milner, Brenton; Omer, George E

    2004-03-01

    The authors present an unusual case of sciatic nerve entrapment due to a World War II shrapnel injury to the left thigh suffered during the battle of Anzio in 1943. The patient presented for evaluation of left lower-extremity pain in the sciatic nerve distribution. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine revealed a disc bulge at L5-S1 that would not explain severe sciatica. A positive Tinel sign was present in the posterior aspect of the upper thigh at the site of a scar resulting from a World War II shrapnel injury. The patient underwent exploratory external neurolysis of the area, and the sciatic nerve was released from fibrous adhesive entrapment. The patient improved dramatically following surgery. During a 3-year follow-up period, no recurrence of symptoms was noted.

  15. Downscaling of surface moisture flux and precipitation in the Ebro Valley (Spain) using analogues and analogues followed by random forests and multiple linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Berastegi, G.; Saénz, J.; Ezcurra, A.; Elías, A.; Diaz Argandoña, J.; Errasti, I.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, reanalysis fields from the ECMWF have been statistically downscaled to predict from large-scale atmospheric fields, surface moisture flux and daily precipitation at two observatories (Zaragoza and Tortosa, Ebro Valley, Spain) during the 1961-2001 period. Three types of downscaling models have been built: (i) analogues, (ii) analogues followed by random forests and (iii) analogues followed by multiple linear regression. The inputs consist of data (predictor fields) taken from the ERA-40 reanalysis. The predicted fields are precipitation and surface moisture flux as measured at the two observatories. With the aim to reduce the dimensionality of the problem, the ERA-40 fields have been decomposed using empirical orthogonal functions. Available daily data has been divided into two parts: a training period used to find a group of about 300 analogues to build the downscaling model (1961-1996) and a test period (1997-2001), where models' performance has been assessed using independent data. In the case of surface moisture flux, the models based on analogues followed by random forests do not clearly outperform those built on analogues plus multiple linear regression, while simple averages calculated from the nearest analogues found in the training period, yielded only slightly worse results. In the case of precipitation, the three types of model performed equally. These results suggest that most of the models' downscaling capabilities can be attributed to the analogues-calculation stage.

  16. Downscaling of surface moisture flux and precipitation in the Ebro Valley (Spain) using analogues and analogues followed by random forests and multiple linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Berastegi, G.; Saénz, J.; Ezcurra, A.; Elías, A.; Diaz de Argandoña, J.; Errasti, I.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, reanalysis fields from the ECMWF have been statistically downscaled to predict from large-scale atmospheric fields surface moisture flux and daily precipitation at two observatories (Zaragoza and Tortosa, Ebro Valley, Spain) during the 1961-2001 period. Three types of downscaling models have been built (i) analogues, (ii) analogues followed by random forests and (iii) analogues followed by multiple linear regression. The inputs consist of data (predictor fields) taken from the ERA-40 reanalysis. The predicted fields are precipitation and surface moisture flux as measured at the two observatories. With the aim to reduce the dimensionality of the problem, the ERA-40 fields have been decomposed using empirical orthogonal functions. Available daily data has been divided into two parts: a training period used to find a group of about 300 analogues to build the downscaling model (1961-1996) and a test period (1997-2001), where models' performance has been assessed using independent data. In the case of surface moisture flux, the models based on analogues followed by random forests do not clearly outperform those built on analogues plus multiple linear regression, while simple averages calculated from the nearest analogues found in the training period, yielded only slightly worse results. In the case of precipitation, the three types of model performed equally. These results suggest that most of the models' downscaling capabilities can be attributted to the analogues-calculation stage.

  17. A quasi-static model of global atmospheric electricity. II - Electrical coupling between the upper and lower atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roble, R. G.; Hays, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a model of global atmospheric electricity used to examine the effect of upper atmospheric generators on the global electrical circuit. The model represents thunderstorms as dipole current generators randomly distributed in areas of known thunderstorm frequency; the electrical conductivity in the model increases with altitude, and electrical effects are coupled with a passive magnetosphere along geomagnetic field lines. The large horizontal-scale potential differences at ionospheric heights map downward into the lower atmosphere where the perturbations in the ground electric field are superimposed on the diurnal variation. Finally, changes in the upper atmospheric conductivity due to solar flares, polar cap absorptions, and Forbush decreases are shown to alter the downward mapping of the high-latitude potential pattern and the global distribution of fields and currents.

  18. A quasi-static model of global atmospheric electricity. II - Electrical coupling between the upper and lower atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roble, R. G.; Hays, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a model of global atmospheric electricity used to examine the effect of upper atmospheric generators on the global electrical circuit. The model represents thunderstorms as dipole current generators randomly distributed in areas of known thunderstorm frequency; the electrical conductivity in the model increases with altitude, and electrical effects are coupled with a passive magnetosphere along geomagnetic field lines. The large horizontal-scale potential differences at ionospheric heights map downward into the lower atmosphere where the perturbations in the ground electric field are superimposed on the diurnal variation. Finally, changes in the upper atmospheric conductivity due to solar flares, polar cap absorptions, and Forbush decreases are shown to alter the downward mapping of the high-latitude potential pattern and the global distribution of fields and currents.

  19. Channel morphodynamics and habitat recovery in a river reach affected by gravel-mining (River Ésera, Ebro basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Tarazon, J. A.; Lobera, G.; Andrés-Doménech, I.; Martínez-Capel, F.; Muñoz-Mas, R.; Vallés, F.; Tena, A.; Vericat, D.; Batalla, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Physical processes in rivers are the result of the interaction between flow regime and hydraulics, morphology, sedimentology and sediment transport. The frequency and magnitude of physical disturbance (i.e. bed stability) control habitat integrity and, consequently, ecological diversity of a particular fluvial system. Most rivers experience human-induced perturbations that alter such hydrosedimentary equilibrium, thus affecting the habitat of aquatic species. A dynamic balance may take long time to be newly attained. Within this context, gravel mining is well known to affect channel characteristics mostly at the local scale, but its effect may also propagate downstream and upstream. Sedimentary forms are modified during extraction and habitat features are reduced or even eliminated. Effects tend to be most acute in contrasted climatic environments, such as the Mediterranean areas, in which climatic and hydrological variability maximises effects of impacts and precludes short regeneration periods. Present research focuses on the evolution of a river reach, which has experienced an intense gravel extraction. The selected area is located in the River Ésera (Ebro basin), where interactions between morphodynamics and habitat recovery are examined. Emphasis is put on monitoring sedimentary, morphological and hydraulic variables to later compare pre (t0) and post (t1, t2... tn) extraction situations. Methodology for all time monitoring steps (i.e. ti) includes: i) characterization of grain size distribution at all of the different hydromorphological units within the reach; ii) description of channel morphology (together with changes before and after floods) by means of close-range aerial photographs, which are taken with a digital camera attached to a 1m3 helium balloon (i.e. BLIMP); and iii) determination of flow parameters from 2D hydraulic modelling that is based on detailed topographical data obtained from Leica® GNSS/GPS and robotic total station, and River

  20. Postural Correction in Persons with Neck Pain (II. Integrated Electromyography of the Upper Trapezius in Three Simulated Neck Positions).

    PubMed

    Enwemeka, C S; Bonet, I M; Ingle, J A; Prudhithumrong, S; Ogbahon, F E; Gbenedio, N A

    1986-01-01

    In the previous paper (Enwemeka, Bonet, Ingle, et al. 8:235-239, 1986) we showed that patients with neck pain and spasm of the upper trapezius often assume a forward head position, and that two neck positions, axial extension, and neutral neck position are frequently used by physical therapists to correct this faulty neck posture. Because there is no scientific basis for recommending either of the two corrective neck positions, we simulated the three neck positions in 10 normal adults and compared the integrated electromyography (IEMG) of the upper trapezius to determine if the muscle shows less activity in any of the two corrective positions. The results showed significantly less IEMG of the upper trapezius in each of the two corrective neck positions than in the faulty neck position (p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between the IEMGs recorded in the two corrective neck positions (p > 0.10). The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed along with suggestions for future studies. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;8(5):240-242.

  1. Two Decades of Multi-Sensor Subsidence Monitoring over Ebro Delta Using Coherence-Based DInSAR Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipia, Luca; Perez, Fernando; Marturia, Jordi; Corbera, Jordi; Jornet, Lluis; Rovira, Albert

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the historical study of the subsidence phenomenon over the Ebro Delta plain carried out as WPB6 in the frame of Ebro-ADMICLIM LIFE project, using coherence-based differential interferometric SAR techniques (DInSAR). To this end, the whole SAR archive available at ESA over the area of interest (AOI) at C-Band and L-Band has been analyzed. The results provided by each stack term of absolute deformation and deformation-rate maps are first shown. Then, a space-time filtering method to take advantage of the redundant information provided by ERS and ENVISAT data is put forward. C-band and L-band retrievals are then compared, and future monitoring activity based on Sentinel-1 imaging is discussed.

  2. Benthic foraminifera as indicators of habitat change in anthropogenically impacted coastal wetlands of the Ebro Delta (NE Iberian Peninsula).

    PubMed

    Benito, Xavier; Trobajo, Rosa; Ibáñez, Carles; Cearreta, Alejandro; Brunet, Manola

    2015-12-15

    Present-day habitats of the Ebro Delta, NE Iberian Peninsula, have been ecologically altered as a consequence of intensive human impacts in the last two centuries (especially rice farming). Benthic foraminiferal palaeoassemblages and sediment characteristics of five short cores were used to reconstruct past wetland habitats, through application of multivariate DCA and CONISS techniques, and dissimilarity coefficients (SCD). The timing of environmental changes was compared to known natural and anthropogenic events in order to identify their possible relationships. In deltaic wetlands under altered hydrological conditions, we found a decrease in species diversity and calcareous-dominated assemblages, and a significant positive correlation between microfaunal changes and organic matter content. Modern analogues supported palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the recent evolution of the Delta wetlands. This research provides the first recent reconstruction of change in the Ebro Delta wetlands, and also illustrates the importance of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring present and future conditions in Mediterranean deltas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Procambarus clarkii as a bioindicator of heavy metal pollution sources in the lower Ebro River and Delta.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Serrano, Andrea; Alcaraz, Carles; Ibáñez, Carles; Trobajo, Rosa; Barata, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    In the Ebro River basin, point and diffuse pollution of heavy metals stems mainly from industry and agriculture. Bioaccumulation patterns were examined under different pollution sources (point and diffuse) using levels of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) in abdominal muscle tissue of Procambarus clarkii. P. clarkii captured under point source effects presented the highest concentrations of Hg, Pb and As; and were related with distance to the source of industrial waste sediments. Mean Hg levels in crayfish exposed to point sources of metals significantly exceeded legal allowed values established by the European Union legislation. In the Ebro Delta, high levels of As, Cr, Cu and Zn were associated with traditional agriculture activity (diffuse pollution) as well. These results demonstrate the potential of P. clarkii to bioaccumulate heavy metals from both point and diffuse sources and hence potentially transfer these metals to higher trophic levels.

  4. Acceleration of Type 2 Spicules in the Solar Chromosphere. II. Viscous Braking and Upper Bounds on Coronal Energy Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2014-04-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic model is used to determine conditions under which the Lorentz force accelerates plasma to type 2 spicule speeds in the chromosphere. The model generalizes a previous model to include a more realistic pre-spicule state, and the vertical viscous force. Two cases of acceleration under upper chromospheric conditions are considered. The magnetic field strength for these cases is <=12.5 and 25 G. Plasma is accelerated to terminal vertical speeds of 66 and 78 km s-1 in 100 s, compared with 124 and 397 km s-1 for the case of zero viscosity. The flows are localized within horizontal diameters ~80 and 50 km. The total thermal energy generated by viscous dissipation is ~10 times larger than that due to Joule dissipation, but the magnitude of the total cooling due to rarefaction is >~ this energy. Compressive heating dominates during the early phase of acceleration. The maximum energy injected into the corona by type 2 spicules, defined as the energy flux in the upper chromosphere, may largely balance total coronal energy losses in quiet regions, possibly also in coronal holes, but not in active regions. It is proposed that magnetic flux emergence in intergranular regions drives type 2 spicules.

  5. Acceleration of type 2 spicules in the solar chromosphere. II. Viscous braking and upper bounds on coronal energy input

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2014-04-20

    A magnetohydrodynamic model is used to determine conditions under which the Lorentz force accelerates plasma to type 2 spicule speeds in the chromosphere. The model generalizes a previous model to include a more realistic pre-spicule state, and the vertical viscous force. Two cases of acceleration under upper chromospheric conditions are considered. The magnetic field strength for these cases is ≤12.5 and 25 G. Plasma is accelerated to terminal vertical speeds of 66 and 78 km s{sup –1} in 100 s, compared with 124 and 397 km s{sup –1} for the case of zero viscosity. The flows are localized within horizontal diameters ∼80 and 50 km. The total thermal energy generated by viscous dissipation is ∼10 times larger than that due to Joule dissipation, but the magnitude of the total cooling due to rarefaction is ≳ this energy. Compressive heating dominates during the early phase of acceleration. The maximum energy injected into the corona by type 2 spicules, defined as the energy flux in the upper chromosphere, may largely balance total coronal energy losses in quiet regions, possibly also in coronal holes, but not in active regions. It is proposed that magnetic flux emergence in intergranular regions drives type 2 spicules.

  6. Comparison of three statistical downscaling methods for precipitation in the Hérault and Ebro catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassonde, Sylvain; Vrac, Mathieu; Ruelland, Denis; Dezetter, Alain

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the GICC project "REMedHE" (http://www.remedhe.org) is to evaluate and compare the evolution of water supply capacity under climatic and anthropogenic changes by 2050 on two Mediterranean catchments: the Hérault (South of France) and the Ebro (North East of Spain) catchments. Indeed, the Mediterranean region has been identified as a "hot spot" of climate change, especially for precipitation which is expected to globally decrease while water needs should continue to increase. To perform such a study, it is then necessary to simulate future water flows with hydrological models fed by high-resolution precipitation data representative of the future climate. To generate high-resolution climate simulations, three different statistical downscaling approaches have been applied. The first one consists in a deterministic transfer function based on a Generalized Additive Model (GAM). The second method involves a Stochastic Weather Generator (SWG), simulating local values from probability density functions conditioned by large-scale predictors. The third approach belongs to the "Model Output Statistics" (MOS) family, in bias correcting the large-scale distributions with respect to the local-scale ones, through the Cumulative Distribution Function transform CDFt approach. These statistical downscaling models were calibrated and cross-validated using the SAFRAN dataset (for Hérault catchment), a dataset compiled by HydroSciences Montpellier (for Ebro catchment) as local-scale reference and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis outputs as predictors, over two time periods 1959-1984 and 1985-2010. Cross-validation analysis shows that the inter-annual variability of the yearly sum of precipitation from GAM is close to that from SAFRAN. However, daily variability and occurrence frequency are badly represented by GAM. On the opposite, SWG and one version of CDFt allow both the inter-annual and

  7. Flow in the Ebro Delta shelf, Numerical models and laboratory simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, A.; Fraunie, P.; Durand, N.

    2009-04-01

    This work presents the results of two laboratory and numerical experiments. The characteristic induced structures by stationer typical conditions from spring, summer, fall and winter. Laboratory experiences were developed on a five meters turntable (SINTEF facilities) obeys the Froude-Rossby similarities. While, the meso-escale numerical model was developed in the LSEET laboratory. This work evidences complementary results from the vortex sort characteristic by radius from both experimental and model methods. Additionally numerical model has a better representation from the conditions in the first 15km and the laboratory model represent the resolution between the large and the meso scale boundary. Physical variables that describe mixing are compared with experimental laboratory results from a large number of studies of mixing dynamics in environmental fluids to find habitat regimes for primary production. The work relates physical and biological variables, and emphasises the utility of laboratory studies. Several laboratory experiments that focused on turbulent mixing dynamics in stratified shear flows are used to describe (a) mixing in the estuary and (b) induced circulation in the river plume. Mixing descriptors as entrainment, Richardson number and Reynolds number and field data were employed, and advanced techniques of laboratory simulations, image processing and numerical modelling were used to match (a) to (b). Four kinds of experiments were used to describe the dynamics in the whole estuary. Mixing turbulence across a density interface generated by an oscillating grid inside a mixing-box. The horizontal advance of a turbulent front in a stratified system with a lateral current, inside a 1 m x 1 m square box. Induced circulation in the delta del Ebro slope and shelf that were performed with an experimental model in a 2 m x 4 m rectangular tank on a 5-m diameter turntable. Dispersion simulations in the river plume with the OCK3D code. Experiments were

  8. Motor impairments related to brain injury timing in early hemiparesis. Part II: abnormal upper extremity joint torque synergies.

    PubMed

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Krosschell, Kristin J; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J; Dewald, Julius P A

    2014-01-01

    Extensive neuromotor development occurs early in human life, and the timing of brain injury may affect the resulting motor impairment. In Part I of this series, it was demonstrated that the distribution of weakness in the upper extremity depended on the timing of brain injury in individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis. The goal of this study was to characterize how timing of brain injury affects joint torque synergies, or losses of independent joint control. Twenty-four individuals with hemiparesis were divided into 3 groups based on the timing of their injury: before birth (PRE-natal, n = 8), around the time of birth (PERI-natal, n = 8), and after 6 months of age (POST-natal, n = 8). Individuals with hemiparesis and 8 typically developing peers participated in maximal isometric shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger torque generation tasks while their efforts were recorded by a multiple degree-of-freedom load cell. Motor output in 4 joints of the upper extremity was concurrently measured during 8 primary torque generation tasks to quantify joint torque synergies. There were a number of significant coupling patterns identified in individuals with hemiparesis that differed from the typically developing group. POST-natal differences were most noted in the coupling of shoulder abductors with elbow, wrist, and finger flexors, while the PRE-natal group demonstrated significant distal joint coupling with elbow flexion. The torque synergies measured provide indirect evidence for the use of bulbospinal pathways in the POST-natal group, while those with earlier injury may use relatively preserved ipsilateral corticospinal motor pathways.

  9. Exploring the bases for a mixed reality stroke rehabilitation system, Part II: Design of Interactive Feedback for upper limb rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few existing interactive rehabilitation systems can effectively communicate multiple aspects of movement performance simultaneously, in a manner that appropriately adapts across various training scenarios. In order to address the need for such systems within stroke rehabilitation training, a unified approach for designing interactive systems for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors has been developed and applied for the implementation of an Adaptive Mixed Reality Rehabilitation (AMRR) System. Results The AMRR system provides computational evaluation and multimedia feedback for the upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors. A participant's movements are tracked by motion capture technology and evaluated by computational means. The resulting data are used to generate interactive media-based feedback that communicates to the participant detailed, intuitive evaluations of his performance. This article describes how the AMRR system's interactive feedback is designed to address specific movement challenges faced by stroke survivors. Multimedia examples are provided to illustrate each feedback component. Supportive data are provided for three participants of varying impairment levels to demonstrate the system's ability to train both targeted and integrated aspects of movement. Conclusions The AMRR system supports training of multiple movement aspects together or in isolation, within adaptable sequences, through cohesive feedback that is based on formalized compositional design principles. From preliminary analysis of the data, we infer that the system's ability to train multiple foci together or in isolation in adaptable sequences, utilizing appropriately designed feedback, can lead to functional improvement. The evaluation and feedback frameworks established within the AMRR system will be applied to the development of a novel home-based system to provide an engaging yet low-cost extension of training for longer periods of time. PMID:21899779

  10. Exploring the bases for a mixed reality stroke rehabilitation system, Part II: design of interactive feedback for upper limb rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Nicole; Chen, Yinpeng; Duff, Margaret; L Wolf, Steven; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2011-09-08

    Few existing interactive rehabilitation systems can effectively communicate multiple aspects of movement performance simultaneously, in a manner that appropriately adapts across various training scenarios. In order to address the need for such systems within stroke rehabilitation training, a unified approach for designing interactive systems for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors has been developed and applied for the implementation of an Adaptive Mixed Reality Rehabilitation (AMRR) System. The AMRR system provides computational evaluation and multimedia feedback for the upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors. A participant's movements are tracked by motion capture technology and evaluated by computational means. The resulting data are used to generate interactive media-based feedback that communicates to the participant detailed, intuitive evaluations of his performance. This article describes how the AMRR system's interactive feedback is designed to address specific movement challenges faced by stroke survivors. Multimedia examples are provided to illustrate each feedback component. Supportive data are provided for three participants of varying impairment levels to demonstrate the system's ability to train both targeted and integrated aspects of movement. The AMRR system supports training of multiple movement aspects together or in isolation, within adaptable sequences, through cohesive feedback that is based on formalized compositional design principles. From preliminary analysis of the data, we infer that the system's ability to train multiple foci together or in isolation in adaptable sequences, utilizing appropriately designed feedback, can lead to functional improvement. The evaluation and feedback frameworks established within the AMRR system will be applied to the development of a novel home-based system to provide an engaging yet low-cost extension of training for longer periods of time.

  11. Upper crustal structure from the Santa Monica Mountains to the Sierra Nevada, Southern California: Tomographic results from the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment, Phase II (LARSE II)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutter, W.J.; Fuis, G.S.; Ryberg, T.; Okaya, D.A.; Clayton, R.W.; Davis, P.M.; Prodehl, C.; Murphy, J.M.; Langenheim, V.E.; Benthien, M.L.; Godfrey, N.J.; Christensen, N.I.; Thygesen, K.; Thurber, C.H.; Simila, G.; Keller, Gordon R.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) collected refraction and low-fold reflection data along a 150-km-long corridor extending from the Santa Monica Mountains northward to the Sierra Nevada. This profile was part of the second phase of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II). Chief imaging targets included sedimentary basins beneath the San Fernando and Santa Clarita Valleys and the deep structure of major faults along the transect, including causative faults for the 1971 M 6.7 San Fernando and 1994 M 6.7 Northridge earthquakes, the San Gabriel Fault, and the San Andreas Fault. Tomographic modeling of first arrivals using the methods of Hole (1992) and Lutter et al. (1999) produces velocity models that are similar to each other and are well resolved to depths of 5-7.5 km. These models, together with oil-test well data and independent forward modeling of LARSE II refraction data, suggest that regions of relatively low velocity and high velocity gradient in the San Fernando Valley and the northern Santa Clarita Valley (north of the San Gabriel Fault) correspond to Cenozoic sedimentary basin fill and reach maximum depths along the profile of ???4.3 km and >3 km , respectively. The Antelope Valley, within the western Mojave Desert, is also underlain by low-velocity, high-gradient sedimentary fill to an interpreted maximum depth of ???2.4 km. Below depths of ???2 km, velocities of basement rocks in the Santa Monica Mountains and the central Transverse Ranges vary between 5.5 and 6.0 km/sec, but in the Mojave Desert, basement rocks vary in velocity between 5.25 and 6.25 km/sec. The San Andreas Fault separates differing velocity structures of the central Transverse Ranges and Mojave Desert. A weak low-velocity zone is centered approximately on the north-dipping aftershock zone of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and possibly along the deep projection of the San Gabriel Fault. Modeling of gravity data, using

  12. Illuminating heterogeneous anisotropic upper mantle: testing a new anisotropic teleseismic body-wave tomography code - part II: Inversion mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munzarova, Helena; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Kissling, Edi

    2015-04-01

    Considering only isotropic wave propagation and neglecting anisotropy in teleseismic tomography studies is a simplification obviously incongruous with current understanding of the mantle-lithosphere plate dynamics. Furthermore, in solely isotropic high-resolution tomography results, potentially significant artefacts (i.e., amplitude and/or geometry distortions of 3D velocity heterogeneities) may result from such neglect. Therefore, we have undertaken to develop a code for anisotropic teleseismic tomography (AniTomo), which will allow us to invert the relative P-wave travel time residuals simultaneously for coupled isotropic-anisotropic P-wave velocity models of the upper mantle. To accomplish that, we have modified frequently-used isotropic teleseismic tomography code Telinv (e.g., Weiland et al., JGR, 1995; Lippitsch, JGR, 2003; Karousova et al., GJI, 2013). Apart from isotropic velocity heterogeneities, a weak hexagonal anisotropy is assumed as well to be responsible for the observed P-wave travel-time residuals. Moreover, no limitations to orientation of the symmetry axis are prescribed in the code. We allow a search for anisotropy oriented generally in 3D, which represents a unique approach among recent trials that otherwise incorporate only azimuthal anisotopy into the body-wave tomography. The presented code for retrieving anisotropy in 3D thus enables its direct applications to datasets from tectonically diverse regions. In this contribution, we outline the theoretical background of the AniTomo anisotropic tomography code. We parameterize the mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere with an orthogonal grid of nodes with various values of isotropic velocities, as well as of strength and orientation of anisotropy in 3D, which is defined by azimuth and inclination of either fast or slow symmetry axis of the hexagonal approximation of the media. Careful testing of the new code on synthetics, concentrating on code functionality, strength and weaknesses, is a

  13. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (P<0.05) more longer chain (C≥10) fatty acids were present in the digesta of rats gavaged with raw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A new methodology for flooding risk assessment in coastal areas. Application to Ebro Delta (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayol, Juan Manuel; Marcos, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Global sea level rise projections for the XXI century may be translated in that, by 2100, it will be approximately 50% more deltaic areas in risk of flooding. Contingency, protection and adaptation measures will depend strongly on the regional wealth, but an accurate estimation of future flooding levels is the first thing stakeholders need before taking any decision. In light of this, a new workflow to better evaluate flood hazards in coastal areas has been developed. We have accounted for the combined effect of mean sea level rise, storm surge and waves extremes under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate change scenarios. The methodology consists of three basic steps: a) mean sea level rise and variability is obtained from a combination of observations and regional/global ocean models; b) joint probability of storm surge and waves is retrieved from regional ocean models and observations; c) previous a) and b) estimated sea levels are projected onshore by computing the wave run-up. Ultimately, flooding risk maps with the associated uncertainty are given for return periods and scenarios of interest. The proposed methodology is applied to the Ebro Delta, a muddy dominated delta located in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea with a subaerial area of 320 km squares. It is considered an ideal laboratory because of its growing vulnerability, with common threats and an intensive anthropic influence directly translatable to other world's deltas.

  15. Ocean-atmosphere-wave characterisation of a wind jet (Ebro shelf, NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoll, Manel; Navarro, Jorge; Pallares, Elena; Ràfols, Laura; Espino, Manuel; Palomares, Ana

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution the wind jet dynamics in the northern margin of the Ebro River shelf (NW Mediterranean Sea) are investigated using coupled numerical models. The study area is characterised by persistent and energetic offshore winds during autumn and winter. During these seasons, a seaward wind jet usually develops in a ˜ 50 km wide band offshore. The COAWST (Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport) modelling system was implemented in the region with a set of downscaling meshes to obtain high-resolution meteo-oceanographic outputs. Wind, waves and water currents were compared with in situ observations and remote-sensing-derived products with an acceptable level of agreement. Focused on an intense offshore wind event, the modelled wind jet appears in a limited area offshore with strong spatial variability. The wave pattern during the wind jet is characterised by the development of bimodal directional spectra, and the ocean circulation tends to present well-defined two-layer flow in the shallower region (i.e. inner shelf). The outer shelf tends to be dominated by mesoscale dynamics such as the slope current. Due to the limited fetch length, ocean surface roughness considering sea state (wave-atmosphere coupling) modifies to a small extent the wind and significant wave height under severe cross-shelf wind events. However, the coupling effect in the wind resource assessment may be relevant due to the cubic relation between the wind intensity and power.

  16. Effects of bottom trawling on the Ebro continental shelf sedimentary system (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanques, Albert; Puig, Pere; Guillén, Jorge; Demestre, Montserrat; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    A monitoring effort to address the physical effects of bottom trawling was conducted on the Ebro prodeltaic mud belt during the RESPONSE project. The monitoring was carried out for 14 months covering periods of different trawling intensities and a close season for the trawling fleet. The seabed morphology was studied by side-scan sonar and sediment texture and organic carbon content were analysed. Suspended sediment vertical distribution was recorded by CTD+turbidity hydrographic profiles and sediment transport was computed using time series from moored turbidimeters and current meters. The results show that the seabed of the fishing ground is strongly affected by scraping and ploughing induced by bottom trawling. Part of the finer fraction of the prodeltaic mud resuspended by trawling is winnowed, increasing the silt content of the settling sediment and also near-bottom turbidity. Sediment resuspended by trawling is incorporated in the bottom nepheloid layer and transported across- and along-shelf, increasing sediment fluxes. Trawling also induces an increase in the organic carbon content in the bottom sediment. All these effects induced by trawling have occurred during the last few decades, changing natural conditions in the fishing ground.

  17. Evaluating and comparing methods of sinkhole susceptibility mapping in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, J. P.; Gutiérrez, F.; Remondo, J.; Bonachea, J.; Lucha, P.; Cendrero, A.

    2009-10-01

    Multiple sinkhole susceptibility models have been generated in three study areas of the Ebro Valley evaporite karst (NE Spain) applying different methods (nearest neighbour distance, sinkhole density, heuristic scoring system and probabilistic analysis) for each sinkhole type separately (cover collapse sinkholes, cover and bedrock collapse sinkholes and cover and bedrock sagging sinkholes). The quantitative and independent evaluation of the predictive capability of the models reveals that: (1) The most reliable susceptibility models are those derived from the nearest neighbour distance and sinkhole density. These models can be generated in a simple and rapid way from detailed geomorphological maps. (2) The reliability of the nearest neighbour distance and density models is conditioned by the degree of clustering of the sinkholes. Consequently, the karst areas in which sinkholes show a higher clustering are a priori more favourable for predicting new occurrences. (3) The predictive capability of the best models obtained in this research is significantly higher (12.5-82.5%) than that of the heuristic sinkhole susceptibility model incorporated into the General Urban Plan for the municipality of Zaragoza. Although the probabilistic approach provides lower quality results than the methods based on sinkhole proximity and density, it helps to identify the most significant factors and select the most effective mitigation strategies and may be applied to model susceptibility in different future scenarios.

  18. A review of sediment quantity issues: examples from the River Ebro and adjacent basins (Northeastern Spain).

    PubMed

    Batalla, Ramon J; Vericat, Damià

    2011-04-01

    Sediment flows naturally through the drainage network, from source areas to deposition zones. Sedimentary disequilibrium in rivers and coastlines is related to the imbalance within the fluvial system caused mostly by dams, instream mining, and changes in land use. This phenomenon is also responsible for ecological perturbations in rivers and streams. A broad need exists to establish comprehensive management strategies (soft measures) that would go beyond site-specific engineering practices (technical measures) typically taken to solve particular problems. Long-term programs are also required to monitor sediment transport in river basins, in order to assess the magnitude and variability of sediment transfer and potential deficits. This paper shows examples of rivers with important sediment disequilibrium in the Ebro and adjacent basins. These basins, like most in the Iberian Peninsula, experience sediment discontinuity in the catchment-river-coast system. Reservoir siltation is the main quantitative issue. Land use change and especially gravel mining downstream from dams accentuate the process. We also present and discuss recent developments on water and sediment management undertaken to improve the morphosedimentary dynamics of rivers.

  19. Analysis of energetic radiation associated with thunderstorms in the Ebro delta region in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabró, Ferran; Montanyà, Joan; Pineda, Nicolau; Argemí, Oriol; Velde, Oscar A.; Romero, David; Soula, Serge

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of high-energy background radiation (0.1-2 MeV) enhancements during eight winter thunderstorms and five summer storms in the Ebro delta region in the northeast of Spain is presented. For the first time, high-energy radiation counts, precipitation, radar reflectivity, and very high frequency lightning detections to infer charge regions altitude have been analyzed in order to find out what produces the measured background radiation increments associated with storms. The good agreement between radar reflectivity and precipitation with increases in background radiation counts coupled with the spectrum analysis comparing rain/no rain periods suggests that radon-ion daughters play a major role in the radiation increments reported. No evidence has been found supporting that measured background radiation enhancements can be produced by storm electric fields. Finally, a single case of a high-energy radiation increase was prior to a cloud-to-ground lightning stroke, which reinforces the theory that a lower positive charge layer's existence is important for the production of Terrestrial Ground Enhancements.

  20. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in entire clutches of Audouin's gulls from the Ebro Delta.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Joana; Sanpera, Carola; García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Pérez, Alba; Lacorte, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in three-egg clutches of Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii) breeding in Ebro Delta's colony according to the laying order (a, b and c eggs). Five PFASs were analyzed in 30 eggs (yolk and albumen separately), corresponding to 10 three-egg clutches. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were measured as dietary tracers. PFASs were not detected in albumen. In egg yolks, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the main compound detected followed by perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFBS) was not detected. Mean ΣPFASs for a-eggs was of 236±57 ng g(-1) yolk wet weight (ww), for b-eggs was of 140±56 ng g(-1) yolk ww and for c-eggs, 133±54 ng g(-1) yolk ww. PFOS concentration decreased according to the laying order of the eggs, showing significant differences between consecutive eggs. In addition, significant correlation (rs2=0.7-0.9) was observed for PFOS concentration within the eggs from the same clutch. No relationship was found between PFOS levels and stable isotopes signatures. Capsule: In Audouin gull's eggs, PFOS was the main PFASs detected and its concentration decreased according to the laying sequence.

  1. Surface pressure disturbance in the Ebro Valley (Spain) produced by the Pyrenees mountains during PYREX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz de Argandoña, J.; Ezcurra, A.; Bénech, B.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, the pressure anomaly created by the Pyrenees during the Pyrenees Experiment (PYREX) in the Ebro Valley is studied and analysed. In the first part, pressure disturbance is obtained during some selected cases of PYREX by subtracting the synoptic component from the pressure registered by microbarographs and regular meteorological stations located in the area. As expected from a linear model, a low pressure is found for northerly synoptic winds and a high pressure for southerly synoptic winds. Data shows that the maximum pressure anomaly observed may reach values of the order of 7 hPa. Pressure-anomaly spatial patterns found inside the valley are classified by using principal component analysis (PCA). It is found that the first axes deduced from the PCA carried out represent 75% of the variance in pressure data, indicating that all the stations analysed observed pressure anomalies in a correlated manner. Pressure anomalies are then related to incident-air characteristics expressed as Froude and Rossby numbers. Significant correlation is generally found with these numbers in all cases, demonstrating the dynamic origin of the pressure anomaly computed.

  2. Trend analysis of river water temperatures in the Ebro River Basin (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, Ma Angeles; Quilez, Dolores; Isidoro, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Water temperature is an important factor conditioning physical, biological and chemical processes in water courses. The huge changes along the last 50 years in land and water use (dam construction, urban development, nuclear power plants (NPP), riparian alteration, irrigation development, and return of agricultural lands to forests), along with climate change, call for the study of their influence on river water temperatures. This work analyzed the trends (1973-2010) in water temperature (Tw) along the Ebro River (14 water quality stations) in North-East Spain and its main tributaries (6 water quality stations), as a first step to assess its possible relationships with land use changes, climate change, and other factors. Water temperature trends (ΔTw) were estimated by two different methods: (1) multiple regression incorporating year seasonality and linear trend; and (2) non-parametric Mann-Kendall seasonal trend estimator. A cluster analysis based on principal components (performed upon the variables Tw, ΔTw, annual Tw range, lag of the Tw annual cycle, coefficient of correlation between water and air temperature (Ta), and station altitude) allowed for grouping stations with similar behaviour in Tw (along the year, seasonality, and throughout the study period, trend). Trend analysis by the regression and Mann-Kendall methods produced similar results. They showed significant (P

  3. Late Holocene evolution of playa lakes in the central Ebro depression based on geophysical surveys and morpho-stratigraphic analysis of lacustrine terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, F.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Desir, G.; González-Sampériz, P.; Gutiérrez, M.; Linares, R.; Zarroca, M.; Moreno, A.; Guerrero, J.; Roqué, C.; Arnold, L. J.; Demuro, M.

    2013-08-01

    The origin and morpho-stratigraphic evolution of the largest playa-lake system (La Playa-El Pueyo) in the Bujaraloz-Sástago endorheic area, located in the semiarid central sector of the Ebro Depression, are analysed. The enclosed depressions are developed on gypsiferous Tertiary bedrock and show a prevalent WNW-ESE orientation parallel to the direction of the prevalent strong local wind (Cierzo). Yardangs have been carved in bedrock and unconsolidated terrace deposits in the leeward sector of the largest lake basins. A sequence of three lacustrine terrace levels has been identified by detailed geomorphological mapping. The treads of the upper, middle and lower terrace levels are situated at + 9 m, + 6 m and + 0.5 m above the playa-lake floors, respectively. Seismic refraction and electrical resistivity profiles acquired in La Playa reveal a thin basin fill (~ 2 m) with a planar base. These data allow ruling out the genetic hypothesis for the depressions involving the collapse of large bedrock cavities and support a mixed genesis of combined widespread dissolution and subsidence by groundwater discharge and eolian deflation during dry periods. The 5 m thick deposit of the middle terrace was investigated in hand-dug and backhoe trenches. Six AMS radiocarbon ages from this terrace indicate an aggradation phase between 3.9 ka and ca. 2 ka. These numerical ages yield a maximum average aggradation rate of 2.6 mm/yr and a minimum excavation rate by wind deflation of 3 mm/yr subsequent to the accumulation of the middle terrace. The latter figure compares well with those calculated in several arid regions of the world using yardangs carved in palaeolake deposits. The aggradation phase between 4 and 2 ka is coherent with other Iberian and Mediterranean records showing relatively more humid conditions after 4 ka, including the Iron Ages and the Iberian-Roman Period.

  4. A review of the effects of agricultural and industrial contamination on the Ebro delta biota and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Mañosa, S; Mateo, R; Guitart, R

    2001-10-01

    The Ebro delta (NE Spain) is a 320 km2 wetland area of international importance for conservation. The area is devoted to rice farming and receives large amounts of pesticides. Industrial pollutants are also carried to the delta by the river. The information accumulated during the last 25 year on the effect of such pollution on the biota is reviewed in order to identify the existing gaps and needs for management. Organochlorine pesticides were legally used until 1977, which has resulted in the widespread presence of these compounds in the Ebro delta biota. Lethal, sublethal or other detrimental effects of these pesticides on wildlife in the area were poorly investigated, but negative effects on the reproduction of ducks and herons were reported. Nowadays, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the main responsible of organochlorine pollution in the area: concentrations in biota samples are higher than levels observed in nearby coastal areas, as a result of the significant PCB inputs by the river which, in 1990, were evaluated at 126 kg yr(-1). The massive use of herbicides is thought to have contributed to the elimation of macrophyte vegetation in the lagoons during the eighties, which had strong consequences on diving ducks and coot populations. Weed control is also related to the loss of biodiversity held by rice fields. The massive and inadequate use of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides (involving more than 20,000 t yr(-1) has produced some waterbird mortality events, and may have direct and indirect effects on other non-target organisms. The accumulation in the soil of lead pellets used in waterfowl shooting is estimated to kill some 16,300 waterbirds in the Ebro delta every year.

  5. Are Human influences responsible for the existence and possible drowning of (parts of) the Ebro Delta, Spain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettner, A. J.; Xing, F.; Ashton, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    The modern Ebro Delta, Spain, has developed since the Holocene sea level stabilized around 6,000 years ago. Delta progradation rates since than have changed significantly. Historical charts dating from the Middle Ages suggest that the delta prograded from the Roman epoch until the 10th century at rates 2-3 times faster than before. The Romans deforested significant parts of the 80,093 km2 large hinterland, mainly to supply the ship industry, which induced severe erosion. In contrast, dams and reservoirs emplacements for irrigation works on the Ebro and its tributaries during the last 150 years led to the retention of almost the entire fluvial sediment normally transported to the Mediterranean, resulting in acceleration of coastal erosion. Climatic impact on the sediment load transported to the coast is less well understood but Paleohydrological reconstructions suggest that riverine sediment to the Mediterranean increased during the Middle Ages and the Little Ice Age. For this study, a numerical model, HydroTrend, is applied in a first attempt to unravel the impact of climate change and human impact of the Ebro basin over the last 2,000 years. HydroTrend is able to compute water discharge and sediment load in daily increments over centuries based on the geomorphic, geographic and geologic catchment parameters as well as human activities. For model input, a Holocene climate record is reconstructed, based on dendrochronology. Spatial and temporal human deforestation reconstructions are based on a high resolution simulations by Kaplan et al. (2009) who determined deforestation over time by population density, and land suitability.

  6. NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Graduate Student Program. [FIRE CIRRUS-II examination of coupling between an upper tropospheric cloud system and synoptic-scale dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of synoptic-scale dynamics associated with a middle and upper tropospheric cloud event that occurred on 26 November 1991 is examined. The case under consideration occurred during the FIRE CIRRUS-II Intensive Field Observing Period held in Coffeyville, KS during Nov. and Dec., 1991. Using data from the wind profiler demonstration network and a temporally and spatially augmented radiosonde array, emphasis is given to explaining the evolution of the kinematically-derived ageostrophic vertical circulations and correlating the circulation with the forcing of an extensively sampled cloud field. This is facilitated by decomposing the horizontal divergence into its component parts through a natural coordinate representation of the flow. Ageostrophic vertical circulations are inferred and compared to the circulation forcing arising from geostrophic confluence and shearing deformation derived from the Sawyer-Eliassen Equation. It is found that a thermodynamically indirect vertical circulation existed in association with a jet streak exit region. The circulation was displaced to the cyclonic side of the jet axis due to the orientation of the jet exit between a deepening diffluent trough and building ridge. The cloud line formed in the ascending branch of the vertical circulation with the most concentrated cloud development occurring in conjunction with the maximum large-scale vertical motion. The relationship between the large scale dynamics and the parameterization of middle and upper tropospheric clouds in large-scale models is discussed and an example of ice water contents derived from a parameterization forced by the diagnosed vertical motions and observed water vapor contents is presented.

  7. Factors Influencing Goal Attainment in Patients with Post-Stroke Upper Limb Spasticity Following Treatment with Botulinum Toxin A in Real-Life Clinical Practice: Sub-Analyses from the Upper Limb International Spasticity (ULIS)-II Study

    PubMed Central

    Fheodoroff, Klemens; Ashford, Stephen; Jacinto, Jorge; Maisonobe, Pascal; Balcaitiene, Jovita; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    In this post-hoc analysis of the ULIS-II study, we investigated factors influencing person-centred goal setting and achievement following botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) treatment in 456 adults with post-stroke upper limb spasticity (ULS). Patients with primary goals categorised as passive function had greater motor impairment (p < 0.001), contractures (soft tissue shortening [STS]) (p = 0.006) and spasticity (p = 0.02) than those setting other goal types. Patients with goals categorised as active function had less motor impairment (0.0001), contracture (p < 0.0001), spasticity (p < 0.001) and shorter time since stroke (p = 0.001). Patients setting goals for pain were older (p = 0.01) with more contractures (p = 0.008). The proportion of patients achieving their primary goal was not impacted by timing of first-ever BoNT-A injection (medium-term (≤1 year) vs. longer-term (>1 year)) post-stroke (80.0% vs. 79.2%) or presence or absence of severe contractures (76.7% vs. 80.6%), although goal types differed. Earlier BoNT-A intervention was associated with greater achievement of active function goals. Severe contractures impacted negatively on goal achievement except in pain and passive function. Goal setting by patients with ULS is influenced by impairment severity, age and time since stroke. Our findings resonate with clinical experience and may assist patients and clinicians in selecting realistic, achievable goals for treatment. PMID:25856546

  8. Factors influencing goal attainment in patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity following treatment with botulinum toxin A in real-life clinical practice: sub-analyses from the Upper Limb International Spasticity (ULIS)-II Study.

    PubMed

    Fheodoroff, Klemens; Ashford, Stephen; Jacinto, Jorge; Maisonobe, Pascal; Balcaitiene, Jovita; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2015-04-08

    In this post-hoc analysis of the ULIS-II study, we investigated factors influencing person-centred goal setting and achievement following botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) treatment in 456 adults with post-stroke upper limb spasticity (ULS). Patients with primary goals categorised as passive function had greater motor impairment (p < 0.001), contractures (soft tissue shortening [STS]) (p = 0.006) and spasticity (p = 0.02) than those setting other goal types. Patients with goals categorised as active function had less motor impairment (0.0001), contracture (p < 0.0001), spasticity (p < 0.001) and shorter time since stroke (p = 0.001). Patients setting goals for pain were older (p = 0.01) with more contractures (p = 0.008). The proportion of patients achieving their primary goal was not impacted by timing of first-ever BoNT-A injection (medium-term (≤1 year) vs. longer-term (>1 year)) post-stroke (80.0% vs. 79.2%) or presence or absence of severe contractures (76.7% vs. 80.6%), although goal types differed. Earlier BoNT-A intervention was associated with greater achievement of active function goals. Severe contractures impacted negatively on goal achievement except in pain and passive function. Goal setting by patients with ULS is influenced by impairment severity, age and time since stroke. Our findings resonate with clinical experience and may assist patients and clinicians in selecting realistic, achievable goals for treatment.

  9. Origin of a classic cratonic sheet sandstone: Stratigraphy across the Sauk II-Sauk III boundary in the Upper Mississippi Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Anthony C.; McKay, R.M.; Palmer, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    The origin of cratonic sheet sandstones of Proterozoic and early Paleozoic age has been a long-standing problem for sedimentologists. Lower Paleozoic strata in the Upper Mississippi Valley are best known for several such sandstone bodies, the regional depositional histories of which are poorly understood. We have combined outcrop and subsurface data from six states to place the Upper Cambrian Wonewoc (Ironton and Galesville) Sandstone in a well-constrained stratigraphic framework across thousands of square kilometers. This framework makes it possible for the first time to construct a regional-scale depositional model that explains the origin of this and other cratonic sheet sandstones. The Wonewoc Sandstone, although mapped as a single contiguous sheet, is a stratigraphically complex unit that was deposited during three distinct conditions of relative sea level that span parts of four trilobite zones. During a relative highstand of sea level in Crepicephalus Zone time, quartzose sandstone lithofacies aggraded more or less vertically in nearshore-marine and terrestrial environments across much of the present-day out-crop belt around the Wisconsin arch. At the same time, finer grained, feldspathic sandstone, siltstone, and shale aggraded in deeper water immediately seaward of the quartzose sand, and shale and carbonate sediment accumulated in the most distal areas. During Aphelaspis and Dunderbergia Zones time a relative fall in sea level led to the dispersal of quartzose sand into a basinward-tapering, sheet-like body across much of the Upper Mississippi Valley. During early Elvinia Zone time a major transgression led to deposition of a second sheet sandstone that is generally similar to the underlying regressive sheet. The results of this investigation also demonstrate how subtle sequence-bounding unconformities may be recognized in mature, cratonic siliciclastics. We place the Sauk II-Sauk III subsequence boundary at the base of the coarsest bed in the Wonewoc

  10. 20 Myr of eccentricity paced lacustrine cycles in the Cenozoic Ebro Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, Luis; Garcés, Miguel; Cabrera, Lluís; Costa, Elisenda; Sáez, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Long-period orbital forcing is a crucial component of the major global climate shifts during the Cenozoic as revealed in marine pelagic records. A complementary regional perspective of climate change can be assessed from internally drained lake basins, which are directly affected by insolation and precipitation balance. The Ebro Basin in northeastern Iberia embraces a 20 Myr long continuous sedimentary record where recurrent expansions and retractions of the central lacustrine system suggest periodic shifts of water balance due to orbital oscillations. In order to test climatic (orbital) forcing a key-piece of the basin, the Los Monegros lacustrine system, has been analyzed in detail. The cyclostratigraphic analysis points to orbital eccentricity as pacemaker of short to long-term lacustrine sequences, and reveals a correlation of maxima of the 100-kyr, 400-kyr and 2.4-Myr eccentricity cycles with periods of lake expansion. A magnetostratigraphy-based chronostratigraphy of the complete continental record allows further assessing long-period orbital forcing at basin scale, a view that challenges alternate scenarios where the stratigraphic architecture in foreland systems is preferably associated to tectonic processes. We conclude that while the location of lacustrine depocenters reacted to the long-term tectonic-driven accommodation changes, shorter wavelenght oscillations of lake environments, still million-year scale, claims for a dominance of orbital forcing. We suggest a decoupling between (tectonic) supply-driven clastic sequences fed from basin margins and (climatic) base level-driven lacustrine sequences in active settings with medium to large sediment transfer systems.

  11. Sea level rise impacts on rice production: The Ebro Delta as an example.

    PubMed

    Genua-Olmedo, Ana; Alcaraz, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Ibáñez, Carles

    2016-11-15

    Climate change and sea level rise (SLR) are global impacts threatening the sustainability of coastal territories and valuable ecosystems such as deltas. The Ebro Delta is representative of the vulnerability of coastal areas to SLR. Rice cultivation is the main economic activity in the region. Rice fields occupy most of the delta (ca. 65%) and are vulnerable to accelerated SLR and consequent increase in soil salinity, the most important physical factor affecting rice production. We developed a model to predict the impacts of SLR on soil salinity and rice production under different scenarios predicted by the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change by coupling data from Geographic Information Systems with Generalized Linear Models. Soil salinity data were measured in agricultural parcels and rice production from surveys among farmers. The correlation between observed and soil salinity predicted values was high and significant (Pearson's r=0.72, P<0.0001), thus supporting the predictive ability of the model. Soil salinity was directly related to distances to the river, to the delta inner border, and to the river old mouth, while clay presence, winter river flow and surface elevation were inversely related to it. Surface elevation was the most important variable in explaining soil salinity. Rice production was negatively influenced by soil salinity, thus the models predict a decrease from higher elevation zones close to the river to the shoreline. The model predicts a maximum reduction in normalized rice production index from 61.2% in 2010 to 33.8% by 2100 in the worst considered scenario (SLR=1.8m), with a decrease of profit up to 300 € per hectare. The model can be applied to other deltaic areas worldwide, and help rice farmers and stakeholders to identify the most vulnerable areas to SLR impacts.

  12. Bottom-boundary-layer measurements on the continental shelf off the Ebro River, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Losada, M.A.; Medina, R.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of currents, waves and light transmission obtained with an instrumented bottom tripod (GEOPROBE) were used in conjunction with a theoretical bottom-boundary-layer model for waves and currents to investigate sediment transport on the continental shelf south of the Ebro River Delta, Spain. The current data show that over a 48-day period during the fall of 1984, the average transport at 1 m above the seabed was alongshelf and slightly offshore toward the south-southwest at about 2 cm/s. A weak storm passed through the region during this period and caused elevated wave and current speeds near the bed. The bottom-boundary-layer model predicted correspondingly higher combined wave and current bottom shear velocities at this time, but the GEOPROBE optical data indicate that little to no resuspension occurred. This result suggests that the fine-grained bottom sediment, which has a clay component of 80%, behaves cohesively and is more difficult to resuspend than noncohesive materials of similar size. Model computations also indicate that noncohesive very fine sand in shallow water (20 m deep) was resuspended and transported mainly as bedload during this storm. Fine-grained materials in shallow water that are resuspended and transported as suspended load into deeper water probably account for the slight increase in sediment concentration at the GEOPROBE sensors during the waning stages of the storm. The bottom-boundary-layer data suggest that the belt of fine-grained bottom sediment that extends along the shelf toward the southwest is deposited during prolonged periods of low energy and southwestward bottom flow. This pattern is augmented by enhanced resuspension and transport toward the southwest during storms. ?? 1990.

  13. Titanospirillum velox: a huge, speedy, sulfur-storing spirillum from Ebro Delta microbial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, R.; Haselton, A.; Sole, M.; Wier, A.; Margulis, L.

    1999-01-01

    A long (20-30 micrometer), wide (3-5 micrometer) microbial-mat bacterium from the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) was grown in mixed culture and videographed live. Intracellular elemental sulfur globules and unique cell termini were observed in scanning-electron-microprobe and transmission-electron micrographs. A polar organelle underlies bundles of greater than 60 flagella at each indented terminus. These Gram-negative bacteria bend, flex, and swim in a spiral fashion; they translate at speeds greater than 10 body lengths per second. The large size of the spirillum permits direct observation of cell motility in single individual bacteria. After desiccation (i.e., absence of standing water for at least 24 h), large populations developed in mat samples remoistened with sea water. Ultrastructural observations reveal abundant large sulfur globules irregularly distributed in the cytoplasm. A multilayered cell wall, pliable and elastic yet rigid, distends around the sulfur globules. Details of the wall, multiflagellated termini, and large cytoplasmic sulfur globules indicate that these fast-moving spirilla are distinctive enough to warrant a genus and species designation: Titanospirillum velox genus nov., sp. nov. The same collection techniques at a similar habitat in the United States (Plum Island, northeast Essex County, Massachusetts) also yielded large populations of the bacterium among purple phototrophic and other inhabitants of sulfurous microbial-mat muds. The months-long survival of T. velox from Spain and from the United States in closed jars filled with mud taken from both localities leads us to infer that this large spirillum has a cosmopolitan distribution.

  14. Titanospirillum velox: A huge, speedy, sulfur-storing spirillum from Ebro Delta microbial mats

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Ricardo; Haselton, Aaron; Solé, Mónica; Wier, Andrew; Margulis, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    A long (20–30 μm), wide (3–5 μm) microbial-mat bacterium from the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) was grown in mixed culture and videographed live. Intracellular elemental sulfur globules and unique cell termini were observed in scanning-electron-microprobe and transmission-electron micrographs. A polar organelle underlies bundles of greater than 60 flagella at each indented terminus. These Gram-negative bacteria bend, flex, and swim in a spiral fashion; they translate at speeds greater than 10 body lengths per second. The large size of the spirillum permits direct observation of cell motility in single individual bacteria. After desiccation (i.e., absence of standing water for at least 24 h), large populations developed in mat samples remoistened with sea water. Ultrastructural observations reveal abundant large sulfur globules irregularly distributed in the cytoplasm. A multilayered cell wall, pliable and elastic yet rigid, distends around the sulfur globules. Details of the wall, multiflagellated termini, and large cytoplasmic sulfur globules indicate that these fast-moving spirilla are distinctive enough to warrant a genus and species designation: Titanospirillum velox genus nov., sp. nov. The same collection techniques at a similar habitat in the United States (Plum Island, northeast Essex County, Massachusetts) also yielded large populations of the bacterium among purple phototrophic and other inhabitants of sulfurous microbial-mat muds. The months-long survival of T. velox from Spain and from the United States in closed jars filled with mud taken from both localities leads us to infer that this large spirillum has a cosmopolitan distribution. PMID:10500220

  15. Drought and detritivores determine leaf litter decomposition in calcareous streams of the Ebro catchment (Spain).

    PubMed

    Monroy, Silvia; Menéndez, Margarita; Basaguren, Ana; Pérez, Javier; Elosegi, Arturo; Pozo, Jesús

    2016-12-15

    Drought, an important environmental factor affecting the functioning of stream ecosystems, is likely to become more prevalent in the Mediterranean region as a consequence of climate change and enhanced water demand. Drought can have profound impacts on leaf litter decomposition, a key ecosystem process in headwater streams, but there is still limited information on its effects at the regional scale. We measured leaf litter decomposition across a gradient of aridity in the Ebro River basin. We deployed coarse- and fine-mesh bags with alder and oak leaves in 11 Mediterranean calcareous streams spanning a range of over 400km, and determined changes in discharge, water quality, leaf-associated macroinvertebrates, leaf quality and decomposition rates. The study streams were subject to different degrees of drought, specific discharge (Ls(-1)km(-2)) ranging from 0.62 to 9.99. One of the streams dried out during the experiment, another one reached residual flow, whereas the rest registered uninterrupted flow but with different degrees of flow variability. Decomposition rates differed among sites, being lowest in the 2 most water-stressed sites, but showed no general correlation with specific discharge. Microbial decomposition rates were not correlated with final nutrient content of litter nor to fungal biomass. Total decomposition rate of alder was positively correlated to the density and biomass of shredders; that of oak was not. Shredder density in alder bags showed a positive relationship with specific discharge during the decomposition experiment. Overall, the results point to a complex pattern of litter decomposition at the regional scale, as drought affects decomposition directly by emersion of bags and indirectly by affecting the functional composition and density of detritivores.

  16. Rainfall Characterization in the Ebro river basin (Spain) through the structure function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Jose Luis; María Tarquis, Ana; Saa, Antonio; Villeta, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall events present a high variability in time and intensity in Spain, mainly in the Mediterranean coast. These events has been studied in the present work through the multiscale turbulence formalism based on daily rainfall series recorded during 23 years at 265 meteorological stations at the Ebro River basin (Northeast Spain). The Structure Function and two parameters derived from it, intermittency (μint) and multifractality (Λdesv), have been estimated for each station. These proposed indicators are pretty straightforward calculations, therefore they are advisable to use in a generalize way in the multifractal analysis. A spatial study of these parameters has been carried on verifying the influence of different geographical features such as altitude, relative position in the river basin and proximity to the coast. Finally, a principal components analysis based on the matrix correlation between intermittency and multifractality values has been applied pointing out a symmetry respect to the main axis of the river. The results show that the space evolution of the multifractality parameter is symmetric with respect to the main axis of the river. The multifractality values grow as we head towards the east. Intermittency presents major irregularities, especially on the left side of the river (north) where it usually reaches higher values than in the south for similar multifractality values. We have found a direct correlation between these two parameters. Depending on the watershed areas these relationships have different intensities. Therefore, the correlation is higher and more significant for those stations that are below 600 m. and non significant for those that are above 900 m. The highest values for the two parameters are close to the main channel and near the mouth of the river (areas with lower altitude) . On the other hand, the map based on the differences of clustering analysis points close to each other is due to the local aspect of rainfall

  17. Titanospirillum velox: a huge, speedy, sulfur-storing spirillum from Ebro Delta microbial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, R.; Haselton, A.; Sole, M.; Wier, A.; Margulis, L.

    1999-01-01

    A long (20-30 micrometer), wide (3-5 micrometer) microbial-mat bacterium from the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) was grown in mixed culture and videographed live. Intracellular elemental sulfur globules and unique cell termini were observed in scanning-electron-microprobe and transmission-electron micrographs. A polar organelle underlies bundles of greater than 60 flagella at each indented terminus. These Gram-negative bacteria bend, flex, and swim in a spiral fashion; they translate at speeds greater than 10 body lengths per second. The large size of the spirillum permits direct observation of cell motility in single individual bacteria. After desiccation (i.e., absence of standing water for at least 24 h), large populations developed in mat samples remoistened with sea water. Ultrastructural observations reveal abundant large sulfur globules irregularly distributed in the cytoplasm. A multilayered cell wall, pliable and elastic yet rigid, distends around the sulfur globules. Details of the wall, multiflagellated termini, and large cytoplasmic sulfur globules indicate that these fast-moving spirilla are distinctive enough to warrant a genus and species designation: Titanospirillum velox genus nov., sp. nov. The same collection techniques at a similar habitat in the United States (Plum Island, northeast Essex County, Massachusetts) also yielded large populations of the bacterium among purple phototrophic and other inhabitants of sulfurous microbial-mat muds. The months-long survival of T. velox from Spain and from the United States in closed jars filled with mud taken from both localities leads us to infer that this large spirillum has a cosmopolitan distribution.

  18. Irrigation efficiency and quality of irrigation return flows in the Ebro River Basin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Causapé, J; Quílez, D; Aragüés, R

    2006-06-01

    The review analysis of twenty two irrigation efficiency (IE) studies carried out in the Ebro River Basin shows that IE is low (average IE)(avg)(= 53%) in surface-irrigated areas with high-permeable and shallow soils inadequate for this irrigation system, high (IE)(avg)(= 79%) in surface-irrigated areas with appropriate soils for this system, and very high (IE)(avg)(= 94%) in modern, automated and well managed sprinkler-irrigated areas. The unitary salt (total dissolved solids) and nitrate loads exported in the irrigation return flows (IRF) of seven districts vary, depending on soil salinity and on irrigation and N fertilization management, between 3-16 Mg salt/ha x year and 23-195 kg NO)(3) (-)-N/ha x year, respectively. The lower nitrate loads exported from high IE districts show that a proper irrigation design and management is a key factor to reduce off-site nitrogen pollution. Although high IE's also reduce off-site salt pollution, the presence of salts in the soil or subsoil may induce relatively high salt loads (>or=14 Mg/ha x year) even in high IE districts. Two important constrains identified in our revision were the short duration of most surveys and the lack of standards for conducting irrigation efficiency and mass balance studies at the irrigation district level. These limitations {emphasize the need for the establishment of a permanent and standardized network of drainage monitoring stations for the appropriate off-site pollution diagnosis and control of irrigated agriculture.

  19. Orbital forcing in the early Miocene alluvial sediments of the western Ebro Basin, Northeast Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, M.; Larrasoaña, J. C.; Muñoz, A.; Margalef, O.; Murelaga, X.

    2009-04-01

    Paleoclimatic reconstructions from terrestrial records are crucial to assess the regional variability of past climates. Despite the apparent direct connection between continental sedimentary environments and climate, interpreting the climatic signature in ancient non-marine sedimentary sequences is often overprinted by source-area related signals. In this regard, foreland basins appear as non-ideal targets as tectonically-driven subsidence and uplift play a major control on the distribution and evolution of sedimentary environments and facies. Foreland basins, however, often yield among the thickest and most continuous stratigraphic records available on continents. The Ebro Basin (north-eastern Spain) is of particular interest among the circum-mediterranean alpine foreland basins because it evolved into a land-locked closed basin since the late Eocene, leading to the accumulation of an exceptionally thick (>5500 m) and continuous sequence of alluvial-lacustrine sediments over a period of about 25 Myr. In this paper we present a detailed cyclostratigraphic study of a 115 m thick section in the Bardenas Reales de Navarra region (western Ebro Basin) in order to test orbital forcing in the Milankovitch frequency band. The study section corresponds to the distal alluvial-playa mud flats which developed in the central sector of the western Ebro Basin, with sediments sourced from both the Pyrenean and Iberian Ranges. Sediments consist of brown-red alluvial clay packages containing minor fine-grained laminated sandstones sheet-beds and channels, grey marls and thin bedded lacustrine limestones arranged in 10 to 20 m thick fining-upwards sequences. Red clayed intervals contain abundant nodular gypsum interpreted as representing a phase of arid and low lake level conditions, while grey marls and limestones indicate wetter intervals recording the expansion of the inner shallow lakes. A magnetostratigraphy-based chronology indicates that the Peñarroya section represents a

  20. Photodetection of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi using photofrin II and colorectal adenocarcinoma with fluoresceinated monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagnieres, Georges A.; Braichotte, Daniel; Chatelain, Andre; Depeursinge, Christian D.; Monnier, Philippe; Savary, Jean-Francois; Fontolliet, Charlotte; Calmes, J.-M.; Givel, Jean-Claude; Chapuis, G.; Folli, S.; Pelegrin, A.; Buchegger, F.; Mach, J.-P.; van den Bergh, Hubert

    1991-11-01

    The performance of a fluorescence endoscope for the detection of early cancer is clinically evaluated. the apparatus is based on the imaging of the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of a dye which localizes in the tumor after IV injection with a higher concentration than in the surrounding normal tissue. The tests are carried out in several of the hollow organs, such as the upper aerodigestive tract, the bronchi, and the colon. In the two former cases the dye used is photofrin II, whereas in the latter case conjugates between monoclonal antibodies (Mab) directed against carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA) and fluorescein molecules are injected. The fluorescence contrast between tumor and surrounding tissue is enhanced by real-time image processing which eliminates most of the tissue autofluorescence as well as the fluorescence due to the relatively small amount of dye localized in the normal tissue. This is done by recording the fluorescence image in two spectral domains, after which these two images are digitized and manipulated with a mathematical operator (lookup-table). The sources of false positives and false negatives are evaluated in terms of the fluorescent dye and tissue optical properties.

  1. Genetic relationships between parishes in the Ebro delta region (Spain) as estimated by migration matrix and surnames.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Mireia; García-Moro, Clara; Hernández, Miquel

    2006-12-01

    To determine whether there are preferential relationships among individuals from the different parishes of the Ebro River delta region, we analyzed the population relationships, taking into account both the birthplaces of the spouses and their surname frequencies. We used data from the 9,085 marriages recorded in the Ebro delta area between 1939 and 1995. Using each spouse's birthplace, we calculated the distances between the subject populations by means of the squared Euclidean distance. Also, from the surname frequencies in the marriages we obtained certain kinship measurements. In both analyses the results show a clear differentiation between the parish of Amposta and the rest of the parishes. This difference is mainly due to a greater number of marriages in which delta outsiders participated and can be related to the greater surname diversity and lesser endogamy observed in this population. On the other hand, if only endogamous marriages are taken into account, there is clearly a differentiation between the parishes from both banks of the river, with a strong homogeneity among the northside parishes. We compared the distances obtained from the birthplaces, the kinship parameters obtained from the surnames, and two geographic distance matrixes by means of a Mantel test, and the results show a strong and significant correlation between them when all marriages are considered. If, on the other hand, only endogamous marriages are taken into account, the barrier effect of the river on the interparish relationships can be appreciated.

  2. Nutrient sources and dynamics in a mediterranean fluvial regime (Ebro river, NE Spain) and their implications for water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrecilla, Néstor J.; Galve, Jorge P.; Zaera, Lidia G.; Retamar, Javier F.; Álvarez, Alejandro N. A.

    2005-03-01

    Nonpoint source and point source nutrient loads (N, PO 4-P, COD) to the Ebro River in its central sector were estimated using hydrogeological and socioeconomical data. Their impacts on eutrophication and nutrient dynamics in the river were analyzed through a review of the public administration's historical data and the interpretation of two sampling profiles in September 02 (low flows season) and April 03 (high flows season). A marked seasonality was found in nutrient concentrations, nutrient loads and eutrophication indicators (O 2, Turbidity), appearing symptoms of eutrophication during the summer related to both NPS and PS Nutrient loads within the study area. Agricultural NPS account for 64% of NO 3 loads generated within the study area while urban and industrial PS are responsible of 88% PO 4-P and 71% COD loads. Biological reactions within the river ecosystem (including denitrification in the most eutrophic branches) were found to be a key factor in nutrient content and dynamics. Improvements in urban and industrial wastewater treatment facilities, land use planning and restoration of river-side wetlands, seem to be adequate policies for the improvement of the nutrient water quality in the studied sector of the Ebro River. Flow and temperature seasonality related to Mediterranean fluvial regime imposes significant limitations to nutrient PS in order to accomplish the combined approach proposed in European Water Framework Directive (WFD), based upon Emission Limit Values (ELV) and Environmental Quality Standards (EQS).

  3. Population structure and life history of Hemimysis lamornae mediterranea (Malacostraca: Mysida) in the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, L.; Guerao, G.; Vicente, C. San; Ribera, C.

    2013-10-01

    Hemimysis lamornae mediterraneaBacescu, 1936 has been recently reported in the Ebro Delta (Spain, NW Mediterranean). Little is known about the biology and ecology of this mysid and we provide the first information about its population biology. H. l. mediterranea were collected from Sant Carles de la Ràpita harbor from June 2010 to March 2012 at night. The H. l. mediterranea population was composed of two main individual size categories: larger-sized winter/spring individuals and smaller-sized spring/summer individuals. The overall sex ratio is highly skewed; mature females are 2.5 times more abundant than mature males. Reproductive activity was higher during late winter and spring but was almost continuous throughout the year. The intra-marsupial development and growth of juveniles has been studied in the laboratory. The mean duration of incubation period (intra-marsupial stages) in laboratory conditions was 11 days (20 °C) and the age at first maturity ranged from14 to 20 days. The growth rate was faster in early juveniles and declined with age, showing a maximum of 0.152 mm d- 1. The laboratory results and demographic data suggest that H. l. mediterranea will produce several generations per year in the Ebro Delta. H. l. mediterranea was characterized by a combination of early maturation of individuals (short juvenile period), rapid growth, small adult size, a continuous reproduction all year round, iteroparous females, a relatively high fecundity and a high number of generations per year.

  4. Persistent Organic Pollutants in gull eggs of two species (Larus michahellis and Larus audouinii) from the Ebro delta Natural Park.

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Martrat, Maria Generosa; Olmos, Jorge; Parera, Jordi; Vicente, Joana; Bertolero, Albert; Abalos, Manuela; Lacorte, Silvia; Santos, Francisco Javier; Abad, Esteban

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of priority and emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in gull eggs from two species, the scavenger Larus michahellis and the protected species, Larus audouinii. These two species share habitat in the Natural Park of the Ebro delta (Catalonia, Spain). Compounds studied are included or under consideration in the Stockholm Convention and comprise polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated compounds (OCs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs). Four methods based in selective extraction and gas or liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry were used and quality parameters are provided. OC pesticides and marker PCBs were the most abundant chemical families detected in eggs from the two species, followed by PFCs, PBDEs (especially BDE 209) and SCCPs. Dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs were also detected in all samples. The overall widespread presence of POPs is discussed in terms of feeding habits, bird ecology and anthropogenic pressures in the protected Ebro delta breeding area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phylogenetic relationship of Perkinsus olseni from the Ebro Delta, Spain, to other Perkinsus species, based on ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Elandaloussi, Laurence; Carrasco, Noèlia; Furones, Dolores; Roque, Ana

    2009-09-23

    The phylogenetic relationship of Perkinsus olseni originating from the Ebro Delta, Spain, to other Perkinsus spp. was investigated using the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) region and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (including ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA sequences. These 2 molecular markers (NTS and ITS) were sequenced from prezoosporangia of Perkinsus sp. originating from Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum from the Ebro Delta. The sequence of the 5.8S ITS region of the ribosomal RNA gene was 100% similar to that of P. olseni. Higher genetic variability was found for the NTS sequence, with 80.7 to 81.8% similarity to P. olseni. The NTS sequence of a P. olseni isolate previously detected in R. decussatus from the same area was also obtained and showed 81% identity with our isolate. Evidence obtained from phylogenetic analysis of the 5.8S ITS and NTS aligned sequences appears to indicate that P. olseni strains group together according to their host rather than their geographic origins within a well-resolved P. olseni clade.

  6. Towards the assessment of climate change and human activities impacts on the water resources of the Ebro catchment (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, M.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Ardoin-Bardin, S.; Thivet, G.; Servat, E.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide studies modelling the hydrological response to global changes have proven the Mediterranean area as one of the most vulnerable region to water crisis. It is characterised by limited and unequally distributed water resources, as well as by important development of its human activities. Since the late 1950s, water demand in the Mediterranean basin has doubled due to a significant expansion of irrigated land and urban areas, and has maintained on a constant upward curve. The Ebro catchment, third largest Mediterranean basin, is very representative of this context. Since the late 1970s, a negative trend in mean rainfall has been observed as well as an increase in mean temperature. Meanwhile, the Ebro River discharge has decreased by about 40%. However, climate alone cannot explain this downward trend. Another factor is the increase in water consumption for agricultural and domestic uses. Indeed, the Ebro catchment is a key element in the Spanish agricultural production with respectively 30% and 60% of the meat and fruit production of the country. Moreover, population has increased by 20% over the catchment since 1970 and the number of inhabitant doubles each summer due to tourism attraction. Finally, more than 250 storage dams have been built over the Ebro River for hydropower production and irrigation water supply purposes, hence regulating river discharge. In order to better understand the respective influence of climatic and anthropogenic pressures on the Ebro hydrological regime, an integrated water resources modelling framework was developed. This model is driven by water supplies, generated by a conceptual rainfall-runoff model and by a storage dam module that accounts for water demands and environmental flow requirements. Water demands were evaluated for the most water-demanding sector, i.e. irrigated agriculture (5 670 Hm3/year), and the domestic sector (252 Hm3/year), often defined as being of prior importance for water supply. A water allocation

  7. Analysis of energetic radiation associated with thunderstorms in the Ebro delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabró, Ferran; Montanyà, Joan; Pineda, Nicolau; Argemí, Oriol; van der Velde, Oscar; Romero, David; Soula, Serge

    2016-04-01

    We have analysed increments of background radiation during thunderstorm in the energy range 0.1 - 2 MeV in the Ebro delta region in the northeast of Spain. We present 8 episodes, 3 summer cases and 5 winter cases. The increments of the measured high-energy radiation have been analysed and compared with measurements of electric field, precipitation, radar reflectivity, lightning activity a charge regions altitude. For the first time, measurements of high-energy radiation associated with thunderstorms are compared with radar reflectivity and lightning detected by a LMA network. The aim of this paper is to discern if the high-energy radiation increments measured are related with the storm electrification, like reported in previous publications, or other factors like precipitation. As summary these are the main results: • The comparative of energy spectra of 1 hour period with rain and 1 hour period without rain shows that radon-ion daughters are quite important in the increase of the measured high-energy radiation. • The analysis of the time normalized cumulative curves of radiation counts, radar reflectivity and lightning activity (LINET and LMA detections) shows that that high-energy radiation increments are time related with radar reflectivity rather than lightning activity. • The calculated altitude of the negative charge regions of the different thunderstorms analayzed is too high for the photons produced at those altitudes by Bremmstrahlung effect to overcome atmospheric attenuation and reach the scintillator placed at sea level. These results lead us to conclude, as a contribution in addition to previous works, that the measured increments of high-energy analysed on this paper are associated with radon-ion daughters rather than storm electrification. However, the use of a detector in an energy from 0.1 MeV to 2 Mev does not allow to completely exclude the possibility that part of the high-energy radiation reported should be related storm electrification

  8. Anticipation of drought impacts in the Ebro basin using remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lines, Clara; Werner, Micha; Bastiaanssen, Wim

    2017-04-01

    For an effective mitigation of drought impacts, managers should be able to detect drought processes that will lead to impacts with enough anticipation to allow the necessary measures to be undertaken. Drought indicators and thresholds are commonly used to detect and classify drought conditions and trigger mitigation actions. However, the indicators and thresholds selected as triggers are only rarely connected to the specific impacts that need to be avoided. The aim of this research is to identify global earth observation data sets that can anticipate drought impacts at basin scale and therefore be used as indicators of early stages of drought. The performance of a broad range of parameters was assessed in the Ebro basin for the period 2000-2012. These were the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Evapotranspiration (ET), Soil Moisture (SM), Land Surface Temperature (LST), Gross Primary Production (GPP) and the in situ hydrologic indicators currently used in the basin. Since impact data at a suitable temporal and spatial scale was not available to be used as benchmark for the tests, a data set of drought and impact occurrence was compiled by a comprehensive review of local news records. In addition annual crop yield data was used as alternative benchmark data. Early signs of drought impact were detected up to 6 months in advance with respect to the impacts reported in the newspaper, with SPI, NDVI and ET showing the best correlation-anticipation relationships. SM and LST offer also good anticipation, but with weaker correlations, while GPP presents moderate positive correlations only for some of the rainfed areas. Although water levels and flows from in situ stations provided better anticipation than remote sensing indicators in most of the areas, correlations were found to be weaker. The indicators show a consistent behaviour with respect to the different levels of crop yield in rainfed areas among the analysed

  9. Wind-induced mesoscale circulation off the Ebro delta, NW Mediterranean: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espino, M.; Arcilla, A.-S.; García, M. A.

    1998-10-01

    It is well known that the general circulation on the Catalan continental slope is dominated by a quasi-permanent southwestward geostrophic jet associated to the so-called Catalan front [Millot, C., 1987. Circulation in the western Mediterranean sea. Oceanol Acta 10, 143-149; Font, J., Salat, J., Tintoré, J., 1988. Permanent features of the circulation in the Catalan Sea. Oceanol. Acta 9, 51-57]. On the continental shelf, however, the flow is modified by the action of friction which enhances also other nonlinear interactions. Several authors have hypothesized that the shelf circulation is anticyclonic north of the Ebro delta [Salat, J., Manriquez, M., Cruzado, A., 1978. Hidrografia del golfo de Sant Jordi. Campaña Delta (Abril 1970). Investigación Pesquera 42 (2), 255-272; Ballester, A., Castellvı´, J., 1980. Estudio hidrográfico y biológico de las plataformas continentales españolas: I. Efecto de los efluentes de una planta de energı´a nuclear en el Golfo de San Jorge (Febrero 1975-Octubre 1976). Informes Técnicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Pesqueras 76, 70 pp.]. A quasi-3D finite element code based on the shallow-water equations has been used to explore the effect of several mechanisms which might be responsible for such a local circulation pattern, and in particular of wind. The obtained numerical results suggest that the basic anticyclonic structure of the mean flow is controlled by the bathymetry and that the clockwise-rotating mean flow pattern is not a permanent circulation feature. It is seen that the characteristic local wind stress fields—computed through interpolation of the records of a local network of meteo stations—may `enhance' or `delete' the anticyclonic gyre depending on the sign of their relative vorticity. According to the analysis of a 2-yr record of local wind data, the net contribution of wind events with a duration longer than 24 h is to reinforce the anticyclonic circulation (over 70% of these wind fields supply

  10. Sea, freshwater or saltpans? Foraging ecology of terns to assess mercury inputs in a wetland landscape: The Ebro Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotin, Javier; García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Sanpera, Carolina; Jover, Lluis; Ruiz, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    The Ebro catchment, the largest river basin in Spain, includes various heavily industrialized areas. Among these is the Flix site, where a chemical plant has been operating since the beginning of the 20th century. This extended operational period, together with the construction of a dam next to the factory around 1960, resulted in the accumulation of large amounts of heavily polluted sediments in the adjacent riverbed, many of which are contaminated by mercury. Pollutants from Flix are carried downstream by the Ebro River to its delta. In order to assess the transfer of mercury to the complex river estuary ecosystem, we studied the ecology of the tern community living there as these birds segregate into a range of habitats. For this purpose, first we used stable isotope analysis (SIA) (δ 34S, δ 13C, δ 15N) of eggs to determine the trophic ecology and habitat partitioning of several tern species (Common, Sandwich, Little, Gull-Billed and Whiskered Tern) breeding sympatrically, in order to link their foraging ecology with habitat types. Next we measured mercury concentrations in eggs to monitor the input of this metal into the diverse habitats. With the exception of the Little Tern, the other terns used a restricted habitat range in the Ebro Delta, as shown by C and S isotopes; the Gull-Billed and Whiskered Tern foraged in freshwater habitats, while the Common and Sandwich Tern used marine habitats. This restricted feeding behavior of the Gull-Billed and Common Tern contrasts with previous reports in other breeding sites. The Little Tern, which showed a wide range of isotopic values, was found to be an opportunistic forager but fed mainly in saltpans, a feeding habitat not reported previously for this species in this area. We found that mercury concentrations are related to foraging habitat and diet, and are unexpectedly higher in species feeding on demersal prey in marine habitats and also higher in birds feeding in saltpans than in those feeding in freshwater

  11. Prevalence and sequence comparison of Phyllodistomum folium from zebra mussel and from freshwater fish in the Ebro River.

    PubMed

    Peribáñez, Miguel A; Ordovás, Laura; Benito, Josep; Benejam, Lluís; Gracia, María J; Rodellar, Clementina

    2011-01-01

    We utilised DNA analysis to detect the presence of the digenean Phyllodistomum folium in three cyprinid species, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Cyprinus carpio and Rutilus rutilus. DNA sequencing of the region containing the genes ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 revealed 100% sequence identity between DNA from the sporocysts found in zebra mussels and DNA from adults located in the urinary system of 29 cyprinid fish. A second genetically different (variation=1.6%) sequence was observed in two samples from R. rutilus. In our opinion, the existence of a complex of species reported as P. folium is supported by recent genetic studies, including our own results. The overall prevalence of P. folium in mussels from the Ebro River was 4.67% in 2006, although during the summer months the rates frequently exceeded 10%.

  12. Railway deformation detected by DInSAR over active sinkholes in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, J. P.; Castañeda, C.; Gutiérrez, F.

    2015-11-01

    Subsidence was measured for the first time on railway tracks in the central sector of Ebro Valley (NE Spain) using Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques. This area is affected by evaporite karst and the analysed railway corridors traverse active sinkholes that produce deformations in these infrastructures. One of the railway tracks affected by slight settlements is the Madrid-Barcelona high-speed line, a form of transport infrastructure highly vulnerable to ground deformation processes. Our analysis based on DInSAR measurements and geomorphological surveys indicates that this line shows dissolution-induced subsidence and compaction of anthropogenic deposits (infills and embankments). Significant sinkhole-related subsidence was also measured by DInSAR techniques on the Castejón-Zaragoza conventional railway line. This study demonstrates that DInSAR velocity maps, coupled with detailed geomorphological surveys, may help in the identification of the railway track sections that are affected by active subsidence.

  13. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactive materials in sediments from the Ebro river reservoir in Flix (Southern Catalonia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Mola, M; Palomo, M; Peñalver, A; Aguilar, C; Borrull, F

    2011-12-30

    Industrial waste containing radioactive isotopes (from U-decay series) was released into Ebro river basin due to the activity of a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant for a period of more than two decades. Gross alpha, gross beta, (40)K, (226)Ra and (210)Pb activities were determined in several sludge samples taken at different depths from different points in the area of influence of the DCP plant located in Flix. Samples were collected from two different zones: one in front of the DCP plant and the second in front of a wastewater treatment plant installed several years after the DCP plant. The data obtained verify the influence of industrial DCP production on radioactivity levels present in the area.

  14. INGV Oblique Ionograms Automatic Scaling Algorithm applied to the ionograms recorded by Ebro Observatory ionosonde in disturbed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ippolito, Alessandro; Scotto, Carlo; Altadill, David; Blanch, Estefania

    2017-04-01

    The OIASA algorithm (Oblique Ionograms Automatic Scaling Algorithm) for the identification of trace of oblique ionograms has been applied to the oblique ionograms produced at Ebro Observatory (Spain) and related to the radiolink between the ionospheric stations of Dourbes (50.1 N, 4.6 E) and Roquetes (40.8 N, 0.5 E). Four different periods of 2015 have been analysed, each of them characterised by the occurrence of geomagnetic storms. The algorithm allows the determination of the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF) for communication between the transmitter and receiver, and shows a very good capacity in automatically rejecting poor quality ionograms. The behaviour and performance of the autoscaling programs under geomagnetic disturbed condition have been evaluated. The results show a good agreement between MUF values provided by the automatic scaling algorithm and the MUF values manually scaled by an expert operator. Furthermore, the results show the good capabilities of OIASA in discarding ionograms that lack of sufficient information.

  15. Origin and evolution of Sariñena Lake (central Ebro Basin): A piping-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, Carmen; Javier Gracia, F.; Rodríguez-Ochoa, Rafael; Zarroca, Mario; Roqué, Carles; Linares, Rogelio; Desir, Gloria

    2017-08-01

    The origin and nature of the numerous lakes in the central Ebro Basin have been interpreted according to the prevailing arid or semiarid conditions, the easily-eroded materials and the solubility of the gypsum- and/or carbonate-rich Tertiary/Cenozoic substratum, involving important dissolution (karstic) and/or aeolian deflation. However, the origin of Sariñena Lake, the largest in the central Ebro Basin, remains unknown since the typical lake-generating processes in the region are not applicable. This work provides significant clues to the genesis and evolution of Sariñena Lake in a regional context. The combination of geomorphological mapping and high resolution LiDAR data together with sedimentological observations, the characterisation of soils and sediments around the lake, and the application of high-resolution geophysical techniques suggest that piping is the major genetic process driving the evolution of the Sariñena depression and lake. Field evidence demonstrates that piping is, at present, the most important erosive process in the region, generating significant collapse and surface lowering. Sariñena Lake is located within a deep endorheic depression excavated from Na-rich Tertiary materials. This work hypothesises that once an early, fluvially-originated palustrine area had developed, the progressive lowering of the regional water table linked to regional fluvial incision favoured the establishment of a hydrological gradient high enough to trigger piping processes within the claystones and siltstones underlying the original palustrine area. The Quaternary evolution of the Sariñena lacustrine basin was then controlled by successive water table fluctuations, linked to different phases of incision and alluvial deposition in the surrounding fluvial systems. All the evidence supporting a piping-related origin for this lake, together with examples of lakes generated by similar processes in different contexts, is used to propose a new genetic type of

  16. Reservoir impacts downstream in highly regulated river basins: the Ebro delta and the Guadalquivir estuary in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, María J.; Rovira, Albert; García-Contreras, Darío; Contreras, Eva; Millares, Agustín; Aguilar, Cristina; Losada, Miguel A.

    2016-05-01

    Regulation by reservoirs affects both the freshwater regime and the sediment delivery at the area downstream, and may have a significant impact on water quality in the final transitional water bodies. Spain is one the countries with more water storage capacity by reservoirs in the world. Dense reservoir networks can be found in most of the hydrographic basins, especially in the central and southern regions. The spatial redistribution of the seasonal and annual water storage in reservoirs for irrigation and urban supply, mainly, has resulted in significant changes of water flow and sediment load regimes, together with a fostered development of soil and water uses, with environmental impacts downstream and higher vulnerability of these areas to the sea level rise and drought occurrence. This work shows these effects in the Guadalquivir and the Ebro River basins, two of the largest regulated areas in Spain. The results show a 71 % decrease of the annual freshwater input to the Guadalquivir River estuary during 1930-2014, an increase of 420 % of the irrigated area upstream the estuary, and suspended sediment loads up to 1000 % the initial levels. In the Ebro River delta, the annual water yield has decreased over a 30 % but, on the contrary, the big reservoirs are located in the main stream, and the sediment load has decreased a 99 %, resulting in a delta coastal regression up to 10 m per year and the massive presence of macrophytes in the lower river. Adaptive actions proposed to face these impacts in a sea level rise scenario are also analyzed.

  17. Fluvial response to climate variations and anthropogenic perturbations for the Ebro River, Spain in the last 4,000 years.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fei; Kettner, Albert J; Ashton, Andrew; Giosan, Liviu; Ibáñez, Carles; Kaplan, Jed O

    2014-03-01

    Fluvial sediment discharge can vary in response to climate changes and human activities, which in return influences human settlements and ecosystems through coastline progradation and retreat. To understand the mechanisms controlling the variations of fluvial water and sediment discharge for the Ebro drainage basin, Spain, we apply a hydrological model HydroTrend. Comparison of model results with a 47-year observational record (AD 1953-1999) suggests that the model adequately captures annual average water discharge (simulated 408 m(3)s(-1) versus observed 425 m(3)s(-1)) and sediment load (simulated 0.3 Mt yr(-1) versus observed 0.28 ± 0.04 Mt yr(-1)) for the Ebro basin. A long-term (4000-year) simulation, driven by paleoclimate and anthropogenic land cover change scenarios, indicates that water discharge is controlled by the changes in precipitation, which has a high annual variability but no long-term trend. Modeled suspended sediment load, however, has an increasing trend over time, which is closely related to anthropogenic land cover variations with no significant correlation to climatic changes. The simulation suggests that 4,000 years ago the annual sediment load to the ocean was 30.5 Mt yr(-1), which increased over time to 47.2 Mt yr(-1) (AD 1860-1960). In the second half of the 20th century, the emplacement of large dams resulted in a dramatic decrease in suspended sediment discharge, eventually reducing the flux to the ocean by more than 99% (mean value changes from 38.1 Mt yr(-1) to 0.3 Mt yr(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Seasonal variations in the occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances in water, sediment and fish samples from Ebro Delta (Catalonia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Pignotti, Emanuela; Casas, Gemma; Llorca, Marta; Tellbüscher, Anil; Almeida, David; Dinelli, Enrico; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2017-12-31

    The main objective of this study was to assess the concentration levels and the seasonal variations of 13 poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in different compartments (water, sediments and fish) of the Ebro Delta (NE Spain) and surrounding coastal areas. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the most frequently detected compound in waters and sediments. Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the compounds found at the highest concentrations in water samples. On the other hand, sediments were more enriched in perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (range<1.02-22.6ng/g dw). Waters and sediments showed a different seasonal trend. While waters were characterised by a substantial constant level of PFASs over the year, sediments showed a progressive decrease from autumn to summer, revealing the great influence that environmental conditions exert on PFAS distribution in sediments. As regards fish samples, in spite of the ban of its production, PFOS was the most frequently detected compound in seawater fishes, in agreement with its high persistency, bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Moreover, PFASs showed to be more distributed in the skin rather than in muscle tissues. In addition, river fishes were characterised by very high PFAS levels (∑PFAS range from 63.8ng/g ww to 938ng/g ww), with perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids being more concentrated than sulfonates. The PFASs concentrations in water, sediment, and biota revealed that one of the studied sites, Isla de Buda was the most contaminated site of the Ebro Delta. These results are consistent with its location at the final part of the estuary, where many irrigation channels are collected together. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Organochlorine compounds in Purple Heron eggs (Ardea purpurea) nesting in sites located around a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carola; Ruiz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Eggs of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) were collected from three sampled sites inside the Ebro River basin in years 2006 and 2007. These sites were located besides (Flix), upstream (Aiguabarreig) and downstream (Delta) a chlor-alkali plant. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorostyrenes (PCSs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analysed to assess what are the accumulation patterns of these compounds in aquatic migratory birds breeding in the area of influence of the emissions from this industrial installation. Comparison of the egg concentrations between the three sites show higher concentrations of compounds manufactured in the past in the factory (PCBs, p,p'-DDT) or by-products of OC synthesis (HCB, PeCB and PCSs) in Flix than in Aiguabarreig reflecting a clear influence from the emissions of the chlor-alkali plant. The eggs collected in the Ebro Delta showed higher concentrations of total DDTs (mainly p,p'-DDE) than in the reference site (Aiguabarreig) which could reflect past applications of this insecticide in the area for agriculture. In contrast, HCHs were found in higher concentrations in the Delta and Aiguabarreig than in the Flix Reservoir. These compounds have been used as insecticides in agriculture and were not manufactured in the chlor-alkali plant. The present results show that despite Purple Herons are migratory birds, the food web transfer of OCs during the breeding season is sufficient for the accumulation of these compounds in the eggs, leading to statistically significant concentration differences between sites. These differences are consistent with the emissions of these pollutants from industrial or agricultural sources to the aquatic environments. Some of the p,p'-DDE concentrations observed in the area nearby the chlor-alkali plant are above the threshold effects for reproductive impairment.

  20. Are the toxic sediments deposited at Flix reservoir affecting the Ebro river biota? Purple heron eggs and nestlings as indicators.

    PubMed

    Cotín, Javier; García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carolina

    2012-07-01

    The Flix reservoir, in the low course of the Ebro River, contains thousands of tons of polluted sediments, accumulated from the activities of a chemical factory. An ongoing project is working toward removing these pollutants. Piscivore birds like the purple heron (Ardea purpurea) may be useful bioindicators, so eggs and nestling feathers were sampled during the 2006-2008 breeding seasons at three localities: a reference site situated upstream and two potentially affected by the toxic muds; one at the focal area and one at a distal area, the Ebro Delta. The samples were analyzed for isotopic signatures of ¹⁵N and ¹³C and concentrations of heavy metals and selenium. Baseline nitrogen signatures were higher in riverine sites than in the delta. Nitrogen together with carbon signatures adequately discriminated riverine and deltaic ecosystems. Mercury levels are highly influenced by the polluted sediments at Flix and pose potential risks for the birds, as they are among the highest ever recorded in heron species. Selenium and copper concentrations probably derive from other sources. Except for mercury, heavy metals and selenium levels were below toxic levels. Purple heron eggs and nestling feathers have demonstrated their usefulness as bioindicators for pollution in the river biota; feathers in particular show pollutant impacts on a strict local basis. A long series of study years is necessary in dynamic ecosystems such as this, so continued monitoring of the heron population at Flix is advisable to trace the effects of the toxic muds, particularly during their removal, because of the high levels of mercury detected.

  1. Modeling the current and future capacity of water resources to meet water demands in the Ebro basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, Marianne; Ruelland, Denis; Dezetter, Alain; Fabre, Julie; Ardoin-Bardin, Sandra; Servat, Eric

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide studies have shown that the Mediterranean region is one of the most vulnerable areas to water crisis. The region is characterized by limited and unequally distributed water resources and increasing water demands. The Ebro catchment (85,000 km2, Spain) is representative of this context. Since the late 1970s, a negative trend in river discharge has been observed, attributed to a decrease in mean precipitation, and a rise in mean temperature and in water consumption. Finally, over 230 storage dams regulate river discharge. In this context, an integrated water resources modeling framework was developed to evaluate the current and future capacity of water resources to meet domestic and agricultural water demands as well as environmental flow requirements. The approach was driven by a conceptual rainfall-runoff model generating water supplies and by a demand driven storage dam model. The approach defines current pressures on water resources and evaluates future changes in water allocation in the medium term under climatic and water use scenarios, considering changes in population and in irrigated areas. Currently, water demands in the Ebro catchment are satisfied. In 2050, water resources are projected to decrease by 15-35% during spring and summer, leading to growing competition among users and severe water shortages for irrigated agriculture. This study provides an original approach to identify the most vulnerable regions to water use conflicts. It also highlights the interest of integrated modeling for complete analysis of the ability of water resources to meet water demands in complex change scenarios as a support for decision making.

  2. Environmental concentrations of metals in the catalan stretch of the ebro river, Spain: assessment of temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Vilavert, Lolita; Sisteré, Clara; Schuhmacher, Marta; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the environmental impact and the human health risks associated with exposure to a number of metals before and after initiating the decontamination process in Flix dam (Catalonia, Spain). The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Pb were determined in samples of drinking water, river water, and soils collected in the Catalan stretch of the Ebro River, Spain. The results were compared with those of previous surveys performed in the same zones. Human exposure to metals, as well as the associated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks, was also estimated. In river and drinking waters, most analyzed metals showed increases, being significant that of Cr. The movements of polluted sludge in Flix dam could be the reason for the Cr levels found in the current survey. However, Hg was not detected in both drinking and river waters. Important differences on Mn levels were found, being higher those in river water than in drinking water. In turn, although soil concentrations of all analyzed metals showed a decreasing temporal trend, the reductions were only significant for Ni. The hazard quotient (HQ) of all elements was below the unity, considered the safe threshold. For carcinogenic risks, all values were found to be lower than 10(-5), which has been defined as the maximum recommended excess of cancer risk according to the Spanish Legislation. The only exception was the As exposure through soil and drinking water, which slightly exceeded this threshold. The current results indicate the need to perform a continuous assessment of metal levels not only in river waters, but also in drinking water in order to assure the harmlessness of the decontamination process for the health of the population living downriver (Ebro) the Flix dam.

  3. Nitrogen and salt loads in the irrigation return flows of the Ebro River Basin (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidoro, Daniel; Balcells, Maria; Clavería, Ignacio; Dechmi, Farida; Quílez, Dolores; Aragüés, Ramón

    2013-04-01

    The conservation of the quality of surface waters demanded by the European Water Framework Directive requires, among others, an assessment of the irrigation-induced pollution. The contribution of the irrigation return flows (IRF) to the pollution of the receiving water bodies is given by its pollutant load, since this load determines the quality status or pollutant concentration in these water bodies. The aim of this work was to quantify the annual nitrogen and salt loads in the IRF of four irrigated catchments within the Ebro River Basin: Violada (2006-10), Alcanadre (2008-10), Valcuerna (2010), and Clamor Amarga (2010). The daily flow (Q), salt (EC) and nitrate concentration (NO3) were measured in the drainage outlets of each basin. The net irrigation-induced salt and nitrogen loads were obtained from these measurements after discounting the salt and nitrogen inputs from outside the catchments and the non-irrigated areas. The N-fertilizer applications were obtained from farmer surveys and animal farming statistical sources. Irrigation water salinity was very low in all catchments (EC < 0.4 dS/m), but IRF salinity was very high in Valcuerna (7.9 dS/m) with underlain saline lutites, high to moderate in Clamor (2.6 dS/m) and Violada (2.1 dS/m) with gypsum-rich soils, and low in Alcanadre (1.0 dS/m) due to dilution in the inefficient traditional flood-irrigation system. Annual salt loads were highest in Valcuerna (11.9 Mg/ha) and lowest in Alcanadre (3.6 Mg/ha) and Clamor (3.3 Mg/ha). Salt load was also high in flood-irrigated Violada (10.3 Mg/ha), but dropped to 2.6 Mg/ha after its modernization to sprinkler irrigation (in 2008-09). N-fertilizer applications ranged from 221 kg/ha in the corn-dominated Valcuerna in 2010 to 63 kg/ha in 2008 in Violada, when farmers barely applied fertilizers due to the irrigation modernization works in progress that year. The highest N applications derived from pig slurry applications by farmers that used their lands as disposal sites

  4. The socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin (Spain): A comprehensive and critical assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Mora, N.; Garrido, A.; Gil, M.

    2012-04-01

    Water scarcity and drought are particularly relevant phenomena in Spain, a country with a Mediterranean climate and intense pressure on existing water resources. Spain's drought management policies have evolved significantly over time, and today Spain is at the forefront of drought management and mitigation planning in Europe. However, drought management policies are not informed by comprehensive or accurate estimations of the socioeconomic impacts of drought, nor by the efficiency or efficacy of drought management and mitigation measures. Previous studies attempting to estimate on the impacts of drought are based on direct economic users of water, primarily irrigated agriculture and hydropower. Existing analyses do not take into consideration the impacts on other economic sectors, such as recreational uses, which have a growing importance from a socioeconomic perspective. Additionally, the intangible or non-market impacts (on social welfare and wellbeing and on the environment) are not considered or measured, although they can be significant. This paper presents the mid-point results of the PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), an effort to provide a comprehensive assessment of the socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin. The study gathers existing information on direct and indirect economic impacts of drought on different sectors, completing existing gaps and comparing the results of studies that use different methodologies. It also estimates the welfare losses resulting from domestic water use restrictions and environmental degradation as a result of the drought using a value transfer approach from results derived from value choice experiments developed for other Spanish and international river basins. Results indicate that there is a clear need to improve our knowledge of the direct and indirect impacts of drought and to

  5. Combining levodopa and virtual reality-based therapy for the rehabilitation of upper limb after acute stroke: pilot study part II.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Geoffrey Sithamparapillai; Oey, Nicodemus Eldrick; Choo, Min; Ju, Han; Chan, Wai Yin; Kok, Stanley; Ge, Yu; Van Dongen, Antonius M; Ng, Yee Sien

    2016-06-17

    This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a combination of levodopa and virtual reality (VR)-based therapy for the enhancement of upper limb recovery following acute stroke. This was a pilot single-blinded case series of acute stroke patients with upper extremity hemiparesis randomised to standard care with concomitant administration of either levodopa alone (conventional therapy or control group) or combination therapy consisting of VR-based motivational visuomotor feedback training coupled with levodopa neuromodulation (combination therapy or VR group). Main clinical outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer-Upper Extremity (FM-UE) assessment and Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). Kinematic measurements of the affected upper limb movement were evaluated as a secondary measure of improvement. Of 42 patients screened, four were enrolled in the VR group and four in the control group, from which two patients dropped out during the trial. Patients receiving combination therapy had clinically significant improvements in FM-UE assessment scores of 16.5 points compared to a 3.0-points improvement among control patients. Similarly, ARAT scores of VR group patients improved by 15.3 points compared to a 10.0-points improvement in the control group. Corresponding improvements were noted in kinematic measures, including hand-path ratio, demonstrating improved quality of upper limb movement in the VR group. Our results suggest that VR-based therapy and pharmacotherapy may be combined for acute stroke rehabilitation. The bedside acquisition of kinematic measurements allows for an accurate assessment of the quality of limb movement, offering a sensitive clinical tool for quantifying motor recovery during the rehabilitation process after acute stroke.

  6. The Building of a Magnetostratigraphic Framework: Lessons Learned from the Ebro Foreland Basin (Paleogene-Neogene, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, M.

    2015-12-01

    The extensive rock outcrops spanning the complete basin fill of the South-Pyrenean foreland make this region best suited for magnetostratigraphic analysis. Over the last decades, a biochronological framework, based fundamentally on fossil benthic foraminifera and vertebrates, is being replaced with a magnetostratigraphy-based chronology. The increasing length of the composite record has allowed magnetostratigraphic correlation to work with decreasing dependence on existing biostratigraphic constraints. This has provided integrated basin studies with a time frame of unprecedented resolution, crucial to unravel the interactions and causal relationships between the diverse forcing mechanisms involved in basin formation and filling. In the ideal progress towards an independent magnetochronological framework, a fundamental issue arises recurrently: To which extent biochronological information should limit the solutions of magnetostratigraphy? The answer to this question is not simple since the chronostratigraphic significance and age accuracy of key bioevents needs to be addressed in a case-by-case basis. In the other hand, the continuity and steadiness of the sedimentary record, which is hardly assessed a priori, reveals crucial for magnetostratigraphic correlation to work. Examples from the Eocene to Miocene of the Ebro Basin illustrate the need for an effort of a basin-scale integration of all (lito-, bio- and magneto-) stratigraphic disciplines.

  7. Risk of water scarcity and water policy implications for crop production in the Ebro Basin in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, S.; Fernández-Haddad, Z.; Iglesias, A.

    2010-08-01

    The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro River Basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

  8. Crop yields response to water pressures in the Ebro basin in Spain: risk and water policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, S.; Fernández-Haddad, Z.; Iglesias, A.

    2011-02-01

    The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro river basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

  9. Radar-based dynamic testing of the cable-suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, Carmelo; Luzi, Guido

    2014-05-27

    Microwave remote sensing is the most recent experimental methodology suitable to the non-contact measurement of deflections on large structures, in static or dynamic conditions. After a brief description of the radar measurement system, the paper addresses the application of microwave remote sensing to ambient vibration testing of a cable-suspended bridge. The investigated bridge crosses the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain and consists of two steel stiffening trusses and a series of equally spaced steel floor beams; the main span is supported by inclined stay cables and two series of 8 suspension cables. The dynamic tests were performed in operational conditions, with the sensor being placed in two different positions so that the response of both the steel deck and the arrays of suspension elements was measured. The experimental investigation confirms the simplicity of use of the radar and the accuracy of the results provided by the microwave remote sensing as well as the issues often met in the clear localization of measurement points.

  10. Uncertainty of the peak flow reconstruction of the 1907 flood in the Ebro River in Xerta (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Bellet, Josep Lluís; Castelltort, Xavier; Balasch, J. Carles; Tuset, Jordi

    2017-02-01

    There is no clear, unified and accepted method to estimate the uncertainty of hydraulic modelling results. In historical floods reconstruction, due to the lower precision of input data, the magnitude of this uncertainty could reach a high value. With the objectives of giving an estimate of the peak flow error of a typical historical flood reconstruction with the model HEC-RAS and of providing a quick, simple uncertainty assessment that an end user could easily apply, the uncertainty of the reconstructed peak flow of a major flood in the Ebro River (NE Iberian Peninsula) was calculated with a set of local sensitivity analyses on six input variables. The peak flow total error was estimated at ±31% and water height was found to be the most influential variable on peak flow, followed by Manning's n. However, the latter, due to its large uncertainty, was the greatest contributor to peak flow total error. Besides, the HEC-RAS resulting peak flow was compared to the ones obtained with the 2D model Iber and with Manning's equation; all three methods gave similar peak flows. Manning's equation gave almost the same result than HEC-RAS. The main conclusion is that, to ensure the lowest peak flow error, the reliability and precision of the flood mark should be thoroughly assessed.

  11. Railway deformation detected by DInSAR over active sinkholes in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, J. P.; Castañeda, C.; Gutiérrez, F.

    2015-06-01

    Previously not measured subsidence on railway tracks was detected using DInSAR displacement maps produced for the central sector of Ebro Valley (NE Spain). This area is affected by evaporite karst and the analyzed railway corridors traverse active sinkholes that produce deformations in these infrastructures. One of the railway tracks affected by slight settlements corresponds to the Madrid-Barcelona high-speed line, a transport infrastructure highly vulnerable to ground deformation processes. Our analysis based on DInSAR measurements and geomorphological surveys indicate that this line show dissolution-induced subsidence and compaction of anthropogenic deposits (infills and embankments). By using DInSAR techniques, it was also measured the significant subsidence related to the activity of sinkholes in the Castejón-Zaragoza conventional railway line. Thus, this study demonstrate that DInSAR velocity maps coupled with detailed geomorphological surveys may help in the identification of the sectors of railway tracks that may compromise the safety of travellers.

  12. Groundwater vulnerability map for the Ebro alluvial aquifer between Jalón and Ginel tributaries (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamelas, M. T.; Marinoni, O.; Hoppe, A.; de La Riva, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Quaternary deposits of the Ebro Basin in the surroundings of Zaragoza (Spain) form an unconfined alluvial aquifer with a high degree of permeability and low thickness of unsaturated materials. This fact causes a high degree of vulnerability to contamination, which implies consequences for land-use decisions and the risk management of existing industrial facilities. In addition, in the last decades the intense irrigation and the use of pesticides is threatening the quality of the groundwater and as a consequence the amount of usable groundwater at a low cost. Thus, the development of groundwater vulnerability maps has great importance in a regional planning process. Consequently, groundwater vulnerability maps have been developed following a method proposed by the German State Geological Surveys. In this paper the methodology developed within ArcGIS and Gocad, a two- and three-dimensional software, respectively, is presented. Although the results obtained within GIS (Geographical Information System) are acceptable it is to say that the 3D-model improves considerably the final product.

  13. On the determination of the Microchoerus (Omomyidae, Primates) remains from Sant Cugat de Gavadons (Late Eocene, Ebro Basin, NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Marigó, Judit; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    The presence of Microchoerus in Sant Cugat de Gavadons (Late Eocene, Ebro Basin, Northeastern Spain) was first noted by M. Crusafont, who described a fragment of maxilla with two teeth that he interpreted as P(4) and M(1) and referred this specimen to the species Microchoerus ornatus. The objective of this work is to study in detail this fossil and check if the previous taxonomic determination was correct. We reexamine the single specimen from Sant Cugat de Gavadons, providing for the first time detailed descriptions, measurements and illustrations. We also compare this fossil with the holotype of Microchoerus ornatus from Mormont Entreroches (Switzerland) and with the type material of all other described species of Microchoerus. Although the scarcity of material from Sant Cugat de Gavadons and the strong wear of the two available teeth (which in fact correspond to P(3) and P(4)) do not allow a determination at the specific level, it is clear that this form presents notable differences with the type of M. ornatus and must not be referred to this species. Neither the anatomical identification of the two teeth of this maxillary fragment, nor the specific determination of the specimen from Sant Cugat de Gavadons was correct. The ascription of this fossil to Microchoerus ornatus, which represented the only mention of the species in the Iberian Peninsula, is no longer valid. Therefore, the known geographical range of M. ornatus remains restricted to Switzerland. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Diversity of anoxygenic phototrophic sulfur bacteria in the microbial mats of the Ebro Delta: a combined morphological and molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Van Bleijswijk, Judith; Gaju, Núria; Muyzer, Gerard

    2005-05-01

    The diversity of purple and green sulfur bacteria in the multilayered sediments of the Ebro Delta was investigated. Specific oligonucleotide primers for these groups were used for the selective amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Subsequently, amplification products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequenced, which yielded a total of 32 sequences. Six of the sequences were related to different cultivated members of the green sulfur bacteria assemblage, whereas seven fell into the cluster of marine or halophilic Chromatiaceae. Six sequences were clustered with the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae, three of the six being closely related to chemotrophic bacteria grouped together with Halorhodospira genus, and the other three forming a group related to the genus Ectothiorhodospira. The last thirteen sequences constituted a cluster where no molecular isolate from microbial mats has so far been reported. Our results indicate that the natural diversity in the ecosystem studied has been significantly underestimated in the past and point out the presence of novel species not related to all known purple sulfur bacteria. Furthermore, the detection of green sulfur bacteria, after only an initial step of enrichment, suggests that -- with the appropriate methodology -- several genera, such as Prosthecochloris, could be established as regular members of marine microbial mats.

  15. Morphology and micro-fabrics of weathering features on gyprock exposures in a semiarid environment (Ebro Tertiary Basin, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artieda, O.

    2013-08-01

    Gyprock is a common rock in evaporitic formations, which have a wide distribution across all continents. However, outcrops of gyprock are rather limited, occurring mainly in low rainfall areas (i.e. southwest of USA, Italy, Spain). Gyprock is one of the most common lithology in the Ebro Tertiary Basin. Here, semiarid conditions propitiate the development of specific weathering processes and landforms with significant implications for understanding the genesis of soils and the geomorphological evolution of these areas. Gypsum crystallization within the pores and fissures of gyprock close to the surface leads to volume increase and pressures, with the consequent weathering of this rock. As a result, considerable porosity develops producing peculiar morphologies on gyprock outcrops (domes and decimetre-scale blisters), specific microscopic features (voids with plain walls, horse-shoe pores and serrated pores), as well as microscopic fabrics (grating fabric, skeletal fabric, fan fabric and botryoidal fabric). This paper presents a morphological characterization of the material forming the various types of weathering features, from microscopic to mesoscopic scale. The macromorphology and micromorphology of those features were used to interpret their genesis.

  16. The Solar Rotation in the 1930s from the Sunspot and Flocculi Catalogs of the Ebro Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, V.; Curto, J. J.; Casas, R.

    2016-10-01

    The tables of sunspot and flocculi heliographic positions included in the catalogs published by the Ebro Observatory in the 1930s have recently been recovered and converted into digital format by using optical character recognition (OCR) technology. We here analyzed these data by computing the angular velocity of several sunspot and flocculi groups. A difference was found in the rotational velocity for sunspots and flocculi groups at high latitudes, and we also detected an asymmetry between the northern and southern hemispheres, which is especially marked for the flocculi groups. The results were then fitted with a differential-rotation law [ω=a+b sin2 B] to compare the data obtained with the results published by other authors. A dependence on the latitude that is consistent with former studies was found. Finally, we studied the possible relationship between the sunspot/flocculi group areas and their corresponding angular velocity. There are strong indications that the rotational velocity of a sunspot/flocculi group is reduced (in relation to the differential rotation law) when its maximum area is larger.

  17. Inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere during the MaCWAVE winter campaign - Part II: Radar investigations and modelling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafimovich, A.; Zülicke, Ch.; Hoffmann, P.; Peters, D.; Dalin, P.; Singer, W.

    2006-11-01

    We present an experimental and modelling study of a strong gravity wave event in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere near the Scandinavian mountain ridge. Continuous VHF radar measurements during the MaCWAVE rocket and ground-based measurement campaign were performed at the Norwegian Andoya Rocket Range (ARR) near Andenes (69.3° N, 16° E) in January 2003. Detailed gravity wave investigations based on PSU/NCAR Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) data have been used for comparison with experimentally obtained results. The model data show the presence of a mountain wave and of an inertia gravity wave generated by a jet streak near the tropopause region. Temporal and spatial dependencies of jet induced inertia gravity waves with dominant observed periods of about 13 h and vertical wavelengths of ~4.5-5 km are investigated with wavelet transform applied on radar measurements and model data. The jet induced wave packet is observed to move upstream and downward in the upper troposphere. The model data agree with the experimentally obtained results fairly well. Possible reasons for the observed differences, e.g. in the time of maximum of the wave activity, are discussed. Finally, the vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum are estimated with different methods and provide similar amplitudes. We found indications that the derived positive vertical flux of the horizontal momentum corresponds to the obtained parameters of the jet-induced inertia gravity wave, but only at the periods and heights of the strongest wave activity.

  18. Design of adaptation actions to compensate the hydrological impact of the river regulation by dams on the Ebro Delta (Spain): combining modeling and field work.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Darío; Jurado, Alicia; Carpintero, Miriam; Rovira, Albert; Polo, María J.

    2016-04-01

    River regulation by dams for both flood control and water storage has allowed to decrease both uncertainty and risks associated to extreme hydrological events. However, the alteration of the natural river flow regime and the detraction of high water volumes usually lead to significant effects downstream on the morphology, water quality, ecological status of water… and this is particularly relevant in the transitional waters since the sea level rise poses an additional threat on such conditions. The Ebro River, in northeastern Spain, is one of the highly regulated rivers in Spain with the dams located in the mainstream. Besides an estimated decrease of a 30% of the freshwater inputs, the sediment delivery to the final delta in the Mediterranean has dramatically been decreased up to a 99%, with environmental risks associated to the reduction of the emerged areas from the loss of sediment supply, the impact on the subsidence dynamics, and the sea level rise. The Ebro Delta suffers a mean regression of 10 m per year, and the persistence of macrophyte development in the final reach of the river due to the low water mean flow regime. The project LIFE EBRO-ADMICLIM (ENV/ES/001182), coordinated by the IRTA in Catalonia (Spain), puts forwards pilot actions for adaptation to and mitigation of climate change in the Ebro Delta. An integrated approach is proposed for managing water, sediment and habitats (rice fields and wetlands), with the multiple aim of optimizing ground elevation, reducing coastal erosion, increasing the accumulation (sequestration) of carbon in the soil, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and improving water quality. This work presents the pilot actions included in the project to mitigate the loss of water flow and sediment supply to the delta. Sediment injections at different points upstream have been designed to calibrate and validate a sediment transport model coupled to a 2D-hydrodinamic model of the river. The combination of an a

  19. XUV-Exposed, Non-Hydrostatic Hydrogen-Rich Upper Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets. Part II: Hydrogen Coronae and Ion Escape

    PubMed Central

    Lammer, Helmut; Holmström, Mats; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Odert, Petra; Erkaev, Nikolai V.; Leitzinger, Martin; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Kulikov, Yuri N.; Güdel, Manuel; Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We studied the interactions between the stellar wind plasma flow of a typical M star, such as GJ 436, and the hydrogen-rich upper atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and a “super-Earth” with a radius of 2 REarth and a mass of 10 MEarth, located within the habitable zone at ∼0.24 AU. We investigated the formation of extended atomic hydrogen coronae under the influences of the stellar XUV flux (soft X-rays and EUV), stellar wind density and velocity, shape of a planetary obstacle (e.g., magnetosphere, ionopause), and the loss of planetary pickup ions on the evolution of hydrogen-dominated upper atmospheres. Stellar XUV fluxes that are 1, 10, 50, and 100 times higher compared to that of the present-day Sun were considered, and the formation of high-energy neutral hydrogen clouds around the planets due to the charge-exchange reaction under various stellar conditions was modeled. Charge-exchange between stellar wind protons with planetary hydrogen atoms, and photoionization, lead to the production of initially cold ions of planetary origin. We found that the ion production rates for the studied planets can vary over a wide range, from ∼1.0×1025 s−1 to ∼5.3×1030 s−1, depending on the stellar wind conditions and the assumed XUV exposure of the upper atmosphere. Our findings indicate that most likely the majority of these planetary ions are picked up by the stellar wind and lost from the planet. Finally, we estimated the long-time nonthermal ion pickup escape for the studied planets and compared them with the thermal escape. According to our estimates, nonthermal escape of picked-up ionized hydrogen atoms over a planet's lifetime within the habitable zone of an M dwarf varies between ∼0.4 Earth ocean equivalent amounts of hydrogen (EOH) to <3 EOH and usually is several times smaller in comparison to the thermal atmospheric escape rates. Key Words: Stellar activity—Low-mass stars—Early atmospheres—Earth-like exoplanets—Energetic neutral

  20. XUV-exposed, non-hydrostatic hydrogen-rich upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets. Part II: hydrogen coronae and ion escape.

    PubMed

    Kislyakova, Kristina G; Lammer, Helmut; Holmström, Mats; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Odert, Petra; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Leitzinger, Martin; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Kulikov, Yuri N; Güdel, Manuel; Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2013-11-01

    We studied the interactions between the stellar wind plasma flow of a typical M star, such as GJ 436, and the hydrogen-rich upper atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and a "super-Earth" with a radius of 2 R(Earth) and a mass of 10 M(Earth), located within the habitable zone at ∼0.24 AU. We investigated the formation of extended atomic hydrogen coronae under the influences of the stellar XUV flux (soft X-rays and EUV), stellar wind density and velocity, shape of a planetary obstacle (e.g., magnetosphere, ionopause), and the loss of planetary pickup ions on the evolution of hydrogen-dominated upper atmospheres. Stellar XUV fluxes that are 1, 10, 50, and 100 times higher compared to that of the present-day Sun were considered, and the formation of high-energy neutral hydrogen clouds around the planets due to the charge-exchange reaction under various stellar conditions was modeled. Charge-exchange between stellar wind protons with planetary hydrogen atoms, and photoionization, lead to the production of initially cold ions of planetary origin. We found that the ion production rates for the studied planets can vary over a wide range, from ∼1.0×10²⁵ s⁻¹ to ∼5.3×10³⁰ s⁻¹, depending on the stellar wind conditions and the assumed XUV exposure of the upper atmosphere. Our findings indicate that most likely the majority of these planetary ions are picked up by the stellar wind and lost from the planet. Finally, we estimated the long-time nonthermal ion pickup escape for the studied planets and compared them with the thermal escape. According to our estimates, nonthermal escape of picked-up ionized hydrogen atoms over a planet's lifetime within the habitable zone of an M dwarf varies between ∼0.4 Earth ocean equivalent amounts of hydrogen (EO(H)) to <3 EO(H) and usually is several times smaller in comparison to the thermal atmospheric escape rates.

  1. Drainage architecture and sediment routing in erosive catchments within the Ebro Eiver sedimentary basin (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, Xavier; Colombo, Ferran; Carles Balasch Solanes, Josep

    2016-04-01

    The Ebro Basin (EB) is the result of filling a foreland basin located between active mountain ranges during the Paleogene compressive phases, and later affected by phases of distension in the Neogene. The arrangement of filler material is monocline in the eastern margin and in the contact with the Catalan Coastal Range (CCR). This has repercussions on the model of emptying the erosive basins and in the drainage that took place in the margins of the original sedimentary basin. One can speak of a drainage architecture and sediment routing associated to a monocline erosive basin model. The monocline topography in the original margin of EB encouraged the formation of a string of erosive basins around the contact with CCR, which are the result of headward erosion towards the center of the EB of the rivers draining the CCR towards the Valencia Trough. At the time, the transition from the EB in its initial condition of endorheic to exorheic was through one of these monocline erosive basins. The erosive basins emptied by means of two vectors. On the one hand, growth in surface of the basin by deepening anaclinal streams through resistant beds of monocline stratigraphic succession that empty and link small depressions that increase laterally on the less resistant lithologic member. Moreover, the new drainage system entrenches as the exit point of the basin does, thanks to gradients created by distensional movements of the Neogene Valencia Trough. Growth and entrenchment model of river basins, as well as, sedimentary deposits and landforms generated by these processes are described and analyzed.

  2. Breakup and reestablishment of the armour layer in a large gravel-bed river below dams: The lower Ebro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vericat, Damia; Batalla, Ramon J.; Garcia, Celso

    2006-06-01

    Changes in armour layer during floods under supply limited conditions are little known. This paper describes the breakup and the reestablishment of the bed armour layer in the regulated gravel-bed Ebro River during a flooding period. The study was conducted over a 28-km study reach from 2002 to 2004. The surface, subsurface and bed load grain size distribution constitute the bases for the analysis of bed-armouring dynamics. The results indicate that the magnitude of floods controlled the degree of armouring of the river bed. The initial mean armouring ratio was 2.3, with maximum values reaching 4.4. Floods in the winter of 2002-2003 ( Q8) caused the breakup of the armour layer in several sections. This resulted in the erratic bed load pattern observed during the December 2002 flushing flow and in the increase in bed load transport during successive events. Most grain size classes were entrained and transported, causing river bed incision. The mean armouring ratio decreased to 1.9. In contrast, during low magnitude floods in 2003-2004 ( Q2), the coarsest fractions (64 mm) did not take part in the bed load while finer particles were winnowed, thus surface deposits coarsened. As a result, the armour layer was reestablished (i.e., the mean armouring ratio increased to 2.3), and the supply of subsurface sediment decreased. The supply and transport of bed material appear to be in balance in the river reach immediately below the dam. In contrast, the transport of medium and finer size classes in the downstream reaches was higher than their supply from upstream, a phenomenon that progressively reduced their availability in the river bed surface, hence the armour layer reworking.

  3. Dynamics of suspended sediment borne persistent organic pollutants in a large regulated Mediterranean river (Ebro, NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Quesada, S; Tena, A; Guillén, D; Ginebreda, A; Vericat, D; Martínez, E; Navarro-Ortega, A; Batalla, R J; Barceló, D

    2014-03-01

    Mediterranean rivers are characterized by highly variable hydrological regimes that are strongly dependent on the seasonal rainfall. Sediment transport is closely related to the occurrence of flash-floods capable to deliver enough kinetic energy to mobilize the bed and channel sediments. Contaminants accumulated in the sediments are likely to be mobilized as well during such events. However, whereas there are many studies characterizing contaminants in steady sediments, those devoted to the transport dynamics of suspended-sediment borne pollution are lacking. Here we examined the occurrence and transport of persistent organic microcontaminants present in the circulating suspended sediments during a controlled flushing flow in the low part of the River Ebro (NE Spain) 12 km downstream of a well-known contaminated hot-spot associated to a nearby chloro-alkali industry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semi-volatile organochlorine pollutants (DDT and related compounds, DDX; polychlorinated byphenils, PCBs; and other organochlorine compound, OCs) were measured in the particulate material by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, using previously developed analytical methods. The concentration levels observed were compared to previously reported values in steady sediments in the same river and discussed on a regulatory perspective. Hydrographs and sedigraphs recorded showed a peak-flow of 1,300 m(3)s(-1) and a corresponding peak of suspended sediments of 315 mg L(-1). Combination of flow discharge, suspended sediments and pollutants' concentrations data allowed for quantifying the mass flows (mass per unit of time) and setting the load budgets (weight amount) of the different pollutants transported by the river during the monitored event. Mean mass-flows and total load values found were 20.2 mg s(-1) (400 g) for PAHs, 38 mg s(-1) (940 g) for DDX, 44 mg s(-1) (1,038 g) for PCBs and 8 mg s(-1) (200 g) for OCs. The dynamic pattern behavior of PAHs differs substantially to that of

  4. STUDIES ON A-AVITAMINOSIS IN CHICKENS : II. LESIONS OF THE UPPER ALIMENTARY TRACT AND THEIR RELATION TO SOME INFECTIOUS DISEASES.

    PubMed

    Seifried, O

    1930-09-30

    When fowls are placed on a diet lacking in vitamin A lesions appear in the upper alimentary tract which are confined largely to the mucous glands and their ducts. Histologically it is shown that the original epithelium becomes replaced by a stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium and that secondary infections are relatively common. The ducts of the glands may be blocked leading to distention with secretions and necrotic materials. These lesions macroscopically resemble very closely certain stages of fowl-pox and the two conditions can be separated only by histological examination. It is pointed out that these lesions produced by a lack of vitamin A may enable bacteria and other viruses to enter the body.

  5. [The study of the efficacy of Botulinum toxin type A in patients with poststroke upper-limb spasticity ULIS-II: an analysis of Russian patients].

    PubMed

    Khat'kova, S E; Khasanova, D R; Korenko, L A; Antipova, L N; Shperling, L P; Popov, D V; Pokhabov, D V; Poznyakova, E V

    2015-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections in routine practice. An international, post-marketing, multi-center, observational, prospective, longitudinal study included patients ≥18 years with poststroke upper-limb spasticity in whom a decision to inject BoNT-A had already been made, and who had no previous treatment with BoNT-A or BoNT-B within the last 12 weeks. The responder rate was assessed by the patient-centered goal attainment scaling (GAS). The study included 7 Russian research centers (41 patients). Sixteen patients (39%) received BoNT-A injections prior to entering the study. During the treatment, 29 patients (70.7%) received dysport injections; 2 (4.9%) botox injections, 8 (19.5%) xeomin injections and 2 (4.9%) other BoNT-A agents. The primary treatment goals were successfully attained in 87.8%, secondary treatment goals in 88.3%. An improvement in passive function as primary goal and as secondary goal were achieved in 100%, in the range of movement in 94.9%, pain reduction in 82.4%, improvement in active function of the upper limb in 76.5%, reduction in involuntary movements (associated reactions) in 83.3% of cases. Investigators' global assessment of benefits revealed that 97.6% of patients showed positive effects from BoNT-A injections. Pateitnts' assessment of global benefits was slightly lower - 90,2% of patients reported positive treatment effects When assessed by patients, the rate of global benefits was 90.2%. Botulinum-toxin therapy is an effective treatment option. In the vast majority of patients, it allows both for reduction in muscle tone and functional benefits that could improve quality of life of the patients.

  6. Synoptic climatology of the long-distance dispersal of white pine blister rust II. Combination of surface and upper-level conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, K. L.; Geils, B. W.; Kalkstein, L. S.; Thistle, H. W.

    2008-09-01

    An invasive forest pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, white pine blister rust (WPBR), is believed to have arrived in the Sacramento Mountains of south-central New Mexico about 1970. Epidemiological and genetic evidence supports the hypothesis that introduction was the result of long-distance dispersal (LDD) by atmospheric transport from California. This study applies a method to identify the atmospheric conditions favorable for rust transport and infection. An upper level synoptic classification (ULSC) identifies patterns of upper-level flow favorable for the transport of rust spores from a source to a target. Transport data are coupled with data for surface conditions favorable for infection at a designated target. A resulting calendar lists likelihood classes for establishment by four-times-daily observations during a dispersal season from April through July in the years 1965 to 1974. The single most-favorable period for transport and infection at the New Mexico site was identified as 1 15 June 1969. Five additional sites in the western United States with susceptible white pine populations and known infestation status were then evaluated to verify the model. Only the infested sites exhibit an establishment likelihood of “high” or “very high.” This suggests that the methodology correctly identifies locations with elevated establishment likelihood. Finally, likelihoods at nine additional points in the southwestern United States are determined and used to map regional patterns of transport, infection and establishment. The ULSC combined with appropriate surface meteorological data could be used to further investigate transport and infection, identify other areas at risk, assess the potential for gene flow of WPBR and evaluate long-distance dispersal of other pathogens.

  7. Foraging movements of Audouin’s gull (Larus audouinii) in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean: A preliminary satellite-tracking study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christel, Isadora; Navarro, Joan; del Castillo, Marcos; Cama, Albert; Ferrer, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    A knowledge of the foraging strategies of marine predators is essential to understand the intrinsic factors controlling their distribution, abundance and their ecological function within the marine ecosystem. Here, we investigated for the first time the foraging movements and activity patterns of Audouin's gull Larus audouinii by using satellite-tracking data from eight breeding adults in the main colony of the species worldwide (Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean). Tagged gulls foraged in the marine area close to the breeding colony (62% of foraging locations) and in the terrestrial area of the Ebro Delta (mainly rice fields; 38% of foraging locations). The foraging activity patterns changed significantly throughout the day; lower from dusk through the first half of the night (19-1 h; 32% of active locations) and higher during the rest of the day (1-19 h; 75.5 ± 4.3% of active locations). These results confirm the foraging plasticity of this seabird and, based on previous information about the dietary habits of this species, we hypothesize how its time-dependent activity patterns and habitat use could be associated with variations in the availability of marine food resources (e.g. diel vertical migrations of pelagic fish) and the exploitation of terrestrial resources (e.g. American crayfish Procambarus clarkii).

  8. Comment on the paper 'On the influx of small comets into the earth's upper atmosphere. II - Interpretation' by L. A. Frank, J. B. Sigwarth and J. D. Craven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    The proposal by Frank et al. (1986) that clouds of small comets periodically inject large amounts of H2O into the upper atmospheres of the earth, Venus, and Mars is examined critically, with a focus on transport and disposal mechanisms invoked to account for the large H2O masses involved. It is argued that observed parameter values (such as mixing ratios, vertical wind velocities, and H escape flows) prohibit transport by eddy, molecular diffusion, vertical avection, or coherent movement. In a reply by Frank et al., these objections are discussed in terms of an overall description of the decelerataion and penetration of a cometary water cloud, and H2O concentrations and mixing mechanisms consistent with observed values for the earth are proposed. It is suggested that an increase in cometary H2O influx could lead to concentrations attaining the frost point and to formation of a global mesospheric cloud with significant climate effects. A lower H2O influx rate for Venus (consistent with observed H loss and atmospheric H2O concentration) and relatively rapid loading of the Mars surface and atmosphere with H2O ice and vapor (followed by brief warming periods with increased exospheric H2O outflow and surface flow of liquid H2O) are considered.

  9. Satellite-beacon Ionospheric-scintillation Global Model of the upper Atmosphere (SIGMA) II: Inverse modeling with high-latitude observations to deduce irregularity physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, K. B.; Bust, G. S.; Clauer, C. R.; Scales, W. A.; Frissell, N. A.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Spogli, L.; Mitchell, C.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2016-09-01

    Ionospheric scintillation is caused by irregularities in the ionospheric electron density. The characterization of ionospheric irregularities is important to further our understanding of the underlying physics. Our goal is to characterize the intermediate (0.1-10 km) to medium (10-100 km) scale high-latitude irregularities which are likely to produce these scintillations. In this paper, we characterize irregularities observed by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) during a geomagnetically active period on 9 March 2012. For this purpose, along with the measurements, we are using the recently developed model: "Satellite-beacon Ionospheric-scintillation Global Model of the upper Atmosphere" (SIGMA). The model is particularly applicable at high latitudes as it accounts for the complicated geometry of the magnetic field lines in these regions and is presented in an earlier paper. We use an inverse modeling technique to derive irregularity parameters by comparing the high rate (50 Hz) GNSS observations to the modeled outputs. In this investigation, we consider experimental observations from both the northern and southern high latitudes. The results include predominance of phase scintillations compared to amplitude scintillations that imply the presence of larger-scale irregularities of sizes above the Fresnel scale at GPS frequencies, and the spectral index ranges from 2.4 to 4.2 and the RMS number density ranges from 3e11 to 2.3e12 el/m3. The best fits we obtained from our inverse method that considers only weak scattering mostly agree with the observations. Finally, we suggest some improvements in order to facilitate the possibility of accomplishing a unique solution to such inverse problems.

  10. Future climate scenarios and rainfall--runoff modelling in the Upper Gallego catchment (Spain).

    PubMed

    Bürger, C M; Kolditz, O; Fowler, H J; Blenkinsop, S

    2007-08-01

    Global climate change may have large impacts on water supplies, drought or flood frequencies and magnitudes in local and regional hydrologic systems. Water authorities therefore rely on computer models for quantitative impact prediction. In this study we present kernel-based learning machine river flow models for the Upper Gallego catchment of the Ebro basin. Different learning machines were calibrated using daily gauge data. The models posed two major challenges: (1) estimation of the rainfall-runoff transfer function from the available time series is complicated by anthropogenic regulation and mountainous terrain and (2) the river flow model is weak when only climate data are used, but additional antecedent flow data seemed to lead to delayed peak flow estimation. These types of models, together with the presented downscaled climate scenarios, can be used for climate change impact assessment in the Gallego, which is important for the future management of the system.

  11. Results from the Upper Limb International Spasticity Study-II (ULIS-II): a large, international, prospective cohort study investigating practice and goal attainment following treatment with botulinum toxin A in real-life clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Fheodoroff, Klemens; Jacinto, Jorge; Maisonobe, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe real-life practice and person-centred outcomes in the treatment of poststroke upper limb spasticity with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A). Design Observational, prospective study. Setting 84 secondary care centres in 22 countries. Participants 456 adults (≥18 years) with poststroke upper limb spasticity treated with one cycle of BoNT-A. Methods/outcomes Muscle selection, BoNT-A preparation, injection technique and timing of follow-up were conducted according to routine practice for each centre. Primary outcome: achievement of the patient's primary goal for treatment using goal-attainment scaling (GAS). Measurements of spasticity, standardised outcome measures and global benefits were also recorded. Results The median number of injected muscles was 5 (range 1–15) and the most frequently injected muscles were the long finger flexors, followed by biceps and brachioradialis. The median (range) follow-up time was 14 (2.6 to 32.3) weeks. The common primary treatment goals were passive function (132 (28.9%)), active function (104 (22.8%)), pain (61 (13.4%)), impairment (105 (23%)), involuntary movement (41 (9%)) and mobility (10 (2.2%)). Overall, 363 (79.6%) (95% CI 75.6% to 83.2%) patients achieved (or overachieved) their primary goal and 355 (75.4%) (95% CI 71.2% to 79.2%) achieved their secondary goal. Mean (SD) change from baseline in GAS T-scores was 17.6 (11.0) (95% CI 16.4 to 18.8; p<0.001). GAS T-scores were strongly correlated with global benefit and other standard measures (correlations of 0.38 and 0.63, respectively; p<0.001). Conclusions BoNT-A demonstrated a clinically significant effect on goal attainment for the real-life management of upper-limb spasticity following stroke. The study confirms the feasibility of a common international data set to collect systematic prospective data, and of using GAS to capture person-centred outcomes relating to passive and active functions and to pain. Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT

  12. The predictability of reported drought events and impacts in the Ebro Basin using six different remote sensing data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linés, Clara; Werner, Micha; Bastiaanssen, Wim

    2017-09-01

    The implementation of drought management plans contributes to reduce the wide range of adverse impacts caused by water shortage. A crucial element of the development of drought management plans is the selection of appropriate indicators and their associated thresholds to detect drought events and monitor the evolution. Drought indicators should be able to detect emerging drought processes that will lead to impacts with sufficient anticipation to allow measures to be undertaken effectively. However, in the selection of appropriate drought indicators, the connection to the final impacts is often disregarded. This paper explores the utility of remotely sensed data sets to detect early stages of drought at the river basin scale and determine how much time can be gained to inform operational land and water management practices. Six different remote sensing data sets with different spectral origins and measurement frequencies are considered, complemented by a group of classical in situ hydrologic indicators. Their predictive power to detect past drought events is tested in the Ebro Basin. Qualitative (binary information based on media records) and quantitative (crop yields) data of drought events and impacts spanning a period of 12 years are used as a benchmark in the analysis. Results show that early signs of drought impacts can be detected up to 6 months before impacts are reported in newspapers, with the best correlation-anticipation relationships for the standard precipitation index (SPI), the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and evapotranspiration (ET). Soil moisture (SM) and land surface temperature (LST) offer also good anticipation but with weaker correlations, while gross primary production (GPP) presents moderate positive correlations only for some of the rain-fed areas. Although classical hydrological information from water levels and water flows provided better anticipation than remote sensing indicators in most of the areas, correlations were

  13. Integrated ecotoxicological and chemical approach for the assessment of pesticide pollution in the Ebro River delta (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köck, Marianne; Farré, Marinella; Martínez, Elena; Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina; Ginebreda, Antoni; Navarro, Asunción; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià

    2010-03-01

    SummaryApplication of pesticides in the Ebro River delta (NE Spain) during the rice growing season is suspected to be one of the major causes behind the shellfish mortality episodes that occur yearly in this area at spring time. In an attempt to shed light on this suspicion, a monitoring study combining ecotoxicity measurements in water using three different bioassays and pesticides analysis in both water and shellfish has been carried out in this area in April-June 2008. Water and shellfish samples have been collected at six selected sites, two of them located in the bays where seafood (mussels and oysters) are grown, and four located in the main draining channels discharging the output water from the rice fields into the bays. Toxicity of the water samples has been evaluated using three standardized bioassays: 24-48 h immobilization of Daphnia magna, growth inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (formerly known as Selenastrum capricornutum) and bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri. Analysis of pesticides (six triazines, four phenylureas, four organophosphorous, one anilide, two chloroacetanilides, one thiocarbamate and four acid herbicides) in water has been carried out by on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS). Analysis of pesticides in shellfish has been performed by pressurized liquid extraction (ASE), followed by SPE clean-up and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results have shown individual pesticides concentrations in water above 100 ng/L for about 50% of the compounds investigated, and total pesticides levels above 5 μg/L in the draining channels some days. The most ubiquitous compounds have been bentazone and MCPA and the highest levels have been observed for malathion (up to 5825 ng/L) and MCPA (up to 4197 ng/L). In shellfish, malathion has shown the highest concentration (53 mg/kg). A reasonable coherence has been observed between pesticide concentration (in

  14. I. Seismic velocity heterogeneity in the crust and upper mantle under the Nevada Test Site. II. Source processes of great intraplate earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Lynnes, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    I. Amplitudes of short-period teleseismic P waves from underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) exhibit coherent azimuthal variations that are positively correlated with travel time residuals. Both the Pahute Mesa and Yucca Flat subsites have similar patterns, indicating focusing and defocusing by deep (>400 km) heterogeneity. Variations are inverted via a thin lens procedure for warped velocity boundaries at depths of 25 and 160 km. Synthetic seismograms computed using the Kirchhoff integral show that these models explain much of the amplitude and some of the travel time behavior. Early P coda from NTS tests also shows coherent azimuthal variations due to deep heterogeneity. Inversion for isotropic point scatterers near the source suggests that topography may play a key role in scattering surface waves to teleseismic P waves. II. The source-time functions of two great intraplate earthquakes the 1975 North Atlantic (M{sub w} = 7.8) and the 1077 Sumba (M{sub w} = 8.3) events, are deconvolved from long-period P waves. The 1975 earthquake changes focal mechanism from strike-slip to oblique normal, but no spatial variations of moment release can be resolved from the body waves. The normal-faulting 1977 Sumba earthquake has a central region with 9 m displacement, and 3 m displacement in surrounding regions. The rupture nucleated at 35 km depth near the edge of the high-displacement region and propagated 30 km west with little moment release before the main pulse, suggesting the rupture of an asperity. Discrepancies between the depth range and source duration implied by the P waves (0-35 km and 40 s) and long-period surface waves (0-80 km and 80 s) can be reconciled by a mode of rupture in the lower lithosphere that preferentially radiates very low frequencies.

  15. Upper hemisternotomy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tristan; Flynn, Campbell

    2017-08-04

    Minimally invasive approaches are increasingly used in cardiac surgical procedures. Common approaches include upper hemisternotomy and right anterolateral thoracotomy. The additional exposure gained from conventional sternotomy does not greatly improve the access to the aortic valve and proximal thoracic aorta. Minimal access approaches have an equivalent safety profile when compared to conventional sternotomy, and are associated with reduced post-operative pain, reduced transfusion requirement, reduced respiratory complications and shorter hospital stays. Hemisternotomy offers a versatile access to supra-cardiac structures, with a shorter learning curve compared to anterolateral thoracotomy. We describe the procedural steps in performing a safe hemisternotomy. © The Author 2016. Published by MMCTS on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. Cellular automata to understand the behaviour of beach-dune systems: Application to El Fangar Spit active dune system (Ebro delta, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio-Parra, Fernando; Rodríguez-Santalla, Inmaculada

    2016-08-01

    Coastal dunes are sedimentary environments characterized by their high dynamism. Their evolution is determined by sedimentary exchanges between the beach-dune subsystems and the dune dynamics itself. Knowledge about these exchanges is important to prioritize management and conservation strategies of these environments. The aim of this work is the inclusion of the aeolian transport rates obtained using a calibrated cellular automaton to estimate the beach-dune sediment exchange rates in a real active dune field at El Fangar Spit (Ebro Delta, Spain). The dune dynamics model is able to estimate average aeolian sediment fluxes. These are used in combination with the observed net sediment budget to obtain a quantitative characterization of the sediment exchange interactions. The methods produce a substantial improvement in the understanding of coastal sedimentary systems that could have major implications in areas where the management and conservation of dune fields are of concern.

  17. Error of the modelled peak flow of the hydraulically reconstructed 1907 flood of the Ebro River in Xerta (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Castelltort, Xavier; Carles Balasch, J.; Tuset, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    The estimation of the uncertainty of the results of the hydraulic modelling has been deeply analysed, but no clear methodological procedures as to its determination have been formulated when applied to historical hydrology. The main objective of this study was to calculate the uncertainty of the resulting peak flow of a typical historical flood reconstruction. The secondary objective was to identify the input variables that influenced the result the most and their contribution to peak flow total error. The uncertainty of 21-23 October 1907 flood of the Ebro River (NE Iberian Peninsula) in the town of Xerta (83,000 km2) was calculated with a series of local sensitivity analyses of the main variables affecting the resulting peak flow. Besides, in order to see to what degree the result depended on the chosen model, the HEC-RAS resulting peak flow was compared to the ones obtained with the 2D model Iber and with Manning's equation. The peak flow of 1907 flood in the Ebro River in Xerta, reconstructed with HEC-RAS, was 11500 m3·s-1 and its total error was ±31%. The most influential input variable over HEC-RAS peak flow results was water height; however, the one that contributed the most to peak flow error was Manning's n, because its uncertainty was far greater than water height's. The main conclusion is that, to ensure the lowest peak flow error, the reliability and precision of the flood mark should be thoroughly assessed. The peak flow was 12000 m3·s-1 when calculated with the 2D model Iber and 11500 m3·s-1 when calculated with the Manning equation.

  18. Assessment of sediment ecotoxicological status as a complementary tool for the evaluation of surface water quality: the Ebro river basin case study.

    PubMed

    Roig, Neus; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Martí; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Nieto, Elena; Hampel, Miriam; Gallego, Elena Perez; Schuhmacher, Marta; Blasco, Julián

    2015-01-15

    According to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), assessment of surface water status is based on ecological and chemical status that is not always in coherence. In these situations, ecotoxicity tests could help to obtain a better characterization of the ecosystems. The general aim of this work is to design a methodology to study the ecotoxicological status of freshwater systems. This could be useful and complementary to ecological status, for a better ecological characterization of freshwater systems. For this purpose, sediments from thirteen sampling sites within the Ebro river watershed (NE Spain) were collected for ecotoxicity characterization. The ecotoxicity of pore water has been evaluated employing the test organisms Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirschneriella subcapitata and Daphnia magna, while whole sediment ecotoxicity was evaluated using Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Nitzschia palea and Chironomus riparius. An analysis of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) was performed to evaluate the sediment toxicity associated to bioavailable metals. Moreover, data about priority pollutants defined by the WFD in water, sediment and fish as well as data of surface water status of each sampling point were provided by the Monitoring and Control Program of the Ebro Water bodies. In general terms, whole sediment bioassays have shown more toxicity than pore water tests. Among the different organisms used, P. subcapitata and C. riparius were the most sensitive in pore water and whole sediment, respectively. Our evaluation of the ecotoxicological status showed high coincidences with the ecological status, established according to the WFD, especially when ecosystem disruption due to numerous stressors (presence of metals and organic pollution) was observed. These results allow us to confirm that, when chemical stressors affect the ecosystem functioning negatively, an ecotoxicological approach, provided by suitable bioassays in pore

  19. High spatial patchiness of methane concentrations over the flat landscape of the Ebro River Delta (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morguí, J.-A.; Rodó, X.; Curcoll, R.; Agueda, A.; Sánchez, L.; Occhipinti, P.; Nofuentes, M.; Arias, R.; Batet, O.

    2012-04-01

    With the aim of evaluate the role of a different water management on greenhouse gases (GHGs) at each side of the Ebro River Delta, five points were chosen to be sampled for GHGs for studying their spatial variability along diurnal cycles. The daily schedule for sampling was starting one day at the evening/sunset, followed by the next day dawn sampling, and eventually closing the cycle at the evening/sunset. Samples are been taken along the seasonal cycle to cope with the main rice works: seeding, growing, flourishing, maturation, harvesting, fields flooding and soil aeration before new seeding. The Ebre River Delta terrain is covered in its 200 km2 with the same agroecosystem (paddy fields) at the two riversides, and natural lagoons and marshes are found along the shoreline. The five spots to be sampled were selected to represent all these habitats at each side of the Delta; one is close to paddy fields, another one to the lagoons, and the fifth one to the river embankments up the river, with a pentagonal shape. Continuous measurements (CO2, CH4, H2O) following radial paths transects of the pentagon were performed with a Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyser mounted on a car. The air inlet was held in front of the car, at forty cm above ground, with a little buffer to filter particles. Due to the constraints imposed by this buffer, every measurement was copying for a track of 30 m, for a 60 km/hour car speed. Flasks for GHGs (CO2, CH4, CO, N20) analyses by Gas Chromatography were taken at every spot with the car engine stopped while the CRDS analyzer was measuring yet, in order to compare results. Ebre River Delta rice cultures management is usually characterized for maintaining the paddies flooded after the harvesting of rice to giving enough aquatic life for feeding the migratory birds. Only during the previous time to seed the rice, the fields are dried. Nevertheless, two years ago, the left side of the riversides is being dried during winter to prevent

  20. Integrating geomorphological mapping, InSAR, GPR and trenching for the identification and investigation of buried sinkholes in the mantled evaporite karst of the Ebro Valley (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Lucha, Pedro; Bonachea, Jaime; Castañeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    The first and most important step in sinkhole hazard analysis is the construction of a cartographic sinkhole inventory. The effectiveness of the mitigation measures and the reliability of the susceptibility and hazard maps will depend on the completeness and accuracy of the sinkhole inventories on which they are based. Sinkhole data bases preferably should include information on the following aspects: (1) Precise location of the sinkholes edges. (2) Morphometric parameters. (3) Geomorphological and hydrological context. (4) Genetic type; that is subsidence mechanisms and material affected by subsidence. (5) Chronology; this information is essential to calculate probability of occurrence values. (6) Active or inactive character. (7) Kinematical regime (gradual, episodic or mixed). (8) Current and/or long-term subsidence rates. (9) Evolution of the subsidence and its relationship with causal factors. Sinkholes are generally mapped using conventional geomorphological methods like aerial photographs, topographic maps and field surveys. However, the usefulness of these methods may be limited in areas where the geomorphic expression of sinkholes has been obliterated by natural processes or anthropogenic fill. Additionally, gaining data on some of the practical aspects indicated above requires the application of other techniques. In this contribution we present the main findings learnt through the construction of a sinkhole inventory in a terrace of the Ebro River valley (NE Spain). The study area covers around 27.5 ha and is located west of Zaragoza city. The bedrock consists of subhorizontal evaporites including gypsum, halite and glauberite. The terrace is situated at 7-10 m above the channel and the alluvium, 10-30 m thick, is composed of unconsolidated gravels and subordinate fines. Previous studies carried out in this sector of the valley reveal that: (1) Three main types of sinkholes may be differentiated: cover collapse, cover and bedrock collapse, and cover and

  1. The neutral upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. N.

    2002-07-01

    After World War II, Professor S.K. Mitra wrote a comprehensive book called The Upper Atmosphere, which dealt with information available from ground-based and balloon-borne experiments. As a result, topics such as day airglow were investigated and further ground-based experiments using incoherent back-scattering were carried out. These activities resulted in important new information on the ozonosphere. The dramatic discovery of ozone holes forms a new and exciting chapter in the discovery of atmospheric processes. While dealing with the limits of the atmosphere, reference may be made to interstellar molecules whose discovery has raised considerable scientific curiosity. Knowledge on the solar-terrestrial relationship advanced a great deal when more information on solar radiation became available by measuring higher energy photons in the UV, EUV, and even X-ray regime. All this information is incorporated in this volume and presented under the title The Neutral Upper Atmosphere. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/0-7923-6434-1

  2. Blockage of upper airway

    MedlinePlus

    ... Airway obstruction - acute upper Images Throat anatomy Choking Respiratory system References Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies: upper airway obstruction and infections. In: Marx ...

  3. A combined QC methodology in Ebro Delta HF radar system: real time web monitoring of diagnostic parameters and offline validation of current data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, Pablo; Piedracoba, Silvia; Soto-Navarro, Javier; Ruiz, Maria Isabel; Alvarez Fanjul, Enrique

    2015-04-01

    Over recent years, special attention has been focused on the development of protocols for near real-time quality control (QC) of HF radar derived current measurements. However, no agreement has been worldwide achieved to date to establish a standardized QC methodology, although a number of valuable international initiatives have been launched. In this context, Puertos del Estado (PdE) aims to implement a fully operational HF radar network with four different Codar SeaSonde HF radar systems by means of: - The development of a best-practices robust protocol for data processing and QC procedures to routinely monitor sites performance under a wide variety of ocean conditions. - The execution of validation works with in-situ observations to assess the accuracy of HF radar-derived current measurements. The main goal of the present work is to show this combined methodology for the specific case of Ebro HF radar (although easily expandable to the rest of PdE radar systems), deployed to manage Ebro River deltaic area and promote the conservation of an important aquatic ecosystem exposed to a severe erosion and reshape. To this aim, a web interface has been developed to efficiently monitor in real time the evolution of several diagnostic parameters provided by the manufacturer (CODAR) and used as indicators of HF radar system health. This web, updated automatically every hour, examines sites performance on different time basis in terms of: - Hardware parameters: power and temperature. - Radial parameters, among others: Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), number of radial vectors provided by time step, maximum radial range and bearing. - Total uncertainty metrics provided by CODAR: zonal and meridional standard deviations and covariance between both components. - Additionally, a widget embedded in the web interface executes queries against PdE database, providing the chance to compare current time series observed by Tarragona buoy (located within Ebro HF radar spatial domain) and

  4. Recent climate trends and multisecular climate variability: temperature and precipitation during the cold season (October-March) in the Ebro Basin (NE of Spain) betrween 1500 and 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saz-Sanchez, M.-A.; Cuadrat-Prats, J.-M.

    2009-09-01

    One of the goals of Paleoclimatology is to assess the importance and the exceptional nature of recent climate trends related to the anthropogenic climate change. Instrumental data enable the analysis of last century's climate, but do not give any information on previous periods' precipitation and temperature, during which there was no anthropic intervention on the climate system. Dendroclimatology is one of the paleoclimatic reconstruction sources giving best results when it comes to reconstructing the climate of the time before instruments could be used. This work presents the reconstructed series of precipitation and temperature of the cold season (October-March) In the central sector of the Ebro Valley (NE of Spain). The chronologies used for the reconstruction come on the one hand from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) and on the other hand from the dendrochronological information bank created in the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula within the framework of the Spanish Interministerial Commission for Science and Technology (CICYT) CLI96-1862 project. The climate data used for chronology calibration and the reconstruction of the temperature and precipitation values are those of the instrumental observatory number 9910 (Pallaruelo) belonging to the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología or AEMET), located in the central sector of the Ebro Valley. The reconstruction obtained covers the 1500-1990 period. In order to extend the series up to 2008, instrumental information has been used. Thanks to data from a set of AEMET instrumental observatories close to the one used for chronology calibration, a regional series of temperatures as well as a precipitation one were generated. The series reconstructed through dendroclimatic methods and the regional series do not show statistically significant differences in their mean and variance values. R values between both series exceed 0.85. Taking these statistical characteristics

  5. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  6. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plan (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Joe Benson; David Hilton; David Cate; Lewis Brown

    2006-05-29

    The principal research efforts for Phase II of the project were drilling an infill well strategically located in Section 13, T. 10 N., R. 2 W., of the Womack Hill Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, and obtaining fresh core from the upper Smackover reservoir to test the feasibility of implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in this field. The Turner Land and Timber Company 13-10 No. 1 well was successfully drilled and tested at a daily rate of 132 barrels of oil in Section 13. The well has produced 27,720 barrels of oil, and is currently producing at a rate of 60 barrels of oil per day. The 13-10 well confirmed the presence of 175,000 barrels of attic (undrained) oil in Section 13. As predicted from reservoir characterization, modeling and simulation, the top of the Smackover reservoir in the 13-10 well is structurally high to the tops of the Smackover in offsetting wells, and the 13-10 well has significantly more net pay than the offsetting wells. The drilling and testing of the 13-10 well showed that the eastern part of the field continues to have a strong water drive and that there is no need to implement a pressure maintenance program in this part of the Womack Hill Field at this time. The success achieved in drilling and testing the 13-10 infill well demonstrates the benefits of building a geologic model to target areas in mature fields that have the potential to contain undrained oil, thus increasing the productivity and profitability of these fields. Microbial cultures that grew at 90 C and converted ethanol to acid were recovered from fresh cuttings from the Smackover carbonate reservoir in an analogous field to the Womack Hill Field in southwest Alabama; however, no viable microorganisms were found in the Smackover cores recovered from the drilling of the 13-10 well in Womack Hill Field. Further evaluation is, therefore, required prior to implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in the Womack Hill Field.

  7. The Functional Arm Scale for Throwers (FAST)—Part II: Reliability and Validity of an Upper Extremity Region-Specific and Population-Specific Patient-Reported Outcome Scale for Throwing Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C.; Snyder Valier, Alison R.; Bay, R. Curtis; Sauers, Eric L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Functional Arm Scale for Throwers (FAST) is an upper extremity (UE) region-specific and population-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) scale developed to measure health-related quality of life in throwers with UE injuries. Stages I and II, described in a companion paper, of FAST development produced a 22-item scale and a 9-item pitcher module. Stage III of scale development, establishing reliability and validity of the FAST, is reported herein. Purpose: To describe stage III of scale development: reliability and validity of the FAST. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Data from throwing athletes collected over 5 studies were pooled to assess reliability and validity of the FAST. Reliability was estimated using FAST scores from 162 throwing athletes who were injured (n = 23) and uninjured (n = 139). Concurrent validity was estimated using FAST scores and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) scores from 106 healthy, uninjured throwing athletes. Known-groups validity was estimated using FAST scores from 557 throwing athletes who were injured (n = 142) and uninjured (n = 415). Reliability and validity were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and measurement error was assessed using standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimum detectable change (MDC). Receiver operating characteristic curves and sensitivity/specificity values were estimated for known-groups validity. Data from a separate group (n = 18) of postsurgical and nonoperative/conservative rehabilitation patients were analyzed to report responsiveness of the FAST. Results: The FAST total, subscales, and pitcher module scores demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (ICC, 0.91-0.98). The SEM95 and MDC95 for the FAST total score were 3.8 and 10.5 points, respectively. The SEM95 and MDC95 for the pitcher module score were 5.7 and 15.7 points, respectively. The FAST scores

  8. The chemistry of playa-lake-sediments as a tool for the reconstruction of Holocene environmental conditions - a case study from the central Ebro basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütt, Brigitta

    The focus of the presented study is the reconstruction of the Holocene limnic and drainage basin conditions of the Laguna de Jabonera, a today playa-lake-system in the Desierto de Calanda, central Ebro Basin, using the inorganic characters of the lacustrine sediments. Mineralogical fabric helped to reconstruct the overall geomorphic processes and gives clues to the synsedimentary limnic environment (paleosalinity). The chemical composition of the lacustrine sediments largely reflects the mineralogical composition, but the higher resolution of the geochemical data compared to the mineralogical data enables to stratigraphically split the extracted core profile into three stratigraphic units. Supplementally, it is demonstrated that Statistics between chemical compounds point to the synsedimentary intensity of weathering and soil forming processes. As for the lacustrine sediments investigated there are no data yet available a preliminary chronological framework is derived by comparison with results from neighbouring areas. Based on this the hypothesis is put forward that during the socalled Little Ice Age subhumid to dry-subhumid environmental conditions occurred. Also possibly during the late Subboreal distinct wetter environmental conditions than today prevailed. Additionally, it is demonstrated that in the most recent past human impact is causing increased erosion rates and, thus, increased deposition of detritals in the most recent lacustrine sediments.

  9. Gillnet selectivity in the Ebro Delta coastal lagoons and its implication for the fishery management of the sand smelt, Atherina boyeri (Actinopterygii: Atherinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Climent, Sílvia; Alcaraz, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Ibáñez, Carles; Nebra, Alfonso; Muñoz-Camarillo, Gloria; Casals, Frederic; Vinyoles, Dolors; de Sostoa, Adolfo

    2012-12-01

    Multimesh nylon gillnets were set in three Ebro Delta (North-East of Spain) lagoons to determine mesh selectivity for the inhabiting fish community. Each gillnet consisted on a series of twelve panels of different mesh size (ranging from 5.0 to 55.0 mm bar length) randomly distributed. The SELECT method (Share Each Length's Catch Total) was used to estimate retention curves through five models: normal location, normal scale, gamma, lognormal and inverse Gaussian. Each model was fitted twice, under the assumptions of equal and proportional to mesh size fishing effort, but no differences were found between approaches. A possible situation of overfishing in the lagoons, where artisanal fisheries are carried out with a low surveillance effort, was assessed using a vulnerable species inhabiting these brackish waters as case study: the sand smelt, Atherina boyeri. The minimum size for its fishery has not been established, thus remaining under an uncontrolled exploitation situation. Therefore, a Minimum Landing Size (MLS) is proposed based on sexual maturity data. The importance of establishing an adequate MLS and regulate mesh sizes in order to respect natural maturation length is discussed, as well as, the proposal of other measures to improve A. boyeri fishery management.

  10. Combination of electromagnetic, geophysical methods and sedimentological studies for the development of 3D models in alluvial sediments affected by karst (Ebro Basin, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo Anchuela, Óscar; Luzón, Aránzazu; Gil Garbi, Héctor; Pérez, Antonio; Pocoví Juan, Andrés; Soriano, María Asunción

    2014-03-01

    An integrated analysis was carried out in a selected quarry of the oldest terrace of the Ebro River, where a wide gravel unit is characterized by large-scale cross bedding outcrops. This unit has been interpreted as a lake with marginal deltas. Previous sedimentological studies have pointed out that braided rivers have dominated in the area during the Early Pleistocene. The presence of a lake, which in stable conditions (without subsidence) could be hardly developed in a braided fluvial setting, supports that a topographic depression pre-existed. The delta gravels suggest a depth of at least 5 m for this depression. Established models from broadband multifrequency electromagnetic survey and ground penetrating radar (GPR) show that the analyzed area was affected by a long-term karstic subsidence, which generated a doline field in which topographic depressions were filled by marls and marginal gravels, and subsequently affected by minor collapses during different subsidence reactivation episodes. A 3D model of the evolution and meaning of the doline field and its interaction with sedimentation has been developed. This model can be applied in other areas where high-resolution geophysical 3D models are difficult to establish because of the limitations of the geophysical surveys due to the presence of interbedded mudstones, subsiding depressions filled by human activities or near surface water levels.

  11. Radioactivity evaluation of Ebro river water and sludge treated in a potable water treatment plant located in the South of Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Palomo, M; Peñalver, A; Aguilar, C; Borrull, F

    2010-03-01

    A potable water treatment plant with an average production rate of 4.3m(3)/s, providing several cities in the south of Catalonia (Spain) with drinking water, has been studied for a period of six years (2002-2007) regarding its capacity to remove several natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. First, gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activities were determined in ingoing and outgoing water samples. The values for all these parameters were below the Spanish normative limits established for waters for human consumption. For the sludge samples generated in the plant, we quantified some gamma emitting radioisotopes: natural ((40)K, (214)Pb, etc.) and artificial ((60)Co, (110m)Ag, etc.) which may be related to the geological or/and industrial activities (such as a nuclear power plant) located upstream of the PWTP on the Ebro River. Finally, when the sludge samples were compared with those from other water treatment plants, the influence of the industrial activities on the radioisotopes found in the analysed samples was confirmed since the activity levels for some of the isotopes quantified were 10 times higher. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On the origin of crevasse-splay amalgamation in the Huesca fluvial fan (Ebro Basin, Spain): Implications for connectivity in low net-to-gross fluvial deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Toorenenburg, K. A.; Donselaar, M. E.; Noordijk, N. A.; Weltje, G. J.

    2016-08-01

    Floodplain deposits are abundant in low-gradient dryland river systems, but their contribution to connected reservoir volumes has not yet been fully acknowledged due to their poor detectability with typical wireline log suites and relatively-lower reservoir quality. This study presents an analysis of stacked crevasse splays in the distal part of the Miocene Huesca fluvial fan (Ebro Basin, Spain). Vertical stacking of crevasse splays implies local aggradation of the active channel belt. Lateral amalgamation of crevasse splays created an elevated rim around their feeder channel, raising its bankfull height. Subsequent crevasse splays were deposited on top of their predecessors, creating sand-on-sand contact through incision and further raising the active channel belt. This process of channel-belt super-elevation repeated until an upstream avulsion occurred. Amalgamated crevasse splays constitute connected reservoir volumes up to 107 m3. Despite their lower reservoir quality, they effectively connect channel deposits in low net-to-gross fluvial stratigraphy, and hence, their contribution to producible volumes should be considered. Unswept intervals of amalgamated crevasse splays may constitute a secondary source of natural gas. Their interval thickness can serve as a proxy for feeder-channel dimensions, which can in turn be used to estimate the degree of stratigraphic connectivity.

  13. Upper airway biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... upper airway Images Upper airway test Bronchoscopy Throat anatomy References Yung RC, Boss EF. Tracheobronchial endoscopy. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  14. Advances in upper extremity prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H

    2012-11-01

    Until recently, upper extremity prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image.

  15. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, Ernest, A.; Crate, David; Blasingame, Thomas; Major, R.P.; Brown, Lewis; Stafford, Wayne

    2002-11-02

    The principal objectives of the project were: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs.

  16. The use of partial thickness method and zero wet bulb temperature for discriminating precipitation type during winter months at the Ebro basin in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buisan, S.; Revuelto, J.

    2010-09-01

    The forecast office of the State Meteorological Agency of Spain (AEMET) which is located in the city of Zaragoza provides weather forecast, warnings and aviation forecast products for Aragón, Navarra and La Rioja regions. This area of Spain lies mainly on the Ebro river basin. Although the likelihood of snowfall in this territory is low, a forecasting of snow-depth higher than 5cm for low elevations activates the orange warning which must be issued to local emergency management and civil protection authorities. Zero wet bulb temperature has been historically the main tool for forecasting the altitude of snow-rain boundary at the forecast office; it shows the freezing level limit due to evaporational cooling when lower troposphere is saturated from aloft. This work adds two new parameters, the 1000-850 mb and the 850-700 mb thickness in order to characterize the thermal structure of surface based cold air and atmospheric mid-levels. The three main airports in this area Zaragoza-Aragón, Logroño-La Rioja and Pamplona-Navarra are located at altitudes below 500 m. They are thus suitable for this study. In addition, more than 16 years of meteorological observations every hour, known as METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), are available at these locations. These observations were analysed and the predominant precipitation type during a six-hour period was characterized. The 00h, 06h, 12h and 18h analysis time of the ECMWF Forecast model were employed in order to get the parameters at the day and time when the precipitation took place. The most representative grid point of the model for each airport was chosen in order to illustrate the atmospheric conditions. A correlation between precipitation type and zero wet bulb temperature, 1000-850 mb and the 850-700 mb thickness was done for more than 230 different situations during a 16 year period. As a result, we plotted a series of site specific charts for each airport based on these parameters, in order to describe the

  17. Lacustrine basin dynamics and organosulphur compound origin in a carbonate-rich lacustrine system (Late Oligocene Mequinenza Formation, SE Ebro Basin, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, L.; Cabrera, M.; Gorchs, R.; de las Heras, F. X. C.

    2002-04-01

    The Late Oligocene Mequinenza formation (SE Ebro Basin, NE Spain) records the development of extensive, shallow, low-gradient lacustrine zones, which evolved under a subtropical, warm climatic regime, affected by humidity-aridity cycles. Carbonate-dominated inner lacustrine sequences, which include thin coal seams, are laterally related to muddy carbonate and siliciclastic marginal lacustrine assemblages where evaporites occur. Water solute concentration of the lacustrine zones changed during the alternative high- and low-stand episodes, with lacustrine waters ranging mainly from fresh to oligosaline. Nonsulphurised (NSC) and sulphurised (OSC) organic compounds occur in the inner lacustrine facies and record significant contributions from aquatic and terrestrial higher plants, bacteria (cyanobacteria, photosynthetic anaerobic bacteria) and algae. These biomarkers show that the lacustrine system was eutrophic and the water column was poorly oxygenated and sometimes stratified, as evidenced by occasional finely laminated facies and gammacerane. Organic matter S/C ratio (lower in carbonate than in coal and coal-related facies) suggests significant variations in the lacustrine autotrophic production and/or the allochthonous organic matter contribution. Higher plant biomarkers were recorded mainly as normal, nonsulphurised lipids. By contrast, bacterial and algal lipids (hopanoids, steroids and isoprenoids), under intense sulphate reduction conditions, incorporated sulphur in their hydrocarbon skeleton and gave rise to OSC with distributions of thienyl and thiolanylhopanoids, epithiosteranes and polyprenoids. Linear thiols are new biomarkers, which probably were generated by the early incorporation of sulphur into funtionalised precursors (e.g., alkanols). Intense methanogenesis was enhanced in some lacustrine zones owing to high organic matter input and, as a consequence, biomarkers of methanotrophic and methylotrophic bacteria, related to methane emission, are also

  18. Mitochondrial DNA from the eradicated European Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum from 70-year-old slides from the Ebro Delta in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gelabert, Pere; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Olalde, Iñigo; Fregel, Rosa; Rieux, Adrien; Escosa, Raül; Aranda, Carles; Paaijmans, Krijn; Mueller, Ivo; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of Plasmodium parasites has indicated that their modern-day distribution is a result of a series of human-mediated dispersals involving transport between Africa, Europe, America, and Asia. A major outstanding question is the phylogenetic affinity of the malaria causing parasites Plasmodium vivax and falciparum in historic southern Europe—where it was endemic until the mid-20th century, after which it was eradicated across the region. Resolving the identity of these parasites will be critical for answering several hypotheses on the malaria dispersal. Recently, a set of slides with blood stains of malaria-affected people from the Ebro Delta (Spain), dated between 1942 and 1944, have been found in a local medical collection. We extracted DNA from three slides, two of them stained with Giemsa (on which Plasmodium parasites could still be seen under the microscope) and another one consisting of dried blood spots. We generated the data using Illumina sequencing after using several strategies aimed at increasing the Plasmodium DNA yield: depletion of the human genomic (g)DNA content through hybridization with human gDNA baits, and capture-enrichment using gDNA derived from P. falciparum. Plasmodium mitochondrial genome sequences were subsequently reconstructed from the resulting data. Phylogenetic analysis of the eradicated European P. vivax mtDNA genome indicates that the European isolate is closely related to the most common present-day American haplotype and likely entered the American continent post-Columbian contact. Furthermore, the European P. falciparum mtDNA indicates a link with current Indian strains that is in agreement with historical accounts. PMID:27671660

  19. The 8.2 ka event and Early Mid Holocene forests, fires and flooding in the Central Ebro Desert, NE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Basil A. S.; Stevenson, Anthony C.

    2007-07-01

    The impact of the 8.2 ka cooling event during the Early-Mid Holocene has not been widely observed in Southern Europe, which in contrast to Northern Europe, was already experiencing a cooler than present climate at this time. Multi-proxy analysis of sediment cores from two closed-basin saline lakes in the Central Ebro Desert (NE Spain) has allowed us to investigate the impact of climatic changes around the time of this event in more detail. Long-term changes in climate between the Early and Mid Holocene indicate a shift in winter to a more positive NAO, resulting in declining lake levels in one lake sensitive to winter groundwater recharge, and cooler winter temperatures reconstructed from pollen-climate analysis. Reconstructed summer temperatures also declined over this period while annual precipitation and forest cover increased, interpreted as a result of enhanced convection-driven summer precipitation association with a northward displacement of the sub-tropical high pressure. Around 8.2 ka, a marked increase in fire frequency is shown between ca 8.8 and 8.0 ka BP, along with an expansion of fire-tolerant evergreen oak and peak in water levels in a second storm run-off fed lake. A maximum in fire intensity occurred with the deposition of a charcoal layer at both lake sites dated to 8150±130 and 8285±135 cal BP, respectively. The increase in fire is largely attributed to a temporary return southward of the summer sub-tropical high pressure over the Mediterranean, which not only increased summer aridity, but also caused a contradictory regional warming before Hemispheric cooling set in.

  20. Provenance of Oligocene Miocene alluvial and fluvial fans of the northern Ebro Basin (NE Spain): an XRD, petrographic and SEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuste, Alfonso; Luzón, Aránzazu; Bauluz, Blanca

    2004-12-01

    This paper combines stratigraphic and sedimentological data with XRD, petrographic and SEM techniques in order to investigate the fluvial and alluvial fans that were developed during the Oligocene and the Lower Miocene in the central area of the northern Ebro Basin (Spain), and their respective source areas. The proximal sectors of the coeval depositional systems can be separated on the basis of lithofacies criteria. Conglomerate features reveal that the source areas for the alluvial fans were limited to the South Pyrenean Sierras, whereas those of the fluvial fans included more northern Pyrenean areas, such as the Axial Zone or the clastic Tremp-Graus Basin. Far from the basin margin, the distal alluvial facies interdigitate with the middle-distal fluvial deposits. In these areas, only detailed mineralogical and petrographic analysis of the rocks can determine their origin. Thus, the methods used have allowed us to differentiate between authigenic and detrital phases. On the basis of these observations, three different types of coarse sandstone petrofacies have been distinguished: (1) carbonate-rich sandstone, (2) high-quartz sandstone and (3) high lithic-fragment sandstone (rich in shale and feldspars grains). The first corresponds to the alluvial samples and corroborates the South Pyrenean Sierras as alluvial fans source area. The high-quartz and the high lithic-fragment sandstone correspond to the fluvial samples and evidence that the drainage basin of the fluvial fans included the clastic Tremp-Graus Basin and the Axial Zone. The high lithic-fragment petrofacies is representative of the most ancient fluvial rocks whereas the high-quartz sandstone corresponds to the recent and nonconforming fluvial rocks. This change in the fluvial petrofacies allows us to recognise the changing importance of each region as a source area of the fluvial fans over time, which can be correlated with Pyrenean tectonic activity during the Oligocene.

  1. Influence on present-day coastal dynamics and evolution of a relict subaqueous delta lobe: Sol de Riu lobe, Ebro Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Caroline; Jiménez, José A.; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; De Mol, Ben; Amblas, David; Liquete, Camino; De Batist, Marc; Hughes Clarke, John E.

    2014-02-01

    We used high-resolution swath-bathymetry data to characterise the morphology of the abandoned subaqueous Sol de Riu delta lobe in the Ebro Delta, Western Mediterranean Sea. This study aims to assess the influence of an abandoned delta lobe on present-day coastal dynamics in a micro-tidal environment. Detailed mapping of the relict Sol de Riu lobe also showed a set of bedforms interpreted as footprints of human activities: seasonal V-shaped depressions on the middle shoreface due to boat anchoring and old trawling marks between 16 and 18 m water depth. Estimations of the mobility of bottom sediment showed that the shallowest shoreface (i.e. less than 7 m depth) is the most dynamic part of the relict lobe, while the middle shoreface experienced significant morphological changes since the lobe was abandoned. The deepest shoreface (i.e. water depth in excess of 15 m), which corresponds to the front of the lobe, is defined by a very small potential for morphological change. Simulations showed that while the relict lobe does not significantly affect the typical short period waves (Tp ≈4 s) in the study area, it does interfere with the most energetic wave conditions (Tp ≥ 7 s) acting as a shoal leading to the concentration of wave energy along the shoreline northwest of the lobe. The consequence of such modification of the high-energy wave propagation pattern by the relict lobe is an alteration of the wave-induced littoral sediment dynamics with respect to a situation without the lobe.

  2. Transconjunctival upper blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, J S; Nahai, F

    1999-03-01

    Transconjunctival lower lid blepharoplasty now has an established role as an option in rejuvenation of the lower eyelid. Transconjunctival upper lid blepharoplasty, or transconjunctival removal of medial upper eyelid fat, also has a role in rejuvenation of the upper eyelid. However, this is a rather limited role. We have found this approach safe and efficacious as a primary as well as a secondary procedure for removal of excess medial upper eyelid fat. We report on 20 patients who have undergone this operation: 5 as a primary procedure and 15 as secondary. There were no complications, no revisions, and the patients have been uniformly happy with their results.

  3. Upper Lid Blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Samuel; Holds, John B; Couch, Steven M

    2016-05-01

    Upper lid blepharoplasty is a common procedure for restoration and rejuvenation of the upper eyelids that can be performed safely and reliably. Understanding the anatomy and aging process of the brow-upper lid aesthetic unit along with properly assessing the excesses and deficiencies of the periorbital region helps to formulate an appropriate surgical plan. Volume deficiency in the aging upper lid may require corrective augmentation. Preexisting asymmetries and ptosis need to be identified and discussed before surgery. Standardized photography along with a candid discussion regarding patients' desired outcomes and realistic expectations are essential to a successful outcome.

  4. Luminescence of the disturbed upper atmosphere in the visible and infrared spectral ranges in the conditions of injection of a high-velocity plasma jet: II. Theoretical interpretation of the luminescence in the visible spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, S. I.; Smirnova, N. V.; Loseva, T. V.; Lyakhov, A. N.; Kosarev, I. B.

    2008-12-01

    A theoretical interpretation is given to the experimental data on the luminescence in the visible spectral region of the disturbed upper atmosphere in the conditions of injection of a high-velocity aluminum plasma jet (the “Fluxus” experiment). Mathematical models of optical effects are presented. It is demonstrated that the results of the calculations and the experimental data agree satisfactorily. The principal physical and chemical processes responsible for the observed luminescence are determined.

  5. Efficacy and safety of guaifenesin for upper back, neck, and shoulder pain: a Phase II proof-of-concept, multicenter, placebo-controlled, repeat-dose, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Collaku, Agron; Yue, Yong; Reed, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective Guaifenesin, an over-the-counter (OTC) expectorant, has exhibited muscle relaxant effects preclinically and clinically. This proof-of-principle study explored whether OTC doses of guaifenesin can provide relief from acute upper back, neck, or shoulder muscle spasm and pain. Methods This multicenter, placebo-controlled, repeat-dose, parallel study randomly assigned adults experiencing acute pain and muscle spasm in their upper back, neck, or shoulder to guaifenesin 600 or 1200 mg or matched placebo twice daily (BID) in a 2:2:1:1 ratio for 7 days. The primary end point was the change from baseline in muscle spasm relief, measured using an 11-point numeric rating scale (0=not present to 10=unbearable) recorded twice daily and averaged over the 7-day treatment period. Analyses were performed using a linear mixed model that included treatment as a fixed effect and site as a random effect. Results A total of 77 subjects were included in the 4 treatment groups. Least squares mean muscle spasm score over 7 days was 1.77 with guaifenesin 1200 mg, 1.42 with its matched placebo, 1.53 with guaifenesin 600 mg, and 1.74 with its matched placebo. Treatment with guaifenesin 1200 mg BID provided 25% greater reduction in mean muscle spasm over its matched placebo and 16% greater reduction than guaifenesin 600 mg BID. These differences were not statistically significant. Based on comparisons of absolute mean values, a consistent directional change in effect was observed, suggesting some benefit from placebo to lower-to-upper doses of guaifenesin with regard to muscle spasm, tension, pain, discomfort, and relaxation. No severe or serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Results suggest the potential for OTC dose of guaifenesin 1200 mg BID to provide symptomatic relief of upper back musculoskeletal pain and spasm. Confirmation of this preliminary result in a larger, adequately powered study is needed. PMID:28356767

  6. Efficacy and safety of guaifenesin for upper back, neck, and shoulder pain: a Phase II proof-of-concept, multicenter, placebo-controlled, repeat-dose, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Collaku, Agron; Yue, Yong; Reed, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Guaifenesin, an over-the-counter (OTC) expectorant, has exhibited muscle relaxant effects preclinically and clinically. This proof-of-principle study explored whether OTC doses of guaifenesin can provide relief from acute upper back, neck, or shoulder muscle spasm and pain. This multicenter, placebo-controlled, repeat-dose, parallel study randomly assigned adults experiencing acute pain and muscle spasm in their upper back, neck, or shoulder to guaifenesin 600 or 1200 mg or matched placebo twice daily (BID) in a 2:2:1:1 ratio for 7 days. The primary end point was the change from baseline in muscle spasm relief, measured using an 11-point numeric rating scale (0=not present to 10=unbearable) recorded twice daily and averaged over the 7-day treatment period. Analyses were performed using a linear mixed model that included treatment as a fixed effect and site as a random effect. A total of 77 subjects were included in the 4 treatment groups. Least squares mean muscle spasm score over 7 days was 1.77 with guaifenesin 1200 mg, 1.42 with its matched placebo, 1.53 with guaifenesin 600 mg, and 1.74 with its matched placebo. Treatment with guaifenesin 1200 mg BID provided 25% greater reduction in mean muscle spasm over its matched placebo and 16% greater reduction than guaifenesin 600 mg BID. These differences were not statistically significant. Based on comparisons of absolute mean values, a consistent directional change in effect was observed, suggesting some benefit from placebo to lower-to-upper doses of guaifenesin with regard to muscle spasm, tension, pain, discomfort, and relaxation. No severe or serious adverse events were reported. Results suggest the potential for OTC dose of guaifenesin 1200 mg BID to provide symptomatic relief of upper back musculoskeletal pain and spasm. Confirmation of this preliminary result in a larger, adequately powered study is needed.

  7. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, Ernest A.; Cate, David; Blasingame, Thomas; Major, R.P.; Brown, Lewis; Stafford, Wayne

    2001-08-07

    The principal objectives of this project was to: increase the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. Efforts for Year 1 of this project has been reservoir characterization, which has included three (3) primary tasks: geoscientific reservoir characterization, petrophysical and engineering property characterization, and microbial characterization.

  8. Upper Extremity Length Equalization

    PubMed Central

    DeCoster, Thomas A.; Ritterbusch, John; Crawford, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Significant upper extremity length inequality is uncommon but can cause major functional problems. The ability to position and use the hand may be impaired by shortness of any of the long bones of the upper extremity. In many respects upper and lower extremity length problems are similar. They most commonly occur after injury to a growing bone and the treatment modalities utilized in the lower extremity may be applied to the upper extremity. These treatment options include epiphysiodesis, shortening osteotomy, angulatory correction osteotomy and lengthening. This report reviews the literature relative to upper extremity length inequality and equalization and presents an algorithm for evaluation and planning appropriate treatment for patients with this condition. This algorithm is illustrated by two clinical cases of posttraumatic shortness of the radius which were effectively treated. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  9. Life-history strategies constrain invertebrate community tolerance to multiple stressors: A case study in the Ebro basin.

    PubMed

    Mondy, Cédric P; Muñoz, Isabel; Dolédec, Sylvain

    2016-12-01

    Multiple stressors constitute a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems, particularly in the Mediterranean region where water scarcity is likely to interact with other anthropogenic stressors. Biological traits potentially allow the unravelling of the effects of multiple stressors. However, thus far, trait-based approaches have failed to fully deliver on their promise and still lack strong predictive power when multiple stressors are present. We aimed to quantify specific community tolerances against six anthropogenic stressors and investigate the responses of the underlying macroinvertebrate biological traits and their combinations. We built and calibrated boosted regression tree models to predict community tolerances using multiple biological traits with a priori hypotheses regarding their individual responses to specific stressors. We analysed the combinations of traits underlying community tolerance and the effect of trait association on this tolerance. Our results validated the following three hypotheses: (i) the community tolerance models efficiently and robustly related trait combinations to stressor intensities and, to a lesser extent, to stressors related to the presence of dams and insecticides; (ii) the effects of traits on community tolerance not only depended on trait identity but also on the trait associations emerging at the community level from the co-occurrence of different traits in species; and (iii) the community tolerances and the underlying trait combinations were specific to the different stressors. This study takes a further step towards predictive tools in community ecology that consider combinations and associations of traits as the basis of stressor tolerance. Additionally, the community tolerance concept has potential application to help stream managers in the decision process regarding management options. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating rainfall erosivity from daily precipitation records: A comparison among methods using data from the Ebro Basin (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo-Martínez, M.; Beguería, S.

    2009-12-01

    SummaryAmong the major factors controlling soil erosion, as vegetation cover or soil erodibility, rainfall erosivity has a paramount importance since it is difficult to predict and control by humans. Accurate estimation of rainfall erosivity requires continuous rainfall data; however, such data rarely demonstrate good spatial and temporal coverage. Daily weather records are now commonly available, providing good coverage that better represents rainfall intensity behavior than do more aggregated rainfall data. In the present study annual rainfall erosivity was estimated from daily rainfall records, and compared to data obtained employing the RUSLE R factor procedure. A spatially-dense precipitation database of high temporal resolution (15 min) was used. Two methodologies were applied: (i) daily rainfall erosivity estimated using several parametric models, and, (ii) annual rainfall erosivity estimated by regression-based techniques employing several intensity precipitation indices and the modified Fournier index. To determine the accuracy of estimates, several goodness-of-fit and error statistics were computed in addition to a spatial distribution comparison. The daily rainfall erosivity models accurately predicted annual rainfall erosivity. Parametric models with few combined parameters and a periodic function simulating intra-annual rainfall behavior provided the best results. Where daily rainfall records were not available, good estimates of annual rainfall erosivity were also obtained using regression-based techniques based on 5-day maximum precipitation events, the maximum wet spell duration, and the ratio between the lengths of average wet and dry spells. Inherent limitations remain in the use of daily weather records for estimating rainfall erosivity. Future research should focus on incorporating measures of natural rainfall properties of the particular region, including kinetic energy and intensity, and their effects on the soil.

  11. Organochlorine compounds in European catfish (Silurus glanis) living in river areas under the influence of a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River basin).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Benito, Josep; Benejam, Lluís; García-Berthou, Emili

    2016-01-01

    European catfish, Silurus glanis, were used as sentinel organisms of the influence of recent and past discharges of organochlorine compounds (OCs) from a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River. The fish concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs were very high along the last 100 km of the river, including the irrigation channels, e.g. 1.2-27 ng/g wet weight of HCB, 6.3-100 ng/g ww of PCBs and 1-270 ng/g ww of total DDT compounds. These concentrations were much higher than those found upstream from the chlor-alkali discharge site, 0.2 ng/g ww for HCB, 5.6 ng/g ww for PCBs and 7.5 ng/g for DDT compounds. These concentrations were also standing out among those previously described in this fish species. The European catfish collected in sites under lower water flows, Ribarroja reservoir and irrigation channels, showed higher muscle lipid content, 1.09-7.2%, than those from sites of higher current intensities, river bed, 0.27%-0.67%. In these lower water current areas catfish exhibited OC ww concentrations that were correlated to % lipids. These differences suggest that normalization to lipid content is necessary for comparison of the OC accumulation in specimens from riverine systems living under different flow intensities. Accordingly, OC concentrations referred to lipid content showed more uniform downriver distribution which was consistent with a single focal point as main source of these compounds for the European catfish collected in the last 100 km of river stretch. This geographic distribution was also consistent with the uniform composition of PCB congeners in the studied European catfish. The distribution of DDT compounds was predominated by 4,4'-DDE which is common in most currently examined fish from aquatic environments. However, it included a high proportion of 4,4'-DDD and 2,4'-DDD which was consistent with the high contribution of benthic organisms from anoxic environments in the diet of these fish.

  12. Large depressions, thickened terraces, and gravitational deformation in the Ebro River valley (Zaragoza area, NE Spain): Evidence of glauberite and halite interstratal karstification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge P.

    2013-08-01

    In the studied reach of the Ebro Valley, the terrace and pediment sediments deposited over glauberite- and halite-bearing evaporites show local thickenings (> 50 m) recording dissolution-induced synsedimentary subsidence. Recent data on the lithostratigraphy of the evaporite sequence allow relating the alluvium thickenings with either halite or glauberite dissolution. The alluvium-filled dissolution basin underlying the youngest terraces (T8-T11) is ascribed to halite karstification; the top of a halite unit approximately 75 m thick is situated 40-15 m below the valley bottom. The thickenings of terrace (T1-T7) and pediment sediments are attributed to interstratal glauberite karstification: (1) Coincidence between the elevation range of the terraces and that of the glauberite-rich unit. Glauberite beds reach 30 and 100 m in single-bed and cumulative thickness, respectively. (2) The exposed bedrock underlying thickened alluvium shows abundant subsidence features indicative of interstratal karstification. The most common structure corresponds to hectometer-scale sag basins with superimposed collapses in the central sector of each basin. The subsided bedrock is frequently transformed into dissolution-collapse breccias showing a complete textural gradation, from crackle packbreccias to chaotic floatbreccias and karstic residues. (3) Paleokarst exposures show evidence of karstification confined to specific beds made up of secondary gypsum after precursory glauberite, partly dissolved and partly replaced. Despite the magnitude of the subsidence recorded by the thickened alluvium and unlike nearby tributaries, the terraces show a continuous and parallel arrangement indicating that the fluvial system was able to counterbalance subsidence by aggradation. A number of kilometer-size flat-bottom depressions have been developed in the valley margin, typically next to and inset into thickened terrace and pediment deposits. The subsidence structures exposed in artificial

  13. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed

    2010-08-10

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  14. Upper Animas Mining District

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Web page provides narrative of What's New?, Site Description, Site Risk, Cleanup Progress, Community Involvement, Next Steps, Site Documents, FAQ, Contacts and LInks for the Upper Animas Mining District site in San Juan County, Colorado.

  15. Uranus' Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This computer enhancement of a Voyager 2 image, emphasizes the high-level haze in Uranus' upper atmosphere. Clouds are obscured by the overlying atmosphere.

    JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  16. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    MedlinePlus

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit ...

  17. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    MedlinePlus

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit ...

  18. Upper critical field of copper molybdenum sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Woollam, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The upper critical field of sintered and sputtered copper molybdenum sulfide Cu(x)Mo6S8 was measured and found to exceed the Werthamer, Helfand, and Hohenberg (1966) value for a type II superconductor characterized by dirty limit, weak isotropic electron phonon coupling, and no paramagnetic limiting. It is suggested that the enhancement results from anisotropy or clean limit or both. Other ternary molybdenum sulfides appear to show similar anomalies.

  19. Upper critical field of copper molybdenum sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Woollam, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The upper critical field of sintered and sputtered copper molybdenum sulfide Cu(x)Mo6S8 was measured and found to exceed the Werthamer, Helfand, and Hohenberg (1966) value for a type II superconductor characterized by dirty limit, weak isotropic electron phonon coupling, and no paramagnetic limiting. It is suggested that the enhancement results from anisotropy or clean limit or both. Other ternary molybdenum sulfides appear to show similar anomalies.

  20. Motor Cortex Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Facial, Upper Extremity, and Throat Pain.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-29

    Trigeminal Neuralgia (Burchiel Type I); Trigeminal Neuralgia (Burchiel Type II); Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain; Trigeminal Deafferentation Pain; Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Types I and II, Involving the Upper Extremity); Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia; Upper Extremity Pain Due to Deafferentation of the Cervical Spine; Central Pain Syndromes

  1. A Production Calendar Based on Water Temperature, Spat Size, and Husbandry Practices Reduce OsHV-1 μvar Impact on Cultured Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Ebro Delta (Catalonia), Mediterranean Coast of Spain.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Noèlia; Gairin, Ignasi; Pérez, Josu; Andree, Karl B; Roque, Ana; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Rodgers, Chris J; Aguilera, Cristobal; Furones, M Dolors

    2017-01-01

    Since 2006, the production of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Ebro Delta area has dramatically declined from around 800 metric tons (MT) per year to 138 MT in 2011. This decline in production has had a significant socio-economic impact in a region where the shellfish sector is a traditional economic activity for many families. The identified agent responsible for this reduction in C. gigas production was Ostreid Herpesvirus microvar (OsHV-1 μvar), which has been associated with C. gigas spat mortalities in France, and in many other countries. In Spain the episodes of mortality became critical for the regional shellfish production between 2008 until 2014, with mortality percentage up to 100%. In this study, local hatchery C. gigas spat was used as sentinel animals for epidemiological studies and management tests carried out with the aim of reducing oyster mortality in the Ebro Delta area. A production calendar mainly based on water temperature dynamics was designed around an optimal schedule for spat immersion. The immersion calendar included two optimal periods for spat immersion, in summer when temperatures are ≥25°C and at the end of autumn and beginning of winter when they are ≤13°C. Such production planning has reduced mortalities from 80% (in 2014 and previous years) to 2-7.5% in 2015 in cemented oysters. Furthermore, other recommendations related to spat immersion size, culture density and methodology, and cementing calendar, which helped to achieve the results presented, were also recorded and transferred to local producers. This work presents a successfully tested management strategy reducing OsHV-1 μvar impact by designing new field management practices mainly focused on the handling and timing of spat immersion. This approach could be used as a management model in areas presenting similar production practices and environmental characteristics.

  2. A Production Calendar Based on Water Temperature, Spat Size, and Husbandry Practices Reduce OsHV-1 μvar Impact on Cultured Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Ebro Delta (Catalonia), Mediterranean Coast of Spain

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Noèlia; Gairin, Ignasi; Pérez, Josu; Andree, Karl B.; Roque, Ana; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Rodgers, Chris J.; Aguilera, Cristobal; Furones, M. Dolors

    2017-01-01

    Since 2006, the production of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Ebro Delta area has dramatically declined from around 800 metric tons (MT) per year to 138 MT in 2011. This decline in production has had a significant socio-economic impact in a region where the shellfish sector is a traditional economic activity for many families. The identified agent responsible for this reduction in C. gigas production was Ostreid Herpesvirus microvar (OsHV-1 μvar), which has been associated with C. gigas spat mortalities in France, and in many other countries. In Spain the episodes of mortality became critical for the regional shellfish production between 2008 until 2014, with mortality percentage up to 100%. In this study, local hatchery C. gigas spat was used as sentinel animals for epidemiological studies and management tests carried out with the aim of reducing oyster mortality in the Ebro Delta area. A production calendar mainly based on water temperature dynamics was designed around an optimal schedule for spat immersion. The immersion calendar included two optimal periods for spat immersion, in summer when temperatures are ≥25°C and at the end of autumn and beginning of winter when they are ≤13°C. Such production planning has reduced mortalities from 80% (in 2014 and previous years) to 2–7.5% in 2015 in cemented oysters. Furthermore, other recommendations related to spat immersion size, culture density and methodology, and cementing calendar, which helped to achieve the results presented, were also recorded and transferred to local producers. This work presents a successfully tested management strategy reducing OsHV-1 μvar impact by designing new field management practices mainly focused on the handling and timing of spat immersion. This approach could be used as a management model in areas presenting similar production practices and environmental characteristics. PMID:28316573

  3. Dynamics of suprabenthos off the Ebro Delta (Catalan Sea: western Mediterranean): Spatial 13 and temporal patterns and relationships with environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Palanques, Albert; Guillén, Jorge; Demestre, Montserrat

    2007-12-01

    Dynamics of suprabenthos (hyperbenthos) composition and biomass have been simultaneously analyzed at two sites (S1, S2) off the Ebro River Delta (western Mediterranean). The stations, separated by ca. 5 km, differed in terms of depth (S1, 47 m; S2, 61 m), distance to the river mouth (S2 south of S1 and farther from the mouth) and fishing activity (S1 is a fishing ground; S2 is in an area closed to fishing). Peracarids (gammaridean amphipods, mysids, and cumaceans) were dominant among suprabenthic taxa. Seasonality was the main explanation for changes in taxonomic composition, with two seasonal groups indicated by MDS analyses (late summer-autumn, August-September, and November 2003; early summer, June and July samples). Peracarids at both S1 and S2 showed a peak of abundance in early July, with the highest densities reaching 5400 individuals (100 m) -2 at S2. There was a sharp decrease of density in late July (S1) and August (S2), then an increase in August (S1) and in September (S2), respectively. A secondary peak of abundance occurred in November (S1) and December (S2). There was, therefore, a similar picture in the dynamics of suprabenthic peracarids at both sites, though with a delay of 1 month at the deeper S2. This pattern coincided with changes in river discharge (specifically, a decrease of suprabenthos when influx was below 200 m 3 s -1 in the period June-September 2003), and with the formation of a thermal gradient (also in June-September 2003) between S1 and S2 associated with the 15 °C isotherm. In addition, the decrease of suprabenthos in late July-August also coincided with the massive occurrence of mucilaginous aggregates close to the bottom (at between 0 and 4 m above the bottom), in the usual habitat of suprabenthos. C/N ratios in sediments (an indicator of the degree of degradation of organic matter (OM)) increased during this peak abundance of mucilaginous aggregates. The impoverishment of sediments in total organic carbon (TOC) was parallel to

  4. Upper Eyelid Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Gabriela Mabel; Prost, Angela Michelle

    2016-05-01

    Reconstruction of the upper eyelid is complicated because the eyelid must retain mobility, flexibility, function, and a suitable mucosal surface over the delicate cornea. Defects of the upper eyelid may be due to congenital defects or traumatic injury or follow oncologic resection. This article focuses on reconstruction due to loss of tissue. Multiple surgeries may be needed to reach the desired results, addressing loss of tissue and then loss of function. Each defect is unique and the laxity and availability of surrounding tissue vary. Knowing the most common techniques for repair assists surgeons in the multifaceted planning that takes place.

  5. Cancer of the upper rectum.

    PubMed

    Bondeven, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Rectal cancer constitutes one-third of all colorectal cancers, and the incidence in Denmark increasing. In 2012, 1.400 cases were registered, and of these 38% were located in the upper rectum. There have been several key advances in the optimal management of rectal cancer during the past decades, primarily by standardisation and improvement of the surgical procedure. There is now general agreement that the optimal surgical treatment involves the concept of total mesorectal excision and that a resection with tumour-free margins is crucial. Controversy exists as to whether total mesorectal excision (TME) is necessary for upper rectal cancers or if a partial mesorectal excision (PME) with mesorectal transection 5 cm below the tumour is adequate. Furthermore, there is no agreement as to whether surgery alone is sufficient or whether neoadjuvant radio- and/or chemotherapy should be administered for tumours of the upper rectum. This thesis aims to discuss aspects of the treatment of rectal cancer with regard to the adequacy of mesorectal excision and oncological outcome with a particular focus on cancer of the upper rectum. In study I, the extent and completeness of mesorectal excision was estimated by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis in patients with primary surgery for rectal cancer. In the 136 patients with post-operative MRI, inadvertent residual mesorectal tissue was evident in 40%, especially following PME, suggesting suboptimal surgery performed. Additionally in patients who had PME, the distal margin was found to be less than 3 cm in more than 50% of patients, suggesting a discrepancy between guidelines and the actual surgery performed. In study II, we estimated the risk of local recurrence in the previously audited cohort of patients, with a particular focus on patients with upper rectal cancer treated by PME and without neo-adjuvant therapy as standard. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, the total three-year local recurrence rate was 7% with

  6. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  7. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  8. STS upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, M. D.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Several design/development and operational approaches for STS upper stages are being pursued to realize maximum operational and economic benefits upon the introduction of the STS in the 1980s. The paper focuses special attention on safety operations, launch site operations and on-orbit operations.

  9. STS upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, M. D.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Several design/development and operational approaches for STS upper stages are being pursued to realize maximum operational and economic benefits upon the introduction of the STS in the 1980s. The paper focuses special attention on safety operations, launch site operations and on-orbit operations.

  10. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdomen or ask you to change position several times to evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that mix with the barium coating your stomach. ...

  11. Arctic Upper Ocean Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    freezing, because a relatively strong positive thermal gradient exists across the thin ice layer separating the fresh meltwater (at 0 °C) from seawater...the ice/upper ocean system in the marginal ice zone of the Greenland Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 7017-7031. PUBLICATIONS McPhee, M. G., 2001

  12. Upper Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Describes computer-oriented teaching activities for the upper grades. They focus on the use of databases in history classes, checking taxes, examining aspects of the joystick button on Atari microcomputers, printing control using Logo, and a Logo program that draws whirling squares. All activities can be adapted for lower grades. (JN)

  13. Upper Airway Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Verbraecken, Johan A.; De Backer, Wilfried A.

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses the pathophysiological aspects of sleep-disordered breathing, with focus on upper airway mechanics in obstructive and central sleep apnoea, Cheyne-Stokes respiration and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. These disorders constitute the end points of a spectrum with distinct yet interrelated mechanisms that lead to substantial pathology, i.e. increased upper airway collapsibility, control of breathing instability, increased work of breathing, disturbed ventilatory system mechanics and neurohormonal changes. Concepts are changing. Although sleep apnoea is considered more and more to be an increased loop gain disorder, the central type of apnoea is now considered as an obstructive event, because it causes pharyngeal narrowing, associated with prolonged expiration. Although a unifying concept for the pathogenesis is lacking, it seems that these patients are in a vicious circle. Knowledge of common patterns of sleep-disordered breathing may help to identify these patients and guide therapy. PMID:19478479

  14. Radiocarbon dating casts doubt on the late chronology of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in southern Iberia.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rachel E; Barroso-Ruíz, Cecilio; Caparrós, Miguel; Jordá Pardo, Jesús F; Galván Santos, Bertila; Higham, Thomas F G

    2013-02-19

    It is commonly accepted that some of the latest dates for Neanderthal fossils and Mousterian industries are found south of the Ebro valley in Iberia at ca. 36 ka calBP (calibrated radiocarbon date ranges). In contrast, to the north of the valley the Mousterian disappears shortly before the Proto-Aurignacian appears at ca. 42 ka calBP. The latter is most likely produced by anatomically modern humans. However, two-thirds of dates from the south are radiocarbon dates, a technique that is particularly sensitive to carbon contaminants of a younger age that can be difficult to remove using routine pretreatment protocols. We have attempted to test the reliability of chronologies of 11 southern Iberian Middle and early Upper Paleolithic sites. Only two, Jarama VI and Zafarraya, were found to contain material that could be reliably dated. In both sites, Middle Paleolithic contexts were previously dated by radiocarbon to less than 42 ka calBP. Using ultrafiltration to purify faunal bone collagen before radiocarbon dating, we obtain ages at least 10 ka (14)C years older, close to or beyond the limit of the radiocarbon method for the Mousterian at Jarama VI and Neanderthal fossils at Zafarraya. Unless rigorous pretreatment protocols have been used, radiocarbon dates should be assumed to be inaccurate until proven otherwise in this region. Evidence for the late survival of Neanderthals in southern Iberia is limited to one possible site, Cueva Antón, and alternative models of human occupation of the region should be considered.

  15. Myxomycetes from upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raheem, Ahmed M

    2002-01-01

    The results of the first inventory of Myxomycetes from the subtropical region Upper Egypt are reported. The substrates were wood, bark of living and dead tree and leaf litter. 20 species belonging to 17 genera of Myxomycetes were identified. Wood was the best substrate for Myxomycetes colonization. Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa, Didymiun melanospermum, Licea biforis and Lycogala epidendrum were the most common species. Brief description and classification of species are provided.

  16. Arctic Upper Ocean Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    understand the turbulent transfer of momentum, heat , salt, and other scalar contaminants in naturally occurring boundary layers of the ocean, and to apply...numerical models of the sea ice/upper ocean system. APPROACH I have developed systems for measuring vertical turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat , and...the empirical observation that the length scale associated with vertical turbulent tranfer (mixing length) is inversely proportional to the wavenumber

  17. View down and east from the Upper Tier of Upper ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View down and east from the Upper Tier of Upper Raceway, Rogers Storage Building immediate right, Rogers Frame Fitting Shop (HAER No. NJ-3-B) in background - Great Falls/S. U. M. Power Canal System, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  18. 4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP OF MAIN WATERFALL, FACING NORTHEAST - Paradise River First Crossing Bridge, Spanning Paradise River at Narada Falls on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  19. 8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, ONE DIAGONAL BRACE - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  20. Occurrence of Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in the Upper Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers and Their Tributaries in New Jersey, July 2003 to February 2004: Phase II of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for New York-New Jersey Harbor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Timothy P.; Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of surface water and suspended sediment were collected from the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers and their tributaries in New Jersey from July 2003 to February 2004 to determine the concentrations of selected chlorinated organic and inorganic constituents. This sampling and analysis was conducted as Phase II of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Workplan?Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP), which is overseen by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Phase II of the New Jersey Workplan was conducted to define upstream tributary and point sources of contaminants in those rivers sampled during Phase I work, with special emphasis on the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers. Samples were collected from three groups of tributaries: (1) the Second, Third, and Saddle Rivers; (2) the Pompton and upper Passaic Rivers; and (3) the West Branch and main stem of the Elizabeth River. The Second, Third, and Saddle Rivers were sampled near their confluence with the tidal Passaic River, but at locations not affected by tidal flooding. The Pompton and upper Passaic Rivers were sampled immediately upstream from their confluence at Two Bridges, N.J. The West Branch and the main stem of the Elizabeth River were sampled just upstream from their confluence at Hillside, N.J. All tributaries were sampled during low-flow discharge conditions using the protocols and analytical methods for organic constituents used in low-flow sampling in Phase I. Grab samples of streamflow also were collected at each site and were analyzed for trace elements (mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and lead) and for suspended sediment, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. The measured concentrations and available historical suspended-sediment and stream-discharge data (where available) were used to estimate average annual loads of suspended sediment and organic compounds in these rivers. Total suspended-sediment loads for 1975?2000 were estimated using rating

  1. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  2. Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2009-01-01

    Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

  3. Upper lumbar disk herniations.

    PubMed

    Cedoz, M E; Larbre, J P; Lequin, C; Fischer, G; Llorca, G

    1996-06-01

    Specific features of upper lumbar disk herniations are reviewed based on data from the literature and from a retrospective study of 24 cases treated surgically between 1982 and 1994 (seven at L1-L2 and 17 at L2-L3). Clinical manifestations are polymorphic, misleading (abdominogenital pain suggestive of a visceral or psychogenic condition, meralgia paresthetica, isolated sciatica; femoral neuralgia is uncommon) and sometimes severe (five cases of cauda equina syndrome in our study group). The diagnostic usefulness of imaging studies (radiography, myelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and results of surgery are discussed. The risk of misdiagnosis and the encouraging results of surgery are emphasized.

  4. ACRIM II Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-08-23

    ACRIM II Data and Information Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance ... Version:  V2 Level:  L2 Platform:  Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) ... NATIVE Tools:  Earthdata Search: Order Data HTML Order Tool:   Order Data Parameters:  ...

  5. Sinkholes in the salt-bearing evaporite karst of the Ebro River valley upstream of Zaragoza city (NE Spain): Geomorphological mapping and analysis as a basis for risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, J. P.; Gutiérrez, F.; Lucha, P.; Bonachea, J.; Remondo, J.; Cendrero, A.; Gutiérrez, M.; Gimeno, M. J.; Pardo, G.; Sánchez, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    A detailed sinkhole map has been produced in a stretch of the Ebro Valley (40.8 km 2) including the western sector of Zaragoza city (NE Spain). During the last few decades, around 70% of the original sinkhole area has been filled with anthropogenic sediments causing the disappearance of 137 ha of wetlands. The interstratal karstification of salts (halite and glauberite) and a WNW-ESE-trending joint set have played a major control in the development of sinkholes. Three morphometric types of sinkholes have been differentiated, each attributed to a specific subsidence mechanism inferred from the paleosinkholes exposed in the surrounding of Zaragoza city; sagging of bedrock and cover, collapse of bedrock and cover, and collapse of cover material related to the downward migration of particles through dissolutional conduits. Each type of sinkhole is characterised by a distinctive behaviour in terms of controlling factors, spatio-temporal distribution and kinematics, and consequently the proposed differentiation may have a practical utility. The vast majority of the subsidence damage identified in the area occurs within the boundaries of pre-existing sinkholes identifiable in old aerial photographs and topographical maps. This fact demonstrates that the application of preventive planning strategies based on detailed geomorphological maps would have allowed avoidance of most of the large financial losses caused by subsidence in the area, of the order of hundreds of thousands of euros per year.

  6. Oriental upper blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chau-Jin

    2009-02-01

    Aesthetic surgery of the upper eyelids is a very common procedure performed in cosmetic practices around the world. The word blepharoplasty, however, has a different meaning in Asia than it does elsewhere. Orientals have different periorbital anatomic characteristics, their motivations for seeking eyelid treatment are different, and operative techniques have been adapted consequently. There are also many eyelid shapes among Orientals, mostly with regard to the presence and location of the supratarsal fold and/or presence of an epicanthal fold. The surgeon must therefore master a range of surgical procedures to treat these variations adequately. It is critical to know the indications for each blepharoplasty technique as well as their complications to select the right surgery and avoid unfavorable results. Epicanthoplasty performed on the right patient can greatly improve aesthetic results while retaining ethnic characteristics. This article will discuss Oriental eyelid characteristics, preoperative patient assessment, commonly used corrective techniques for the "double-eyelid" creation, and complications and how to avoid them.

  7. Photobilirubin II.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, R; Buckley, D G; Hamzetash, D; Hawkes, G E; Ioannou, S; Stoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    An improved preparation of photobilirubin II in ammoniacal methanol is described. Evidence is presented which distinguishes between the two structures proposed earlier for photobilirubin II in favour of the cycloheptadienyl structure. Nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement measurements with bilirubin IX alpha and photobilirubin II in dimethyl sulphoxide are complicated by the occurrence of negative and zero effects. The partition coefficient of photobilirubin II between chloroform and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) is 0.67. PMID:6743241

  8. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    SAGE II Data and Information The goals of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment ( SAGE ) II are to determine the spatial distributions of stratospheric ... profiles and calculating monthly averages of each. The SAGE II sensor (a Sun Photometer) was launched into a 57-degree inclination ...

  9. Archaeological Investigations in the Upper Tombigbee Valley, Mississippi: Phase II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    previous year. Stripping allowed quick access to a cemented manganese | stratum which effectively sealed the Early Archaic component beneath it. A...I investigators (IV; Bense 1982: Chapter 10, * Figure 10.6), and judged to contain the sealed , intact early Archaic cultural deposits. During the...phase. Feature 4: a historic trash dumping area near what had been the southwest area of the ’old house. Mixed in with plastic, glass , nails, crockery

  10. Upper Mississippi II Dredged Material Disposal Site Recreational User Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    true where a popular beach was near a large metropolitan area, such as Hogback Island near Quincy, IL, in Pool 21. E. Climatic Factors Cool...of the users who reported they were headed for a specific place said they were going to Hogback Island (Q 25). The average party size was seven people...Use of Pool 21 and Hogback Island on Selected Days Utilizing Aerial and Water Based Observation." Unpublished Paper Dept. of Recreation and Parks

  11. Artificial auroras in the upper atmosphere. II - Imaging results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.; Burch, J. L.; Swenson, G. R.; Aamodt, E. K.; Geller, S. P.; Rairden, R. L.; Hassler, P. L.

    1993-01-01

    On the ATLAS 1 mission (STS-45, launched March 24, 1992) two experiments, AEPI (Atmospheric Emissions Photometric Imaging) and SEPAC (Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators) performed the first of a series of active experiments intended to probe the atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere with electron beams. The luminous artificial aurora generated by the electron beam interaction was detected and measured by AEPI both in white light and in a narrow wavelength band at 427.8 nm (peak intensity 5 kR). Modelling calculation showed that there was a significant contribution from emissions originating near the spacecraft. The spatial intensity distribution of the observed auroral patch is consistent with emission contribution from both high and low altitude regions. An extended tail in the direction of the shuttle wake was observed in the 427.8 nm channel, consistent with a decay time associated with the dissipation of the hot electron plasma.

  12. Ares I Upper Stage Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chojnacki, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the elements that make up the Ares I launch vehicle, with particular attention devoted to the upper stage of the vehicle. The upper stage elememnts, a lunar mission profile, and the upper stage objectives are reviewed. The work that Marshall Space Flight Center is doing is highlighted: work on the full scale welding process, the vertical milling machining, and the thermal protection system.

  13. "Interior Views of the Tule River Power HouseUpper Left, Switchboard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Interior Views of the Tule River Power House--Upper Left, Switchboard and Gallery; Upper Right, One of the Governors; Lower, Generator Set No. 1." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. II, No. 3, March 1914, p. 120 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  14. Esthetic enhancements in upper blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Judy W; Baker, Shan R

    2013-01-01

    Traditional upper blepharoplasty typically involves resection of excess upper eyelid skin and muscle with or without fat excision. Well-established concepts in periorbital aging have been challenged by newer morphologic and histologic studies that have characterized the changes that occur in the various periorbital soft tissue components. Several modified or adjunctive techniques have recently emerged to improve esthetic outcomes in upper blepharoplasty. The authors review surgical technique in detail: nasal fat repositioning, orbicularis oculi preservation, increasing lateral upper eyelid fullness, lacrimal gland resuspension, internal brow elevation, and glabellar myectomy, along with complications and aftercare involved with procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    PubMed

    Montserrat, J M; Badia, J R

    1999-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical picture, diagnosis and management of the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Presently, there is not enough data on key points like the frequency of UARS and the morbidity associated with this condition. Furthermore, the existence of LIARS as an independent sleep disorder and its relation with snoring and obstructive events is in debate. The diagnosis of UARS is still a controversial issue. The technical limitations of the classic approach to monitor airflow with thermistors and inductance plethysmography, as well as the lack of a precise definition of hypopnea, may have led to a misinterpretation of UARS as an independent diagnosis from the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be missed using a conventional polysomnographic setting unless appropriate techniques are applied. The use of an esophageal balloon to monitor inspiratory effort is currently the gold standard. However, other sensitive methods such as the use of a pneumotachograph and, more recently, nasal cannula/pressure transducer systems or on-line monitoring of respiratory impedance with the forced oscillation technique may provide other interesting possibilities. Recognition and characterization of this subgroup of patients within sleep breathing disorders is important because they are symptomatic and may benefit from treatment. Management options to treat UARS comprise all those currently available for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, the subset of patients classically identified as LIARS that exhibit skeletal craneo-facial abnormalities might possibly obtain further benefit from maxillofacial surgery.

  16. Upper Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  17. Identification of compounds bound to suspended solids causing sub-lethal toxic effects in Daphnia magna. A field study on re-suspended particles during river floods in Ebro River.

    PubMed

    Rivetti, Claudia; Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Lacorte, Silvia; Díez, Sergi; Lázaro, Wilkinson L; Barata, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Identifying chemicals causing adverse effects in organisms present in water remains a challenge in environmental risk assessment. This study aimed to assess and identify toxic compounds bound to suspended solids re-suspended during a prolonged period of flushing flows in the lower part of Ebro River (NE, Spain). This area is contaminated with high amounts of organochlorine and mercury sediment wastes. Chemical characterization of suspended material was performed by solid phase extraction using a battery of non-polar and polar solvents and analyzed by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS. Mercury content was also determined for all sites. Post-exposure feeding rates of Daphnia magna were used to assess toxic effects of whole and filtered water samples and of re-constituted laboratory water with re-suspended solid fractions. Organochlorine and mercury residues in the water samples increased from upstream to downstream locations. Conversely, toxic effects were greater at the upstream site than downstream of the superfund Flix reservoir. A further analysis of the suspended solid fraction identified a toxic component eluted within the 80:20 methanol:water fraction. Characterization of that toxic component fraction by LC-MS/MS identified the phytotoxin anatoxin-a, whose residue levels were correlated with observed feeding inhibition responses. Further feeding inhibition assays conducted in the lab using anatoxin-a produced from Planktothrix agardhii, a filamentous cyanobacteria, confirmed field results. This study provides evidence that in real field situation measured contaminant residues do not always agree with toxic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Are native naiads more tolerant to pollution than exotic freshwater bivalve species? An hypothesis tested using physiological responses of three species transplanted to mercury contaminated sites in the Ebro River (NE, Spain).

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; López, Miguel Angel; Díez, Sergi; Barata, Carlos

    2010-11-01

    In the lower Ebro River exist the paradoxical convergence of relatively well preserved river dynamics with the historical presence of a chloralkali plant with a long history of mercury discharges and the recent invasion of foreign bivalves species. Here we performed a comparative study on two alien bivalves, the Zebra mussel and the Asian clam (Dreissena polymorpha and Corbicula fluminea), and one protected species of naiads (Psilunio littoralis), which is the most common species of the freshwater mussel assemblages in this river. Individuals of the three species were transplanted to three sites that included a clean unpolluted upstream site, a contaminated location next to the mercury source and a downstream one. The study focused on digestive gland antioxidant and oxidative stress responses such as antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S transferase, glutathione levels, metallothionein proteins, DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation levels. Results evidenced interspecies differences on accumulation levels of mercury, antioxidant defensive systems and oxidative tissue damage. The naiad species, despite of accumulating more mercury showed the greatest antioxidant defensive potential, which was characterized by having high constitutive activities of glutathione S transferase and inducible activities and levels of key antioxidant enzymes and glutathione. Exposed individuals of C. fluminea had moderate levels of metal accumulation, the highest activities of antioxidant enzymes but also high levels of lipid peroxidation. D. polymorpha mussels showed the lowest levels of mercury but the lowest antioxidant responses and consequently the highest levels of oxidative injuries in the DNA and of mortality. Our results support the hypothesis that naiad species might be more tolerant to pollution than exotic species.

  19. Application of a competitive real time PCR for detection of Marteilia refringens genotype "O" and "M" in two geographical locations: The Ebro Delta, Spain and the Rhine-Meuse Delta, the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Noèlia; Voorbergen-Laarman, Michal; Lacuesta, Beatriz; Furones, Dolors; Engelsma, Marc Y

    2017-07-19

    Species belonging to the genus Marteilia are protozoan parasites of bivalves. The species Marteilia refringens, jeopardizing the health of European bivalves, is included on the list of OIE notifiable pathogens. Two genotypes of Marteilia refringens are distinguished: type "O" affecting mainly oysters, and type "M" affecting mainly mussels. Historically, detection of Marteilia species is primarily carried out by histology. In recent years molecular assays are more frequently used for the detection of mollusc pathogens, also in routine monitoring. In the present work, a competitive real-time PCR assay was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of M. refringens and discrimination between "M" and "O" genotypes of M. refringens. The real-time PCR assay was shown to be analytically sensitive and specific and has a high repeatability and efficiency. Subsequent application of the assay on collected bivalves from two geographical locations, the Ebro Delta in Mediterranean Spain and the Rhine-Meuse Delta in the Netherlands resulted in detection of M. refringens type M in Mytilus galloprovincialis and M. refringens type O in Ostrea edulis from Spain. In two O. edulis specimen both M. refringens type O and type M were detected. In the Netherlands M. refringens was not observed in any of the tested Mytilus edulis and O. edulis. The results obtained by real time PCR were in correspondence with the results obtained by histopathology and a substantial agreement with the results obtained by conventional PCR. In conclusion, the developed real time PCR assay facilitates rapid detection and subtyping of M. refringens and could be applied for further studies on epidemiology of the parasite, geographical distribution and host specificity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047576 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  1. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047582 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  2. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles K; Ahn, Sang Tae; Kim, Nakyung

    2013-01-01

    Upper lid blepharoplasty is the most common plastic surgery procedure in Asia and has consistently maintained its position as cultural acceptance and techniques have evolved. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty is a complex procedure that requires comprehensive understanding of the anatomy and precise surgical technique. The creation of the supratarsal crease has gone through many evolutions in technique but the principles and goals remain the same: a functional, natural-appearing eyelid crease that brings out the beauty of the Asian eye. Recent advances have improved functional and aesthetic outcomes of Asian upper lid blepharoplasty.

  3. Ares I Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhage, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Stage Element of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The Upper Stage Element concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. While the First Stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet design approach. A clean-sheet upper stage design does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in evolvability to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; incorporation of state-of-the-art materials and hardware; and incorporation of design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a more operable system.

  4. Upper atmosphere pollution measurements (GASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental effects are discussed of engine effluents of future large fleets of aircraft operating in the stratosphere. Topics discussed include: atmospheric properties, aircraft engine effluents, upper atmospheric measurements, global air sampling, and data reduction and analysis

  5. Upper Extremity Amputations and Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Steven A.; Askari, Morad

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104

  6. Upper extremity amputations and prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Ovadia, Steven A; Askari, Morad

    2015-02-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions.

  7. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-04-18

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea.

  8. Orographic Disturbances of Upper Atmosphere Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shefov, N. N.; Pertsev, N. N.

    1984-01-01

    There are some increases of the temperature of the hydroxyl emission (delta T approximately 20 K, z approximately 90 km) and of the intensity of the 63000 oxygen emission (delta I/I approximately 20 per cent, z approximately 250 km) for the lee of the mountains at distances about 150 km in the case of the latitudinal direction of the wind (U approximately 10 m/s) at the 3000 m level. Airflow motions over mountains may be one of the possible processes of generation of wave disturbances penetrating into the upper atmospheres (HINES, 1974; LINDZEN, 1971). The purpose here is to study the penetration of orographic disturbances into upper atmosphere. Airplane measurements of emission variations of hydroxyl and atomic oxygen 6300 A near the Northern Ural mountains were made. Several nocturnal flights were carried out in March, 1980 and January to February, 1981 at heights about 3000 m along 64 deg northern latitude in the Ural region. Spectrographs SP-48 with electronic image converters registration for OH ((9,4) and (5,1) bands - 7700 to 8100 A) and OI (6300 A) emissions were used. The zenith region was observed, and exposure time was 2 minutes. This corresponds to averaging of the emission intensities along the airplane trace over a distance of 10 km. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric temperature variations at the flight altitude were made.

  9. Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Cook, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Agency s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) will be the first human rated space transportation system developed in the United States since the Space Shuttle. The CLV will utilize existing Shuttle heritage hardware and systems combined with a "clean sheet design" for the Upper Stage. The Upper Stage element will be designed and developed by a team of NASA engineers managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. The team will design the Upper Stage based on the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) Team s point of departure conceptual design as illustrated in the figure below. This concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 1 15 feet long and 216 inches in diameter. While this "clean-sheet" upper stage design inherently carries more risk than utilizing a modified design, the approach also has many advantages. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a "clean-sheet" design for the new CLV Upper Stage as well as describe in detail the overall design of the Upper Stage and its integration into NASA s CLV.

  10. Upper Limb Multifactorial Movement Analysis in Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bahm, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Multifactorial motion analysis was first established for gait and then developed in the upper extremity. Recordings of infrared light reflecting sensitive passive markers in space, combined with surface eletromyographic recordings and/or transmitted forces, allow eclectic study of muscular coordination in the upper limb. Brachial plexus birth injury is responsible for various patterns of muscle weakness, imbalance, and/or simultaneous activation, soft tissue contractures, and bone-joint deformities, leading to individual motion patterns and adaptations, which we studied by means of motion analysis tools. We describe the technical development and examination setup to evaluate motion impairment and present first clinical results. Motion analysis is a reliable objective assessment tool allowing precise pre- and postoperative multimodal evaluation of upper limb function. Level of evidence: II. PMID:28077954

  11. ACCURATE RITZ WAVELENGTHS OF PARITY-FORBIDDEN [Co II] AND [V II] LINES OF ASTROPHYSICAL INTEREST

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C.

    2013-08-15

    We report a comprehensive list of accurate Ritz wavelengths for parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] lines obtained from the analysis of energy levels measured in the laboratory with Fourier transform emission spectroscopy. Such lines, particularly those in the infrared, are in demand for the analysis of low-density astrophysical plasmas in and around objects such as planetary nebulae, star-forming regions, and active galactic nuclei. Transitions between all known metastable levels of Co II and V II are included in our analysis, producing wavelengths for 1477 [V II] lines and 782 [Co II] lines. Of these, 170 [V II] lines and 171 [Co II] lines arise from transitions with calculated transition probabilities greater than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1} and upper level excitations of less than 5 eV, and thus are likely to be observed in astrophysical spectra.

  12. Radiocarbon dating casts doubt on the late chronology of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in southern Iberia

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Rachel E.; Barroso-Ruíz, Cecilio; Caparrós, Miguel; Jordá Pardo, Jesús F.; Galván Santos, Bertila; Higham, Thomas F. G.

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that some of the latest dates for Neanderthal fossils and Mousterian industries are found south of the Ebro valley in Iberia at ca. 36 ka calBP (calibrated radiocarbon date ranges). In contrast, to the north of the valley the Mousterian disappears shortly before the Proto-Aurignacian appears at ca. 42 ka calBP. The latter is most likely produced by anatomically modern humans. However, two-thirds of dates from the south are radiocarbon dates, a technique that is particularly sensitive to carbon contaminants of a younger age that can be difficult to remove using routine pretreatment protocols. We have attempted to test the reliability of chronologies of 11 southern Iberian Middle and early Upper Paleolithic sites. Only two, Jarama VI and Zafarraya, were found to contain material that could be reliably dated. In both sites, Middle Paleolithic contexts were previously dated by radiocarbon to less than 42 ka calBP. Using ultrafiltration to purify faunal bone collagen before radiocarbon dating, we obtain ages at least 10 ka 14C years older, close to or beyond the limit of the radiocarbon method for the Mousterian at Jarama VI and Neanderthal fossils at Zafarraya. Unless rigorous pretreatment protocols have been used, radiocarbon dates should be assumed to be inaccurate until proven otherwise in this region. Evidence for the late survival of Neanderthals in southern Iberia is limited to one possible site, Cueva Antón, and alternative models of human occupation of the region should be considered. PMID:23382220

  13. Climatic implications of correlated upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits on the Cinca and Gallego rivers, NE Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Claudia J; Mcdonald, Eric; Sancho, Carlos; Pena, Jose- Luis

    2008-01-01

    We correlate Upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits of the Cinca and Gallego River valleys (south central Pyrenees and Ebro basin, Spain) using geomorphic position, luminescence dates, and time-related trends in soil development. The ages obtained from glacial deposits indicate glacial periods at 85 {+-} 5 ka, 64 {+-} 11 ka, and 36 {+-} 3 ka (from glacial till) and 20 {+-} 3 ka (from loess). The fluvial drainage system, fed by glaciers in the headwaters, developed extensive terrace systems in the Cinca River valley at 178 {+-} 21 ka, 97 {+-} 16 ka, 61 {+-} 4 ka, 47 {+-} 4 ka, and 11 {+-} 1 ka, and in the Gallego River valley at 151 {+-} 11 ka, 68 {+-} 7 ka, and 45 {+-} 3 ka. The times of maximum geomorphic activity related to cold phases coincide with Late Pleistocene marine isotope stages and heinrich events. The maximum extent of glaciers during the last glacial occurred at 64 {+-} 11 ka, and the terraces correlated with this glacial phase are the most extensive in both the Cinca (61 {+-} 4 ka) and Gallego (68 {+-} 7 ka) valleys, indicating a strong increase in fluvial discharge and availability of sediments related to the transition to deglaciation. The global Last Glacial Maximum is scarcely represented in the south central Pyrenees owing to dominantly dry conditions at that time. Precipitation must be controlled by the position of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation system. The glacial systems and the associated fluvial dynamic seem sensitive to (1) global climate changes controlled by insolation, (2) North Atlantic thermohaline circulation influenced by freshwater pulses into the North Atlantic, and (3) anomalies in atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic controlling precipitation on the Iberian peninsula. The model of glacial and fluvial evolution during the Late Pleistocene in northern Spain could be extrapolated to other glaciated mountainous areas in southern Europe.

  14. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  15. Delta II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Delta II expendable launch vehicle with the ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite), cooperative space X-ray astronomy mission between NASA, Germany and United Kingdom, was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on June 1, 1990.

  16. Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Joseph; Chen, Dar-Ren; Wang, Yu-Fen; Lai, Hung-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group) and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group). The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6%) ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1%) to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance. PMID:28030581

  17. Upper incisors' positions after extraction.

    PubMed

    Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics.

  18. [Orthodontics and the upper airway].

    PubMed

    Cobo Plana, J; de Carlos Villafranca, F; Macías Escalada, E

    2004-03-01

    One of the general aims of orthodontic treatment and of the combination of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery is to achieve good occlusion and aesthetic improvement, especially in cases of severe dentoskeletal deformities. However, on many occasions, the parameters of the upper airways are not taken into account when the aims of conventional treatment are fulfilled. Patients with obstructive alterations during sleep represent for the orthodontist a type of patient who differs from the normal; for them, treatment should include the objective of improving oxygen saturation. Here, functional considerations should outweigh purely aesthetic ones. It is important, when making an orthodontic, surgical or combined diagnosis for a patient, to bear in mind the impact that treatment may have on the upper airways. Good aesthetics should never be achieved for some of our patients at the expense of diminishing the capacity of their upper airways.

  19. Simulation of Upper Limb Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uherčík, Filip; Hučko, Branislav

    2011-12-01

    The paper deals with controlling an upper limb prosthesis based on the measurement of myoelectric signals (MES) while drinking. MES signals have been measured on healthy limbs to obtain the same response for the prosthesis. To simulate the drinking motion of a healthy upper limb, the program ADAMS was used, with all degrees of freedom and a hand after trans-radial amputation with an existing hand prosthesis. Modification of the simulation has the exact same logic of control, where the muscle does not have to be strenuous all the time, but it is the impulse of the muscle which drives the motor even though the impulse disappears and passed away.

  20. Uncommon upper extremity compression neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Elisa J; Calfee, Ryan P

    2013-08-01

    Hand surgeons routinely treat carpal and cubital tunnel syndromes, which are the most common upper extremity nerve compression syndromes. However, more infrequent nerve compression syndromes of the upper extremity may be encountered. Because they are unusual, the diagnosis of these nerve compression syndromes is often missed or delayed. This article reviews the causes, proposed treatments, and surgical outcomes for syndromes involving compression of the posterior interosseous nerve, the superficial branch of the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve at the wrist, and the median nerve proximal to the wrist. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The upper atmosphere research satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcneal, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), whose launch is scheduled for 1991, will compile the most extensive data base to date on the coupled chemistry, energetics, and dynamics of the upper atmosphere, thereby directly addressing questions as to the extent of ozone depletion as a result of stratospheric photodissociation of molecules by solar UV radiation. The research efforts undertaken will give attention to the poorly-understood 15-100 km altiture region. Nominal mission lifetime will be 18 months, due to the projected lifetime of the cryogen employed by the Cryogenic Limb-Scanning Atmospheric Emission Spectrometer.

  2. Space Wire Upper Layer Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn; Schnurr, Richard; Gilley, Daniel; Parkes, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation addresses efforts to provide a streamlined approach for developing SpaceWire Upper layer protocols which allows industry to drive standardized communication solutions for real projects. The presentation proposes a simple packet header that will allow flexibility in implementing a diverse range of protocols.

  3. Nile behaviour and Upper Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeersch, Pierre M.

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence of a decreasing human occupation of the Upper Egyptian Nile valley during the MIS 5 to MIS 3 period. Whereas very large extraction sites of the Middle Stone Age have been recorded, only very few sites of the Upper Palaeolithic have been found. The best explanation of this fact is that during the Late Middle Stone Age and the Upper Palaeolithc there was nearly no need for raw materials because there was only a very restricted population present in Upper Egypt. From about 22 ka BP an important population increase is registered by the presence of numerous Late Palaeolithic sites. During the whole LGM there is abundant presence of humans along the Nile Valley in Upper Egypt. This population was mainly living from fishing. There seems to be an abrupt end of the Palaeolithic occupation after 12.8 ka BP. Until now, no sites were found in the Valley until some rare Epipaleolithic sites occur about 8.0 ka BP. It will be suggested that these population changes are influenced by the river Nile behaviour. The best interpretation of the observations in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley is the hypothesis that at the same time that Nile flow was reduced because of the dryness in its source area, the impact of aeolian activity was increased over Northeast Africa. The increased aeolian activity by northern winds in the Fayum and Wadi Ryan during the LGM resulted in the accumulation of aeolian sand in the valley. That aeolian sand was transported along the western Nile valley cliffs until it was accumulated when the Nile Valley change it S-N direction, such as at Nag'Hammadi. At other places sand was invading the Nile valley, directly from the Western Desert, creating a damming of the Nile at several places such as Armant and Aswan. As Nile flow was quite reduced, the Nile was unable to erode all the incoming sand and the Nile water with its important clay content was dammed. At several places large lakes were created in the Nile Valley. Those lakes were an ideal

  4. CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

  5. FAQs II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Frank, Vikki; Lester, Jaime; Yang, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    In their paper entitled "Why should postsecondary institutions consider partnering to offer (Individual Development Accounts (IDAs)?" the authors reviewed frequently asked questions they encountered from higher education professionals about IDAs, but as their research continued so did the questions. FAQ II has more in-depth questions and…

  6. Gamma II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, M.; Cline, J.; Owen, L.; Boehme, J.; Rottler, L.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.

    2011-05-01

    GAMMA II is the Guide Star Automatic Measuring MAchine relocated from STScI to the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). GAMMA II is a multi-channel laser-scanning microdensitometer that was used to measure POSS and SERC plates to create the Guide Star Catalog and the Digital Sky Survey. The microdensitometer is designed with submicron accuracy in x and y measurements using a HP 5507 laser interferometer, 15 micron sampling, and the capability to measure plates as large as 0.5-m across. GAMMA II is a vital instrument for the success of digitizing the direct, objective prism, and spectra photographic plate collections in APDA for research. We plan several targeted projects. One is a collaboration with Drs. P.D. Hemenway and R. L. Duncombe who plan to scan 1000 plates of 34 minor planets to identify systematic errors in the Fundamental System of celestial coordinates. Another is a collaboration with Dr. R. Hudec (Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) who is working within the Gaia Variability Unit CU7 to digitize objective prism spectra on the Henize plates and Burrell-Schmidt plates located in APDA. These low dispersion spectral plates provide optical counterparts of celestial high-energy sources and cataclysmic variables enabling the simulation of Gaia BP/RP outputs. The astronomical community is invited to explore the more than 140,000 plates from 20 observatories now archived in APDA, and use GAMMA II. The process of relocating GAMMA to APDA, re-commissioning, and starting up the production scan programs will be described. Also, we will present planned research and future upgrades to GAMMA II.

  7. Infrasound as upper atmospheric monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assink, Jelle D.

    Understanding and specification of the higher altitudes of the atmosphere with global coverage over all local times is hampered by the challenges of obtaining direct measurements in the upper atmosphere. Methods to measure the properties of the atmosphere above the stratopause is an active area of scientific research. In this thesis, we revisit the use of infrasound as a passive remote sensing technique for the upper atmosphere. Signals from the Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador are used to investigate the behavior of the upper atmosphere. Depending on the atmospheric conditions, stratospheric, mesospheric and thermospheric arrivals are observed during intervals of explosive volcanic activity. It is found that the travel times and dominant frequencies of the thermospheric arrivals exhibit a coherent variability with periods equal to those of the tidal harmonics. Theoretical predictions using atmospheric specifications show that the stratospheric arrivals are predicted within 1% of the observed value. For thermospheric arrivals, this error can be as high as 10%. The error in thermospheric celerities is found to be in accord with the typical uncertainty in upper atmospheric winds. Given the observed response of the infrasound celerities to upper atmospheric tidal variability, it is suggested that infrasound observations may be used as an additional source of information to constrain the atmospheric specifications in the upper atmosphere. We present corrected wind profiles that have been obtained by minimizing misfits in traveltime and source location using a Bayesian statistics grid search algorithm. Also, a Levenberg-Marquardt search algorithm is developed. Additionally, a new numerical method has been developed to solve the problem of infrasound propagation in a stratified medium with (high Mach number) background flow, based on a modal expansion. The underlying mathematics is by no means new and has been earlier described. This solution goes beyond the effective sound

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers at Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, lower the upper canister toward the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) below. After encapsulation is complete, the spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers at Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, lower the upper canister toward the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) below. After encapsulation is complete, the spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the upper canister is lowered toward the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) below. After encapsulation is complete, the spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the upper canister is lowered toward the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) below. After encapsulation is complete, the spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Working from a stand, technicians fasten the upper portion of the canister to the middle panels around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Working from a stand, technicians fasten the upper portion of the canister to the middle panels around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the upper canister is mated to the middle panels around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the upper canister is mated to the middle panels around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  12. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  13. Ares I Upper Stage Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    These presentation slides review the progress in the development of the Ares I upper stage. The development includes development of a manufacturing and processing assembly that will reduce the time required over 100 days, development of a weld tool that is a robotic tool that is the largest welder of its kind in the United States, development of avionics and software, and development of logisitics and operations systems.

  14. Trichoblastoma of the Upper Eyelid

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi, Bahram; Riazi-Esfahani, Hamid; Katoozpour, Ramon; Anvari, Pasha; Mortazavi, Mehdi; Amoli, Fahaimeh Asadi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of trichoblsatoma on the eyelid. Case Report: A 45-year-old woman presented with a recurring mass on her upper right eyelid. Histopathological examination revealed well-circumscribed tissue composed of an aggregation of basaloid cells. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for CD34 and CD10. The patient underwent total excision of the recurrent mass. Conclusion: Although rare, trichoblastoma should be considered in differential diagnosis of skin masses of the eyelids. PMID:28540015

  15. Upper Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Upper Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.5W) is clearly represented in this view from space. The area covered stretches almost 300 miles from Aransas Pass, on the Texas coast in the south to Cameron, Louisiana in the north. The sharp detail of both the natural and cultural features throughout the scene is especially evident in the Houston area where highways, major streets, airport runways and even some neighborhood lanes can be easily seen.

  16. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  17. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology.

  18. The upper atmosphere of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Yelle, Roger V.; Shemansky, Donald E.; Atreya, Sushil K.

    1991-01-01

    Voyager measurements of the upper atmosphere of Uranus are analyzed and developed. The upper atmosphere of Uranus is predominantly H2, with at most 10 percent He by volume, and the dominant constituent of the exosphere is H. The thermosphere is warm, with an asymptotic isothermal temperature of about 800 K. Atomic hydrogen at this temperature forms an extensive thermal corona and creates gas drag that severely limits the lifetime of small ring particles. The upper atmosphere emits copious amounts of UV radiation from pressures greater than 0.01 microbar. The depth of this emission level imposes a powerful constraint on permissible emission mechanisms. Electron excitation from a thin layer near the exobase appears to violate this constraint. Solar fluorescence is consistent with the observed trend in solar zenith-angle variation of the emissions and is absent from the night side of the planet. On Uranus, it accounts for the observed Lyman beta to H2 bands intensity ratio and an important fraction of the observed intensity (about 55 percent).

  19. [Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE)].

    PubMed

    Wirth, T

    2011-08-01

    A slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE) is the most common disease of the hip among adolescents. In the light of our current knowledge on the development of coxarthrosis, it represents a first line model case that has led to a series of novel ideas in the therapy for SUFE. The development of coxarthrosis from a cam impingement, i.e., the loss of offset of the neck of the femur and degenerative damage to the acetabular lip as its early form, is seen again in the clinical picture of slipped upper femoral epiphysis. Depending on the degree of slippage, we see a varying severity of the loss of offset and thus also different extents of the potential damage to the hip joint. This knowledge is by no means new. The questions of reorientation of the epiphysis of the humeral head and thus restoration of the anatomy of the coxal end of the femur have been addressed by renowned surgeons and answered with the development of widely varying procedures for surgical correction. However, within the framework of the surgical techniques introduced for treatment of impingement syndromes of the hip, these therapeutic options have been supplemented and broadened. The current discussion about the best therapeutic strategies emphasizes the fascination of the clinical entity of upper femoral epiphysis and constitutes a central component of this article. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. The effect of headgear on upper third molars: a retrospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Miclotte, Annelie; Grommen, Bieke; Lauwereins, Steven; Cadenas de Llano-Pérula, Maria; Alqerban, Ali; Verdonck, Anna; Fieuws, Steffen; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Willems, Guy

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the effects of orthodontic non-extraction treatment with or without headgear on the position of and the space available for upper third molars in growing children with class II malocclusions. The sample consisted of pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms of 294 class II orthodontic patients; 160 were treated with headgear and 134 were treated without headgear. The space available for the upper third molar was measured on the lateral cephalogram as the distance from pterygoid vertical (PTV) to the distal surface of the upper first molar crown (PTV-M1). Angulation, vertical position and tooth development stage of the upper third molars were evaluated on panoramic radiographs. All measurements were evaluated statistically. In both groups PTV-M1 increased, but the increase in PTV-M1 was significantly higher for patients treated without headgear. A linear model for repeated measures revealed that this difference was still significant after correction for age, gender and molar occlusion. Further, there is no evidence that the change in angulation, vertical position and development stage of the upper third molars during orthodontic treatment is influenced by headgear therapy. This study indicates that the use of headgear in growing patients significantly affects the space available for upper third molars. However, orthodontic treatment with headgear does not influence the angulation, vertical position and development stage of upper third molars. It is therefore important to always take into account third molars during treatment planning.

  1. Non-compliance Appliances for Upper Molar Distalization: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Noorollahian, Saeed; Alavi, Shiva; Shirban, Farinaz

    2015-01-01

    Tooth Size Arch-length Discrepancy (TSALD) is a common problem in orthodontics. Its clinical signs are tooth crowding, impaction and incisor proclination. The treatment options are dental arch expansion or tooth mass reduction (stripping or extraction). The "extraction versus non-extraction" controversy has been widely debated in the orthodontic literature. Distalization is a kind of arch expansion in anetro-posterior dimension. Several studies have evaluated both the therapeutic effectiveness and the side effects of the appliances for this method of space gaining. In some cases molar distalization is preferred, e.g., a patient with acceptable profile and skeletal pattern and half cusp Class II molar malocclusion or even less. In some cases molar distalization is the only way, e.g., the patient with previous upper premolar extraction and excessive overijet, or a skeletal Class III patient with previous upper premolar extraction needed upper anterior teeth retraction to create reverse overjet aspre surgical orthodontic decompensation. In this review article, we described non-compliance upper molar distalizing appliances.

  2. Solar Variability, Lunar Spectroscopy and Earth's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Philip G.

    Solar EUV radiation and its variability is of central importance to the earths upper atmosphere. Variability of the earths upper atmosphere is a major concern to NASAs satellite missions. This LARGE PROJECT (2 year) proposal asks for continued measurments of solar EUV variability using EUVE to observe solar light scattered from the moon. Existing EUVE data prove that we can enhance ourunderstanding of the physics of the upper atmosphere at a time when solar EUV measurements are scarce. Our aims include: (i) to understand the phase and polarization dependence of solar light scattered from the moon, (ii) to quantify variations in solar EUV irradiance, (iii) to calibrate these data with a rocket--launched EUV payload, and (iv) to use these data with simultaneous UV measurements from UARS as inputs to upper atmospheric models. Very short exposures (<30 min) are required. We request TYPE 2 observations twice a lunar month, and a variety of TYPE 1 observations to permit us to take the necessary steps towards converting lunar intensity data to absolute solar irradiances.

  3. Improved Mars Upper Atmosphere Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere is important for future Mars aerobraking activities. Solar cycle, seasonal, and dust trends (climate) as well as planetary wave activity (weather) are crucial to quantify in order to improve our ability to reasonably depict the state of the Mars upper atmosphere over time. To date, our best information is found in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Accelerometer (ACC) database collected during Phase 1 (Ls = 184 - 300; F10.7 = 70 - 90) and Phase 2 (Ls = 30 - 90; F10.7 = 90 - 150) of aerobraking. This database (100 - 170 km) consists of thermospheric densities, temperatures, and scale heights, providing our best constraints for exercising the coupled Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The Planetary Data System (PDS) contains level 0 and 2 MGS Accelerometer data, corresponding to atmospheric densities along the orbit track. Level 3 products (densities, temperatures, and scale heights at constant altitudes) are also available in the PDS. These datasets provide the primary model constraints for the new MGCM-MTGCM simulations summarized in this report. Our strategy for improving the characterization of the Mars upper atmospheres using these models has been three-fold : (a) to conduct data-model comparisons using the latest MGS data covering limited climatic and weather conditions at Mars, (b) to upgrade the 15-micron cooling and near-IR heating rates in the MGCM and MTGCM codes for ad- dressing climatic variations (solar cycle and seasonal) important in linking the lower and upper atmospheres (including migrating tides), and (c) to exercise the detailed coupled MGCM and MTGCM codes to capture and diagnose the planetary wave (migrating plus non-migrating tidal) features throughout the Mars year. Products from this new suite of MGCM-MTGCM coupled simulations are being used to improve our predictions of the structure of the Mars upper atmosphere for the

  4. Upper limb and eye movement coordination during reaching tasks in people with stroke.

    PubMed

    Meadmore, Katie L; Exell, Timothy A; Burridge, Jane H; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Freeman, Christopher T; Benson, Valerie

    2017-06-09

    To enhance understanding of the relationship between upper limb and eye movements during reaching tasks in people with stroke. Eye movements were recorded from 10 control participants and 8 chronic stroke participants during a visual orienting task (Experiment 1) and a series of reaching tasks (Experiment 2). Stroke participants completed the reaching tasks using (i) their less impaired upper limb, (ii) their more impaired upper limb without support, and (iii) their more impaired upper limb, with support (SaeboMAS gravitational support and/or electrical stimulation). Participants were tested individually and completed both experiments in the same session. Oculomotor control and the coordination between the upper limb and the oculomotor system were found to be intact in stroke participants when no limb movements were required, or when the less impaired upper limb was used. However, when the more impaired upper limb was used, success and accuracy in reaching decreased and patterns of eye movements changed, with an observed increase in eye movements to the limb itself. With upper limb support, patterns of hand-eye coordination were found to more closely resemble those of the control group. Deficits in upper limb motor systems result in changes in patterns of eye movement behavior during reaching tasks. These changes in eye movement behavior can be modulated by providing upper limb support. Implications for Rehabilitation Deficits in upper limb motor systems can result in changes in patterns of eye movement behavior during reaching tasks. Upper limb support can reduce deficits in hand-eye coordination. Stroke rehabilitation outcomes should consider motor and oculomotor performance.

  5. Physical examination of upper extremity compressive neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Popinchalk, Samuel P; Schaffer, Alyssa A

    2012-10-01

    A thorough history and physical examination are vital to the assessment of upper extremity compressive neuropathies. This article summarizes relevant anatomy and physical examination findings associated with upper extremity compressive neuropathies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The NASA program on upper atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Program is to develop a better understanding of the physical and chemical processes that occur in the earth's upper atmosphere with emphasis on the stratosphere.

  7. PESTICINS II. I and II

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Robert R.; Surgalla, Michael J.

    1962-01-01

    Brubaker, Robert R. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Michael J. Surgalla. Pesticins. II. Production of pesticin I and II. J. Bacteriol. 84:539–545. 1962.—Pesticin I was separated from pesticin I inhibitor by ion-exchange chromatography of cell-free culture supernatant fluids and by acid precipitation of soluble preparations obtained from mechanically disrupted cells. The latter procedure resulted in formation of an insoluble pesticin I complex which, upon removal by centrifugation and subsequent dissolution in neutral buffer, exhibited a 100- to 1,000-fold increase in antibacterial activity over that originally observed. However, activity returned to the former level upon addition of the acid-soluble fraction, which contained pesticin I inhibitor. Since the presence of pesticin I inhibitor leads to serious errors in the determination of pesticin I, an assay medium containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in excess Ca++ was developed; this medium eliminated the effect of the inhibitor. By use of the above medium, sufficient pesticin I was found to be contained within 500 nonirradiated cells to inhibit growth of a suitable indicator strain; at least 107 cells were required to effect a corresponding inhibition by pesticin II. Although both pesticins are located primarily within the cell during growth, pesticin I may arise extracellularly during storage of static cells. Slightly higher activity of pesticin I inhibitor was found in culture supernatant fluids than occurred in corresponding cell extracts of equal volume. The differences and similarities between pesticin I and some known bacteriocins are discussed. PMID:14016110

  8. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  9. [Upper cervical spine fracture: sources of misdiagnosis].

    PubMed

    Cusmano, F; Ferrozzi, F; Uccelli, M; Bassi, S

    1999-10-01

    Missing cervical spine fractures during the initial plain film study may lead to severe neurological complications for patients and to medicolegal responsibilities for the physician. The upper cervical spine tract (C1-C2) is considered to be at high risk for misdiagnoses. We decided to investigate the possible causes of mistake in the cases of missed fractures on the initial plain film, performed in the emergency room. We retrospectively reviewed the radiological reports, the original plain films and the CT findings, of 32 patients with upper cervical (C1-C2) fractures, admitted January 1994 to December 1998. Twenty-eight of these patients (87.5%) had multisystem trauma, 4 (12.5%) had minor craniocervical trauma. None of these patients had neurological signs correlated to the cervical injuries, 30 of them had normal consciousness and reported only neck pain, 2 of them were unconscious for the associated head trauma and were hospitalized in the intensive care unit. All the patients with normal consciousness underwent conventional three-view cervical spine radiography; the two unconscious patients in the intensive care unit were submitted to bedside examination with an anteroposterior and a lateral views of the cervical spine. All patients underwent spiral CT of the upper cervical tract. In 9 of 32 patients (28%) a cervical fracture was missed on the plain film and CT was performed only because of persistent neck pain. We found 2 Jefferson's fractures, 2 type II dens fractures, one type I dens fracture and 4 hangman's fractures. In 8 of the 9 patients (89%) the fracture was potentially unstable. Misdiagnoses resulted from overlapping bone structures (3%), suboptimal film quality (3%), satisfaction of search phenomenon (3%), missed mild tilting of the dens (6%), missed double cortex sign (16%), missed C1-C2 lateral subluxation (6%) and marked osteoporosis (3%). Prevertebral soft tissue swelling was not seen in any of the 9 cases of missed fractures. Considering the

  10. Assessing upper gastrointestinal bleeding in adults.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Gabrielle; Kruger, Danielle

    2014-09-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a potentially life-threatening condition requiring accurate, prompt, and appropriate patient evaluation and management. Clinicians of all specialties must know the best practices for preventing and managing upper GI bleeding. This article focuses on assessing and managing adults with acute nonvariceal upper GI bleeding.

  11. Satellite Upper Air Network (SUAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reale, Tony L.; Thorne, Peter

    2004-10-01

    During the past 20 years of NOAA operational polar satellites, it has become evident that a growing problem concerning their utilization in Climate and also Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) applications are the systematic errors and uncertainties inherent in the satellite measurements. Similar arguments can be made for global radiosonde observations. These uncertainties are often larger than the sensitive signals and processes, that satellite and radiosonde measurements are designed to reveal, particularly in the realm of climate. Possible strategies to quantify and compensate for these problems include the analysis of satellite overlap data and/or available collocations of satellite and ground truth (radiosonde) observations. However, overlap observations are typically not available except in extreme polar regions and current sampling strategies for compiling collocated radiosonde and satellite observations are insufficient, further compounding the inherent uncertainties in the ground-truth radiosonde data. A Satellite Upper Air Network is proposed to provide reference radiosonde launches coincident with operational polar satellite(s) overpass. The SUAN consist of 36 global radiosonde stations sub-sampled from the Global Upper Air Network (GUAN), and is designed to provide a robust, global sample of collocated radiosonde and satellite observations conducive to the monitoring and validation of satellite and radiosonde observations. The routine operation of such a network in conjunction with operational polar satellites would provide a long-term of performance for critical observations of particular importance for climate. The following report presents a candidate network of 36 upper-air sites that could comprise a SUAN. Their selection along with the mutual benefit across the satellite, radiosonde, climate, numerical weather prediction (NWP) and radiative transfer (RT) model areas are discussed.

  12. Upper stage technology evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies to evaluate advanced technology relative to chemical upper stages and orbit-to-orbit stages are reported. The work described includes: development of LH2/LOX stage data, development of data to indicate stage sensitivity to engine tolerance, modified thermal routines to accommodate storable propellants, added stage geometries to computer program for monopropellant configurations, determination of the relative gain obtainable through improvement of stage mass fraction, future propulsion concepts, effect of ultrahigh chamber-pressure increases, and relative gains obtainable through improved mass fraction.

  13. Pediatric feline upper respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jane E

    2014-03-01

    Infectious feline upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) continues to be a widespread and important cause of morbidity and mortality in kittens. Multiple pathogens can contribute to URTD in kittens, and coinfections are common in overcrowded environments and contribute to increased disease severity. Worldwide, the most prevalent pathogens are feline herpesvirus-1 and feline calicivirus. Primary bacterial causes of URTD in cats include Bordetella bronchiseptica, Chlamydia felis, and Mycoplasma species. Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus occasionally play a role as primary pathogens in shelter situations and catteries. This article reviews the major causes of disease in kittens, and provides an update on treatment and prevention strategies.

  14. Upper Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-05-08

    STS030-152-066 (4-8 May 1989) --- The upper Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast area was clearly represented in this large format frame photographed by the astronaut crew of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis. The area covered stretches almost 300 miles from Aransas Pass, Texas to Cameron, Louisiana. The sharp detail of both the natural and cultural features noted throughout the scene is especially evident in the Houston area, where highways, major streets, airport runways and even some neighborhood lanes are easily seen. Other major areas seen are Austin, San Antonio and the Golden Triangle. An Aero Linhof camera was used to expose the frame.

  15. Composites for Exploration Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, J. C.; Jackson, J. R.; Richardson, S. W.; Thomas, A. D.; Mann, T. O.; Miller, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Composites for Exploration Upper Stage (CEUS) was a 3-year, level III project within the Technology Demonstration Missions program of the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate. Studies have shown that composites provide important programmatic enhancements, including reduced weight to increase capability and accelerated expansion of exploration and science mission objectives. The CEUS project was focused on technologies that best advanced innovation, infusion, and broad applications for the inclusion of composites on future large human-rated launch vehicles and spacecraft. The benefits included near- and far-term opportunities for infusion (NASA, industry/commercial, Department of Defense), demonstrated critical technologies and technically implementable evolvable innovations, and sustained Agency experience. The initial scope of the project was to advance technologies for large composite structures applicable to the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) by focusing on the affordability and technical performance of the EUS forward and aft skirts. The project was tasked to develop and demonstrate critical composite technologies with a focus on full-scale materials, design, manufacturing, and test using NASA in-house capabilities. This would have demonstrated a major advancement in confidence and matured the large-scale composite technology to a Technology Readiness Level 6. This project would, therefore, have bridged the gap for providing composite application to SLS upgrades, enabling future exploration missions.

  16. Melorheostosis in the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Cengiz; Ozyürek, Selahattin; Ciçek, Engin Ilker; Kuskucu, Mesih

    2009-04-01

    Melorheostosis is a rare mesodermal disease affecting the skeleton and adjacent soft tissues. Often it is incidentally detected on radiographs. In the standard radiology and orthopedics literature, melorheostosis is described as a "flowing hyperostosis, resembling dripping candle wax as an incidental radiographic finding." A 22-year-old man presented with a 2-year history of right-hand pain. Radiologic evaluation of the hand showed massive sclerotic changes in the first and second metacarpal and phalangeal bones on the right side. Further radiographic evaluation of the right upper extremity revealed the same sclerotic changes in the right scapula, humerus, radius, and scaphoid. Computed tomography (CT) scans showed a high attenuation undulating cortical hyperostosis with a "dripping candle wax appearance" involving the radial and/or dorsal aspects of humerus, radius, scaphoid, and first and second ray bones of the hand. Radionuclide triphasic bone scintigraphy showed diffuse homogenous radiotracer uptake within the entire right upper extremity involving the scapula, humerus, radius, scaphoid, and first and second metacarpals and phalangeal bones of the hand. The patient was followed conservatively, and 1-year follow-up revealed no change in the clinical, laboratory, or radiological findings. The diagnosis of melorheostosis was made on the basis of the characteristic distribution, location, and combined radiographic, CT, and radionuclide imaging features of the abnormalities. Conservative treatment was recommended for the patient. After 26 months of follow-up, despite the persistence of the radiologic findings, the patient is currently well, with no painful symptoms unless he performs forceful exercise.

  17. New evidence for ozone depletion in the upper stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claude, H.; Schönenborn, F.; Steinbrecht, W.; Vandersee, W.

    1994-11-01

    Differential absorption lidar measurements at the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeißenberg between 1987 and 1993 show a statistically significant ozone decrease between 32 and 42 km, peaking at about -1.7% per year at 39 km altitude. This depletion is higher than reported by SAGE II or SBUV, yet the Hohenpeißenberg data agree very well with the results from Umkehr measurements. The observed ozone trend is in the upper range of predictions from photochemical models (-0.5 to -1.5% per year), whereas SBUV and SAGE II results are close to the lower end of the simulations. The agreement with photochemical models indicates that the depletion is most likely caused by catalytic ozone destruction through anthropogenic chlorine.

  18. New Brown Dwarf Discs in Upper Scorpius Observed with WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, P.; Scholz, A.; Ray, T. P.; Natta, A.; Marsh, K. A.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present a census of the disc population for UKIDSS selected brown dwarfs in the 5-10 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. For 116 objects originally identified in UKIDSS, the majority of them not studied in previous publications, we obtain photometry from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer data base. The resulting colour magnitude and colour colour plots clearly show two separate populations of objects, interpreted as brown dwarfs with discs (class II) and without discs (class III). We identify 27 class II brown dwarfs, 14 of them not previously known. This disc fraction (27 out of 116, or 23%) among brown dwarfs was found to be similar to results for K/M stars in Upper Scorpius, suggesting that the lifetimes of discs are independent of the mass of the central object for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. 5 out of 27 discs (19 per cent) lack excess at 3.4 and 4.6 microns and are potential transition discs (i.e. are in transition from class II to class III). The transition disc fraction is comparable to low-mass stars.We estimate that the time-scale for a typical transition from class II to class III is less than 0.4 Myr for brown dwarfs. These results suggest that the evolution of brown dwarf discs mirrors the behaviour of discs around low-mass stars, with disc lifetimes of the order of 5 10 Myr and a disc clearing time-scale significantly shorter than 1 Myr.

  19. Presence and absence of bats across habitat scales in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    Treesearch

    W. Mark Ford; Jennifer M. Menzel; Michael A. Menzel; John W. Edwards; John C. Kilgo

    2006-01-01

    During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat II) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand,...

  20. "Interior Views of the Tule River Power HouseUpper, Main Gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Interior Views of the Tule River Power House--Upper, Main Gate Valve, Governor, Waterwheel and Generator of No. 1 Set; Lower, View Looking Down upon Generator Set." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. II, No. 3, March 1914, p. 122 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  1. Simulant-material experimental investigation of flow dynamics in the CRBR Upper-Core Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, D.; Starkovich, V.S.; Chapyak, E.J.

    1982-09-01

    The results of a simulant-material experimental investigation of flow dynamics in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) Upper Core Structure are described. The methodology used to design the experimental apparatus and select test conditions is detailed. Numerous comparisons between experimental data and SIMMER-II Code calculations are presented with both advantages and limitations of the SIMMER modeling features identified.

  2. Upper bound for induced gravitation

    SciTech Connect

    Khuri, N.N.

    1982-08-23

    Given the assumption that G/sub ind.//sup ts-1/ from the Adler-Zee formula is positive, an explicit and rigorous upper bound is derived for it. For pure SU(N) gauge theory, (16..pi..G)/sup -1/< or =(25/12..pi../sup 2/)(N/sup 2/-1) ..lambda../sub N//sup ts2/ is obtained, where ..lambda../sub N/ is the mass scale. In general the bound (16..pi..G)/sup -1/< or =25(..pi../sup 2//144)C/sub psi/..lambda../sup 2/ obtained, where C/sub psi/ is the coefficient of the most singular anomaly contribution in x space, a constant easily determined by low-order perturbation theory for any gauge group.

  3. Updates on upper eyelid blepharoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Kasturi; Misra, Diva Kant; Deori, Nilutparna

    2017-01-01

    The human face is composed of small functional and cosmetic units, of which the eyes and periocular region constitute the main point of focus in routine face-to-face interactions. This dynamic region plays a pivotal role in the expression of mood, emotion, and character, thus making it the most relevant component of the facial esthetic and functional unit. Any change in the periocular unit leads to facial imbalance and functional disharmony, leading both the young and the elderly to seek consultation, thus making blepharoplasty the surgical procedure of choice for both cosmetic and functional amelioration. The applied anatomy, indications of upper eyelid blepharoplasty, preoperative workup, surgical procedure, postoperative care, and complications would be discussed in detail in this review article. PMID:28724810

  4. Primary upper-limb lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Vignes, S; Arrault, M; Yannoutsos, A; Blanchard, M

    2013-02-01

    Lymphoedema is a general term used to designate pathological, regional accumulation of protein-rich fluid. It can be either primary or secondary, and mainly occurs after cancer treatment. To analyse the clinical and lymphoscintigraphic characteristics of primary upper-limb lymphoedema (ULL). All of the patients with ULL were recruited at a single Department of Lymphology between January 2007 and December 2011. In total, 60 patients (33 female, 27 male) were enrolled. For the 54 noncongenital lymphoedemas, the mean age at onset was 38·5 (range 3-82) years. Lymphoedema was unilateral in 51 patients (85%). It always affected the hand, and less often the forearm (55%) or upper arm (23%). Eleven patients (18%) developed cellulitis after onset of lymphoedema, and 21 patients (35%) had associated lower-limb lymphoedema (LLL). Forty-six patients (with 49 lymphoedematous limbs) underwent lymphoscintigraphy: axillary lymph node uptake was diminished in 18 (37%), absent in 24 (49%) and normal in seven limbs (14%). Among the 43 patients with unilateral lymphoedema and lymphoscintigraphy, 28 had epitrochlear node visualization, suggesting a rerouting through the deep lymphatic system, with 15 only on the lymphoedematous limb and 22 on the contralateral nonlymphoedematous limb. The median follow-up period was 103 months, and 57/60 patients (95%) considered their lymphoedema to be stable. Primary ULL appears later in life than LLL, without predominance in either sex. Infectious complications are rare and patients considered the lymphoedema volume stable throughout life. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. The Martian Upper Atmosphere Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Bell, J. M.; Baird, D. T.; Murphy, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    New Mars spacecraft datasets and 3-D modeling capabilities are emerging to characterize the Mars thermospheric circulation patterns for the first time. Upper atmosphere wind constraints are available from recent aerobraking and Mars Express measurements. Mars Global Surveyor (1997-1999) and Mars Odyssey (2001-2002) Accelerometer datasets obtained during aerobraking operations provide density and temperature distributions over limited local time and latitude regions at lower thermospheric altitudes ( ˜100-160 km) [e.g. Keating et al., 1998; 2002; 2003; Withers et al., 2003]. Latitudinal gradients of these fields (i.e. into the winter polar night) vary greatly with the changing Martian seasons. The winter polar warming features observed serve as a tracer of the strength and variability of the Martian thermospheric wind patterns during solstice conditions [Keating et al., 2003; Bougher et al., 2005].Accelerometer data is also being used to estimate cross-track (zonal) wind speeds in the Mars lower thermosphere ( ˜100-130 km) [Baird et al., 2005], yielding values as large as 300-400 m/sec. Most recently, the Mars Express SPICAM instrument discovered nitric oxide (NO) nightglow spectral features in the γ and δ -bands from limb observations (Ls = 74) [Bertaux et al., 2005]. These observed UV nightglow emissions are brightest in the winter polar night region. The solstice winds required to produce the Mars winter polar warming features are also responsible for transporting dayside produced N and O atoms to the nightside where radiative recombination and UV chemiluminescence occurs. These new dynamical constraints for the Martian upper atmosphere are now investigated using coupled MGCM (NASA Ames) and MTGCM (Michigan) simulations for aphelion (Ls = 90) and perihelion (Ls = 270) conditions appropriate to MGS and Odyssey aerobraking datasets described above. Seasonal variations in the thermospheric circulation, and the underlying mechanisms likely responsible for these

  6. Upper-Stage Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

    1999-01-01

    For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

  7. Upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

    PubMed

    Waldum, Helge L; Kleveland, Per M; Fossmark, Reidar

    2015-06-01

    Nordic research on physiology and pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract has flourished during the last 50 years. Swedish surgeons and physiologists were in the frontline of research on the regulation of gastric acid secretion. This research finally led to the development of omeprazole, the first proton pump inhibitor. When Swedish physiologists developed methods allowing the assessment of acid secretion in isolated oxyntic glands and isolated parietal cells, the understanding of mechanisms by which gastric acid secretion is regulated took a great step forward. Similarly, in Trondheim, Norway, the acid producing isolated rat stomach model combined with a sensitive and specific method for determination of histamine made it possible to evaluate this regulation qualitatively as well as quantitatively. In Lund, Sweden, the identification of the enterochromaffin-like cell as the cell taking part in the regulation of acid secretion by producing and releasing histamine was of fundamental importance both physiologically and clinically. Jorpes and Mutt established a center at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm for the purification of gastrointestinal hormones in the 1960s, and Danes followed up this work by excelling in the field of determination and assessment of biological role of gastrointestinal hormones. A Finnish group was for a long period in the forefront of research on gastritis, and the authors' own studies on the classification of gastric cancer and the role of gastrin in the development of gastric neoplasia are of importance. It can, accordingly, be concluded that Nordic researchers have been central in the research on area of the upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

  8. Acquired Upper Extremity Growth Arrest.

    PubMed

    Gauger, Erich M; Casnovsky, Lauren L; Gauger, Erica J; Bohn, Deborah C; Van Heest, Ann E

    2017-01-01

    This study reviewed the clinical history and management of acquired growth arrest in the upper extremity in pediatric patients. The records of all patients presenting from 1996 to 2012 with radiographically proven acquired growth arrest were reviewed. Records were examined to determine the etiology and site of growth arrest, management, and complications. Patients with tumors or hereditary etiology were excluded. A total of 44 patients (24 boys and 20 girls) with 51 physeal arrests who presented at a mean age of 10.6 years (range, 0.8-18.2 years) were included in the study. The distal radius was the most common site (n=24), followed by the distal humerus (n=8), metacarpal (n=6), distal ulna (n=5), proximal humerus (n=4), radial head (n=3), and olecranon (n=1). Growth arrest was secondary to trauma (n=22), infection (n=11), idiopathy (n=6), inflammation (n=2), compartment syndrome (n=2), and avascular necrosis (n=1). Twenty-six patients (59%) underwent surgical intervention to address deformity caused by the physeal arrest. Operative procedures included ipsilateral unaffected bone epiphysiodesis (n=21), shortening osteotomy (n=10), lengthening osteotomy (n=8), excision of physeal bar or bone fragment (n=2), angular correction osteotomy (n=1), and creation of single bone forearm (n=1). Four complications occurred; 3 of these required additional procedures. Acquired upper extremity growth arrest usually is caused by trauma or infection, and the most frequent site is the distal radius. Growth disturbances due to premature arrest can be treated effectively with epiphysiodesis or osteotomy. In this series, the specific site of anatomic growth arrest was the primary factor in determining treatment. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e95-e103.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Observed upper limits on lithium abundances in blue stragglers

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, L.M.; Mathieu, R.D. Wisconsin, University, Madison )

    1991-05-01

    High-dispersion echelle spectra which include the Li I 6708 A line are reported for four blue stragglers. Two are field Population II stars with Fe/H near {minus}1.4, while the other two are members of the open cluster M 67. The Li I line is not detected in the spectra of any of these four blue stragglers; consequent upper limits on the surface lithium abundances are further deduced from suitable model atmospheres. The upper limits are significantly lower than the initial lithium abundances inferred for the respective stellar populations associated with these blue stragglers. The negative results for the two metal-deficient stars may reveal the existence of a narrow 'lithium gap' along the Population II main sequence. Alternatively, some mechanism associated with the formation and evolution of halo blue stragglers may account for their reduced atmospheric lithium abundance. The negative results in M 67 argue that blue stragglers do not result from delayed star formation, and that blue stragglers do not remain near the main sequence for extended lifetimes as a result of interior mixing, unless the surfaces of such stars are also mixed. 32 refs.

  10. Upper limb kinematics after cervical spinal cord injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Sébastien; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Reilly, Karen T; Rossetti, Yves; Collet, Christian; Rode, Gilles

    2015-01-30

    Although a number of upper limb kinematic studies have been conducted, no review actually addresses the key-features of open-chain upper limb movements after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this literature review is to provide a clear understanding of motor control and kinematic changes during open-chain upper limb reaching, reach-to-grasp, overhead movements, and fast elbow flexion movements after tetraplegia. Using data from MEDLINE between 1966 and December 2014, we examined temporal and spatial kinematic measures and when available electromyographic recordings. We included fifteen control case and three series case studies with a total of 164 SCI participants and 131 healthy control participants. SCI participants efficiently performed a broad range of tasks with their upper limb and movements were planned and executed with strong kinematic invariants like movement endpoint accuracy and minimal cost. Our review revealed that elbow extension without triceps brachii relies on increased scapulothoracic and glenohumeral movements providing a dynamic coupling between shoulder and elbow. Furthermore, contrary to normal grasping patterns where grasping is prepared during the transport phase, reaching and grasping are performed successively after SCI. The prolonged transport phase ensures correct hand placement while the grasping relies on wrist extension eliciting either whole hand or lateral grip. One of the main kinematic characteristics observed after tetraplegia is motor slowing attested by increased movement time. This could be caused by (i) decreased strength, (ii) triceps brachii paralysis which disrupts normal agonist-antagonist co-contractions, (iii) accuracy preservation at movement endpoint, and/or (iv) grasping relying on tenodesis. Another feature is a reduction of maximal superior reaching during overhead movements which could be caused by i) strength deficit in agonist muscles like pectoralis major, ii) strength deficit in proximal synergic

  11. 44. DETAIL VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL IN UPPER WEST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. DETAIL VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL IN UPPER WEST WALL CONTROL STATION, LOOKING EAST. UPPER INTERMEDIATE WALL AND UPPER EAST WALL CONTROL STATIONS IN BACKGROUND - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  12. Aging Asian Upper Blepharoplasty and Brow

    PubMed Central

    Park, David Daehwan

    2015-01-01

    The preoperative comprehensive evaluation of aging Asian patients seeking an Asian upper blepharoplasty and brow lift is imperative and should be performed meticulously. There are many methods of upper Asian face rejuvenation. Among them, the proper selection of operative technique is necessary. The operative technique for an aging Asian upper blepharoplasty and brow lift should be performed based on anatomical structures and their relationship. Modifications to the procedure are correlated with the degree of periorbital aging. The height of double fold in an aging Asian upper blepharoplasty should not exceed 10 mm from the eyelid margin when the eye is closed. The preservation of orbital fat during a blepharoplasty is needed for the prevention of periorbital hollowing, which looks older. For satisfactory results in aging Asian upper blepharoplasty and brow lift, the harmonization of the position of the upper eyelid and eyebrow is important. Noninvasive rejuvenation such as botulinum toxin and filler are good options for facial rejuvenation. PMID:26306086

  13. Biofidelity of an original and modified sidiis upper extremity matched cadaver and dummy compression tests.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Andrew R; McNally, Craig; Duma, Stefan M

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 8,000 automobile occupants are killed and 24,000 seriously injured each year in automotive side impact collisions. In order to accurately predict injury of human occupants, the response of automotive side impact anthropometric test dummies must be as biofidelic as possible. The upper arm serves as a load path to the thorax, and the response characteristics of the upper arm can influence the thoracic response in side impact test dummies. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to characterize the compressive response of male and female humeri with all soft tissue attached, an original SIDIIs arm, and a modified SID-IIs arm to evaluate the biofidelity of the side impact dummy arm. A series of compression tests were performed at two dynamic rates, 2.34 m/s and 3.81 m/s, on a total of eight male and female humeri with all soft tissues attached. Matched compression tests were preformed on the original SID-IIs and a modified SID-IIs upper arm segment using a drop tower. The impact direction for all tests was from lateral to medial in order to simulate an automotive side impact collision. In order to correct for the loss in the cadaver arm tissue thickness resulting from the horizontal test orientation, the upper arms of 35 male and 35 female volunteers were measured. The results show that for both rates the modified Sid-IIs arm force vs. compression response was more representative of the cadaver humeri force vs. compression responses than the original Sid-IIs arm. The more realistic response characteristics of the modified Sid-IIs arm could improve the biofidelity of the overall thoracic response in side impact anthropometric test dummies.

  14. [Injury of upper cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Ryba, Luděk; Cienciala, Jan; Chaloupka, Richard; Repko, Martin; Vyskočil, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Injuries of the upper cervical spine represent 1/3 of all cervical spine injuries and approximately 40 % result by the death. Every level of the cervical spine can be injured - fractures of condyles of the occipital bone (CO), atlantooccipital dislocation (AOD), fractures of the Atlas (C1), atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) and fractures of the axis (C2). Most of cases in younger patients are caused by high-energy trauma, while by elderly people, because of the osteoporosis, is needed much less energy and even simple falls can cause the injury of the cervical spine. That´s why the etiology of injuries can be different. In younger patients are caused mainly by car accidents, motorcycle and bicycle accidents and pedestrian crashes by car and in elderly populations are the main reason falls. The mechanism of the injury is axial force, hyperflexion, hyperextension, latero-flexion, rotation and combination of all. The basic diagnostic examination is X ray in AP, lateral and transoral projection. But in the most of cases is CT examination necessary and in the suspicion of the ligamentous injury and neurological deterioration must be MRI examination added. Every injury of the upper cervical spine has its own classification. Clinical symptoms can vary from the neck pain, restricted range of motion, antalgic position of the head, injury of the cranial nerves and different neurologic symptoms from the irritation of nerves to quadriplegia. A large percentage of deaths is at the time of the injury. Therapy is divided to conservative treatment, which is indicated in bone injuries with minimal dislocation. In more severe cases, with the dislocation and ligamentous injury, when is high chance of the instability, is indicated the surgical treatment. We can use anterior or posterior approach, make the osteosynthesis, stabilisation and fusion of the spine. Complex fractures and combination of different types of injuries are often present in this part of the spine. Correct and early

  15. Posterior Bilateral Intermuscular Approach for Upper Cervical Spine Injuries.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Xiong, Wei; Han, Sung I I; Fang, Zhong; Li, Feng

    2017-08-01

    To investigate a novel intermuscular surgical approach for posterior upper cervical spine fixation. Twenty-three healthy volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging. By using the magnetic resonance imaging scans in transverse view at the level of lower edge of atlas, the distances from the posterior midline to lateral margin of trapezius, to the medial margin of splenius capitis, and to middle line of semispinalis capitis were recorded. The angle between posterior middle line and the line crossing the lateral margin of trapezius and middle point of ipsilateral pedicles. From October 2009 to May 2013, 12 patients with upper cervical spine injuries were operated via the bilateral intermuscular approach. The time required for surgery, blood loss, and pre- and postoperative visual analogue scale scores were analyzed. The average distance of 0-T was 39.2 ± 7.5 mm, the angle between the approach and posterior middle line was 33.2 ± 8.4°. The surgical time was 78.3 ± 22.5 minutes (45-140 minutes), and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 87.5 ± 44.2 mL (30-200 mL). Preoperative and postoperative visual analogue scale scores were 6.4 ± 0.8 and 1.8 ± 0.7, respectively. The average follow-up time was 19.7 ± 11.5 months (9-48 months). The posterior bilateral intermuscular approach for upper cervical spine injuries is a valid alternative for Hangmans' fractures type I, type II, and type Ia according to Levine and Edwards classification as well as atlantoaxial subluxation caused by upper cervical spine trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Upper thoracic sympathectomy in treatment of upper limb ischaemia in distal lesions of the arterial bed].

    PubMed

    Alukhanian, O A; Martirosian, Kh G; Aristov, D S; Kurganskiĭ, O V

    2013-01-01

    Analysed herein was efficacy of 76 videothoracoscopic upper chest sympathectomies performed for upper limb ischaemia in a total of 61 patients. Of these, 15 patients were found to suffer bilateral lesions. The findings of clinical follow up and instrumental examinations (laser Doppler flowmetry, rheovasography, measuring transcranial oxygen tension in tissues) made it possible to draw a conclusion on efficacy of upper chest sympathectomy in distal lesions of the vascular bed of the upper extremities.

  17. Investigation of hand function among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with upper extremity trauma history.

    PubMed

    Huri, Meral; Şahin, Sedef; Kayıhan, Hülya

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to compare hand function in autistic children with history of upper extremity trauma with that of autistic children those who do not have history of trauma. The study group included total of 65 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and was divided into 2 groups: children with trauma history (Group I) and control group (Group II) (Group I: n=28; Group II: n=37). Hand function was evaluated with 9-Hole Peg Test and Jebsen Hand Function Test. Somatosensory function was evaluated using somatosensory subtests of Sensory Integration and Praxis Test. Results were analyzed with Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U test using SPSS version 20 software. Hand function and somatosensory perception test scores were statistically significantly better in children without upper extremity trauma history (p<0.05). When association between hand function tests and upper extremity somatosensory perception tests was taken into account, statistically significant correlations were found between all parameters of hand function tests and Manual Form Perception and Localization of Tactile Stimuli Test results (p<0.05). Autistic children with upper extremity trauma history had poor somatosensory perception and hand function. It is important to raise awareness among emergency service staff and inform them about strong relationship between somatosensory perception, hand function, and upper extremity trauma in children with ASD in order to develop appropriate rehabilitation process and prevent further trauma.

  18. Upper gastrointestinal fiberoptic endoscopy in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Prolla, J C; Diehl, A S; Bemvenuti, G A; Loguercio, S V; Magalhães, D S; Silveira, T R

    1983-11-01

    Upper gastrointestinal fiberendoscopy in pediatric patients is done safely and under local anesthesia in most instances. This study of 47 children confirmed the value of fiberendoscopy in establishing the etiology of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and the presence of esophageal varices. It also contributed significantly to the management of patients with disphagia, pyrosis, epigastric pain, and ingestion of foreign bodies. No significant morbidity was caused.

  19. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  20. Upper airway resistance: species-related differences.

    PubMed

    Kirschvink, N; Reinhold, P

    2010-07-01

    In veterinary medicine, upper airway resistance deserves a particular attention in equines athletes and brachycephalic dogs. Due to the anatomical peculiarities of the upper airway and/or pathological conditions, significant alterations of performance and/or well being might occur in horses and dogs. Physiological specificities and pathological changes of the lower respiratory tract deserve a major attention in other species.

  1. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) Print A A A ... You Have Questions What It Is A femur X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  2. Surgical management of upper lid entropion.

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, E G; Collin, J R

    1986-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-three surgical procedures were conducted on 107 patients over seven years. 91% of the cases of upper lid entropion were corrected satisfactorily with only one operation. It is postulated that this level of success is achieved by grading the degree of surgical intervention according to the clinical established on systematic examination of upper lid entropion. PMID:3741821

  3. 104. DAM TAINTER GATE NONSUBMERGIBLE UPPER FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. DAM - TAINTER GATE - NON-SUBMERGIBLE - UPPER FRAME AND SKIN PLATE (ML-8-48/2-FS) June 1935 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  4. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  5. The Upper Atmosphere; Threshold of Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, John

    This booklet contains illustrations of the upper atmosphere, describes some recent discoveries, and suggests future research questions. It contains many color photographs. Sections include: (1) "Where Does Space Begin?"; (2) "Importance of the Upper Atmosphere" (including neutral atmosphere, ionized regions, and balloon and investigations); (3)…

  6. Osmium isotopes and the Upper Devonian "Kellwasser" event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauns, M.

    2001-12-01

    The Upper Devonian "Kellwasser" horizon at the Frasnian/Famennian boundary (~367 Ma) records one of the most severe world-wide catastrophic bio-events in Earth's history. Current theories for the causes of mass extinction include (e.g. Schindler 1990) (i) meteoritic impact, (ii) sea-level changes, shifts of the sedimentary realm and generation of anoxic milieus, (iii) enhanced clastic input and modification of sea water chemistry, and, possibly, (iv) a combination of (ii) and (iii). The time-integrated Os isotopic composition of Kellwasser limestones appears to be a suitable tool to shed light on these options and possibly place constraints on the Os isotopic evolution of Upper Devonian sea water. We present complete Re-Os analyses of limestone and shale whole rock samples, and some biogenic/diagenetic constituents (conodonts, Fe oxides). The results indicate extreme Re and Os compositional variations between different limestone and shale sublayers (Re = 0.1 - 40 ppb, Os 26 - 830 ppt, Re/Os = 4 - 240). The present Os isotopic ratios of the rocks were found to be very radiogenic (187Os/186Os = 9,865 - 388,35). For the first time, conodont samples extracted from the Kellwasser sequence were tested as potential tracers for the Os isotopic composition of Upper Devonian sea water. Their Os contents are in the range of 210 - 112 ppt, which required analysis of about 15.000 specimens per sample to obtain sufficient Os for mass spectrometry. The Os of the conodonts (187Os/186Os = 14,35 - 67,89) is significantly less radiogenic compared to their complementary host rocks. Their 187Re/186Os, however, exceed the 187Re/186Os ratios of the host limestones by at least 1-2 orders of magnitude. Recalculation of the 187Re/186Os ratios of all rock and conodont samples for an age of 367 Ma yielded in all cases unrealistic and very contrasting values with respect to any hypothetical Os isotopic composition of Upper Devonian sea water. Our Re-Os isotopic data do establish several points

  7. Upper gastrointestinal issues in athletes.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Jason J; Kapur, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) complaints are common among athletes with rates in the range of 30% to 70%. Both the intensity of sport and the type of sporting activity have been shown to be contributing factors in the development of GI symptoms. Three important factors have been postulated as contributing to the pathophysiology of GI complaints in athletes: mechanical forces, altered GI blood flow, and neuroendocrine changes. As a result of those factors, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), nausea, vomiting, gastritis, peptic ulcers, GI bleeding, or exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP) may develop. GERD may be treated with changes in eating habits, lifestyle modifications, and training modifications. Nausea and vomiting may respond to simple training modifications, including no solid food 3 hours prior to an athletic event. Mechanical trauma, decreased splanchnic blood flow during exercise, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) contribute to gastritis, GI bleeding, and ulcer formation in athletes. Acid suppression with proton-pump inhibitors may be useful in athletes with persistence of any of the above symptoms. ETAP is a common, poorly-understood, self-limited acute abdominal pain which is difficult to treat. ETAP incidence increases in athletes beginning a new exercise program or increasing the intensity of their current exercise program. ETAP may respond to changes in breathing patterns or may resolve simply with continued training. Evaluation of the athlete with upper GI symptoms requires a thorough history, a detailed training log, a focused physical examination aimed at ruling out potentially serious causes of symptoms, and follow-up laboratory testing based on concerning physical examination findings.

  8. The Upper Mississippi River System—Topobathy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Jayme M.; Hanson, Jenny L.; Sattler, Stephanie R.

    2017-03-23

    The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), the navigable part of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, is a diverse ecosystem that contains river channels, tributaries, shallow-water wetlands, backwater lakes, and flood-plain forests. Approximately 10,000 years of geologic and hydrographic history exist within the UMRS. Because it maintains crucial wildlife and fish habitats, the dynamic ecosystems of the Upper Mississippi River Basin and its tributaries are contingent on the adjacent flood plains and water-level fluctuations of the Mississippi River. Separate data for flood-plain elevation (lidar) and riverbed elevation (bathymetry) were collected on the UMRS by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (USACE) Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program. Using the two elevation datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) developed a systemic topobathy dataset.

  9. Congenital midline sinus of the upper lip.

    PubMed

    Fok, Denise; Kua, Ee Hsiang Jonah; Por, Yong Chen

    2015-06-01

    A congenital lip sinus is a rare condition that has been reported to occur in both the upper and lower lips, either in isolation or in association with congenital deformities such as a cleft lip and palate in Van der Woude syndrome. The prevalence of lower lip sinuses has been estimated to be about 0.00001% of the white population. Upper lip sinuses are even more uncommon. To date, there have been several case reports of upper lip sinuses and fistulas, but no similar cases have been described in Singapore. We herein report a case of congenital upper lip sinus presenting as a recurring upper lip abscess and review the current literature on this condition.

  10. Use of NTrap during ureteroscopic Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy of upper ureteral calculi.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chenchen; Ding, Qiang; Jiang, Haowen; Gao, Peng; Wen, Hui; Gu, Bin; Wu, Zhong

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of NTrap in prevention of stone retropulsion during ureteroscopic Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy of upper ureteral calculi. A total of 308 patients with upper ureteral stones treated by semirigid ureteroscopic Ho:YAG laser were stratified into two groups in which 152 patients without NTrap use were assigned to Group I and 156 patients with NTrap use were assigned to Group II. Patient gender, age, stone size, operative time, and parameters for stone migration were compared between the two groups. The difference in patient gender, age, and stone size were insignificant between the two groups. Longer operative duration (P = 0.000) was observed in Group II. Group II showed a higher intraoperative success rate of lithotripsy (P = 0.000) and a lower postoperative stone residual rate (P = 0.070) compared with Group I. The overall success rate was higher in Group II (P = 0.000). NTrap is an effective occlusive device against upper ureteral calculi retropulsion during ureteroscopic Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy.

  11. Effect of Incisor Angulation on Overjet and Overbite in Class II Camouflage Treatment. A typodont study.

    PubMed

    Sangcharearn, Yasinee; Ho, Christopher

    2007-11-01

    To determine the amount of variation in overjet and overbite that may result from changes in upper and lower incisor angulations following upper first premolar extraction treatment in Class II malocclusions. Typodonts were set up to simulate a skeletal Class II occlusion treated with upper first premolar extractions. The upper incisor angulation was altered through a range from 100 degrees to 120 degrees to the palatal plane by 2 degrees increments. The overjet and overbite were measured with every 2 degrees of upper incisor angulation change. A regression analysis was performed on the experimental data, and the regression coefficients, slope, and intercept were estimated. Excessive proclination of the lower incisors will result in an abnormal overjet and overbite relationship for any magnitude of upper incisor angulation. A normal lower incisor angulation facilitates the attainment of an optimal occlusion. Excessive palatal root torque of the upper incisors will result in an increase in overjet and a consequent decrease in overbite. If the upper incisors are excessively retroclined, an edge-to-edge incisor relationship will result. Class II camouflage treatment with upper first premolar extractions requires correctly angulated incisors to achieve optimal buccal segment interdigitation and incisor relationship. Labial root torque and interproximal reduction of the lower anterior teeth should be considered when the lower incisors are excessively proclined.

  12. Validated assessment scales for the upper face.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Timothy C; Carruthers, Alastair; Carruthers, Jean; Geister, Thorin L; Görtelmeyer, Roman; Hardas, Bhushan; Himmrich, Silvia; Kerscher, Martina; de Maio, Maurício; Mohrmann, Cornelia; Narins, Rhoda S; Pooth, Rainer; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Buchner, Larry; Benter, Ursula; Fey, Constanze; Jones, Derek

    2012-02-01

    Age-related upper face changes such as wrinkles, lines, volume loss, and anatomic alterations may affect quality of life and psychological well-being. The development of globally accepted tools to assess these changes objectively is an essential contribution to aesthetic research and routine clinical medicine. To establish the reliability of several upper face scales for clinical research and practice: forehead lines, glabellar lines, crow's feet (at rest and dynamic expression), sex-specific brow positioning, and summary scores of forehead and crow's feet areas and of the entire upper face unit. Four 5-point photonumerical rating scales were developed to assess glabellar lines and sex-specific brow positioning. Twelve experts rated identical upper face photographs of 50 subjects in two separate rating cycles using all eight scales. Responses of raters were analyzed to assess intra- and interrater reliability. Interrater reliability was substantial for all upper face scales, aesthetic areas, and the upper face score except for the brow positioning scales. Intrarater reliability was high for all scales and resulting scores. Except for brow positioning, the upper face rating scales are reliable tools for valid and reproducible assessment of the aging process. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Stephens, M B

    1997-02-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the upper extremity is a relatively uncommon but important cause of morbidity, especially in young active persons. The causes of upper extremity DVT may be categorized as catheter-related, spontaneous (effort-related) and miscellaneous (e.g., trauma, intravenous drug use). Diagnosis is based on clinical history and confirmed by either duplex ultrasonography or contrast venography. Significant controversy surrounds the optimal management of upper extremity DVT. Treatment options include conservative therapy, anticoagulation, catheter-directed thrombolysis and surgical intervention to remove intravascular clot or revise the anatomy of the costoclavicular space. Early aggressive treatment of active young patients may decrease long-term morbidity.

  14. Development of a Space Flight Prototype Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) Spectrometer for the Measurement of Upper Atmospheric Winds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-31

    Phase II is to raise the technical readiness level (TRL). 15. SUBJECT TERMS SBIR, interferometer, space weather , upper atmospheric winds, Doppler...required for space flight. Dr. John Hughes and Dr. Abas Sivjee of Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University in Daytona FL and all the staff at the HAARP ...somewhat from was outlined in the Phase II proposal. Modifications have been made to the optical system to allow the ARROW instrument to be

  15. Gravitational-Wave Detection (ii). Current Gravitational Wave Detector Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Nobuyuki

    2005-11-01

    The workshop session C1ii was focused on the results of recent operating detectors. 10 speakers presented the latest results of each experiments: ALLEGRO, GEO, LIGO, TAMA and VIRGO experiments. There were reports about searches for gravitational waves in analysis of observation data. The results are of no detection of gravitational waves, but observational upper-limits of gravitational waves are improved.

  16. Furniture dimensions and postural overload for schoolchildren's head, upper back and upper limbs.

    PubMed

    Batistão, Mariana Vieira; Sentanin, Anna Cláudia; Moriguchi, Cristiane Shinohara; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; de Oliveira Sato, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how the fixed furniture dimensions match with students' anthropometry and to describe head, upper back and upper limbs postures and movements. Evaluation was performed in 48 students from a Brazilian state school. Furniture dimensions were measured with metric tape, movements and postures by inclinometers (Logger Tecknologi, Åkarp, Sweden). Seat height was high for 21% and low for 36% of the students; seat length was short for 45% and long for 9% and table height was high for 53% and low for 28%. Regression analysis showed that seat/popliteal height quotient is explained by 90th percentile of upper back inclination (β=0.410) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=-0.293). For seat/thigh length quotient the significant variables were 90th percentile of upper back velocity (β=-0.282) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=0.410). This study showed a relationship between furniture mismatch and postural overload. When the seat height is low students increase upper back left inclination and right upper arm elevation; when the seat is short students decrease the upper back flexion velocity and increase right upper arm elevation.

  17. Upper Cretaceous Brachycythere (Ostr., Crust.) from Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, V.

    Five new species of Brachycythere (Crustacea, Ostracoda) are described and figured from the Gurpi Formation (Campanian, Upper Cretaceous). The new species are B. reymenti. B. ilamensis, B. iranensis, B. labioforma, B. posterotruncata and « Brachycythereå sp.nov.?

  18. 30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND LOWER CHORD DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  19. Unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Nijhawan, S; Rai, R R; Agarwal, S; Vijayvergiya, R

    1995-01-01

    We report management of unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract, namely beer bottle cap, raisins and pistachu, mango peel, betelnut and plum seed at a university hospital in Northern India.

  20. CONGENITAL DEFORMITIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS.

    PubMed Central

    Bisneto, Edgard Novaes França

    2015-01-01

    This article, divided into three parts, had the aims of reviewing the most common upper-limb malformations and describing their treatments. In this first part, failure of formation is discussed. The bibliography follows after the first part. PMID:27047864

  1. Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

  2. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  3. MAVEN: Exploring the Upper Atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN), set to launch in 2013, will explore the planet’s upper atmosphere, ionosphere and interactions with the sun and solar wind. Bruce Jakos...

  4. Golf injuries of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Wiesler, Ethan R; Lumsden, Boyd

    2005-01-01

    Golf has demonstrated increasing popularity and with this heightened enthusiasm has come an increased awareness of the significant number of injuries associated with playing golf. While back injuries represent the most commonly injured specific body part, upper extremity injuries are most frequent overall and the most likely to result in loss of play. Patterns of injury differ based on level of play and time spent playing or practicing golf. Among golf professionals, the hand/wrist is the most commonly injured upper extremity structure. Among amateurs, the elbow is most commonly injured. The vast majority of upper extremity injuries are due to overuse. Age, ability, equipment, and swing mechanics also play contributing roles. Most upper extremity golf injuries can be successfully treated with appropriate cessation or modification of play, anti-inflammatory modalities, and rehabilitation. Surgical treatment is rarely required, but if needed can prove successful in a high percentage of patients.

  5. Upper-Stratospheric Ozone Trends 1979-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, M. J.; Cunnold, Derek; Bishop, Lane; Flynn, Lawrence E.; Godin, Sophie; Frith, Stacey Hollandsworth; Hood, Lon; Miller, Alvin J.; Oltmans, Sam; Randel, William

    2002-01-01

    Extensive analyses of ozone observations between 1978 and 1998 measured by Dobson Umkehr, Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) I and II, and Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) and (SBUV)/2 indicate continued significant ozone decline throughout the extratropical upper stratosphere from 30-45 km altitude. The maximum annual linear decline of -0.8 +/- 0.2 %/yr(2sigma) occurs at 40 km and is well described in terms of a linear decline modulated by the 11-year solar variation. The minimum decline of -0.110.1% yr-1(2o) occurs at 25 km in midlatitudes, with remarkable symmetry between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at 40 km altitude. Midlatitude upper-stratospheric zonal trends exhibit significant seasonal variation (+/- 30% in the Northern Hemisphere, +/- 40% in the Southern Hemisphere) with the most negative trends of -1.2%/yr occurring in the winter. Significant seasonal trends of -0.7 to -0.9%/yr occur at 40 km in the tropics between April and September. Subjecting the statistical models used to calculate the ozone trends to intercomparison tests on a variety of common data sets yields results that indicate the standard deviation between trends estimated by 10 different statistical models is less than 0.1%/yr in the annual-mean trend for SAGE data and less than 0.2%/yr in the most demanding conditions (seasons with irregular, sparse data) [World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 1998]. These consistent trend results between statistical models together with extensive consistency between the independent measurement-system trend observations by Dobson Umkehr, SAGE I and II, and SBUV and SBUV/2 provide a high degree of confidence in the accuracy of the declining ozone amounts reported here. Additional details of ozone trend results from 1978 to 1996 (2 years shorter than reported here) along with lower-stratospheric and tropospheric ozone trends, extensive intercomparisons to assess relative instrument drifts, and retrieval algorithm details are

  6. [Risk assessment in upper limb overload].

    PubMed

    Martinelli, R; Casilli, A; Fanelli, C; Pizzuti, S; Tarquini, M; Tobia, L; Paoletti, A

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important factors of the work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities (WMSDs) is the biomechanical overload. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility to predict the upper limb repetitive stress, according to risk assessment procedures. In order to this aim, we gathered clinical-anamnestic data and risk assessment considerations of a cohort of workers in a car industry.

  7. Upper lip malignant neoplasms. A study of 59 cases

    PubMed Central

    Güemes-Meza, Agustín; Villavicencio-Valencia, Verónica; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To present the demographic data, clinico-pathologic features and therapeutic outcome of a series of upper lip malignancies. Study Design: Retrospective study at a single Cancer Institution in Mexico City during a 14-year period. Results: There were 59 cases, (30 males and 29 females); age range: 14 to 106 years (mean: 73 yr.). Antecedents of ultraviolet light and tobacco exposure were found in 20 (33.9%) and 16 cases (27%) respectively. There were 35 squamous cell carcinomas (59.3%), 19 basal cell carcinomas (32.2%) and one case each (1.7%) of adenocarcinoma NOS, adenoid cystic carcinoma, angiosarcoma, Merkel cell carcinoma and melanoma. There were 14 cases in stage I (23.7%), 14 in stage II (23.7%), 3 in stage III (5.1%) 14 in stage IV (23.7%) and 14 were not classified (23.7%). There were no significant differences with respect to the overall survival curve and the disease-free survival curve among surgical treatment and radiotherapy. In addition, there was not statistically significant difference in the overall survival and disease-free survival among squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma cases with respect to the type of treatment. Conclusions: Upper lip malignant neoplasms are infrequent lesions. The present series describes the main clinico-pathological features in a hospital-based population in Mexico city and demonstrates some differences with respect to those found in the lower lip. Key words:Upper lip, neoplasms, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma. PMID:22143714

  8. Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion for Spacecraft and Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Gilchrist, Brian; Estes, Robert D.; Lorenzini, Rnrico; Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel; Sanmartin, Juan

    1998-01-01

    Relatively short electrodynamic tethers can use solar power to 'push' against a planetary magnetic field to achieve propulsion without the expenditure of propellant. The groundwork has been laid for this type of propulsion. Important recent milestones include retrieval of a tether in space (TSS-1, 1992), successful deployment of a 20-km-long tether in space (SEDS-1, 1993), and operation of an electrodynamic tether with tether current driven in both directions (PMG, 1993). The planned Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) experiment will use the flight-proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a 5 km bare copper tether from a Delta II upper stage to achieve approximately 0.4 N drag thrust, thus deorbiting the stage. The experiment will use a predominantly 'bare' tether for current collection in lieu of the endmass collector and insulated tether approach used on previous missions. The flight experiment is a precursor to utilization of the technology on the International Space Station for reboost and the electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes, all using electrodynamic thrust. In addition, the use of this type of propulsion may be attractive for future missions at Jupiter.

  9. Literature Review on Needs of Upper Limb Prosthesis Users

    PubMed Central

    Cordella, Francesca; Ciancio, Anna Lisa; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Davalli, Angelo; Cutti, Andrea Giovanni; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Zollo, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    The loss of one hand can significantly affect the level of autonomy and the capability of performing daily living, working and social activities. The current prosthetic solutions contribute in a poor way to overcome these problems due to limitations in the interfaces adopted for controlling the prosthesis and to the lack of force or tactile feedback, thus limiting hand grasp capabilities. This paper presents a literature review on needs analysis of upper limb prosthesis users, and points out the main critical aspects of the current prosthetic solutions, in terms of users satisfaction and activities of daily living they would like to perform with the prosthetic device. The ultimate goal is to provide design inputs in the prosthetic field and, contemporary, increase user satisfaction rates and reduce device abandonment. A list of requirements for upper limb prostheses is proposed, grounded on the performed analysis on user needs. It wants to (i) provide guidelines for improving the level of acceptability and usefulness of the prosthesis, by accounting for hand functional and technical aspects; (ii) propose a control architecture of PNS-based prosthetic systems able to satisfy the analyzed user wishes; (iii) provide hints for improving the quality of the methods (e.g., questionnaires) adopted for understanding the user satisfaction with their prostheses. PMID:27242413

  10. Upper lip malignant neoplasms. A study of 59 cases.

    PubMed

    Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama; Güemes-Meza, Agustín; Villavicencio-Valencia, Verónica; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto

    2012-05-01

    To present the demographic data, clinico-pathologic features and therapeutic outcome of a series of upper lip malignancies. Retrospective study at a single Cancer Institution in Mexico City during a 14-year period. There were 59 cases, (30 males and 29 females); age range: 14 to 106 years (mean: 73 yr.). Antecedents of ultraviolet light and tobacco exposure were found in 20 (33.9%) and 16 cases (27%) respectively. There were 35 squamous cell carcinomas (59.3%), 19 basal cell carcinomas (32.2%) and one case each (1.7%) of adenocarcinoma NOS, adenoid cystic carcinoma, angiosarcoma, Merkel cell carcinoma and melanoma. There were 14 cases in stage I (23.7%), 14 in stage II (23.7%), 3 in stage III (5.1%) 14 in stage IV (23.7%) and 14 were not classified (23.7%). There were no significant differences with respect to the overall survival curve and the disease-free survival curve among surgical treatment and radiotherapy. In addition, there was not statistically significant difference in the overall survival and disease-free survival among squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma cases with respect to the type of treatment. Upper lip malignant neoplasms are infrequent lesions. The present series describes the main clinico-pathological features in a hospital-based population in Mexico city and demonstrates some differences with respect to those found in the lower lip.

  11. Visible and Infrared Optical Design for the ITER Upper Ports

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; Seppala, L; Morris, K; Groth, M; Fenstermacher, M; Allen, S; Synakowski, E; Ortiz, J

    2007-03-01

    This document contains the results of an optical design scoping study of visible-light and infrared optics for the ITER upper ports, performed by LLNL under contract for the US ITER Project Office. ITER is an international collaboration to build a large fusion energy tokamak with a goal of demonstrating net fusion power for pulses much longer than the energy confinement time. At the time of this report, six of the ITER upper ports are planned to each to contain a camera system for recording visible and infrared light, as well as other diagnostics. the performance specifications for the temporal and spatial resolution of this system are shown in the Section II, Functional Specifications. They acknowledge a debt to Y. Corre and co-authors of the CEA Cadarache report ''ITER wide-angle viewing and thermographic and visible system''. Several of the concepts used in this design are derived from that CEA report. The infrared spatial resolution for optics of this design is diffraction-limited by the size of the entrance aperture, at lower resolution than listed in the ITER diagnostic specifications. The size of the entrance aperture is a trade-off between spatial resolution, optics size in the port, and the location of relay optics. The signal-to-noise ratio allows operation at the specified time resolutions.

  12. Upper Lower Cambrian depositional sequence in Avalonian New Brunswick

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landing, E.; Westrop, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Brook Formation (emended) is a thin (up to 42+ m), upper Lower Cambrian depositional sequence that is unconformably bounded by the lower Lower Cambrian (Random Formation) and the middle Middle Cambrian (Fossil Brook Member of the Chamberlain's Brook Formation). These stratigraphic relationships of the trilobite-bearing Hanford Brook Formation indicate deposition on the Avalonian marginal platform in the Saint John, New Brunswick, region and provide more evidence for a uniform, latest Precambrian-Cambrian epeirogenic history and cover sequence in Avalon. The Hanford Brook Formation is a deepening - shoaling sequence with (i) lower, transgressive sandstone deposited in episodically high-energy environments (St. Martins Member, new); (ii) highstand-regressive, dysaerobic mudstone - fine-grained sandstone with volcanic ashes (Somerset Street Member, new); and (iii) upper, regressive, planar and hummocky cross-stratified sandstone (Long Island Member, new). Trilobites are common in the distal Somerset Street Member, and ostracodes and brachiopods dominate the St. Martins and Long Island members. Condensation of the St. Martins Member and absence of the Long Island Member where the Random Formation and Fossil Brook Member are thinnest suggest onlap of the Hanford Brook and pronounced, sub-Middle Cambrian erosion across epeirogenically active blocks in southern New Brunswick.

  13. Upper-arm hemodialysis access in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hedin, Ulf; Welander, Gunilla

    2017-03-06

    To provide the contemporary use of upper-arm access for hemodialysis in Sweden using data from a unique national registry for hemodialysis access. Data were retrieved from a nation-wide registry for dialysis access in Sweden, Dialysis Access Database (DiAD) on the use and function of specific access types with a focus on upper-arm accesses. The data demonstrate an increased use of upper-arm access, likely dependent on a changing patient population, with brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) as the most common access type. Women received more upper-arm accesses than men. Given the recent establishment of the registry, patency and access function can at this point give preliminary data. Indications of a better function for brachiobasilic AVFs in staged procedures were observed as well as for upper-arm arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) in women. Registry data support an increased use of upper-arm accesses, especially in women. The study also demonstrates the potential of a dedicated national access registry to improve access care.

  14. Some Upper Bounds on the Inverse Relative Dimension/Length Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peisheng; Luo, Yuan; Vinck, A. J. Han

    The generalized Hamming weight played an important role in coding theory. In the study of the wiretap channel of type II, the generalized Hamming weight was extended to a two-code format. Two equivalent concepts of the generalized Hamming weight hierarchy and its two-code format, are the inverse dimension/length profile (IDLP) and the inverse relative dimension/length profile (IRDLP), respectively. In this paper, the Singleton upper bound on the IRDLP is improved by using a quotient subcode set and a subset with respect to a generator matrix, respectively. If these new upper bounds on the IRDLP are achieved, in the corresponding coordinated two-party wire-tap channel of type II, the adversary cannot learn more from the illegitimate party.

  15. Upper mantle anisotropy structure beneath eastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, W.; Wen, L.; Chen, X.

    2013-12-01

    Continental collision between the Indian and the Eurasian plates resulted in uplift of the Tibetan plateau and the thickening of the crust. A lot of work has been done on the crust structures beneath Tibet, and several tectonic models are proposed to explain the mechanism of the uplift and thickening. But due to the absence of the upper mantle structures, those models are still under debate. Fine upper mantle velocity and anisotropy structures can help us understand the dynamic process of the Tibetan plateau. Previous studies used shear wave splitting and surface wave analysis to study anisotropy structures beneath the Tibetan plateau. But those two methods provide a poor vertical resolution in upper mantle. Waveform modeling of upper mantle triplication phases can provide a good vertical resolution, but present methods for calculating synthetic seismograms cannot process anisotropic media. We develop a method based on the generalized reflection and transmission method (GRTM) to calculate synthetic seismograms for wave propagating in stratified VTI media, so we can waveform model upper mantle triplications propagating in anisotropic media. Recently, the increasing number of permanent and temporary seismic stations near Tibet provides us a good opportunity to study fine upper mantle structures beneath the Tibetan plateau. In this study, we waveform model the tangential and radial seismic triplication data recorded in Chinese digital seismic stations at a epicentral distance of 10-30 degree for several events occurring in middle Tibet to constrain fine upper mantle velocity and anisotropy structures beneath eastern Tibet. We also use mineral physics modeling method to explore thermal and compositional models that would explain the inferred seismic structures.

  16. Middle and upper cretaceous amber from the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia: Evidence for a new structural sub-class of resinite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.B.

    1994-08-01

    Analysis of three amber (resinite) samples collected from Middle and Upper Cretaceous sediments in the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia, indicates that these materials are based on copolymers of biformene (I) and communol (II). No resinites of similar structural character have previously been described and hence, these samples represent a previously unknown structural sub-class of resinite.

  17. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  18. Upper threshold of extracellular neural stimulation.

    PubMed

    Boinagrov, David; Pangratz-Fuehrer, Susanne; Suh, Bongsoo; Mathieson, Keith; Naik, Natasha; Palanker, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that spiking neurons can produce action potentials in response to extracellular stimulation above certain threshold. It is widely assumed that there is no upper limit to somatic stimulation, except for cellular or electrode damage. Here we demonstrate that there is an upper stimulation threshold, above which no action potential can be elicited, and it is below the threshold of cellular damage. Existence of this upper stimulation threshold was confirmed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at pulse durations ranging from 5 to 500 μs. The ratio of the upper to lower stimulation thresholds varied typically from 1.7 to 7.6, depending on pulse duration. Computational modeling of extracellular RGC stimulation explained the upper limit by sodium current reversal on the depolarized side of the cell membrane. This was further confirmed by experiments in the medium with a low concentration of sodium. The limited width of the stimulation window may have important implications in design of the electro-neural interfaces, including neural prosthetics.

  19. Upper threshold of extracellular neural stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pangratz-Fuehrer, Susanne; Suh, Bongsoo; Mathieson, Keith; Naik, Natasha; Palanker, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that spiking neurons can produce action potentials in response to extracellular stimulation above certain threshold. It is widely assumed that there is no upper limit to somatic stimulation, except for cellular or electrode damage. Here we demonstrate that there is an upper stimulation threshold, above which no action potential can be elicited, and it is below the threshold of cellular damage. Existence of this upper stimulation threshold was confirmed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at pulse durations ranging from 5 to 500 μs. The ratio of the upper to lower stimulation thresholds varied typically from 1.7 to 7.6, depending on pulse duration. Computational modeling of extracellular RGC stimulation explained the upper limit by sodium current reversal on the depolarized side of the cell membrane. This was further confirmed by experiments in the medium with a low concentration of sodium. The limited width of the stimulation window may have important implications in design of the electro-neural interfaces, including neural prosthetics. PMID:22993266

  20. Upper Girdle Imaging in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tasca, Giorgio; Monforte, Mauro; Iannaccone, Elisabetta; Laschena, Francesco; Ottaviani, Pierfrancesco; Leoncini, Emanuele; Boccia, Stefania; Galluzzi, Giuliana; Pelliccioni, Marco; Masciullo, Marcella; Frusciante, Roberto; Mercuri, Eugenio; Ricci, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Background In Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), the upper girdle is early involved and often difficult to assess only relying on physical examination. Our aim was to evaluate the pattern and degree of involvement of upper girdle muscles in FSHD compared with other muscle diseases with scapular girdle impairment. Methods We propose an MRI protocol evaluating neck and upper girdle muscles. One hundred-eight consecutive symptomatic FSHD patients and 45 patients affected by muscular dystrophies and myopathies with prominent upper girdle involvement underwent this protocol. Acquired scans were retrospectively analyzed. Results The trapezius (100% of the patients) and serratus anterior (85% of the patients) were the most and earliest affected muscles in FSHD, followed by the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major, whilst spinati and subscapularis (involved in less than 4% of the patients) were consistently spared even in late disease stages. Asymmetry and hyperintensities on short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences were common features, and STIR hyperintensities could also be found in muscles not showing signs of fatty replacement. The overall involvement appears to be disease-specific in FSHD as it significantly differed from that encountered in the other myopathies. Conclusions The detailed knowledge of single muscle involvement provides useful information for correctly evaluating patients' motor function and to set a baseline for natural history studies. Upper girdle imaging can also be used as an additional tool helpful in supporting the diagnosis of FSHD in unclear situations, and may contribute with hints on the currently largely unknown molecular pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:24932477

  1. Upper gastrointestinal microbiota and digestive diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-Kai; Yang, Yun-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Metagenomics which combines the power of genomics, bioinformatics, and systems biology, provide new access to the microbial world. Metagenomics permit the genetic analysis of complex microbial populations without requiring prior cultivation. Through the conceptual innovations in metagenomics and the improvements in DNA high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis technology, gastrointestinal microbiology has entered the metagenomics era and become a hot topic worldwide. Human microbiome research is underway, however, most studies in this area have focused on the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota and the relationship between intestinal microbiota and metabolic diseases (obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, etc.) and intestinal disorders [inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), etc.]. Few investigations on microbiota have been conducted within the upper gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach and duodenum). The upper gastrointestinal microbiota is essential for several gastrointestinal illnesses, including esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and esophageal carcinoma, gastritis and gastric cancer, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, IBS and celiac disease. However, the constitution and diversity of the microbiota in different sections of the upper gastrointestinal tract under health and various disease states, as well as the function of microbiota in the pathogenesis of various digestive diseases are still undefined. The current article provides an overview of the recent findings regarding the relationship between upper gastrointestinal microbiota and gastrointestinal diseases; and discusses the study limitations and future directions of upper gastrointestinal microbiota research. PMID:23539678

  2. Upper gastrointestinal microbiota and digestive diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Kai; Yang, Yun-Sheng

    2013-03-14

    Metagenomics which combines the power of genomics, bioinformatics, and systems biology, provide new access to the microbial world. Metagenomics permit the genetic analysis of complex microbial populations without requiring prior cultivation. Through the conceptual innovations in metagenomics and the improvements in DNA high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis technology, gastrointestinal microbiology has entered the metagenomics era and become a hot topic worldwide. Human microbiome research is underway, however, most studies in this area have focused on the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota and the relationship between intestinal microbiota and metabolic diseases (obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, etc.) and intestinal disorders [inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), etc.]. Few investigations on microbiota have been conducted within the upper gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach and duodenum). The upper gastrointestinal microbiota is essential for several gastrointestinal illnesses, including esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal carcinoma, gastritis and gastric cancer, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, IBS and celiac disease. However, the constitution and diversity of the microbiota in different sections of the upper gastrointestinal tract under health and various disease states, as well as the function of microbiota in the pathogenesis of various digestive diseases are still undefined. The current article provides an overview of the recent findings regarding the relationship between upper gastrointestinal microbiota and gastrointestinal diseases; and discusses the study limitations and future directions of upper gastrointestinal microbiota research.

  3. Upper Extremity Problems in Doner Kebab Masters

    PubMed Central

    Taspinar, Ozgur; Kepekci, Muge; Ozaras, Nihal; Aydin, Teoman; Guler, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Doner kebab is a food specific to Turkey; it is a cone-shaped meat placed vertically on a high stand. The doner kebab chefs stand against the meat and cut it by using both of their upper extremities. This work style may lead to recurrent trauma and correspondingly the upper extremity problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the upper extremity disorders of doner chefs. [Subjects and Methods] Doner kebab chefs were selected as the study group, and volunteers who were not doner kebab chefs and didn’t exert intense effort with upper extremities their business lives were selected as the control group. A survey form was prepared to obtain data about the participants’ ages, working experience (years), daily work hours, work at a second job, diseases, drug usage, and any musculoskeletal (lasting at least 1 week) complaint in last 6 months. [Results] A total of 164 individuals participated in the study, 82 doner chefs and 82 volunteers. In 20.6% of the study group and 15.6% of the control group, an upper extremity musculoskeletal system disorder was detected. Lateral epicondylitis was more frequently statistically significant in the work group. [Conclusion] Hand pain and lateral epicondylitis are more frequent in doner chefs than in other forms of business. PMID:25276030

  4. [The effect of neurorehabilitation on the functional state and muscle tone of upper limb in patients after ischaemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Klimkiewicz, Paulina; Kubsik, Anna; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2014-03-01

    Rehabilitation of upper limb in patients after ischemic stroke is a major challenge for modern neurorehabilitation. Function of upper limb of patients after ischemic stroke returns on the end of the rehabilitation comparing with another parts of the body. Below presents two groups of patients after ischemic stroke who were rehabilitated with use of the following methods: kinesiotherapy combined with NDT- Bobath method and kinesiotherapy only. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of kinesiotherapy only and NDT- Bobath method combined with kinesiotherapy on the functional state and muscle tone of upper limb in patients after ischemic stroke. The study involved a group of 40 patients after ischemic stroke with motor control and muscle tone problems of upper limb. Patients were divided into two groups, each of them included 20 people. Upper limb in group I was rehabilitated with the use of kinesiotherapy exercise however group II with the use of kinesiotherapy exercise combined with NDT- Bobath method (Neurodevelopmental Treatment Bobath). To evaluate the patients before and after rehabilitation muscle tone Asworth scale was used and to assess functional status Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMAIII) scale was used. After 5 weeks of rehabilitation in group II in majority patients were observed decrease of muscle tone and improvement in upper limb functional status. In group I the muscle tone were also decreased and functional status were better but in smaller impact than in II group. Classical kinesiotherapy combined with the NDT-Bobath method gives better results in neurorehabilitation of upper limb than the use of kinesiotherapy exercises only in patients after ischemic stroke.

  5. Induction of periodic breathing during sleep causes upper airway obstruction in humans.

    PubMed

    Onal, E; Burrows, D L; Hart, R H; Lopata, M

    1986-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that occlusive apneas result from sleep-induced periodic breathing in association with some degree of upper airway compromise, periodic breathing was induced during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep by administering hypoxic gas mixtures with and without applied external inspiratory resistance (9 cmH2O X l-1 X s) in five normal male volunteers. In addition to standard polysomnography for sleep staging and respiratory pattern monitoring, esophageal pressure, tidal volume (VT), and airflow were measured via an esophageal catheter and pneumotachograph, respectively, with the latter attached to a tight-fitting face mask, allowing calculation of total pulmonary system resistance (Rp). During stage I/II NREM sleep minimal period breathing was evident in two of the subjects; however, in four subjects during hypoxia and/or relief from hypoxia, with and without added resistance, pronounced periodic breathing developed with waxing and waning of VT, sometimes with apneic phases. Resistive loading without hypoxia did not cause periodicity. At the nadir of periodic changes in VT, Rp was usually at its highest and there was a significant linear relationship between Rp and 1/VT, indicating the development of obstructive hypopneas. In one subject without added resistance and in the same subject and in another during resistive loading, upper airway obstruction at the nadir of the periodic fluctuations in VT was observed. We conclude that periodic breathing resulting in periodic diminution of upper airway muscle activity is associated with increased upper airway resistance that predisposes upper airways to collapse.

  6. An ALMA continuum survey of circumstellar disks in the upper Scorpius OB association

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John M.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2014-05-20

    We present ALMA 880 μm continuum observations of 20 K- and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB association (Upper Sco) that are surrounded by protoplanetary disks. These data are used to measure the dust content in disks around low-mass stars (0.1-1.6 M {sub ☉}) at a stellar age of 5-11 Myr. Thirteen sources were detected in the 880 μm dust continuum at ≥3σ with inferred dust masses between 0.3 and 52 M {sub ⊕}. The dust masses tend to be higher around the more massive stars, but the significance is marginal in that the probability of no correlation is p ≈ 0.03. The evolution in the dust content in disks was assessed by comparing the Upper Sco observations with published continuum measurements of disks around ∼1-2 Myr stars in the Class II stage in the Taurus molecular cloud. While the dust masses in the Upper Sco disks are on average lower than in Taurus, any difference in the dust mass distributions is significant at less than 3σ. For stellar masses between 0.49 M {sub ☉} and 1.6 M {sub ☉}, the mean dust mass in disks is lower in Upper Sco relative to Taurus by Δlog M {sub dust} = 0.44 ± 0.26.

  7. Individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in upper cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fei; Dai, Jianhao; Zhang, Junxiang; Ma, Yichuan; Zhu, Guanghui; Shen, Junjie; Niu, Guoqi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine is a difficult and high-risk procedure. The screw is difficult to place rapidly and accurately, and can lead to serious injury of spinal cord or vertebral artery. The aim of this study was to design an individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine. Methods Using CT thin slices data, we employed computer software to design the navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine (atlas and axis). The upper cervical spine models and navigation templates were produced by 3D printer with equal proportion, two sets for each case. In one set (Test group), pedicle screws fixation were guided by the navigation template; in the second set (Control group), the screws were fixed under fluoroscopy. According to the degree of pedicle cortex perforation and whether the screw needed to be refitted, the fixation effects were divided into 3 types: Type I, screw is fully located within the vertebral pedicle; Type II, degree of pedicle cortex perforation is <1 mm, but with good internal fixation stability and no need to renovate; Type III, degree of pedicle cortex perforation is >1 mm or with the poor internal fixation stability and in need of renovation. Type I and Type II were acceptable placements; Type III placements were unacceptable. Results A total of 19 upper cervical spine and 19 navigation templates were printed, and 37 pedicle screws were fixed in each group. Type I screw-placements in the test group totaled 32; Type II totaled 3; and Type III totaled 2; with an acceptable rate of 94.60%. Type I screw placements in the control group totaled 23; Type II totaled 3; and Type III totaled 11, with an acceptable rate of 70.27%. The acceptability rate in test group was higher than the rate in control group. The operation time and fluoroscopic frequency for each screw were decreased, compared with control group. Conclusion The individualized 3D

  8. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jin-Li Suo, Qi

    2015-04-15

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon–Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon–Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics.

  9. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action. PMID:19009639

  10. Upper extremity trauma: current trends in management.

    PubMed

    Stone, W M; Fowl, R J; Money, S R

    2007-10-01

    Upper extremity trauma can be penetrating or blunt in etiology. The close proximity of vein, artery and nerve makes for a complicated presentation and potentially complicated reconstruction. Orthopedic and neurologic injuries can cause the more long term disability of these patients, but vascular injuries are initially more life threatening. Control of vascular injuries can be particularly difficult due to anatomic issues in the upper extremities. The intervention carried significant morbidity until evolution to endovascular approaches occurred. By reconstructing the injury from a more ''remote'' access site, less concomitant injury to the extremity can be encountered. However, although control of vascular injuries may result in greater survival rates with less morbidity from the procedure, long term outcome remains dependent upon concomitant injuries. This review will encompass both vascular and neurologic injuries secondary to trauma to the upper extremity and outline some of the trends in management.

  11. Comprehensive Management of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koukourakis, Georgios; Zacharias, Georgios; Koukourakis, Michael; Pistevou-Gobaki, Kiriaki; Papaloukas, Christos; Kostakopoulos, Athanasios; Kouloulias, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract represents only 5% of all urothelial cancers. The 5-year cancer-specific survival in the United States is roughly 75% with grade and stage being the most powerful predictors of survival. Nephroureterectomy with excision of the ipsilateral ureteral orifice and bladder cuff en bloc remains the gold standard treatment of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancers, while endoscopic and laparoscopic approaches are rapidly evolving as reasonable alternatives of care depending on grade and stage of disease. Several controversies remain in their management, including a selection of endoscopic versus laparoscopic approaches, management strategies on the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the value of chemotherapy in upper tract disease. Aims of this paper are to critically review the management of such tumors, including endoscopic management, laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and management of the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the emerging role of chemotherapy in their treatment. PMID:19096525

  12. Giant steps taken in Upper Zakum project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The Upper Zakum oil field offshore Abu Dhabi is progressing toward a production startup in the second half of 1981 with a mammoth construction effort. The field is being developed in a single phase with water injection and gas gathering beginning on day one of the field's producing life. Initial production capacity will be 300,000 bpd, rising to 500,000 bpd in mid-1984. Normally, a development on this scale would have been phased with a slower build-up to peak capacity, with the gradual introduction of water injection and gas gathering. However, completing the Upper Zakum project in one massive step reflects the Abu Dhabi government concern with conservation. The aim is to insure efficient and even depletion in all zones across the reservoir. With the government already restricting production elsewhere, it is debatable whether Upper Zakum will ever produce at peak capacity. Compared with maximizing oil and gas recovery, achieving peak output levels is of minor concern.

  13. Low Cost, Upper Stage-Class Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The low cost, upper stage-class propulsion (LCUSP) element will develop a high strength copper alloy additive manufacturing (AM) process as well as critical components for an upper stage-class propulsion system that will be demonstrated with testing. As manufacturing technologies have matured, it now appears possible to build all the major components and subsystems of an upper stage-class rocket engine for substantially less money and much faster than traditionally done. However, several enabling technologies must be developed before that can happen. This activity will address these technologies and demonstrate the concept by designing, manufacturing, and testing the critical components of a rocket engine. The processes developed and materials' property data will be transitioned to industry upon completion of the activity. Technologies to enable the concept are AM copper alloy process development, AM post-processing finishing to minimize surface roughness, AM material deposition on existing copper alloy substrate, and materials characterization.

  14. Electrical stimulation of upper airway musculature.

    PubMed

    Smith, P L; Eisele, D W; Podszus, T; Penzel, T; Grote, L; Peter, J H; Schwartz, A R

    1996-12-01

    Investigators have postulated that pharyngeal collapse during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may be alleviated by stimulating the genioglossus. The effect of electrical stimulation (ES) of the genioglossus on pharyngeal patency was examined in an isolated feline upper airway preparation and in apneic humans during sleep. We found that stimulation of the genioglossus (n = 8) and of the hypoglossal nerve (n = 1) increased maximum airflow through the isolated feline upper airway in humans during sleep. Additional findings in the isolated feline upper airway suggest that such increases in airflow were due to decreases in pharyngeal collapsibility. The evidence suggests that improvements in airflow dynamics with electrical stimulation are due to selective recruitment of the genioglossus, rather than due to nonspecific activation of the pharyngeal musculature or arousal from sleep. The implications of these results for future therapy with ES are discussed.

  15. BASS-II Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-02

    Image taken on card 8 during BASS-II flame test session with reduced O2 partial pressure. Session conducted on GMT 213. The Burning and Suppression of Solids - II (BASS-II) investigation examines the burning and extinction characteristics of a wide variety of fuel samples in microgravity. The BASS-II experiment will guide strategies for materials flammability screening for use in spacecraft as well as provide valuable data on solid fuel burning behavior in microgravity. BASS-II results contribute to the combustion computational models used in the design of fire detection and suppression systems in microgravity and on Earth.

  16. Transition region of the earth's upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Bass, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The chemistry of the earth's mantle is discussed using data from cosmochemistry, geochemistry, petrology, seismology, and mineral physics. The chondritic earth, the upper mantle and the 400-km discontinuity, the transition region, lower mantle mineralogy, and surface wave tomography are examined. Three main issues are addressed: (1) whether the mantle is homogeneous in composition or chemically stratified, (2) whether the major element chemistry of the mantle is more similar to upper mantle peridotites or to chondrites, and (3) the nature of the composition of the source region of basalts erupted at midocean ridges.

  17. Upper respiratory causes of exercise intolerance.

    PubMed

    Beard, W

    1996-12-01

    The respiratory system is a frequent cause of exercise intolerance in performance horses. Labored breathing, fatigue during performance, and prolonged recovery after exercise are common complaints. Inadequate fitness level and diseases of the cardiovascular system are differential diagnoses that share these complaints and should be ruled out. Generation of increased airway noise is a clinical sign that implicates the upper respiratory system. A careful history from the owner and endoscopy of the upper airway are the most useful diagnostic tools. Endoscopy during exercise on a treadmill is indicated when the airway lesion is not apparent with endoscopy at rest. Treatment of the respiratory obstruction may differ with the level of performance required.

  18. Trajectory Software With Upper Atmosphere Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The Trajectory Software Applications 6.0 for the Dec Alpha platform has an implementation of the Jacchia-Lineberry Upper Atmosphere Density Model used in the Mission Control Center for International Space Station support. Previous trajectory software required an upper atmosphere to support atmosphere drag calculations in the Mission Control Center. The Functional operation will differ depending on the end-use of the module. In general, the calling routine will use function-calling arguments to specify input to the processor. The atmosphere model will then compute and return atmospheric density at the time of interest.

  19. Studies in upper and lower atmosphere coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Rice, C. J.; Sharp, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical and data-analytic work on upper and lower atmosphere coupling performed under a NASA Headquarters contract during the period April 1978 to March 1979 are summarized. As such, this report is primarily devoted to an overview of various studies published and to be published under this contract. Individual study reports are collected as exhibits. Work performed under the subject contract are in the following four areas of upper-lower atmosphere coupling: (1) Magnetosphere-ionosphere electrodynamic coupling in the aurora; (2) Troposphere-thermosphere coupling; (3) Ionosphere-neutral-atmosphere coupling; and (4) Planetary wave dynamics in the middle atmosphere.

  20. Recent Cooling of the Upper Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, John M.; Willis, Josh K.; Johnson, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    We observe a net loss of 3.2 (+/- 1.1) x 1022 J of heat from the upper ocean between 2003 and 2005. Using a broad array of in situ ocean measurements, we present annual estimates of global upper-ocean heat content anomaly from 1993 through 2005. Including the recent downturn, the average warming rate for the entire 13-year period is 0.33 +/- 0.23 W/m2 (of the Earth's total surface area). A new estimate of sampling error in the heat content record suggests that both the recent and previous global cooling events are significant and unlikely to be artifacts of inadequate ocean sampling.

  1. Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer and Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence that gastroesophageal reflux disease is related to several upper gastrointestinal cancers, mainly the esophageal adenocarcinoma and a certain type of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Currently, the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease is rapidly increasing in Korea. Therefore, there is a possibility of such increasing cancerous incidents, similar to the western worlds. In this article, the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease and several upper gastrointestinal cancers, the components of refluxate which has possible causal relationship with carcinogenesis, and the clinical implications of such relationship in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease patients are discussed through the review of literature. PMID:23844321

  2. Transition region of the earth's upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Bass, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The chemistry of the earth's mantle is discussed using data from cosmochemistry, geochemistry, petrology, seismology, and mineral physics. The chondritic earth, the upper mantle and the 400-km discontinuity, the transition region, lower mantle mineralogy, and surface wave tomography are examined. Three main issues are addressed: (1) whether the mantle is homogeneous in composition or chemically stratified, (2) whether the major element chemistry of the mantle is more similar to upper mantle peridotites or to chondrites, and (3) the nature of the composition of the source region of basalts erupted at midocean ridges.

  3. Upper computer software design for active optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Wang, Guomin; Gao, Liang

    2012-09-01

    China has joined the international global network SONG project and will build one 1-meter telescope as one node of SONG network. This paper shows the upper computer software system design under Linux operating system for active optics control system of Chinese SONG telescope. The upper computer software developed in this paper under Linux OS has three functions: detection of S-H wavefront, calculation of mirror correction force and communication with the controller of hardware. We will introduce the three modules developed under Linux environment: wavefront image processing module, communication module and GUI module.

  4. Upper stage alternatives for the shuttle era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The status and general characteristics of Space Shuttle upper stages now in use or in development, as well as new vehicle possibilities are examined. Upper stage requirements for both civil and Department of Defense missions, categorized generally into near-term (early and mid-1980's), mid-term (late 1980's to mid-1990's), and far-term (late 1990's and beyond) are discussed. Finally, the technical, schedule and cost impact of alternative ways in which these requirements could be met are examined, and a number of conclusions and recommendations are reached.

  5. Recent Cooling of the Upper Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, John M.; Willis, Josh K.; Johnson, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    We observe a net loss of 3.2 (+/- 1.1) x 1022 J of heat from the upper ocean between 2003 and 2005. Using a broad array of in situ ocean measurements, we present annual estimates of global upper-ocean heat content anomaly from 1993 through 2005. Including the recent downturn, the average warming rate for the entire 13-year period is 0.33 +/- 0.23 W/m2 (of the Earth's total surface area). A new estimate of sampling error in the heat content record suggests that both the recent and previous global cooling events are significant and unlikely to be artifacts of inadequate ocean sampling.

  6. Upper level experimental physics resource materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Lee E.

    1992-04-01

    During a 1990 NSF-sponsored workshop on improving upper level experimental physics laboratories, it was agreed that a list of resources from publishers and from institutions with strong upper level labs would be useful to the physics teaching community. This compilation is by no means exhaustive, and suggestions for additions are welcome. If you have or know of materials that should be included, please contact the compiler of this list, Lee Larson, Department of Physics, Denison University, Granville, Ohio (614-587-6468; Bitnet LARSON@DENISON).

  7. Upper jurassic dinosaur egg from utah.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, K F; Stadtman, K L; Miller, W E; Madsen, J H

    1989-03-31

    The Upper Jurassic egg described here is the first known egg from the 100-million-year gap in the fossil record between Lower Jurassic (South Africa) and upper Lower Cretaceous (Utah). The discovery of the egg, which was found mixed in with thousands of dinosaur bones rather than in a nest, the pathological multilayering of the eggshell as found in modern and fossil reptilians, and the pliable condition of the eggshell at the time of burial indicate an oviducal retention of the egg at the time of burial.

  8. Atmospheric variability experiment /AVE II/ pilot experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Scroggins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II) was conducted in May 1974. Rawinsonde releases were made at 54 upper-air stations in two thirds of the eastern U.S. at 3-hr intervals for a 24-hr period. Radar data were obtained from 11 stations located near the center of the observational area, and as many data as possible were collected from the Nimbus 5, NOAA 2, ATS-3, and DMSP satellites. The present paper provides an overview of the experiment and describes how the user community can obtain copies of the data.

  9. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with hepatic cirrhosis: clinical course and mortality prediction.

    PubMed

    Afessa, B; Kubilis, P S

    2000-02-01

    We conducted this study to describe the complications and validate the accuracy of previously reported prognostic indices in predicting the mortality of cirrhotic patients hospitalized for upper GI bleeding. This prospective, observational study included 111 consecutive hospitalizations of 85 cirrhotic patients admitted for GI bleeding. Data obtained included intensive care unit (ICU) admission status, Child-Pugh score, the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), organ failure, and inhospital mortality. The performances of Garden's, Gatta's, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II prognostic systems in predicting mortality were assessed. Patients' mean age was 48.7 yr, and the median APACHE II and Child-Pugh scores were 17 and 9, respectively. Their ICU admission rate was 71%. Organ failure developed in 57%, and SIRS in 46% of the patients. Nine patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and three patients had hepatorenal syndrome. The inhospital mortality was 21%. The APACHE II, Garden's, and Gatta' s predicted mortality rates were 39%, 24%, and 20%, respectively, and their areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were 0.78, 0.70, and 0.71, respectively. The AUC for Child-Pugh score was 0.76. SIRS and organ failure develop in many patients with hepatic cirrhosis hospitalized for upper GI bleeding, and are associated with increased mortality. Although the APACHE II prognostic system overestimated the mortality of these patients, the receiver operating characteristic curves did not show significant differences between the various prognostic systems.

  10. Density heterogeneities of the European upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegorova, T.

    2003-04-01

    DENSITY HETEROGENEITIES OF THE EUROPEAN UPPER MANTLE T.Yegorova Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine egorova@igph.kiev.ua Large-scale 3D gravity modelling in one degree averaging has been carried out for the European crust and Northern Atlantic; the model comprises two heterogeneous regional layers sediments and crystalline crust, confined by reliable seismic horizons the “seismic” basement and the Moho interface (Geophys. J. Int., 2002, 151: 11-31). As a result, residual gravity (crust free) anomalies, caused by density heterogeneities in the upper mantle and reaching some hundred mGal in amplitude, were obtained. The present study has been undertaken to substantiate mantle origin of the crust-free anomalies on the basis of their correlation with the upper mantle heterogeneities revealed by other methods (first of all seismology and geothermal data). Existence of fundamental relations between subsurface geotectonic units and upper mantle structure is substantiated by revealed correlation of gravity mantle anomalies (MA) with: thickness of both crust and lithosphere, heat flow data, age of last tectono-thermal activation. Temperature regime of the upper mantle has been proven to be the main factor determining the density distribution below the crustal base. On the basis of revealed correlation between MA and lithosphere thickness (LT) a scheme of rough estimates of the lithosphere thickness has been obtained for the whole European continent and Northern Atlantic. The main features of the obtained pattern of the LT are generally in good agreement with known parameters of the LT. Density distribution in the upper mantle have been estimated by converting the MA into density values of the subcrustal layer, confined by the Moho and the depth level in the upper mantle (adopted for two versions at the depth of 100 and 200 km). On the other hand, revealed correlation between mantle gravity anomalies and velocity heterogeneities (which is

  11. Great River Environmental Action Team II. (GREAT II). Upper Mississippi River (Guttenberg, Iowa to Saverton, Missouri). Recreation Work Group. Appendix.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    confluence) POOL 21 a. 331.5 - 332.6 L ( Hogback ) b. 327.8 L (Quinsippi) c. 336.0 R (LaGrange Park) POOL 22 a. 316.1 - 316.3 L (on main shore) b. 319.0...LaGrange (mile 336) d18 and another on Hogback Island (mile 332.0). The beach site at LaGrange is also used by the non-boating public. The area at Hogback ...a. 331.5 - 332.6 L ( Hogback ) b. 327.8 L (Quinsippi) c. 336.0 R (LaGrange Park) d. 337.0 -337.2 R (Proposed LaGrange Campground) 426 D) ISPLAY )t. C

  12. Comparison of upper tropospheric water vapor from GOES, Raman lidar, and Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soden, B. J.; Ackerman, S. A.; Starr, D. O'C.; Melfi, S. H.; Ferrare, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of upper tropospheric relative humidity obtained from Raman lidar and Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System (CLASS) sonde instruments obtained during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Cirrus-II field program are compared with satellite measurements from the GOES 6.7-micron channel. The 6.7-micron channel is sensitive to water vapor integrated over a broad layer in the upper troposphere (roughly 500-200 mbar). Instantaneous measurements of the upper tropospheric relative humidity from GOES are shown to agree to within roughly 6% of the nearest lidar observations and 9% of the nearest CLASS observations. The CLASS data exhibit a slight yet systematic dry bias in upper tropospheric humidity, a result which is consistent with previous radiosonde intercomparisons. Temporal stratification of the CLASS data indicates that the magnitude of the bias is dependent upon the time of day, suggesting a solar heating effect in the radiosonde sensor. Using CLASS profiles, the impact of vertical variability in relative humidity upon the GOES upper tropospheric humidity measurements is also examined. The upper tropospheric humidity inferred from the GOES 6.7-micron channel is demonstrated to agree to within roughly 5% of the relative humidity vertically averaged over the depth of atmosphere to which the 6.7-micron channel is sensitive. The results of this study encourage the use of satellite measurements in the 6.7-micron channel to quantitatively describe the distribution and temporal evolution of the upper tropospheric humidity field.

  13. Comparison of upper tropospheric water vapor from GOES, Raman lidar, and Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soden, B. J.; Ackerman, S. A.; Starr, D. O'C.; Melfi, S. H.; Ferrare, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of upper tropospheric relative humidity obtained from Raman lidar and Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System (CLASS) sonde instruments obtained during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Cirrus-II field program are compared with satellite measurements from the GOES 6.7-micron channel. The 6.7-micron channel is sensitive to water vapor integrated over a broad layer in the upper troposphere (roughly 500-200 mbar). Instantaneous measurements of the upper tropospheric relative humidity from GOES are shown to agree to within roughly 6% of the nearest lidar observations and 9% of the nearest CLASS observations. The CLASS data exhibit a slight yet systematic dry bias in upper tropospheric humidity, a result which is consistent with previous radiosonde intercomparisons. Temporal stratification of the CLASS data indicates that the magnitude of the bias is dependent upon the time of day, suggesting a solar heating effect in the radiosonde sensor. Using CLASS profiles, the impact of vertical variability in relative humidity upon the GOES upper tropospheric humidity measurements is also examined. The upper tropospheric humidity inferred from the GOES 6.7-micron channel is demonstrated to agree to within roughly 5% of the relative humidity vertically averaged over the depth of atmosphere to which the 6.7-micron channel is sensitive. The results of this study encourage the use of satellite measurements in the 6.7-micron channel to quantitatively describe the distribution and temporal evolution of the upper tropospheric humidity field.

  14. Comparison of upper tropospheric water vapor from GOES, Raman lidar, and Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Soden, B.J.; Ackerman, S.A.; Starr, D.O`C.; Melfi, S.H.; Ferrare, R.A. |||

    1994-10-01

    Observations of upper tropospheric relative humidity obtained from Raman lidar and Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System (CLASS) sonde instruments obtained during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Cirrus-II field program are compared with satellite measurements from the GOES 6.7-micron channel. The 6.7-micron channel is sensitive to water vapor integrated over a broad layer in the upper troposphere (roughly 500-200 mbar). Instantaneous measurements of the upper tropospheric relative humidity from GOES are shown to agree to within roughly 6% of the nearest lidar observations and 9% of the nearest CLASS observations. The CLASS data exhibit a slight yet systematic dry bias in upper tropospheric humidity, a result which is consistent with previous radiosonde intercomparisons. Temporal stratification of the CLASS data indicates that the magnitude of the bias is dependent upon the time of day, suggesting a solar heating effect in the radiosonde sensor. Using CLASS profiles, the impact of vertical variability in relative humidity upon the GOES upper tropospheric humidity measurements is also examined. The upper tropospheric humidity inferred from the GOES 6.7-micron channel is demonstrated to agree to within roughly 5% of the relative humidity vertically averaged over the depth of atmosphere to which the 6.7-micron channel is sensitive. The results of this study encourage the use of satellite measurements in the 6.7-micron channel to quantitatively describe the distribution and temporal evolution of the upper tropospheric humidity field.

  15. Comparison of upper tropospheric water vapor from GOES, Raman lidar, and cross-chain loran atmospheric sounding system measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soden, B. J.; Ackerman, S. A.; Starr, D. O.'C.; Melfi, S. H.; Ferrare, R. A.

    1994-10-01

    Observations of upper tropospheric relative humidity obtained from Raman lidar and CLASS sonde instruments obtained during the FIRE Cirrus-II field program are compared with satellite measurements from the GOES 6.7-μm channel. The 6.7-μm channel is sensitive to water vapor integrated over a broad layer in the upper troposphere (roughly 500-200 mbar). Instantaneous measurements of the upper tropospheric relative humidity from GOES are shown to agree to within roughly 6% of the nearest lidar observations and 9% of the nearest CLASS observations. The CLASS data exhibit a slight yet systematic dry bias in upper tropospheric humidity, a result which is consistent with previous radiosonde intercomparisons. Temporal stratification of the CLASS data indicates that the magnitude of the bias is dependent upon the time of day, suggesting a solar heating effect in the radiosonde sensor. Using CLASS profiles, the impact of vertical variability in relative humidity upon the GOES upper tropospheric humidity measurements is also examined. The upper tropospheric humidity inferred from the GOES 6.7-μm channel is demonstrated to agree to within roughly 5% of the relative humidity vertically averaged over the depth of atmosphere to which the 6.7-μm channel is sensitive. The results of this study encourage the use of satellite measurements in the 6.7-μm channel to quantitatively describe the distribution and temporal evolution of the upper tropospheric humidity field.

  16. Observationally determined Fe II oscillator strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, J. M.; van Steenberg, M.; Seab, C. G.

    1983-08-01

    Absorption oscillator strengths for 21 Fe II resonance lines, have been determined using a curve-of-growth analysis of interstellar data from the Copernicus and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellites. In addition to slight changes in strengths of the far-UV lines, new f-values are reported for wavelength 1608.45, a prominent line in interstellar and quasar absorption spectra, and for wavelength 2260.08, a weak, newly identified linen in IUE interstellar spectra. An upper limit on the strength of the undetected line at 2366.867 A (UV multiplet 2) is set. Using revised oscillator strengths, Fe II column densities toward 13 OB stars are derived. The interstellar depletions, (Fe/H), relative to solar values range between factors of 10 and 120.

  17. Upper extremity replantation: three-year experience.

    PubMed

    Romero-Zárate, J L; Pastrana-Figueroa, J M; Granados-Martínez, R

    2000-01-01

    Microsurgery in Mexico was initiated in 1967, when the first report of the subspecialty was published. At our hospital, we have had a well-organized microsurgery department since 1995. This has improved our management of patients with amputations of the upper extremity. This article presents our experience with upper extremity replantation, including hand and fingers. During the first 3 years, we managed 55 patients, 42 male and 13 female, aged 2-52 years, who had suffered amputations of some part of their upper extremity or even of the complete limb. These patients underwent surgical exploration for replantation. We analyzed 103 amputations in the 55 patients operated. The amputated parts are summarized as follows: 11 thumbs, 25 index, 24 middle, 22 ring, and 12 little fingers; 5 hands, 5 forearms, and 2 arms. The average hospital stay was 10 days. The follow-up was 6-24 months. Replantation success was 82%, with 18% failure for survival of the replanted part. Functional recovery was satisfactory in the 50% of cases, and sensitive recovery was satisfactory in 75% of cases. We conclude that although our experience on upper extremity replantation is not so large, our results are similar to those from other series. We discussed our results.

  18. Managing acute upper GI bleeding, preventing recurrences.

    PubMed

    Albeldawi, Mazen; Qadeer, Mohammed A; Vargo, John J

    2010-02-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is common and potentially life-threatening and needs a prompt assessment and aggressive medical management. All patients need to undergo endoscopy to diagnose, assess, and possibly treat any underlying lesion. In addition, patients found to have bleeding ulcers should receive a proton pump inhibitor, the dosage and duration of treatment depending on the endoscopic findings and clinical factors.

  19. Neutron spectral measurements in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobel, W.; Love, T. A.; Delorenzo, J. T.; Mcnew, C. O.

    1972-01-01

    An experiment to measure neutrons in the upper atmosphere was performed on a balloon flight from Palestine, Texas, at an altitude of about 32 km. The experimental arrangement is discussed briefly, and results of a preliminary analysis of the data for neutrons in the energy range 3 to 30 MeV are given.

  20. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  1. Team Teaching at Upper Arlington School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Annette R.

    1968-01-01

    Team teaching has been used for 4 years in the 10th-grade English classes at Upper Arlington High School near Columbus, Ohio. Units are prepared, presented, and evaluated by teachers working together voluntarily. A 6-day American literature unit introducing Romanticism has been particularly successful. The contrasts between Neoclassicism and…

  2. Generalized upper bound for inelastic diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshin, S. M.; Tyurin, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    For inelastic diffraction, we obtain an upper bound valid for the whole range of the elastic scattering amplitude variation allowed by unitarity. We discuss the energy dependence of the inelastic diffractive cross-section on the base of this bound and recent Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data.

  3. Upper Washita River experimental watersheds: Sediment Database

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improving the scientific understanding of the effectiveness of watershed conservation practices and floodwater-retardation structures to control floods and soil erosion is one of the primary objectives for sediment studies in the upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds. This paper summarizes se...

  4. Upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in healthcare personnel.

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Vincenzo; Korpinen, Leena; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2014-01-01

    The literature on upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (UL-MSD) in different groups of healthcare workers was reviewed: 65 relevant studies were collected. In dentists, the neck was the most frequently affected segment, with prevalences up to 73% and exceeding 50% in 7 out of 12 studies. In dental hygienists and in laboratory technicians, the hand/wrist had the highest prevalence in the majority of the studies. In nurses, the most seriously affected anatomic sites were the neck and shoulders. Physiotherapists had the lowest prevalence of UL-MSD. A high prevalence of upper limb disease, mainly carpal tunnel syndrome, was reported in dentists, dental hygienists, anesthesia nurses and endoscopists. The high prevalence of upper limb disorders/diseases reported in health personnel supports the hypothesis of a significant risk in these workers. However, the possible role of biomechanical overload, as much as that of stress or other personal factors, cannot be currently assessed. Practitioner Summary: Published studies support the hypothesis of a significant risk of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in healthcare activities. The neck was the most frequently affected segment in dentists, the hand/wrist in dental hygienists and in laboratory technicians, and the neck and shoulders in nurses. Lower prevalence was reported in physiotherapists. A high prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome was also observed in various healthcare activities.

  5. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shu-Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu-Tian

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

  6. Uprated OMS engine for upper stage propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, William C.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a pre-development component demonstration program on the use of a gas generator-driven turbopump that increases the Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) operating pressure are given. Tests and analysis confirm the the capability of the concept to meet or exceed performance and life requirements. Storable propellant upper stage concepts are also discussed.

  7. Surgical management of the aging upper face.

    PubMed

    Brodner, D C; Graham, H D

    2000-08-01

    Creating a more youthful appearance of the aging upper face requires a treatment plan which is tailored to address the patient's individual needs. The process begins with a comprehensive knowledge of anatomy and the physical effects of aging, involves discussion and understanding of aesthetic ideals, and culminates in the selection and performance of the appropriate procedure.

  8. Upper Limb Motor Impairment Post Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Understanding upper limb impairment after stroke is essential to planning therapeutic efforts to restore function. However determining which upper limb impairment to treat and how is complex for two reasons: 1) the impairments are not static, i.e. as motor recovery proceeds, the type and nature of the impairments may change; therefore the treatment needs to evolve to target the impairment contributing to dysfunction at a given point in time. 2) multiple impairments may be present simultaneously, i.e., a patient may present with weakness of the arm and hand immediately after a stroke, which may not have resolved when spasticity sets in a few weeks or months later; hence there may be a layering of impairments over time making it difficult to decide what to treat first. The most useful way to understand how impairments contribute to upper limb dysfunction may be to examine them from the perspective of their functional consequences. There are three main functional consequences of impairments on upper limb function are: (1) learned nonuse, (2) learned bad-use, and (3) forgetting as determined by behavioral analysis of tasks. The impairments that contribute to each of these functional limitations are described. PMID:26522900

  9. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  10. Upper Primary School Students' Algebraic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamol, Natcha; Ban Har, Yeap

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research study involving 128 students in grades 4-6 was conducted to develop a framework for characterizing upper primary school students' algebraic thinking. Four levels of algebraic thinking were identified from student responses to tasks involving patterns and open number sentences. Level 1 students failed to understand the…

  11. Agenesis of right upper lobe of lung.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chiu-Ping; Lu, Yen-Ta; Lin, Rong-Luh

    2015-06-01

    Agenesis of the right upper lobe of the lung is a very uncommon congenital anomaly and may be referred to chest clinics in adulthood for an incidental finding of abnormal chest radiograph. The presentations of chest radiograph may imitate many common situations such as right upper lobe collapse presenting as an ipsilateral shifting of the mediastinum or elevation of the right hemidiaphragm due to eventration or subdiaphragmatic lesions. A chest computed tomography is considered the most conclusive examination used to diagnose lung agenesis. Three-dimensional reconstructed images can be particularly helpful in delineating abnormalities of the bronchi and associated arterial and venous structures. We describe here a young woman with allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma since her early childhood. She was referred to our clinic for an incidental finding of abnormal chest radiograph after a school health checkup. Right upper lobe atelectasis or intra-abdominal lesions were initially suspected. After a thorough image study, she was diagnosed as a case of agenesis of the right upper lobe. Our report emphasizes the importance that a high index of suspicion and adequate image investigation are necessary to diagnose congenital lung anomalies.

  12. Mechanical Properties of the Upper Airway

    PubMed Central

    Strohl, Kingman P.; Butler, James P.; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the upper airway (nose, pharynx, and larynx) in health and in the pathogenesis of sleep apnea, asthma, and other airway diseases, discussed elsewhere in the Comprehensive Physiology series, prompts this review of the biomechanical properties and functional aspects of the upper airway. There is a literature based on anatomic or structural descriptions in static circumstances, albeit studied in limited numbers of individuals in both health and disease. As for dynamic features, the literature is limited to studies of pressure and flow through all or parts of the upper airway and to the effects of muscle activation on such features; however, the links between structure and function through airway size, shape, and compliance remain a topic that is completely open for investigation, particularly through analyses using concepts of fluid and structural mechanics. Throughout are included both historically seminal references, as well as those serving as signposts or updated reviews. This article should be considered a resource for concepts needed for the application of biomechanical models of upper airway physiology, applicable to understanding the pathophysiology of disease and anticipated results of treatment interventions. PMID:23723026

  13. The Upper Midwest and Regional Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Joseph M.

    The broad question addressed is whether the Upper Midwest needs a new regional educational laboratory and, if so, why and where and for whom? Conclusions were reached after a sampling of deans of education, chief state school officers, classroom teachers, National Institute of Education staff members, local superintendents, and other knowledgeable…

  14. Asbestos exposure and upper lobe involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hillerdal, G.

    1982-12-01

    In a study of 1,251 persons with asbestos-related pleural and parenchymal changes, 16 had slowly progressive changes of the upper lobes, involving both pleura and parenchyma, with shrinkage of the lobes. In addition there were 41 cases with less advanced apical changes. Tuberculosis and other possible causes were excluded. It is hypothesized that the changes rate due to asbestos disease.

  15. Impact of tactile dysfunction on upper-limb motor performance in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Auld, Megan L; Boyd, Roslyn N; Moseley, G Lorimer; Ware, Robert S; Johnston, Leanne M

    2012-04-01

    To determine the relationship between tactile function and upper-limb function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Cross-sectional study. Assessments were performed in community or hospital venues or in participants' homes. Recruitment information was sent to 253 possible participants with unilateral CP (aged 8-18 y), and N=52 participated (median age [interquartile range], 12 y [9-14 y]; Gross Motor Functional Classification System level I=34; II=18; Manual Abilities Classification Scale level I=36; II=16). Not applicable. Tactile assessment included 1 test of registration, 5 tests for spatial perception, and 1 test for texture perception. Upper-limb motor function was assessed using 2 unimanual tests, the Melbourne Unilateral Upper Limb Assessment (MUUL) and Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function (JTTHF), and 1 bimanual test, the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA). Tactile registration and all tests of spatial perception were moderately related to the MUUL, JTTHF, and AHA (P<.001). Texture perception was not related to upper-limb motor function. Regression analysis showed that single point localization, a unilateral tactile spatial perception test, contributed most strongly to unimanual capacity (29% explained variance in MUUL and 26% explained variance in JTTHF), whereas double simultaneous, a bilateral tactile spatial perception test, contributed most strongly to bimanual performance (33% for the AHA). Spatial tactile deficits account for approximately 30% of the variance in upper-limb motor function in children with unilateral CP. This emphasizes the need for routine tactile assessment and targeted treatment of tactile spatial deficits in this population. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nasal fat preservation in upper eyelid blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Massry, Guy G

    2011-01-01

    Traditional upper blepharoplasty is a subtractive form of surgery that involves the excision of variable amounts of skin, muscle, and fat from the eyelid. The goal of surgery is to improve field of vision and/or appearance. While surgical debulking of the eyelid may improve appearance early on, the volume loss inherent to this process (especially fat excision) can contribute to a hollowed appearance with an associated deep and sunken superior sulcus. This skeletonized look may be mitigated by repositioning a prominent nasal fat pad, if present, to the central upper eyelid. The charts of patients who underwent upper blepharoplasty with repositioning of the nasal fat pad (as described in this manuscript) to the central arcus marginalis of the superior orbital rim during surgery were reviewed. Patients with a history of previous eyelid surgery or trauma or who had concurrent ptosis or other eyelid malpositions were excluded from the study. Also excluded were patients who did not manifest prominent nasal fat pads at surgery. Postoperative interval follow up was consistent until 6 months after surgery and more sporadic thereafter, as patients more frequently missed appointments. Postoperative healing issues, patient complaints, complications, and subjective physician and patient satisfaction assessments were noted. Final results were gauged on each patient's final visit after surgery. Seventy-six patients were included in the study. Forty-eight patients (63%) were women, and 28 patients (37%) were men. The surgical procedure was uneventful in all patients. The average patient age was 66 years and the mean follow up was 11 months (range 6-22 months). There was one case of postoperative pseudo-Brown syndrome, which resolved with steroid injections. There were 2 cases of postoperative presumed mechanical ptosis, early in the series, lasting for 2 weeks, which in both cases responded to oral steroids. Subjectively, there was no new or worsening superior sulcus hollowness

  17. Effect of Upper Limb Deformities on Gross Motor and Upper Limb Functions in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…

  18. Effect of Upper Limb Deformities on Gross Motor and Upper Limb Functions in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…

  19. The upper limb of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Feuerriegel, Elen M; Green, David J; Walker, Christopher S; Schmid, Peter; Hawks, John; Berger, Lee R; Churchill, Steven E

    2017-03-01

    The evolutionary transition from an ape-like to human-like upper extremity occurred in the context of a behavioral shift from an upper limb predominantly involved in locomotion to one adapted for manipulation. Selection for overarm throwing and endurance running is thought to have further shaped modern human shoulder girdle morphology and its position about the thorax. Homo naledi (Dinaledi Chamber, Rising Star Cave, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa) combines an australopith-like cranial capacity with dental characteristics akin to early Homo. Although the hand, foot, and lower limb display many derived morphologies, the upper limb retains many primitive traits. Here, we describe the H. naledi upper extremity (excluding the hand) in detail and in a comparative context to evaluate the diversity of clavicular, scapular, humeral, radial, and ulnar morphology among early hominins and later Homo. Homo naledi had a scapula with a markedly cranially-oriented glenoid, a humerus with extremely low torsion, and an australopith-like clavicle. These traits indicate that the H. naledi scapula was situated superiorly and laterally on the thorax. This shoulder girdle configuration is more similar to that of Australopithecus and distinct from that of modern humans, whose scapulae are positioned low and dorsally about the thorax. Although early Homo erectus maintains many primitive clavicular and humeral features, its derived scapular morphology suggests a loss of climbing adaptations. In contrast, the H. naledi upper limb is markedly primitive, retaining morphology conducive to climbing while lacking many of the derived features related to effective throwing or running purported to characterize other members of early Homo.

  20. Morphology and dynamics of the Venus upper cloud layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, Wojciech; Titov, Dmitri; Limaye, Sanjay; Moissl, Richard; Ignatiev, Nikolay; Basilevsky, A. T.; Shalygin, E. V.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Khatuntsev, Igor; Keller, Horst Uwe; Jaumann, Ralf; Thomas, Nicolas; Michalik, Harald

    Venus is completely covered by a thick cloud layer whose upper part is composed of sulfuric acid and some unknown aerosols1. The cloud tops are in fast retrograde rotation (super-rotation), but what is driving this super-rotation is unknown2. Here we report observations of Venus with the Venus Monitoring Camera3 (VMC) on board the Venus Express spacecraft. Taking advantage of the VMC high resolution imaging and the polar orbit we investigate both global and small scale properties of these clouds, their temporal and latitudinal variations, and derive wind velocities. The Southern polar region is highly variable and can change dramatically on time scales as short as one day, perhaps arising from the injection of SO2 into the mesosphere. The convective cells in the vicinity of the sub-solar point are much smaller than previously inferred4,5,6, which we interpret as indicating that they are confined to the upper cloud layer, contrary to previous conclusions7,8, but consistent with more recent study9. (1) Esposito, L.W. et al., in Venus, pp. 484-564, 1983, (2) Limaye, S. S., 2007, J. Geophys. Res., 112, 2007, (3) Markiewicz, W.J. et al., Planet. Space Sci., 55, 1701-1711, 2007, (4) Murray, B.C., et al., Science 183, 1307-1315 (1974), (5) Rossow, W.B. et al., J. Geophys. Res. 85, 8107-8128, 1980, (6) Covey, C.C. and G. Schubert, Nature, 290, 17-20, 1981, (7) Baker II, R.D. and G. Schubert, Nature, 355, 710-712, 1992, (8) Belton, M.J.S. et al., J. Atmos. Sci.. 33, 1394-1417, 1976, (9) Baker, R.D., G. Schubert, and P.W. Jones, J. Geophy. Res., 104, Issue E2, p. 3815-3832, 1999.

  1. Photosensitization of HNS II

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoton, N.O.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of photosensitization of HNS II was evaluated using an electrically driven flyer in vacuum, air and xenon. Preliminary experiments, without HNS II acceptors, indicated increased ultraviolet light generation by the flyer in argon, krypton and xenon atmospheres relative to air while no ultraviolet light was detectable in vacuum. HNS II initiation threshold tests in vacuum, air and xenon showed only a slight difference in threshold level between air and vacuum, and a higher threshold level in xenon. Thus no relationship was evident from these tests between ultraviolet energy level and the initiation sensitivity of HNS II.

  2. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  3. Experience and learning curve of retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy for upper ureteral calculi.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tianyong; Xian, Peng; Yang, Lu; Liu, Yong; Wei, Qiang; Li, Hong

    2009-11-01

    To summarize our experience and evaluate the learning curve of retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy of the upper ureter. Between May 2004 and May 2007, 40 patients underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy of the upper ureter. We divided the first and last 20 patients into group I and group II. There was no statistical difference in stone size between groups. Operative time and complications were measured as a basis for the assessment of the learning curve. In group I, the complication rate was 15% (3/20), including two patients whose procedure was converted to open surgery because of intraoperative bleeding, and one patient who experienced urine leakage because of a displaced Double-J ureteral stent. In group II, no postoperative complications occurred, while the mean operative time was significantly shorter compared with the earlier operations (65 vs 120 min). Retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy is safe and effective for large or impacted stones of the upper ureter. It is associated with a short learning curve in the setting of an active laparoscopic practice for selected patients.

  4. Modelling reference conditions for the upper limit of Posidonia oceanica meadows: a morphodynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Misson, Gloria; Montefalcone, Monica; Archetti, Renata; Nike Bianchi, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The upper portion of the meadows of the protected Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica occurs in the region of the seafloor mostly affected by surf-related effects. Evaluation of its status is part of monitoring programs, but proper conclusions are difficult to draw due to the lack of definite reference conditions. Comparing the position of the meadow upper limit with the beach morphodynamics (i.e. the distinctive type of beach produced by topography and wave climate) provided evidence that the natural landwards extension of meadows can be predicted. Here we present an innovative predictive cartographic approach able to identify the seafloor portion where the meadow upper limit should naturally lies (i.e. its reference conditions). The conceptual framework of this model is based on 3 essential components: i) Definition of the breaking depth geometry: the breaking limit represents the major constrain for the landward meadow development. We modelled the breaking limit (1 year return time) using the software Mike 21 sw. ii) Definition of the morphodynamic domain of the beach using the surf scaling index ɛ; iii) Definition of the P. oceanica upper limit geometry. We coupled detailed aerial photo with thematic bionomic cartography. In GIS environment, we modelled the seafloor extent where the meadow should naturally lies according to the breaking limit position and the morphodynamic domain of the beach. Then, we added the GIS layer with the meadow upper limit geometry. Therefore, the final output shows, on the same map, both the reference condition and the actual location of the upper limit. It make possible to assess the status of the landward extent of a given P. oceanica meadow and quantify any suspected or observed regression caused by anthropic factors. The model was elaborated and validated along the Ligurian coastline (NW Mediteraanean) and was positively tested in other Mediterranean areas.

  5. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage/Upper Stage Engine Element Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I upper stage is an integral part of the Constellation Program transportation system. The upper stage provides guidance, navigation and control (GN and C) for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I vehicle. The Saturn-derived J-2X upper stage engine will provide thrust and propulsive impulse for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I launch vehicle. Additionally, the upper stage is responsible for the avionics system of the the entire Ares I. This brief presentation highlights the requirements, design, progress and production of the upper stage. Additionally, test facilities to support J-2X development are discussed and an overview of the operational and manufacturing flows are provided. Building on the heritage of the Apollo and Space Shuttle Programs, the Ares I Us and USE teams are utilizing extensive lessons learned to place NASA and the US into another era of space exploration. The NASA, Boeing and PWR teams are integrated and working together to make progress designing and building the Ares I upper stage to minimize cost, technical and schedule risks.

  6. Radiofrequency upper thoracic sympathectomy in the treatment of critical upper limb ischemia--a case series.

    PubMed

    Gabrhelik, Tomas; Stehlik, Daniel; Adamus, Milan; Zalesak, Bohumil; Michalek, Pavel

    2013-06-01

    Patients with significant medical and social problems resulting from impaired perfusion of the upper limbs caused by micro- or macro-angiopathy are now frequent in clinical practice. Vasospastic disease of the upper limbs of combined origin is a difficult condition to treat by conservative methods and therapeutic strategies are usually multidisciplinary. In addition to standard pharmacotherapy, treatment may involve regional anaesthesia, thoracoscopic or radiofrequency sympathectomy and surgical treatment of defects, including plastic surgery. This paper describes our successful work in the treatment of upper limb critical ischemia using radiofrequency upper thoracic sympathectomy. In three case reports we present the results of radiofrequency thermolysis applied to treat patients with chronic defects of the hand and fingers. These patients were diagnosed with upper limb critical ischemia of combined origin, standard conservative treatment methods failed and surgical intervention was originally not indicated, however, radiofrequency thermolysis proved to be beneficial. Radiofrequency thoracic sympathectomy could improve peripheral perfusion of the upper limbs and thereby contribute to healing of chronic defects, reduction of pain and improvement in the quality of life of the patients.

  7. Management of Class II malocclusion with ectopic maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Rohan; Parveen, Shahista; Ansari, Tariq Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Correction of Class II relationship, deep bite and ectopically erupting canines is an orthodontic challenge for the clinician. A 13-year-old male patient presented with Class II malocclusion, ectopically erupting canines, and cross bite with maxillary left lateral incisor. He was treated with a combination of Headgear, Forsus™ fatigue resistant device [FFRD] with fixed mechanotherapy for the management of space deficiency and correction of Class II malocclusions. Headgear was used to distalize upper first molars and also to prevent further downward and forward growth of the maxilla. Then Forsus™ FFRD was used for the advancement of the mandible. The molar and canine relationship were corrected from a Class II to a Class I. The objectives were to establish good occlusion and enable eruption of unerupted canines. All these objectives were achieved and remained stable. PMID:26097371

  8. Simulations of the Mg II K and Ca II 8542 Lines From an Alfvén Wave-Heated Flare Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Graham S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Russell, Alexander J. B.; Allred, Joel C.

    2016-01-01

    We use radiation hydrodynamic simulations to examine two models of solar flare chromospheric heating: Alfven wave dissipation and electron beam collisional losses. Both mechanisms are capable of strong chromospheric heating, and we show that the distinctive atmospheric evolution in the mid-to-upper chromosphere results in Mg II k-line emission that should be observably different between wave-heated and beam-heated simulations. We also present Ca II 8542 A profiles that are formed slightly deeper in the chromosphere. The Mg II k-line profiles from our wave-heated simulation are quite different from those from a beam-heated model and are more consistent with Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph observations. The predicted differences between the Ca II 8542 A in the two models are small. We conclude that careful observational and theoretical study of lines formed in the mid-to-upper chromosphere holds genuine promise for distinguishing between competing models for chromospheric heating inflares.

  9. A new expected upper limit on the rare decay B(s) ---> mu+ mu- with the D0 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; /Strasbourg, IPHC

    2009-01-01

    We present a new expected upper limit of the rare decay branching ratio B{sub s} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} using about 5 fb{sup -1} of Run II data collected with the D0 detector at the Tevatron. When setting limits on the branching ratio, selected events are normalized to reconstructed B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{Psi}K{sup {+-}} events in order to decrease the systematic uncertainty. The resulting expected upper limit is {Beta}(B{sub s} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) = 4.3(5.3) x 10{sup -8} at the 90% (95%) C.L.

  10. An upper limit for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Traub, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    It has been postulated that hydrogen peroxide is important in stratospheric chemistry as a reservoir and sink for odd hydrogen species, and for its ability to interconvert them. The present investigation is concerned with an altitude dependent upper limit curve for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide, taking into account an altitude range from 21.5 to 38.0 km for January 23, 1983. The data employed are from balloon flight No. 1316-P, launched from the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF) in Palestine, Texas. The obtained upper limit curve lies substantially below the data reported by Waters et al. (1981), even though the results are from the same latitude and are both wintertime measurements.

  11. An upper limit for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Traub, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    It has been postulated that hydrogen peroxide is important in stratospheric chemistry as a reservoir and sink for odd hydrogen species, and for its ability to interconvert them. The present investigation is concerned with an altitude dependent upper limit curve for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide, taking into account an altitude range from 21.5 to 38.0 km for January 23, 1983. The data employed are from balloon flight No. 1316-P, launched from the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF) in Palestine, Texas. The obtained upper limit curve lies substantially below the data reported by Waters et al. (1981), even though the results are from the same latitude and are both wintertime measurements.

  12. SPORTS INJURIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rogerio Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Sports injuries of the upper limbs are very common in physical activities and therefore, they need to be studied in detail, taking into consideration specific aspects of the types of sports practiced. Special attention should be paid to the dynamics of the shoulder girdle and the entire scapular belt, since the most appropriate treatment for athletes can only be provided in this manner. This can also help to prevent recurrences, which can occur in some cases because athletes always seek to return to their pre-injury level of sports activity. This article will focus primarily on the management of upper-limb tendon injuries, from the physiopathology through to the new methods of injury treatment that are more prevalent in sports practice in Brazil. PMID:27022529

  13. Upper Rio Grande Simulation Model (URGSIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Jesse; & Tidwell, Vincent

    2010-08-05

    URGSIM estimates the location of surface water and groundwater resources in the upper Rio Grande Basin between the Colorado-New Mexico state line, and Caballo Reservoir from 1975 - 2045. It is a mass balance hydrology model of the Upper Rio Grande surface water, groundwater, and water demand systems which runs at a monthly timestep from 1975-1999 in calibration mode, 2000 – 2004 in validation mode, and 2005 – 2045 in scenario analysis mode.

  14. Upper limit on Titan's atmospheric argon abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Hall, Doyle T.; Zhu, Xun; Summers, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis is conducted on the Voyager 1 UV Spectrometer solar-occultation data and a Titan flyby spectrum of the north polar region dayglow, in order to infer the tropopausal Ar mixing ratio's upper limit as a function of the CH4 mixing ratio, f(CH4). The mole-fraction upper limit of tropopausal Ar mixing ratio ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 at f(CH4) of 0.026 to as low as 0.08 at f(CH4) of 0.05. Since the best fits to the solar occultation data require f(CH4) of more than 0.26, the Ar mixing ratio must be lower than 0.1.

  15. Seismic Q of the lunar upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Koyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    Shallow moonquake data are used to determine the frequency dependence of Q values for both compressional and shear waves in the upper mantle of the moon at frequencies between 3 and 8 Hz. The seismic P wave Q is estimated to be at least 4000 and is nearly independent of frequency or decreases slightly with increasing frequency, while the S wave Q increases from at least 4000 at 3 Hz to at least 7000 at 8 Hz. The rate of increase of Q(S) is approximately proportional to the 0.7 + or - 0.1 power of the frequency above 5 Hz. With the absence of other dissipation mechanisms, compressional heat loss may be a dominant factor in the lunar interior. Uncertainty remains, however, in the absolute values of Q's owing to the largely unknown detailed structure of the lunar upper mantle.

  16. Disorders of the upper extremity in children.

    PubMed

    Azouz, E M; Oudjhane, K

    1998-08-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the indications of MR imaging in a variety of disorders of the upper extremity of the pediatric patient. This covers congenital anomalies: Sprengel shoulder, Poland sequence, arthrogryposis; posttraumatic lesions of cartilage, bone, tendon, muscle and nerve including the brachial plexus injury; inflammatory arthritis and synovitis; bone and joint infection; osteochondritis dissecans, bone necrosis and infarcts in sickle cell anemia and juvenile Gaucher disease, as well as tumors. In this last category, the authors briefly describe the appearances of cysts and tumors of bones and soft tissues of the upper extremity. Indications for the intravenous administration of Gadolinium are given throughout the article with emphasis on the synovial enhancement seen in active arthritis and synovitis.

  17. Tree species richness of upper Amazonian forests

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Alwyn H.

    1988-01-01

    Upper Amazonian data for tree species richness in 1-hectare plots are reported. All plants ≥10 cm diameter were censused and identified in six plots in Amazonian Peru and one on the Venezuela-Brazil border. The two plots from the everwet forests near Iquitos, Peru, are the most species-rich in the world, with ≈300 species ≥10 cm diameter in single hectares; all of the Peruvian plots are among the most species-rich ever reported. Contrary to accepted opinion, upper Amazonian forest, and perhaps Central African ones, have as many or more tree species as comparable Asian forests. Very high tree species richness seems to be a general property of mature lowland evergreen forests on fertile to moderately infertile soils on all three continents. PMID:16578826

  18. Upper bounds on sequential decoding performance parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelinek, F.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents the best obtainable random coding and expurgated upper bounds on the probabilities of undetectable error, of t-order failure (advance to depth t into an incorrect subset), and of likelihood rise in the incorrect subset, applicable to sequential decoding when the metric bias G is arbitrary. Upper bounds on the Pareto exponent are also presented. The G-values optimizing each of the parameters of interest are determined, and are shown to lie in intervals that in general have nonzero widths. The G-optimal expurgated bound on undetectable error is shown to agree with that for maximum likelihood decoding of convolutional codes, and that on failure agrees with the block code expurgated bound. Included are curves evaluating the bounds for interesting choices of G and SNR for a binary-input quantized-output Gaussian additive noise channel.

  19. Mangling upper limb injuries in industry.

    PubMed

    Ring, D; Jupiter, J B

    1999-01-01

    The salvage of upper limbs mangled by industrial machinery became possible with the development of predictable techniques of vascular and microvascular anastamosis. Unfortunately, many of these salvaged limbs are associated with fair and poor functional outcomes. The quality of the skeletal fixation can have a substantial effect on the functional outcome and should be a major focus of the limb repair process. Internal plate fixation facilitates wound care and limb mobilization without tethering muscle-tendon units and is safe in the majority of severe upper limb injuries provided that all devitalized tissue is debrided and, if necessary, reconstructed using microvascular tissue transfers. Injury patterns, especially those which involve associated injury of the elbow or forearm ligaments, must be identified and treated appropriately. Internal fixation should restore anatomical alignment and provide sufficient stability to allow immediate active mobilization of the limb without contributing to devascularization of the soft tissues or skeleton.

  20. Rehabilitation protocol in upper limb lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Leduc, O; Leduc, A

    2002-01-01

    Edema of the upper limb is, frequently, very invalidating. The physical treatment for edema of the upper limb consists on a combination of different therapies: manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), intermittent sequential pressotherapy (IPP) with a very low intensity, multilayer bandages (MLB), and compression sleeves. Patients are not hospitalized. In the first step of physical treatment, the patients are treated daily during 2 or 3 weeks with different therapies (MLD, IPP and MLB). During the second step, bandages are no more used. The compression garments are applied after this 2 or 3 weeks period. The physical treatment consist now in: manual lynphatic drainage and intermittent sequential pressotherapy (with low intensity). The frequency of the physical treatment is progressively decreased.

  1. Upper Hybrid Effects in Artificial Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Eliasson, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    A most fascinating result of recent ionospheric experiments has been the discovery of artificial ionization by Pedersen et al. (GRL, 37, L02106, 2010). The Artificial Ionospheric Layers (AIL) were the result of F-region O-mode HF irradiation using the HAARP ionospheric heater operating at 3.6 MW power. As demonstrated by Eliasson et al. (JGR, 117, A10321, 2012) the physics controlling the observed phenomenon and its threshold can be summarized as: " Collisional ionization due to high energy (~ 20 eV) electron tails generated by the interaction of strong Langmuir turbulence with plasma heated at the upper hybrid resonance and transported at the reflection height". The objective of the current presentation is to explore the role of the upper hybrid heating in the formation of AIL and its implications to future experiments involving HF heaters operating in middle and equatorial latitudes.

  2. Factitious disorders of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Birman, Michael V; Lee, Donald H

    2012-02-01

    Factitious disorders of the upper extremity can manifest in many different forms; therefore, it is critical to recognize warning signs in the history and examination indicating that the patient may be creating the symptoms and physical manifestations of the presenting illness. These disorders present in such predictable patterns as lymphedema, Secretan syndrome, ulcerations and wound manipulation, clenched fist, subcutaneous emphysema, pachydermodactyly, nail deformities, and self-mutilation. Management recommendations include assigning therapeutic responsibility to one person and the involvement of a multidisciplinary team. Thorough documentation is essential for the protection of both the patient and the treating physician. Treatment of patients with factitious disorders of the upper extremity requires patience and insight to avoid being manipulated into performing unnecessary surgical procedures.

  3. Endoscopic low coherence interferometry in upper airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacrétaz, Yves; Boss, Daniel; Lang, Florian; Depeursinge, Christian

    2009-07-01

    We introduce Endoscopic Low Coherence Interferometry to obtain topology of upper airways through commonly used rigid endoscopes. Quantitative dimensioning of upper airways pathologies is crucial to provide maximum health recovery chances, for example in order to choose the correct stent to treat endoluminal obstructing pathologies. Our device is fully compatible with procedures used in day-to-day examinations and can potentially be brought to bedside. Besides this, the approach described here can be almost straightforwardly adapted to other endoscopy-related field of interest, such as gastroscopy and arthroscopy. The principle of the method is first exposed, then filtering procedure used to extract the depth information is described. Finally, demonstration of the method ability to operate on biological samples is assessed through measurements on ex-vivo pork bronchi.

  4. Attenuation tomography of the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenis, Alice; Debayle, Eric; Ricard, Yanick

    2017-08-01

    We present QsADR17, a global shear wave attenuation model of the upper mantle. Synthetic tests confirm that large-scale shear attenuation anomalies are resolved in the whole upper mantle with limited vertical smearing (≤50 km). QsADR17 shows strong correlation with surface tectonics down to 200 km depth, with low attenuation beneath continents and high attenuation beneath oceans. The attenuation signal near 250 km depth is dominated by a high-quality factor along subduction zones. Attenuating anomalies are found beneath mid-ocean ridges down to 150 km and under most Pacific hot spots from the lithosphere down to the transition zone. The presence of broad attenuating anomalies at 150 km depth in the Pacific Ocean suggests that several thermal plumes pond in the asthenosphere. Evidence for compositional heterogeneities is found in the lithosphere at the base of cratons and in a number of active regions.

  5. Upper Rio Grande Simulation Model (URGSIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Jesse; & Tidwell, Vincent

    2010-08-05

    URGSIM estimates the location of surface water and groundwater resources in the upper Rio Grande Basin between the Colorado-New Mexico state line, and Caballo Reservoir from 1975 - 2045. It is a mass balance hydrology model of the Upper Rio Grande surface water, groundwater, and water demand systems which runs at a monthly timestep from 1975-1999 in calibration mode, 2000 – 2004 in validation mode, and 2005 – 2045 in scenario analysis mode.

  6. Fibrolipoma on upper eyelid in child

    PubMed Central

    Corredor-Osorio, Rafael; Ramos-Pineda, Nelly; Eugenia Orellana, María

    2016-01-01

    An 18-months-old male infant presented with a rapidly growing tumor on the right upper eyelid. Orbital computed tomography (CT) revealed a large, well-circumscribed mass with low density signal in the right upper eyelid. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed a lesion of mixed T1-signal intensity and high signal intensity in T2-weighted images. The tumor was treated by simple anterior orbitotomy with excisional biopsy, and the diagnosis of fibrolipoma was made by histopathologic examination. There was no evidence of tumor at the four-year follow-up. Fibrolipoma is one of the rare variant of the lipoma and only four cases have been reported in the orbit including the present case. Except for this case all other cases were reported in adults. PMID:27625962

  7. The upper limb of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Steven E; Holliday, Trenton W; Carlson, Kristian J; Jashashvili, Tea; Macias, Marisa E; Mathews, Sandra; Sparling, Tawnee L; Schmid, Peter; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    The evolution of the human upper limb involved a change in function from its use for both locomotion and prehension (as in apes) to a predominantly prehensile and manipulative role. Well-preserved forelimb remains of 1.98-million-year-old Australopithecus sediba from Malapa, South Africa, contribute to our understanding of this evolutionary transition. Whereas other aspects of their postcranial anatomy evince mosaic combinations of primitive (australopith-like) and derived (Homo-like) features, the upper limbs (excluding the hand and wrist) of the Malapa hominins are predominantly primitive and suggest the retention of substantial climbing and suspensory ability. The use of the forelimb primarily for prehension and manipulation appears to arise later, likely with the emergence of Homo erectus.

  8. Seismic Q of the lunar upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Koyama, J.

    1982-06-01

    Shallow moonquake data are used to determine the frequency dependence of Q values for both compressional and shear waves in the upper mantle of the moon at frequencies between 3 and 8 Hz. The seismic P wave Q is estimated to be at least 4000 and is nearly independent of frequency or decreases slightly with increasing frequency, while the S wave Q increases from at least 4000 at 3 Hz to at least 7000 at 8 Hz. The rate of increase of Q(S) is approximately proportional to the 0.7 + or - 0.1 power of the frequency above 5 Hz. With the absence of other dissipation mechanisms, compressional heat loss may be a dominant factor in the lunar interior. Uncertainty remains, however, in the absolute values of Q's owing to the largely unknown detailed structure of the lunar upper mantle.

  9. Sources of particulates in the upper stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigg, E. Keith

    2011-10-01

    The dominant forms of particles collected at altitudes of 39, 42 and 45km during three balloon flights over Australia were aggregates having components with diameters typically 40 to 50nm. Their partial electron transparency suggested an organic composition and all were accompanied by a volatile liquid that could be stabilised by reaction with a thin copper film. They closely resembled particles called "fluffy micrometeorites" collected earlier in the mesosphere from rockets and their properties were consistent with those of particles collected from a comet by a recent spacecraft experiment. Particles in the upper stratosphere included some that resembled viruses and cocci, the latter being one of the organisms cultured from upper stratospheric air in a recent experiment. A plausible source of the stratospheric, mesospheric and cometary aggregates is consistent with the "panspermia" theory, that microorganisms present in space at the birth of the solar system could have reproduced in water within comets and brought life to Earth.

  10. Upper bounds for flexoelectric coefficients in ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, P. V.; Ahluwalia, R.; Tagantsev, A. K.

    2014-02-01

    Flexoelectric effect is the response of electric polarization to the mechanical strain gradient. At the nano-scale, where large strain gradients are expected, the flexoelectric effect becomes appreciable and may substitute piezoelectric effect in centrosymmetric materials. These features make flexoelectricity of growing interest during the last decade. At the same time, the available theoretical and experimental results are rather contradictory. In particular, experimentally measured flexoelectric coefficients in some ferroelectric materials largely exceed theoretically predicted values. Here, we determine the upper limits for the magnitude of the static bulk contribution to the flexoelectric effect in ferroelectrics, the contribution which was customarily considered as the dominating one. The magnitude of the upper bounds obtained suggests that the anomalously high flexoelectric coupling documented for perovskite ceramics can hardly be attributed to a manifestation of the static bulk effect.

  11. Upper limit on Titan's atmospheric argon abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, D. F.; Hall, D. T.; Zhu, X.; Summers, M. E.

    1993-06-01

    An analysis is conducted on the Voyager 1 UV Spectrometer solar-occultation data and a Titan flyby spectrum of the north polar region dayglow, in order to infer the tropopausal Ar mixing ratio's upper limit as a function of the CH4 mixing ratio, f(CH4). The mole-fraction upper limit of tropopausal Ar mixing ratio ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 at f(CH4) of 0.026 to as low as 0.08 at f(CH4) of 0.05. Since the best fits to the solar occultation data require f(CH4) of more than 0.26, the Ar mixing ratio must be lower than 0.1.

  12. Dental archforms in dentoalveolar Class I, II and III.

    PubMed

    Slaj, Martina; Spalj, Stjepan; Pavlin, Dubravko; Illes, Davor; Slaj, Mladen

    2010-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that no differences exist in dental arch dimensions between dentoalveolar Classes I, II, and III, and between male and female subjects, as measured on virtual three-dimensional (3D) models. Samples included randomly selected plaster dental casts of 137 white patients (43 Class I, 50 Class II, and 44 Class III) from the Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, Croatia. Dental models were scanned and digitized using ATOS II SO ("Small Objects") scanning technology (GOM mbH, Braunschweig, Germany). Eight linear and two proportional measurements were calculated for both upper and lower dental arches. In men, a significant difference in the upper dental arch was present in the incisor region, and in the lower dental arch, differences were found in intercanine and intermolar widths (P < .05). Significant differences were noted between male groups in the upper molar depth dimension (P = .022) and in the lower molar and canine depth dimensions (P < .05). Class III males had the greatest lower molar and canine width/depth ratios and the smallest lower canine depth/molar depth ratio. Class III women had wider and shorter mandibular arches when compared with Class I and Class II females. The hypothesis was rejected. The dimensions of the dental arches are related to gender and to dentoalveolar class. Class I and II subjects have similar dimensions of maxillary dental arch, but Class II subjects have a transverse deficit in the mandible. In Class III subjects, the maxillary dental arch is insufficient in transverse and sagittal dimensions, and the mandibular arch dominates in the transverse but not in the sagittal dimension.

  13. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  14. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  15. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  16. Historic Settlement in the Upper Tombigbee Valley.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-28

    I REPORT NUMBER 2 GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4 TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Historic Settlement in...THE 1880s 139 XIV. THE RIVER IN THE ECONOMIC LIFE OF THE UPPER TOMBIGBEE VALLEY: 1890-1940 149 XV. STEAMBOAT TYPES AND OPERATIONS ON THE TOMBIGBEE...and type in the support structures associated with plantations, farms, and tenancies? The number, type , and size of specific outbuildings may be

  17. Does upper blepharoplasty affect frontalis tonicity?

    PubMed

    Kim, Daejin; Son, Daegu; Kim, Minkyung; Harijan, Aram; Yang, Shimo; Lee, Soyoung

    2015-05-01

    Frontalis hypertonicity has long been implicated in patients with significant dermatochalasia or blepharoptosis, as evidenced by eyebrow changes that occur after the resection of redundant skin or after blepharoptosis operation. However, whether upper blepharoplasty affects the forehead muscle has not been reported. Thus, this study investigated electrophysiology of the frontalis muscle and eyebrow morphology in a population of patients undergoing double-eyelid blepharoplasty. Patients wishing to undergo upper blepharoplasty were recruited for this prospective study between June 2011 and February 2012. The subjects were excluded for complaints of visual obstruction, trauma history, and for any underlying medical condition that would affect eyebrow height or electromyogram (EMG) findings. Eyebrow morphology was ascertained in a standardized photogrammetric evaluation, and the frontalis muscle activity was recorded with needle EMG. These assessments were carried out at preoperation and at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Root-mean-square (RMS) indices of various facial expressions were used to normalize the frontalis activity values across individuals. Thirteen patients with a mean age of 55.5 years were recruited. No statistical significance was observed for eyebrow heights at various assessment points. However, EMG recordings have demonstrated a gradual decrease in the proportional RMS index of the frontalis muscle activity. This difference was statistically significant between preoperation and 6 months postoperation (p < 0.05). Upper blepharoplasty was associated with gradual decreases in the frontalis muscle activity. A longer follow-up study is needed to evaluate whether this decreased tonicity results in morphologic changes such as decreased forehead wrinkles and depressed eyebrows. This research indicates that upper blepharoplasty has the potential to interfere with those human-computer interaction designs with facial EMG readings as an input. Copyright

  18. Upper Limit of Weights in TAI Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Azoubib, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    The international reference time scale International Atomic Time (TAI) computed by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) relies on a weighted average of data from a large number of atomic clocks. In it, the weight attributed to a given clock depends on its long-term stability. In this paper the TAI algorithm is used as the basis for a discussion of how to implement an upper limit of weight for clocks contributing to the ensemble time. This problem is approached through the comparison of two different techniques. In one case, a maximum relative weight is fixed: no individual clock can contribute more than a given fraction to the resulting time scale. The weight of each clock is then adjusted according to the qualities of the whole set of contributing elements. In the other case, a parameter characteristic of frequency stability is chosen: no individual clock can appear more stable than the stated limit. This is equivalent to choosing an absolute limit of weight and attributing this to to the most stable clocks independently of the other elements of the ensemble. The first technique is more robust than the second and automatically optimizes the stability of the resulting time scale, but leads to a more complicated computatio. The second technique has been used in the TAI algorithm since the very beginning. Careful analysis of tests on real clock data shows that improvement of the stability of the time scale requires revision from time to time of the fixed value chosen for the upper limit of absolute weight. In particular, we present results which confirm the decision of the CCDS Working Group on TAI to increase the absolute upper limit by a factor of 2.5. We also show that the use of an upper relative contribution further helps to improve the stability and may be a useful step towards better use of the massive ensemble of HP 507IA clocks now contributing to TAI.

  19. Studies of planetary upper atmospheres through occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The structure, composition, dynamics and energy balance of planetary upper atmospheres through interpretation of steller occultation data from Uranus is discussed. The wave-optical problem of modelling strong scintillation for arbitrary turbulent atmospheres is studied, as well as influence of turbulence. It was concluded that quasi-global features of atmospheric structure are accurately determined by numerical inversion. Horizontally inhomogeneous structures are filtered out and have little effect on temperature profiles.

  20. Respiratory physiology in upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Ford, G T; Rosenal, T W; Clergue, F; Whitelaw, W A

    1993-06-01

    This article describes the pathophysiology of the respiratory system after upper abdominal surgery, emphasizing the role of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The history of current techniques to measure respiratory muscle function are reviewed. The authors describe the postoperative pattern of breathing, speculate on the physiologic mechanisms responsible and discuss the data supporting the role of reflexes arising from the abdomen and the shift of neural output to different respiratory muscles. Finally, the authors review the impact of "closed" surgical interventions such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy.