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Sample records for ii voltage sensor

  1. Common molecular determinants of tarantula huwentoxin-IV inhibition of Na+ channel voltage sensors in domains II and IV.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yucheng; Jackson, James O; Liang, Songping; Cummins, Theodore R

    2011-08-05

    The voltage sensors of domains II and IV of sodium channels are important determinants of activation and inactivation, respectively. Animal toxins that alter electrophysiological excitability of muscles and neurons often modify sodium channel activation by selectively interacting with domain II and inactivation by selectively interacting with domain IV. This suggests that there may be substantial differences between the toxin-binding sites in these two important domains. Here we explore the ability of the tarantula huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV) to inhibit the activity of the domain II and IV voltage sensors. HWTX-IV is specific for domain II, and we identify five residues in the S1-S2 (Glu-753) and S3-S4 (Glu-811, Leu-814, Asp-816, and Glu-818) regions of domain II that are crucial for inhibition of activation by HWTX-IV. These data indicate that a single residue in the S3-S4 linker (Glu-818 in hNav1.7) is crucial for allowing HWTX-IV to interact with the other key residues and trap the voltage sensor in the closed configuration. Mutagenesis analysis indicates that the five corresponding residues in domain IV are all critical for endowing HWTX-IV with the ability to inhibit fast inactivation. Our data suggest that the toxin-binding motif in domain II is conserved in domain IV. Increasing our understanding of the molecular determinants of toxin interactions with voltage-gated sodium channels may permit development of enhanced isoform-specific voltage-gating modifiers.

  2. Voltage sensor and dielectric material

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2006-10-17

    A voltage sensor is described that consists of an arrangement of impedance elements. The sensor is optimized to provide an output ratio that is substantially immune to changes in voltage, temperature variations or aging. Also disclosed is a material with a large and stable dielectric constant. The dielectric constant can be tailored to vary with position or direction in the material.

  3. Voltage Sensors Monitor Harmful Static

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    A tiny sensor, small enough to be worn on clothing, now monitors voltage changes near sensitive instruments after being created to alert Agency workers to dangerous static buildup near fuel operations and avionics. San Diego s Quasar Federal Systems received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center to develop its remote voltage sensor (RVS), a dime-sized electrometer designed to measure triboelectric changes in the environment. One of the unique qualities of the RVS is that it can detect static at greater distances than previous devices, measuring voltage changes from a few centimeters to a few meters away, due to its much-improved sensitivity.

  4. Neutralization of Gating Charges in Domain II of the Sodium Channel α Subunit Enhances Voltage-Sensor Trapping by a β-Scorpion Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Cestèle, Sandrine; Scheuer, Todd; Mantegazza, Massimo; Rochat, Hervé; Catterall, William A.

    2001-01-01

    β-Scorpion toxins shift the voltage dependence of activation of sodium channels to more negative membrane potentials, but only after a strong depolarizing prepulse to fully activate the channels. Their receptor site includes the S3–S4 loop at the extracellular end of the S4 voltage sensor in domain II of the α subunit. Here, we probe the role of gating charges in the IIS4 segment in β-scorpion toxin action by mutagenesis and functional analysis of the resulting mutant sodium channels. Neutralization of the positively charged amino acid residues in the IIS4 segment by mutation to glutamine shifts the voltage dependence of channel activation to more positive membrane potentials and reduces the steepness of voltage-dependent gating, which is consistent with the presumed role of these residues as gating charges. Surprisingly, neutralization of the gating charges at the outer end of the IIS4 segment by the mutations R850Q, R850C, R853Q, and R853C markedly enhances β-scorpion toxin action, whereas mutations R856Q, K859Q, and K862Q have no effect. In contrast to wild-type, the β-scorpion toxin Css IV causes a negative shift of the voltage dependence of activation of mutants R853Q and R853C without a depolarizing prepulse at holding potentials from −80 to −140 mV. Reaction of mutant R853C with 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate causes a positive shift of the voltage dependence of activation and restores the requirement for a depolarizing prepulse for Css IV action. Enhancement of sodium channel activation by Css IV causes large tail currents upon repolarization, indicating slowed deactivation of the IIS4 voltage sensor by the bound toxin. Our results are consistent with a voltage-sensor–trapping model in which the β-scorpion toxin traps the IIS4 voltage sensor in its activated position as it moves outward in response to depolarization and holds it there, slowing its inward movement on deactivation and enhancing subsequent channel activation. Evidently

  5. The tarantula toxins ProTx-II and huwentoxin-IV differentially interact with human Nav1.7 voltage sensors to inhibit channel activation and inactivation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yucheng; Blumenthal, Kenneth; Jackson, James O; Liang, Songping; Cummins, Theodore R

    2010-12-01

    The voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.7 plays a crucial role in pain, and drugs that inhibit hNa(v)1.7 may have tremendous therapeutic potential. ProTx-II and huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), cystine knot peptides from tarantula venoms, preferentially block hNa(v)1.7. Understanding the interactions of these toxins with sodium channels could aid the development of novel pain therapeutics. Whereas both ProTx-II and HWTX-IV have been proposed to preferentially block hNa(v)1.7 activation by trapping the domain II voltage-sensor in the resting configuration, we show that specific residues in the voltage-sensor paddle of domain II play substantially different roles in determining the affinities of these toxins to hNa(v)1.7. The mutation E818C increases ProTx-II's and HWTX-IV's IC(50) for block of hNa(v)1.7 currents by 4- and 400-fold, respectively. In contrast, the mutation F813G decreases ProTx-II affinity by 9-fold but has no effect on HWTX-IV affinity. It is noteworthy that we also show that ProTx-II, but not HWTX-IV, preferentially interacts with hNa(v)1.7 to impede fast inactivation by trapping the domain IV voltage-sensor in the resting configuration. Mutations E1589Q and T1590K in domain IV each decreased ProTx-II's IC(50) for impairment of fast inactivation by ~6-fold. In contrast mutations D1586A and F1592A in domain-IV increased ProTx-II's IC(50) for impairment of fast inactivation by ~4-fold. Our results show that whereas ProTx-II and HWTX-IV binding determinants on domain-II may overlap, domain II plays a much more crucial role for HWTX-IV, and contrary to what has been proposed to be a guiding principle of sodium channel pharmacology, molecules do not have to exclusively target the domain IV voltage-sensor to influence sodium channel inactivation.

  6. Voltage-sensor movements describe slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels II: A periodic paralysis mutation in NaV1.4 (L689I)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, slow inactivation (SI) of NaV1.4 voltage-gated sodium channels prevents spontaneous depolarization and fatigue. Inherited mutations in NaV1.4 that impair SI disrupt activity-induced regulation of channel availability and predispose patients to hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. In our companion paper in this issue (Silva and Goldstein. 2013. J. Gen. Physiol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.201210909), the four voltage sensors in NaV1.4 responsible for activation of channels over microseconds are shown to slowly immobilize over 1–160 s as SI develops and to regain mobility on recovery from SI. Individual sensor movements assessed via attached fluorescent probes are nonidentical in their voltage dependence, time course, and magnitude: DI and DII track SI onset, and DIII appears to reflect SI recovery. A causal link was inferred by tetrodotoxin (TTX) suppression of both SI onset and immobilization of DI and DII sensors. Here, the association of slow sensor immobilization and SI is verified by study of NaV1.4 channels with a hyperkalemic periodic paralysis mutation; L689I produces complex changes in SI, and these are found to manifest directly in altered sensor movements. L689I removes a component of SI with an intermediate time constant (∼10 s); the mutation also impedes immobilization of the DI and DII sensors over the same time domain in support of direct mechanistic linkage. A model that recapitulates SI attributes responsibility for intermediate SI to DI and DII (10 s) and a slow component to DIII (100 s), which accounts for residual SI, not impeded by L689I or TTX. PMID:23401572

  7. Fiber-optic voltage sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, C. B.

    1990-07-01

    A fiber-optic voltage sensor is described which includes a source of light, a reference fiber for receiving a known percentage of the light and an electrostrictive element having terminals across which is applied, and a voltage to be measured. The electrostrictive element is responsive to the applied voltage to assume an altered physical state. A measuring fiber also receives a known percentage of light from the light source and is secured about the electrostrictive element. The measuring fiber is provided with a cladding and exhibits an evanescent wave in the cladding. The measuring fiber has a known length which is altered when the electrostrictive element assumes its altered physical state. A differential sensor is provided which senses the intensity of light in both the reference fiber and the measuring fiber and provides an output indicative of the difference between the intensities.

  8. Voltage sensor inactivation in potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Bähring, Robert; Barghaan, Jan; Westermeier, Regina; Wollberg, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    In voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels membrane depolarization causes movement of a voltage sensor domain. This conformational change of the protein is transmitted to the pore domain and eventually leads to pore opening. However, the voltage sensor domain may interact with two distinct gates in the pore domain: the activation gate (A-gate), involving the cytoplasmic S6 bundle crossing, and the pore gate (P-gate), located externally in the selectivity filter. How the voltage sensor moves and how tightly it interacts with these two gates on its way to adopt a relaxed conformation when the membrane is depolarized may critically determine the mode of Kv channel inactivation. In certain Kv channels, voltage sensor movement leads to a tight interaction with the P-gate, which may cause conformational changes that render the selectivity filter non-conductive ("P/C-type inactivation"). Other Kv channels may preferably undergo inactivation from pre-open closed-states during voltage sensor movement, because the voltage sensor temporarily uncouples from the A-gate. For this behavior, known as "preferential" closed-state inactivation, we introduce the term "A/C-type inactivation". Mechanistically, P/C- and A/C-type inactivation represent two forms of "voltage sensor inactivation."

  9. Tarantula huwentoxin-IV inhibits neuronal sodium channels by binding to receptor site 4 and trapping the domain ii voltage sensor in the closed configuration.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yucheng; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Zhu, Weiguo; Moczydlowski, Edward; Liang, Songping; Cummins, Theodore R

    2008-10-03

    Peptide toxins with high affinity, divergent pharmacological functions, and isoform-specific selectivity are powerful tools for investigating the structure-function relationships of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Although a number of interesting inhibitors have been reported from tarantula venoms, little is known about the mechanism for their interaction with VGSCs. We show that huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), a 35-residue peptide from tarantula Ornithoctonus huwena venom, preferentially inhibits neuronal VGSC subtypes rNav1.2, rNav1.3, and hNav1.7 compared with muscle subtypes rNav1.4 and hNav1.5. Of the five VGSCs examined, hNav1.7 was most sensitive to HWTX-IV (IC(50) approximately 26 nM). Following application of 1 microm HWTX-IV, hNav1.7 currents could only be elicited with extreme depolarizations (>+100 mV). Recovery of hNav1.7 channels from HWTX-IV inhibition could be induced by extreme depolarizations or moderate depolarizations lasting several minutes. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis indicated that the toxin docked at neurotoxin receptor site 4 located at the extracellular S3-S4 linker of domain II. Mutations E818Q and D816N in hNav1.7 decreased toxin affinity for hNav1.7 by approximately 300-fold, whereas the reverse mutations in rNav1.4 (N655D/Q657E) and the corresponding mutations in hNav1.5 (R812D/S814E) greatly increased the sensitivity of the muscle VGSCs to HWTX-IV. Our data identify a novel mechanism for sodium channel inhibition by tarantula toxins involving binding to neurotoxin receptor site 4. In contrast to scorpion beta-toxins that trap the IIS4 voltage sensor in an outward configuration, we propose that HWTX-IV traps the voltage sensor of domain II in the inward, closed configuration.

  10. Tarantula Huwentoxin-IV Inhibits Neuronal Sodium Channels by Binding to Receptor Site 4 and Trapping the Domain II Voltage Sensor in the Closed Configuration*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yucheng; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Zhu, Weiguo; Moczydlowski, Edward; Liang, Songping; Cummins, Theodore R.

    2008-01-01

    Peptide toxins with high affinity, divergent pharmacological functions, and isoform-specific selectivity are powerful tools for investigating the structure-function relationships of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Although a number of interesting inhibitors have been reported from tarantula venoms, little is known about the mechanism for their interaction with VGSCs. We show that huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), a 35-residue peptide from tarantula Ornithoctonus huwena venom, preferentially inhibits neuronal VGSC subtypes rNav1.2, rNav1.3, and hNav1.7 compared with muscle subtypes rNav1.4 and hNav1.5. Of the five VGSCs examined, hNav1.7 was most sensitive to HWTX-IV (IC50 ∼ 26 nm). Following application of 1 μm HWTX-IV, hNav1.7 currents could only be elicited with extreme depolarizations (>+100 mV). Recovery of hNav1.7 channels from HWTX-IV inhibition could be induced by extreme depolarizations or moderate depolarizations lasting several minutes. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis indicated that the toxin docked at neurotoxin receptor site 4 located at the extracellular S3-S4 linker of domain II. Mutations E818Q and D816N in hNav1.7 decreased toxin affinity for hNav1.7 by ∼300-fold, whereas the reverse mutations in rNav1.4 (N655D/Q657E) and the corresponding mutations in hNav1.5 (R812D/S814E) greatly increased the sensitivity of the muscle VGSCs to HWTX-IV. Our data identify a novel mechanism for sodium channel inhibition by tarantula toxins involving binding to neurotoxin receptor site 4. In contrast to scorpion β-toxins that trap the IIS4 voltage sensor in an outward configuration, we propose that HWTX-IV traps the voltage sensor of domain II in the inward, closed configuration. PMID:18628201

  11. Non-contact current and voltage sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Gary D; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C; Schappert, Michael A

    2014-03-25

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  12. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOEpatents

    Woods, Gregory K.

    1998-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  13. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOEpatents

    Woods, G.K.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 6 figs.

  14. Mapping the interaction site for the tarantula toxin hainantoxin-IV (β-TRTX-Hn2a) in the voltage sensor module of domain II of voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tianfu; Luo, Ji; Meng, Er; Ding, Jiuping; Liang, Songping; Wang, Sheng; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-06-01

    Peptide toxins often have pharmacological applications and are powerful tools for investigating the structure-function relationships of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Although a group of potential VGSC inhibitors have been reported from tarantula venoms, little is known about the mechanism of their interaction with VGSCs. In this study, we showed that hainantoxin-IV (β-TRTX-Hn2a, HNTX-IV in brief), a 35-residue peptide from Ornithoctonus hainana venom, preferentially inhibited rNav1.2, rNav1.3 and hNav1.7 compared with rNav1.4 and hNav1.5. hNav1.7 was the most sensitive to HNTX-IV (IC50∼21nM). In contrast to many other tarantula toxins that affect VGSCs, HNTX-IV at subsaturating concentrations did not alter activation and inactivation kinetics in the physiological range of voltages, while very large depolarization above +70mV could partially activate toxin-bound hNav1.7 channel, indicating that HNTX-IV acts as a gating modifier rather than a pore blocker. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the toxin bound to site 4, which was located on the extracellular S3-S4 linker of hNav1.7 domain II. Mutants E753Q, D816N and E818Q of hNav1.7 decreased toxin affinity for hNav1.7 by 2.0-, 3.3- and 130-fold, respectively. In silico docking indicated that a three-toed claw substructure formed by residues with close contacts in the interface between HNTX-IV and hNav1.7 domain II stabilized the toxin-channel complex, impeding movement of the domain II voltage sensor and inhibiting hNav1.7 activation. Our data provide structural details for structure-based drug design and a useful template for the design of highly selective inhibitors of a specific subtype of VGSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Tarantula Toxins ProTx-II and Huwentoxin-IV Differentially Interact with Human Nav1.7 Voltage Sensors to Inhibit Channel Activation and InactivationS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yucheng; Blumenthal, Kenneth; Jackson, James O.; Liang, Songping

    2010-01-01

    The voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 plays a crucial role in pain, and drugs that inhibit hNav1.7 may have tremendous therapeutic potential. ProTx-II and huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), cystine knot peptides from tarantula venoms, preferentially block hNav1.7. Understanding the interactions of these toxins with sodium channels could aid the development of novel pain therapeutics. Whereas both ProTx-II and HWTX-IV have been proposed to preferentially block hNav1.7 activation by trapping the domain II voltage-sensor in the resting configuration, we show that specific residues in the voltage-sensor paddle of domain II play substantially different roles in determining the affinities of these toxins to hNav1.7. The mutation E818C increases ProTx-II's and HWTX-IV's IC50 for block of hNav1.7 currents by 4- and 400-fold, respectively. In contrast, the mutation F813G decreases ProTx-II affinity by 9-fold but has no effect on HWTX-IV affinity. It is noteworthy that we also show that ProTx-II, but not HWTX-IV, preferentially interacts with hNav1.7 to impede fast inactivation by trapping the domain IV voltage-sensor in the resting configuration. Mutations E1589Q and T1590K in domain IV each decreased ProTx-II's IC50 for impairment of fast inactivation by ∼6-fold. In contrast mutations D1586A and F1592A in domain-IV increased ProTx-II's IC50 for impairment of fast inactivation by ∼4-fold. Our results show that whereas ProTx-II and HWTX-IV binding determinants on domain-II may overlap, domain II plays a much more crucial role for HWTX-IV, and contrary to what has been proposed to be a guiding principle of sodium channel pharmacology, molecules do not have to exclusively target the domain IV voltage-sensor to influence sodium channel inactivation. PMID:20855463

  16. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2003-09-16

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations and causes one linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels effect elliptically polarizes the beam as it travels through the crystal. A reflector redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams.

  17. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, T.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Woods, G.K.

    1999-08-17

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers. 6 figs.

  18. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Thomas M.; Davidson, James R.; Woods, Gregory K.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers.

  19. A Spherical Electro Optic High Voltage Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    electro - optic (EO) crystal is introduced for photonic measurement of pulsed high-voltage fields. A spherical shape is used in order to reduce electric field gradients in the vicinity of the sensor. The sensor is pure dielectric and is interrogated remotely using a laser. The sensor does not require the connection of any conducting components, which results in the highest electrical isolation. The spherical nature of the crystal coupled with the incident laser beam, and crossed polarizers (intensity modulation scheme). automatically produces interference figures. The

  20. Electric fingerprint of voltage sensor domains.

    PubMed

    Souza, Caio S; Amaral, Cristiano; Treptow, Werner

    2014-12-09

    A dynamic transmembrane voltage field has been suggested as an intrinsic element in voltage sensor (VS) domains. Here, the dynamic field contribution to the VS energetics was analyzed via electrostatic calculations applied to a number of atomistic structures made available recently. We find that the field is largely static along with the molecular motions of the domain, and more importantly, it is minimally modified across VS variants. This finding implies that sensor domains transfer approximately the same amount of gating charges when moving the electrically charged S4 helix between fixed microscopic configurations. Remarkably, the result means that the observed operational diversity of the domain, including the extension, rate, and voltage dependence of the S4 motion, as dictated by the free energy landscape theory, must be rationalized in terms of dominant variations of its chemical free energy.

  1. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2002-01-01

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high levels of voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation into the sensor. A polarization beam displacer serves as a filter to separate the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. The beam displacer is oriented in such a way as to rotate the linearly polarized beams such that they enter a Pockels crystal having at a preferred angle of 45 degrees. The beam displacer is therefore capable of causing a linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels electro-optic effect induces a differential phase shift on the major and minor axes of the input beam as it travels through the Pockels crystal, which causes the input beam to be elliptically polarized. A reflecting prism redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization representing the major and minor axes. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals, and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams. The output beams are amplitude modulated by the frequency of the electric field and the amplitude of the output beams is proportional to the magnitude of the electric field, which is related to the voltage being measured.

  2. The sliding-helix voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    Peyser, Alexander; Nonner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The voltage sensor (VS) domain of voltage-gated ion channels underlies electrical excitability of living cells. We simulate a mesoscale model of the VS domain to determine the functional consequences of some of its physical elements. Our mesoscale model is based on VS charges, linear dielectrics and whole-body motion, applied to an S4 ‘sliding helix’. The electrostatics under voltage-clamped boundary conditions are solved consistently using a boundary element method. Based on electrostatic configurational energy, statistical-mechanical expectations of the experimentally observable relation between displaced charge and membrane voltage are predicted. Consequences of the model are investigated for variations of: S4 configuration (α- and 310-helical), countercharge alignment with S4 charges, protein polarizability, geometry of the gating canal, screening of S4 charges by the baths, and fixed charges located at the bath interfaces. The sliding helix VS domain has an inherent electrostatic stability in the explored parameter space: countercharges present in the region of weak dielectric always retain an equivalent S4 charge in that region but allow sliding movements displacing 3 to 4 e0. That movement is sensitive to small energy variations (< 2kT) along the path dependent on a number of electrostatic parameters tested in our simulations. These simulations show how the slope of the relation between displaced charge and voltage could be tuned in a channel. PMID:22907204

  3. Mutations in the Voltage Sensors of Domains I and II of Nav1.5 that are Associated with Arrhythmias and Dilated Cardiomyopathy Generate Gating Pore Currents.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Adrien; Gosselin-Badaroudine, Pascal; Boutjdir, Mohamed; Chahine, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Voltage gated sodium channels (Nav) are transmembrane proteins responsible for action potential initiation. Mutations mainly located in the voltage sensor domain (VSD) of Nav1.5, the cardiac sodium channel, have been associated with the development of arrhythmias combined with dilated cardiomyopathy. Gating pore currents have been observed with three unrelated mutations associated with similar clinical phenotypes. However, gating pores have never been associated with mutations outside the first domain of Nav1.5. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility that gating pore currents might be caused by the Nav1.5 R225P and R814W mutations (R3, S4 in DI and DII, respectively), which are associated with rhythm disturbances and dilated cardiomyopathy. Nav1.5 WT and mutant channels were transiently expressed in tsA201 cells. The biophysical properties of the alpha pore currents and the presence of gating pore currents were investigated using the patch-clamp technique. We confirmed the previously reported gain of function of the alpha pores of the mutant channels, which mainly consisted of increased window currents mostly caused by shifts in the voltage dependence of activation. We also observed gating pore currents associated with the R225P and R814W mutations. This novel permeation pathway was open under depolarized conditions and remained temporarily open at hyperpolarized potentials after depolarization periods. Gating pore currents could represent a molecular basis for the development of uncommon electrical abnormalities and changes in cardiac morphology. We propose that this biophysical defect be routinely evaluated in the case of Nav1.5 mutations on the VSD.

  4. Research and Experiments on a Unipolar Capacitive Voltage Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiang; He, Wei; Li, Songnong; Hou, Xingzhe

    2015-01-01

    Voltage sensors are an important part of the electric system. In service, traditional voltage sensors need to directly contact a high-voltage charged body. Sensors involve a large volume, complex insulation structures, and high design costs. Typically an iron core structure is adopted. As a result, ferromagnetic resonance can occur easily during practical application. Moreover, owing to the multilevel capacitor divider, the sensor cannot reflect the changes of measured voltage in time. Based on the electric field coupling principle, this paper designs a new voltage sensor; the unipolar structure design solves many problems of traditional voltage sensors like the great insulation design difficulty and high costs caused by grounding electrodes. A differential signal input structure is adopted for the detection circuit, which effectively restrains the influence of the common-mode interference signal. Through sensor modeling, simulation and calculations, the structural design of the sensor electrode was optimized, miniaturization of the sensor was realized, the voltage division ratio of the sensor was enhanced, and the phase difference of sensor measurement was weakened. The voltage sensor is applied to a single-phase voltage class line of 10 kV for testing. According to the test results, the designed sensor is able to meet the requirements of accurate and real-time measurement for voltage of the charged conductor as well as to provide a new method for electricity larceny prevention and on-line monitoring of the power grid in an electric system. Therefore, it can satisfy the development demands of the smart power grid. PMID:26307992

  5. Research and Experiments on a Unipolar Capacitive Voltage Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiang; He, Wei; Li, Songnong; Hou, Xingzhe

    2015-08-21

    Voltage sensors are an important part of the electric system. In service, traditional voltage sensors need to directly contact a high-voltage charged body. Sensors involve a large volume, complex insulation structures, and high design costs. Typically an iron core structure is adopted. As a result, ferromagnetic resonance can occur easily during practical application. Moreover, owing to the multilevel capacitor divider, the sensor cannot reflect the changes of measured voltage in time. Based on the electric field coupling principle, this paper designs a new voltage sensor; the unipolar structure design solves many problems of traditional voltage sensors like the great insulation design difficulty and high costs caused by grounding electrodes. A differential signal input structure is adopted for the detection circuit, which effectively restrains the influence of the common-mode interference signal. Through sensor modeling, simulation and calculations, the structural design of the sensor electrode was optimized, miniaturization of the sensor was realized, the voltage division ratio of the sensor was enhanced, and the phase difference of sensor measurement was weakened. The voltage sensor is applied to a single-phase voltage class line of 10 kV for testing. According to the test results, the designed sensor is able to meet the requirements of accurate and real-time measurement for voltage of the charged conductor as well as to provide a new method for electricity larceny prevention and on-line monitoring of the power grid in an electric system. Therefore, it can satisfy the development demands of the smart power grid.

  6. Double Hall sensor structure reducing voltage offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oszwaldowski, M.; El-Ahmar, S.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the double Hall sensor structure (DHSS) in which the voltage offset can be effectively reduced. The DHSS is composed of two standard Hall sensors that are activated with two currents from electrically independent current sources. The operation principle of the DHSS is explained in detail, and the concluded properties of the DHSS are confirmed in the experimental part of the paper. The measurements are performed on DHSSs based on InSb thin films. The offset is reduced by about three orders of magnitude. The minimum value of the reduced offset obtained is 10 μV. It appears that the minimum reduced offset is limited by the electric noise. The advantage of DHSS is that it can be manufactured with the standard thin film technology enabling effective miniaturization of the system. The DHSS can effectively be used for the measurements of the Hall effect in ultra-thin layers containing the two dimensional electron gas, such as the epitaxial graphene.

  7. Optical voltage sensors: principle, problem and research proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changsheng

    2016-10-01

    Sensing principles and main problems to be solved for optical voltage sensors are briefly reviewed. Optical effects used for voltage sensing usually include electro-optic Pockels and Kerr effects, electro-gyration effect, elasto-optical effect, and electroluminescent effects, etc. In principle, typical optical voltage sensor is based on electro-optic Pockels crystals and closed-loop signal detection scheme. Main problems to be solved for optical voltage sensors include: how to remove influence of unwanted multiple optical effects on voltage sensing performance; how to select or develop a proper voltage sensing material and element; how to keep optical phase bias to be stable under temperature fluctuation and vibration; how to achieve dc voltage sensing, etc. In order to suppress the influence of unwanted optical effects and light beam coupling-related loss on voltage sensing signals, we may pay more attention to all-fiber and waveguide voltage sensors. Voltage sensors based on electroluminescent effects are also promising in some application fields due to their compact configuration, low cost and potential long-term reliability.

  8. Structure and function of the voltage sensor of sodium channels probed by a beta-scorpion toxin.

    PubMed

    Cestèle, Sandrine; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Qu, Yusheng; Sampieri, François; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A

    2006-07-28

    Voltage sensing by voltage-gated sodium channels determines the electrical excitability of cells, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. beta-Scorpion toxins bind specifically to neurotoxin receptor site 4 and induce a negative shift in the voltage dependence of activation through a voltage sensor-trapping mechanism. Kinetic analysis showed that beta-scorpion toxin binds to the resting state, and subsequently the bound toxin traps the voltage sensor in the activated state in a voltage-dependent but concentration-independent manner. The rate of voltage sensor trapping can be fit by a two-step model, in which the first step is voltage-dependent and correlates with the outward gating movement of the IIS4 segment, whereas the second step is voltage-independent and results in shifted voltage dependence of activation of the channel. Mutations of Glu(779) in extracellular loop IIS1-S2 and both Glu(837) and Leu(840) in extracellular loop IIS3-S4 reduce the binding affinity of beta-scorpion toxin. Mutations of positively charged and hydrophobic amino acid residues in the IIS4 segment do not affect beta-scorpion toxin binding but alter voltage dependence of activation and enhance beta-scorpion toxin action. Structural modeling with the Rosetta algorithm yielded a three-dimensional model of the toxin-receptor complex with the IIS4 voltage sensor at the extracellular surface. Our results provide mechanistic and structural insight into the voltage sensor-trapping mode of scorpion toxin action, define the position of the voltage sensor in the resting state of the sodium channel, and favor voltage-sensing models in which the S4 segment spans the membrane in both resting and activated states.

  9. Structure and Function of the Voltage Sensor of Sodium Channels Probed by a β-Scorpion Toxin*S

    PubMed Central

    Cestèle, Sandrine; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Qu, Yusheng; Sampieri, François; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2006-01-01

    Voltage sensing by voltage-gated sodium channels determines the electrical excitability of cells, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. β-Scorpion toxins bind specifically to neurotoxin receptor site 4 and induce a negative shift in the voltage dependence of activation through a voltage sensor-trapping mechanism. Kinetic analysis showed that β-scorpion toxin binds to the resting state, and subsequently the bound toxin traps the voltage sensor in the activated state in a voltage-dependent but concentration-independent manner. The rate of voltage sensor trapping can be fit by a two-step model, in which the first step is voltage-dependent and correlates with the outward gating movement of the IIS4 segment, whereas the second step is voltage-independent and results in shifted voltage dependence of activation of the channel. Mutations of Glu779 in extracellular loop IIS1–S2 and both Glu837 and Leu840 in extracellular loop IIS3–S4 reduce the binding affinity of β-scorpion toxin. Mutations of positively charged and hydrophobic amino acid residues in the IIS4 segment do not affect β-scorpion toxin binding but alter voltage dependence of activation and enhance β-scorpion toxin action. Structural modeling with the Rosetta algorithm yielded a three-dimensional model of the toxin-receptor complex with the IIS4 voltage sensor at the extracellular surface. Our results provide mechanistic and structural insight into the voltage sensor-trapping mode of scorpion toxin action, define the position of the voltage sensor in the resting state of the sodium channel, and favor voltage-sensing models in which the S4 segment spans the membrane in both resting and activated states. PMID:16679310

  10. Gating-pore currents demonstrate selective and specific modulation of individual sodium channel voltage-sensors by biological toxins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yucheng; Blumenthal, Kenneth; Cummins, Theodore R

    2014-08-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are critical determinants of nerve and muscle excitability. Although numerous toxins and small molecules target sodium channels, identifying the mechanisms of action is challenging. Here we used gating-pore currents selectively generated in each of the voltage-sensors from the four α-subunit domains (DI-DIV) to monitor the activity of individual voltage-sensors and to investigate the molecular determinants of sodium channel pharmacology. The tarantula toxin huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), which inhibits sodium channel current, exclusively enhanced inward gating-pore currents through the DII voltage-sensor. By contrast, the tarantula toxin ProTx-II, which also inhibits sodium channel currents, altered the gating-pore currents in multiple voltage-sensors in a complex manner. Thus, whereas HWTX-IV inhibits central-pore currents by selectively trapping the DII voltage-sensor in the resting configuration, ProTx-II seems to inhibit central-pore currents by differentially altering the configuration of multiple voltage-sensors. The sea anemone toxin anthopleurin B, which impairs open-channel inactivation, exclusively enhanced inward gating-pore currents through the DIV voltage-sensor. This indicates that trapping the DIV voltage-sensor in the resting configuration selectively impairs open-channel inactivation. Furthermore, these data indicate that although activation of all four voltage-sensors is not required for central-pore current generation, activation of the DII voltage-sensor is crucial. Overall, our data demonstrate that gating-pore currents can determine the mechanism of action for sodium channel gating modifiers with high precision. We propose this approach could be adapted to identify the molecular mechanisms of action for gating modifiers of various voltage-gated ion channels. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Gating-Pore Currents Demonstrate Selective and Specific Modulation of Individual Sodium Channel Voltage-Sensors by Biological Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yucheng; Blumenthal, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are critical determinants of nerve and muscle excitability. Although numerous toxins and small molecules target sodium channels, identifying the mechanisms of action is challenging. Here we used gating-pore currents selectively generated in each of the voltage-sensors from the four α-subunit domains (DI–DIV) to monitor the activity of individual voltage-sensors and to investigate the molecular determinants of sodium channel pharmacology. The tarantula toxin huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), which inhibits sodium channel current, exclusively enhanced inward gating-pore currents through the DII voltage-sensor. By contrast, the tarantula toxin ProTx-II, which also inhibits sodium channel currents, altered the gating-pore currents in multiple voltage-sensors in a complex manner. Thus, whereas HWTX-IV inhibits central-pore currents by selectively trapping the DII voltage-sensor in the resting configuration, ProTx-II seems to inhibit central-pore currents by differentially altering the configuration of multiple voltage-sensors. The sea anemone toxin anthopleurin B, which impairs open-channel inactivation, exclusively enhanced inward gating-pore currents through the DIV voltage-sensor. This indicates that trapping the DIV voltage-sensor in the resting configuration selectively impairs open-channel inactivation. Furthermore, these data indicate that although activation of all four voltage-sensors is not required for central-pore current generation, activation of the DII voltage-sensor is crucial. Overall, our data demonstrate that gating-pore currents can determine the mechanism of action for sodium channel gating modifiers with high precision. We propose this approach could be adapted to identify the molecular mechanisms of action for gating modifiers of various voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:24898004

  12. Electro-optic voltage sensor with Multiple Beam Splitting

    DOEpatents

    Woods, Gregory K.; Renak, Todd W.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Davidson, James R.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  13. Electro-optic voltage sensor with beam splitting

    DOEpatents

    Woods, Gregory K.; Renak, Todd W.; Davidson, James R.; Crawford, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware typically found in the prior art. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  14. Electrooptic polymer voltage sensor and method of manufacture thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottsche, Allan (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An optical voltage sensor utilizing an electrooptic polymer is disclosed for application to electric power distribution systems. The sensor, which can be manufactured at low cost in accordance with a disclosed method, measures voltages across a greater range than prior art sensors. The electrooptic polymer, which replaces the optical crystal used in prior art sensors, is sandwiched directly between two high voltage electrodes. Voltage is measured by fiber optical means, and no voltage division is required. The sample of electrooptic polymer is fabricated in a special mold and later mounted in a sensor housing. Alternatively, mold and sensor housing may be identical. The sensor housing is made out of a machinable polymeric material and is equipped with two opposing optical windows. The optical windows are mounted in the bottom of machined holes in the wall of the mold. These holes provide for mounting of the polarizing optical components and for mounting of the fiber optic connectors. One connecting fiber is equipped with a light emitting diode as a light source. Another connecting fiber is equipped with a photodiode as a detector.

  15. Tuning the voltage-sensor motion with a single residue.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Jérôme J; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2012-08-08

    The Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensitive phosphatase (Ci-VSP) represents the first discovered member of enzymes regulated by a voltage-sensor domain (VSD) related to the VSD found in voltage-gated ion channels. Although the VSD operation in Ci-VSP exhibits original voltage dependence and kinetics compared to ion channels, it has been poorly investigated. Here, we show that the kinetics and voltage dependence of VSD movement in Ci-VSP can be tuned over 2 orders of magnitude and shifted over 120 mV, respectively, by the size of a conserved isoleucine (I126) in the S1 segment, thus indicating the importance of this residue in Ci-VSP activation. Mutations of the conserved Phe in the S2 segment (F161) do not significantly perturb the voltage dependence of the VSD movement, suggesting a unique voltage sensing mechanism in Ci-VSP.

  16. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOEpatents

    Woods, Gregory K.; Renak, Todd W.

    1999-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  17. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOEpatents

    Woods, G.K.; Renak, T.W.

    1999-04-06

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 18 figs.

  18. β-Scorpion Toxin Modifies Gating Transitions in All Four Voltage Sensors of the Sodium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fabiana V.; Chanda, Baron; Beirão, Paulo S.L.; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Several naturally occurring polypeptide neurotoxins target specific sites on the voltage-gated sodium channels. Of these, the gating modifier toxins alter the behavior of the sodium channels by stabilizing transient intermediate states in the channel gating pathway. Here we have used an integrated approach that combines electrophysiological and spectroscopic measurements to determine the structural rearrangements modified by the β-scorpion toxin Ts1. Our data indicate that toxin binding to the channel is restricted to a single binding site on domain II voltage sensor. Analysis of Cole-Moore shifts suggests that the number of closed states in the activation sequence prior to channel opening is reduced in the presence of toxin. Measurements of charge–voltage relationships show that a fraction of the gating charge is immobilized in Ts1-modified channels. Interestingly, the charge–voltage relationship also shows an additional component at hyperpolarized potentials. Site-specific fluorescence measurements indicate that in presence of the toxin the voltage sensor of domain II remains trapped in the activated state. Furthermore, the binding of the toxin potentiates the activation of the other three voltage sensors of the sodium channel to more hyperpolarized potentials. These findings reveal how the binding of β-scorpion toxin modifies channel function and provides insight into early gating transitions of sodium channels. PMID:17698594

  19. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    DOEpatents

    Chorpening, Benjamin T [Morgantown, WV; Thornton, Jimmy D [Morgantown, WV; Huckaby, E David [Morgantown, WV; Fincham, William [Fairmont, WV

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  20. Coupling between Voltage Sensors and Activation Gate in Voltage-gated K+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhe; Klem, Angela M.; Ramu, Yajamana

    2002-01-01

    Current through voltage-gated K+ channels underlies the action potential encoding the electrical signal in excitable cells. The four subunits of a voltage-gated K+ channel each have six transmembrane segments (S1–S6), whereas some other K+ channels, such as eukaryotic inward rectifier K+ channels and the prokaryotic KcsA channel, have only two transmembrane segments (M1 and M2). A voltage-gated K+ channel is formed by an ion-pore module (S5–S6, equivalent to M1–M2) and the surrounding voltage-sensing modules. The S4 segments are the primary voltage sensors while the intracellular activation gate is located near the COOH-terminal end of S6, although the coupling mechanism between them remains unknown. In the present study, we found that two short, complementary sequences in voltage-gated K+ channels are essential for coupling the voltage sensors to the intracellular activation gate. One sequence is the so called S4–S5 linker distal to the voltage-sensing S4, while the other is around the COOH-terminal end of S6, a region containing the actual gate-forming residues. PMID:12407078

  1. High-voltage pixel sensors for ATLAS upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perić, I.; Kreidl, C.; Fischer, P.; Bompard, F.; Breugnon, P.; Clemens, J.-C.; Fougeron, D.; Liu, J.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.; Barbero, M.; Feigl, S.; Capeans, M.; Ferrere, D.; Pernegger, H.; Ristic, B.; Muenstermann, D.; Gonzalez Sevilla, S.; La Rosa, A.; Miucci, A.; Nessi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Backhaus, M.; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, H.; Hemperek, T.; Obermann, T.; Wermes, N.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Quadt, A.; Weingarten, J.; George, M.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Rieger, J.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Hynds, D.

    2014-11-01

    The high-voltage (HV-) CMOS pixel sensors offer several good properties: a fast charge collection by drift, the possibility to implement relatively complex CMOS in-pixel electronics and the compatibility with commercial processes. The sensor element is a deep n-well diode in a p-type substrate. The n-well contains CMOS pixel electronics. The main charge collection mechanism is drift in a shallow, high field region, which leads to a fast charge collection and a high radiation tolerance. We are currently evaluating the use of the high-voltage detectors implemented in 180 nm HV-CMOS technology for the high-luminosity ATLAS upgrade. Our approach is replacing the existing pixel and strip sensors with the CMOS sensors while keeping the presently used readout ASICs. By intelligence we mean the ability of the sensor to recognize a particle hit and generate the address information. In this way we could benefit from the advantages of the HV sensor technology such as lower cost, lower mass, lower operating voltage, smaller pitch, smaller clusters at high incidence angles. Additionally we expect to achieve a radiation hardness necessary for ATLAS upgrade. In order to test the concept, we have designed two HV-CMOS prototypes that can be readout in two ways: using pixel and strip readout chips. In the case of the pixel readout, the connection between HV-CMOS sensor and the readout ASIC can be established capacitively.

  2. Temperature Induced Voltage Offset Drifts in Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Lukco, Dorothy; Nguyen, Vu; Savrun, Ender

    2012-01-01

    We report the reduction of transient drifts in the zero pressure offset voltage in silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors when operating at 600 C. The previously observed maximum drift of +/- 10 mV of the reference offset voltage at 600 C was reduced to within +/- 5 mV. The offset voltage drifts and bridge resistance changes over time at test temperature are explained in terms of the microstructure and phase changes occurring within the contact metallization, as analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results have helped to identify the upper temperature reliable operational limit of this particular metallization scheme to be 605 C.

  3. Developing Fast Fluorescent Protein Voltage Sensors by Optimizing FRET Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Uhna; Sepehri-Rad, Masoud; Piao, Hong Hua; Jin, Lei; Hughes, Thomas; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Baker, Bradley J.

    2015-01-01

    FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer)-based protein voltage sensors can be useful for monitoring neuronal activity in vivo because the ratio of signals between the donor and acceptor pair reduces common sources of noise such as heart beat artifacts. We improved the performance of FRET based genetically encoded Fluorescent Protein (FP) voltage sensors by optimizing the location of donor and acceptor FPs flanking the voltage sensitive domain of the Ciona intestinalis voltage sensitive phosphatase. First, we created 39 different “Nabi1” constructs by positioning the donor FP, UKG, at 8 different locations downstream of the voltage-sensing domain and the acceptor FP, mKO, at 6 positions upstream. Several of these combinations resulted in large voltage dependent signals and relatively fast kinetics. Nabi1 probes responded with signal size up to 11% ΔF/F for a 100 mV depolarization and fast response time constants both for signal activation (~2 ms) and signal decay (~3 ms). We improved expression in neuronal cells by replacing the mKO and UKG FRET pair with Clover (donor FP) and mRuby2 (acceptor FP) to create Nabi2 probes. Nabi2 probes also had large signals and relatively fast time constants in HEK293 cells. In primary neuronal culture, a Nabi2 probe was able to differentiate individual action potentials at 45 Hz. PMID:26587834

  4. Optical fiber voltage sensors for broad temperature ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, A. H.; Day, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the development of an optical fiber ac voltage sensor for aircraft and spacecraft applications. Among the most difficult specifications to meet for this application is a temperature stability of +/- 1 percent from -65 C to +125 C. This stability requires a careful selection of materials, components, and optical configuration with further compensation using an optical-fiber temperature sensor located near the sensing element. The sensor is a polarimetric design, based on the linear electro-optic effect in bulk Bi4Ge3O12. The temperature sensor is also polarimetric, based on the temperature dependence of the birefringence of bulk SiO2. The temperature sensor output is used to automatically adjust the calibration of the instrument.

  5. Beta-scorpion toxin effects suggest electrostatic interactions in domain II of voltage-dependent sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Mantegazza, Massimo; Cestèle, Sandrine

    2005-10-01

    Beta-scorpion toxins specifically modulate the voltage dependence of sodium channel activation by acting through a voltage-sensor trapping model. We used mutagenesis, functional analysis and the action of beta-toxin as tools to investigate the existence and role in channel activation of molecular interactions between the charged residues of the S2, S3 and S4 segments in domain II of sodium channels. Mutating to arginine the acidic residues of the S2 and S3 transmembrane segments in domain II, or making charge-reversal mutation of the two outermost gating charges of the IIS4 voltage sensor, shifts the voltage dependence of channel activation to more positive potentials and enhances the effect of beta-scorpion toxin. Thus, mutations of acidic residues in IIS2 and IIS3 segments are able to promote voltage-sensor trapping in a way that is similar to the mutations of the arginines in the IIS4 segment. In order to disclose the network of interactions among acidic and basic residues we performed functional analysis of charge-inversion double mutants: our data suggest that the first arginine of the voltage sensor S4 in domain II (R850) interacts specifically with E805, D814 and E821 in the S2 and S3 segments, whereas the second arginine (R853) only interacts with D827 in the S3 segment. Our results suggest that the S2, S3 and S4 segments in domain II form a voltage-sensing structure, and that molecular interactions between the charged residues of this structure modulate the availability of the IIS4 voltage sensor for trapping by beta-toxins. They also provide unique insights into the molecular events that occur during channel activation, as well as into the structure of the channel.

  6. β-Scorpion toxin effects suggest electrostatic interactions in domain II of voltage-dependent sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Mantegazza, Massimo; Cestèle, Sandrine

    2005-01-01

    β-Scorpion toxins specifically modulate the voltage dependence of sodium channel activation by acting through a voltage-sensor trapping model. We used mutagenesis, functional analysis and the action of β-toxin as tools to investigate the existence and role in channel activation of molecular interactions between the charged residues of the S2, S3 and S4 segments in domain II of sodium channels. Mutating to arginine the acidic residues of the S2 and S3 transmembrane segments in domain II, or making charge-reversal mutation of the two outermost gating charges of the IIS4 voltage sensor, shifts the voltage dependence of channel activation to more positive potentials and enhances the effect of β-scorpion toxin. Thus, mutations of acidic residues in IIS2 and IIS3 segments are able to promote voltage-sensor trapping in a way that is similar to the mutations of the arginines in the IIS4 segment. In order to disclose the network of interactions among acidic and basic residues we performed functional analysis of charge-inversion double mutants: our data suggest that the first arginine of the voltage sensor S4 in domain II (R850) interacts specifically with E805, D814 and E821 in the S2 and S3 segments, whereas the second arginine (R853) only interacts with D827 in the S3 segment. Our results suggest that the S2, S3 and S4 segments in domain II form a voltage-sensing structure, and that molecular interactions between the charged residues of this structure modulate the availability of the IIS4 voltage sensor for trapping by β-toxins. They also provide unique insights into the molecular events that occur during channel activation, as well as into the structure of the channel. PMID:16020455

  7. Genetically encoded fluorescent voltage sensors using the voltage-sensing domain of Nematostella and Danio phosphatases exhibit fast kinetics.

    PubMed

    Baker, Bradley J; Jin, Lei; Han, Zhou; Cohen, Lawrence B; Popovic, Marko; Platisa, Jelena; Pieribone, Vincent

    2012-07-15

    A substantial increase in the speed of the optical response of genetically encoded fluorescent protein voltage sensors (FP voltage sensors) was achieved by using the voltage-sensing phosphatase genes of Nematostella vectensis and Danio rerio. A potential N. vectensis voltage-sensing phosphatase was identified in silico. The voltage-sensing domain (S1-S4) of the N. vectensis homolog was used to create an FP voltage sensor called Nema. By replacing the phosphatase with a cerulean/citrine FRET pair, a new FP voltage sensor was synthesized with fast off kinetics (Tau(off)<5ms). However, the signal was small (ΔF/F=0.4%/200mV). FP voltage sensors using the D. rerio voltage-sensing phosphatase homolog, designated Zahra and Zahra 2, exhibited fast on and off kinetics within 2ms of the time constants observed with the organic voltage-sensitive dye, di4-ANEPPS. Mutagenesis of the S4 region of the Danio FP voltage sensor shifted the voltage dependence to more negative potentials but did not noticeably affect the kinetics of the optical signal.

  8. A Novel Voltage Sensor in the Orthosteric Binding Site of the M2 Muscarinic Receptor.

    PubMed

    Barchad-Avitzur, Ofra; Priest, Michael F; Dekel, Noa; Bezanilla, Francisco; Parnas, Hanna; Ben-Chaim, Yair

    2016-10-04

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate many signal transduction processes in the body. The discovery that these receptors are voltage-sensitive has changed our understanding of their behavior. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2R) was found to exhibit depolarization-induced charge movement-associated currents, implying that this prototypical GPCR possesses a voltage sensor. However, the typical domain that serves as a voltage sensor in voltage-gated channels is not present in GPCRs, making the search for the voltage sensor in the latter challenging. Here, we examine the M2R and describe a voltage sensor that is comprised of tyrosine residues. This voltage sensor is crucial for the voltage dependence of agonist binding to the receptor. The tyrosine-based voltage sensor discovered here constitutes a noncanonical by which membrane proteins may sense voltage. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High ac-voltage sensitivity of a quartz needle sensor used in noncontact scanning force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, C.; Mertin, W.; Bacher, G.

    2005-11-01

    The ac-voltage sensitivity of a needle sensor used in a scanning force microscope has been investigated. The voltage sensitivity varies depending if the needle sensor is used as an active or passive device. Using it as an active device, we achieve a voltage sensitivity down to 100μV if the frequency and phase of the excitation voltage of the needle sensor is matched to the voltage of the device under test.

  10. Arrangement and mobility of the voltage sensor domain in prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Takushi; Irie, Katsumasa; Nagura, Hitoshi; Imai, Tomoya; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2011-03-04

    Prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(V)s) form homotetramers with each subunit contributing six transmembrane α-helices (S1-S6). Helices S5 and S6 form the ion-conducting pore, and helices S1-S4 function as the voltage sensor with helix S4 thought to be the essential element for voltage-dependent activation. Although the crystal structures have provided insight into voltage-gated K channels (K(V)s), revealing a characteristic domain arrangement in which the voltage sensor domain of one subunit is close to the pore domain of an adjacent subunit in the tetramer, the structural and functional information on Na(V)s remains limited. Here, we show that the domain arrangement in NaChBac, a firstly cloned prokaryotic Na(V), is similar to that in K(V)s. Cysteine substitutions of three residues in helix S4, Q107C, T110C, and R113C, effectively induced intersubunit disulfide bond formation with a cysteine introduced in helix S5, M164C, of the adjacent subunit. In addition, substituting two acidic residues with lysine, E43K and D60K, shifted the activation of the channel to more positive membrane potentials and consistently shifted the preferentially formed disulfide bond from T110C/M164C to Q107C/M164C. Because Gln-107 is located closer to the extracellular side of helix S4 than Thr-110, this finding suggests that the functional shift in the voltage dependence of activation is related to a restriction of the position of helix S4 in the lipid bilayer. The domain arrangement and vertical mobility of helix S4 in NaChBac indicate that the structure and the mechanism of voltage-dependent activation in prokaryotic Na(V)s are similar to those in canonical K(V)s.

  11. Voltage-Biased Magnetic Sensors Based on Tuned Varistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, R. K.; Stapleton, William. A.; Sutanto, Ivan; Shamsuzzoha, M.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we explore the possibility of finding practical applications when the nonlinear current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics of a varistor are modified by the application of external magnetic fields. With this goal in mind, varistors based on a pseudobrookite oxide semiconductor have been studied. Pseudobrookite (PsB) is a wide bandgap n-type semiconductor with the bandgap of 2.77 eV. It is also weakly ferromagnetic. The "voltage-dependent resistor" (VDR) mode of the magnetically-tuned pseudobrookite varistors offers an opportunity to advance magnetic sensor technology. The resistive and magnetoresistive parameters of PsB VDRs exhibit good responses to applied magnetic fields and they can therefore be the basis for the fabrication of simple yet practical magnetic sensors. These sensors can cover the range of magnetic fields between 0 and 4500 Oe with good accuracy, and could possibly be considered as a substitute for Hall Effect-based sensors for many applications. Also, due to their simple structure, they would be rugged and not susceptible to abuses. They may also be suitable for applications in hazardous environments such as high temperatures and atmospheres having the presence of radiation, such as neutrons, protons, etc. It is also possible that these novel sensors could be suitable for geological applications such as in well logging in search of energy sources.

  12. Molecular mechanism of voltage sensor movements in a potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Elliott, David J S; Neale, Edward J; Aziz, Qadeer; Dunham, James P; Munsey, Tim S; Hunter, Malcolm; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu

    2004-12-08

    Voltage-gated potassium channels are six-transmembrane (S1-S6) proteins that form a central pore domain (4 x S5-S6) surrounded by four voltage sensor domains (S1-S4), which detect changes in membrane voltage and control pore opening. Upon depolarization, the S4 segments move outward carrying charged residues across the membrane field, thereby leading to the opening of the pore. The mechanism of S4 motion is controversial. We have investigated how S4 moves relative to the pore domain in the prototypical Shaker potassium channel. We introduced pairs of cysteines, one in S4 and the other in S5, and examined proximity changes between each pair of cysteines during activation, using Cd2+ and copper-phenanthroline, which crosslink the cysteines with metal and disulphide bridges, respectively. Modelling of the results suggests a novel mechanism: in the resting state, the top of the S3b-S4 voltage sensor paddle lies close to the top of S5 of the adjacent subunit, but moves towards the top of S5 of its own subunit during depolarization--this motion is accompanied by a reorientation of S4 charges to the extracellular phase.

  13. Design and Simulation Test of an Open D-Dot Voltage Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yunjie; Wang, Jingang; Wei, Gang; Yang, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, sensor development focuses on miniaturization and non-contact measurement. According to the D-dot principle, a D-dot voltage sensor with a new structure was designed based on the differential D-dot sensor with a symmetrical structure, called an asymmetric open D-dot voltage sensor. It is easier to install. The electric field distribution of the sensor was analyzed through Ansoft Maxwell and an open D-dot voltage sensor was designed. This open D-voltage sensor is characteristic of accessible insulating strength and small electric field distortion. The steady and transient performance test under 10 kV-voltage reported satisfying performances of the designed open D-dot voltage sensor. It conforms to requirements for a smart grid measuring sensor in intelligence, miniaturization and facilitation. PMID:26393590

  14. Design and Simulation Test of an Open D-Dot Voltage Sensor.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yunjie; Wang, Jingang; Wei, Gang; Yang, Yongming

    2015-09-17

    Nowadays, sensor development focuses on miniaturization and non-contact measurement. According to the D-dot principle, a D-dot voltage sensor with a new structure was designed based on the differential D-dot sensor with a symmetrical structure, called an asymmetric open D-dot voltage sensor. It is easier to install. The electric field distribution of the sensor was analyzed through Ansoft Maxwell and an open D-dot voltage sensor was designed. This open D-voltage sensor is characteristic of accessible insulating strength and small electric field distortion. The steady and transient performance test under 10 kV-voltage reported satisfying performances of the designed open D-dot voltage sensor. It conforms to requirements for a smart grid measuring sensor in intelligence, miniaturization and facilitation.

  15. Two Separate Interfaces between the Voltage Sensor and Pore Are Required for the Function of Voltage-Dependent K+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, Roderick

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels gate open in response to the membrane voltage. To further our understanding of how cell membrane voltage regulates the opening of a Kv channel, we have studied the protein interfaces that attach the voltage-sensor domains to the pore. In the crystal structure, three physical interfaces exist. Only two of these consist of amino acids that are co-evolved across the interface between voltage sensor and pore according to statistical coupling analysis of 360 Kv channel sequences. A first co-evolved interface is formed by the S4-S5 linkers (one from each of four voltage sensors), which form a cuff surrounding the S6-lined pore opening at the intracellular surface. The crystal structure and published mutational studies support the hypothesis that the S4-S5 linkers convert voltage-sensor motions directly into gate opening and closing. A second co-evolved interface forms a small contact surface between S1 of the voltage sensor and the pore helix near the extracellular surface. We demonstrate through mutagenesis that this interface is necessary for the function and/or structure of two different Kv channels. This second interface is well positioned to act as a second anchor point between the voltage sensor and the pore, thus allowing efficient transmission of conformational changes to the pore's gate. PMID:19260762

  16. Tarantula Toxins Interact with Voltage Sensors within Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Milescu, Mirela; Vobecky, Jan; Roh, Soung H.; Kim, Sung H.; Jung, Hoi J.; Kim, Jae Il; Swartz, Kenton J.

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-activated ion channels are essential for electrical signaling, yet the mechanism of voltage sensing remains under intense investigation. The voltage-sensor paddle is a crucial structural motif in voltage-activated potassium (Kv) channels that has been proposed to move at the protein–lipid interface in response to changes in membrane voltage. Here we explore whether tarantula toxins like hanatoxin and SGTx1 inhibit Kv channels by interacting with paddle motifs within the membrane. We find that these toxins can partition into membranes under physiologically relevant conditions, but that the toxin–membrane interaction is not sufficient to inhibit Kv channels. From mutagenesis studies we identify regions of the toxin involved in binding to the paddle motif, and those important for interacting with membranes. Modification of membranes with sphingomyelinase D dramatically alters the stability of the toxin–channel complex, suggesting that tarantula toxins interact with paddle motifs within the membrane and that they are sensitive detectors of lipid–channel interactions. PMID:17938232

  17. Mapping the receptor site for α-scorpion toxins on a Na+ channel voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinti; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Kahn, Roy; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2011-01-01

    The α-scorpions toxins bind to the resting state of Na+ channels and inhibit fast inactivation by interaction with a receptor site formed by domains I and IV. Mutants T1560A, F1610A, and E1613A in domain IV had lower affinities for Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus toxin II (LqhII), and mutant E1613R had ∼73-fold lower affinity. Toxin dissociation was accelerated by depolarization and increased by these mutations, whereas association rates at negative membrane potentials were not changed. These results indicate that Thr1560 in the S1-S2 loop, Phe1610 in the S3 segment, and Glu1613 in the S3-S4 loop in domain IV participate in toxin binding. T393A in the SS2-S6 loop in domain I also had lower affinity for LqhII, indicating that this extracellular loop may form a secondary component of the receptor site. Analysis with the Rosetta-Membrane algorithm resulted in a model of LqhII binding to the voltage sensor in a resting state, in which amino acid residues in an extracellular cleft formed by the S1-S2 and S3-S4 loops in domain IV interact with two faces of the wedge-shaped LqhII molecule. The conserved gating charges in the S4 segment are in an inward position and form ion pairs with negatively charged amino acid residues in the S2 and S3 segments of the voltage sensor. This model defines the structure of the resting state of a voltage sensor of Na+ channels and reveals its mode of interaction with a gating modifier toxin. PMID:21876146

  18. An optical AC voltage sensor based on the transverse Pockels effect.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Xiao, Xia; Xu, Yan; Ren, Shiyan

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces an optical AC voltage sensor based on the transverse Pockels effect. The sensor utilizes a bulk Bi(4)Ge(3)O(12) (BGO) crystal as the sensing element. The measurement principle has been described and prototype of the sensor has been constructed and evaluated. Good linearity and accuracy performance was obtained for AC voltage measurement. The proposed sensor can be thus applied to high AC voltage measurements in the electric power industry.

  19. Monitoring Brain Activity with Protein Voltage and Calcium Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Storace, Douglas A.; Braubach, Oliver R.; Jin, Lei; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Sung, Uhna

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the roles of different cell types in the behaviors generated by neural circuits requires protein indicators that report neural activity with high spatio-temporal resolution. Genetically encoded fluorescent protein (FP) voltage sensors, which optically report the electrical activity in distinct cell populations, are, in principle, ideal candidates. Here we demonstrate that the FP voltage sensor ArcLight reports odor-evoked electrical activity in the in vivo mammalian olfactory bulb in single trials using both wide-field and 2-photon imaging. ArcLight resolved fast odorant-responses in individual glomeruli, and distributed odorant responses across a population of glomeruli. Comparisons between ArcLight and the protein calcium sensors GCaMP3 and GCaMP6f revealed that ArcLight had faster temporal kinetics that more clearly distinguished activity elicited by individual odorant inspirations. In contrast, the signals from both GCaMPs were a saturating integral of activity that returned relatively slowly to the baseline. ArcLight enables optical electrophysiology of mammalian neuronal population activity in vivo. PMID:25970202

  20. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2002-03-26

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor and system capable of accurate operation at high voltages has a sensor body disposed in an E-field. The body receives a source beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the source light beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. A wave plate rotates the linear polarization to rotated polarization. A transducer utilizes Pockels electro-optic effect and induces a differential phase shift on the major and minor axes of the rotated polarization in response to the E-field. A prism redirects the beam back through the transducer, wave plate, and polarization beam displacer. The prism also converts the rotated polarization to circular or elliptical polarization. The wave plate rotates the major and minor axes of the circular or elliptical polarization to linear polarization. The polarization beam displacer separates the beam into two beams of orthogonal linear polarization representing the major and minor axes. The system may have a transmitter for producing the beam of electro-magnetic radiation; a detector for converting the two beams into electrical signals; and a signal processor for determining the voltage.

  1. Cytosolic Ni(II) Sensor in Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Patterson, Carl J.; Pernil, Rafael; Hess, Corinna R.; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2012-01-01

    Efflux of surplus Ni(II) across the outer and inner membranes of Synechocystis PCC 6803 is mediated by the Nrs system under the control of a sensor of periplasmic Ni(II), NrsS. Here, we show that the product of ORF sll0176, which encodes a CsoR/RcnR-like protein now designated InrS (for internal nickel-responsive sensor), represses nrsD (NrsD is deduced to efflux Ni(II) across the inner membrane) from a cryptic promoter between the final two ORFs in the nrs operon. Transcripts initiated from the newly identified nrsD promoter accumulate in response to nickel or cobalt but not copper, and recombinant InrS forms specific, Ni(II)-inhibited complexes with the nrsD promoter region. Metal-dependent difference spectra of Ni(II)- and Cu(I)-InrS are similar to Cu(I)-sensing CsoR and dissimilar to Ni(II)/Co(II)-sensing RcnR, consistent with factors beyond the primary coordination sphere switching metal selectivity. Competition with chelators mag-fura-2, nitrilotriacetic acid, EDTA, and EGTA estimate KD Ni(II) for the tightest site of InrS as 2.05 (±1.5) × 10−14 m, and weaker KD Ni(II) for the cells' metal sensors of other types: Zn(II) co-repressor Zur, Co(II) activator CoaR, and Zn(II) derepressor ZiaR. Ni(II) transfer to InrS occurs upon addition to Ni(II) forms of each other sensor. InrS binds Ni(II) sufficiently tightly to derepress Ni(II) export at concentrations below KD Ni(II) of the other sensors. PMID:22356910

  2. Molecular Action of Lidocaine on the Voltage Sensors of Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Michael F.; Hanck, Dorothy A.

    2003-01-01

    Block of sodium ionic current by lidocaine is associated with alteration of the gating charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship characterized by a 38% reduction in maximal gating charge (Qmax) and by the appearance of additional gating charge at negative test potentials. We investigated the molecular basis of the lidocaine-induced reduction in cardiac Na channel–gating charge by sequentially neutralizing basic residues in each of the voltage sensors (S4 segments) in the four domains of the human heart Na channel (hH1a). By determining the relative reduction in the Qmax of each mutant channel modified by lidocaine we identified those S4 segments that contributed to a reduction in gating charge. No interaction of lidocaine was found with the voltage sensors in domains I or II. The largest inhibition of charge movement was found for the S4 of domain III consistent with lidocaine completely inhibiting its movement. Protection experiments with intracellular MTSET (a charged sulfhydryl reagent) in a Na channel with the fourth outermost arginine in the S4 of domain III mutated to a cysteine demonstrated that lidocaine stabilized the S4 in domain III in a depolarized configuration. Lidocaine also partially inhibited movement of the S4 in domain IV, but lidocaine's most dramatic effect was to alter the voltage-dependent charge movement of the S4 in domain IV such that it accounted for the appearance of additional gating charge at potentials near −100 mV. These findings suggest that lidocaine's actions on Na channel gating charge result from allosteric coupling of the binding site(s) of lidocaine to the voltage sensors formed by the S4 segments in domains III and IV. PMID:12566542

  3. Voltage sensor ring in a native structure of a membrane-embedded potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liang; Zheng, Hongjin; Zheng, Hui; Borkowski, Brian A.; Shi, Dan; Gonen, Tamir; Jiang, Qiu-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels support electrochemical activity in cells and are largely responsible for information flow throughout the nervous systems. The voltage sensor domains in these channels sense changes in transmembrane potential and control ion flux across membranes. The X-ray structures of a few voltage-gated ion channels in detergents have been determined and have revealed clear structural variations among their respective voltage sensor domains. More recent studies demonstrated that lipids around a voltage-gated channel could directly alter its conformational state in membrane. Because of these disparities, the structural basis for voltage sensing in native membranes remains elusive. Here, through electron-crystallographic analysis of membrane-embedded proteins, we present the detailed view of a voltage-gated potassium channel in its inactivated state. Contrary to all known structures of voltage-gated ion channels in detergents, our data revealed a unique conformation in which the four voltage sensor domains of a voltage-gated potassium channel from Aeropyrum pernix (KvAP) form a ring structure that completely surrounds the pore domain of the channel. Such a structure is named the voltage sensor ring. Our biochemical and electrophysiological studies support that the voltage sensor ring represents a physiological conformation. These data together suggest that lipids exert strong effects on the channel structure and that these effects may be changed upon membrane disruption. Our results have wide implications for lipid–protein interactions in general and for the mechanism of voltage sensing in particular. PMID:23401554

  4. Voltage-dependent K+ channel gating and voltage sensor toxin sensitivity depend on the mechanical state of the lipid membrane

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Daniel; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2008-01-01

    Voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels underlie action potentials through gating conformational changes that are driven by membrane voltage. In this study of the paddle chimera Kv channel, we demonstrate that the rate of channel opening, the voltage dependence of the open probability, and the maximum achievable open probability depend on the lipid membrane environment. The activity of the voltage sensor toxin VsTx1, which interferes with voltage-dependent gating by partitioning into the membrane and binding to the channel, also depends on the membrane. Membrane environmental factors that influence channel function are divisible into two general categories: lipid compositional and mechanical state. The mechanical state can have a surprisingly large effect on the function of a voltage-dependent K+ channel, including its pharmacological interaction with voltage sensor toxins. The dependence of VSTx1 activity on the mechanical state of the membrane leads us to hypothesize that voltage sensor toxins exert their effect by perturbing the interaction forces that exist between the channel and the membrane. PMID:19050073

  5. Deletion of cytosolic gating ring decreases gate and voltage sensor coupling in BK channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guohui; Geng, Yanyan; Jin, Yakang; Shi, Jingyi; McFarland, Kelli; Magleby, Karl L; Salkoff, Lawrence; Cui, Jianmin

    2017-03-06

    Large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK channels) gate open in response to both membrane voltage and intracellular Ca(2+) The channel is formed by a central pore-gate domain (PGD), which spans the membrane, plus transmembrane voltage sensors and a cytoplasmic gating ring that acts as a Ca(2+) sensor. How these voltage and Ca(2+) sensors influence the common activation gate, and interact with each other, is unclear. A previous study showed that a BK channel core lacking the entire cytoplasmic gating ring (Core-MT) was devoid of Ca(2+) activation but retained voltage sensitivity (Budelli et al. 2013. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1313433110). In this study, we measure voltage sensor activation and pore opening in this Core-MT channel over a wide range of voltages. We record gating currents and find that voltage sensor activation in this truncated channel is similar to WT but that the coupling between voltage sensor activation and gating of the pore is reduced. These results suggest that the gating ring, in addition to being the Ca(2+) sensor, enhances the effective coupling between voltage sensors and the PGD. We also find that removal of the gating ring alters modulation of the channels by the BK channel's β1 and β2 subunits.

  6. Phosphatase activity of the voltage-sensing phosphatase, VSP, shows graded dependence on the extent of activation of the voltage sensor.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Souhei; Okamura, Yasushi

    2014-03-01

    The voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) consists of a voltage sensor and a cytoplasmic phosphatase region, and the movement of the voltage sensor is coupled to the phosphatase activity. However, its coupling mechanisms still remain unclear. One possible scenario is that the phosphatase is activated only when the voltage sensor is in a fully activated state. Alternatively, the enzymatic activity of single VSP proteins could be graded in distinct activated states of the voltage sensor, and partial activation of the voltage sensor could lead to partial activation of the phosphatase. To distinguish between these two possibilities, we studied a voltage sensor mutant of zebrafish VSP, where the voltage sensor moves in two steps as evidenced by analyses of charge movements of the voltage sensor and voltage clamp fluorometry. Measurements of the phosphatase activity toward phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate revealed that both steps of voltage sensor activation are coupled to the tuning of phosphatase activities, consistent with the idea that the phosphatase activity is graded by the magnitude of the movement of the voltage sensor.

  7. Phosphatase activity of the voltage-sensing phosphatase, VSP, shows graded dependence on the extent of activation of the voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Souhei; Okamura, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    The voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) consists of a voltage sensor and a cytoplasmic phosphatase region, and the movement of the voltage sensor is coupled to the phosphatase activity. However, its coupling mechanisms still remain unclear. One possible scenario is that the phosphatase is activated only when the voltage sensor is in a fully activated state. Alternatively, the enzymatic activity of single VSP proteins could be graded in distinct activated states of the voltage sensor, and partial activation of the voltage sensor could lead to partial activation of the phosphatase. To distinguish between these two possibilities, we studied a voltage sensor mutant of zebrafish VSP, where the voltage sensor moves in two steps as evidenced by analyses of charge movements of the voltage sensor and voltage clamp fluorometry. Measurements of the phosphatase activity toward phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate revealed that both steps of voltage sensor activation are coupled to the tuning of phosphatase activities, consistent with the idea that the phosphatase activity is graded by the magnitude of the movement of the voltage sensor. PMID:24277865

  8. Mg2+ enhances voltage sensor/gate coupling in BK channels.

    PubMed

    Horrigan, Frank T; Ma, Zhongming

    2008-01-01

    BK (Slo1) potassium channels are activated by millimolar intracellular Mg(2+) as well as micromolar Ca(2+) and membrane depolarization. Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) act in an approximately additive manner at different binding sites to shift the conductance-voltage (G(K)-V) relation, suggesting that these ligands might work through functionally similar but independent mechanisms. However, we find that the mechanism of Mg(2+) action is highly dependent on voltage sensor activation and therefore differs fundamentally from that of Ca(2+). Evidence that Ca(2+) acts independently of voltage sensor activation includes an ability to increase open probability (P(O)) at extreme negative voltages where voltage sensors are in the resting state; 2 microM Ca(2+) increases P(O) more than 15-fold at -120 mV. However 10 mM Mg(2+), which has an effect on the G(K)-V relation similar to 2 microM Ca(2+), has no detectable effect on P(O) when voltage sensors are in the resting state. Gating currents are only slightly altered by Mg(2+) when channels are closed, indicating that Mg(2+) does not act merely to promote voltage sensor activation. Indeed, channel opening is facilitated in a voltage-independent manner by Mg(2+) in a mutant (R210C) whose voltage sensors are constitutively activated. Thus, 10 mM Mg(2+) increases P(O) only when voltage sensors are activated, effectively strengthening the allosteric coupling of voltage sensor activation to channel opening. Increasing Mg(2+) from 10 to 100 mM, to occupy very low affinity binding sites, has additional effects on gating that more closely resemble those of Ca(2+). The effects of Mg(2+) on steady-state activation and I(K) kinetics are discussed in terms of an allosteric gating scheme and the state-dependent interactions between Mg(2+) and voltage sensor that may underlie this mechanism.

  9. Non-contact current and voltage sensor having detachable housing incorporating multiple ferrite cylinder portions

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, Gary D.; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C.; Schappert, Michael A.

    2016-04-26

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing formed from two portions that mechanically close around the wire and that contain the current and voltage sensors. The current sensor is a ferrite cylinder formed from at least three portions that form the cylinder when the sensor is closed around the wire with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap between two of the ferrite portions along the circumference to measure current. A capacitive plate or wire is disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  10. Charge movement in gating-locked HCN channels reveals weak coupling of voltage sensors and gate.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sujung; Yellen, Gary

    2012-11-01

    HCN (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated) pacemaker channels have an architecture similar to that of voltage-gated K(+) channels, but they open with the opposite voltage dependence. HCN channels use essentially the same positively charged voltage sensors and intracellular activation gates as K(+) channels, but apparently these two components are coupled differently. In this study, we examine the energetics of coupling between the voltage sensor and the pore by using cysteine mutant channels for which low concentrations of Cd(2+) ions freeze the open-closed gating machinery but still allow the sensors to move. We were able to lock mutant channels either into open or into closed states by the application of Cd(2+) and measure the effect on voltage sensor movement. Cd(2+) did not immobilize the gating charge, as expected for strict coupling, but rather it produced shifts in the voltage dependence of voltage sensor charge movement, consistent with its effect of confining transitions to either closed or open states. From the magnitude of the Cd(2+)-induced shifts, we estimate that each voltage sensor produces a roughly three- to sevenfold effect on the open-closed equilibrium, corresponding to a coupling energy of ∼1.3-2 kT per sensor. Such coupling is not only opposite in sign to the coupling in K(+) channels, but also much weaker.

  11. Structure-Function Map of the Receptor Site for β-Scorpion Toxins in Domain II of Voltage-gated Sodium Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Joel Z.; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Scheuer, Todd; Karbat, Izhar; Cohen, Lior; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael; Catterall, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are the molecular targets of β-scorpion toxins, which shift the voltage dependence of activation to more negative membrane potentials by a voltage sensor-trapping mechanism. Molecular determinants of β-scorpion toxin (CssIV) binding and action on rat brain sodium channels are located in the S1-S2 (IIS1-S2) and S3-S4 (IIS3-S4) extracellular linkers of the voltage-sensing module in domain II. In IIS1-S2, mutations of two amino acid residues (Glu779 and Pro782) significantly altered the toxin effect by reducing binding affinity. In IIS3-S4, six positions surrounding the key binding determinant, Gly845, define a hot spot of high-impact residues. Two of these substitutions (A841N and L846A) reduced voltage sensor trapping. The other three substitutions (N842R, V843A, and E844N) increased voltage sensor trapping. These bidirectional effects suggest that the IIS3-S4 loop plays a primary role in determining both toxin affinity and efficacy. A high resolution molecular model constructed with the Rosetta-Membrane modeling system reveals interactions of amino acid residues in sodium channels that are crucial for toxin action with residues in CssIV that are required for its effects. In this model, the wedge-shaped CssIV inserts between the IIS1-S2 and IIS3-S4 loops of the voltage sensor, placing key amino acid residues in position to interact with binding partners in these extracellular loops. These results provide new molecular insights into the voltage sensor-trapping model of toxin action and further define the molecular requirements for the development of antagonists that can prevent or reverse toxicity of scorpion toxins. PMID:21795675

  12. Non-intrusive high voltage measurement using slab coupled optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Nikola; Chadderdon, Spencer; Selfridge, Richard H.; Schultz, Stephen M.

    2014-03-01

    We present an optical fiber non-intrusive sensor for measuring high voltage transients. The sensor converts the unknown voltage to electric field, which is then measured using slab-coupled optical fiber sensor (SCOS). Since everything in the sensor except the electrodes is made of dielectric materials and due to the small field sensor size, the sensor is minimally perturbing to the measured voltage. We present the details of the sensor design, which eliminates arcing and minimizes local dielectric breakdown using Teflon blocks and insulation of the whole structure with transformer oil. The structure has a capacitance of less than 3pF and resistance greater than 10 GΩ. We show the measurement of 66.5 kV pulse with a 32.6μs time constant. The measurement matches the expected value of 67.8 kV with less than 2% error.

  13. Proton currents constrain structural models of voltage sensor activation

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Aaron L; Mokrab, Younes; Bennett, Ashley L; Sansom, Mark SP; Ramsey, Ian Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Hv1 proton channel is evidently unique among voltage sensor domain proteins in mediating an intrinsic ‘aqueous’ H+ conductance (GAQ). Mutation of a highly conserved ‘gating charge’ residue in the S4 helix (R1H) confers a resting-state H+ ‘shuttle’ conductance (GSH) in VGCs and Ci VSP, and we now report that R1H is sufficient to reconstitute GSH in Hv1 without abrogating GAQ. Second-site mutations in S3 (D185A/H) and S4 (N4R) experimentally separate GSH and GAQ gating, which report thermodynamically distinct initial and final steps, respectively, in the Hv1 activation pathway. The effects of Hv1 mutations on GSH and GAQ are used to constrain the positions of key side chains in resting- and activated-state VS model structures, providing new insights into the structural basis of VS activation and H+ transfer mechanisms in Hv1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18017.001 PMID:27572256

  14. Study and Experiment on Non-Contact Voltage Sensor Suitable for Three-Phase Transmission Line

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiang; He, Wei; Xiao, Dongping; Li, Songnong; Zhou, Kongjun

    2015-01-01

    A voltage transformer, as voltage signal detection equipment, plays an important role in a power system. Presently, more and more electric power systems are adopting potential transformer and capacitance voltage transformers. Transformers are often large in volume and heavyweight, their insulation design is difficult, and an iron core or multi-grade capacitance voltage division structure is generally adopted. As a result, the detection accuracy of transformer is reduced, a huge phase difference exists between detection signal and voltage signal to be measured, and the detection signal cannot accurately and timely reflect the change of conductor voltage signal to be measured. By aiming at the current problems of electric transformation, based on electrostatic induction principle, this paper designed a non-contact voltage sensor and gained detection signal of the sensor through electrostatic coupling for the electric field generated by electric charges of the conductor to be measured. The insulation structure design of the sensor is simple and its volume is small; phase difference of sensor measurement is effectively reduced through optimization design of the electrode; and voltage division ratio and measurement accuracy are increased. The voltage sensor was tested on the experimental platform of simulating three-phase transmission line. According to the result, the designed non-contact voltage sensor can realize accurate and real-time measurement for the conductor voltage. It can be applied to online monitoring for the voltage of three-phase transmission line or three-phase distribution network line, which is in accordance with the development direction of the smart grid. PMID:26729119

  15. Study and Experiment on Non-Contact Voltage Sensor Suitable for Three-Phase Transmission Line.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiang; He, Wei; Xiao, Dongping; Li, Songnong; Zhou, Kongjun

    2015-12-30

    A voltage transformer, as voltage signal detection equipment, plays an important role in a power system. Presently, more and more electric power systems are adopting potential transformer and capacitance voltage transformers. Transformers are often large in volume and heavyweight, their insulation design is difficult, and an iron core or multi-grade capacitance voltage division structure is generally adopted. As a result, the detection accuracy of transformer is reduced, a huge phase difference exists between detection signal and voltage signal to be measured, and the detection signal cannot accurately and timely reflect the change of conductor voltage signal to be measured. By aiming at the current problems of electric transformation, based on electrostatic induction principle, this paper designed a non-contact voltage sensor and gained detection signal of the sensor through electrostatic coupling for the electric field generated by electric charges of the conductor to be measured. The insulation structure design of the sensor is simple and its volume is small; phase difference of sensor measurement is effectively reduced through optimization design of the electrode; and voltage division ratio and measurement accuracy are increased. The voltage sensor was tested on the experimental platform of simulating three-phase transmission line. According to the result, the designed non-contact voltage sensor can realize accurate and real-time measurement for the conductor voltage. It can be applied to online monitoring for the voltage of three-phase transmission line or three-phase distribution network line, which is in accordance with the development direction of the smart grid.

  16. Direct Interaction between the Voltage Sensors Produces Cooperative Sustained Deactivation in Voltage-gated H+ Channel Dimers*

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Hiroko; Yonezawa, Yasushige; Takano, Yu; Okamura, Yasushi; Fujiwara, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    The voltage-gated H+ channel (Hv) is a voltage sensor domain-like protein consisting of four transmembrane segments (S1–S4). The native Hv structure is a homodimer, with the two channel subunits functioning cooperatively. Here we show that the two voltage sensor S4 helices within the dimer directly cooperate via a π-stacking interaction between Trp residues at the middle of each segment. Scanning mutagenesis showed that Trp situated around the original position provides the slow gating kinetics characteristic of the dimer's cooperativity. Analyses of the Trp mutation on the dimeric and monomeric channel backgrounds and analyses with tandem channel constructs suggested that the two Trp residues within the dimer are functionally coupled during Hv deactivation but are less so during activation. Molecular dynamics simulation also showed direct π-stacking of the two Trp residues. These results provide new insight into the cooperative function of voltage-gated channels, where adjacent voltage sensor helices make direct physical contact and work as a single unit according to the gating process. PMID:26755722

  17. Tarantula toxins interacting with voltage sensors in potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Kenton J.

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-activated ion channels open and close in response to changes in membrane voltage, a process that is crucial for electrical signaling in the nervous system. The venom from many poisonous creatures contains a diverse array of small protein toxins that bind to voltage-activated channels and modify the gating mechanism. Hanatoxin and a growing number of related tarantula toxins have been shown to inhibit activation of voltage-activated potassium (Kv) channels by interacting with their voltage sensing domains. This review summarizes our current understanding of the mechanism by which these toxins alter gating, the location of the toxin receptor within Kv channels and the disposition of this receptor with respect to the lipid membrane. The conservation of tarantula toxin receptors among voltage-activated ion channels will also be discussed. PMID:17097703

  18. A membrane-access mechanism of ion channel inhibition by voltage sensor toxins from spider venom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seok-Yong; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2004-07-01

    Venomous animals produce small protein toxins that inhibit ion channels with high affinity. In several well-studied cases the inhibitory proteins are water-soluble and bind at a channel's aqueous-exposed extracellular surface. Here we show that a voltage-sensor toxin (VSTX1) from the Chilean Rose Tarantula (Grammostola spatulata) reaches its target by partitioning into the lipid membrane. Lipid membrane partitioning serves two purposes: to localize the toxin in the membrane where the voltage sensor resides and to exploit the free energy of partitioning to achieve apparent high-affinity inhibition. VSTX1, small hydrophobic poisons and anaesthetic molecules reveal a common theme of voltage sensor inhibition through lipid membrane access. The apparent requirement for such access is consistent with the recent proposal that the sensor in voltage-dependent K+ channels is located at the membrane-protein interface.

  19. Atomic constraints between the voltage sensor and the pore domain in a voltage-gated K+ channel of known structure.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Anthony; Jogini, Vishwanath; Blachowicz, Lydia; Lainé, Muriel; Roux, Benoît

    2008-06-01

    In voltage-gated K(+) channels (Kv), membrane depolarization promotes a structural reorganization of each of the four voltage sensor domains surrounding the conducting pore, inducing its opening. Although the crystal structure of Kv1.2 provided the first atomic resolution view of a eukaryotic Kv channel, several components of the voltage sensors remain poorly resolved. In particular, the position and orientation of the charged arginine side chains in the S4 transmembrane segments remain controversial. Here we investigate the proximity of S4 and the pore domain in functional Kv1.2 channels in a native membrane environment using electrophysiological analysis of intersubunit histidine metallic bridges formed between the first arginine of S4 (R294) and residues A351 or D352 of the pore domain. We show that histidine pairs are able to bind Zn(2+) or Cd(2+) with high affinity, demonstrating their close physical proximity. The results of molecular dynamics simulations, consistent with electrophysiological data, indicate that the position of the S4 helix in the functional open-activated state could be shifted by approximately 7-8 A and rotated counterclockwise by 37 degrees along its main axis relative to its position observed in the Kv1.2 x-ray structure. A structural model is provided for this conformation. The results further highlight the dynamic and flexible nature of the voltage sensor.

  20. Normal-zone detection in tokamak superconducting magnets with Co- wound voltage sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N.N.; Chaplin, M.R.

    1995-06-08

    This paper discusses advantages and disadvantages of different locations of co-wound voltage sensors for quench detection in tokamak magnets with a cable-in-conduit conductor. The voltage sensor locations are analyzed and estimates of the anticipated noise vs. dB/dt are derived for transverse, parallel, and self fields. The LLNL Noise Rejection Experiment, also described here, is designed to verify theoretical expectations on a copper cable exposed to these fields that will simulate the tokamak field environment.

  1. An electrostatic potassium channel opener targeting the final voltage sensor transition.

    PubMed

    Börjesson, Sara I; Elinder, Fredrik

    2011-06-01

    Free polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modulate the voltage dependence of voltage-gated ion channels. As an important consequence thereof, PUFAs can suppress epileptic seizures and cardiac arrhythmia. However, molecular details for the interaction between PUFA and ion channels are not well understood. In this study, we have localized the site of action for PUFAs on the voltage-gated Shaker K channel by introducing positive charges on the channel surface, which potentiated the PUFA effect. Furthermore, we found that PUFA mainly affects the final voltage sensor movement, which is closely linked to channel opening, and that specific charges at the extracellular end of the voltage sensor are critical for the PUFA effect. Because different voltage-gated K channels have different charge profiles, this implies channel-specific PUFA effects. The identified site and the pharmacological mechanism will potentially be very useful in future drug design of small-molecule compounds specifically targeting neuronal and cardiac excitability.

  2. Reduced voltage sensitivity in a K+-channel voltage sensor by electric field remodeling.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Vivian; Stack, Katherine; Boric, Katica; Naranjo, David

    2010-03-16

    Propagation of the nerve impulse relies on the extreme voltage sensitivity of Na(+) and K(+) channels. The transmembrane movement of four arginine residues, located at the fourth transmembrane segment (S4), in each of their four voltage-sensing domains is mostly responsible for the translocation of 12 to 13 e(o) across the transmembrane electric field. Inserting additional positively charged residues between the voltage-sensing arginines in S4 would, in principle, increase voltage sensitivity. Here we show that either positively or negatively charged residues added between the two most external sensing arginines of S4 decreased voltage sensitivity of a Shaker voltage-gated K(+)-channel by up to approximately 50%. The replacement of Val363 with a charged residue displaced inwardly the external boundaries of the electric field by at least 6 A, leaving the most external arginine of S4 constitutively exposed to the extracellular space and permanently excluded from the electric field. Both the physical trajectory of S4 and its electromechanical coupling to open the pore gate seemed unchanged. We propose that the separation between the first two sensing charges at resting is comparable to the thickness of the low dielectric transmembrane barrier they must cross. Thus, at most a single sensing arginine side chain could be found within the field. The conserved hydrophobic nature of the residues located between the voltage-sensing arginines in S4 may shape the electric field geometry for optimal voltage sensitivity in voltage-gated ion channels.

  3. Reduced voltage sensitivity in a K+-channel voltage sensor by electric field remodeling

    PubMed Central

    González-Pérez, Vivian; Stack, Katherine; Boric, Katica; Naranjo, David

    2010-01-01

    Propagation of the nerve impulse relies on the extreme voltage sensitivity of Na+ and K+ channels. The transmembrane movement of four arginine residues, located at the fourth transmembrane segment (S4), in each of their four voltage-sensing domains is mostly responsible for the translocation of 12 to 13 eo across the transmembrane electric field. Inserting additional positively charged residues between the voltage-sensing arginines in S4 would, in principle, increase voltage sensitivity. Here we show that either positively or negatively charged residues added between the two most external sensing arginines of S4 decreased voltage sensitivity of a Shaker voltage-gated K+-channel by up to ≈50%. The replacement of Val363 with a charged residue displaced inwardly the external boundaries of the electric field by at least 6 Å, leaving the most external arginine of S4 constitutively exposed to the extracellular space and permanently excluded from the electric field. Both the physical trajectory of S4 and its electromechanical coupling to open the pore gate seemed unchanged. We propose that the separation between the first two sensing charges at resting is comparable to the thickness of the low dielectric transmembrane barrier they must cross. Thus, at most a single sensing arginine side chain could be found within the field. The conserved hydrophobic nature of the residues located between the voltage-sensing arginines in S4 may shape the electric field geometry for optimal voltage sensitivity in voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:20194763

  4. A distinct sodium channel voltage-sensor locus determines insect selectivity of the spider toxin Dc1a

    PubMed Central

    Bende, Niraj S; Dziemborowicz, Slawomir; Mobli, Mehdi; Herzig, Volker; Gilchrist, John; Wagner, Jordan; Nicholson, Graham M; King, Glenn F; Bosmans, Frank

    2014-01-01

    β-Diguetoxin-Dc1a (Dc1a) is a toxin from the desert bush spider Diguetia canities that incapacitates insects at concentrations that are non-toxic to mammals. Dc1a promotes opening of German cockroach voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels (BgNav1), whereas human Nav channels are insensitive. Here, by transplanting commonly targeted S3b-S4 paddle motifs within BgNav1 voltage sensors into Kv2.1, we find that Dc1a interacts with the domain II voltage sensor. In contrast, Dc1a has little effect on sodium currents mediated by PaNav1 channels from the American cockroach even though their domain II paddle motifs are identical. When exploring regions responsible for PaNav1 resistance to Dc1a, we identified two residues within the BgNav1 domain II S1–S2 loop that when mutated to their PaNav1 counterparts drastically reduce toxin susceptibility. Overall, our results reveal a distinct region within insect Nav channels that helps determine Dc1a sensitivity, aconcept that will be valuable for the design of insect-selective insecticides. PMID:25014760

  5. A distinct sodium channel voltage-sensor locus determines insect selectivity of the spider toxin Dc1a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bende, Niraj S.; Dziemborowicz, Sławomir; Mobli, Mehdi; Herzig, Volker; Gilchrist, John; Wagner, Jordan; Nicholson, Graham M.; King, Glenn F.; Bosmans, Frank

    2014-07-01

    β-Diguetoxin-Dc1a (Dc1a) is a toxin from the desert bush spider Diguetia canities that incapacitates insects at concentrations that are non-toxic to mammals. Dc1a promotes opening of German cockroach voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels (BgNav1), whereas human Nav channels are insensitive. Here, by transplanting commonly targeted S3b-S4 paddle motifs within BgNav1 voltage sensors into Kv2.1, we find that Dc1a interacts with the domain II voltage sensor. In contrast, Dc1a has little effect on sodium currents mediated by PaNav1 channels from the American cockroach even though their domain II paddle motifs are identical. When exploring regions responsible for PaNav1 resistance to Dc1a, we identified two residues within the BgNav1 domain II S1-S2 loop that when mutated to their PaNav1 counterparts drastically reduce toxin susceptibility. Overall, our results reveal a distinct region within insect Nav channels that helps determine Dc1a sensitivity, a concept that will be valuable for the design of insect-selective insecticides.

  6. Independent movement of the voltage sensors in KV2.1/KV6.4 heterotetramers

    PubMed Central

    Bocksteins, Elke; Snyders, Dirk J.; Holmgren, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Heterotetramer voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels KV2.1/KV6.4 display a gating charge-voltage (QV) distribution composed by two separate components. We use state dependent chemical accessibility to cysteines substituted in either KV2.1 or KV6.4 to assess the voltage sensor movements of each subunit. By comparing the voltage dependences of chemical modification and gating charge displacement, here we show that each gating charge component corresponds to a specific subunit forming the heterotetramer. The voltage sensors from KV6.4 subunits move at more negative potentials than the voltage sensors belonging to KV2.1 subunits. These results indicate that the voltage sensors from the tetrameric channels move independently. In addition, our data shows that 75% of the total charge is attributed to KV2.1, while 25% to KV6.4. Thus, the most parsimonious model for KV2.1/KV6.4 channels’ stoichiometry is 3:1. PMID:28139741

  7. Numerical modeling of the voltage sensors for quench detection in the TPX TF and PF conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P.W.; Schultz, J.H.; Pillsbury, R.D. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The voltage sensors in the TPX superconducting TF and PF magnets are designed to pick up the resistive voltage once the conductor quenches and becomes normal. This is one of the quench detection systems needed to protect the rather expensive magnets. Because the magnets are operating in a high-noise environment, the sensors would experience inductive voltages (noise). It is important to estimate the noise level and design a system with high signal to noise ratio. The numerical model described in this paper includes 3-D eddy currents assuming the worst condition, i.e., plasma disruption. The voltages induced in both parallel and helical cowound sensors are calculated. Several differencing schemes to eliminate the noise levels are compared and a new scheme is suggested.

  8. Breakdown voltage reduction by field emission in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal

    2014-03-24

    Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field emission of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14 μm. More than 90% reduction in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7 μm gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field emission electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.

  9. Voltage-sensor movements describe slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels I: Wild-type skeletal muscle NaV1.4

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    The number of voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels available to generate action potentials in muscles and nerves is adjusted over seconds to minutes by prior electrical activity, a process called slow inactivation (SI). The basis for SI is uncertain. NaV channels have four domains (DI–DIV), each with a voltage sensor that moves in response to depolarizing stimulation over milliseconds to activate the channels. Here, SI of the skeletal muscle channel NaV1.4 is induced by repetitive stimulation and is studied by recording of sodium currents, gating currents, and changes in the fluorescence of probes on each voltage sensor to assess their movements. The magnitude, voltage dependence, and time course of the onset and recovery of SI are observed to correlate with voltage-sensor movements 10,000-fold slower than those associated with activation. The behavior of each voltage sensor is unique. Development of SI over 1–160 s correlates best with slow immobilization of the sensors in DI and DII; DIII tracks the onset of SI with less fidelity. Showing linkage to the sodium conduction pathway, pore block by tetrodotoxin affects both SI and immobilization of all the sensors, with DI and DII significantly suppressed. Recovery from SI correlates best with slow restoration of mobility of the sensor in DIII. The findings suggest that voltage-sensor movements determine SI and thereby mediate NaV channel availability. PMID:23401571

  10. Interactions between lipids and voltage sensor paddles detected with tarantula toxins

    PubMed Central

    Milescu, Mirela; Bosmans, Frank; Lee, Seungkyu; Alabi, AbdulRasheed A.; Kim, Jae Il; Swartz, Kenton J.

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-activated ion channels open and close in response to changes in voltage, a property that is essential for generating nerve impulses. Studies on voltage-activated potassium (Kv) channels show that voltage-sensor activation is sensitive to the composition of lipids in the surrounding membrane. Here we explore the interaction of lipids with S1–S4 voltage-sensing domains, and find that the conversion of the membrane lipid sphingomyelin to ceramide-1-phosphate alters voltage-sensor activation in an S1–S4 voltage-sensing protein lacking an associated pore domain, and that the S3b–S4 paddle motif determines the effects of lipid modification on Kv channels. Using tarantula toxins that bind to paddle motifs within the membrane, we identify mutations in the paddle motif that weaken toxin binding by disrupting lipid-paddle interactions. Our results suggest that lipids bind to voltage-sensing domains and demonstrate that the pharmacological sensitivities of voltage-activated ion channels are influenced by the surrounding lipid membrane. PMID:19783984

  11. TAMDAR Sensor Validation in 2003 AIRS II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Murray, John J.; Anderson, Mark V.; Mulally, Daniel J.; Jensen, Kristopher R.; Grainger, Cedric A.; Delene, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This study entails an assessment of TAMDAR in situ temperature, relative humidity and winds sensor data from seven flights of the UND Citation II. These data are undergoing rigorous assessment to determine their viability to significantly augment domestic Meteorological Data Communications Reporting System (MDCRS) and the international Aircraft Meteorological Data Reporting (AMDAR) system observational databases to improve the performance of regional and global numerical weather prediction models. NASA Langley Research Center participated in the Second Alliance Icing Research Study from November 17 to December 17, 2003. TAMDAR data taken during this period is compared with validation data from the UND Citation. The data indicate acceptable performance of the TAMDAR sensor when compared to measurements from the UND Citation research instruments.

  12. Molecular basis of the interaction between gating modifier spider toxins and the voltage sensor of voltage-gated ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Carus H. Y.; King, Glenn F.; Mobli, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Voltage-sensor domains (VSDs) are modular transmembrane domains of voltage-gated ion channels that respond to changes in membrane potential by undergoing conformational changes that are coupled to gating of the ion-conducting pore. Most spider-venom peptides function as gating modifiers by binding to the VSDs of voltage-gated channels and trapping them in a closed or open state. To understand the molecular basis underlying this mode of action, we used nuclear magnetic resonance to delineate the atomic details of the interaction between the VSD of the voltage-gated potassium channel KvAP and the spider-venom peptide VSTx1. Our data reveal that the toxin interacts with residues in an aqueous cleft formed between the extracellular S1-S2 and S3-S4 loops of the VSD whilst maintaining lipid interactions in the gaps formed between the S1-S4 and S2-S3 helices. The resulting network of interactions increases the energetic barrier to the conformational changes required for channel gating, and we propose that this is the mechanism by which gating modifier toxins inhibit voltage-gated ion channels.

  13. Molecular basis of the interaction between gating modifier spider toxins and the voltage sensor of voltage-gated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Carus H. Y.; King, Glenn F.; Mobli, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-sensor domains (VSDs) are modular transmembrane domains of voltage-gated ion channels that respond to changes in membrane potential by undergoing conformational changes that are coupled to gating of the ion-conducting pore. Most spider-venom peptides function as gating modifiers by binding to the VSDs of voltage-gated channels and trapping them in a closed or open state. To understand the molecular basis underlying this mode of action, we used nuclear magnetic resonance to delineate the atomic details of the interaction between the VSD of the voltage-gated potassium channel KvAP and the spider-venom peptide VSTx1. Our data reveal that the toxin interacts with residues in an aqueous cleft formed between the extracellular S1-S2 and S3-S4 loops of the VSD whilst maintaining lipid interactions in the gaps formed between the S1-S4 and S2-S3 helices. The resulting network of interactions increases the energetic barrier to the conformational changes required for channel gating, and we propose that this is the mechanism by which gating modifier toxins inhibit voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:27677715

  14. Computer simulation of current voltage response of electrocatalytic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Piotr; Jasinski, Grzegorz; Chachulski, Bogdan; Nowakowski, Antoni

    2003-09-01

    In the present paper, results of computer simulation of cyclic voltammetry applied to electrocatalytic solid state sensor are presented. The computer software developed by D.Gosser is based on explicit finite difference method. The software is devoted for the simulation of cyclic voltammetry experiments in liquid electrochemistry. However the software is based on general electrochemical rules and may be used for simulation of experiments in solid state electrochemistry. The electrocatalytic sensor does not have a reference electrode and therefore it is necessary to employ virtual reference electrode into the model of the sensor. Data obtained from simulation are similar to measurement one what confirms correctness of assumed sensing mechanism.

  15. Contributions of counter-charge in a potassium channel voltage-sensor domain.

    PubMed

    Pless, Stephan A; Galpin, Jason D; Niciforovic, Ana P; Ahern, Christopher A

    2011-07-24

    Voltage-sensor domains couple membrane potential to conformational changes in voltage-gated ion channels and phosphatases. Highly coevolved acidic and aromatic side chains assist the transfer of cationic side chains across the transmembrane electric field during voltage sensing. We investigated the functional contribution of negative electrostatic potentials from these residues to channel gating and voltage sensing with unnatural amino acid mutagenesis, electrophysiology, voltage-clamp fluorometry and ab initio calculations. The data show that neutralization of two conserved acidic side chains in transmembrane segments S2 and S3, namely Glu293 and Asp316 in Shaker potassium channels, has little functional effect on conductance-voltage relationships, although Glu293 appears to catalyze S4 movement. Our results suggest that neither Glu293 nor Asp316 engages in electrostatic state-dependent charge-charge interactions with S4, likely because they occupy, and possibly help create, a water-filled vestibule.

  16. Optical fiber sensor of partial discharges in High Voltage DC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Búa-Núñez, I.; Azcárraga-Ramos, C. G.; Posada-Román, J. E.; Garcia-Souto, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    A setup simulating High Voltage DC (HVDC) transformers barriers was developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of an optical fiber (OF) sensor in detecting partial discharges (PD) under these peculiar conditions. Different PD detection techniques were compared: electrical methods, and acoustic methods. Standard piezoelectric sensors (R15i-AST) and the above mentioned OF sensors were used for acoustic detection. The OF sensor was able to detect PD acoustically with a sensitivity better than the other detection methods. The multichannel instrumentation system was tested in real HVDC conditions with the aim of analyzing the behavior of the insulation (mineral oil/pressboard).

  17. Optical fiber voltage sensor based on Michelsion interferometer using Fabry-Perot demodulation interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinwei; He, Shengnan; Li, Dandan; Wang, Kai; Fan, Yan'en; Wu, Shuai

    2014-11-01

    We present an optical fiber voltage sensor by Michelsion interferometer (MI) employing a Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometer and the DC phase tracking (DCPT) signal processing method. By mounting a MI fabricated by an optical fiber coupler on a piezoelectric (PZT) transducer bar, a dynamic strain would be generated to change the optical path difference (OPD) of the interferometer when the measured voltage was applied on the PZT. Applying an F-P interferometer to demodulate the optical intensity variation output of the MI, the voltage can be obtained. The experiment results show that the relationship between the optical intensity variation and the voltage applied on the PZT is approximately linear. Furthermore, the phase generate carrier (PGC) algorithm was applied to demodulate the output of the sensor also.

  18. KCNE1 divides the voltage sensor movement in KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels into two steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barro-Soria, Rene; Rebolledo, Santiago; Liin, Sara I.; Perez, Marta E.; Sampson, Kevin J.; Kass, Robert S.; Larsson, H. Peter

    2014-04-01

    The functional properties of KCNQ1 channels are highly dependent on associated KCNE-β subunits. Mutations in KCNQ1 or KCNE subunits can cause congenital channelopathies, such as deafness, cardiac arrhythmias and epilepsy. The mechanism by which KCNE1-β subunits slow the kinetics of KCNQ1 channels is a matter of current controversy. Here we show that KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel activation occurs in two steps: first, mutually independent voltage sensor movements in the four KCNQ1 subunits generate the main gating charge movement and underlie the initial delay in the activation time course of KCNQ1/KCNE1 currents. Second, a slower and concerted conformational change of all four voltage sensors and the gate, which opens the KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel. Our data show that KCNE1 divides the voltage sensor movement into two steps with widely different voltage dependences and kinetics. The two voltage sensor steps in KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels can be pharmacologically isolated and further separated by a disease-causing mutation.

  19. Results of the 2015 testbeam of a 180 nm AMS High-Voltage CMOS sensor prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, M.; de Mendizabal, J. Bilbao; Casse, G.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Bello, F. A. Di; Ferrere, D.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Lanni, F.; Liu, H.; Meloni, F.; Meng, L.; Miucci, A.; Muenstermann, D.; Nessi, M.; Perić, I.; Rimoldi, M.; Ristic, B.; Pinto, M. Vicente Barrero; Vossebeld, J.; Weber, M.; Wu, W.; Xu, L.

    2016-07-21

    We investigated the active pixel sensors based on the High-Voltage CMOS technology as a viable option for the future pixel tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC. Our paper reports on the testbeam measurements performed at the H8 beamline of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron on a High-Voltage CMOS sensor prototype produced in 180 nm AMS technology. These results in terms of tracking efficiency and timing performance, for different threshold and bias conditions, are shown.

  20. Investigation of leakage current and breakdown voltage in irradiated double-sided 3D silicon sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Ayllon, N.; Boscardin, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Mattiazzo, S.; McDuff, H.; Mendicino, R.; Povoli, M.; Seidel, S.; Sultan, D. M. S.; Zorzi, N.

    2016-09-01

    We report on an experimental study aimed at gaining deeper insight into the leakage current and breakdown voltage of irradiated double-sided 3D silicon sensors from FBK, so as to improve both the design and the fabrication technology for use at future hadron colliders such as the High Luminosity LHC. Several 3D diode samples of different technologies and layout are considered, as well as several irradiations with different particle types. While the leakage current follows the expected linear trend with radiation fluence, the breakdown voltage is found to depend on both the bulk damage and the surface damage, and its values can vary significantly with sensor geometry and process details.

  1. Voltage dependence of Hodgkin-Huxley rate functions for a multistage K^{+} channel voltage sensor within a membrane.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, S R

    2014-11-01

    The activation of a K^{+} channel sensor in two sequential stages during a voltage clamp may be described as the translocation of a Brownian particle in an energy landscape with two large barriers between states. A solution of the Smoluchowski equation for a square-well approximation to the potential function of the S4 voltage sensor satisfies a master equation and has two frequencies that may be determined from the forward and backward rate functions. When the higher-frequency terms have small amplitude, the solution reduces to the relaxation of a rate equation, where the derived two-state rate functions are dependent on the relative magnitude of the forward rates (α and γ) and the backward rates (β and δ) for each stage. In particular, the voltage dependence of the Hodgkin-Huxley rate functions for a K^{+} channel may be derived by assuming that the rate functions of the first stage are large relative to those of the second stage-α≫γ and β≫δ. For a Shaker IR K^{+} channel, the first forward and backward transitions are rate limiting (α<γ and δ≪β), and for an activation process with either two or three stages, the derived two-state rate functions also have a voltage dependence that is of a similar form to that determined for the squid axon. The potential variation generated by the interaction between a two-stage K^{+} ion channel and a noninactivating Na^{+} ion channel is determined by the master equation for K^{+} channel activation and the ionic current equation when the Na^{+} channel activation time is small, and if β≪δ and α≪γ, the system may exhibit a small amplitude oscillation between spikes, or mixed-mode oscillation, in which the slow closed state modulates the K^{+} ion channel conductance in the membrane.

  2. Voltage dependence of Hodgkin-Huxley rate functions for a multistage K+ channel voltage sensor within a membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, S. R.

    2014-11-01

    The activation of a K+channel sensor in two sequential stages during a voltage clamp may be described as the translocation of a Brownian particle in an energy landscape with two large barriers between states. A solution of the Smoluchowski equation for a square-well approximation to the potential function of the S4 voltage sensor satisfies a master equation and has two frequencies that may be determined from the forward and backward rate functions. When the higher-frequency terms have small amplitude, the solution reduces to the relaxation of a rate equation, where the derived two-state rate functions are dependent on the relative magnitude of the forward rates (α and γ ) and the backward rates (β and δ ) for each stage. In particular, the voltage dependence of the Hodgkin-Huxley rate functions for a K+channel may be derived by assuming that the rate functions of the first stage are large relative to those of the second stage—α ≫γ and β ≫δ . For a Shaker IR K+ channel, the first forward and backward transitions are rate limiting (α <γ and δ ≪β ), and for an activation process with either two or three stages, the derived two-state rate functions also have a voltage dependence that is of a similar form to that determined for the squid axon. The potential variation generated by the interaction between a two-stage K+ ion channel and a noninactivating Na+ ion channel is determined by the master equation for K+channel activation and the ionic current equation when the Na+channel activation time is small, and if β ≪δ and α ≪γ , the system may exhibit a small amplitude oscillation between spikes, or mixed-mode oscillation, in which the slow closed state modulates the K+ ion channel conductance in the membrane.

  3. Hybrid voltage sensor imaging of electrical activity from neurons in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongsheng; McMahon, Shane; Zhang, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Gene targeting with genetically encoded optical voltage sensors brings the methods of voltage imaging to genetically defined neurons and offers a method of studying circuit activity in these selected populations. The present study reports the targeting of genetically encoded hybrid voltage sensors (hVOS) to neurons in transgenic mice. The hVOS family of probes employs a membrane-targeted fluorescent protein, which generates voltage-dependent fluorescence changes in the presence of dipicrylamine (DPA) as the result of a voltage-dependent optical interaction between the two molecules. We generated transgenic mice with two different high-performance hVOS probes under control of a neuron-specific thy-1 promoter. Hippocampal slices from these animals present distinct spatial patterns of expression, and electrical stimulation evoked fluorescence changes as high as 3%. Glutamate receptor and Na+ channel antagonists blocked these responses. One hVOS probe tested here harbors an axonal targeting motif (from GAP-43) and shows preferential expression in axons; this probe can thus report axonal voltage changes. Voltage imaging in transgenic mice expressing hVOS probes opens the door to the study of functional activity in genetically defined populations of neurons in intact neural circuits. PMID:22993267

  4. Targeting the voltage sensor of Kv7.2 voltage-gated K+ channels with a new gating-modifier.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Asher; Pell, Liat; Gofman, Yana; Haitin, Yoni; Shamgar, Liora; Patrich, Eti; Kornilov, Polina; Gourgy-Hacohen, Orit; Ben-Tal, Nir; Attali, Bernard

    2010-08-31

    The pore and gate regions of voltage-gated cation channels have been often targeted with drugs acting as channel modulators. In contrast, the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) was practically not exploited for therapeutic purposes, although it is the target of various toxins. We recently designed unique diphenylamine carboxylates that are powerful Kv7.2 voltage-gated K(+) channel openers or blockers. Here we show that a unique Kv7.2 channel opener, NH29, acts as a nontoxin gating modifier. NH29 increases Kv7.2 currents, thereby producing a hyperpolarizing shift of the activation curve and slowing both activation and deactivation kinetics. In neurons, the opener depresses evoked spike discharges. NH29 dampens hippocampal glutamate and GABA release, thereby inhibiting excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Mutagenesis and modeling data suggest that in Kv7.2, NH29 docks to the external groove formed by the interface of helices S1, S2, and S4 in a way that stabilizes the interaction between two conserved charged residues in S2 and S4, known to interact electrostatically, in the open state of Kv channels. Results indicate that NH29 may operate via a voltage-sensor trapping mechanism similar to that suggested for scorpion and sea-anemone toxins. Reflecting the promiscuous nature of the VSD, NH29 is also a potent blocker of TRPV1 channels, a feature similar to that of tarantula toxins. Our data provide a structural framework for designing unique gating-modifiers targeted to the VSD of voltage-gated cation channels and used for the treatment of hyperexcitability disorders.

  5. Targeting the voltage sensor of Kv7.2 voltage-gated K+ channels with a new gating-modifier

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, Asher; Pell, Liat; Gofman, Yana; Haitin, Yoni; Shamgar, Liora; Patrich, Eti; Kornilov, Polina; Gourgy-Hacohen, Orit; Ben-Tal, Nir; Attali, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The pore and gate regions of voltage-gated cation channels have been often targeted with drugs acting as channel modulators. In contrast, the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) was practically not exploited for therapeutic purposes, although it is the target of various toxins. We recently designed unique diphenylamine carboxylates that are powerful Kv7.2 voltage-gated K+ channel openers or blockers. Here we show that a unique Kv7.2 channel opener, NH29, acts as a nontoxin gating modifier. NH29 increases Kv7.2 currents, thereby producing a hyperpolarizing shift of the activation curve and slowing both activation and deactivation kinetics. In neurons, the opener depresses evoked spike discharges. NH29 dampens hippocampal glutamate and GABA release, thereby inhibiting excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Mutagenesis and modeling data suggest that in Kv7.2, NH29 docks to the external groove formed by the interface of helices S1, S2, and S4 in a way that stabilizes the interaction between two conserved charged residues in S2 and S4, known to interact electrostatically, in the open state of Kv channels. Results indicate that NH29 may operate via a voltage-sensor trapping mechanism similar to that suggested for scorpion and sea-anemone toxins. Reflecting the promiscuous nature of the VSD, NH29 is also a potent blocker of TRPV1 channels, a feature similar to that of tarantula toxins. Our data provide a structural framework for designing unique gating-modifiers targeted to the VSD of voltage-gated cation channels and used for the treatment of hyperexcitability disorders. PMID:20713704

  6. A Fiber-Optic Sensor for Acoustic Emission Detection in a High Voltage Cable System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tongzhi; Pang, Fufei; Liu, Huanhuan; Cheng, Jiajing; Lv, Longbao; Zhang, Xiaobei; Chen, Na; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor for detecting acoustic emission generated from the partial discharge (PD) of the accessories of a high-voltage cable system. The developed sensor head is integrated with a compact and relatively high sensitivity cylindrical elastomer. Such a sensor has a broadband frequency response and a relatively high sensitivity in a harsh environment under a high-voltage electric field. The design and fabrication of the sensor head integrated with the cylindrical elastomer is described, and a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the sensing performance. The experimental results demonstrate that the sensitivity of our developed sensor for acoustic detection of partial discharges is 1.7 rad/(m⋅Pa). A high frequency response up to 150 kHz is achieved. Moreover, the relatively high sensitivity for the detection of PD is verified in both the laboratory environment and gas insulated switchgear. The obtained results show the great potential application of a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor integrated with a cylindrical elastomer for in-situ monitoring high-voltage cable accessories for safety work. PMID:27916900

  7. A Fiber-Optic Sensor for Acoustic Emission Detection in a High Voltage Cable System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tongzhi; Pang, Fufei; Liu, Huanhuan; Cheng, Jiajing; Lv, Longbao; Zhang, Xiaobei; Chen, Na; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-11-30

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor for detecting acoustic emission generated from the partial discharge (PD) of the accessories of a high-voltage cable system. The developed sensor head is integrated with a compact and relatively high sensitivity cylindrical elastomer. Such a sensor has a broadband frequency response and a relatively high sensitivity in a harsh environment under a high-voltage electric field. The design and fabrication of the sensor head integrated with the cylindrical elastomer is described, and a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the sensing performance. The experimental results demonstrate that the sensitivity of our developed sensor for acoustic detection of partial discharges is 1.7 rad / ( m ⋅ Pa ) . A high frequency response up to 150 kHz is achieved. Moreover, the relatively high sensitivity for the detection of PD is verified in both the laboratory environment and gas insulated switchgear. The obtained results show the great potential application of a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor integrated with a cylindrical elastomer for in-situ monitoring high-voltage cable accessories for safety work.

  8. The cooperative voltage sensor motion that gates a potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Medha; Kurtz, Lisa; Tombola, Francesco; Isacoff, Ehud

    2005-01-01

    The four arginine-rich S4 helices of a voltage-gated channel move outward through the membrane in response to depolarization, opening and closing gates to generate a transient ionic current. Coupling of voltage sensing to gating was originally thought to operate with the S4s moving independently from an inward/resting to an outward/activated conformation, so that when all four S4s are activated, the gates are driven to open or closed. However, S4 has also been found to influence the cooperative opening step (Smith-Maxwell et al., 1998a), suggesting a more complex mechanism of coupling. Using fluorescence to monitor structural rearrangements in a Shaker channel mutant, the ILT channel (Ledwell and Aldrich, 1999), that energetically isolates the steps of activation from the cooperative opening step, we find that opening is accompanied by a previously unknown and cooperative movement of S4. This gating motion of S4 appears to be coupled to the internal S6 gate and to two forms of slow inactivation. Our results suggest that S4 plays a direct role in gating. While large transmembrane rearrangements of S4 may be required to unlock the gating machinery, as proposed before, it appears to be the gating motion of S4 that drives the gates to open and close.

  9. Molecular Surface of Tarantula Toxins Interacting with Voltage Sensors in Kv Channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julia M.; Roh, Soung Hun; Kim, Sunghwan; Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Jae Il; Swartz, Kenton J.

    2004-01-01

    The venom from spiders, scorpions, and sea anemone contain a rich diversity of protein toxins that interact with ion channel voltage sensors. Although atomic structures have been solved for many of these toxins, the surfaces that are critical for interacting with voltage sensors are poorly defined. Hanatoxin and SGTx are tarantula toxins that inhibit activation of Kv channels by interacting with each of the four voltage sensors. In this study we set out to identify the active surface of these toxins by alanine-scanning SGTx and characterizing the interaction of each mutant with the Kv2.1 channel. Examination of the concentration dependence for inhibition identified 15 mutants with little effect on the concentration dependence for toxin inhibition of the Kv2.1 channel, and 11 mutants that display moderate to dramatic perturbations. Mapping of these results onto the structure of SGTx identifies one face of the toxin where mutations with pronounced perturbations cluster together, and a backside of the toxin where mutations are well tolerated. The active surface of SGTx contains a ring-like assembly of highly polar residues, with two basic residues that are particularly critical, concentrically arranged around a hydrophobic protrusion containing critical aliphatic and aromatic residues. These results identify the active surface of the toxin and reveal the types of side chains that are important for interacting with voltage sensors. PMID:15051809

  10. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters: Part II.

    SciTech Connect

    Schofield, Daryl; Schare, Joshua M., Ph.D.; Slama, George; Abel, David

    2009-02-01

    This paper is a continuation of the work presented in SAND2007-2591 'Planar LTCC Transformers for High Voltage Flyback Converters'. The designs in that SAND report were all based on a ferrite tape/dielectric paste system originally developed by NASCENTechnoloy, Inc, who collaborated in the design and manufacturing of the planar LTCC flyback converters. The output/volume requirements were targeted to DoD application for hard target/mini fuzing at around 1500 V for reasonable primary peak currents. High voltages could be obtained but with considerable higher current. Work had begun on higher voltage systems and is where this report begins. Limits in material properties and processing capabilities show that the state-of-the-art has limited our practical output voltage from such a small part volume. In other words, the technology is currently limited within the allowable funding and interest.

  11. Fiber-optic voltage sensor with cladded fiber and evanescent wave variation detection

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Charles B.

    1992-01-01

    A fiber optic voltage sensor is described which includes a source of light, a reference fiber for receiving a known percentage of the light and an electrostrictive element having terminals across which is applied, a voltage to be measured. The electrostrictive element is responsive to the applied voltage to assume an altered physical state. A measuring fiber also receives a known percentage of light from the light source and is secured about the electrostrictive element. The measuring fiber is provided with a cladding and exhibits an evanescent wave in the cladding. The measuring fiber has a known length which is altered when the electrostrictive element assumes its altered physical state. A differential sensor is provided which senses the intensity of light in both the reference fiber and the measuring fiber and provides an output indicative of the difference between the intensities.

  12. Fiber-optic voltage sensor with cladded fiber and evanescent wave variation detection

    DOEpatents

    Wood, C.B.

    1992-12-15

    A fiber optic voltage sensor is described which includes a source of light, a reference fiber for receiving a known percentage of the light and an electrostrictive element having terminals across which is applied, a voltage to be measured. The electrostrictive element is responsive to the applied voltage to assume an altered physical state. A measuring fiber also receives a known percentage of light from the light source and is secured about the electrostrictive element. The measuring fiber is provided with a cladding and exhibits an evanescent wave in the cladding. The measuring fiber has a known length which is altered when the electrostrictive element assumes its altered physical state. A differential sensor is provided which senses the intensity of light in both the reference fiber and the measuring fiber and provides an output indicative of the difference between the intensities. 3 figs.

  13. Manufacturing challenges of optical current and voltage sensors for utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yakymyshyn, C.P.; Brubaker, M.A.; Johnston, P.M.; Reinbold, C.

    1997-12-01

    Measurement of voltages and currents in power transmission and distribution systems are critical to the electric utility industry for both revenue metering and reliability. Nonconventional instrument transformers based on intensity modulation of optical signals have been reported in the literature for more than 20 years. Recently described devices using passive bulk optical sensor elements include the Electro-Optic Voltage Transducer (EOVT) and Magneto-Optic Current Transducer (MOCT). These technologies offer substantial advantages over conventional instrument transformers in accuracy, optical isolation bandwidth, environmental compatibility, weight and size. This paper describes design and manufacturing issues associated with the EOVT and the Optical Metering Unit (OMU) recently introduced by ABB with field installation results presented for prototype units in the 345 kV and 420 kV voltage classes. The OMU incorporates an EOVT and MOCT to monitor the voltage and current on power transmission lines using a single free-standing device.

  14. Observation of pressure stimulated voltages in rocks using an electric potential sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Aydin, A.; Prance, R. J.; Prance, H.; Harland, C. J.

    2009-09-21

    Recent interest in the electrical activity in rock and the use of electric field transients as candidates for earthquake precursors has led to studies of pressure stimulated currents in laboratory samples. In this paper, an electric field sensor is used to measure directly the voltages associated with these currents. Stress was applied as uniaxial compression to marble and granite at an approximately constant rate. In contrast with the small pressure stimulated currents previously measured, large voltage signals are reported. Polarity reversal of the signal was observed immediately before fracture for the marble, in agreement with previous pressure stimulated current studies.

  15. A highly pixelated CdZnTe detector based on Topmetal-II- sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Shu-Guang; Fan, Yan; Sun, Xiang-Ming; Huang, Guang-Ming; Pei, Hua; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Jun; Yang, Ping; Wang, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Topmetal-II- is a low noise CMOS pixel direct charge sensor with a pitch of 83 μm. CdZnTe is an excellent semiconductor material for radiation detection. The combination of CdZnTe and the sensor makes it possible to build a detector with high spatial resolution. In our experiments, an epoxy adhesive is used as the conductive medium to connect the sensor and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe). The diffusion coefficient and charge efficiency of electrons are measured at a low bias voltage of -2 V, and the image of a single alpha particle is clear with a reasonable spatial resolution. A detector with such a structure has the potential to be applied in X-ray imaging systems with further improvements of the sensor. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375073, 11305072, U1232206)

  16. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Voltage-Gated Cation Channels: Insights on Voltage-Sensor Domain Function and Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Delemotte, Lucie; Klein, Michael L.; Tarek, Mounir

    2012-01-01

    Since their discovery in the 1950s, the structure and function of voltage-gated cation channels (VGCC) has been largely understood thanks to results stemming from electrophysiology, pharmacology, spectroscopy, and structural biology. Over the past decade, computational methods such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have also contributed, providing molecular level information that can be tested against experimental results, thereby allowing the validation of the models and protocols. Importantly, MD can shed light on elements of VGCC function that cannot be easily accessed through “classical” experiments. Here, we review the results of recent MD simulations addressing key questions that pertain to the function and modulation of the VGCC’s voltage-sensor domain (VSD) highlighting: (1) the movement of the S4-helix basic residues during channel activation, articulating how the electrical driving force acts upon them; (2) the nature of the VSD intermediate states on transitioning between open and closed states of the VGCC; and (3) the molecular level effects on the VSD arising from mutations of specific S4 positively charged residues involved in certain genetic diseases. PMID:22654756

  17. Voltage-Sensor Transitions of the Inward-Rectifying K+ Channel KAT1 Indicate a Latching Mechanism Biased by Hydration within the Voltage Sensor1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lefoulon, Cécile; Karnik, Rucha; Honsbein, Annegret; Gutla, Paul Vijay; Grefen, Christopher; Riedelsberger, Janin; Poblete, Tomás; Dreyer, Ingo; Gonzalez, Wendy; Blatt, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The Kv-like (potassium voltage-dependent) K+ channels at the plasma membrane, including the inward-rectifying KAT1 K+ channel of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), are important targets for manipulating K+ homeostasis in plants. Gating modification, especially, has been identified as a promising means by which to engineer plants with improved characteristics in mineral and water use. Understanding plant K+ channel gating poses several challenges, despite many similarities to that of mammalian Kv and Shaker channel models. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to explore residues that are thought to form two electrostatic countercharge centers on either side of a conserved phenylalanine (Phe) residue within the S2 and S3 α-helices of the voltage sensor domain (VSD) of Kv channels. Consistent with molecular dynamic simulations of KAT1, we show that the voltage dependence of the channel gate is highly sensitive to manipulations affecting these residues. Mutations of the central Phe residue favored the closed KAT1 channel, whereas mutations affecting the countercharge centers favored the open channel. Modeling of the macroscopic current kinetics also highlighted a substantial difference between the two sets of mutations. We interpret these findings in the context of the effects on hydration of amino acid residues within the VSD and with an inherent bias of the VSD, when hydrated around a central Phe residue, to the closed state of the channel. PMID:25185120

  18. Mapping of voltage sensor positions in resting and inactivated mammalian sodium channels by LRET

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Tomoya; Durek, Thomas; Dang, Bobo; Finol-Urdaneta, Rocio K.; Craik, David J.; Kent, Stephen B. H.; French, Robert J.; Bezanilla, Francisco; Correa, Ana M.

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) play crucial roles in excitable cells. Although vertebrate Nav function has been extensively studied, the detailed structural basis for voltage-dependent gating mechanisms remain obscure. We have assessed the structural changes of the Nav voltage sensor domain using lanthanide-based resonance energy transfer (LRET) between the rat skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.4) and fluorescently labeled Nav1.4-targeting toxins. We generated donor constructs with genetically encoded lanthanide-binding tags (LBTs) inserted at the extracellular end of the S4 segment of each domain (with a single LBT per construct). Three different Bodipy-labeled, Nav1.4-targeting toxins were synthesized as acceptors: β-scorpion toxin (Ts1)-Bodipy, KIIIA-Bodipy, and GIIIA-Bodipy analogs. Functional Nav-LBT channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes were voltage-clamped, and distinct LRET signals were obtained in the resting and slow inactivated states. Intramolecular distances computed from the LRET signals define a geometrical map of Nav1.4 with the bound toxins, and reveal voltage-dependent structural changes related to channel gating. PMID:28202723

  19. Mapping of voltage sensor positions in resting and inactivated mammalian sodium channels by LRET.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Tomoya; Durek, Thomas; Dang, Bobo; Finol-Urdaneta, Rocio K; Craik, David J; Kent, Stephen B H; French, Robert J; Bezanilla, Francisco; Correa, Ana M

    2017-03-07

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) play crucial roles in excitable cells. Although vertebrate Nav function has been extensively studied, the detailed structural basis for voltage-dependent gating mechanisms remain obscure. We have assessed the structural changes of the Nav voltage sensor domain using lanthanide-based resonance energy transfer (LRET) between the rat skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.4) and fluorescently labeled Nav1.4-targeting toxins. We generated donor constructs with genetically encoded lanthanide-binding tags (LBTs) inserted at the extracellular end of the S4 segment of each domain (with a single LBT per construct). Three different Bodipy-labeled, Nav1.4-targeting toxins were synthesized as acceptors: β-scorpion toxin (Ts1)-Bodipy, KIIIA-Bodipy, and GIIIA-Bodipy analogs. Functional Nav-LBT channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes were voltage-clamped, and distinct LRET signals were obtained in the resting and slow inactivated states. Intramolecular distances computed from the LRET signals define a geometrical map of Nav1.4 with the bound toxins, and reveal voltage-dependent structural changes related to channel gating.

  20. A novel tarantula toxin stabilizes the deactivated voltage sensor of bacterial sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng; Zhou, Xi; Nguyen, Phuong Tran; Zhang, Yunxiao; Hu, Zhaotun; Zhang, Changxin; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; DeCaen, Paul G; Liang, Songping; Liu, Zhonghua

    2017-07-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) are activated by transiting the voltage sensor from the deactivated to the activated state. The crystal structures of several bacterial NaVs have captured the voltage sensor module (VSM) in an activated state, but structure of the deactivated voltage sensor remains elusive. In this study, we sought to identify peptide toxins stabilizing the deactivated VSM of bacterial NaVs. We screened fractions from several venoms and characterized a cystine knot toxin called JZTx-27 from the venom of tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao as a high-affinity antagonist of the prokaryotic NaVs NsVBa (nonselective voltage-gated Bacillus alcalophilus) and NaChBac (bacterial sodium channel from Bacillus halodurans) (IC50 = 112 nM and 30 nM, respectively). JZTx-27 was more efficacious at weaker depolarizing voltages and significantly slowed the activation but accelerated the deactivation of NsVBa, whereas the local anesthetic drug lidocaine was shown to antagonize NsVBa without affecting channel gating. Mutation analysis confirmed that JZTx-27 bound to S3-4 linker of NsVBa, with F98 being the critical residue in determining toxin affinity. All electrophysiological data and in silico analysis suggested that JZTx-27 trapped VSM of NsVBa in one of the deactivated states. In mammalian NaVs, JZTx-27 preferably inhibited the inactivation of NaV1.5 by targeting the fourth transmembrane domain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of peptide antagonist for prokaryotic NaVs. More important, we proposed that JZTx-27 stabilized the NsVBa VSM in the deactivated state and may be used as a probe to determine the structure of the deactivated VSM of NaVs.-Tang, C., Zhou, X., Nguyen, P. T., Zhang, Y., Hu, Z., Zhang, C., Yarov-Yarovoy, V., DeCaen, P. G., Liang, S., Liu, Z. A novel tarantula toxin stabilizes the deactivated voltage sensor of bacterial sodium channel. © FASEB.

  1. Co-wound voltage sensor R&D for TPX magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplin, M.R.; Martovetsky, N.N.; Zbasnik, J.

    1995-09-29

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will be the first tokamak to use superconducting cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICC) in all Poloidal Field (PF) & Toroidal Field (TF) magnets. Conventional quench detection, the measurement of small resistive normal-zone voltages (<1 V) in the magnets will be complicated by the presence of large inductive voltages (>4 kV). In the quench detection design for TPX, we have considered several different locations for internal co-wound voltage sensors in the cable cross-section as the primary mechanism to cancel this inductive noise. The Noise Rejection Experiment (NRE) at LLNL and the Noise Injection Experiment (NIE) at MIT have been designed to evaluate which internal locations will produce the best inductive-noise cancellation, and provide us with experimental data to calibrate analysis codes. The details of the experiments and resulting data are presented.

  2. Mg2+ mediates interaction between the voltage sensor and cytosolic domain to activate BK channels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huanghe; Hu, Lei; Shi, Jingyi; Delaloye, Kelli; Horrigan, Frank T; Cui, Jianmin

    2007-11-13

    The voltage-sensor domain (VSD) of voltage-dependent ion channels and enzymes is critical for cellular responses to membrane potential. The VSD can also be regulated by interaction with intracellular proteins and ligands, but how this occurs is poorly understood. Here, we show that the VSD of the BK-type K(+) channel is regulated by a state-dependent interaction with its own tethered cytosolic domain that depends on both intracellular Mg(2+) and the open state of the channel pore. Mg(2+) bound to the cytosolic RCK1 domain enhances VSD activation by electrostatic interaction with Arg-213 in transmembrane segment S4. Our results demonstrate that a cytosolic domain can come close enough to the VSD to regulate its activity electrostatically, thereby elucidating a mechanism of Mg(2+)-dependent activation in BK channels and suggesting a general pathway by which intracellular factors can modulate the function of voltage-dependent proteins.

  3. Voltage preamplifier for extensional quartz sensors used in scanning force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Morawski, Ireneusz; Blicharski, Józef; Voigtländer, Bert

    2011-06-01

    Extensional-mode quartz resonators are being increasingly used as force sensors in dynamic scanning force microscopy or atomic force microscopy (AFM). We propose a voltage preamplifier in order to amplify the charge induced on quartz electrodes. The proposed solution has some advantages over the typically used current-to-voltage converters. First, the gain does not depend on the inner parameters of the quartz resonator, which are usually unknown for the specific resonator and may even vary during the measurement. Second, with such an amplifier a better signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved. Finally, we present AFM images of the Si(111) and the SiO(2) surfaces obtained by the voltage preamplifier with simultaneously recorded tunneling current.

  4. Optimal dynamic voltage scaling for wireless sensor nodes with real-time constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassandras, Christos G.; Zhuang, Shixin

    2005-11-01

    Sensors are increasingly embedded in manufacturing systems and wirelessly networked to monitor and manage operations ranging from process and inventory control to tracking equipment and even post-manufacturing product monitoring. In building such sensor networks, a critical issue is the limited and hard to replenish energy in the devices involved. Dynamic voltage scaling is a technique that controls the operating voltage of a processor to provide desired performance while conserving energy and prolonging the overall network's lifetime. We consider such power-limited devices processing time-critical tasks which are non-preemptive, aperiodic and have uncertain arrival times. We treat voltage scaling as a dynamic optimization problem whose objective is to minimize energy consumption subject to hard or soft real-time execution constraints. In the case of hard constraints, we build on prior work (which engages a voltage scaling controller at task completion times) by developing an intra-task controller that acts at all arrival times of incoming tasks. We show that this optimization problem can be decomposed into two simpler ones whose solution leads to an algorithm that does not actually require solving any nonlinear programming problems. In the case of soft constraints, this decomposition must be partly relaxed, but it still leads to a scalable (linear in the number of tasks) algorithm. Simulation results are provided to illustrate performance improvements in systems with intra-task controllers compared to uncontrolled systems or those using inter-task control.

  5. A charged residue in S4 regulates coupling among the activation gate, voltage, and Ca2+ sensors in BK channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guohui; Yang, Huanghe; Liang, Hongwu; Yang, Junqiu; Shi, Jingyi; McFarland, Kelli; Chen, Yihan; Cui, Jianmin

    2014-09-10

    Coupling between the activation gate and sensors of physiological stimuli during ion channel activation is an important, but not well-understood, molecular process. One difficulty in studying sensor-gate coupling is to distinguish whether a structural perturbation alters the function of the sensor, the gate, or their coupling. BK channels are activated by membrane voltage and intracellular Ca(2+) via allosteric mechanisms with coupling among the activation gate and sensors quantitatively defined, providing an excellent model system for studying sensor-gate coupling. By studying BK channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, here we show that mutation E219R in S4 alters channel function by two independent mechanisms: one is to change voltage sensor activation, shifting voltage dependence, and increase valence of gating charge movements; the other is to regulate coupling among the activation gate, voltage sensor, and Ca(2+) binding via electrostatic interactions with E321/E324 located in the cytosolic side of S6 in a neighboring subunit, resulting in a shift of the voltage dependence of channel opening and increased Ca(2+) sensitivity. These results suggest a structural arrangement of the inner pore of BK channels differing from that in other voltage gated channels.

  6. Stabilization of the Activated hERG Channel Voltage Sensor by Depolarization Involves the S4-S5 Linker.

    PubMed

    Thouta, Samrat; Hull, Christina M; Shi, Yu Patrick; Sergeev, Valentine; Young, James; Cheng, Yen M; Claydon, Thomas W

    2017-01-24

    Slow deactivation of hERG channels is critical for preventing cardiac arrhythmia yet the mechanistic basis for the slow gating transition is unclear. Here, we characterized the temporal sequence of events leading to voltage sensor stabilization upon membrane depolarization. Progressive increase in step depolarization duration slowed voltage-sensor return in a biphasic manner (τfast = 34 ms, τslow = 2.5 s). The faster phase of voltage-sensor return slowing correlated with the kinetics of pore opening. The slower component occurred over durations that exceeded channel activation and was consistent with voltage sensor relaxation. The S4-S5 linker mutation, G546L, impeded the faster phase of voltage sensor stabilization without attenuating the slower phase, suggesting that the S4-S5 linker is important for communications between the pore gate and the voltage sensor during deactivation. These data also demonstrate that the mechanisms of pore gate-opening-induced and relaxation-induced voltage-sensor stabilization are separable. Deletion of the distal N-terminus (Δ2-135) accelerated off-gating current, but did not influence the relative contribution of either mechanism of stabilization of the voltage sensor. Lastly, we characterized mode-shift behavior in hERG channels, which results from stabilization of activated channel states. The apparent mode-shift depended greatly on recording conditions. By measuring slow activation and deactivation at steady state we found the "true" mode-shift to be ∼15 mV. Interestingly, the "true" mode-shift of gating currents was ∼40 mV, much greater than that of the pore gate. This demonstrates that voltage sensor return is less energetically favorable upon repolarization than pore gate closure. We interpret this to indicate that stabilization of the activated voltage sensor limits the return of hERG channels to rest. The data suggest that this stabilization occurs as a result of reconfiguration of the pore gate upon opening by

  7. Structure and Orientation of a Voltage-Sensor Toxin in Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun Ho; Jung, Hoi Jong; Milescu, Mirela; Lee, Chul Won; Lee, Seungkyu; Lee, Ju Yeon; Eu, Young-Jae; Kim, Ha Hyung; Swartz, Kenton J.; Kim, Jae Il

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Amphipathic protein toxins from tarantula venom inhibit voltage-activated potassium (Kv) channels by binding to a critical helix-turn-helix motif termed the voltage sensor paddle. Although these toxins partition into membranes to bind the paddle motif, their structure and orientation within the membrane are unknown. We investigated the interaction of a tarantula toxin named SGTx with membranes using both fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. Depth-dependent fluorescence-quenching experiments with brominated lipids suggest that Trp30 in SGTx is positioned ∼9 Å from the center of the bilayer. NMR spectra reveal that the inhibitor cystine knot structure of the toxin does not radically change upon membrane partitioning. Transferred cross-saturation NMR experiments indicate that the toxin's hydrophobic protrusion contacts the hydrophobic core of the membrane, whereas most surrounding polar residues remain at interfacial regions of the bilayer. The inferred orientation of the toxin reveals a twofold symmetry in the arrangement of basic and hydrophobic residues, a feature that is conserved among tarantula toxins. These results have important implications for regions of the toxin involved in recognizing membranes and voltage-sensor paddles, and for the mechanisms by which tarantula toxins alter the activity of different types of ion channels. PMID:20643084

  8. Interactions among DIV voltage-sensor movement, fast inactivation, and resurgent Na current induced by the NaVβ4 open-channel blocking peptide

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Amanda H.

    2013-01-01

    Resurgent Na current flows as voltage-gated Na channels recover through open states from block by an endogenous open-channel blocking protein, such as the NaVβ4 subunit. The open-channel blocker and fast-inactivation gate apparently compete directly, as slowing the onset of fast inactivation increases resurgent currents by favoring binding of the blocker. Here, we tested whether open-channel block is also sensitive to deployment of the DIV voltage sensor, which facilitates fast inactivation. We expressed NaV1.4 channels in HEK293t cells and assessed block by a free peptide replicating the cytoplasmic tail of NaVβ4 (the “β4 peptide”). Macroscopic fast inactivation was disrupted by mutations of DIS6 (L443C/A444W; “CW” channels), which reduce fast-inactivation gate binding, and/or by the site-3 toxin ATX-II, which interferes with DIV movement. In wild-type channels, the β4 peptide competed poorly with fast inactivation, but block was enhanced by ATX. With the CW mutation, large peptide-induced resurgent currents were present even without ATX, consistent with increased open-channel block upon depolarization and slower deactivation after blocker unbinding upon repolarization. The addition of ATX greatly increased transient current amplitudes and further enlarged resurgent currents, suggesting that pore access by the blocker is actually decreased by full deployment of the DIV voltage sensor. ATX accelerated recovery from block at hyperpolarized potentials, however, suggesting that the peptide unbinds more readily when DIV voltage-sensor deployment is disrupted. These results are consistent with two open states in Na channels, dependent on the DIV voltage-sensor position, which differ in affinity for the blocking protein. PMID:23940261

  9. Evolution of the Voltage Sensor Domain of the Voltage-Sensitive Phosphoinositide Phosphatase VSP/TPTE Suggests a Role as a Proton Channel in Eutherian Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Keith A.; Jungnickel, Melissa K.; Jovine, Luca; Florman, Harvey M.

    2012-01-01

    The voltage-sensitive phosphoinositide phosphatases provide a mechanism to couple changes in the transmembrane electrical potential to intracellular signal transduction pathways. These proteins share a domain architecture that is conserved in deuterostomes. However, gene duplication events in primates, including humans, give rise to the paralogs TPTE and TPTE2 that retain protein domain organization but, in the case of TPTE, have lost catalytic activity. Here, we present evidence that these human proteins contain a functional voltage sensor, similar to that in nonmammalian orthologs. However, domains of these human proteins can also generate a noninactivating outward current that is not observed in zebra fish or tunicate orthologs. This outward current has the anticipated characteristics of a voltage-sensitive proton current and is due to the appearance of a single histidine residue in the S4 transmembrane segment of the voltage sensor. Histidine is observed at this position only during the eutherian radiation. Domains from both human paralogs generate proton currents. This apparent gain of proton channel function during the evolution of the TPTE protein family may account for the conservation of voltage sensor domains despite the loss of phosphatase activity in some human paralogs. PMID:22396523

  10. Solution structure of the HsapBK K+ channel voltage-sensor paddle sequence.

    PubMed

    Unnerståle, Sofia; Lind, Jesper; Papadopoulos, Evangelos; Mäler, Lena

    2009-06-30

    Voltage-gated potassium channels open and close in response to changes in the membrane potential. In this study, we have determined the NMR solution structure of the putative S3b-S4 voltage-sensor paddle fragment, the part that moves to mediate voltage gating, of the HsapBK potassium channel in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles. This paper presents the first structure of the S3b-S4 fragment from a BK channel. Diffusion coefficients as determined from PFG NMR experiments showed that a well-defined complex between the peptide and DPC molecules was formed. The structure reveals a helix-turn-helix motif, which is in agreement with crystal structures of other voltage-gated potassium channels, thus indicating that it is feasible to study the isolated fragment. The paddle motifs generally contain several basic residues, implicated in the gating. The critical Arg residues in this structure all reside on the surface, which is in agreement with crystal structures of K(v) channels. Similarities in the structure of the S3b-S4 fragment in BK and K(v) channels as well as important differences are seen, which may be important for explaining the details in paddle movement within a bilayer.

  11. Structural Dynamics of an Isolated-Voltage Sensor Domain in Lipid Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Chakrapani, Sudha; Cuello, Luis G.; Cortes, Marien D.; Perozo, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Summary A strong interplay between the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) and the pore domain (PD) underlies voltage-gated channel functions. In a few voltage-sensitive proteins, the VSD has been shown to function without a canonical PD, although its structure and oligomeric state remain unknown. Here using EPR spectroscopy we show that the isolated-VSD of KvAP can remain monomeric in reconstituted bilayer and retain a transmembrane conformation. We find that water-filled crevices extend deep into the membrane around S3, a scaffold conducive to transport of proton/cations is intrinsic to the VSD. Differences in solvent accessibility in comparison to the full-length KvAP, allowed us to define an interacting footprint of the PD on the VSD. This interaction is centered around S1 and S2 and shows a rotation of 70–100° relative to Kv1.2-Kv2.1 chimera. Sequence-conservation patterns in Kv channels, Hv channels and voltage-sensitive phosphatases reveal several near-universal features suggesting a common molecular architecture for all VSDs. PMID:18334215

  12. Analysis of the Light Propagation Model of the Optical Voltage Sensor for Suppressing Unreciprocal Errors.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Fu, Zhida; Liu, Liying; Lin, Zhili; Deng, Wei; Feng, Lishuang

    2017-01-03

    An improved temperature-insensitive optical voltage sensor (OVS) with a reciprocal dual-crystal sensing method is proposed. The inducing principle of OVS reciprocity degradation is expounded by taking the different temperature fields of two crystals and the axis-errors of optical components into consideration. The key parameters pertaining to the system reciprocity degeneration in the dual-crystal sensing unit are investigated in order to optimize the optical sensing model based on the Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. The influencing principle of axis-angle errors on the system nonlinearity in the Pockels phase transfer unit is analyzed. Moreover, a novel axis-angle compensation method is proposed to improve the OVS measurement precision according to the simulation results. The experiment results show that the measurement precision of OVS is superior to ±0.2% in the temperature range from -40 °C to +60 °C, which demonstrates the excellent temperature stability of the designed voltage sensing system.

  13. Solution structure and phospholipid interactions of the isolated voltage-sensor domain from KvAP.

    PubMed

    Butterwick, Joel A; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2010-11-05

    Voltage-sensor domains (VSDs) are specialized transmembrane segments that confer voltage sensitivity to many proteins such as ion channels and enzymes. The activities of these domains are highly dependent on both the chemical properties and the physical properties of the surrounding membrane environment. To learn about VSD-lipid interactions, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the structure and phospholipid interface of the VSD from the voltage-dependent K(+) channel KvAP (prokaryotic Kv from Aeropyrum pernix). The solution structure of the KvAP VSD solubilized within phospholipid micelles is similar to a previously determined crystal structure solubilized by a nonionic detergent and complexed with an antibody fragment. The differences observed include a previously unidentified short amphipathic α-helix that precedes the first transmembrane helix and a subtle rigid-body repositioning of the S3-S4 voltage-sensor paddle. Using (15)N relaxation experiments, we show that much of the VSD, including the pronounced kink in S3 and the S3-S4 paddle, is relatively rigid on the picosecond-to-nanosecond timescale. In contrast, the kink in S3 is mobile on the microsecond-to-millisecond timescale and may act as a hinge in the movement of the paddle during channel gating. We characterized the VSD-phospholipid micelle interactions using nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy and showed that the micelle uniformly coats the KvAP VSD and approximates the chemical environment of a phospholipid bilayer. Using paramagnetically labeled phospholipids, we show that bilayer-forming lipids interact with the S3 and S4 helices more strongly than with S1 and S2.

  14. Hydrophobic interactions between the voltage sensor and pore mediate inactivation in Kv11.1 channels.

    PubMed

    Perry, Matthew D; Wong, Sophia; Ng, Chai Ann; Vandenberg, Jamie I

    2013-09-01

    Kv11.1 channels are critical for the maintenance of a normal heart rhythm. The flow of potassium ions through these channels is controlled by two voltage-regulated gates, termed "activation" and "inactivation," located at opposite ends of the pore. Crucially in Kv11.1 channels, inactivation gating occurs much more rapidly, and over a distinct range of voltages, compared with activation gating. Although it is clear that the fourth transmembrane segments (S4), within each subunit of the tetrameric channel, are important for controlling the opening and closing of the activation gate, their role during inactivation gating is much less clear. Here, we use rate equilibrium free energy relationship (REFER) analysis to probe the contribution of the S4 "voltage-sensor" helix during inactivation of Kv11.1 channels. Contrary to the important role that charged residues play during activation gating, it is the hydrophobic residues (Leu529, Leu530, Leu532, and Val535) that are the key molecular determinants of inactivation gating. Within the context of an interconnected multi-domain model of Kv11.1 inactivation gating, our REFER analysis indicates that the S4 helix and the S4-S5 linker undergo a conformational rearrangement shortly after that of the S5 helix and S5P linker, but before the S6 helix. Combining REFER analysis with double mutant cycle analysis, we provide evidence for a hydrophobic interaction between residues on the S4 and S5 helices. Based on a Kv11.1 channel homology model, we propose that this hydrophobic interaction forms the basis of an intersubunit coupling between the voltage sensor and pore domain that is an important mediator of inactivation gating.

  15. MoS{sub 2} oxygen sensor with gate voltage stress induced performance enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Yu; Lin, Zhenhua; Thong, John T. L.; Chan, Daniel S. H.; Zhu, Chunxiang

    2015-09-21

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have recently attracted wide attention and rapidly established themselves in various applications. In particular, 2D materials are regarded as promising building blocks for gas sensors due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, ease in miniaturization, and flexibility in enabling wearable electronics. Compared with other 2D materials, MoS{sub 2} is particularly intriguing because it has been widely researched and exhibits semiconducting behavior. Here, we have fabricated MoS{sub 2} resistor based O{sub 2} sensors with a back gate configuration on a 285 nm SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. The effects of applying back gate voltage stress on O{sub 2} sensing performance have been systematically investigated. With a positive gate voltage stress, the sensor response improves and the response is improved to 29.2% at O{sub 2} partial pressure of 9.9 × 10{sup −5} millibars with a +40 V back-gate bias compared to 21.2% at O{sub 2} partial pressure of 1.4 × 10{sup −4} millibars without back-gate bias; while under a negative gate voltage stress of −40 V, a fast and full recovery can be achieved at room temperature. In addition, a method in determining O{sub 2} partial pressure with a detectability as low as 6.7 × 10{sup −7} millibars at a constant vacuum pressure is presented and its potential as a vacuum gauge is briefly discussed.

  16. Wireless sensor node demonstrating indoor-light energy harvesting and voltage-triggered duty cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowell, M. A.; Lechene, B. P.; Raffone, P.; Evans, J. W.; Arias, A. C.; Wright, P. K.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a wireless sensor node (WSN) that operates purely on harvested ambient indoor light energy and regulates its duty cycle via voltage-triggered sensing and transmission. The extremely low-power light found in indoor environments can be considered at first sight as unsuitable for high-power load demands characteristic of radios [1], but by leveraging spectrum-tailored solar cells, trickle charging a high-power energy reservoir, and implementing triggered duty cycling, we show that these power demands can be consistently met. All energy harvesting and storage components are fabricated in our labs.

  17. Scorpion β-toxin interference with NaV channel voltage sensor gives rise to excitatory and depressant modes.

    PubMed

    Leipold, Enrico; Borges, Adolfo; Heinemann, Stefan H

    2012-04-01

    Scorpion β toxins, peptides of ∼70 residues, specifically target voltage-gated sodium (Na(V)) channels to cause use-dependent subthreshold channel openings via a voltage-sensor trapping mechanism. This excitatory action is often overlaid by a not yet understood depressant mode in which Na(V) channel activity is inhibited. Here, we analyzed these two modes of gating modification by β-toxin Tz1 from Tityus zulianus on heterologously expressed Na(V)1.4 and Na(V)1.5 channels using the whole cell patch-clamp method. Tz1 facilitated the opening of Na(V)1.4 in a use-dependent manner and inhibited channel opening with a reversed use dependence. In contrast, the opening of Na(V)1.5 was exclusively inhibited without noticeable use dependence. Using chimeras of Na(V)1.4 and Na(V)1.5 channels, we demonstrated that gating modification by Tz1 depends on the specific structure of the voltage sensor in domain 2. Although residue G658 in Na(V)1.4 promotes the use-dependent transitions between Tz1 modification phenotypes, the equivalent residue in Na(V)1.5, N803, abolishes them. Gating charge neutralizations in the Na(V)1.4 domain 2 voltage sensor identified arginine residues at positions 663 and 669 as crucial for the outward and inward movement of this sensor, respectively. Our data support a model in which Tz1 can stabilize two conformations of the domain 2 voltage sensor: a preactivated outward position leading to Na(V) channels that open at subthreshold potentials, and a deactivated inward position preventing channels from opening. The results are best explained by a two-state voltage-sensor trapping model in that bound scorpion β toxin slows the activation as well as the deactivation kinetics of the voltage sensor in domain 2.

  18. Direct Evidence of Conformational Changes Associated with Voltage Gating in a Voltage Sensor Protein by Time-Resolved X-ray/Neutron Interferometry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The voltage sensor domain (VSD) of voltage-gated cation (e.g., Na+, K+) channels central to neurological signal transmission can function as a distinct module. When linked to an otherwise voltage-insensitive, ion-selective membrane pore, the VSD imparts voltage sensitivity to the channel. Proteins homologous with the VSD have recently been found to function themselves as voltage-gated proton channels or to impart voltage sensitivity to enzymes. Determining the conformational changes associated with voltage gating in the VSD itself in the absence of a pore domain thereby gains importance. We report the direct measurement of changes in the scattering-length density (SLD) profile of the VSD protein, vectorially oriented within a reconstituted phospholipid bilayer membrane, as a function of the transmembrane electric potential by time-resolved X-ray and neutron interferometry. The changes in the experimental SLD profiles for both polarizing and depolarizing potentials with respect to zero potential were found to extend over the entire length of the isolated VSD’s profile structure. The characteristics of the changes observed were in qualitative agreement with molecular dynamics simulations of a related membrane system, suggesting an initial interpretation of these changes in terms of the VSD’s atomic-level 3-D structure. PMID:24697545

  19. A novel bioelectrochemical BOD sensor operating with voltage input.

    PubMed

    Modin, Oskar; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2012-11-15

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a measure of biodegradable compounds in water and is, for example, a common parameter to design and assess the performance of wastewater treatment plants. The conventional method to measure BOD is time consuming (5 or 7 days) and requires trained personnel. Bioelectrochemical BOD sensors designed as microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which are systems where bacteria convert organic matter into an electrical current, have emerged as an alternative to the conventional technique. In this study, a new type of bioelectrochemical BOD sensor with features that overcome some of the limitations of current MFC-type designs was developed: (1) An external voltage was applied to overcome internal resistances and allow bacteria to generate current at their full capacity, and (2) the ion exchange membrane was omitted to avoid pH shifts that would otherwise limit the applicability of the sensor for wastewaters with low alkalinity. The sensor was calibrated with an aerated nutrient medium containing acetate as the BOD source. Linear correlation (R(2) = 0.97) with charge was obtained for BOD concentrations ranging from 32 to 1280 mg/L in a reaction time of 20 h. Lowering the reaction time to 5 h resulted in lowering the measurable BOD concentration range to 320 mg/L (R(2) = 0.99). Propionate, glucose, and ethanol could also be analyzed by the sensor that was acclimated to acetate. The study demonstrates a way to design more robust and simple bioelectrochemical BOD sensors that do not suffer from the usual limitations of MFCs (high internal resistance and pH shifts). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EVA Glove Sensor Feasbility II Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melone, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives for the glove project include taking various measurements from human subjects during and after they perform different tasks in the glove box, acquiring data from these tests and determining the accuracy of these results, interpreting and analyzing this data, and using the data to better understand how hand injuries are caused during EVAs.1 Some of these measurements include force readings, temperature readings, and micro-circulatory blood flow.1 The three glove conditions tested were ungloved (a comfort glove was worn to house the sensors), Series 4000, and Phase VI. The general approach/procedure for the glove sensor feasibility project is as follows: 1. Prepare test subject for testing. This includes attaching numerous sensors (approximately 50) to the test subject, wiring, and weaving the sensors and wires in the glove which helps to keep everything together. This also includes recording baseline moisture data using the Vapometer and MoistSense. 2. Pressurizing the glove box. Once the glove box is pressurized to the desired pressure (4.3 psid), testing can begin. 3. Testing. The test subject will perform a series of tests, some of which include pinching a load cell, making a fist, pushing down on a force plate, and picking up metal pegs, rotating them 90 degrees, and placing them back in the peg board. 4. Post glove box testing data collection. After the data is collected from inside the glove box, the Vapometer and MoistSense device will be used to collect moisture data from the subject's hand. 5. Survey. At the conclusion of testing, he/she will complete a survey that asks questions pertaining to comfort/discomfort levels of the glove, glove sizing, as well as offering any additional feedback.

  1. Transfer of Kv3.1 voltage sensor features to the isolated Ci-VSP voltage-sensing domain.

    PubMed

    Mishina, Yukiko; Mutoh, Hiroki; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2012-08-22

    Membrane proteins that respond to changes in transmembrane voltage are critical in regulating the function of living cells. The voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) of voltage-gated ion channels are extensively studied to elucidate voltage-sensing mechanisms, and yet many aspects of their structure-function relationship remain elusive. Here, we transplanted homologous amino acid motifs from the tetrameric voltage-activated potassium channel Kv3.1 to the monomeric VSD of Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensitive phosphatase (Ci-VSP) to explore which portions of Kv3.1 subunits depend on the tetrameric structure of Kv channels and which properties of Kv3.1 can be transferred to the monomeric Ci-VSP scaffold. By attaching fluorescent proteins to these chimeric VSDs, we obtained an optical readout to establish membrane trafficking and kinetics of voltage-dependent structural rearrangements. We found that motifs extending from 10 to roughly 100 amino acids can be readily transplanted from Kv3.1 into Ci-VSP to form engineered VSDs that efficiently incorporate into the plasma membrane and sense voltage. Some of the functional features of these engineered VSDs are reminiscent of Kv3.1 channels, indicating that these properties do not require interactions between Kv subunits or between the voltage sensing and the pore domains of Kv channels.

  2. Flight Demonstration of a Shock Location Sensor Using Constant Voltage Hot-Film Anemometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Sarma, Garimella R.; Mangalam, Siva M.

    1997-01-01

    Flight tests have demonstrated the effectiveness of an array of hot-film sensors using constant voltage anemometry to determine shock position on a wing or aircraft surface at transonic speeds. Flights were conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the F-15B aircraft and Flight Test Fixture (FTF). A modified NACA 0021 airfoil was attached to the side of the FTF, and its upper surface was instrumented to correlate shock position with pressure and hot-film sensors. In the vicinity of the shock-induced pressure rise, test results consistently showed the presence of a minimum voltage in the hot-film anemometer outputs. Comparing these results with previous investigations indicate that hot-film anemometry can identify the location of the shock-induced boundary layer separation. The flow separation occurred slightly forward of the shock- induced pressure rise for a laminar boundary layer and slightly aft of the start of the pressure rise when the boundary layer was tripped near the airfoil leading edge. Both minimum mean output and phase reversal analyses were used to identify the shock location.

  3. KCNE1 constrains the voltage sensor of Kv7.1 K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Shamgar, Liora; Haitin, Yoni; Yisharel, Ilanit; Malka, Eti; Schottelndreier, Hella; Peretz, Asher; Paas, Yoav; Attali, Bernard

    2008-04-09

    Kv7 potassium channels whose mutations cause cardiovascular and neurological disorders are members of the superfamily of voltage-gated K(+) channels, comprising a central pore enclosed by four voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) and sharing a homologous S4 sensor sequence. The Kv7.1 pore-forming subunit can interact with various KCNE auxiliary subunits to form K(+) channels with very different gating behaviors. In an attempt to characterize the nature of the promiscuous gating of Kv7.1 channels, we performed a tryptophan-scanning mutagenesis of the S4 sensor and analyzed the mutation-induced perturbations in gating free energy. Perturbing the gating energetics of Kv7.1 bias most of the mutant channels towards the closed state, while fewer mutations stabilize the open state or the inactivated state. In the absence of auxiliary subunits, mutations of specific S4 residues mimic the gating phenotypes produced by co-assembly of Kv7.1 with either KCNE1 or KCNE3. Many S4 perturbations compromise the ability of KCNE1 to properly regulate Kv7.1 channel gating. The tryptophan-induced packing perturbations and cysteine engineering studies in S4 suggest that KCNE1 lodges at the inter-VSD S4-S1 interface between two adjacent subunits, a strategic location to exert its striking action on Kv7.1 gating functions.

  4. Design, Experiments and Simulation of Voltage Transformers on the Basis of a Differential Input D-dot Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingang; Gao, Can; Yang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Currently available traditional electromagnetic voltage sensors fail to meet the measurement requirements of the smart grid, because of low accuracy in the static and dynamic ranges and the occurrence of ferromagnetic resonance attributed to overvoltage and output short circuit. This work develops a new non-contact high-bandwidth voltage measurement system for power equipment. This system aims at the miniaturization and non-contact measurement of the smart grid. After traditional D-dot voltage probe analysis, an improved method is proposed. For the sensor to work in a self-integrating pattern, the differential input pattern is adopted for circuit design, and grounding is removed. To prove the structure design, circuit component parameters, and insulation characteristics, Ansoft Maxwell software is used for the simulation. Moreover, the new probe was tested on a 10 kV high-voltage test platform for steady-state error and transient behavior. Experimental results ascertain that the root mean square values of measured voltage are precise and that the phase error is small. The D-dot voltage sensor not only meets the requirement of high accuracy but also exhibits satisfactory transient response. This sensor can meet the intelligence, miniaturization, and convenience requirements of the smart grid. PMID:25036333

  5. Design, experiments and simulation of voltage transformers on the basis of a differential input D-dot sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingang; Gao, Can; Yang, Jie

    2014-07-17

    Currently available traditional electromagnetic voltage sensors fail to meet the measurement requirements of the smart grid, because of low accuracy in the static and dynamic ranges and the occurrence of ferromagnetic resonance attributed to overvoltage and output short circuit. This work develops a new non-contact high-bandwidth voltage measurement system for power equipment. This system aims at the miniaturization and non-contact measurement of the smart grid. After traditional D-dot voltage probe analysis, an improved method is proposed. For the sensor to work in a self-integrating pattern, the differential input pattern is adopted for circuit design, and grounding is removed. To prove the structure design, circuit component parameters, and insulation characteristics, Ansoft Maxwell software is used for the simulation. Moreover, the new probe was tested on a 10 kV high-voltage test platform for steady-state error and transient behavior. Experimental results ascertain that the root mean square values of measured voltage are precise and that the phase error is small. The D-dot voltage sensor not only meets the requirement of high accuracy but also exhibits satisfactory transient response. This sensor can meet the intelligence, miniaturization, and convenience requirements of the smart grid.

  6. How does a voltage sensor interact with a lipid bilayer? Simulations of a potassium channel domain.

    PubMed

    Sands, Zara A; Sansom, Mark S P

    2007-02-01

    The nature of voltage sensing by voltage-activated ion channels is a key problem in membrane protein structural biology. The way in which the voltage-sensor (VS) domain interacts with its membrane environment remains unclear. In particular, the known structures of Kv channels do not readily explain how a positively charged S4 helix is able to stably span a lipid bilayer. Extended (2 x 50 ns) molecular dynamics simulations of the high-resolution structure of the isolated VS domain from the archaebacterial potassium channel KvAP, embedded in zwitterionic and in anionic lipid bilayers, have been used to explore VS/lipid interactions at atomic resolution. The simulations reveal penetration of water into the center of the VS and bilayer. Furthermore, there is significant local deformation of the lipid bilayer by interactions between lipid phosphate groups and arginine side chains of S4. As a consequence of this, the electrostatic field is "focused" across the center of the bilayer.

  7. How Does a Voltage Sensor Interact with a Lipid Bilayer? Simulations of a Potassium Channel Domain

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Zara A.; Sansom, Mark S.P.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The nature of voltage sensing by voltage-activated ion channels is a key problem in membrane protein structural biology. The way in which the voltage-sensor (VS) domain interacts with its membrane environment remains unclear. In particular, the known structures of Kv channels do not readily explain how a positively charged S4 helix is able to stably span a lipid bilayer. Extended (2 × 50 ns) molecular dynamics simulations of the high-resolution structure of the isolated VS domain from the archaebacterial potassium channel KvAP, embedded in zwitterionic and in anionic lipid bilayers, have been used to explore VS/lipid interactions at atomic resolution. The simulations reveal penetration of water into the center of the VS and bilayer. Furthermore, there is significant local deformation of the lipid bilayer by interactions between lipid phosphate groups and arginine side chains of S4. As a consequence of this, the electrostatic field is “focused” across the center of the bilayer. PMID:17292841

  8. Reciprocal voltage sensor-to-pore coupling leads to potassium channel C-type inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Luca; Renhorn, Jakob; Gabrielsson, Anders; Turesson, Fredrik; Liin, Sara I.; Lindahl, Erik; Elinder, Fredrik

    2016-06-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels open at depolarized membrane voltages. A prolonged depolarization causes a rearrangement of the selectivity filter which terminates the conduction of ions – a process called slow or C-type inactivation. How structural rearrangements in the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) cause alteration in the selectivity filter, and vice versa, are not fully understood. We show that pulling the pore domain of the Shaker potassium channel towards the VSD by a Cd2+ bridge accelerates C-type inactivation. Molecular dynamics simulations show that such pulling widens the selectivity filter and disrupts the K+ coordination, a hallmark for C-type inactivation. An engineered Cd2+ bridge within the VSD also affect C-type inactivation. Conversely, a pore domain mutation affects VSD gating-charge movement. Finally, C-type inactivation is caused by the concerted action of distant amino acid residues in the pore domain. All together, these data suggest a reciprocal communication between the pore domain and the VSD in the extracellular portion of the channel.

  9. Reciprocal voltage sensor-to-pore coupling leads to potassium channel C-type inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Luca; Renhorn, Jakob; Gabrielsson, Anders; Turesson, Fredrik; Liin, Sara I; Lindahl, Erik; Elinder, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels open at depolarized membrane voltages. A prolonged depolarization causes a rearrangement of the selectivity filter which terminates the conduction of ions – a process called slow or C-type inactivation. How structural rearrangements in the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) cause alteration in the selectivity filter, and vice versa, are not fully understood. We show that pulling the pore domain of the Shaker potassium channel towards the VSD by a Cd2+ bridge accelerates C-type inactivation. Molecular dynamics simulations show that such pulling widens the selectivity filter and disrupts the K+ coordination, a hallmark for C-type inactivation. An engineered Cd2+ bridge within the VSD also affect C-type inactivation. Conversely, a pore domain mutation affects VSD gating-charge movement. Finally, C-type inactivation is caused by the concerted action of distant amino acid residues in the pore domain. All together, these data suggest a reciprocal communication between the pore domain and the VSD in the extracellular portion of the channel. PMID:27278891

  10. Bilayer deformation by the Kv channel voltage sensor domain revealed by self-assembly simulations.

    PubMed

    Bond, Peter J; Sansom, Mark S P

    2007-02-20

    Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are used to explore the interaction with a phospholipid bilayer of the voltage sensor (VS) domain and the S4 helix from the archaebacterial voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel KvAP. Multiple 2-mus self-assembly simulations reveal that the isolated S4 helix may adopt either interfacial or transmembrane (TM) locations with approximately equal probability. In the TM state, the insertion of the voltage-sensing region of S4 is facilitated via local bilayer deformation that, combined with side chain "snorkeling," enables its Arg side chains to interact with lipid headgroups and water. Multiple 0.2-mus self-assembly simulations of the VS domain are also performed, along with simulations of MscL and KcsA, to permit comparison with more "canonical" integral membrane protein structures. All three stably adopt a TM orientation within a bilayer. For MscL and KcsA, there is no significant bilayer deformation. In contrast, for the VS, there is considerable local deformation, which is again primarily due to the lipid-exposed S4. It is shown that for both the VS and isolated S4 helix, the positively charged side chains of S4 are accommodated within the membrane through a combination of stabilizing interactions with lipid glycerol and headgroup regions, water, and anionic side chains. Our results support the possibility that bilayer deformation around key gating charge residues in Kv channels may result in "focusing" of the electrostatic field, and indicate that, when considering competing models of voltage-sensing, it is essential to consider the dynamics and structure of not only the protein but also of the local lipid environment.

  11. Voltage dependence of a stochastic model of activation of an alpha helical S4 sensor in a K channel membrane.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, S R

    2011-09-07

    The voltage dependence of the ionic and gating currents of a K channel is dependent on the activation barriers of a voltage sensor with a potential function which may be derived from the principal electrostatic forces on an S4 segment in an inhomogeneous dielectric medium. By variation of the parameters of a voltage-sensing domain model, consistent with x-ray structures and biophysical data, the lowest frequency of the survival probability of each stationary state derived from a solution of the Smoluchowski equation provides a good fit to the voltage dependence of the slowest time constant of the ionic current in a depolarized membrane, and the gating current exhibits a rising phase that precedes an exponential relaxation. For each depolarizing potential, the calculated time dependence of the survival probabilities of the closed states of an alpha helical S4 sensor are in accord with an empirical model of the ionic and gating currents recorded during the activation process.

  12. Voltage sensor mutations differentially target misfolded K+ channel subunits to proteasomal and non-proteasomal disposal pathways

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Michael P.; Khanna, Rajesh; Lee, Eun Jeon; Papazian, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    In Shaker K+ channels, formation of an electrostatic interaction between two charged residues, D316 and K374 in transmembrane segments S3 and S4, respectively, is a key step in voltage sensor biogenesis. Mutations D316K and K374E disrupt formation of the voltage sensor and lead to endoplasmic reticulum retention. We have now investigated the fates of these misfolded proteins. Both are significantly less stable than the wild-type protein. D316K is degraded by cytoplasmic proteasomes, whereas K374E is degraded by a lactacystin-insensitive, non-proteasomal pathway. Our results suggest that the D316K and K374E proteins are misfolded in recognizably different ways, an observation with implications for voltage sensor biogenesis. PMID:15196930

  13. Effect of buffer layer on the voltage responsivity of the pyroelectric thermal sensors prepared with PZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Moon-Ho; Hwang, Ha R.; Bae, Seong-Ho

    1997-08-01

    The pyroelectric thermal detectors were prepared with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, where a signal electrode had a structure of Au/metallic buffer/(PZT ceramic). The effect of buffer layer on the voltage responsivity was investigated with a response to step signal, taken by dynamic pyroelectric measurement. Pyroelectric ceramic wafer was prepared by mixed oxide technique. Au layer (thickness: 50 nm) and metallic buffers (thickness: 0 - 20 nm) of Cr, NiCr (80/20), and Ti were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. In order to improve the light absorptivity, an Au-black was coated on Au signal electrode by thermal evaporation. At steady state, the output voltage (Vo) was decreased with increasing chopping frequency in the range of 1 - 100 Hz. A sensor without buffer showed the severe time-drift and instability in the output signal. However, the sensors with buffer layer showed the stable outputs. For step radiations, rising time (tp), peak voltage (Vp), and initial slope (k) of the output voltage were dependent upon the thickness and materials of buffer layer. The mechanical and electrical contacts between Au electrode and PZT ceramics were improved by inserting the metallic buffer layer. Considering the characteristics of the output voltage, the optimum thickness of buffer layer was about 15 - 20 nm, and the sensors with Ti buffer of 15 - 20 nm in thickness showed the good detectivity. Therefore, the stability and reliability of the thermal sensors could be improved by use of appropriate buffer layer.

  14. Functional properties and toxin pharmacology of a dorsal root ganglion sodium channel viewed through its voltage sensors

    PubMed Central

    Puopolo, Michelino; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Bean, Bruce P.

    2011-01-01

    The voltage-activated sodium (Nav) channel Nav1.9 is expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons where it is believed to play an important role in nociception. Progress in revealing the functional properties and pharmacological sensitivities of this non-canonical Nav channel has been slow because attempts to express this channel in a heterologous expression system have been unsuccessful. Here, we use a protein engineering approach to dissect the contributions of the four Nav1.9 voltage sensors to channel function and pharmacology. We define individual S3b–S4 paddle motifs within each voltage sensor, and show that they can sense changes in membrane voltage and drive voltage sensor activation when transplanted into voltage-activated potassium channels. We also find that the paddle motifs in Nav1.9 are targeted by animal toxins, and that these toxins alter Nav1.9-mediated currents in DRG neurons. Our results demonstrate that slowly activating and inactivating Nav1.9 channels have functional and pharmacological properties in common with canonical Nav channels, but also show distinctive pharmacological sensitivities that can potentially be exploited for developing novel treatments for pain. PMID:21670206

  15. Scorpion β-toxin interference with NaV channel voltage sensor gives rise to excitatory and depressant modes

    PubMed Central

    Leipold, Enrico; Borges, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion β toxins, peptides of ∼70 residues, specifically target voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels to cause use-dependent subthreshold channel openings via a voltage–sensor trapping mechanism. This excitatory action is often overlaid by a not yet understood depressant mode in which NaV channel activity is inhibited. Here, we analyzed these two modes of gating modification by β-toxin Tz1 from Tityus zulianus on heterologously expressed NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 channels using the whole cell patch-clamp method. Tz1 facilitated the opening of NaV1.4 in a use-dependent manner and inhibited channel opening with a reversed use dependence. In contrast, the opening of NaV1.5 was exclusively inhibited without noticeable use dependence. Using chimeras of NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 channels, we demonstrated that gating modification by Tz1 depends on the specific structure of the voltage sensor in domain 2. Although residue G658 in NaV1.4 promotes the use-dependent transitions between Tz1 modification phenotypes, the equivalent residue in NaV1.5, N803, abolishes them. Gating charge neutralizations in the NaV1.4 domain 2 voltage sensor identified arginine residues at positions 663 and 669 as crucial for the outward and inward movement of this sensor, respectively. Our data support a model in which Tz1 can stabilize two conformations of the domain 2 voltage sensor: a preactivated outward position leading to NaV channels that open at subthreshold potentials, and a deactivated inward position preventing channels from opening. The results are best explained by a two-state voltage–sensor trapping model in that bound scorpion β toxin slows the activation as well as the deactivation kinetics of the voltage sensor in domain 2. PMID:22450487

  16. A Complex Permittivity Based Sensor for the Electrical Characterization of High-Voltage Transformer Oils

    PubMed Central

    Dervos, Constantine T.; Paraskevas, Christos D.; Skafidas, Panayotis D.; Vassiliou, Panayota

    2005-01-01

    This work investigates the use of a specially designed cylindrical metal cell, in order to obtain complex permittivity and tanδ data of highly insulating High Voltage (HV) transformer oil samples. The data are obtained at a wide range of frequencies and operation temperatures to demonstrate the polarization phenomena and the thermally stimulated effects. Such complex permittivity measurements may be utilized as a criterion for the service life prediction of oil field electrical equipment (OFEE). Therefore, by one set of measurements on a small oil volume, data may be provided on the impending termination, or continuation of the transformer oil service life. The oil incorporating cell, attached to the appropriate measuring units, could be described as a complex permittivity sensor. In this work, the acquired dielectric data from a great number of operating distribution network power transformers were correlated to corresponding physicochemical ones to demonstrate the future potential employment of the proposed measuring technique.

  17. Voltage sensor charge loss accounts for most cases of hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Matthews, E; Labrum, R; Sweeney, M G; Sud, R; Haworth, A; Chinnery, P F; Meola, G; Schorge, S; Kullmann, D M; Davis, M B; Hanna, M G

    2009-05-05

    Several missense mutations of CACNA1S and SCN4A genes occur in hypokalemic periodic paralysis. These mutations affect arginine residues in the S4 voltage sensors of the channel. Approximately 20% of cases remain genetically undefined. We undertook direct automated DNA sequencing of the S4 regions of CACNA1S and SCN4A in 83 cases of hypokalemic periodic paralysis. We identified reported CACNA1S mutations in 64 cases. In the remaining 19 cases, mutations in SCN4A or other CACNA1S S4 segments were found in 10, including three novel changes and the first mutations in channel domains I (SCN4A) and III (CACNA1S). All mutations affected arginine residues, consistent with the gating pore cation leak hypothesis of hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Arginine mutations in S4 segments underlie 90% of hypokalemic periodic paralysis cases.

  18. The MuPix high voltage monolithic active pixel sensor for the Mu3e experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, H.; Berger, N.; Bravar, S.; Corrodi, S.; Damyanova, A.; Förster, F.; Gredig, R.; Herkert, A.; Huang, Q.; Huth, L.; Kiehn, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Maldaner, S.; Perić, I.; Philipp, R.; Robmann, P.; Schöning, A.; Shrestha, S.; vom Bruch, D.; Weber, T.; Wiedner, D.

    2015-03-01

    Mu3e is a novel experiment searching for charged lepton flavor violation in the rare decay μ → eee. In order to reduce background by up to 16 orders of magnitude, decay vertex position, decay time and particle momenta have to be measured precisely. A pixel tracker based on 50 μm thin high voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS) in a magnetic field will deliver precise vertex and momentum information. Test beam results like an excellent efficiency of >99.5% and a time resolution of better than 16.6 ns obtained with the MuPix HV-MAPS chip developed for the Mu3e pixel tracker are presented.

  19. Action Potential Dynamics in Fine Axons Probed with an Axonally Targeted Optical Voltage Sensor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yihe; Bayguinov, Peter O; Jackson, Meyer B

    2017-01-01

    The complex and malleable conduction properties of axons determine how action potentials propagate through extensive axonal arbors to reach synaptic terminals. The excitability of axonal membranes plays a major role in neural circuit function, but because most axons are too thin for conventional electrical recording, their properties remain largely unexplored. To overcome this obstacle, we used a genetically encoded hybrid voltage sensor (hVOS) harboring an axonal targeting motif. Expressing this probe in transgenic mice enabled us to monitor voltage changes optically in two populations of axons in hippocampal slices, the large axons of dentate granule cells (mossy fibers) in the stratum lucidum of the CA3 region and the much finer axons of hilar mossy cells in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Action potentials propagated with distinct velocities in each type of axon. Repetitive firing broadened action potentials in both populations, but at an intermediate frequency the degree of broadening differed. Repetitive firing also attenuated action potential amplitudes in both mossy cell and granule cell axons. These results indicate that the features of use-dependent action potential broadening, and possible failure, observed previously in large nerve terminals also appear in much finer unmyelinated axons. Subtle differences in the frequency dependences could influence the propagation of activity through different pathways to excite different populations of neurons. The axonally targeted hVOS probe used here opens up the diverse repertoire of neuronal processes to detailed biophysical study.

  20. Proton Sensors in the Pore Domain of the Cardiac Voltage-gated Sodium Channel*

    PubMed Central

    Jones, David K.; Peters, Colin H.; Allard, Charlene R.; Claydon, Tom W.; Ruben, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Protons impart isoform-specific modulation of inactivation in neuronal, skeletal muscle, and cardiac voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels. Although the structural basis of proton block in NaV channels has been well described, the amino acid residues responsible for the changes in NaV kinetics during extracellular acidosis are as yet unknown. We expressed wild-type (WT) and two pore mutant constructs (H880Q and C373F) of the human cardiac NaV channel, NaV1.5, in Xenopus oocytes. C373F and H880Q both attenuated proton block, abolished proton modulation of use-dependent inactivation, and altered pH modulation of the steady-state and kinetic parameters of slow inactivation. Additionally, C373F significantly reduced the maximum probability of use-dependent inactivation and slow inactivation, relative to WT. H880Q also significantly reduced the maximum probability of slow inactivation and shifted the voltage dependence of activation and fast inactivation to more positive potentials, relative to WT. These data suggest that Cys-373 and His-880 in NaV1.5 are proton sensors for use-dependent and slow inactivation and have implications in isoform-specific modulation of NaV channels. PMID:23283979

  1. Analysis of the Light Propagation Model of the Optical Voltage Sensor for Suppressing Unreciprocal Errors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Fu, Zhida; Liu, Liying; Lin, Zhili; Deng, Wei; Feng, Lishuang

    2017-01-01

    An improved temperature-insensitive optical voltage sensor (OVS) with a reciprocal dual-crystal sensing method is proposed. The inducing principle of OVS reciprocity degradation is expounded by taking the different temperature fields of two crystals and the axis-errors of optical components into consideration. The key parameters pertaining to the system reciprocity degeneration in the dual-crystal sensing unit are investigated in order to optimize the optical sensing model based on the Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. The influencing principle of axis-angle errors on the system nonlinearity in the Pockels phase transfer unit is analyzed. Moreover, a novel axis-angle compensation method is proposed to improve the OVS measurement precision according to the simulation results. The experiment results show that the measurement precision of OVS is superior to ±0.2% in the temperature range from −40 °C to +60 °C, which demonstrates the excellent temperature stability of the designed voltage sensing system. PMID:28054951

  2. Free-energy landscape of ion-channel voltage-sensor-domain activation.

    PubMed

    Delemotte, Lucie; Kasimova, Marina A; Klein, Michael L; Tarek, Mounir; Carnevale, Vincenzo

    2015-01-06

    Voltage sensor domains (VSDs) are membrane-bound protein modules that confer voltage sensitivity to membrane proteins. VSDs sense changes in the transmembrane voltage and convert the electrical signal into a conformational change called activation. Activation involves a reorganization of the membrane protein charges that is detected experimentally as transient currents. These so-called gating currents have been investigated extensively within the theoretical framework of so-called discrete-state Markov models (DMMs), whereby activation is conceptualized as a series of transitions across a discrete set of states. Historically, the interpretation of DMM transition rates in terms of transition state theory has been instrumental in shaping our view of the activation process, whose free-energy profile is currently envisioned as composed of a few local minima separated by steep barriers. Here we use atomistic level modeling and well-tempered metadynamics to calculate the configurational free energy along a single transition from first principles. We show that this transition is intrinsically multidimensional and described by a rough free-energy landscape. Remarkably, a coarse-grained description of the system, based on the use of the gating charge as reaction coordinate, reveals a smooth profile with a single barrier, consistent with phenomenological models. Our results bridge the gap between microscopic and macroscopic descriptions of activation dynamics and show that choosing the gating charge as reaction coordinate masks the topological complexity of the network of microstates participating in the transition. Importantly, full characterization of the latter is a prerequisite to rationalize modulation of this process by lipids, toxins, drugs, and genetic mutations.

  3. Chloride Anions Regulate Kinetics but Not Voltage-Sensor Qmax of the Solute Carrier SLC26a5.

    PubMed

    Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Song, Lei

    2016-06-07

    In general, SLC26 solute carriers serve to transport a variety of anions across biological membranes. However, prestin (SLC26a5) has evolved, now serving as a motor protein in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the mammalian inner ear and is required for cochlear amplification, a mechanical feedback mechanism to boost auditory performance. The mechanical activity of the OHC imparted by prestin is driven by voltage and controlled by anions, chiefly intracellular chloride. Current opinion is that chloride anions control the Boltzmann characteristics of the voltage sensor responsible for prestin activity, including Qmax, the total sensor charge moved within the membrane, and Vh, a measure of prestin's operating voltage range. Here, we show that standard narrow-band, high-frequency admittance measures of nonlinear capacitance (NLC), an alternate representation of the sensor's charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship, is inadequate for assessment of Qmax, an estimate of the sum of unitary charges contributed by all voltage sensors within the membrane. Prestin's slow transition rates and chloride-binding kinetics adversely influence these estimates, contributing to the prevalent concept that intracellular chloride level controls the quantity of sensor charge moved. By monitoring charge movement across frequency, using measures of multifrequency admittance, expanded displacement current integration, and OHC electromotility, we find that chloride influences prestin kinetics, thereby controlling charge magnitude at any particular frequency of interrogation. Importantly, however, this chloride dependence vanishes as frequency decreases, with Qmax asymptoting at a level irrespective of the chloride level. These data indicate that prestin activity is significantly low-pass in the frequency domain, with important implications for cochlear amplification. We also note that the occurrence of voltage-dependent charge movements in other SLC26 family members may be hidden by inadequate

  4. Cable Crosstalk Suppression with Two-Wire Voltage Feedback Method for Resistive Sensor Array

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianfeng; He, Shangshang; Li, Jianqing; Song, Aiguo

    2016-01-01

    Using a long, flexible test cable connected with a one-wire voltage feedback circuit, a resistive tactile sensor in a shared row-column fashion exhibited flexibility in robotic operations but suffered from crosstalk caused by the connected cable due to its wire resistances and its contacted resistances. Firstly, we designed a new non-scanned driving-electrode (VF-NSDE) circuit using two wires for every row line and every column line to reduce the crosstalk caused by the connected cables in the circuit. Then, an equivalent resistance expression of the element being tested (EBT) for the two-wire VF-NSDE circuit was analytically derived. Following this, the one-wire VF-NSDE circuit and the two-wire VF-NSDE circuit were evaluated by simulation experiments. Finally, positive features of the proposed method were verified with the experiments of a two-wire VF-NSDE prototype circuit. The experiment results show that the two-wire VF-NSDE circuit can greatly reduce the crosstalk error caused by the cables in the 2-D networked resistive sensor array. PMID:26907279

  5. An LMS Programming Scheme and Floating-Gate Technology Enabled Trimmer-Less and Low Voltage Flame Detection Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Rojas, Juan Carlos; Gomez-Castañeda, Felipe; Moreno-Cadenas, Jose Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a Least Mean Square (LMS) programming scheme is used to set the offset voltage of two operational amplifiers that were built using floating-gate transistors, enabling a 0.95 VRMS trimmer-less flame detection sensor. The programming scheme is capable of setting the offset voltage over a wide range of values by means of electron injection. The flame detection sensor consists of two programmable offset operational amplifiers; the first amplifier serves as a 26 μV offset voltage follower, whereas the second amplifier acts as a programmable trimmer-less voltage comparator. Both amplifiers form the proposed sensor, whose principle of functionality is based on the detection of the electrical changes produced by the flame ionization. The experimental results show that it is possible to measure the presence of a flame accurately after programming the amplifiers with a maximum of 35 LMS-algorithm iterations. Current commercial flame detectors are mainly used in absorption refrigerators and large industrial gas heaters, where a high voltage AC source and several mechanical trimmings are used in order to accurately measure the presence of the flame. PMID:28613250

  6. An LMS Programming Scheme and Floating-Gate Technology Enabled Trimmer-Less and Low Voltage Flame Detection Sensor.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Rojas, Juan Carlos; Gomez-Castañeda, Felipe; Moreno-Cadenas, Jose Antonio

    2017-06-14

    In this paper, a Least Mean Square (LMS) programming scheme is used to set the offset voltage of two operational amplifiers that were built using floating-gate transistors, enabling a 0.95 VRMS trimmer-less flame detection sensor. The programming scheme is capable of setting the offset voltage over a wide range of values by means of electron injection. The flame detection sensor consists of two programmable offset operational amplifiers; the first amplifier serves as a 26 μV offset voltage follower, whereas the second amplifier acts as a programmable trimmer-less voltage comparator. Both amplifiers form the proposed sensor, whose principle of functionality is based on the detection of the electrical changes produced by the flame ionization. The experimental results show that it is possible to measure the presence of a flame accurately after programming the amplifiers with a maximum of 35 LMS-algorithm iterations. Current commercial flame detectors are mainly used in absorption refrigerators and large industrial gas heaters, where a high voltage AC source and several mechanical trimmings are used in order to accurately measure the presence of the flame.

  7. Investigation on the Thin Film Pirani Vacuum Sensor Using A Constant Voltage Drive-Mode Diode-Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Noriaki; Kimura, Mitsuteru

    A thin film Pirani vacuum sensor having a single micro-heater and two diode temperature sensors composed of pn junction diodes on the sensing cantilever, fabricated by micromachining technologies, is driven by a constant applied voltage driving mode using the diode heater to enhance the pressure sensitivity. In these experiments new diode-sensors are used as a temperature sensor, which has a proportional output signal voltage ΔV to the absolute temperature T as ΔV=αT. These new type diode-sensors are useful to measure the temperature difference ΔT between these diode sensors. In this pressure sensing the null detection method is adopted for accurate measurements. In the low pressure range such as 1×10-3-1×100 Pa the diode-thermistor will be useful because of its higher temperature sensitivity. It is demonstrated that this thin film Pirani vacuum sensor can measure the wide pressure range of 1×10-3 to 1×105 Pa, which is about 2 order wider pressure range than that of usual Pirani gauge.

  8. RADLAC II/SMILE performance with a magnetically insulated voltage adder

    SciTech Connect

    Shope, S.L.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Frost, C.A.; Crist, C.E.; Poukey, J.W.; Prestwich, K.R.; Turman, B.N. ); Struve, K.; Welch, D. )

    1991-01-01

    A 12.5-m long Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission LinE (SMILE) that sums the voltages of 8, 2-MV pulse forming lines was installed in the RADLAC-II linear induction accelerator. The magnetic insulation criteria was calculated using parapotential flow theory and found to agree with MAGIC simulations. High quality annular beams with {beta}{perpendicular} {le} 0.1 and a radius r{sub b} < 2 cm were measured for currents of 50--100-kA extracted from a magnetic immersed foilless diode. These parameters were achieved with 11 to 15-MV accelerating voltages and 6 to 16-kG diode magnetic field. The experimental results exceeded our design expectations and are in good agreement with code simulations. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Coupled Motions between Pore and Voltage-Sensor Domains: A Model for Shaker B, a Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Treptow, Werner; Maigret, Bernard; Chipot, Christophe; Tarek, Mounir

    2004-01-01

    A high-resolution crystal structure of KvAP, an archeabacterial voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel, complexed with a monoclonal Fab fragment has been recently determined. Based on this structure, a mechanism for the activation (opening) of Kv channels has been put forward. This mechanism has since been criticized, suggesting that the resolved structure is not representative of the family of voltage-gated potassium channels. Here, we propose a model of the transmembrane domain of Shaker B, a well-characterized Kv channel, built by homology modeling and docking calculations. In this model, the positively charged S4 helices are oriented perpendicular to the membrane and localized in the groove between segments S5 and S6 of adjacent subunits. The structure and the dynamics of the full atomistic model embedded in a hydrated lipid bilayer were investigated by means of two large-scale molecular dynamics simulations under transmembrane-voltage conditions known to induce, respectively, the resting state (closed) and the activation (opening) of voltage-gated channels. Upon activation, the model undergoes conformational changes that lead to an increase of the hydration of the charged S4 helices, correlated with an upward translation and a tilting of the latter, concurrently with movements of the S5 helices and the activation gate. Although small, these conformational changes ultimately result in an alteration of the ion-conduction pathway. Our findings support the transporter model devised by Bezanilla and collaborators, and further underline the crucial role played by internal hydration in the activation of the channel. PMID:15454436

  10. Molecular basis of the inhibition of the fast inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.5 by tarantula toxin Jingzhaotoxin-II.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Zhou, Xi; Tang, Cheng; Zhang, Yunxiao; Tao, Huai; Chen, Ping; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-06-01

    Jingzhaotoxin-II (JZTX-II) is a 32-residue peptide from the Chinese tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao venom, and preferentially inhibits the fast inactivation of the voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in rat cardiac myocytes. In the present study, we elucidated the action mechanism of JZTX-II inhibiting hNav1.5, a VGSC subtype mainly distributed in human cardiac myocytes. Among the four VGSC subtypes tested, hNav1.5 was the most sensitive to JZTX-II (EC50=125±4nM). Although JZTX-II had little or no effect on steady-state inactivation of the residual currents conducted by hNav1.5, it caused a 10mV hyperpolarized shift of activation. Moreover, JZTX-II increased the recovery rate of hNav1.5 channels, which should lead to a shorter transition from the inactivation to closed state. JZTX-II dissociated from toxin-channel complex via extreme depolarization and subsequently rebound to the channel upon repolarization. Mutagenesis analyses showed that the domain IV (DIV) voltage-sensor domain (VSD) was critical for JZTX-II binding to hNav1.5 and some mutations located in S1-S2 and S3-S4 extracellular loops of hNav1.5 DIV additively reduced the toxin sensitivity of hNav1.5. Our data identified the mechanism underlying JZTX-II inhibiting hNav1.5, similar to scorpion α-toxins, involving binding to neurotoxin receptor site 3.

  11. Neutralisation of a single voltage sensor affects gating determinants in all four pore-forming S6 segments of Ca(V)1.2: a cooperative gating model.

    PubMed

    Beyl, Stanislav; Depil, Katrin; Hohaus, Annette; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna; Linder, Tobias; Timin, Eugen; Hering, Steffen

    2012-10-01

    Voltage sensors trigger the closed-open transitions in the pore of voltage-gated ion channels. To probe the transmission of voltage sensor signalling to the channel pore of Ca(V)1.2, we investigated how elimination of positive charges in the S4 segments (charged residues were replaced by neutral glutamine) modulates gating perturbations induced by mutations in pore-lining S6 segments. Neutralisation of all positively charged residues in IIS4 produced a functional channel (IIS4(N)), while replacement of the charged residues in IS4, IIIS4 and IVS4 segments resulted in nonfunctional channels. The IIS4(N) channel displayed activation kinetics similar to wild type. Mutations in a highly conserved structure motif on S6 segments ("GAGA ring": G432W in IS6, A780T in IIS6, G1193T in IIIS6 and A1503G in IVS6) induce strong left-shifted activation curves and decelerated channel deactivation kinetics. When IIS4(N) was combined with these mutations, the activation curves were shifted back towards wild type and current kinetics were accelerated. In contrast, 12 other mutations adjacent to the GAGA ring in IS6-IVS6, which also affect activation gating, were not rescued by IIS4(N). Thus, the rescue of gating distortions in segments IS6-IVS6 by IIS4(N) is highly position-specific. Thermodynamic cycle analysis supports the hypothesis that IIS4 is energetically coupled with the distantly located GAGA residues. We speculate that conformational changes caused by neutralisation of IIS4 are not restricted to domain II (IIS6) but are transmitted to gating structures in domains I, III and IV via the GAGA ring.

  12. Interaction of Tarantula Venom Peptide ProTx-II with Lipid Membranes Is a Prerequisite for Its Inhibition of Human Voltage-gated Sodium Channel NaV1.7.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Sónia Troeira; Deplazes, Evelyne; Lawrence, Nicole; Cheneval, Olivier; Chaousis, Stephanie; Inserra, Marco; Thongyoo, Panumart; King, Glenn F; Mark, Alan E; Vetter, Irina; Craik, David J; Schroeder, Christina I

    2016-08-12

    ProTx-II is a disulfide-rich peptide toxin from tarantula venom able to inhibit the human voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 (hNaV1.7), a channel reported to be involved in nociception, and thus it might have potential as a pain therapeutic. ProTx-II acts by binding to the membrane-embedded voltage sensor domain of hNaV1.7, but the precise peptide channel-binding site and the importance of membrane binding on the inhibitory activity of ProTx-II remain unknown. In this study, we examined the structure and membrane-binding properties of ProTx-II and several analogues using NMR spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show a direct correlation between ProTx-II membrane binding affinity and its potency as an hNaV1.7 channel inhibitor. The data support a model whereby a hydrophobic patch on the ProTx-II surface anchors the molecule at the cell surface in a position that optimizes interaction of the peptide with the binding site on the voltage sensor domain. This is the first study to demonstrate that binding of ProTx-II to the lipid membrane is directly linked to its potency as an hNaV1.7 channel inhibitor. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Interaction of Tarantula Venom Peptide ProTx-II with Lipid Membranes Is a Prerequisite for Its Inhibition of Human Voltage-gated Sodium Channel NaV1.7*

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Sónia Troeira; Deplazes, Evelyne; Lawrence, Nicole; Cheneval, Olivier; Chaousis, Stephanie; Inserra, Marco; Thongyoo, Panumart; King, Glenn F.; Mark, Alan E.; Vetter, Irina; Craik, David J.; Schroeder, Christina I.

    2016-01-01

    ProTx-II is a disulfide-rich peptide toxin from tarantula venom able to inhibit the human voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 (hNaV1.7), a channel reported to be involved in nociception, and thus it might have potential as a pain therapeutic. ProTx-II acts by binding to the membrane-embedded voltage sensor domain of hNaV1.7, but the precise peptide channel-binding site and the importance of membrane binding on the inhibitory activity of ProTx-II remain unknown. In this study, we examined the structure and membrane-binding properties of ProTx-II and several analogues using NMR spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show a direct correlation between ProTx-II membrane binding affinity and its potency as an hNaV1.7 channel inhibitor. The data support a model whereby a hydrophobic patch on the ProTx-II surface anchors the molecule at the cell surface in a position that optimizes interaction of the peptide with the binding site on the voltage sensor domain. This is the first study to demonstrate that binding of ProTx-II to the lipid membrane is directly linked to its potency as an hNaV1.7 channel inhibitor. PMID:27311819

  14. Contribution of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions to the membrane integration of the Shaker K+ channel voltage sensor domain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyan; Sato, Yoko; Hessa, Tara; von Heijne, Gunnar; Lee, Jong-Kook; Kodama, Itsuo; Sakaguchi, Masao; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2007-05-15

    Membrane-embedded voltage-sensor domains in voltage-dependent potassium channels (K(v) channels) contain an impressive number of charged residues. How can such highly charged protein domains be efficiently inserted into biological membranes? In the plant K(v) channel KAT1, the S2, S3, and S4 transmembrane helices insert cooperatively, because the S3, S4, and S3-S4 segments do not have any membrane insertion ability by themselves. Here we show that, in the Drosophila Shaker K(v) channel, which has a more hydrophobic S3 helix than KAT1, S3 can both insert into the membrane by itself and mediate the insertion of the S3-S4 segment in the absence of S2. An engineered KAT1 S3-S4 segment in which the hydrophobicity of S3 was increased or where S3 was replaced by Shaker S3 behaves as Shaker S3-S4. Electrostatic interactions among charged residues in S2, S3, and S4, including the salt bridges between E283 or E293 in S2 and R368 in S4, are required for fully efficient membrane insertion of the Shaker voltage-sensor domain. These results suggest that cooperative insertion of the voltage-sensor transmembrane helices is a property common to K(v) channels and that the degree of cooperativity depends on a balance between electrostatic and hydrophobic forces.

  15. A Hg(II)-mediated "signal-on" electrochemical glutathione sensor.

    PubMed

    Lotfi Zadeh Zhad, Hamid R; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2014-08-07

    We report the design and fabrication of a DNA-based electrochemical sensor for detection of glutathione. Sensor signaling relies on glutathione's ability to chelate mercury Hg(II), displacing it from the thymine-Hg(II)-thymine complex formed between the surface-immobilized DNA probes. Our results show that this sensor is sensitive and selective enough to be employed in saliva.

  16. Intermediate states of the Kv1.2 voltage sensor from atomistic molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Delemotte, Lucie; Tarek, Mounir; Klein, Michael L; Amaral, Cristiano; Treptow, Werner

    2011-04-12

    The response of a membrane-bound Kv1.2 ion channel to an applied transmembrane potential has been studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Channel deactivation is shown to involve three intermediate states of the voltage sensor domain (VSD), and concomitant movement of helix S4 charges 10-15 Å along the bilayer normal; the latter being enabled by zipper-like sequential pairing of S4 basic residues with neighboring VSD acidic residues and membrane-lipid head groups. During the observed sequential transitions S4 basic residues pass through the recently discovered charge transfer center with its conserved phenylalanine residue, F(233). Analysis indicates that the local electric field within the VSD is focused near the F(233) residue and that it remains essentially unaltered during the entire process. Overall, the present computations provide an atomistic description of VSD response to hyperpolarization, add support to the sliding helix model, and capture essential features inferred from a variety of recent experiments.

  17. Cytosolic Ni(II) sensor in cyanobacterium: nickel detection follows nickel affinity across four families of metal sensors.

    PubMed

    Foster, Andrew W; Patterson, Carl J; Pernil, Rafael; Hess, Corinna R; Robinson, Nigel J

    2012-04-06

    Efflux of surplus Ni(II) across the outer and inner membranes of Synechocystis PCC 6803 is mediated by the Nrs system under the control of a sensor of periplasmic Ni(II), NrsS. Here, we show that the product of ORF sll0176, which encodes a CsoR/RcnR-like protein now designated InrS (for internal nickel-responsive sensor), represses nrsD (NrsD is deduced to efflux Ni(II) across the inner membrane) from a cryptic promoter between the final two ORFs in the nrs operon. Transcripts initiated from the newly identified nrsD promoter accumulate in response to nickel or cobalt but not copper, and recombinant InrS forms specific, Ni(II)-inhibited complexes with the nrsD promoter region. Metal-dependent difference spectra of Ni(II)- and Cu(I)-InrS are similar to Cu(I)-sensing CsoR and dissimilar to Ni(II)/Co(II)-sensing RcnR, consistent with factors beyond the primary coordination sphere switching metal selectivity. Competition with chelators mag-fura-2, nitrilotriacetic acid, EDTA, and EGTA estimate K(D) Ni(II) for the tightest site of InrS as 2.05 (±1.5) × 10(-14) m, and weaker K(D) Ni(II) for the cells' metal sensors of other types: Zn(II) co-repressor Zur, Co(II) activator CoaR, and Zn(II) derepressor ZiaR. Ni(II) transfer to InrS occurs upon addition to Ni(II) forms of each other sensor. InrS binds Ni(II) sufficiently tightly to derepress Ni(II) export at concentrations below K(D) Ni(II) of the other sensors.

  18. Design of a New Built-in UHF Multi-Frequency Antenna Sensor for Partial Discharge Detection in High-Voltage Switchgears

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Cheng, Zheng; Gui, Yingang

    2016-01-01

    In this study a new built-in ultrahigh frequency (UHF) antenna sensor was designed and applied in a high-voltage switchgear for partial discharge (PD) detection. The casing of the switchgear was initially used as the ground plane of the antenna sensor, which integrated the sensor into the high-voltage switchgear. The Koch snowflake patch was adopted as the radiation patch of the antenna to overcome the disadvantages of common microstrip antennas, and the feed position and the dielectric layer thickness were simulated in detail. Simulation results show that the antenna sensor possessed four resonant points with good impedance matching from 300 MHz to 1000 MHz, and it also presented good multi-frequency performance in the entire working frequency band. PD detection experiments were conducted in the high-voltage switchgear, and the fabricated antenna sensor was effectively built into the high-voltage switchgear. In order to reflect the advantages of the built-in antenna sensor, another external UHF antenna sensor was used as a comparison to simultaneously detect PD. Experimental results demonstrated that the built-in antenna sensor possessed high detection sensitivity and strong anti-interference capacity, which ensured the practicability of the design. In addition, it had more high-voltage switchgear PD detection advantages than the external sensor. PMID:27472331

  19. Design of a New Built-in UHF Multi-Frequency Antenna Sensor for Partial Discharge Detection in High-Voltage Switchgears.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Cheng, Zheng; Gui, Yingang

    2016-07-26

    In this study a new built-in ultrahigh frequency (UHF) antenna sensor was designed and applied in a high-voltage switchgear for partial discharge (PD) detection. The casing of the switchgear was initially used as the ground plane of the antenna sensor, which integrated the sensor into the high-voltage switchgear. The Koch snowflake patch was adopted as the radiation patch of the antenna to overcome the disadvantages of common microstrip antennas, and the feed position and the dielectric layer thickness were simulated in detail. Simulation results show that the antenna sensor possessed four resonant points with good impedance matching from 300 MHz to 1000 MHz, and it also presented good multi-frequency performance in the entire working frequency band. PD detection experiments were conducted in the high-voltage switchgear, and the fabricated antenna sensor was effectively built into the high-voltage switchgear. In order to reflect the advantages of the built-in antenna sensor, another external UHF antenna sensor was used as a comparison to simultaneously detect PD. Experimental results demonstrated that the built-in antenna sensor possessed high detection sensitivity and strong anti-interference capacity, which ensured the practicability of the design. In addition, it had more high-voltage switchgear PD detection advantages than the external sensor.

  20. A Novel NaV1.5 Voltage Sensor Mutation Associated with Severe Atrial and Ventricular Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Gang; Zhu, Wandi; Kanter, Ronald J.; Silva, Jonathan R.; Honeywell, Christina; Gow, Robert M.; Pitt, Geoffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inherited autosomal dominant mutations in cardiac sodium channels (NaV1.5) cause various arrhythmias, such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome. Although dozens of mutations throughout the protein have been reported, there are few reported mutations within a voltage sensor S4 transmembrane segment and few that are homozygous. Here we report analysis of a novel lidocaine-sensitive recessive mutation, p.R1309H, in the NaV1.5 DIII/S4 voltage sensor in a patient with a complex arrhythmia syndrome. Methods and Results We expressed the wild type or mutant NaV1.5 heterologously for analysis with the patch-clamp and voltage clamp fluorometry (VCF) techniques. p.R1309H depolarized the voltage-dependence of activation, hyperpolarized the voltage-dependence of inactivation, and slowed recovery from inactivation, thereby reducing the channel availability at physiologic membrane potentials. Additionally, p.R1309H increased the “late” Na+ current. The location of the mutation in DIIIS4 prompted testing for a gating pore current. We observed an inward current at hyperpolarizing voltages that likely exacerbates the loss-of-function defects at resting membrane potentials. Lidocaine reduced the gating pore current. Conclusions The p.R1309H homozygous NaV1.5 mutation conferred both gain-of-function and loss-of-function effects on NaV1.5 channel activity. Reduction of a mutation-induced gating pore current by lidocaine suggested a therapeutic mechanism. PMID:26801742

  1. Enhanced low current, voltage, and power dissipation measurements via Arduino Uno microcontroller with modified commercially available sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Meghan; Eckel, Ryan; Senevirathne, Indrajith

    The versatility, simplicity, and robustness of Arduino microcontroller architecture have won a huge following with increasingly serious engineering and physical science applications. Arduino microcontroller environment coupled with commercially available sensors have been used to systematically measure, record, and analyze low currents, low voltages and corresponding dissipated power for assessing secondary physical properties in a diverse array of engineering systems. Setup was assembled via breadboard, wire, and simple soldering with an Arduino Uno with ATmega328P microcontroller connected to a PC. The microcontroller was programmed with Arduino Software while the bootloader was used to upload the code. Commercial Hall effect current sensor modules ACS712 and INA169 current shunt monitor was used to measure corresponding low to ultra-low currents and voltages. Stable measurement data was obtained via sensors and compared with corresponding oscilloscope measurements to assess reliability and uncertainty. Sensor breakout boards were modified to enhance the sensitivity of the measurements and to expand the applicability. Discussion of these measurements will focus on capabilities, capacities and limitations of the systems with examples of possible applications. Lock Haven Nanotechnology Program.

  2. Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channels does not affect their voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    of these observations are: (a) that Ca(2+)- dependent inactivation does not alter the voltage sensor, and (b) that inactivation affects the voltage sensor, but only in the small fraction of channels that open, and the effect goes undetected. A model of channel gating that assumes the first possibility is shown to account fully for the experimental results. Thus, extracellular divalent cations modulate voltage-dependent inactivation of the Ca2+ channel. Intracellular Ca2+ instead, appears to cause inactivation of the channel without affecting its voltage sensor. PMID:8133239

  3. Low-Voltage 96 dB Snapshot CMOS Image Sensor with 4.5 nW Power Dissipation per Pixel

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, Arthur; Teman, Adam; Belenky, Alexander; Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Fish, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Modern “smart” CMOS sensors have penetrated into various applications, such as surveillance systems, bio-medical applications, digital cameras, cellular phones and many others. Reducing the power of these sensors continuously challenges designers. In this paper, a low power global shutter CMOS image sensor with Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) ability is presented. This sensor features several power reduction techniques, including a dual voltage supply, a selective power down, transistors with different threshold voltages, a non-rationed logic, and a low voltage static memory. A combination of all these approaches has enabled the design of the low voltage “smart” image sensor, which is capable of reaching a remarkable dynamic range, while consuming very low power. The proposed power-saving solutions have allowed the maintenance of the standard architecture of the sensor, reducing both the time and the cost of the design. In order to maintain the image quality, a relation between the sensor performance and power has been analyzed and a mathematical model, describing the sensor Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Dynamic Range (DR) as a function of the power supplies, is proposed. The described sensor was implemented in a 0.18 um CMOS process and successfully tested in the laboratory. An SNR of 48 dB and DR of 96 dB were achieved with a power dissipation of 4.5 nW per pixel. PMID:23112588

  4. Components of gating charge movement and S4 voltage-sensor exposure during activation of hERG channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuren; Dou, Ying; Goodchild, Samuel J.; Es-Salah-Lamoureux, Zeineb

    2013-01-01

    The human ether-á-go-go–related gene (hERG) K+ channel encodes the pore-forming α subunit of the rapid delayed rectifier current, IKr, and has unique activation gating kinetics, in that the α subunit of the channel activates and deactivates very slowly, which focuses the role of IKr current to a critical period during action potential repolarization in the heart. Despite its physiological importance, fundamental mechanistic properties of hERG channel activation gating remain unclear, including how voltage-sensor movement rate limits pore opening. Here, we study this directly by recording voltage-sensor domain currents in mammalian cells for the first time and measuring the rates of voltage-sensor modification by [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulfonate chloride (MTSET). Gating currents recorded from hERG channels expressed in mammalian tsA201 cells using low resistance pipettes show two charge systems, defined as Q1 and Q2, with V1/2’s of −55.7 (equivalent charge, z = 1.60) and −54.2 mV (z = 1.30), respectively, with the Q2 charge system carrying approximately two thirds of the overall gating charge. The time constants for charge movement at 0 mV were 2.5 and 36.2 ms for Q1 and Q2, decreasing to 4.3 ms for Q2 at +60 mV, an order of magnitude faster than the time constants of ionic current appearance at these potentials. The voltage and time dependence of Q2 movement closely correlated with the rate of MTSET modification of I521C in the outermost region of the S4 segment, which had a V1/2 of −64 mV and time constants of 36 ± 8.5 ms and 11.6 ± 6.3 ms at 0 and +60 mV, respectively. Modeling of Q1 and Q2 charge systems showed that a minimal scheme of three transitions is sufficient to account for the experimental findings. These data point to activation steps further downstream of voltage-sensor movement that provide the major delays to pore opening in hERG channels. PMID:23478995

  5. Components of gating charge movement and S4 voltage-sensor exposure during activation of hERG channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuren; Dou, Ying; Goodchild, Samuel J; Es-Salah-Lamoureux, Zeineb; Fedida, David

    2013-04-01

    The human ether-á-go-go-related gene (hERG) K(+) channel encodes the pore-forming α subunit of the rapid delayed rectifier current, IKr, and has unique activation gating kinetics, in that the α subunit of the channel activates and deactivates very slowly, which focuses the role of IKr current to a critical period during action potential repolarization in the heart. Despite its physiological importance, fundamental mechanistic properties of hERG channel activation gating remain unclear, including how voltage-sensor movement rate limits pore opening. Here, we study this directly by recording voltage-sensor domain currents in mammalian cells for the first time and measuring the rates of voltage-sensor modification by [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulfonate chloride (MTSET). Gating currents recorded from hERG channels expressed in mammalian tsA201 cells using low resistance pipettes show two charge systems, defined as Q(1) and Q(2), with V(1/2)'s of -55.7 (equivalent charge, z = 1.60) and -54.2 mV (z = 1.30), respectively, with the Q(2) charge system carrying approximately two thirds of the overall gating charge. The time constants for charge movement at 0 mV were 2.5 and 36.2 ms for Q(1) and Q(2), decreasing to 4.3 ms for Q(2) at +60 mV, an order of magnitude faster than the time constants of ionic current appearance at these potentials. The voltage and time dependence of Q2 movement closely correlated with the rate of MTSET modification of I521C in the outermost region of the S4 segment, which had a V(1/2) of -64 mV and time constants of 36 ± 8.5 ms and 11.6 ± 6.3 ms at 0 and +60 mV, respectively. Modeling of Q(1) and Q(2) charge systems showed that a minimal scheme of three transitions is sufficient to account for the experimental findings. These data point to activation steps further downstream of voltage-sensor movement that provide the major delays to pore opening in hERG channels.

  6. Inhibition of voltage-gated calcium currents in type II vestibular hair cells by cinnarizine.

    PubMed

    Arab, Sonja F; Düwel, Philip; Jüngling, Eberhard; Westhofen, Martin; Lückhoff, Andreas

    2004-06-01

    Cinnarizine is pharmaceutically used in conditions with vestibular vertigo such as Meniere's disease. It is thought to act on extra-vestibular targets. We hypothesized that cinnarizine, as a blocker of L-type Ca2+ channels, may directly target vestibular hair cells where Ca2+ currents are important for the mechano-electrical transduction and transmitter release. Our aim was to clarify whether cinnarizine affected voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents in vestibular type II hair cells. Such cells were isolated from inner ears of guinea pigs by enzymatic and mechanical dissection from the gelatinous otolithic membrane and studied with the patch-clamp technique in conventional whole-cell mode. Ca2+ currents were elicited by depolarizing pulses in a solution containing 1.8 mM Ca2+ and 40 mM Ba2+. These currents resembled L-type currents (I(Ca,L)) with respect to their voltage-dependence and their inhibition by nifedipine and Cd2+ but did not show time-dependent inactivation. The currents were inhibited by cinnarizine in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner. The IC50 was 1.5 microM. A block exceeding 80% was achieved with 10 microM. The onset of current block was faster with higher concentrations but the reversibility after wash-out was less, suggesting accumulation in the membrane. We conclude that these direct actions of cinnarizine on hair cells should be considered as molecular mechanisms contributing to therapeutic effects of cinnarizine in vertigo.

  7. Molecular Interactions in the Voltage Sensor Controlling Gating Properties of CaV Calcium Channels.

    PubMed

    Tuluc, Petronel; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Benedetti, Bruno; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2016-02-02

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV) regulate numerous vital functions in nerve and muscle cells. To fulfill their diverse functions, the multiple members of the CaV channel family are activated over a wide range of voltages. Voltage sensing in potassium and sodium channels involves the sequential transition of positively charged amino acids across a ring of residues comprising the charge transfer center. In CaV channels, the precise molecular mechanism underlying voltage sensing remains elusive. Here we combined Rosetta structural modeling with site-directed mutagenesis to identify the molecular mechanism responsible for the specific gating properties of two CaV1.1 splice variants. Our data reveal previously unnoticed interactions of S4 arginines with an aspartate (D1196) outside the charge transfer center of the fourth voltage-sensing domain that are regulated by alternative splicing of the S3-S4 linker. These interactions facilitate the final transition into the activated state and critically determine the voltage sensitivity and current amplitude of these CaV channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectroscopic mapping of voltage sensor movement in the Shaker potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Glauner, K S; Mannuzzu, L M; Gandhi, C S; Isacoff, E Y

    1999-12-16

    Voltage-gated ion channels underlie the generation of action potentials and trigger neurosecretion and muscle contraction. These channels consist of an inner pore-forming domain, which contains the ion permeation pathway and elements of its gates, together with four voltage-sensing domains, which regulate the gates. To understand the mechanism of voltage sensing it is necessary to define the structure and motion of the S4 segment, the portion of each voltage-sensing domain that moves charged residues across the membrane in response to voltage change. We have addressed this problem by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer as a spectroscopic ruler to determine distances between S4s in the Shaker K+ channel in different gating states. Here we provide evidence consistent with S4 being a tilted helix that twists during activation. We propose that helical twist contributes to the movement of charged side chains across the membrane electric field and that it is involved in coupling voltage sensing to gating.

  9. Tuning FlaSh: redesign of the dynamics, voltage range, and color of the genetically encoded optical sensor of membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Giovanna; Siegel, Micah S; Roska, Botond; Loots, Eli; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2002-12-01

    The optical voltage sensor FlaSh, made from a fusion of a GFP "reporter domain" and a voltage-gated Shaker K(+) channel "detector domain," has been mutagenically tuned in both the GFP reporter and channel detector domains. This has produced sensors with improved folding at 37 degrees C, enabling use in mammalian preparations, and yielded variants with distinct spectra, kinetics, and voltage dependence, thus expanding the types of electrical signals that can be detected. The optical readout of FlaSh has also been expanded from single wavelength fluorescence intensity changes to dual wavelength measurements based on both voltage-dependent spectral shifts and changes in FRET. Different versions of FlaSh can now be chosen to optimize the detection of either action potentials or synaptic potentials, to follow high versus low rates of activity, and to best reflect electrical activity in cell types with distinct voltages of operation.

  10. A Novel Method for In-Situ Monitoring of Local Voltage, Temperature and Humidity Distributions in Fuel Cells Using Flexible Multi-Functional Micro Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Fan, Wei-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Ping

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, micro voltage, temperature and humidity sensors were fabricated and integrated for the first time on a stainless steel foil using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). These flexible multi-functional micro sensors have the advantages of high temperature resistance, flexibility, smallness, high sensitivity and precision of location. They were embedded in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and used to simultaneously measure variations in the inner voltage, temperature and humidity. The accuracy and reproducibility of the calibrated results obtained using the proposed micro sensors is excellent. The experimental results indicate that, at high current density and 100%RH or 75%RH, the relative humidity midstream and downstream saturates due to severe flooding. The performance of the PEM fuel cell can be stabilized using home-made flexible multi-functional micro sensors by the in-situ monitoring of local voltage, temperature and humidity distributions within it. PMID:22319361

  11. A novel method for in-situ monitoring of local voltage, temperature and humidity distributions in fuel cells using flexible multi-functional micro sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Fan, Wei-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Ping

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, micro voltage, temperature and humidity sensors were fabricated and integrated for the first time on a stainless steel foil using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). These flexible multi-functional micro sensors have the advantages of high temperature resistance, flexibility, smallness, high sensitivity and precision of location. They were embedded in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and used to simultaneously measure variations in the inner voltage, temperature and humidity. The accuracy and reproducibility of the calibrated results obtained using the proposed micro sensors is excellent. The experimental results indicate that, at high current density and 100%RH or 75%RH, the relative humidity midstream and downstream saturates due to severe flooding. The performance of the PEM fuel cell can be stabilized using home-made flexible multi-functional micro sensors by the in-situ monitoring of local voltage, temperature and humidity distributions within it.

  12. Effect of angiotensin II-induced arterial hypertension on the voltage-dependent contractions of mouse arteries.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Paul; Van Hove, Cor E; Leloup, Arthur J A; Schrijvers, Dorien M; De Meyer, Guido R Y; De Keulenaer, Gilles W

    2016-02-01

    Arterial hypertension (AHT) affects the voltage dependency of L-type Ca(2+) channels in cardiomyocytes. We analyzed the effect of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AHT on L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated isometric contractions in conduit arteries. AHT was induced in C57Bl6 mice with AngII-filled osmotic mini-pumps (4 weeks). Normotensive mice treated with saline-filled osmotic mini-pumps were used for comparison. Voltage-dependent contractions mediated by L-type Ca(2+) channels were studied in vaso-reactive studies in vitro in isolated aortic and femoral arteries by using extracellular K(+) concentration-response (KDR) experiments. In aortic segments, AngII-induced AHT significantly sensitized isometric contractions induced by elevated extracellular K(+) and depolarization. This sensitization was partly prevented by normalizing blood pressure with hydralazine, suggesting that it was caused by AHT rather than by direct AngII effects on aortic smooth muscle cells. The EC50 for extracellular K(+) obtained in vitro correlated significantly with the rise in arterial blood pressure induced by AngII in vivo. The AHT-induced sensitization persisted when aortic segments were exposed to levcromakalim or to inhibitors of basal nitric oxide release. Consistent with these observations, AngII-treatment also sensitized the vaso-relaxing effects of the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker diltiazem during K(+)-induced contractions. Unlike aorta, AngII-treatment desensitized the isometric contractions to depolarization in femoral arteries pointing to vascular bed specific responses of arteries to hypertension. AHT affects the voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated contraction of conduit arteries. This effect may contribute to the decreased vascular compliance in AHT and explain the efficacy of Ca(2+) channel blockers to reduce vascular stiffness and central blood pressure in AHT.

  13. Fabrication of Ultra-Thin Printed Organic TFT CMOS Logic Circuits Optimized for Low-Voltage Wearable Sensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Yasunori; Hayasaka, Kazuma; Shiwaku, Rei; Yokosawa, Koji; Shiba, Takeo; Mamada, Masashi; Kumaki, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Tokito, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrathin electronic circuits that can be manufactured by using conventional printing technologies are key elements necessary to realize wearable health sensors and next-generation flexible electronic devices. Due to their low level of power consumption, complementary (CMOS) circuits using both types of semiconductors can be easily employed in wireless devices. Here, we describe ultrathin CMOS logic circuits, for which not only the source/drain electrodes but also the semiconductor layers were printed. Both p-type and n-type organic thin film transistor devices were employed in a D-flip flop circuit in the newly developed stacked structure and exhibited excellent electrical characteristics, including good carrier mobilities of 0.34 and 0.21 cm2 V−1 sec−1, and threshold voltages of nearly 0 V with low operating voltages. These printed organic CMOS D-flip flop circuits exhibit operating frequencies of 75 Hz and demonstrate great potential for flexible and printed electronics technology, particularly for wearable sensor applications with wireless connectivity. PMID:27157914

  14. Fabrication of Ultra-Thin Printed Organic TFT CMOS Logic Circuits Optimized for Low-Voltage Wearable Sensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yasunori; Hayasaka, Kazuma; Shiwaku, Rei; Yokosawa, Koji; Shiba, Takeo; Mamada, Masashi; Kumaki, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Tokito, Shizuo

    2016-05-01

    Ultrathin electronic circuits that can be manufactured by using conventional printing technologies are key elements necessary to realize wearable health sensors and next-generation flexible electronic devices. Due to their low level of power consumption, complementary (CMOS) circuits using both types of semiconductors can be easily employed in wireless devices. Here, we describe ultrathin CMOS logic circuits, for which not only the source/drain electrodes but also the semiconductor layers were printed. Both p-type and n-type organic thin film transistor devices were employed in a D-flip flop circuit in the newly developed stacked structure and exhibited excellent electrical characteristics, including good carrier mobilities of 0.34 and 0.21 cm2 V‑1 sec‑1, and threshold voltages of nearly 0 V with low operating voltages. These printed organic CMOS D-flip flop circuits exhibit operating frequencies of 75 Hz and demonstrate great potential for flexible and printed electronics technology, particularly for wearable sensor applications with wireless connectivity.

  15. Plasmonic/Nonlinear Optical Material Core/Shell Nanorods as Nanoscale Plasmon Modulators and Optical Voltage Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yin, Anxiang; He, Qiyuan; Lin, Zhaoyang; Luo, Liang; Liu, Yuan; Yang, Sen; Wu, Hao; Ding, Mengning; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-01-11

    Herein, we report the design and synthesis of plasmonic/non-linear optical (NLO) material core/shell nanostructures that can allow dynamic manipulation of light signals using an external electrical field and enable a new generation of nanoscale optical voltage sensors. We show that gold nanorods (Au NRs) can be synthesized with tunable plasmonic properties and function as the nucleation seeds for continued growth of a shell of NLO materials (such as polyaniline, PANI) with variable thickness. The formation of a PANI nanoshell allows dynamic modulation of the dielectric environment of the plasmonic Au NRs, and therefore the plasmonic resonance characteristics, by an external electrical field. The finite element simulation confirms that such modulation is originated from the field-induced modulation of the dielectric constant of the NLO shell. This approach is general, and the coating of the Au NRs with other NLO materials (such as barium titanate, BTO) is found to produce a similar effect. These findings can not only open a new pathway to active modulation of plasmonic resonance at the sub-wavelength scale but also enable the creation of a new generation of nanoscale optical voltage sensors (NOVS). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Fabrication of Ultra-Thin Printed Organic TFT CMOS Logic Circuits Optimized for Low-Voltage Wearable Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yasunori; Hayasaka, Kazuma; Shiwaku, Rei; Yokosawa, Koji; Shiba, Takeo; Mamada, Masashi; Kumaki, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Tokito, Shizuo

    2016-05-09

    Ultrathin electronic circuits that can be manufactured by using conventional printing technologies are key elements necessary to realize wearable health sensors and next-generation flexible electronic devices. Due to their low level of power consumption, complementary (CMOS) circuits using both types of semiconductors can be easily employed in wireless devices. Here, we describe ultrathin CMOS logic circuits, for which not only the source/drain electrodes but also the semiconductor layers were printed. Both p-type and n-type organic thin film transistor devices were employed in a D-flip flop circuit in the newly developed stacked structure and exhibited excellent electrical characteristics, including good carrier mobilities of 0.34 and 0.21 cm(2) V(-1) sec(-1), and threshold voltages of nearly 0 V with low operating voltages. These printed organic CMOS D-flip flop circuits exhibit operating frequencies of 75 Hz and demonstrate great potential for flexible and printed electronics technology, particularly for wearable sensor applications with wireless connectivity.

  17. Ultra-low power sensor for autonomous non-invasive voltage measurement in IoT solutions for energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, Clemente; Balsamo, Domenico; Brunelli, Davide; Benini, Luca

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring current and voltage waveforms is fundamental to assess the power consumption of a system and to improve its energy efficiency. In this paper we present a smart meter for power consumption which does not need any electrical contact with the load or its conductors, and which can measure both current and voltage. Power metering becomes easier and safer and it is also self-sustainable because an energy harvesting module based on inductive coupling powers the entire device from the output of the current sensor. A low cost 32-bit wireless CPU architecture is used for data filtering and processing, while a wireless transceiver sends data via the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. We describe in detail the innovative contact-less voltage measurement system, which is based on capacitive coupling and on an algorithm that exploits two pre-processing channels. The system self-calibrates to perform precise measurements regardless the cable type. Experimental results demonstrate accuracy in comparison with commercial high-cost instruments, showing negligible deviations.

  18. S1 constrains S4 in the voltage sensor domain of Kv7.1 K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Haitin, Yoni; Yisharel, Ilanit; Malka, Eti; Shamgar, Liora; Schottelndreier, Hella; Peretz, Asher; Paas, Yoav; Attali, Bernard

    2008-04-09

    Voltage-gated K(+) channels comprise a central pore enclosed by four voltage-sensing domains (VSDs). While movement of the S4 helix is known to couple to channel gate opening and closing, the nature of S4 motion is unclear. Here, we substituted S4 residues of Kv7.1 channels by cysteine and recorded whole-cell mutant channel currents in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. In the closed state, disulfide and metal bridges constrain residue S225 (S4) nearby C136 (S1) within the same VSD. In the open state, two neighboring I227 (S4) are constrained at proximity while residue R228 (S4) is confined close to C136 (S1) of an adjacent VSD. Structural modeling predicts that in the closed to open transition, an axial rotation (approximately 190 degrees) and outward translation of S4 (approximately 12 A) is accompanied by VSD rocking. This large sensor motion changes the intra-VSD S1-S4 interaction to an inter-VSD S1-S4 interaction. These constraints provide a ground for cooperative subunit interactions and suggest a key role of the S1 segment in steering S4 motion during Kv7.1 gating.

  19. A monoclonal antibody that targets a NaV1.7 channel voltage sensor for pain and itch relief.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Park, Chul-Kyu; Chen, Gang; Han, Qingjian; Xie, Rou-Gang; Liu, Tong; Ji, Ru-Rong; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2014-06-05

    Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels control the upstroke of the action potentials in excitable cells. Multiple studies have shown distinct roles of NaV channel subtypes in human physiology and diseases, but subtype-specific therapeutics are lacking and the current efforts have been limited to small molecules. Here, we present a monoclonal antibody that targets the voltage-sensor paddle of NaV1.7, the subtype critical for pain sensation. This antibody not only inhibits NaV1.7 with high selectivity, but also effectively suppresses inflammatory and neuropathic pain in mice. Interestingly, the antibody inhibits acute and chronic itch despite well-documented differences in pain and itch modulation. Using this antibody, we discovered that NaV1.7 plays a key role in spinal cord nociceptive and pruriceptive synaptic transmission. Our studies reveal that NaV1.7 is a target for itch management, and the antibody has therapeutic potential for suppressing pain and itch. Our antibody strategy may have broad applications for voltage-gated cation channels.

  20. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Modeling and discussion of threshold voltage for a multi-floating gate FET pH sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhaoxia, Shi; Dazhong, Zhu

    2009-11-01

    Research into new pH sensors fabricated by the standard CMOS process is currently a hot topic. The new pH sensing multi-floating gate field effect transistor is found to have a very large threshold voltage, which is different from the normal ion-sensitive field effect transistor. After analyzing all the interface layers of the structure, a new sensitive model based on the Gauss theorem and the charge neutrality principle is created in this paper. According to the model, the charge trapped on the multi-floating gate during the process and the thickness of the sensitive layer are the main causes of the large threshold voltage. From this model, it is also found that removing the charge on the multi-floating gate is an effective way to decrease the threshold voltage. The test results for three different standard pH buffer solutions show the correctness of the model and point the way to solve the large threshold problem.

  1. A monoclonal antibody that targets a NaV1.7 channel voltage sensor for pain and itch relief

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Park, Chul-Kyu; Chen, Gang; Han, Qingjian; Xie, Rou-Gang; Liu, Tong; Ji, Ru-Rong; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Summary Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels control the upstroke of the action potentials in excitable cells. Multiple studies have shown distinct roles of NaV channel subtypes in human physiology and diseases, but subtype-specific therapeutics are lacking and the current efforts have been limited to small molecules. Here we present a monoclonal antibody that targets the voltage-sensor paddle of NaV1.7, the subtype critical for pain sensation. This antibody not only inhibits NaV1.7 with high selectivity but also effectively suppresses inflammatory and neuropathic pain in mice. Interestingly, the antibody inhibits acute and chronic itch, despite well-documented differences in pain and itch modulation. Using this antibody, we discovered that NaV1.7 plays a key role in spinal cord nociceptive and pruriceptive synaptic transmission. Our studies reveal that NaV1.7 is a target for itch management and the antibody has therapeutic potential for suppressing pain and itch. Our antibody strategy may have broad applications for voltage-gated cation channels. PMID:24856969

  2. Ultralow voltage, OTFT-based sensor for label-free DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Lai, S; Demelas, M; Casula, G; Cosseddu, P; Barbaro, M; Bonfiglio, A

    2013-01-04

    An organic ultralow voltage field effect transistor for DNA hybridization detection is presented. The transduction mechanism is based on a field-effect modulation due to the electrical charge of the oligonucleotides, so label-free detection can be performed. The device shows a sub-nanometer detection limit and unprecedented selectivity with respect to single nucleotide polymorphism.

  3. Interaction between permeant ions and voltage sensor during inactivation of N-type Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Shirokov, Roman

    1999-01-01

    Inactivation of neuronal N-type Ca2+ channels transiently expressed in human kidney tSA-201 cells was studied at the level of whole-cell Ca2+ current and intramembrane charge movement.Prolonged (5 s) depolarization to 40 mV shifted the voltage distribution of intramembrane charge movement from a transition potential (mid-point voltage) of 9.5 ± 3.8 mV to -55.4 ± 8.2 mV. Because of the large negative shift, it was possible to record intramembrane charge movement from unblocked inactivated channels and determine the effect of Ca2+ influx on inactivation of intramembrane charge movement.In unblocked channels, the rate of inactivation of charge movement (21 ± 3 s−1 at 0 mV) was close to that of Ca2+ current decay during the conditioning pulse. However, in blocked channels inactivation was significantly slower (4 ± 1 s−1 at 0 mV). In unblocked channels, the availability of Ca2+ current was minimal and charge movement from inactivated channels was maximal after conditioning to about 10 mV. After the block of ionic current, inactivation of charge movement gradually increased with voltage.Although the rate of Ca2+ current run-down was not affected by 10-15 μM free Ca2+ in the pipette solution, inactivation of Ca2+ currents during depolarization was about two times faster in high intracellular Ca2+.The present results favour the current-dependent mechanism of inactivation of N-type channels. They also suggest that Ca2+ acting in the permeation pathway and transmembrane voltage are the proximate causes of the same inactivation transitions of voltage sensing moieties in these channels. PMID:10420007

  4. Protein-fluctuation-induced water-pore formation in ion channel voltage-sensor translocation across a lipid bilayer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajapaksha, Suneth P.; Pal, Nibedita; Zheng, Desheng; Lu, H. Peter

    2015-11-01

    We have applied a combined fluorescence microscopy and single-ion-channel electric current recording approach, correlating with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to study the mechanism of voltage-sensor domain translocation across a lipid bilayer. We use the colicin Ia ion channel as a model system, and our experimental and simulation results show the following: (1) The open-close activity of an activated colicin Ia is not necessarily sensitive to the amplitude of the applied cross-membrane voltage when the cross-membrane voltage is around the resting potential of excitable membranes; and (2) there is a significant probability that the activation of colicin Ia occurs by forming a transient and fluctuating water pore of ˜15 Å diameter in the lipid bilayer membrane. The location of the water-pore formation is nonrandom and highly specific, right at the insertion site of colicin Ia charged residues in the lipid bilayer membrane, and the formation is intrinsically associated with the polypeptide conformational fluctuations and solvation dynamics. Our results suggest an interesting mechanistic pathway for voltage-sensitive ion channel activation, and specifically for translocation of charged polypeptide chains across the lipid membrane under a transmembrane electric field: the charged polypeptide domain facilitates the formation of hydrophilic water pore in the membrane and diffuses through the hydrophilic pathway across the membrane; i.e., the charged polypeptide chain can cross a lipid membrane without entering into the hydrophobic core of the lipid membrane but entirely through the aqueous and hydrophilic environment to achieve a cross-membrane translocation. This mechanism sheds light on the intensive and fundamental debate on how a hydrophilic and charged peptide domain diffuses across the biologically inaccessible high-energy barrier of the hydrophobic core of a lipid bilayer: The peptide domain does not need to cross the hydrophobic core to move across a

  5. Effect of sensor domain mutations on the properties of voltage-gated ion channels: molecular dynamics studies of the potassium channel Kv1.2.

    PubMed

    Delemotte, Lucie; Treptow, Werner; Klein, Michael L; Tarek, Mounir

    2010-11-03

    The effects on the structural and functional properties of the Kv1.2 voltage-gated ion channel, caused by selective mutation of voltage sensor domain residues, have been investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Following experiments that have identified mutations of voltage-gated ion channels involved in state-dependent omega currents, we observe for both the open and closed conformations of the Kv1.2 that specific mutations of S4 gating-charge residues destabilize the electrostatic network between helices of the voltage sensor domain, resulting in the formation of hydrophilic pathways linking the intra- and extracellular media. When such mutant channels are subject to transmembrane potentials, they conduct cations via these so-called "omega pores." This study provides therefore further insight into the molecular mechanisms that lead to omega currents, which have been linked to certain channelopathies.

  6. Structural Dynamics Of The S4 Voltage-Sensor Helix In Lipid Bilayers Lacking Lipid Phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Magnus; Freites, J. Alfredo; Tobias, Douglas J.; White, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels require lipid phosphates for functioning. The S4 helix, which carries the gating charges in the voltage-sensing domain (VSD), inserts into membranes while being stabilized by a protein-lipid interface in which lipid phosphates play an essential role. To examine the physical basis of the protein-lipid interface in the absence of lipid phosphates, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a KvAP S4 variant (S4mut) in bilayers with and without lipid phosphates. We find that in dioleoyltrimethylammoniumpropane (DOTAP) bilayers lacking lipid phosphates, the gating charges are solvated by anionic counterions and, hence, lack the bilayer support provided by phosphate-containing palmitoyloleoylglycerophosphocholine (POPC) bilayers. The result is a water-permeable bilayer with a significantly smaller deformations around the peptide. Together, these results provide an explanation for the non-functionality of VSDs in terms of a destabilizing protein-lipid interface. PMID:21692541

  7. KCNE1 remodels the voltage sensor of Kv7.1 to modulate channel function.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dick; Pan, Hua; Delaloye, Kelli; Cui, Jianmin

    2010-12-01

    The KCNE1 auxiliary subunit coassembles with the Kv7.1 channel and modulates its properties to generate the cardiac I(Ks) current. Recent biophysical evidence suggests that KCNE1 interacts with the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) of Kv7.1. To investigate the mechanism of how KCNE1 affects the VSD to alter the voltage dependence of channel activation, we perturbed the VSD of Kv7.1 by mutagenesis and chemical modification in the absence and presence of KCNE1. Mutagenesis of S4 in Kv7.1 indicates that basic residues in the N-terminal half (S4-N) and C-terminal half (S4-C) of S4 are important for stabilizing the resting and activated states of the channel, respectively. KCNE1 disrupts electrostatic interactions involving S4-C, specifically with the lower conserved glutamate in S2 (Glu(170) or E2). Likewise, Trp scanning of S4 shows that mutations to a cluster of residues in S4-C eliminate current in the presence of KCNE1. In addition, KCNE1 affects S4-N by enhancing MTS accessibility to the top of the VSD. Consistent with the structure of Kv channels and previous studies on the KCNE1-Kv7.1 interaction, these results suggest that KCNE1 alters the interactions of S4 residues with the surrounding protein environment, possibly by changing the protein packing around S4, thereby affecting the voltage dependence of Kv7.1.

  8. NS1643 Interacts around L529 of hERG to Alter Voltage Sensor Movement on the Path to Activation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiqing; Cheng, Yen May; Lees-Miller, James P.; Perissinotti, Laura L.; Claydon, Tom W.; Hull, Christina M.; Thouta, Samrat; Roach, Daniel E.; Durdagi, Serdar; Noskov, Sergei Y.; Duff, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    Activators of hERG1 such as NS1643 are being developed for congenital/acquired long QT syndrome. Previous studies identify the neighborhood of L529 around the voltage-sensor as a putative interacting site for NS1643. With NS1643, the V1/2 of activation of L529I (−34 ± 4 mV) is similar to wild-type (WT) (−37 ± 3 mV; P > 0.05). WT and L529I showed no difference in the slope factor in the absence of NS1643 (8 ± 0 vs. 9 ± 0) but showed a difference in the presence of NS1643 (9 ± 0.3 vs. 22 ± 1; P < 0.01). Voltage-clamp-fluorimetry studies also indicated that in L529I, NS1643 reduces the voltage-sensitivity of S4 movement. To further assess mechanism of NS1643 action, mutations were made in this neighborhood. NS1643 shifts the V1/2 of activation of both K525C and K525C/L529I to hyperpolarized potentials (−131 ± 4 mV for K525C and −120 ± 21 mV for K525C/L529I). Both K525C and K525C/K529I had similar slope factors in the absence of NS1643 (18 ± 2 vs. 34 ± 5, respectively) but with NS1643, the slope factor of K525C/L529I increased from 34 ± 5 to 71 ± 10 (P < 0.01) whereas for K525C the slope factor did not change (18 ± 2 at baseline and 16 ± 2 for NS1643). At baseline, K525R had a slope factor similar to WT (9 vs. 8) but in the presence of NS1643, the slope factor of K525R was increased to 24 ± 4 vs. 9 ± 0 mV for WT (P < 0.01). Molecular modeling indicates that L529I induces a kink in the S4 voltage-sensor helix, altering a salt-bridge involving K525. Moreover, docking studies indicate that NS1643 binds to the kinked structure induced by the mutation with a higher affinity. Combining biophysical, computational, and electrophysiological evidence, a mechanistic principle governing the action of some activators of hERG1 channels is proposed. PMID:25809253

  9. A click fluorophore sensor that can distinguish Cu(II) and Hg(II) via selective anion-induced demetallation.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yu Heng; Price, Jason R; Todd, Matthew H; Rutledge, Peter J

    2011-03-01

    A cyclam-based fluorescent sensor featuring a novel triazole pendant arm has been synthesised using click chemistry. The sensor is highly responsive to both Cu(II) and Hg(II) in neutral aqueous solution and displays excellent selectivity in the presence of various competing metal ions in 50-fold excess. The addition of specific anions such as I(-) and S(2)O(3)(2-) causes a complete revival of fluorescence only in the case of Hg(II), providing a simple and effective method for distinguishing solutions containing Cu(II), Hg(II) or a mixture of both ions, even in doped seawater samples. X-ray crystal structures of both the Hg(II) sensor complex and a model Cu(II) complex show that pendant triazole coordination occurs through the central nitrogen atom (N2), providing to the best of our knowledge the first reported examples of this unusual coordination mode in macrocycles. Fluorescence, mass spectrometry and (1)H NMR experiments reveal that the mechanism of anion-induced fluorescence revival involves either displacement of pendant coordination or complete removal of the Hg(II) from the macrocycle, depending on the anion.

  10. Use of Multi-Functional Flexible Micro-Sensors for in situ Measurement of Temperature, Voltage and Fuel Flow in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Chan, Pin-Cheng; Lee, Chung-Ju

    2010-01-01

    Temperature, voltage and fuel flow distribution all contribute considerably to fuel cell performance. Conventional methods cannot accurately determine parameter changes inside a fuel cell. This investigation developed flexible and multi-functional micro sensors on a 40 μm-thick stainless steel foil substrate by using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and embedded them in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) to measure the temperature, voltage and flow. Users can monitor and control in situ the temperature, voltage and fuel flow distribution in the cell. Thereby, both fuel cell performance and lifetime can be increased. PMID:22163545

  11. Use of multi-functional flexible micro-sensors for in situ measurement of temperature, voltage and fuel flow in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Chan, Pin-Cheng; Lee, Chung-Ju

    2010-01-01

    Temperature, voltage and fuel flow distribution all contribute considerably to fuel cell performance. Conventional methods cannot accurately determine parameter changes inside a fuel cell. This investigation developed flexible and multi-functional micro sensors on a 40 μm-thick stainless steel foil substrate by using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and embedded them in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) to measure the temperature, voltage and flow. Users can monitor and control in situ the temperature, voltage and fuel flow distribution in the cell. Thereby, both fuel cell performance and lifetime can be increased.

  12. Rapid and wide-range determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) in fish tissues using light addressable potentiometric sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Xu, Yiwei; Tahir, Haroon E; Zou, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping

    2017-04-15

    A rapid and wide-range method, based on light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), is introduced into determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) in fish tissues. A compact LAPS module is prepared by integrating four LAPS chips specifically sensitive to target elements. Its responses in digestions from various settings are investigated to find suitable factors. Analytical properties of this method are evaluated in consequent experiments under optimized conditions. Measurement range for each target element exceeds 0.1 to 1000mgL(-1), and response time is less than 10s. Accuracy, precision and selectivity of the proposed method are also well defined in measurements. It is successively performed to detect the target elements in real fish samples from 4 species, and obtained results are consistent with certified method.

  13. External protons destabilize the activated voltage sensor in hERG channels.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu Patrick; Cheng, Yen May; Van Slyke, Aaron C; Claydon, Tom W

    2014-03-01

    Extracellular acidosis shifts hERG channel activation to more depolarized potentials and accelerates channel deactivation; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. External divalent cations, e.g., Ca(2+) and Cd(2+), mimic these effects and coordinate within a metal ion binding pocket composed of three acidic residues in hERG: D456 and D460 in S2 and D509 in S3. A common mechanism may underlie divalent cation and proton effects on hERG gating. Using two-electrode voltage clamp, we show proton sensitivity of hERG channel activation (pKa = 5.6), but not deactivation, was greatly reduced in the presence of Cd(2+) (0.1 mM), suggesting a common binding site for the Cd(2+) and proton effect on activation and separable effects of protons on activation and deactivation. Mutational analysis confirmed that D509 plays a critical role in the pH dependence of activation, as shown previously, and that cooperative actions involving D456 and D460 are also required. Importantly, neutralization of all three acidic residues abolished the proton-induced shift of activation, suggesting that the metal ion binding pocket alone accounts for the effects of protons on hERG channel activation. Voltage-clamp fluorimetry measurements demonstrated that protons shifted the voltage dependence of S4 movement to more depolarized potentials. The data indicate a site and mechanism of action for protons on hERG activation gating; protonation of D456, D460 and D509 disrupts interactions between these residues and S4 gating charges to destabilize the activated configuration of S4.

  14. A model of the detection of warmth and cold by cutaneous sensors through effects on voltage-gated membrane channels

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Robert K.

    1999-01-01

    Warmth and cold sensations are known to derive from separate warm and cold cutaneous thermoreceptors in the form of differentiated afferent nerves. The firing rate of warm-sensing nerves increases as the temperature increases; the firing rate of cold-sensing nerves increases if the temperature is reduced. I postulate that the primary sensitivity of the warm sensors derives from voltage-gated Ca2+ membrane channels configured such that an increase in temperature opens channels and increases the ion influx while a reduction in temperature increases the ion influx through voltage-gated Na+ channels in the cold sensory nerve ends. In either case, the initial cation influx causes a small cellular depolarization that further opens Ca2+ channels, admitting more cations in a positive feedback process that leads to the depolarization of the membrane, thus initiating an action potential pulse. Monte Carlo calculations based on a well defined model of such processes, which include effects of noise, demonstrate quantitative agreement of the model with an extensive body of data. PMID:10518535

  15. Design and modeling of magnetically driven electric-field sensor for non-contact DC voltage measurement in electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Decai; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the design and modeling of a magnetically driven electric-field sensor for non-contact DC voltage measurement are presented. The magnetic drive structure of the sensor is composed of a small solenoid and a cantilever beam with a cylindrical magnet mounted on it. The interaction of the magnet and the solenoid provides the magnetic driving force for the sensor. Employing magnetic drive structure brings the benefits of low driving voltage and large vibrating displacement, which consequently results in less interference from the drive signal. In the theoretical analyses, the capacitance calculation model between the wire and the sensing electrode is built. The expression of the magnetic driving force is derived by the method of linear fitting. The dynamical model of the magnetic-driven cantilever beam actuator is built by using Euler-Bernoulli theory and distributed parameter method. Taking advantage of the theoretical model, the output voltage of proposed sensor can be predicted. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical results. The proposed sensor shows a favorable linear response characteristic. The proposed sensor has a measuring sensitivity of 9.87 μV/(V/m) at an excitation current of 37.5 mA. The electric field intensity resolution can reach 10.13 V/m.

  16. Imaging Membrane Potential with Two Types of Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Voltage Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungmoo; Piao, Hong Hua; Sepheri-Rad, Masoud; Jung, Arong; Sung, Uhna; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Baker, Bradley J

    2016-02-04

    Genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) have improved to the point where they are beginning to be useful for in vivo recordings. While the ultimate goal is to image neuronal activity in vivo, one must be able to image activity of a single cell to ensure successful in vivo preparations. This procedure will describe how to image membrane potential in a single cell to provide a foundation to eventually image in vivo. Here we describe methods for imaging GEVIs consisting of a voltage-sensing domain fused to either a single fluorescent protein (FP) or two fluorescent proteins capable of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in vitro. Using an image splitter enables the projection of images created by two different wavelengths onto the same charge-coupled device (CCD) camera simultaneously. The image splitter positions a second filter cube in the light path. This second filter cube consists of a dichroic and two emission filters to separate the donor and acceptor fluorescent wavelengths depending on the FPs of the GEVI. This setup enables the simultaneous recording of both the acceptor and donor fluorescent partners while the membrane potential is manipulated via whole cell patch clamp configuration. When using a GEVI consisting of a single FP, the second filter cube can be removed allowing the mirrors in the image splitter to project a single image onto the CCD camera.

  17. Monte Carlo Simulations of Microchannel Plate Detectors II: Pulsed Voltage Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kruschwitz, Craig A.; Wu, Ming; Rochau, Greg A.

    2011-02-11

    This paper is part of a continuing study of straight-channel microchannel plate (MCP)–based x-ray detectors. Such detectors are a useful diagnostic tool for two-dimensional, time-resolved imaging and time-resolved x-ray spectroscopy. To interpret the data from such detectors, it is critical to develop a better understanding of the behavior of MCPs biased with subnanosecond voltage pulses. The subject of this paper is a Monte Carlo computer code that simulates the electron cascade in a MCP channel under an arbitrary pulsed voltage, particularly those pulses with widths comparable to the transit time of the electron cascade in the MCP under DC voltage bias. We use this code to study the gain as a function of time (also called the gate profile or optical gate) for various voltage pulse shapes, including pulses measured along the MCP. In addition, experimental data of MCP behavior in pulsed mode are obtained with a short-pulse UV laser. Comparisons between the simulations and experimental data show excellent agreement for both the gate profile and the peak relative sensitivity along the MCP strips. We report that the dependence of relative gain on peak voltage increases in sensitivity in pulsed mode when the width of the high-voltage waveform is smaller than the transit time of cascading electrons in the MCP.

  18. Voltage-gated Na+ channel II immunoreactivity is selectively up-regulated in hippocampal interneurons of seizure sensitive gerbils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Kwak, Sung-Eun; Choi, Hui-Chul; Song, Hong-Ki; Kim, Yeong-In; Jo, Seung-Mook; Kang, Tae-Cheon

    2008-06-27

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) in the normal and epileptic hippocampus of gerbils (a genetic epilepsy model) in order to confirm the relationship between VGSC and seizure activity in these animals. There was no difference of VGSC I immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between seizure-resistant (SR) and seizure sensitive (SS) gerbils. VGSC II immunoreactivity was rarely detected in the perikarya of principal neurons and interneurons in the SR gerbil hippocampus. However, in the SS gerbil hippocampus, VGSC II immunoreactivity was densely observed in the somata of interneurons located in the stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum-moleculare. Double immunofluorescent study showed immunoreactivity for calretinin (approximately 80% in VGSC II-positive neurons) or calbindin D-28k (approximately 20% in VGSC II-positive neurons) in VGSC II-immunoreactive neurons. VGSC II-immunoreactive neurons did not show parvalbumin immunoreactivity. These findings suggest that seizure activity in SS gerbils may be related to the selective hyperactivation of interneurons in stratum lacunosum-moleculare via the up-regulation of VGSC II expression, which leads to the disinhibition of CA1 pyramidal cells.

  19. Commandeering Channel Voltage Sensors for Secretion, Cell Turgor, and Volume Control.

    PubMed

    Karnik, Rucha; Waghmare, Sakharam; Zhang, Ben; Larson, Emily; Lefoulon, Cécile; Gonzalez, Wendy; Blatt, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Control of cell volume and osmolarity is central to cellular homeostasis in all eukaryotes. It lies at the heart of the century-old problem of how plants regulate turgor, mineral and water transport. Plants use strongly electrogenic H(+)-ATPases, and the substantial membrane voltages they foster, to drive solute accumulation and generate turgor pressure for cell expansion. Vesicle traffic adds membrane surface and contributes to wall remodelling as the cell grows. Although a balance between vesicle traffic and ion transport is essential for cell turgor and volume control, the mechanisms coordinating these processes have remained obscure. Recent discoveries have now uncovered interactions between conserved subsets of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins that drive the final steps in secretory vesicle traffic and ion channels that mediate in inorganic solute uptake. These findings establish the core of molecular links, previously unanticipated, that coordinate cellular homeostasis and cell expansion.

  20. Cyclam-based "clickates": homogeneous and heterogeneous fluorescent sensors for Zn(II).

    PubMed

    Tamanini, Emiliano; Flavin, Kevin; Motevalli, Majid; Piperno, Silvia; Gheber, Levi A; Todd, Matthew H; Watkinson, Michael

    2010-04-19

    In an effort to improve upon the recently reported cyclam based zinc sensor 1, the "click"-generated 1,8-disubstituted analogue 2 has been prepared. The ligand shows a 2-fold increase in its fluorescence emission compared to 1 exclusively in the presence of Zn(II) that is typical of switch-on PET fluorescent sensors. Single crystal X-ray diffraction of complexes of model ligand 10 reveals that the configuration adopted by the macrocyclic framework is extremely sensitive to the metal ion to which it coordinates. For Zn(II), Mg(II), and Li(I) the metal ions adopt an octahedral geometry with a trans III configuration of the cyclam ring. In contrast for Ni(II) the ligand adopts the rare cis V configuration, while for Cu(II) a clear preference for five-coordinate geometry is displayed with a trans I configuration of the macrocyclic ring being observed in two essentially isostructural compounds prepared via different routes. The ligand displays an increased selectivity for Zn(II) compared to 1 in the majority of cases with excellent selectivity upheld over Na(I), Mg(II), Ca(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Fe(III). In contrast for Cu(II) and Hg(II) little improvement was observed for 2 compared to 1 and for Cd(II) the selectivity of the new ligand was inferior. In the light of these findings and the slower response times for ligand 2, our original "click"-generated cyclam sensor system 1 was employed in a proof of concept study to prepare a heterogeneous sol-gel based material which retains its PET response to Zn(II). The versatile nature of the sol-gel process importantly allows the simple preparation of a variety of nanostructured materials displaying high surface area-volume ratio using fabrication methods such as soft lithography, electrospinning, and nanopipetting.

  1. Optical fiber sensor for Hg(II) based on carbon dots.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Helena M R; Duarte, Abel J; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2010-12-15

    An optical fiber sensor for Hg(II) in aqueous solution based on sol-gel immobilized carbon dots nanoparticles functionalized with PEG(200) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine is described. This sol-gel method generated a thin (about 750 nm), homogenous and smooth (roughness of 2.7±0.7 Å) film that immobilizes the carbon dots and allows reversible sensing of Hg(II) in aqueous solution. A fast (less than 10 s), reversible and stable (the fluorescence intensity measurements oscillate less than 1% after several calibration cycles) sensor system was obtained. The sensor allow the detection of submicron molar concentrations of Hg(II) in aqueous solution. The fluorescence intensity of the immobilized carbon dots is quenched by the presence of Hg(II) with a Stern-Volmer constant (pH=6.8) of 5.3×10(5) M(-1).

  2. Field-effect sensors with charged macromolecules: characterisation by capacitance-voltage, constant-capacitance, impedance spectroscopy and atomic-force microscopy methods.

    PubMed

    Poghossian, A; Abouzar, M H; Amberger, F; Mayer, D; Han, Y; Ingebrandt, S; Offenhäusser, A; Schöning, M J

    2007-04-15

    Field-effect-based capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) sensors have been utilised for the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) immobilisation and hybridisation detection as well as for monitoring the layer-by-layer adsorption of polyelectrolytes (anionic poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and cationic poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH)). The EIS sensors with charged macromolecules have been systematically characterised by capacitance-voltage, constant-capacitance, impedance spectroscopy and atomic-force microscopy methods. The effect of the number and polarity of the polyelectrolyte layers on the shift of the capacitance-voltage curves has been investigated. Alternating potential shifts of about 30-90 mV have been observed after the adsorption of each polyanion and polycation layer, respectively. The DNA immobilisation and hybridisation signals were 35-55 and 24-33 mV, respectively. The possible mechanisms for the sensor responses are discussed.

  3. Autonomous transmembrane segment S4 of the voltage sensor domain partitions into the lipid membrane.

    PubMed

    Tiriveedhi, Venkataswarup; Miller, Melissa; Butko, Peter; Li, Min

    2012-07-01

    The S4 transmembrane segment in voltage-gated ion channels, a highly basic alpha helix, responds to changes in membrane potential and induces channel opening. Earlier work by others indicates that the S4 segment interacts with lipids in plasma membrane, but its mechanism is unclear. Working with synthetic tryptophan-labeled S4 peptides, we characterized binding of autonomous S4 to lipid membranes. The binding free energy (5.2 +/- 0.2 kcal/mol) of the peptide-lipid interaction was estimated from the apparent dissociation constants, determined from the changes in anisotropy of tryptophan fluorescence induced by addition of lipid vesicles with 30 mol% phosphatidylglycerol. The results are in good agreement with the prediction based on the Wimley-White hydrophobicity scale for interfacial (IF) binding of an alpha-helical peptide to the lipid bilayer (6.98 kcal/mol). High salt inhibited the interaction, thus indicating that the peptide/membrane interaction has both electrostatic and non-electrostatic components. Furthermore, the synthetic S4 corresponding to the Shaker potassium channel was found to spontaneously penetrate into the negatively charged lipid membrane to a depth of about 9 A. Our results revealed important biophysical parameters that influence the interaction of S4 with the membrane: they include fluidity, surface charge, and surface pressure of the membrane, and the at helicity and regular spacing of basic amino-acid residues in the S4 sequence.

  4. Autonomous Transmembrane Segment S4 of the Voltage Sensor Domain Partitions into the Lipid Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Tiriveedhi, Venkataswarup; Miller, Melissa; Butko, Peter; Li, Min

    2012-01-01

    The S4 transmembrane segment in voltage-gated ion channels, a highly basic α helix, responds to changes in membrane potential and induces channel opening. Earlier work by others indicates that the S4 segment interacts with lipids in plasma membrane, but its mechanism is unclear. Working with synthetic tryptophan-labeled S4 peptides, we characterized binding of autonomous S4 to lipid membranes. The binding free energy (5.2 ± 0.2 kcal/mol) of the peptide-lipid interaction was estimated from the apparent dissociation constants, determined from the changes in anisotropy of tryptophan fluorescence induced by addition of lipid vesicles with 30 mol% phosphatidylglycerol. The results are in good agreement with the prediction based on the Wimley-White hydrophobicity scale for interfacial (IF) binding of an alpha-helical peptide to the lipid bilayer (6.98 kcal/mol). High salt inhibited the interaction, thus indicating that the peptide/membrane interaction has both electrostatic and non-electrostatic components. Furthermore, the synthetic S4 corresponding to the Shaker potassium channel was found to spontaneously penetrate into the negatively charged lipid membrane to a depth of about 9 Å. Our results revealed important biophysical parameters that influence the interaction of S4 with the membrane: they include fluidity, surface charge, and surface pressure of the membrane, and the α helicity and regular spacing of basic amino-acid residues in the S4 sequence. PMID:22465069

  5. Manufacturing Technology for High Voltage Power Supplies (HVPS). Volume II - Program Details.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    High Voltage Power Supplies ( HVPS ). This was accomplished by conducting a comprehensive evaluation of the materials, components and processes used to...produce HVPS . To demonstrate the benefits of the program the lessons learned were incorporated into two existing HVPS , ALQ-133 and AMRAAM. Several of

  6. Mechanism of electromechanical coupling in voltage-gated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Blunck, Rikard; Batulan, Zarah

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels play a central role in the generation of action potentials in the nervous system. They are selective for one type of ion - sodium, calcium, or potassium. Voltage-gated ion channels are composed of a central pore that allows ions to pass through the membrane and four peripheral voltage sensing domains that respond to changes in the membrane potential. Upon depolarization, voltage sensors in voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) undergo conformational changes driven by positive charges in the S4 segment and aided by pairwise electrostatic interactions with the surrounding voltage sensor. Structure-function relations of Kv channels have been investigated in detail, and the resulting models on the movement of the voltage sensors now converge to a consensus; the S4 segment undergoes a combined movement of rotation, tilt, and vertical displacement in order to bring 3-4e(+) each through the electric field focused in this region. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the voltage sensor movement leads to pore opening, the electromechanical coupling, is still not fully understood. Thus, recently, electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels has been investigated with a multitude of techniques including electrophysiology, 3D crystal structures, fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. Evidently, the S4-S5 linker, the covalent link between the voltage sensor and pore, plays a crucial role. The linker transfers the energy from the voltage sensor movement to the pore domain via an interaction with the S6 C-termini, which are pulled open during gating. In addition, other contact regions have been proposed. This review aims to provide (i) an in-depth comparison of the molecular mechanisms of electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels; (ii) insight as to how the voltage sensor and pore domain influence one another; and (iii) theoretical predictions on the movement of the cytosolic face of the Kv channels during gating.

  7. Mechanism of Electromechanical Coupling in Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Blunck, Rikard; Batulan, Zarah

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels play a central role in the generation of action potentials in the nervous system. They are selective for one type of ion – sodium, calcium, or potassium. Voltage-gated ion channels are composed of a central pore that allows ions to pass through the membrane and four peripheral voltage sensing domains that respond to changes in the membrane potential. Upon depolarization, voltage sensors in voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) undergo conformational changes driven by positive charges in the S4 segment and aided by pairwise electrostatic interactions with the surrounding voltage sensor. Structure-function relations of Kv channels have been investigated in detail, and the resulting models on the movement of the voltage sensors now converge to a consensus; the S4 segment undergoes a combined movement of rotation, tilt, and vertical displacement in order to bring 3–4e+ each through the electric field focused in this region. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the voltage sensor movement leads to pore opening, the electromechanical coupling, is still not fully understood. Thus, recently, electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels has been investigated with a multitude of techniques including electrophysiology, 3D crystal structures, fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. Evidently, the S4–S5 linker, the covalent link between the voltage sensor and pore, plays a crucial role. The linker transfers the energy from the voltage sensor movement to the pore domain via an interaction with the S6 C-termini, which are pulled open during gating. In addition, other contact regions have been proposed. This review aims to provide (i) an in-depth comparison of the molecular mechanisms of electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels; (ii) insight as to how the voltage sensor and pore domain influence one another; and (iii) theoretical predictions on the movement of the cytosolic face of the Kv channels during

  8. Application of HFCT and UHF sensors in on-line partial discharge measurements for insulation diagnosis of high voltage equipment.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Fernando; Garnacho, Fernando; Ortego, Javier; Sánchez-Urán, Miguel Ángel

    2015-03-25

    Partial discharge (PD) measurements provide valuable information for assessing the condition of high voltage (HV) insulation systems, contributing to their quality assurance. Different PD measuring techniques have been developed in the last years specially designed to perform on-line measurements. Non-conventional PD methods operating in high frequency bands are usually used when this type of tests are carried out. In PD measurements the signal acquisition, the subsequent signal processing and the capability to obtain an accurate diagnosis are conditioned by the selection of a suitable detection technique and by the implementation of effective signal processing tools. This paper proposes an optimized electromagnetic detection method based on the combined use of wideband PD sensors for measurements performed in the HF and UHF frequency ranges, together with the implementation of powerful processing tools. The effectiveness of the measuring techniques proposed is demonstrated through an example, where several PD sources are measured simultaneously in a HV installation consisting of a cable system connected by a plug-in terminal to a gas insulated substation (GIS) compartment.

  9. Application of HFCT and UHF Sensors in On-Line Partial Discharge Measurements for Insulation Diagnosis of High Voltage Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Fernando; Garnacho, Fernando; Ortego, Javier; Sánchez-Urán, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Partial discharge (PD) measurements provide valuable information for assessing the condition of high voltage (HV) insulation systems, contributing to their quality assurance. Different PD measuring techniques have been developed in the last years specially designed to perform on-line measurements. Non-conventional PD methods operating in high frequency bands are usually used when this type of tests are carried out. In PD measurements the signal acquisition, the subsequent signal processing and the capability to obtain an accurate diagnosis are conditioned by the selection of a suitable detection technique and by the implementation of effective signal processing tools. This paper proposes an optimized electromagnetic detection method based on the combined use of wideband PD sensors for measurements performed in the HF and UHF frequency ranges, together with the implementation of powerful processing tools. The effectiveness of the measuring techniques proposed is demonstrated through an example, where several PD sources are measured simultaneously in a HV installation consisting of a cable system connected by a plug-in terminal to a gas insulated substation (GIS) compartment. PMID:25815452

  10. A comparative study of constant-voltage and constant-temperature hot-wire anemometers: . Part II - The dynamic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kegerise, M. A.; Spina, E. F.

    2000-12-01

    The dynamic response of the constant-voltage anemometer (CVA) system was investigated both analytically and experimentally and compared to that of the CTA. The frequency response functions of the CVA system for a number of different circuit parameters and flow conditions were determined via laser-based radiative heating of the hot-wire sensor. A 2nd-order linear systems model of the CVA was developed to provide insight to the dynamic response and to interpret the experimental results. The qualitative variations in the frequency response function with changes in circuit parameters are in agreement with the model. The experimentally determined frequency-response functions of the CVA systems used in this study were found to have little dependence on the wire overheat ratio and Reynolds number.

  11. Calibration of a polarization navigation sensor using the NSGA-II algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tao; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Lilian; He, Xiaofeng

    2016-10-01

    A bio-inspired polarization navigation sensor is designed based on the polarization sensitivity mechanisms of insects. A new calibration model by formulating the calibration problem as a multi-objective optimization problem is presented. Unlike existing calibration models, the proposed model makes the calibration problem well-posed. The calibration parameters are optimized through Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) approach to minimize both angle of polarization (AOP) residuals and degree of linear polarization (DOLP) dispersions. The results of simulation and experiments show that the proposed algorithm is more stable than the compared methods for the calibration applications of polarization navigation sensors.

  12. Advanced Weapon System (AWS) Sensor Prediction Techniques Study. Volume II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    e solution of dara base storage and processing problems characteristIc of low altitude flight sensor Image simulation. The tasks carried out to...UNCLASSIFIED SECuRI’V CLASSIIPICATI’IN OF TNI AEe~* aA I UNCLSSIFIED_ raphics and image processing technology, and evaluation of experimental image... processing and pattern reeognition, and discusses geometric concepts related to projection. New approaches based on projective geometry and neurophysical

  13. An Acoustic Plate Mode Sensor for Biowarfare Toxins, Phase II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    Biological agents -- such as bacteria , bacterial toxins and viruses -- must be detected rapidly to allow their neutralization or the quick treatment of...Mode Sensor for Biowarfare Toxins PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Douglas J. McAllister, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Biode, Incorporated Bangor, Maine...OF PAGES Acoustic Plate Mode, Biowarfare Toxins 54 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  14. Biomimetic smart sensors for autonomous robotic behavior II: vestibular processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Shuwan; Deligeorges, Socrates; Soloway, Aaron; Lichtenstein, Lee; Gore, Tyler; Hubbard, Allyn

    2009-05-01

    Limited autonomous behaviors are fast becoming a critical capability in the field of robotics as robotic applications are used in more complicated and interactive environments. As additional sensory capabilities are added to robotic platforms, sensor fusion to enhance and facilitate autonomous behavior becomes increasingly important. Using biology as a model, the equivalent of a vestibular system needs to be created in order to orient the system within its environment and allow multi-modal sensor fusion. In mammals, the vestibular system plays a central role in physiological homeostasis and sensory information integration (Fuller et al, Neuroscience 129 (2004) 461-471). At the level of the Superior Colliculus in the brain, there is multimodal sensory integration across visual, auditory, somatosensory, and vestibular inputs (Wallace et al, J Neurophysiol 80 (1998) 1006-1010), with the vestibular component contributing a strong reference frame gating input. Using a simple model for the deep layers of the Superior Colliculus, an off-the-shelf 3-axis solid state gyroscope and accelerometer was used as the equivalent representation of the vestibular system. The acceleration and rotational measurements are used to determine the relationship between a local reference frame of a robotic platform (an iRobot Packbot®) and the inertial reference frame (the outside world), with the simulated vestibular input tightly coupled with the acoustic and optical inputs. Field testing of the robotic platform using acoustics to cue optical sensors coupled through a biomimetic vestibular model for "slew to cue" gunfire detection have shown great promise.

  15. Investigation of the current-voltage characteristics, the electric field distribution and the charge collection efficiency in x-ray sensors based on chromium compensated gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyazhev, A.; Novikov, V.; Tolbanov, O.; Zarubin, A.; Fiederle, M.; Hamann, E.

    2014-09-01

    In this work we present the results of experimental study of the current-voltage characteristics, the electric field distribution and the charge collection efficiency in X-ray sensors based on high resistivity, chromium compensated gallium arsenide (HR GaAs). The experimental samples were 0.1-0.25 cm2 pad sensors with the sensitive layer thickness in the range of 250-1000 μm. It has been shown that the current-voltage characteristics in the range 0.02 - 1 V are determined by the high-resistance sensor bulk. A physical model of the nonequilibrium charge carrier transport has been suggested to estimate the Schottky barrier height in the contact of "metal-semiconductor" and the sensor material resistivity. It has been established that the sensor resistivity reaches 1.5 GOhmṡcm at room temperature, with the Schottky barrier height constituting 0.80 - 0.82 eV. The electric field distribution was investigated using the Pockels effect at a wavelength of 920 nm. It has been found experimentally that in HR GaAs sensors the electric field distribution is much more homogeneous compared to the sensors based on SI GaAs: EL2. It has been shown that the temporal fluctuations of the electric field are absent in HR GaAs sensors. Analysis of the charge collection efficiency as a function of bias has demonstrated, that in the HR GaAs material the values of the mobility-lifetime product of the nonequilibrium charge carriers are in the order of 10-4 cm2/V and 3ṡ10-7 cm2/V for electrons and holes, respectively.

  16. Disparities in voltage-sensor charge and electromotility imply slow chloride-driven state transitions in the solute carrier SLC26a5

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lei; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Outer hair cells (OHCs) drive cochlear amplification that enhances our ability to detect and discriminate sounds. The motor protein, prestin, which evolved from the SLC26 anion transporter family, underlies the OHC’s voltage-dependent mechanical activity (eM). Here we report on simultaneous measures of prestin’s voltage-sensor charge movement (nonlinear capacitance, NLC) and eM that evidence disparities in their voltage dependence and magnitude as a function of intracellular chloride, challenging decades’ old dogma that NLC reports on eM steady-state behavior. A very simple kinetic model, possessing fast anion-binding transitions and fast voltage-dependent transitions, coupled together by a much slower transition recapitulates these disparities and other biophysical observations on the OHC. The intermediary slow transition probably relates to the transporter legacy of prestin, and this intermediary gateway, which shuttles anion-bound molecules into the voltage-enabled pool of motors, provides molecular delays that present as phase lags between membrane voltage and eM. Such phase lags may help to effectively inject energy at the appropriate moment to enhance basilar membrane motion. PMID:23431177

  17. The α2δ-1 subunit remodels CaV1.2 voltage sensors and allows Ca2+ influx at physiological membrane potentials

    PubMed Central

    Pantazis, Antonios; Sigg, Daniel; Weiss, James N.; Neely, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Excitation-evoked calcium influx across cellular membranes is strictly controlled by voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV), which possess four distinct voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) that direct the opening of a central pore. The energetic interactions between the VSDs and the pore are critical for tuning the channel’s voltage dependence. The accessory α2δ-1 subunit is known to facilitate CaV1.2 voltage-dependent activation, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, using voltage clamp fluorometry, we track the activation of the four individual VSDs in a human L-type CaV1.2 channel consisting of α1C and β3 subunits. We find that, without α2δ-1, the channel complex displays a right-shifted voltage dependence such that currents mainly develop at nonphysiological membrane potentials because of very weak VSD–pore interactions. The presence of α2δ-1 facilitates channel activation by increasing the voltage sensitivity (i.e., the effective charge) of VSDs I–III. Moreover, the α2δ-1 subunit also makes VSDs I–III more efficient at opening the channel by increasing the coupling energy between VSDs II and III and the pore, thus allowing Ca influx within the range of physiological membrane potentials. PMID:27481713

  18. Sensitive electrochemical sensor using a graphene-polyaniline nanocomposite for simultaneous detection of Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II).

    PubMed

    Ruecha, Nipapan; Rodthongkum, Nadnudda; Cate, David M; Volckens, John; Chailapakul, Orawon; Henry, Charles S

    2015-05-18

    This work describes the development of an electrochemical sensor for simultaneous detection of Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) using a graphene-polyaniline (G/PANI) nanocomposite electrode prepared by reverse-phase polymerization in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Two substrate materials (plastic film and filter paper) and two nanocomposite deposition methods (drop-casting and electrospraying) were investigated. Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry currents were higher for plastic vs. paper substrates. Performance of the G/PANI nanocomposites was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The G/PANI-modified electrode exhibited high electrochemical conductivity, producing a three-fold increase in anodic peak current (vs. the unmodified electrode). The G/PANI-modified electrode also showed evidence of increased surface area under SEM. Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry was used to measure Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) in the presence of Bi(III). A linear working range of 1-300 μg L(-1) was established between anodic current and metal ion concentration with detection limits (S/N=3) of 1.0 μg L(-1) for Zn(II), and 0.1 μg L(-1) for both Cd(II) and Pb(II). The G/PANI-modified electrode allowed selective determination of the target metals in the presence of common metal interferences including Mn(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Fe(II), Co(III), and Ni(II). Repeat assays on the same device demonstrated good reproducibility (%RSD<11) over 10 serial runs. Finally, this system was utilized for determining Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) in human serum using the standard addition method.

  19. Characterisation of individual pixel efficiency in the PILATUS II sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, A.; O'Keefe, G. J.; Sobott, B. A.; Kirby, N. M.; Rassool, R. P.

    2010-11-01

    Synchrotron applications such as protein crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) demand precise knowledge of detector pixel efficiency for data corrections. Current techniques used to determine detector efficiency are only applicable for the specific set-up for which the calibration is performed. Here the effect of comparator thresholding on pixel efficiency for PILATUS is presented for standard amplifier and shaper gain settings, allowing users to make necessary corrections to their intensity data for various threshold settings without requiring repeated empirical calibrations. A three-dimensional TCAD simulation of the sensor is also presented and is used to confirm the experimental result.

  20. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations.

    PubMed

    Zazo, Javier; Macua, Sergio Valcarcel; Zazo, Santiago; Pérez, Marina; Pérez-Álvarez, Iván; Jiménez, Eugenio; Cardona, Laura; Brito, Joaquín Hernández; Quevedo, Eduardo

    2016-12-17

    In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallowwaters. In the second part,we analyze the application requirements for an underwaterwireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios.

  1. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Zazo, Javier; Valcarcel Macua, Sergio; Zazo, Santiago; Pérez, Marina; Pérez-Álvarez, Iván; Jiménez, Eugenio; Cardona, Laura; Brito, Joaquín Hernández; Quevedo, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallow waters. In the second part, we analyze the application requirements for an underwater wireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios. PMID:27999309

  2. Single-trial imaging of spikes and synaptic potentials in single neurons in brain slices with genetically encoded hybrid voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    Ghitani, Nima; Bayguinov, Peter O.; Ma, Yihe

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded voltage sensors expand the optogenetics toolkit into the important realm of electrical recording, enabling researchers to study the dynamic activity of complex neural circuits in real time. However, these probes have thus far performed poorly when tested in intact neural circuits. Hybrid voltage sensors (hVOS) enable the imaging of voltage by harnessing the resonant energy transfer that occurs between a genetically encoded component, a membrane-tethered fluorescent protein that serves as a donor, and a small charged molecule, dipicrylamine, which serves as an acceptor. hVOS generates optical signals as a result of voltage-induced changes in donor-acceptor distance. We expressed the hVOS probe in mouse brain by in utero electroporation and in transgenic mice with a neuronal promoter. Under conditions favoring sparse labeling we could visualize single-labeled neurons. hVOS imaging reported electrically evoked fluorescence changes from individual neurons in slices from entorhinal cortex, somatosensory cortex, and hippocampus. These fluorescence signals tracked action potentials in individual neurons in a single trial with excellent temporal fidelity, producing changes that exceeded background noise by as much as 16-fold. Subthreshold synaptic potentials were detected in single trials in multiple distinct cells simultaneously. We followed signal propagation between different cells within one field of view and between dendrites and somata of the same cell. hVOS imaging thus provides a tool for high-resolution recording of electrical activity from genetically targeted cells in intact neuronal circuits. PMID:25411462

  3. Potentiometric carbon paste sensors for lead(II) based on dithiodibenzoic and mercaptobenzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Gismera, María Jesús; Sevilla, María Teresa; Procopio, Jesús R

    2006-03-01

    Dithiodibenzoic (DTB) acid and mercaptobenzoic (MB) acid were studied to characterize their abilities as modifier agents for lead(II) sensors. For both sensors, the best results were obtained with modified carbon paste electrodes with 24.1% of ligand. The pH influence on the potentiometric response was studied. The selectivity coefficients for both modified electrodes were tabulated. A potentiometric sensor based on DTB acid exhibited a more sensitive and selective response to lead ions than an MB electrode. The limits of detection for the DTB and MB electrodes were very similar, 5.01 x 10(-8) M and 3.98 x 10(-8) M, respectively, for lead(II) activity. The DTB sensor was applied to lead(II) ion determination in real samples and as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titrations. Natural and commercial humic acids were titrated using the DTB electrode to estimate the stability constant between these organic compounds and the lead(II) ions with successful results.

  4. Evaluation of a Trainer for Sensor Operators on Gunship II Aircraft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cream, Bertram W.

    This report describes the design, development, and evaluation of a training device intended to enable ground-based practice of equipment operation and target-tracking skills that are required by the Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) and Low Light Level TV (LLLTV) sensor operators assigned to Gunship II aircraft. This trainer makes use of a…

  5. Production quality characterisation techniques of sensors and prototypes for the BELLE II Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avella, P.; Andricek, L.; Koffmane, C.; Lehmann, R.; Liemann, G.; Moser, H.-G.; Ninkovic, J.; Richter, R. H.; Ritter, A.; Scheugenpflug, E.; Schaller, G.; Schopper, F.; Schnecke, M.; Valentan, M.; Wassatsch, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Belle II detector is a system currently under upgrade at the B-factory SuperKEKB in Tsukuba, Japan. The main novelty is the introduction of an additional position sensitive sub-detector in the vertex detector, between the beam pipe and the strip detector system. The sensor of choice for the Belle II Pixel Detector is the Depleted p-channel Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) sensor. In this paper the latest production of sensors and prototypes performed at the semiconductor Laboratory of the Max Planck Society, i.e. the PXD9 and the Electrical Multi-Chip Module (EMCM), are described. Wafer-level characterisation methods and techniques for faults in the metal system are also reported.

  6. RNA polymerase II senses obstruction in the DNA minor groove via a conserved sensor motif

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Gotte, Deanna; Yang, Fei; Hare, Alissa A.; Welch, Timothy R.; Li, Benjamin C.; Shin, Ji Hyun; Chong, Jenny; Strathern, Jeffrey N.; Dervan, Peter B.; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase II (pol II) encounters numerous barriers during transcription elongation, including DNA strand breaks, DNA lesions, and nucleosomes. Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides bind to the minor groove of DNA with programmable sequence specificity and high affinity. Previous studies suggest that Py-Im polyamides can prevent transcription factor binding, as well as interfere with pol II transcription elongation. However, the mechanism of pol II inhibition by Py-Im polyamides is unclear. Here we investigate the mechanism of how these minor-groove binders affect pol II transcription elongation. In the presence of site-specifically bound Py-Im polyamides, we find that the pol II elongation complex becomes arrested immediately upstream of the targeted DNA sequence, and is not rescued by transcription factor IIS, which is in contrast to pol II blockage by a nucleosome barrier. Further analysis reveals that two conserved pol II residues in the Switch 1 region contribute to pol II stalling. Our study suggests this motif in pol II can sense the structural changes of the DNA minor groove and can be considered a “minor groove sensor.” Prolonged interference of transcription elongation by sequence-specific minor groove binders may present opportunities to target transcription addiction for cancer therapy. PMID:27791148

  7. Low voltage, low power, high performance type II current conveyor-based linear current electrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, S. S.; Jamuar, S. S.

    2002-10-01

    Monolithic linear current electrometers in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology using type II current conveyors for high frequency current measurements are proposed. The proposed electrometers can measure the input current from 100 pA to 1.0 μA and have bandwidth in excess of 30 MHz.

  8. Voltage-Independent Inhibition of the Tetrodotoxin-Sensitive Sodium Currents by Oxotremorine and Angiotensin II in Rat Sympathetic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Puente, Erika I; De la Cruz, Lizbeth; Arenas, Isabel; Elias-Viñas, David; Garcia, David E

    2016-04-01

    Tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) currents have been extensively studied because they play a major role in neuronal firing and bursting. In this study, we showed that voltage-dependent Na(+) currents are regulated in a slow manner by oxotremorine (oxo-M) and angiotensin II in rat sympathetic neurons. We found that these currents can be readily inhibited through a signaling pathway mediated by G proteins and phospholipase C (PLC) β1. This inhibition is slowly established, pertussis toxin-insensitive, partially reversed within tens of seconds after oxo-M washout, and not relieved by a strong depolarization, suggesting a voltage-insensitive mechanism of inhibition. Specificity of the M1 receptor was tested by the MT-7 toxin. Activation and inactivation curves showed no shift in the voltage dependency under the inhibition by oxo-M. This inhibition is blocked by a PLC inhibitor (U73122, 1-(6-{[(17β)-3-Methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino}hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione), and recovery from inhibition is prevented by wortmannin, a PI3/4 kinase inhibitor. Hence, the pathway involves Gq/11 and is mediated by a diffusible second messenger. Oxo-M inhibition is occluded by screening phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-negative charges with poly-l-lysine and prevented by intracellular dialysis with a PIP2 analog. In addition, bisindolylmaleimide I, a specific ATP-competitive protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, rules out that this inhibition may be mediated by this protein kinase. Furthermore, oxo-M-induced suppression of Na(+) currents remains unchanged when neurons are treated with calphostin C, a PKC inhibitor that targets the diacylglycerol-binding site of the kinase. These results support a general mechanism of Na(+) current inhibition that is widely present in excitable cells through modulation of ion channels by specific G protein-coupled receptors. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Design and construction of the 3.2 MeV high voltage column for DARHT II

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, C., Elliott, B.; Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    2000-08-20

    A 3.2 MeV injector has been designed and built for the DARHT II Project at Los Alamos Lab. The installation of the complete injector system is nearing completion at this time. The requirements for the injector are to produce a 3.2 MeV, 2000-ampere electron pulse with a flattop width of at least 2-microseconds and emittance of less than 0.15 pi cm-rad normalized. A large high voltage column has been built and installed. The column is vertically oriented, is 4.4 meters long, 1.2 meters in diameter, and weighs 5700 kilograms. A novel method of construction has been employed which utilizes bonded Mycalex insulating rings. This paper will describe the design, construction, and testing completed during construction. Mechanical aspects of the design will be emphasized.

  10. Highly selective and stable florescent sensor for Cd(II) based on poly (azomethine-urethane).

    PubMed

    Kaya, İsmet; Kamacı, Musa

    2013-01-01

    In this study a kind of poly(azomethine-urethane); (E)-4-((2 hydroxyphenylimino) methyl)-2-methoxyphenyl 6-acetamidohexylcarbamate (HDI-co-3-DHB-2-AP) was prepared as in the literature and employed as a new fluorescent probe for detection of Cd(II) concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out in the presence of several kinds of heavy metals. HDI-co-3-DHB-2-AP gave a linearly and highly stable response against Cd(II) as decreasing a new emission peak at 562 nm. Possible interferences of other ions were found too low. Detection limit of the sensor was found as 8.86 × 10(-4) mol L(-1). Resultantly, HDI-co-3- DHB-2-AP could be effectively used as an optical Cd(II) sensor.

  11. Photosysem II: where does the light-induced voltage come from?

    PubMed

    Mamedov, Mahir D; Kurashov, Vasily N; Cherepanov, Dmitry A; Semenov, Alexey Yu

    2010-06-01

    Photosystem II (PS II) is a biological energy transducer. The enzyme catalyses the light-driven oxidation of water and reduction of plastoquinone. The aim of this work was to review the mechanisms of electrical events in PS II. The major contribution to the total photoelectric response is due to the charge-separation between the primary chlorophyll donor P680 and quinone acceptor QA accompanied by re-reduction of P680+ by tyrosine residue YZ. The remaining part of the membrane potential is believed to be associated mainly with electron and proton transfer events due to the S-state transitions of the oxygen-evolving complex and proton uptake associated with protonation of the doubly reduced secondary quinone acceptor QB. Under certain non-physiological conditions, some other electrogenic reactions are observed, namely: proton-coupled electron transfer between QA and non-heme Fe3+ and electron transfer from the protein-water interface to the YZ radical in the presence of artificial electron donors. These data may provide a good platform for further development of artificial photosynthetic constructs and bio-inspired catalysts.

  12. Molecular Template for a Voltage Sensor in a Novel K+ Channel. III. Functional Reconstitution of a Sensorless Pore Module from a Prokaryotic Kv Channel

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Jose S.; Grigoriev, Sergey M.; Montal, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    KvLm is a prokaryotic voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel from Listeria monocytogenes. The sequence of the voltage-sensing module (transmembrane segments S1-S4) of KvLm is atypical in that it contains only three of the eight conserved charged residues known to be deterministic for voltage sensing in eukaryotic Kv's. In contrast, the pore module (PM), including the S4-S5 linker and cytoplasmic tail (linker-S5-P-S6-C-terminus) of KvLm, is highly conserved. Here, the full-length (FL)-KvLm and the KvLm-PM only proteins were expressed, purified, and reconstituted into giant liposomes. The properties of the reconstituted FL-KvLm mirror well the characteristics of the heterologously expressed channel in Escherichia coli spheroplasts: a right-shifted voltage of activation, micromolar tetrabutylammonium-blocking affinity, and a single-channel conductance comparable to that of eukaryotic Kv's. Conversely, ionic currents through the PM recapitulate both the conductance and blocking properties of the FL-KvLm, yet the KvLm-PM exhibits only rudimentary voltage dependence. Given that the KvLm-PM displays many of the conduction properties of FL-KvLm and of other eukaryotic Kv's, including strict ion selectivity, we conclude that self-assembly of the PM subunits in lipid bilayers, in the absence of the voltage-sensing module, generates a conductive oligomer akin to that of the native KvLm, and that the structural independence of voltage sensing and PMs observed in eukaryotic Kv channels was initially implemented by nature in the design of prokaryotic Kv channels. Collectively, the results indicate that this robust functional module will prove valuable as a molecular template for coupling new sensors and to elucidate PM residue–specific contributions to Kv conduction properties. PMID:19029373

  13. Molecular template for a voltage sensor in a novel K+ channel. III. Functional reconstitution of a sensorless pore module from a prokaryotic Kv channel.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jose S; Grigoriev, Sergey M; Montal, Mauricio

    2008-12-01

    KvLm is a prokaryotic voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channel from Listeria monocytogenes. The sequence of the voltage-sensing module (transmembrane segments S1-S4) of KvLm is atypical in that it contains only three of the eight conserved charged residues known to be deterministic for voltage sensing in eukaryotic Kv's. In contrast, the pore module (PM), including the S4-S5 linker and cytoplasmic tail (linker-S5-P-S6-C-terminus) of KvLm, is highly conserved. Here, the full-length (FL)-KvLm and the KvLm-PM only proteins were expressed, purified, and reconstituted into giant liposomes. The properties of the reconstituted FL-KvLm mirror well the characteristics of the heterologously expressed channel in Escherichia coli spheroplasts: a right-shifted voltage of activation, micromolar tetrabutylammonium-blocking affinity, and a single-channel conductance comparable to that of eukaryotic Kv's. Conversely, ionic currents through the PM recapitulate both the conductance and blocking properties of the FL-KvLm, yet the KvLm-PM exhibits only rudimentary voltage dependence. Given that the KvLm-PM displays many of the conduction properties of FL-KvLm and of other eukaryotic Kv's, including strict ion selectivity, we conclude that self-assembly of the PM subunits in lipid bilayers, in the absence of the voltage-sensing module, generates a conductive oligomer akin to that of the native KvLm, and that the structural independence of voltage sensing and PMs observed in eukaryotic Kv channels was initially implemented by nature in the design of prokaryotic Kv channels. Collectively, the results indicate that this robust functional module will prove valuable as a molecular template for coupling new sensors and to elucidate PM residue-specific contributions to Kv conduction properties.

  14. Recent progress in sensor- and mechanics-R&D for the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergauer, T.; Doljeschi, P.; Frankenberger, A.; Friedl, M.; Gfall, I.; Irmler, C.; Onuki, Y.; Smiljic, D.; Tsuboyama, T.; Valentan, M.

    2013-08-01

    The Belle experiment at the KEKB electron/positron collider in Tsukuba (Japan) was successfully running for more than ten years. A major update of the machine to SuperKEKB is now foreseen until 2015, aiming a peak luminosity which is 40 times the peak value of the previous system. This also requires a redesign of the Belle detector (leading to Belle II) and especially its Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD), which surrounds the beam pipe. The future Belle II SVD will consist of four layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors based on 6 in. silicon wafers. Three of the four layers will be equipped with trapezoidal sensors in the slanted forward region. Moreover, two inner layers with pixel detectors based on DEPFET technology will complement the SVD as innermost detector. Since the KEKB-factory operates at relatively low energy, material inside the active volume has to be minimized in order to reduce multiple scattering. This can be achieved by arranging the sensors in the so-called "Origami chip-on-sensor concept", and a very light-weight mechanical support structure made from carbon fiber reinforced Airex foam. Moreover, CO2 cooling for the front-end chips will ensure high efficiency at minimum material budget. In this paper, an overview of the future Belle II SVD design will be given, covering the silicon sensors, the readout electronics and the mechanics. A strong emphasis will be given to our R&D work on double-sided sensors where different p-stop layouts for the n-side of the detectors were compared. Moreover, this paper gives updated numbers for the mechanical dimensions of the ladders and their radii.

  15. Voltage-Dependent Regulation of Complex II Energized Mitochondrial Oxygen Flux

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Fan; Fink, Brian D.; Yu, Liping; Sivitz, William I.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen consumption by isolated mitochondria is generally measured during state 4 respiration (no ATP production) or state 3 (maximal ATP production at high ADP availability). However, mitochondria in vivo do not function at either extreme. Here we used ADP recycling methodology to assess muscle mitochondrial function over intermediate clamped ADP concentrations. In so doing, we uncovered a previously unrecognized biphasic respiratory pattern wherein O2 flux on the complex II substrate, succinate, initially increased and peaked over low clamped ADP concentrations then decreased markedly at higher clamped concentrations. Mechanistic studies revealed no evidence that the observed changes in O2 flux were due to altered opening or function of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore or to changes in reactive oxygen. Based on metabolite and functional metabolic data, we propose a multifactorial mechanism that consists of coordinate changes that follow from reduced membrane potential (as the ADP concentration in increased). These changes include altered directional electron flow, altered NADH/NAD+ redox cycling, metabolite exit, and OAA inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase. In summary, we report a previously unrecognized pattern for complex II energized O2 flux. Moreover, our findings suggest that the ADP recycling approach might be more widely adapted for mitochondrial studies. PMID:27153112

  16. Preparation of Power Distribution System for High Penetration of Renewable Energy Part I. Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Regulation Pat II. Distribution Circuit Modeling and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshkbar Sadigh, Arash

    Part I: Dynamic Voltage Restorer In the present power grids, voltage sags are recognized as a serious threat and a frequently occurring power-quality problem and have costly consequence such as sensitive loads tripping and production loss. Consequently, the demand for high power quality and voltage stability becomes a pressing issue. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), as a custom power device, is more effective and direct solutions for "restoring" the quality of voltage at its load-side terminals when the quality of voltage at its source-side terminals is disturbed. In the first part of this thesis, a DVR configuration with no need of bulky dc link capacitor or energy storage is proposed. This fact causes to reduce the size of the DVR and increase the reliability of the circuit. In addition, the proposed DVR topology is based on high-frequency isolation transformer resulting in the size reduction of transformer. The proposed DVR circuit, which is suitable for both low- and medium-voltage applications, is based on dc-ac converters connected in series to split the main dc link between the inputs of dc-ac converters. This feature makes it possible to use modular dc-ac converters and utilize low-voltage components in these converters whenever it is required to use DVR in medium-voltage application. The proposed configuration is tested under different conditions of load power factor and grid voltage harmonic. It has been shown that proposed DVR can compensate the voltage sag effectively and protect the sensitive loads. Following the proposition of the DVR topology, a fundamental voltage amplitude detection method which is applicable in both single/three-phase systems for DVR applications is proposed. The advantages of proposed method include application in distorted power grid with no need of any low-pass filter, precise and reliable detection, simple computation and implementation without using a phased locked loop and lookup table. The proposed method has been verified

  17. Hypoxic increase in nitric oxide generation of rat sensory neurons requires activation of mitochondrial complex II and voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Henrich, M; Paddenberg, R; Haberberger, R V; Scholz, A; Gruss, M; Hempelmann, G; Kummer, W

    2004-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that sensory neurons of rat lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) respond to hypoxia with an activation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) resulting in enhanced NO production associated with mitochondria which contributes to resistance against hypoxia. Extracellular calcium is essential to this effect. In the present study on rat DRG slices, we set out to determine what types of calcium channels operate under hypoxia, and which upstream events contribute to their activation, thereby focusing upon mitochondrial complex II. Both the metallic ions Cd2+ and Ni2+, known to inhibit voltage-gated calcium channels and T-type channels, respectively, and verapamil and nifedipine, typical blocker of L-type calcium channels completely prevented the hypoxic neuronal NO generation. Inhibition of complex II by thenoyltrifluoroacetone at the ubiquinon binding site or by 3-nitropropionic acid at the substrate binding site largely diminished hypoxic-induced NO production while having an opposite effect under normoxia. An additional blockade of voltage-gated calcium channels entirely abolished the hypoxic response. The complex II inhibitor malonate inhibited both normoxic and hypoxic NO generation. These data show that complex II activity is required for increased hypoxic NO production. Since succinate dehydrogenase activity of complex II decreased at hypoxia, as measured by histochemistry and densitometry, we propose a hypoxia-induced functional switch of complex II from succinate dehydrogenase to fumarate reductase, which subsequently leads to activation of voltage-gated calcium channels resulting in increased NO production by eNOS.

  18. Regional distribution of ionic currents and membrane voltage responses of type II hair cells in the vestibular neuroepithelium.

    PubMed

    Weng, T; Correia, M J

    1999-11-01

    Basolateral ionic currents and membrane voltage responses were studied in pigeon vestibular type II hair cells using a thin slice through either the semicircular canal (SCC) crista or utricular macular epithelium. Whole cell tight-seal patch-clamp recording techniques were used. Current-clamp and voltage-clamp studies were carried out on the same cell. One hundred ten cells were studied in the peripheral (Zone I) and central (Zone III) zones of the SCC crista, and 162 cells were studied in the striolar (S Zone) and extrastriolar (ES Zone) zones of the utricular macula. One of the major findings of this paper is that hair cells with fast activation kinetics of their outward currents are found primarily in one region of the SCC crista and utricular macula, whereas hair cells with slow activation kinetics are found in a different region. In Zone I of the crista, 95% of the cells have fast activation kinetics ("fast" cells) and in Zone III of the crista, 86% of the cells have slow activation kinetics ("slow" cells). In the utricular macula slice, 100% of the cells from the S Zone are slow cells, whereas 86% of the cells from the ES Zones are fast cells. Oscillation frequency (f) and quality factor (Q) of the damped oscillations of the membrane potential during extrinsic current injections were studied in hair cells in the different regions. The slow cells in Zone III and in the S Zone have a statistically significantly lower f, as a function of the amplitude of injected current, when compared with the fast cells in Zone I and the ES Zone. Although Q varied over a small range and was <2.6 for all cells tested, there was a statistically significant difference between Q for the membrane oscillations of the slow cells and fast cells in response to a range of current injections.

  19. Belle-II VXD radiation monitoring and beam abort with sCVD diamond sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, Lorenzo; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Belle-II VerteX Detector (VXD) has been designed to improve the performances with respect to Belle and to cope with an unprecedented luminosity of 8 ×1035cm-2s-1 achievable by the SuperKEKB. Special care is needed to monitor both the radiation dose accumulated throughout the life of the experiment and the instantaneous radiation rate, in order to be able to promptly react to sudden spikes for the purpose of protecting the detectors. A radiation monitoring and beam abort system based on single-crystal diamond sensors is now under an active development for the VXD. The sensors will be placed in several key positions in the vicinity of the interaction region. The severe space limitations require a challenging remote readout of the sensors.

  20. Solution structure of GxTX-1E, a high affinity tarantula toxin interacting with voltage sensors in Kv2.1 potassium channels†

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungkyu; Milescu, Mirela; Jung, Hyun Ho; Lee, Ju Yeon; Bae, Chan Hyung; Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Ha Hyung; Swartz, Kenton J.; Kim, Jae Il

    2010-01-01

    GxTX-1E is a neurotoxin recently isolated from Plesiophrictus guangxiensis venom that inhibits the Kv2.1 channel in pancreatic β-cells. The sequence of the toxin is related to previously studied tarantula toxins that interact with the voltage sensors in Kv channels, and GxTX-1E interacts with the Kv2.1 channel with unusually high affinity, making it particularly useful for structural and mechanistic studies. Here we determined the three-dimensional solution structure of GxTX-1E using NMR spectroscopy and compared it to that of several related tarantula toxins. The molecular structure of GxTX-1E is similar to tarantula toxins that target voltage sensors in Kv channels in that it contains an ICK motif, composed of β-strands, and contains a prominent cluster of solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues surrounded by polar residues. When compared with the structure of SGTx1, a toxin for which mutagenesis data are available, the residue compositions of the two toxins are distinct in regions that are critical for activity, suggesting that their modes of binding to voltage sensors may be different. Interestingly, the structural architecture of GxTX-1E is also similar to JZTX-III, a tarantula toxin that interacts with Kv2.1 with low affinity. The most striking structural differences between GxTX-1E and JZTX-III are found in the orientation between the first and second cysteine loops and the C-terminal region of the toxins, suggesting that these regions of GxTX-1E are responsible for its high affinity. PMID:20509680

  1. Solution structure of GxTX-1E, a high-affinity tarantula toxin interacting with voltage sensors in Kv2.1 potassium channels .

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungkyu; Milescu, Mirela; Jung, Hyun Ho; Lee, Ju Yeon; Bae, Chan Hyung; Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Ha Hyung; Swartz, Kenton J; Kim, Jae Il

    2010-06-29

    GxTX-1E is a neurotoxin recently isolated from Plesiophrictus guangxiensis venom that inhibits the Kv2.1 channel in pancreatic beta-cells. The sequence of the toxin is related to those of previously studied tarantula toxins that interact with the voltage sensors in Kv channels, and GxTX-1E interacts with the Kv2.1 channel with unusually high affinity, making it particularly useful for structural and mechanistic studies. Here we determined the three-dimensional solution structure of GxTX-1E using NMR spectroscopy and compared it to that of several related tarantula toxins. The molecular structure of GxTX-1E is similar to those of tarantula toxins that target voltage sensors in Kv channels in that it contains an ICK motif, composed of beta-strands, and contains a prominent cluster of solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues surrounded by polar residues. When compared with the structure of SGTx1, a toxin for which mutagenesis data are available, the residue compositions of the two toxins are distinct in regions that are critical for activity, suggesting that their modes of binding to voltage sensors may be different. Interestingly, the structural architecture of GxTX-1E is also similar to that of JZTX-III, a tarantula toxin that interacts with Kv2.1 with low affinity. The most striking structural differences between GxTX-1E and JZTX-III are found in the orientation between the first and second cysteine loops and the C-terminal region of the toxins, suggesting that these regions of GxTX-1E are responsible for its high affinity.

  2. Ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor for mercury (II) based on target-induced structure-switching DNA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Danhong; Zhang, Qing; Chu, Xia; Wang, Haibo; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2010-01-15

    A novel electrochemical sensor has been developed for sensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) based on target-induced structure-switching DNA. A 33-mer oligonucleotide 1 with five self-complementary base pairs separated by seven thymine-thymine mismatches was first immobilized on the electrode via self-assembly of the terminal thiol moiety and then hybridized with a ferrocene-tagged oligonucleotide 2, leading to a high redox current. In the presence of Hg(2+), mercury-mediated base pairs (T-Hg(2+)-T) induced the folding of the oligonucleotide 1 into a hairpin structure, resulting in the release of the ferrocene-tagged oligonucleotide 2 from the electrode surface with a substantially decreased redox current. The response characteristics of the sensor were thoroughly investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of the reaction temperature on the response of the sensor was also studied in detail. The results revealed that the sensor showed sensitive response to Hg(2+) in a concentration range from 0.1 nM to 5 microM with a detection limit of 0.06 nM. In addition, this strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg(2+) against other environmentally related metal ions, which was superior to that of previous anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV)-based techniques. The excellent sensitivity and selectivity signified the potential of the sensor for Hg(2+) detection in real environmental samples.

  3. Electrochemical sensor for mercury(II) based on conformational switch mediated by interstrand cooperative coordination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Jia; Nie, Hua-Gui; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2009-07-15

    A novel electrochemical sensor was developed for sensitive and selective detection of mercury(II), based on thymine-Hg2+-thymine (T-Hg2+-T) coordination chemistry. This strategy exploited the cooperativity of proximate poly-T oligonucleotides in coordination with Hg2+. Ferrocene (Fc)-tagged poly-T oligonucleotides were immobilized on the electrode surface via self-assembly of the terminal thiol moiety. In the presence of Hg2+, a pair of poly-T oligonucleotides could cooperatively coordinate with Hg2+, which triggered a conformational reorganization of the poly-T oligonucleotides from flexible single strands to relatively rigid duplexlike complexes, thus drawing the Fc tags away from the electrode with a substantially decreased redox current. The response characteristics of the sensor were thoroughly investigated using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical measurements. The results revealed that the sensor showed a sensitive response to Hg2+ in a concentration range from 1.0 nM to 2.0 microM, with a detection limit of 0.5 nM. Also, this strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg2+ against a reservoir of other environmentally related metal ions, compared to existing anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) techniques. In addition, this sensor could be implemented using minimal reagents and working steps with excellent reusability through mild regeneration procedure. It was expected that this cost-effective electrochemical sensor might hold considerable potential in on-site applications of Hg2+ detection.

  4. Development and Application of a Wireless Sensor for Space Charge Density Measurement in an Ultra-High-Voltage, Direct-Current Environment

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Encheng; Ju, Yong; Yuan, Haiwen

    2016-01-01

    A space charge density wireless measurement system based on the idea of distributed measurement is proposed for collecting and monitoring the space charge density in an ultra-high-voltage direct-current (UHVDC) environment. The proposed system architecture is composed of a number of wireless nodes connected with space charge density sensors and a base station. The space charge density sensor based on atmospheric ion counter method is elaborated and developed, and the ARM microprocessor and Zigbee radio frequency module are applied. The wireless network communication quality and the relationship between energy consumption and transmission distance in the complicated electromagnetic environment is tested. Based on the experimental results, the proposed measurement system demonstrates that it can adapt to the complex electromagnetic environment under the UHVDC transmission lines and can accurately measure the space charge density. PMID:27775627

  5. Development and Application of a Wireless Sensor for Space Charge Density Measurement in an Ultra-High-Voltage, Direct-Current Environment.

    PubMed

    Xin, Encheng; Ju, Yong; Yuan, Haiwen

    2016-10-20

    A space charge density wireless measurement system based on the idea of distributed measurement is proposed for collecting and monitoring the space charge density in an ultra-high-voltage direct-current (UHVDC) environment. The proposed system architecture is composed of a number of wireless nodes connected with space charge density sensors and a base station. The space charge density sensor based on atmospheric ion counter method is elaborated and developed, and the ARM microprocessor and Zigbee radio frequency module are applied. The wireless network communication quality and the relationship between energy consumption and transmission distance in the complicated electromagnetic environment is tested. Based on the experimental results, the proposed measurement system demonstrates that it can adapt to the complex electromagnetic environment under the UHVDC transmission lines and can accurately measure the space charge density.

  6. The Chimera II Real-Time Operating System for advanced sensor-based control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David B.; Schmitz, Donald E.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to the Chimera II Real-Time Operating System, which has been developed for advanced sensor-based control applications. The Chimera II provides a high-performance real-time kernel and a variety of IPC features. The hardware platform required to run Chimera II consists of commercially available hardware, and allows custom hardware to be easily integrated. The design allows it to be used with almost any type of VMEbus-based processors and devices. It allows radially differing hardware to be programmed using a common system, thus providing a first and necessary step towards the standardization of reconfigurable systems that results in a reduction of development time and cost.

  7. Quantum Efficiency Characterization and Optimization of a Tungsten Transition-Edge Sensor for ALPS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastidon, Noëmie; Horns, Dieter; Lindner, Axel

    2016-07-01

    The ALPS II experiment, Any Light Particle Search II at DESY in Hamburg, will look for sub-eV mass new fundamental bosons (e.g., axion-like particles, hidden photons, and other weakly interacting sub-eV particles) in the next years by means of a light-shining-through-wall setup. The ALPS II photosensor is a tungsten transition-edge sensor (W-TES) optimized for 1064 nm photons. This TES, operated at 80 mK, has already allowed single infrared photon detections as well as non-dispersive spectroscopy with very low background rates. The demonstrated quantum efficiency for such TES is up to 95 % (1064 nm) as has been already demonstrated by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. A back-to-back measurement of the ALPS TES quantum efficiency using a calibrated charge-coupled device camera has lead to a first estimation of 30 %. Improvement methods are discussed.

  8. The Chimera II Real-Time Operating System for advanced sensor-based control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David B.; Schmitz, Donald E.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to the Chimera II Real-Time Operating System, which has been developed for advanced sensor-based control applications. The Chimera II provides a high-performance real-time kernel and a variety of IPC features. The hardware platform required to run Chimera II consists of commercially available hardware, and allows custom hardware to be easily integrated. The design allows it to be used with almost any type of VMEbus-based processors and devices. It allows radially differing hardware to be programmed using a common system, thus providing a first and necessary step towards the standardization of reconfigurable systems that results in a reduction of development time and cost.

  9. Structural characterization of the voltage-sensor domain and voltage-gated K+-channel proteins vectorially oriented within a single bilayer membrane at the solid/vapor and solid/liquid interfaces via neutron interferometry.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Dura, J A; Freites, J A; Tobias, D J; Blasie, J K

    2012-07-17

    The voltage-sensor domain (VSD) is a modular four-helix bundle component that confers voltage sensitivity to voltage-gated cation channels in biological membranes. Despite extensive biophysical studies and the recent availability of X-ray crystal structures for a few voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels and a voltage-gate sodium (Nav) channel, a complete understanding of the cooperative mechanism of electromechanical coupling, interconverting the closed-to-open states (i.e., nonconducting to cation conducting) remains undetermined. Moreover, the function of these domains is highly dependent on the physical-chemical properties of the surrounding lipid membrane environment. The basis for this work was provided by a recent structural study of the VSD from a prokaryotic Kv-channel vectorially oriented within a single phospholipid (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)) membrane investigated by X-ray interferometry at the solid/moist He (or solid/vapor) and solid/liquid interfaces, thus achieving partial to full hydration, respectively (Gupta et al. Phys. Rev. E2011, 84, 031911-1-15). Here, we utilize neutron interferometry to characterize this system in substantially greater structural detail at the submolecular level, due to its inherent advantages arising from solvent contrast variation coupled with the deuteration of selected submolecular membrane components, especially important for the membrane at the solid/liquid interface. We demonstrate the unique vectorial orientation of the VSD and the retention of its molecular conformation manifest in the asymmetric profile structure of the protein within the profile structure of this single bilayer membrane system. We definitively characterize the asymmetric phospholipid bilayer solvating the lateral surfaces of the VSD protein within the membrane. The profile structures of both the VSD protein and phospholipid bilayer depend upon the hydration state of the membrane. We also determine the distribution of

  10. Structural characterization of the voltage sensor domain and voltage-gated K+- channel proteins vectorially-oriented within a single bilayer membrane at the solid/vapor and solid/liquid interfaces via neutron interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S.; Dura, J.A.; Freites, J.A.; Tobias, D.J.; Blasie, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    The voltage-sensor domain (VSD) is a modular 4-helix bundle component that confers voltage sensitivity to voltage-gated cation channels in biological membranes. Despite extensive biophysical studies and the recent availability of x-ray crystal structures for a few voltage-gated potassium (Kv-) channels and a voltage-gate sodium (Nav-) channel, a complete understanding of the cooperative mechanism of electromechanical coupling, interconverting the closed-to-open states (i.e. non-conducting to cation conducting) remains undetermined. Moreover, the function of these domains is highly dependent on the physical-chemical properties of the surrounding lipid membrane environment. The basis for this work was provided by a recent structural study of the VSD from a prokaryotic Kv-channel vectorially-oriented within a single phospholipid (POPC; 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) membrane investigated by x-ray interferometry at the solid/moist He (or solid/vapor) and solid/liquid interfaces thus achieving partial to full hydration, respectively (Gupta et. al. Phys. Rev E. 2011, 84). Here, we utilize neutron interferometry to characterize this system in substantially greater structural detail at the sub-molecular level, due to its inherent advantages arising from solvent contrast variation coupled with the deuteration of selected sub-molecular membrane components, especially important for the membrane at the solid/liquid interface. We demonstrate the unique vectorial orientation of the VSD and the retention of its molecular conformation manifest in the asymmetric profile structure of the protein within the profile structure of this single bilayer membrane system. We definitively characterize the asymmetric phospholipid bilayer solvating the lateral surfaces of the VSD protein within the membrane. The profile structures of both the VSD protein and phospholipid bilayer depend upon the hydration state of the membrane. We also determine the distribution of water and

  11. Study on simplification of a multi-physical model of IPMC sensor generating voltage as sensing signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Jun; Takagi, Kentaro; Zhu, Zicai; Asaka, Kinji

    2017-04-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) generate electrical potential under deformation and can be used as sensors. Recently, Zhu et al. have proposed a sensor model which describes distribution of cations, water molecules and electrical potential under bending deformation. In this paper, we discuss a simplification of the multi-physical sensor model, which is represented by a set of nonlinear partial differential equations. The nonlinear partial differential equations are simplified and approximated into a set of linear ordinary differential equations, i.e., a state-space equation model. At the end, the simplified model is validated by comparing the simulation results with those of the partial differential equation model.

  12. Current sensor-less state-of-charge estimation algorithm for lithium-ion batteries utilizing filtered terminal voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Chang Yoon; Baek, Jongbok; Seo, Gab-Su; Cho, B. H.; Kim, Jonghoon; Chang, Il Kwon; Lee, Sangwoo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes state-of-charge (SOC) estimation algorithms that utilize a filtered battery terminal voltage without measuring the current. These methods extract an estimated open-circuit voltage (OCV) or current from the battery terminal voltage through equivalent circuit model-based filters, which streamlines the estimation process. In the methods, the OCV values derived from the corresponding SOCs are used to extract the filter coefficient for ease of implementation. The relationship between the model's accuracy and estimation performance is investigated, and the variation of the SOC estimation error due to the model parameter tolerance is also derived by the Monte Carlo simulation tool to confirm the practicality of the method. To validate the performance of the proposed approach, a parameter extraction profile and an actual mobile phone profile are applied to a 2.6 Ah prismatic Li-ion battery. The experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed SOC estimation algorithm to within a 5% SOC estimation error.

  13. CMOS temperature sensor using a resistively degenerated common-source amplifier biased by an adjustable proportional-to-absolute-temperature voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruey-Lue; Fu, Chien-Cheng; Yu, Chi; Hao, Yi-Fan; Shi, Jian-Liang; Lin, Chen-Fu; Liao, Hsin-Hao; Tsai, Hann-Huei; Juang, Ying-Zong

    2014-01-01

    A high-linearity CMOS temperature sensor with pulse output is presented. The temperature core is a resistively degenerated common-source amplifier which gate is biased by a proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT) voltage generator. The source resistor is made of polysilicon which resistance has a PTAT characteristic. The current flowing through the resistor exhibits a PTAT characteristic with high linearity of 99.99% at least for a temperature range from 0 to 125 °C. The PTAT voltage generator can be adjusted by a bias voltage Vb and hence the PTAT current can also be adjusted by the Vb. The PTAT current is mirrored to an added current controlled oscillator which output pulse frequencies also exhibit a PTAT characteristic. For the chip using the 0.35 µm process, the plots of measured pulse frequencies against temperature exhibit the sensitivity of 2.30 to 2.24 kHz/°C with linearity of more than 99.99% at the Vb of 1 to 1.2 V.

  14. A low-noise CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Mangmang; Chen, Chufeng; Gao, Chaosong; Han, Mikyung; Ji, Rong; Li, Xiaoting; Mei, Yuan; Sun, Quan; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Kai; Xiao, Le; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-02-01

    We report the design and characterization of a CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS Integrated Circuit process. The sensor utilizes exposed metal patches on top of each pixel to directly collect charge. Each pixel contains a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier to establish the analog signal and a discriminator with tunable threshold to generate hits. The analog signal from each pixel is accessible through time-shared multiplexing over the entire array. Hits are read out digitally through a column-based priority logic structure. Tests show that the sensor achieved a < 15e- analog noise and a 200e- minimum threshold for digital readout per pixel. The sensor is capable of detecting both electrons and ions drifting in gas. These characteristics enable its use as the charge readout device in future Time Projection Chambers without gaseous gain mechanism, which has unique advantages in low background and low rate-density experiments.

  15. Silicon sensor prototypes for the Phase II upgrade of the CMS tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergauer, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) has been identified as the highest priority program in High Energy Physics in the mid-term future. It will provide the experiments an additional integrated luminosity of about 2500 fb-1 over 10 years of operation, starting in 2025. In order to meet the experimental challenges of unprecedented p-p luminosity, especially in terms of radiation levels and occupancy, the CMS collaboration will need to replace its entire strip tracker by a new one. In this paper the baseline layout option for this new Phase-II tracker is shown, together with two variants using a tilted barrel geometry or larger modules from 8-inch silicon wafers. Moreover, the two module concepts are discussed, which consist either of two strip sensors (2S) or of one strip and one pixel sensor (PS). These two designs allow pT discrimination at module level enabling the tracker to contribute to the L1 trigger decision. The paper presents testing results of the macro-pixel-light sensor for the PS module and shows the first electrical characterization of unirradiated, full-scale strip sensor prototypes for the 2S module concept, both on 6- and 8-inch wafers.

  16. Multiparametric optimization of a new high-sensitive and disposable mercury (II) electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Armas, M A; María-Hormigos, R; Cantalapiedra, A; Gismera, M J; Sevilla, M T; Procopio, J R

    2016-01-21

    An electrochemical sensor for mercury (II) determination was developed by modifying the surface of a commercial screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) with a polystyrene sulfonate-NiO-carbon nanopowder composite material. Mercury measurements were performed by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Sensor composition and measurement conditions were optimized using a multivariate experiment design. A screening experiment by using a Plackett-Burman design was first performed in order to determine the main contributing factors to the electrochemical response. The most important factors were employed to establish the interactions between different experimental variables and get the best conditions for mercury determination. For this purpose, a five level central composite design and a response surface methodology were used. The optimized method using the developed NiO-PSS-SPCE sensor presents a very low limit of detection of 0.021 μg L(-1) and a linear response over two concentration ranges with two different slopes, from 0.05 to 2.0 μg L(-1) and between 2.0 and 75 μg L(-1). The sensor was successfully applied to mercury determination in water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A low-noise CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-

    DOE PAGES

    An, Mangmang; Chen, Chufeng; Gao, Chaosong; ...

    2015-12-12

    In this paper, we report the design and characterization of a CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS Integrated Circuit process. The sensor utilizes exposed metal patches on top of each pixel to directly collect charge. Each pixel contains a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier to establish the analog signal and a discriminator with tunable threshold to generate hits. The analog signal from each pixel is accessible through time-shared multiplexing over the entire array. Hits are read out digitally through a column-based priority logic structure. Tests show that the sensor achieved a <15e- analog noise andmore » a 200e- minimum threshold for digital readout per pixel. The sensor is capable of detecting both electrons and ions drifting in gas. Lastly, these characteristics enable its use as the charge readout device in future Time Projection Chambers without gaseous gain mechanism, which has unique advantages in low background and low rate-density experiments.« less

  18. A low-noise CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-

    SciTech Connect

    An, Mangmang; Chen, Chufeng; Gao, Chaosong; Han, Mikyung; Ji, Rong; Li, Xiaoting; Mei, Yuan; Sun, Quan; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Kai; Xiao, Le; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2015-12-12

    In this paper, we report the design and characterization of a CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS Integrated Circuit process. The sensor utilizes exposed metal patches on top of each pixel to directly collect charge. Each pixel contains a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier to establish the analog signal and a discriminator with tunable threshold to generate hits. The analog signal from each pixel is accessible through time-shared multiplexing over the entire array. Hits are read out digitally through a column-based priority logic structure. Tests show that the sensor achieved a <15e- analog noise and a 200e- minimum threshold for digital readout per pixel. The sensor is capable of detecting both electrons and ions drifting in gas. Lastly, these characteristics enable its use as the charge readout device in future Time Projection Chambers without gaseous gain mechanism, which has unique advantages in low background and low rate-density experiments.

  19. Construction and test of the first Belle II SVD ladder implementing the origami chip-on-sensor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmler, C.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaia, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector comprises four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs), consisting of ladders with two to five sensors each. All sensors are individually read out by APV25 chips with the Origami chip-on-sensor concept for the central DSSDs of the ladders. The chips sit on flexible circuits that are glued on the top of the sensors. This concept allows a low material budget and an efficient cooling of the chips by a single pipe per ladder. We present the construction of the first SVD ladders and results from precision measurements and electrical tests.

  20. CHIMERA II - A real-time multiprocessing environment for sensor-based robot control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David B.; Schmitz, Donald E.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1989-01-01

    A multiprocessing environment for a wide variety of sensor-based robot system, providing the flexibility, performance, and UNIX-compatible interface needed for fast development of real-time code is addressed. The requirements imposed on the design of a programming environment for sensor-based robotic control is outlined. The details of the current hardware configuration are presented, along with the details of the CHIMERA II software. Emphasis is placed on the kernel, low-level interboard communication, user interface, extended file system, user-definable and dynamically selectable real-time schedulers, remote process synchronization, and generalized interprocess communication. A possible implementation of a hierarchical control model, the NASA/NBS standard reference model for telerobot control system is demonstrated.

  1. A ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on Cu(II) luminescent sensor based on oxidative cyclization mechanism and its application in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfei; Liu, Zonglun; Yang, Kui; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Wang, Chaoxia; Lu, Aiping; Sun, Shiguo

    2015-02-01

    Copper ions play a vital role in a variety of fundamental physiological processes not only in human beings and plants, but also for extensive insects and microorganisms. In this paper, a novel water-soluble ruthenium(II) complex as a turn-on copper(II) ions luminescent sensor based on o-(phenylazo)aniline was designed and synthesized. The azo group would undergo a specific oxidative cyclization reaction with copper(II) ions and turn into high luminescent benzotriazole, triggering significant luminescent increasements which were linear to the concentrations of copper(II) ions. The sensor distinguished by its high sensitivity (over 80-fold luminescent switch-on response), good selectivity (the changes of the emission intensity in the presence of other metal ions or amino acids were negligible) and low detection limit (4.42 nM) in water. Moreover, the copper(II) luminescent sensor exhibited good photostability under light irradiation. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed sensor in biological samples assay was also studied and imaged copper(II) ions in living pea aphids successfully.

  2. A ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on Cu(II) luminescent sensor based on oxidative cyclization mechanism and its application in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunfei; Liu, Zonglun; Yang, Kui; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Wang, Chaoxia; Lu, Aiping; Sun, Shiguo

    2015-01-01

    Copper ions play a vital role in a variety of fundamental physiological processes not only in human beings and plants, but also for extensive insects and microorganisms. In this paper, a novel water-soluble ruthenium(II) complex as a turn-on copper(II) ions luminescent sensor based on o-(phenylazo)aniline was designed and synthesized. The azo group would undergo a specific oxidative cyclization reaction with copper(II) ions and turn into high luminescent benzotriazole, triggering significant luminescent increasements which were linear to the concentrations of copper(II) ions. The sensor distinguished by its high sensitivity (over 80-fold luminescent switch-on response), good selectivity (the changes of the emission intensity in the presence of other metal ions or amino acids were negligible) and low detection limit (4.42 nM) in water. Moreover, the copper(II) luminescent sensor exhibited good photostability under light irradiation. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed sensor in biological samples assay was also studied and imaged copper(II) ions in living pea aphids successfully. PMID:25640000

  3. Fusion induced by a class II viral fusion protein, semliki forest virus E1, is dependent on the voltage of the target cell.

    PubMed

    Markosyan, Ruben M; Kielian, Margaret; Cohen, Fredric S

    2007-10-01

    Cells expressing the low pH-triggered class II viral fusion protein E1 of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) were fused to target cells. Fusion was monitored by electrical capacitance and aqueous dye measurements. Electrical voltage-clamp measurements showed that SFV E1-induced cell-cell fusion occurred quickly after acidification for a trans-negative potential across the target membrane (i.e., negative potential inside the target cell) but that a trans-positive potential eliminated all fusion. Use of an ionophore to control potentials for a large population of cells confirmed the dependence of fusion on voltage polarity. In contrast, fusion induced by the class I fusion proteins of human immunodeficiency virus, avian sarcoma leukosis virus, and influenza virus was independent of the voltage polarity across the target cell. Initial pore size and pore growth were also independent of voltage polarity for the class I proteins. An intermediate of SFV E1-induced fusion was created by transient acidification at low temperature. Membranes were hemifused at this intermediate state, and raising the temperature at neutral pH allowed full fusion to occur. Capacitance measurements showed that maintaining a trans-positive potential definitely blocked fusion at steps following the creation of the hemifusion intermediate and may have inhibited fusion at prior steps. It is proposed that the trans-negative voltage across the endosomal membrane facilitates fusion after low-pH-induced conformational changes of SFV E1 have occurred.

  4. Structural mapping of the voltage-dependent sodium channel. Distance between the tetrodotoxin and Centruroides suffusus suffusus II beta-scorpion toxin receptors.

    PubMed

    Darbon, H; Angelides, K J

    1984-05-25

    A 7- dimethylaminocoumarin -4-acetate fluorescent derivative of toxin II from the venom of the scorpion Centruroides suffusus suffusus (Css II) has been prepared to study the structural, conformational, and cellular properties of the beta-neurotoxin receptor site on the voltage-dependent sodium channel. The derivative retains high affinity for its receptor site on the synaptosomal sodium channel with a KD of 7 nM and site capacity of 1.5 pmol/mg of synaptosomal protein. The fluorescent toxin is very environmentally sensitive and the fluorescence emission upon binding indicates that the Css II receptor is largely hydrophobic. Binding of tetrodotoxin or batrachotoxin does not alter the spectroscopic properties of bound Css II, whereas toxin V from Leiurus quinquestriatus effects a 10-nm blue shift to a more hydrophobic environment. This is the first direct indication of conformational coupling between these separate neurotoxin receptor sites. The distance between the tetrodotoxin and Css II scorpion toxin receptors on the sodium channel was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Efficiencies were measured by both donor quenching and acceptor-sensitized emission. The distance between these two neurotoxin sites is about 34 A. The implications of these receptor locations together with other known molecular distances are discussed in terms of a molecular structure of the voltage-dependent sodium channel.

  5. Preparation of a novel pH optical sensor using orange (II) based on agarose membrane as support.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Rouhollah; Hosseini, Mohammad; Amraei, Ahmadreza; Mohammadzadeh, Ali

    2016-04-01

    A novel and cost effective optical pH sensor was prepared using covalent immobilization of orange (II) indicator on the agarose membrane as solid support. The fabricated optical sensor was fixed into a sample holder of a spectrophotometer instrument for pH monitoring. Variables affecting sensor performance including pH of dye bonding to agarose membrane and dye concentration were optimized. The sensor responds to the pH changes in the range of 3.0-10.0 with a response time of 2.0 min and appropriate reproducibility (RSD ≤ 0.9%). No significant variation was observed on sensor response after increasing the ionic strength in the range of 0.0-0.5M of sodium chloride. Determination of pH using the proposed optical sensor is quick, simple, inexpensive, selective and sensitive in the pH range of 3.0-10.0.

  6. Charge-transfer complexes of Cu(II)/HD analogue in sol gel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkley, J. F.; Kirkey, M. L.; Marques, A. D. S.; Lin, C. T.

    2003-01-01

    An optically transparent xerogel encapsulating Cu(II) acetate is fabricated to detect mustard gas (HD) analogues via a charge-transfer mechanism. A fast response (color change from sky blue to canary yellow) is observed for the chlorinated sulfide, and is accompanied by an absorption band at 370-420 nm. MO calculations revealed that the chlorinated HD analogue displays a charge-transfer transition extended from sulfur to chlorine atom. A 1:1 complex of Cu(II)/HD analogue is preferred. For a colorimetric sol-gel detector prepared at pH 3, the detection limit of HD analogue is calibrated at 0.03 μl per 1.5 ml sensor volume.

  7. Electrochemical sensor based on polystyrene sulfonate-carbon nanopowders composite for Cu (II) determination.

    PubMed

    Cantalapiedra, Alberto; Gismera, M Jesús; Procopio, Jesús R; Sevilla, M Teresa

    2015-07-01

    A differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric (DPASV) method, with an open circuit (OC) approach in the pre-concentration step has been developed for copper ion determination at very low concentration level using a sensor based on a polystyrene sulfonate-carbon nanopowders (PSS-CnP) composite. This composite material is easily prepared from ultrasonic assisted dispersions of CnP in aqueous solution of PSS. For preparation of sensor devices, a reproducible and inexpensive drop coating procedure of the surface of home-made pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) using a CnP dispersion in PSS was performed. At the optimal conditions for accumulation (0.01molL(-1) KNO3 at pH 3) and measurement steps (a reduction potential of -0.5V for 60s and then, an anodic DPV scan) and using a pre-concentration time of 300s, the limit of detection was 0.11µgL(-1) (1.73nM). This OC-DPASV method using the PSS-CnP-PGE sensor was successfully employed for Cu(II) determination in mineral, river and sea water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Virtual sensors for active noise control in acoustic-structural coupled enclosures using structural sensing: part II--Optimization of structural sensor placement.

    PubMed

    Halim, Dunant; Cheng, Li; Su, Zhongqing

    2011-04-01

    The work proposed an optimization approach for structural sensor placement to improve the performance of vibro-acoustic virtual sensor for active noise control applications. The vibro-acoustic virtual sensor was designed to estimate the interior sound pressure of an acoustic-structural coupled enclosure using structural sensors. A spectral-spatial performance metric was proposed, which was used to quantify the averaged structural sensor output energy of a vibro-acoustic system excited by a spatially varying point source. It was shown that (i) the overall virtual sensing error energy was contributed additively by the modal virtual sensing error and the measurement noise energy; (ii) each of the modal virtual sensing error system was contributed by both the modal observability levels for the structural sensing and the target acoustic virtual sensing; and further (iii) the strength of each modal observability level was influenced by the modal coupling and resonance frequencies of the associated uncoupled structural/cavity modes. An optimal design of structural sensor placement was proposed to achieve sufficiently high modal observability levels for certain important panel- and cavity-controlled modes. Numerical analysis on a panel-cavity system demonstrated the importance of structural sensor placement on virtual sensing and active noise control performance, particularly for cavity-controlled modes.

  9. Advanced Start of Combustion Sensor Phases I and II-A: Feasibility Demonstration, Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Chad Smutzer

    2010-01-31

    Homogeneous Compressed Charge Ignition (HCCI) has elevated the need for Start of Combustion (SOC) sensors. HCCI engines have been the exciting focus of engine research recently, primarily because HCCI offers higher thermal efficiency than the conventional Spark Ignition (SI) engines and significantly lower NOx and soot emissions than conventional Compression Ignition (CI) engines, and could be fuel neutral. HCCI has the potential to unify all the internal combustion engine technology to achieve the high-efficiency, low-emission goal. However, these advantages do not come easy. It is well known that the problems encountered with HCCI combustion center on the difficulty of controlling the Start of Combustion. TIAX has an SOC sensor under development which has shown promise. In previous work, including a DOE-sponsored SBIR project, TIAX has developed an accelerometer-based method which was able to determine SOC within a few degrees crank angle for a range of operating conditions. A signal processing protocol allows reconstruction of the combustion pressure event signal imbedded in the background engine vibration recorded by the accelerometer. From this reconstructed pressure trace, an algorithm locates the SOC. This SOC sensor approach is nonintrusive, rugged, and is particularly robust when the pressure event is strong relative to background engine vibration (at medium to high engine load). Phase I of this project refined the previously developed technology with an engine-generic and robust algorithm. The objective of the Phase I research was to answer two fundamental questions: Can the accelerometer-based SOC sensor provide adequate SOC event capture to control an HCCI engine in a feedback loop? And, will the sensor system meet cost, durability, and software efficiency (speed) targets? Based upon the results, the answer to both questions was 'YES'. The objective of Phase II-A was to complete the parameter optimization of the SOC sensor prototype in order to reach a

  10. The tarantula toxin β/δ-TRTX-Pre1a highlights the importance of the S1-S2 voltage-sensor region for sodium channel subtype selectivity.

    PubMed

    Wingerd, Joshua S; Mozar, Christine A; Ussing, Christine A; Murali, Swetha S; Chin, Yanni K-Y; Cristofori-Armstrong, Ben; Durek, Thomas; Gilchrist, John; Vaughan, Christopher W; Bosmans, Frank; Adams, David J; Lewis, Richard J; Alewood, Paul F; Mobli, Mehdi; Christie, Macdonald J; Rash, Lachlan D

    2017-04-20

    Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are essential for the transmission of pain signals in humans making them prime targets for the development of new analgesics. Spider venoms are a rich source of peptide modulators useful to study ion channel structure and function. Here we describe β/δ-TRTX-Pre1a, a 35-residue tarantula peptide that selectively interacts with neuronal NaV channels inhibiting peak current of hNaV1.1, rNaV1.2, hNaV1.6, and hNaV1.7 while concurrently inhibiting fast inactivation of hNaV1.1 and rNaV1.3. The DII and DIV S3-S4 loops of NaV channel voltage sensors are important for the interaction of Pre1a with NaV channels but cannot account for its unique subtype selectivity. Through analysis of the binding regions we ascertained that the variability of the S1-S2 loops between NaV channels contributes substantially to the selectivity profile observed for Pre1a, particularly with regards to fast inactivation. A serine residue on the DIV S2 helix was found to be sufficient to explain Pre1a's potent and selective inhibitory effect on the fast inactivation process of NaV1.1 and 1.3. This work highlights that interactions with both S1-S2 and S3-S4 of NaV channels may be necessary for functional modulation, and that targeting the diverse S1-S2 region within voltage-sensing domains provides an avenue to develop subtype selective tools.

  11. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Icing Sensor Performance During the 2003 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, John J.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Minnis, Patrick; Nguyen, Louis; Delnore, Victor E.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Grainger, C. A.; Delene, D.; Wolff, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) sensor was deployed onboard the University of North Dakota Citation II aircraft in the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) from Nov 19 through December 14, 2003. TAMDAR is designed to measure and report winds, temperature, humidity, turbulence and icing from regional commercial aircraft (Daniels et. al., 2004). TAMDAR icing sensor performance is compared to a) in situ validation data from the Citation II sensor suite, b) Current Icing Potential products developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and available operationally on the NOAA Aviation Weather Center s Aviation Digital Data Server (ADDS) and c) NASA Advanced Satellite Aviation-weather Products (ASAP) cloud microphysical products.

  12. Origin of dc voltage in type II superconducting flux pumps: field, field rate of change, and current density dependence of resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, J.; Matsuda, K.; Fu, L.; Fagnard, J.-F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Shen, B.; Dong, Q.; Baghdadi, M.; Coombs, T. A.

    2016-03-01

    Superconducting flux pumps are the kind of devices which can generate direct current into superconducting circuit using external magnetic field. The key point is how to induce a dc voltage across the superconducting load by ac fields. Giaever (1966 IEEE Spectr. 3 117) pointed out flux motion in superconductors will induce a dc voltage, and demonstrated a rectifier model which depended on breaking superconductivity. van de Klundert et al (1981 Cryogenics 21 195, 267) in their review(s) described various configurations for flux pumps all of which relied on inducing the normal state in at least part of the superconductor. In this letter, following their work, we reveal that a variation in the resistivity of type II superconductors is sufficient to induce a dc voltage in flux pumps and it is not necessary to break superconductivity. This variation in resistivity is due to the fact that flux flow is influenced by current density, field intensity, and field rate of change. We propose a general circuit analogy for travelling wave flux pumps, and provide a mathematical analysis to explain the dc voltage. Several existing superconducting flux pumps which rely on the use of a travelling magnetic wave can be explained using the analysis enclosed. This work can also throw light on the design and optimization of flux pumps.

  13. Dihydropyridine Receptors as Voltage Sensors for a Depolarization-evoked, IP3R-mediated, Slow Calcium Signal in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Roberto; Liberona, José L.; Cárdenas, J. César; Riveros, Nora; Estrada, Manuel; Powell, Jeanne A.; Carrasco, M. Angélica; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    The dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), normally a voltage-dependent calcium channel, functions in skeletal muscle essentially as a voltage sensor, triggering intracellular calcium release for excitation-contraction coupling. In addition to this fast calcium release, via ryanodine receptor (RYR) channels, depolarization of skeletal myotubes evokes slow calcium waves, unrelated to contraction, that involve the cell nucleus (Jaimovich, E., R. Reyes, J.L. Liberona, and J.A. Powell. 2000. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 278:C998–C1010). We tested the hypothesis that DHPR may also be the voltage sensor for these slow calcium signals. In cultures of primary rat myotubes, 10 μM nifedipine (a DHPR inhibitor) completely blocked the slow calcium (fluo-3-fluorescence) transient after 47 mM K+ depolarization and only partially reduced the fast Ca2+ signal. Dysgenic myotubes from the GLT cell line, which do not express the α1 subunit of the DHPR, did not show either type of calcium transient following depolarization. After transfection of the α1 DNA into the GLT cells, K+ depolarization induced slow calcium transients that were similar to those present in normal C2C12 and normal NLT cell lines. Slow calcium transients in transfected cells were blocked by nifedipine as well as by the G protein inhibitor, pertussis toxin, but not by ryanodine, the RYR inhibitor. Since slow Ca2+ transients appear to be mediated by IP3, we measured the increase of IP3 mass after K+ depolarization. The IP3 transient seen in control cells was inhibited by nifedipine and was absent in nontransfected dysgenic cells, but α1-transfected cells recovered the depolarization-induced IP3 transient. In normal myotubes, 10 μM nifedipine, but not ryanodine, inhibited c-jun and c-fos mRNA increase after K+ depolarization. These results suggest a role for DHPR-mediated calcium signals in regulation of early gene expression. A model of excitation-transcription coupling is presented in which both G proteins and IP

  14. Capturing distinct KCNQ2 channel resting states by metal ion bridges in the voltage-sensor domain.

    PubMed

    Gourgy-Hacohen, Orit; Kornilov, Polina; Pittel, Ilya; Peretz, Asher; Attali, Bernard; Paas, Yoav

    2014-12-01

    Although crystal structures of various voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) and Na(+) channels have provided substantial information on the activated conformation of the voltage-sensing domain (VSD), the topology of the VSD in its resting conformation remains highly debated. Numerous studies have investigated the VSD resting state in the Kv Shaker channel; however, few studies have explored this issue in other Kv channels. Here, we investigated the VSD resting state of KCNQ2, a K(+) channel subunit belonging to the KCNQ (Kv7) subfamily of Kv channels. KCNQ2 can coassemble with the KCNQ3 subunit to mediate the IM current that regulates neuronal excitability. In humans, mutations in KCNQ2 are associated with benign neonatal forms of epilepsy or with severe epileptic encephalopathy. We introduced cysteine mutations into the S4 transmembrane segment of the KCNQ2 VSD and determined that external application of Cd(2+) profoundly reduced the current amplitude of S4 cysteine mutants S195C, R198C, and R201C. Based on reactivity with the externally accessible endogenous cysteine C106 in S1, we infer that each of the above S4 cysteine mutants forms Cd(2+) bridges to stabilize a channel closed state. Disulfide bonds and metal bridges constrain the S4 residues S195, R198, and R201 near C106 in S1 in the resting state, and experiments using concatenated tetrameric constructs indicate that this occurs within the same VSD. KCNQ2 structural models suggest that three distinct resting channel states have been captured by the formation of different S4-S1 Cd(2+) bridges. Collectively, this work reveals that residue C106 in S1 can be very close to several N-terminal S4 residues for stabilizing different KCNQ2 resting conformations.

  15. Capturing distinct KCNQ2 channel resting states by metal ion bridges in the voltage-sensor domain

    PubMed Central

    Gourgy-Hacohen, Orit; Kornilov, Polina; Pittel, Ilya; Peretz, Asher

    2014-01-01

    Although crystal structures of various voltage-gated K+ (Kv) and Na+ channels have provided substantial information on the activated conformation of the voltage-sensing domain (VSD), the topology of the VSD in its resting conformation remains highly debated. Numerous studies have investigated the VSD resting state in the Kv Shaker channel; however, few studies have explored this issue in other Kv channels. Here, we investigated the VSD resting state of KCNQ2, a K+ channel subunit belonging to the KCNQ (Kv7) subfamily of Kv channels. KCNQ2 can coassemble with the KCNQ3 subunit to mediate the IM current that regulates neuronal excitability. In humans, mutations in KCNQ2 are associated with benign neonatal forms of epilepsy or with severe epileptic encephalopathy. We introduced cysteine mutations into the S4 transmembrane segment of the KCNQ2 VSD and determined that external application of Cd2+ profoundly reduced the current amplitude of S4 cysteine mutants S195C, R198C, and R201C. Based on reactivity with the externally accessible endogenous cysteine C106 in S1, we infer that each of the above S4 cysteine mutants forms Cd2+ bridges to stabilize a channel closed state. Disulfide bonds and metal bridges constrain the S4 residues S195, R198, and R201 near C106 in S1 in the resting state, and experiments using concatenated tetrameric constructs indicate that this occurs within the same VSD. KCNQ2 structural models suggest that three distinct resting channel states have been captured by the formation of different S4–S1 Cd2+ bridges. Collectively, this work reveals that residue C106 in S1 can be very close to several N-terminal S4 residues for stabilizing different KCNQ2 resting conformations. PMID:25385787

  16. A Low Cost Matching Motion Estimation Sensor Based on the NIOS II Microprocessor

    PubMed Central

    González, Diego; Botella, Guillermo; Meyer-Baese, Uwe; García, Carlos; Sanz, Concepción; Prieto-Matías, Manuel; Tirado, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the implementation of a matching-based motion estimation sensor on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and NIOS II microprocessor applying a C to Hardware (C2H) acceleration paradigm. The design, which involves several matching algorithms, is mapped using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology. These algorithms, as well as the hardware implementation, are presented here together with an extensive analysis of the resources needed and the throughput obtained. The developed low-cost system is practical for real-time throughput and reduced power consumption and is useful in robotic applications, such as tracking, navigation using an unmanned vehicle, or as part of a more complex system. PMID:23201989

  17. Functional interactions of voltage sensor charges with an S2 hydrophobic plug in hERG channels.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yen May; Hull, Christina M; Niven, Christine M; Qi, Ji; Allard, Charlene R; Claydon, Tom W

    2013-09-01

    Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG, Kv11.1) potassium channels have unusually slow activation and deactivation kinetics. It has been suggested that, in fast-activating Shaker channels, a highly conserved Phe residue (F290) in the S2 segment forms a putative gating charge transfer center that interacts with S4 gating charges, i.e., R362 (R1) and K374 (K5), and catalyzes their movement across the focused electric field. F290 is conserved in hERG (F463), but the relevant residues in the hERG S4 are reversed, i.e., K525 (K1) and R537 (R5), and there is an extra positive charge adjacent to R537 (i.e., K538). We have examined whether hERG channels possess a transfer center similar to that described in Shaker and if these S4 charge differences contribute to slow gating in hERG channels. Of five hERG F463 hydrophobic substitutions tested, F463W and F463Y shifted the conductance-voltage (G-V) relationship to more depolarized potentials and dramatically slowed channel activation. With the S4 residue reversals (i.e., K525, R537) taken into account, the closed state stabilization by F463W is consistent with a role for F463 that is similar to that described for F290 in Shaker. As predicted from results with Shaker, the hERG K525R mutation destabilized the closed state. However, hERG R537K did not stabilize the open state as predicted. Instead, we found the neighboring K538 residue to be critical for open state stabilization, as K538R dramatically slowed and right-shifted the voltage dependence of activation. Finally, double mutant cycle analysis on the G-V curves of F463W/K525R and F463W/K538R double mutations suggests that F463 forms functional interactions with K525 and K538 in the S4 segment. Collectively, these data suggest a role for F463 in mediating closed-open equilibria, similar to that proposed for F290 in Shaker channels.

  18. Type II strained layer superlattice: a potential infrared sensor material for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.; Tidrow, M. Z.; Novello, A.; Weichel, H.; Vohra, S.

    2008-02-01

    The Missile Defense Agency's Advanced Technology Office is developing advanced passive electro-optical and infrared sensors for future space-based seekers by exploring new infrared detector materials. A Type II strained layer superlattice, one of the materials under development, has shown great potential for space applications. Theoretical results indicate that strained layer superlattice has the promise to be superior to current infrared sensor materials, such as HgCdTe, quantum well infrared photodetectors, and Si:As. Strained layer superlattice-based infrared detector materials combine the advantages of HgCdTe and quantum well infrared photodetectors. The bandgap of strained layer superlattice can be tuned for strong broadband absorption throughout the short-, mid-, long-, and very long wavelength infrared bands. The electronic band structure can be engineered to suppress Auger recombination noise and reduce the tunneling current. The device structures can be easily stacked for multicolor focal plane arrays. The III-V semiconductor fabrication offers the potential of producing low-defect-density, large-format focal plane arrays with high uniformity and high operability. A current program goal is to extend wavelengths to longer than 14 μm for space applications. This paper discusses the advantages of strained layer superlattice materials and describes efforts to improve the material quality, device design, and device processing.

  19. Site-selective imination of an anthracenone sensor: selective fluorescence detection of barium(II).

    PubMed

    Basa, Prem N; Bhowmick, Arundhati; Schulz, Mariah M; Sykes, Andrew G

    2011-10-07

    Site-selective imination of anthraquinone-based macrocyclic crown ethers using titanium tetrachloride as the catalyst yields imines where only the external carbonyl group of the anthraquinone forms Schiff-bases. The following aromatic amines yield monomeric compounds (aniline, 4-nitroaniline, 4-pyrrolaniline, and 1,3-phenylenediamine). Reaction of 2 equiv of the macrocyclic anthraquinone host with 1,2- and 1,4-phenylenediamine yields dimeric imine compounds. The 1,2-diimino host acts as a luminescence sensor, exhibiting enhanced selectivity for Ba(II) ion. Spectroscopic data indicate that two barium ions coordinate to the sensor. Due to E/Z isomerization of the imine, the monomeric complexes are nonluminescent. Restricted rotation about the 1,2 oriented C═N groups or other noncovalent/coordinate-covalent interactions acting between neighboring crown ether rings may inhibit E/Z isomerization in this example, which is different from current examples that employ coordination of a metal cation with a chelating imine nitrogen atom to suppress E/Z isomerization and activate luminescence. The 1,4-diimino adduct, where the crown rings remain widely separated, remains nonluminescent.

  20. Biophysical and pharmacological diversity of high-voltage-activated calcium currents in layer II neurones of guinea-pig piriform cortex

    PubMed Central

    Magistretti, Jacopo; Brevi, Sara; de Curtis, Marco

    1999-01-01

    High-voltage-activated calcium currents were studied with the whole-cell, patch-clamp technique in acutely dissociated pyramidal neurones from guinea-pig piriform cortex layer II. Barium ions were used as charge carriers.Barium currents (IBa) displayed a remarkable kinetic diversity in different neurones. The ratio between the current amplitude at the end of the test pulses and the peak amplitude (Re/p) showed two frequency-distribution peaks at approximately 0.4 and 0.8. The index of current activation speed (rise time 10-90 %) directly correlated with the index of current persistence, Re/p.The half-activation potential (V½) of total IBas positively correlated with the Re/p of the corresponding currents. This implied that the high-decay IBas also had a more negative voltage range of activation than the more persistent ones.The L- and N-type channel blockers nifedipine (10 μm) and ω-conotoxin GVIA (ω-CTx GVIA, 0.5-1 μm) additively blocked 20 and 25 % of the total IBa, respectively. The P/Q-type calcium channel blockers ω-agatoxin IVA (100 nM), ω-conotoxin MVIIC (1 μm) and 3.3 funnel toxin (1 μm), had little effect on IBa.The nifedipine- and ω-CTx GVIA-sensitive current had a Re/p > 0.55 and their voltage dependence of activation was of the high-voltage-activated type (V½≈ 0 mV).High-, intermediate- and low-decay blocker-resistant currents were observed in different neurones. Their Re/p values highly correlated with those of the corresponding total IBas and with the voltage dependence of activation of the underlying conductances. Exponential fittings of the inactivation phase of blocker-resistant currents returned very fast time constants (lower than 30 ms) for high-decay currents (Re/p < 0.25). The intermediate-decay currents (Re/p≈ 0.55) could not derive from variable combinations of high- and low-decay current components.Our data demonstrate a remarkable variety in voltage-activated calcium currents expressed by piriform cortex neurones, that

  1. Sol-gel based optical sensor for determination of Fe (II): a novel probe for iron speciation.

    PubMed

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Rezaei, Vida; Rastegarzadeh, Saadat

    2015-02-05

    A highly selective optical sensor for Fe (II) ions was developed based on entrapment of a sensitive reagent, 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine (TPTZ), in a silica sol-gel thin film coated on a glass substrate. The thin films fabricated based on tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as precursor, sol-gel pH∼3, water:alkoxyde ratio of 4:1 and TPTZ concentration of 0.112 mol L(-1). The influence of sol-gel parameters on sensing behavior of the fabricated sensor was also investigated. The fabricated sensor can be used for determination of Fe (II) ion with an outstanding high selectivity over a dynamic range of 5-115 ng mL(-1) and a detection limit of 1.68 ng mL(-1). It also showed reproducible results with relative standard deviation of 3.5% and 1.27% for 10 and 90 ng mL(-1) of Fe (II), respectively, along with a fast response time of ∼120 s. Total iron also was determined after reduction of Fe (III) to Fe (II) using ascorbic acid as reducing agent. Then, the concentration of Fe (III) was calculated by subtracting the concentration of Fe (II) from the total iron concentration. Interference studies showed a good selectivity for Fe (II) with trapping TPTZ into sol-gel matrix and appropriately adjusting the structure of doped sol-gel. The sensor was compared with other sensors and was applied to determine iron in different water samples with good results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sol-gel based optical sensor for determination of Fe (II): A novel probe for iron speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Rezaei, Vida; Rastegarzadeh, Saadat

    2015-02-01

    A highly selective optical sensor for Fe (II) ions was developed based on entrapment of a sensitive reagent, 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine (TPTZ), in a silica sol-gel thin film coated on a glass substrate. The thin films fabricated based on tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as precursor, sol-gel pH ∼ 3, water:alkoxyde ratio of 4:1 and TPTZ concentration of 0.112 mol L-1. The influence of sol-gel parameters on sensing behavior of the fabricated sensor was also investigated. The fabricated sensor can be used for determination of Fe (II) ion with an outstanding high selectivity over a dynamic range of 5-115 ng mL-1 and a detection limit of 1.68 ng mL-1. It also showed reproducible results with relative standard deviation of 3.5% and 1.27% for 10 and 90 ng mL-1 of Fe (II), respectively, along with a fast response time of ∼120 s. Total iron also was determined after reduction of Fe (III) to Fe (II) using ascorbic acid as reducing agent. Then, the concentration of Fe (III) was calculated by subtracting the concentration of Fe (II) from the total iron concentration. Interference studies showed a good selectivity for Fe (II) with trapping TPTZ into sol-gel matrix and appropriately adjusting the structure of doped sol-gel. The sensor was compared with other sensors and was applied to determine iron in different water samples with good results.

  3. Profile structures of the voltage-sensor domain and the voltage-gated K+-channel vectorially oriented in a single phospholipid bilayer membrane at the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces determined by x-ray interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Liu, J.; Strzalka, J.; Blasie, J. K.

    2011-09-01

    One subunit of the prokaryotic voltage-gated potassium ion channel from Aeropyrum pernix (KvAP) is comprised of six transmembrane α helices, of which S1-S4 form the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) and S5 and S6 contribute to the pore domain (PD) of the functional homotetramer. However, the mechanism of electromechanical coupling interconverting the closed-to-open (i.e., nonconducting-to-K+-conducting) states remains undetermined. Here, we have vectorially oriented the detergent (OG)-solubilized VSD in single monolayers by two independent approaches, namely “directed-assembly” and “self-assembly,” to achieve a high in-plane density. Both utilize Ni coordination chemistry to tether the protein to an alkylated inorganic surface via its C-terminal His6 tag. Subsequently, the detergent is replaced by phospholipid (POPC) via exchange, intended to reconstitute a phospholipid bilayer environment for the protein. X-ray interferometry, in which interference with a multilayer reference structure is used to both enhance and phase the specular x-ray reflectivity from the tethered single membrane, was used to determine directly the electron density profile structures of the VSD protein solvated by detergent versus phospholipid, and with either a moist He (moderate hydration) or bulk aqueous buffer (high hydration) environment to preserve a native structure conformation. Difference electron density profiles, with respect to the multilayer substrate itself, for the VSD-OG monolayer and VSD-POPC membranes at both the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces, reveal the profile structures of the VSD protein dominating these profiles and further indicate a successful reconstitution of a lipid bilayer environment. The self-assembly approach was similarly extended to the intact full-length KvAP channel for comparison. The spatial extent and asymmetry in the profile structures of both proteins confirm their unidirectional vectorial orientation within the reconstituted membrane and

  4. Profile structures of the voltage-sensor domain and the voltage-gated K(+)-channel vectorially oriented in a single phospholipid bilayer membrane at the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces determined by x-ray interferometry.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Liu, J; Strzalka, J; Blasie, J K

    2011-09-01

    One subunit of the prokaryotic voltage-gated potassium ion channel from Aeropyrum pernix (KvAP) is comprised of six transmembrane α helices, of which S1-S4 form the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) and S5 and S6 contribute to the pore domain (PD) of the functional homotetramer. However, the mechanism of electromechanical coupling interconverting the closed-to-open (i.e., nonconducting-to-K(+)-conducting) states remains undetermined. Here, we have vectorially oriented the detergent (OG)-solubilized VSD in single monolayers by two independent approaches, namely "directed-assembly" and "self-assembly," to achieve a high in-plane density. Both utilize Ni coordination chemistry to tether the protein to an alkylated inorganic surface via its C-terminal His_{6} tag. Subsequently, the detergent is replaced by phospholipid (POPC) via exchange, intended to reconstitute a phospholipid bilayer environment for the protein. X-ray interferometry, in which interference with a multilayer reference structure is used to both enhance and phase the specular x-ray reflectivity from the tethered single membrane, was used to determine directly the electron density profile structures of the VSD protein solvated by detergent versus phospholipid, and with either a moist He (moderate hydration) or bulk aqueous buffer (high hydration) environment to preserve a native structure conformation. Difference electron density profiles, with respect to the multilayer substrate itself, for the VSD-OG monolayer and VSD-POPC membranes at both the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces, reveal the profile structures of the VSD protein dominating these profiles and further indicate a successful reconstitution of a lipid bilayer environment. The self-assembly approach was similarly extended to the intact full-length KvAP channel for comparison. The spatial extent and asymmetry in the profile structures of both proteins confirm their unidirectional vectorial orientation within the reconstituted membrane and

  5. Voltage-sensor conformation shapes the intra-membrane drug binding site that determines gambierol affinity in Kv channels.

    PubMed

    Kopljar, Ivan; Grottesi, Alessandro; de Block, Tessa; Rainier, Jon D; Tytgat, Jan; Labro, Alain J; Snyders, Dirk J

    2016-08-01

    Marine ladder-shaped polyether toxins are implicated in neurological symptoms of fish-borne food poisonings. The toxin gambierol, produced by the marine dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, belongs to the group of ladder-shaped polyether toxins and inhibits Kv3.1 channels with nanomolar affinity through a mechanism of gating modification. Binding determinants for gambierol localize at the lipid-exposed interface of the pore forming S5 and S6 segments, suggesting that gambierol binds outside of the permeation pathway. To explore a possible involvement of the voltage-sensing domain (VSD), we made different chimeric channels between Kv3.1 and Kv2.1, exchanging distinct parts of the gating machinery. Our results showed that neither the electro-mechanical coupling nor the S1-S3a region of the VSD affect gambierol sensitivity. In contrast, the S3b-S4 part of the VSD (paddle motif) decreased gambierol sensitivity in Kv3.1 more than 100-fold. Structure determination by homology modeling indicated that the position of the S3b-S4 paddle and its primary structure defines the shape and∖or the accessibility of the binding site for gambierol, explaining the observed differences in gambierol affinity between the channel chimeras. Furthermore, these findings explain the observed difference in gambierol affinity for the closed and open channel configurations of Kv3.1, opening new possibilities for exploring the VSDs as selectivity determinants in drug design.

  6. The Sensing of Humidity by Surface-Type Ag/FORMYL-TIPPCu(II)/Ag Sensor for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Dil Nawaz; Sayyad, Muhammad Hassan; Tahir, Muhammad; Wahab, Fazal; Yaseen, Muhammad; Ali, Mukhtar; Munawar, Munawar Ali

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we have studied the effects of changing relative humidity on the electrical parameters and their multi frequency response of the surface type Ag/formyl-TIPPCu(II)/Ag humidity sensors. The silver electrodes of thickness 100 nm were primarily deposited on cleaned glass substrates by thermal evaporator. A gap of 40 μm was created between the electrodes of each device by using mask during the evaporation process. Thin films of formyl-TIPPCu(II) of 140 nm thickness were grown on silver electrodes by thermal sublimation technique. The values of capacitance and resistance of the sensors were found at different humidity levels at frequency of 1, 10 and 100 kHz of AC input signal. A remarkable increase in capacitance and decrease in resistance were observed during the rise of relative humidity from 45% to 95% RH. The hysteresis response of these humidity sensors was also studied at 1 kHz AC signal.

  7. Highly sensitive sensing of zinc(II) by development and characterization of a PVC-based fluorescent chemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Aksuner, Nur; Henden, Emur; Yenigul, Berrin; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Cukurovali, Alaaddin

    2011-03-01

    A sensor membrane with excellent performance based on 1-methyl-1-phenyl-3-[1-hydroxyimino-2-(succinimido)ethyl]cyclobutane has been developed for the determination of zinc(II) ions. The sensing membrane is capable of determining zinc(II) with an outstanding high selectivity over a dynamic range between 8.0×10(-8) and 1.6×10(-4) mol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 2.5×10(-8) mol L(-1) (1.6 μg L(-1)). It can be easily and completely regenerated by using 0.1 mol L(-1) EDTA solution. The optical sensor developed here was found to be stable, cost effective, easy to prepare, and has unique selectivity towards Zn(2+) ion with respect to common metal ions. The proposed sensor was then applied for the determination of zinc in tap water and hair samples with satisfactory results.

  8. Optimization of Stripping Voltammetric Sensor by a Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network for the Accurate Determination of Pb(II) in the Presence of Cd(II).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo; Wang, Hui; Liu, Gang; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2016-09-21

    An easy, but effective, method has been proposed to detect and quantify the Pb(II) in the presence of Cd(II) based on a Bi/glassy carbon electrode (Bi/GCE) with the combination of a back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) and square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) without further electrode modification. The effects of Cd(II) in different concentrations on stripping responses of Pb(II) was studied. The results indicate that the presence of Cd(II) will reduce the prediction precision of a direct calibration model. Therefore, a two-input and one-output BP-ANN was built for the optimization of a stripping voltammetric sensor, which considering the combined effects of Cd(II) and Pb(II) on the SWASV detection of Pb(II) and establishing the nonlinear relationship between the stripping peak currents of Pb(II) and Cd(II) and the concentration of Pb(II). The key parameters of the BP-ANN and the factors affecting the SWASV detection of Pb(II) were optimized. The prediction performance of direct calibration model and BP-ANN model were tested with regard to the mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), average relative error (ARE), and correlation coefficient. The results proved that the BP-ANN model exhibited higher prediction accuracy than the direct calibration model. Finally, a real samples analysis was performed to determine trace Pb(II) in some soil specimens with satisfactory results.

  9. Optimization of Stripping Voltammetric Sensor by a Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network for the Accurate Determination of Pb(II) in the Presence of Cd(II)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guo; Wang, Hui; Liu, Gang; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    An easy, but effective, method has been proposed to detect and quantify the Pb(II) in the presence of Cd(II) based on a Bi/glassy carbon electrode (Bi/GCE) with the combination of a back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) and square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) without further electrode modification. The effects of Cd(II) in different concentrations on stripping responses of Pb(II) was studied. The results indicate that the presence of Cd(II) will reduce the prediction precision of a direct calibration model. Therefore, a two-input and one-output BP-ANN was built for the optimization of a stripping voltammetric sensor, which considering the combined effects of Cd(II) and Pb(II) on the SWASV detection of Pb(II) and establishing the nonlinear relationship between the stripping peak currents of Pb(II) and Cd(II) and the concentration of Pb(II). The key parameters of the BP-ANN and the factors affecting the SWASV detection of Pb(II) were optimized. The prediction performance of direct calibration model and BP-ANN model were tested with regard to the mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), average relative error (ARE), and correlation coefficient. The results proved that the BP-ANN model exhibited higher prediction accuracy than the direct calibration model. Finally, a real samples analysis was performed to determine trace Pb(II) in some soil specimens with satisfactory results. PMID:27657083

  10. Visual sensor for the detection of trace Cu(II) ions using an immunochromatographic strip.

    PubMed

    Xing, Changrui; Feng, Min; Hao, Changlong; Xu, Liguang; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and simple immunochromatography method based on a gold nanoparticle-labeled monoclonal antibody was developed for the on-site detection of copper (Cu) in water samples. This monoclonal antibody, obtained by a cell fusion technique, recognized the Cu-ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) complex, but not metal-free EDTA, with high sensitivity and specificity. In optimized conditions, the visual limit of detection for qualitative detection of Cu(II) ions was 10 ng/mL and the LOD for semi-quantitative detection decreased to 0.45 ng/mL with the help of a scanning reader system. The detection process was achieved within 10 min with no cross-reactivity from other heavy metal ions. The recovery of the test samples ranged from 98% to 109%. To our knowledge, this antibody-based test strip for Cu(II) ions has not been previously reported. Based on the above results, this strip sensor could be used as an alternative tool for screening heavy metal pollution in the environment.

  11. Mapping the Interaction Site for a β-Scorpion Toxin in the Pore Module of Domain III of Voltage-gated Na+ Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Joel Z.; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Scheuer, Todd; Karbat, Izhar; Cohen, Lior; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael; Catterall, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels initiates and propagates action potentials in electrically excitable cells. β-Scorpion toxins, including toxin IV from Centruroides suffusus suffusus (CssIV), enhance activation of NaV channels. CssIV stabilizes the voltage sensor in domain II in its activated state via a voltage-sensor trapping mechanism. Amino acid residues required for the action of CssIV have been identified in the S1-S2 and S3-S4 extracellular loops of domain II. The extracellular loops of domain III are also involved in toxin action, but individual amino acid residues have not been identified. We used site-directed mutagenesis and voltage clamp recording to investigate amino acid residues of domain III that are involved in CssIV action. In the IIISS2-S6 loop, five substitutions at four positions altered voltage-sensor trapping by CssIVE15A. Three substitutions (E1438A, D1445A, and D1445Y) markedly decreased voltage-sensor trapping, whereas the other two substitutions (N1436G and L1439A) increased voltage-sensor trapping. These bidirectional effects suggest that residues in IIISS2-S6 make both positive and negative interactions with CssIV. N1436G enhanced voltage-sensor trapping via increased binding affinity to the resting state, whereas L1439A increased voltage-sensor trapping efficacy. Based on these results, a three-dimensional model of the toxin-channel interaction was developed using the Rosetta modeling method. These data provide additional molecular insight into the voltage-sensor trapping mechanism of toxin action and define a three-point interaction site for β-scorpion toxins on NaV channels. Binding of α- and β-scorpion toxins to two distinct, pseudo-symmetrically organized receptor sites on NaV channels acts synergistically to modify channel gating and paralyze prey. PMID:22761417

  12. Mapping the interaction site for a β-scorpion toxin in the pore module of domain III of voltage-gated Na(+) channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Joel Z; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Scheuer, Todd; Karbat, Izhar; Cohen, Lior; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael; Catterall, William A

    2012-08-31

    Activation of voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels initiates and propagates action potentials in electrically excitable cells. β-Scorpion toxins, including toxin IV from Centruroides suffusus suffusus (CssIV), enhance activation of Na(V) channels. CssIV stabilizes the voltage sensor in domain II in its activated state via a voltage-sensor trapping mechanism. Amino acid residues required for the action of CssIV have been identified in the S1-S2 and S3-S4 extracellular loops of domain II. The extracellular loops of domain III are also involved in toxin action, but individual amino acid residues have not been identified. We used site-directed mutagenesis and voltage clamp recording to investigate amino acid residues of domain III that are involved in CssIV action. In the IIISS2-S6 loop, five substitutions at four positions altered voltage-sensor trapping by CssIV(E15A). Three substitutions (E1438A, D1445A, and D1445Y) markedly decreased voltage-sensor trapping, whereas the other two substitutions (N1436G and L1439A) increased voltage-sensor trapping. These bidirectional effects suggest that residues in IIISS2-S6 make both positive and negative interactions with CssIV. N1436G enhanced voltage-sensor trapping via increased binding affinity to the resting state, whereas L1439A increased voltage-sensor trapping efficacy. Based on these results, a three-dimensional model of the toxin-channel interaction was developed using the Rosetta modeling method. These data provide additional molecular insight into the voltage-sensor trapping mechanism of toxin action and define a three-point interaction site for β-scorpion toxins on Na(V) channels. Binding of α- and β-scorpion toxins to two distinct, pseudo-symmetrically organized receptor sites on Na(V) channels acts synergistically to modify channel gating and paralyze prey.

  13. Multifunctional Polypeptide EQCN Sensors: Probing the Cysteamine-Glutathione Film Permeability with Hg(II) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Hepel, Maria; Dallas, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Multifunctional films are the basis of biosensors and play an important role in the emerging field of nanobioelectronics. In this work, films of a tripeptide glutathione (GSH) immobilized on a self-assembled monolayer of cysteamine (CA-SAM) on a quartz crystal Au piezosensor have been synthesized and characterized using electrochemical quartz crystal nanogravimetry (EQCN) with a Hg(II) ion probe. It has been found that in contrast to previously studied Au/GSH films, the Au/CA-GSH films strongly hinder the formation of Hg0 with bulk properties while still allowing for relatively easy permeation by Hg(II) ions. This results in complete disappearance of the sharp Hg0 electrodissolution peak which is observed on bare Au and Au/GSH piezosensors. The multiple-peak anodic behavior of Au/CA and bare Au is replaced by a single high-field anodic peak of mercury reoxidation in the case of Au/CA-GSH sensors. The mass-to-charge plots indicate predominant ingress/egress of Hg(II) to/from the film. The strong hindrance of CA-SAM to bulk-Hg0 formation is attributed to film-stabilizing formation of surface (CA)2Hg2+ complexes with conformation evaluated by ab initio quantum mechanical calculations of electronic structure using Hartree-Fock methods. The associates CA-GSH provide an additional functionality of the side sulfhydryl group which is free for interactions, e.g. with heavy metals. It is proposed that in the film, the CA-GSH molecules can assume open (extended) conformation or bent hydrogen-bonded conformation with up to four possible internal hydrogen bonds. PMID:27873925

  14. PVC membrane sensor for potentiometric determination of iron (II) in some pharmaceutical formulations based on a new neutral ionophore.

    PubMed

    Abounassif, M A; Al-Omar, M A; Amr, A-G E; Mostafa, G A E

    2011-06-01

    A novel poly (vinyl chloride) PVC membrane sensor for Fe(2+) ions is described. The sensor is based on the use of newly synthesized chiral 2,6-bis-(carboxamide methyl ester)pyridine derivative as neutral ionophore in plasticized PVC membrane. The sensor display a fast, stable and near-Nernstian response over a relative wide ferrous concentration range (1 × 10(-3) to 6 × 10(-6) M), with cationic slope of 31.5 ± 0.5, mV per concentration decade over a pH range of 5.0-9.0. The direct determination of 0.25-56.0 µg/ml of ferrous in aqueous solution shows an average recovery of 98.5% and a mean relative standard deviation of 1.5% at 20.0 µg/ml. The sensor displays long life-span, long-term stability, high reproducibility, and short response time. Selectivity coefficients for Fe(II) relative to a number of interfering substances were investigated. The sensor shows high significantly for Fe(2+) over Fe,(3+) Cu,(2+) Zn,(2+) Cd,(2+) Hg,(2+) Pb,(2+) Ni,(2+) Co,(2+) Mn,(2+) Al,(3+) alkaline earth and alkali metal ions. The sensor is successfully applied for measurement of ferrous in drug formulations. The results obtained for the determination of ferrous using the proposed sensor are comparable favourably with those obtained using the spectrophotometric method. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A cap-type Schiff base acting as a fluorescence sensor for zinc(II) and a colorimetric sensor for iron(II), copper(II), and zinc(II) in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Beom; Kim, Hyun; Song, Eun Joo; Kim, Sumi; Noh, Insup; Kim, Cheal

    2013-12-21

    A simple and low cost chemosensor is described. This sensor could simultaneously detect three biologically important metal ions through fluorogenic (Zn(2+)) and chromogenic (Fe(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+)) methods in aqueous solution. The sensor could function as a "turn-on" fluorescence receptor only to Zn(2+) ions. In addition, the sensor could be successfully applied to the detection of intracellular Zn(2+). Meanwhile, the sensor displayed an obvious red color upon selective binding with Fe(2+). Therefore, the sensor could serve as a useful tool for the discrimination of Fe(2+) from Fe(3+) in aqueous media. Moreover, the sensor also showed color changes from yellow to colorless upon selective binding with Zn(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively. The detection limit of the sensor for Cu(2+) (1.5 μM) is far below the guidelines of the World Health Organization (30 μM) as the maximum allowable copper concentration in drinking water, and therefore it is capable of being a practical system for the monitoring of Cu(2+) concentrations in aqueous samples. These results provide a new approach for selectively recognizing the most important three trace elements in the human body simultaneously, for Zn(2+) by emission spectra and Fe(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) by the naked eye.

  16. Optical detection/collection of toxic Cd(II) ions using cubic Ia3d aluminosilica mesocage sensors.

    PubMed

    El-Safty, Sherif A; Shenashen, Mohamed A; Khairy, Mohamed

    2012-08-30

    Optical sensors for selective removal and detection of extremely toxic ions such as cadmium (Cd(II)) in aquatic samples were successfully fabricated via simple strategy. Aluminosilica-based network platforms are used as selective mesopore shape and size carriers in order to fabricate optical sensors through the direct functionalization of α, β, γ, and δ-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphine ρ-toluenesulfonate (TMPyP) moieties without any prior surface modification using silane or thiol agents. In turn, the key advantage of a heretical three-dimensional (3D) cubic Ia3d mesocage is the facile access of target ions such as ion transports and the high affinity responses of TMPyP receptor-Cd(II) analyte binding events, which result in the easy generation and transduction of optical signals even at the trace level of the Cd(II) ion. The optical sensor design-based aluminosilica cages enable the sensitive detection and selective removal of Cd(II) ions even at ultra-trace concentrations of 10(-10)mol/dm(3) with rapid response time (in minutes). This rational strategy is crucial to the development of optical mesocollectors (i.e., probe surface-mounted naked-eye ion-sensor strips) with highly selective Cd(II) ion removal from aqueous water. These new classes of optical mesocollectors exhibit long-term stability and reusability of deleterious Cd(II) ions, which makes them efficient for various analytical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring pasture variability: optical OptRx(®) crop sensor versus Grassmaster II capacitance probe.

    PubMed

    Serrano, João M; Shahidian, Shakib; Marques da Silva, José Rafael

    2016-02-01

    Estimation of pasture productivity is an important step for the farmer in terms of planning animal stocking, organizing animal lots, and determining supplementary feeding needs throughout the year. The main objective of this work was to evaluate technologies which have potential for monitoring aspects related to spatial and temporal variability of pasture green and dry matter yield (respectively, GM and DM, in kg/ha) and support to decision making for the farmer. Two types of sensors were evaluated: an active optical sensor ("OptRx(®)," which measures the NDVI, "Normalized Difference Vegetation Index") and a capacitance probe ("GrassMaster II" which estimates plant mass). The results showed the potential of NDVI for monitoring the evolution of spatial and temporal patterns of vegetative growth of biodiverse pasture. Higher NDVI values were registered as pasture approached its greatest vegetative vigor, with a significant fall in the measured NDVI at the end of Spring, when the pasture began to dry due to the combination of higher temperatures and lower soil moisture content. This index was also effective for identifying different plant species (grasses/legumes) and variability in pasture yield. Furthermore, it was possible to develop calibration equations between the capacitance and the NDVI (R(2) = 0.757; p < 0.01), between capacitance and GM (R(2) = 0.799; p < 0.01), between capacitance and DM (R(2) =0.630; p < 0.01), between NDVI and GM (R(2) = 0.745; p < 0.01), and between capacitance and DM (R(2) = 0.524; p < 0.01). Finally, a direct relationship was obtained between NDVI and pasture moisture content (PMC, in %) and between capacitance and PMC (respectively, R(2) = 0.615; p < 0.01 and R(2) = 0.561; p < 0.01) in Alentejo dryland farming systems.

  18. Biomimetic sensor for certain phenols employing a copper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Mobin, Shaikh M; Sanghavi, Bankim J; Srivastava, Ashwini K; Mathur, Pradeep; Lahiri, Goutam K

    2010-07-15

    A new dimeric Cu(II) complex [Cu(mu(2)-hep)(hep-H)](2).2PF(6) (1) containing a bidentate (hep-H = 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyridine) ligand was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Each Cu ion in 1 is in a distorted square pyramidal geometry. Further 1 is used as a modifier in the construction of a biomimetic sensor for determining phenols [phenol (Phe), resorcinol (Res), hydroquinone (HQ), and catechol (Cat)] in phosphate buffer by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and square wave voltammetry (SWV). DPV has been proposed for trace determination of Phe and Res while SWV for HQ and Cat. The method has been applied for the selective and precise analysis of Phe in commercial injections, Res in hair coloring agents, HQ in photographic developers and cosmetics, and Cat in tea samples and guarana tablets. The calibration curves showed a linear response ranging between 10(-6) and 10(-8) M for all four of the analytes with detection limits (3sigma) of 1.04 x 10(-8), 2.31 x 10(-8), 1.54 x 10(-8), and 0.86 x 10(-8) M for Phe, Res, HQ, and Cat, respectively. The lifetime of the biomimetic sensor was 200 days at room temperature (at least 750 determinations). The catalytic properties of 1-CPE were characterized by chronoamperometry and were found to be in good agreement with Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

  19. Voltage dependence of ATP secretion in mammalian taste cells.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Roman A; Rogachevskaja, Olga A; Khokhlov, Alexander A; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S

    2008-12-01

    Mammalian type II taste cells release the afferent neurotransmitter adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through ATP-permeable ion channels, most likely to be connexin (Cx) and/or pannexin hemichannels. Here, we show that ion channels responsible for voltage-gated (VG) outward currents in type II cells are ATP permeable and demonstrate a strong correlation between the magnitude of the VG current and the intensity of ATP release. These findings suggest that slowly deactivating ion channels transporting the VG outward currents can also mediate ATP secretion in type II cells. In line with this inference, we studied a dependence of ATP secretion on membrane voltage with a cellular ATP sensor using different pulse protocols. These were designed on the basis of predictions of a model of voltage-dependent transient ATP efflux. Consistently with curves that were simulated for ATP release mediated by ATP-permeable channels deactivating slowly, the bell-like and Langmuir isotherm-like potential dependencies were characteristic of ATP secretion obtained for prolonged and short electrical stimulations of taste cells, respectively. These observations strongly support the idea that ATP is primarily released via slowly deactivating channels. Depolarizing voltage pulses produced negligible Ca(2+) transients in the cytoplasm of cells releasing ATP, suggesting that ATP secretion is mainly governed by membrane voltage under our recording conditions. With the proviso that natural connexons and pannexons are kinetically similar to exogenously expressed hemichannels, our findings suggest that VG ATP release in type II cells is primarily mediated by Cx hemichannels.

  20. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor-coupled nitric oxide production modulates free radical availability and voltage-gated Ca2+ currents in NTS neurons

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Christal G.; Glass, Michael J.; Zhou, Ping; Yu, Qi; Park, Laibaik; Anrather, Josef; Pickel, Virginia M.; Iadecola, Costantino

    2012-01-01

    The medial region of the nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) is a key brain stem site controlling cardiovascular function, wherein ANG II modulates neuronal L-type Ca2+ currents via activation of ANG II type 1 receptors (AT1R) and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ANG II type 2 receptors (AT2R) induce production of nitric oxide (NO), which may interact with ROS and modulate AT1R signaling. We sought to determine whether AT2R-mediated NO production occurs in mNTS neurons and, if so, to elucidate the NO source and the functional interaction with AT1R-induced ROS or Ca2+ influx. Electron microscopic (EM) immunolabeling showed that AT2R and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) are coexpressed in neuronal somata and dendrites receiving synapses in the mNTS. In the presence of the AT1R antagonist losartan, ANG II increased NO production in isolated mNTS neurons, an effect blocked by the AT2R antagonist PD123319, but not the angiotensin (1–7) antagonist D-Ala. Studies in mNTS neurons of nNOS-null or endothelial NOS (eNOS)-null mice established nNOS as the source of NO. ANG II-induced ROS production was enhanced by PD123319, the NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine (LNNA), or in nNOS-null mice. Moreover, in the presence of losartan, ANG II reduced voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ current, an effect blocked by PD123319 or LNNA. We conclude that AT2R are closely associated and functionally coupled with nNOS in mNTS neurons. The resulting NO production antagonizes AT1R-mediated ROS and dampens L-type Ca2+ currents. The ensuing signaling changes in the NTS may counteract the deleterious effects of AT1R on cardiovascular function. PMID:22378773

  1. Determination of Contact Potential Difference by the Kelvin Probe (Part II) 2. Measurement System by Involving the Composite Bucking Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilitis, O.; Rutkis, M.; Busenbergs, J.; Merkulovs, D.

    2016-12-01

    The present research is devoted to creation of a new low-cost miniaturised measurement system for determination of potential difference in real time and with high measurement resolution. Furthermore, using the electrode of the reference probe, Kelvin method leads to both an indirect measurement of electronic work function or contact potential of the sample and measurement of a surface potential for insulator type samples. The bucking voltage in this system is composite and comprises a periodically variable component. The necessary steps for development of signal processing and tracking are described in detail.

  2. Spirally oriented Au microelectrode array sensor for detection of Hg (II).

    PubMed

    Huan, Tran Ngoc; Hung, Le Quoc; Ha, Vu Thi Thu; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Van Khai, Tran; Shim, Kwang Bo; Chung, Hoeil

    2012-05-30

    A simple and reproducible carbon microelectrode array (CMA), designed to eliminate diffusive interference among the microelectrodes, has been fabricated and used as a frame to build a gold (Au) microelectrode array (GMA) sensor. To prepare the CMA initially, rather than use an uncontrollable large number of carbon fibers, only 60 carbon fibers of regular size were used to ensure manageable and reproducible arrangement for array construction. In addition, for efficient spatial arrangement of the microelectrode and easy sensor preparation, carbon fibers were oriented in a spiral fashion by rolling around a Cu wire. The distance between carbon fibers was carefully determined to avoid overlap among individual diffusion layers, one of the important factors governing steady-state current response and sensor-to-sensor reproducibility. After the preparation of a spirally arranged CMA, Au was electrochemically deposited on the surface of individual carbon electrodes to build a final GMA sensor. Then, the GMA sensor was used to measure Hg(2+) in a low concentration range. Simultaneously, multiple GMA sensors were independently prepared to examine reproducibility in sensor fabrication as well as electrochemical measurement (sensor-to-sensor reproducibility). Overall, highly sensitive detection of Hg(2+) was possible using the proposed GMA sensor due to efficient arrangement of microelectrodes and the sensor-to-sensor reproducibility was superior owing to simplicity in sensor fabrication.

  3. Calix receptor edifice; scrupulous turn off fluorescent sensor for Fe(III), Co(II) and Cu(II).

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Keyur D; Gupte, Hrishikesh S; Makwana, Bharat A; Vyas, Disha J; Maity, Debdeep; Jain, Vinod K

    2012-11-01

    Novel Supramolecular fluorescence receptor derived from calix-system i.e. calix[4]resorcinarene bearing dansylchloride as fluorophore was designed and synthesized. The compound was purified by column chromatography and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR and Mass spectroscopy. Tetradansylated calix[4] resorcinarene (TDCR) shows a boat conformation with C(2)v symmetry. The complexation behaviour of metal cations [Ag(I), Cd(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Hg(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), U(VI) (1 × 10(-4) M)] with tetra dansylated calix[4]resorcinarene (1 × 10(-6) M) was studied by spectophotometry and spectrofluorometry. Red shift in the absorption spectra led us to conclude that there is strong complexation Fe(III), Co(II) and Cu(II) with TDCR. These metal cations also produce quenching with red shifts in the emission spectra. The maximum quenching in emission intensity was observed in the case of Fe(III) and its binding constant was also found to be significantly higher than that of Co(II) and Cu(II). Quantum yield of metal complexes of Fe(III) was found to be lower in comparison with Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes. Stern Volmer analysis indicates that the mechanism of fluorescence quenching is either purely dynamic, or purely static.

  4. Rapid and selective lead (II) colorimetric sensor based on azacrown ether-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, A.; Khodaei, M. M.; Karami, Ch; Workentin, M. S.; Shamsipur, M.; Sadeghi, M.

    2010-08-01

    A gold nanoparticle (AuNPs)-based simple and fast colorimetric sensor for selective detecting of Pb(II) in aqueous solution has been developed. Monodisperse AuNPs (approx. 2.0 nm diameter) has been prepared facilely and further modified with an alkanethiol-bearing monoazacrown ether terminus. These AuNPs are shown to selectively sense Pb2 + through color change, which is visually discernible by an appearance of the surface plasmon band (SPB) at 520 nm. The recognition mechanism is attributed to the unique structure of the monoazacrown ether attached to AuNPs and metal sandwich coordination between two azacrown ether moieties that are attached to separate nanoparticles. This inter-particle cross-linking results in an aggregation and apparent color change from brown to purple. Additionally, TEM experiments support the optical absorption data proving the aggregation between azacrown ether-capped gold nanoparticles. This AuNP-based colorimetric assay is a facile and robust method and allows fast detection of Pb2 + at ambient temperatures. More importantly, the developed technique does not utilize enzymatic reactions, light-sensitive dye molecules, lengthy protocols or sophisticated instrumentation.

  5. Determination of copper(II) in the dairy product by an electrochemical sensor based on click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Suyan; Xie, Lidan; Gao, Sen; Liu, Qida; Lin, Zhenyu; Qiu, Bin; Chen, Guonan

    2011-11-30

    Herein, a novel sensitive electrochemical sensor for copper(II) based on Cu(I) catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC) is described. The catalyst of Cu(I) species is derived from electrochemical reduction of Cu(II) through bulk electrolysis (BE) with coulometry technique. The propargyl-functionalized ferrocene (propargyl-functionalized Fc) is covalently coupled onto the electrode surface via CuAAC reaction and forms propargyl-functionalized Fc modified gold electrode, which allows a good and stable electrochemical signal. The change of current at peak (dI), detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), exhibits a linear response to the logarithm of Cu(II) concentration in the range of 1.0×10(-14)-1.0×10(-9) mol L(-1). It is also found that the proposed sensor has a good selectivity for copper(II) assay even in the presence of other common metal ions. Additionally, the proposed method has been applied to determine copper(II) in the dairy product (yoghurt) with satisfactory results.

  6. Smart sensors II; Proceedings of the Seminar, San Diego, CA, July 31, August 1, 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbe, D. F.

    1980-01-01

    Topics discussed include technology for smart sensors, smart sensors for tracking and surveillance, and techniques and algorithms for smart sensors. Papers are presented on the application of very large scale integrated circuits to smart sensors, imaging charge-coupled devices for deep-space surveillance, ultra-precise star tracking using charge coupled devices, and automatic target identification of blurred images with super-resolution features. Attention is also given to smart sensors for terminal homing, algorithms for estimating image position, and the computational efficiency of multiple image registration algorithms.

  7. A zinc fluorescent sensor used to detect mercury (II) and hydrosulfide.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Min; Lee, Jae Jun; Nam, Eunju; Lim, Mi Hee; Kim, Cheal; Harrison, Roger G

    2017-05-05

    A zinc sensor based on quinoline and morpholine has been synthesized. The sensor selectively fluoresces in the presence of Zn(2+), while not for other metal ions. Absorbance changes in the 350nm region are observed when Zn(2+) binds, which binds in a 1:1 ratio. The sensor fluoresces due to Zn(2+) above pH values of 6.0 and in the biological important region. The Zn(2+)-sensor complex has the unique ability to detect both Hg(2+) and HS(-). The fluorescence of the Zn(2+)-sensor complex is quenched when it is exposed to aqueous solutions of Hg(2+) with sub-micromolar detection levels for Hg(2+). The fluorescence of the Zn(2+)-sensor complex is also quenched by aqueous solutions of hydrosulfide. The sensor was used to detect Zn(2+) and Hg(2+) in living cells.

  8. Mechanism of "turn-on" fluorescent sensors for mercury(II) in solution and its implications for ligand design.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunjung; Lee, Hee-Seung; Reibenspies, Joseph H; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-10-15

    The tendency of a Hg(II) ion to strongly quench fluorescence of potential fluorescent sensors is explored. Fluorescence measurements show the expected order of the chelation-enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) effect of Zn(II) > Cd(II) > Hg(II) ~ Cu(II), which is interpreted as (1) unpaired electrons causing the weak CHEF effect for Cu(II) and (2) the order Zn(II) > Cd(II) > Hg(II) reflecting the "heavy atom" effect, which may be due to increasing spin-orbit coupling constants (ζ) for Zn(II) < Cd(II) < Hg(II). The structures of mercury(II) complexes of N-(9-anthracenylmethyl)-N-(2-pyridinylmethyl)-2-pyridinemethanamine (ADPA) are reported. [Hg(ADPA)Cl(2)HgCl(2)] (1) has one Hg(II) held by two bridging chlorides, while the other Hg(II) is coordinated to the ADPA ligand. The latter Hg(II) has a nearest π contact of 3.215 Å with a C atom from the anthracenyl group, which falls in the range of reported Hg-C π contacts with aromatic groups. This contact may be important in quenching the fluorescence of the Hg(II)/ADPA complex. A density functional theory study shows that the Hg-C interaction is strong enough to prevent a simple HOMO → LUMO transition of the fluorophore. In fact, the S(0) → S(1) and S(2) transitions in the Hg(II)/ADPA complex have significant charge-transfer character to mercury. An important aspect of the coordination geometry of Hg(II) is illustrated by 1, where Hg(II) tends to form a few (often only two) short bonds to the more covalently binding donor atoms present, with much longer bonds to other donor atoms. The Hg-N bonds to the two pyridyl N-donor atoms of ADPA in 1 are relatively short at 2.212(8) and 2.224(8) Å, while that to the central saturated N-donor atom of ADPA is long at 2.603(8) Å. The latter long Hg-N bond may allow a photoinduced electron-transfer (PET) effect, quenching the fluorescence of the anthracenyl fluorophore. The structure of [Hg(ADPA)Br(2)] (2) reflects the more covalent binding of the two bromine ligands compared to

  9. Giant magnetoimpedance intrinsic impedance and voltage sensitivity of rapidly solidified Co66Fe2Cr4Si13B15 amorphous wire for highly sensitive sensors applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tarun K.; Banerji, Pallab; Mandal, Sushil K.

    2016-11-01

    We report a systematic study of the influence of wire length, L, dependence of giant magneto-impedance (GMI) sensitivity of Co66Fe2Cr4Si13B15 soft magnetic amorphous wire of diameter ~100 µm developed by in-water quenching technique. The magnetization behaviour (hysteresis loops) of the wire with different length ( L = 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 and 10 cm) has been evaluated by fuxmetric induction method. It was observed that the behaviour of the hysteresis loops change drastically with the wire length, being attributed to the existence of a critical length, L C, found to be around 3 cm. GMI measurements have been taken using automated GMI measurement system and the GMI sensitivities in terms of intrinsic impedance sensitivity ( S Ω/Am -1) and voltage sensitivity ( S V/Am -1) of the wire have been evaluated under optimal bias field and excitation current. It was found that the maximum ( S Ω/Am -1) max ≈ 0.63 Ω/kAm-1/cm and ( S V/Am -1) max ≈ 3.10 V/kAm-1/cm were achieved at a critical length L C ~ 3 cm of the wire for an AC current of 5 mA and a frequency of 5 MHz. These findings provide crucial insights for optimization of the geometrical dimensions of magnetic sensing elements and important practical guidance for designing high sensitive GMI sensors. The relevant combinations of magnetic material parameters and operating conditions that optimize the sensitivity are highlighted.

  10. A Polybasic Plasma Membrane Binding Motif in the I-II Linker Stabilizes Voltage-gated CaV1.2 Calcium Channel Function.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurjot; Pinggera, Alexandra; Ortner, Nadine J; Lieb, Andreas; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Obermair, Gerald J; Flucher, Bernhard E; Striessnig, Jörg

    2015-08-21

    L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) regulate many physiological functions like muscle contraction, hormone secretion, gene expression, and neuronal excitability. Their activity is strictly controlled by various molecular mechanisms. The pore-forming α1-subunit comprises four repeated domains (I-IV), each connected via an intracellular linker. Here we identified a polybasic plasma membrane binding motif, consisting of four arginines, within the I-II linker of all LTCCs. The primary structure of this motif is similar to polybasic clusters known to interact with polyphosphoinositides identified in other ion channels. We used de novo molecular modeling to predict the conformation of this polybasic motif, immunofluorescence microscopy and live cell imaging to investigate the interaction with the plasma membrane, and electrophysiology to study its role for Cav1.2 channel function. According to our models, this polybasic motif of the I-II linker forms a straight α-helix, with the positive charges facing the lipid phosphates of the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Membrane binding of the I-II linker could be reversed after phospholipase C activation, causing polyphosphoinositide breakdown, and was accelerated by elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels. This indicates the involvement of negatively charged phospholipids in the plasma membrane targeting of the linker. Neutralization of four arginine residues eliminated plasma membrane binding. Patch clamp recordings revealed facilitated opening of Cav1.2 channels containing these mutations, weaker inhibition by phospholipase C activation, and reduced expression of channels (as quantified by ON-gating charge) at the plasma membrane. Our data provide new evidence for a membrane binding motif within the I-II linker of LTCC α1-subunits essential for stabilizing normal Ca(2+) channel function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. New duel fluorescent 'on-off' and colorimetric sensor for Copper(II): Copper(II) binds through N coordination and pi cation interaction to sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jutika; Bhattacharyya, Pradip K.; Das, Diganta Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Schiff base derived from naphthylamine and benzil (L) binds to two Cu2+ ions, one by coordination through N of the Schiff base and another by pi cation interaction through benzil rings. This bonding pattern determined by DFT calculation has been proved by matching electronic spectrum obtained from TDDFT calculation to the experimental one. L acts as "on-off" fluorescent and bare eye detectable colorimetric (purple color) sensor for Cu2+ ion over the metal ions - Na+, K+, Ca2+ Mn2+, Co2+ Ni2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Ag+, Hg2+ and Al3+ in 1:1 v/v CH3CN:H2O. These metal ions do not interfere the fluorescent/colorimetric sensing. As fluorescent sensor the linear range of detection is 5 × 10-5 to 3 × 10-4 M and detection limit 10-5 M.

  12. Microwave-assisted synthesis of II-VI semiconductor micro-and nanoparticles towards sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majithia, Ravish Yogesh

    Engineering particles at the nanoscale demands a high degree of control over process parameters during synthesis. For nanocrystal synthesis, solution-based techniques typically include application of external convective heat. This process often leads to slow heating and allows decomposition of reagents or products over time. Microwave-assisted heating provides faster, localized heating at the molecular level with near instantaneous control over reaction parameters. In this work, microwave-assisted heating has been applied for the synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals namely, ZnO nanopods and CdX (X = Se, Te) quantum dots (QDs). Based on factors such as size, surface functionality and charge, optical properties of such nanomaterials can be tuned for application as sensors. ZnO is a direct bandgap semiconductor (3.37 eV) with a large exciton binding energy (60 meV) leading to photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. A microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach allows the use of sub-5 nm ZnO zero-dimensional nanoparticles as seeds for generation of multi-legged quasi one-dimensional nanopods via heterogeneous nucleation. ZnO nanopods, having individual leg diameters of 13-15 nm and growing along the [0001] direction, can be synthesized in as little as 20 minutes. ZnO nanopods exhibit a broad defect-related PL spanning the visible range with a peak at ~615 nm. Optical sensing based on changes in intensity of the defect PL in response to external environment (e.g., humidity) is demonstrated in this work. Microwave-assisted synthesis was also used for organometallic synthesis of CdX(ZnS) (X = Se, Te) core(shell) QDs. Optical emission of these QDs can be altered based on their size and can be tailored to specific wavelengths. Further, QDs were incorporated in Enhanced Green-Fluorescent Protein -- Ultrabithorax (EGFP-Ubx) fusion protein for the generation of macroscale composite protein fibers via hierarchal self-assembly. Variations in EGFP- Ubx˙QD composite

  13. Serotonin regulates voltage-dependent currents in type I(e(A)) and I(i) interneurons of Hermissenda.

    PubMed

    Jin, Nan Ge; Crow, Terry

    2011-11-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has both direct and modulatory actions on central neurons contributing to behavioral arousal and cellular-synaptic plasticity in diverse species. In Hermissenda, 5-HT produces changes in intrinsic excitability of different types of identified interneurons in the circumesophageal nervous system. Using whole cell patch-clamp techniques we have examined membrane conductance changes produced by 5-HT that contribute to intrinsic excitability in two identified classes of interneurons, types I(i) and I(eA). Whole cell currents were examined before and after 5-HT application to the isolated nervous system. A 4-aminopyridine-sensitive transient outward K(+) current [I(K(A))], a tetraethylammonium-sensitive delayed rectifier K(+) current [I(K(V))], an inward rectifier K(+) current [I(K(IR))], and a hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) were characterized. 5-HT decreased the amplitude of I(K(A)) and I(K(V)) in both type I(i) and I(eA) interneurons. However, differences in 5-HT's effects on the activation-inactivation kinetics were observed in different types of interneurons. 5-HT produced a depolarizing shift in the activation curve of I(K(V)) and a hyperpolarizing shift in the inactivation curve of I(K(A)) in type I(i) interneurons. In contrast, 5-HT produced a depolarizing shift in the activation curve and a hyperpolarizing shift in the inactivation curve of both I(K(V)) and I(K(A)) in type I(eA) interneurons. In addition, 5-HT decreased the amplitude of I(K(IR)) in type I(i) interneurons and increased the amplitude of I(h) in type I(eA) interneurons. These results indicate that 5-HT-dependent changes in I(K(A)), I(K(V)), I(K(IR)), and I(h) contribute to multiple mechanisms that synergistically support modulation of increased intrinsic excitability associated with different functional classes of identified type I interneurons.

  14. Level Sensor for Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, N. E.; Schroff, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Hot wire sensor combined with voltage-comparator circuit monitors liquid level in cryogenic-fluid storage tanks. Sensor circuit adaptable to different liquids and sensors. Constant-current source drives current through sensing probe and fixed resistor. Voltage comparator circuits interpret voltage drops to tell whether probe is immersed in liquid and is current in probe.

  15. Direct interaction between synaptotagmin and the intracellular loop I-II of neuronal voltage-sensitive sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Sampo, Bernard; Tricaud, Nicolas; Leveque, Christian; Seagar, Michael; Couraud, François; Dargent, Bénédicte

    2000-01-01

    Synaptotagmin, a synaptic vesicle protein involved in Ca2+-regulated exocytosis, displayed direct high affinity interaction with neuronal sodium channels. Monoclonal antibodies directed against synaptotagmins I and II adsorbed in a concentration-dependent and -specific manner [3H]saxitoxin prelabeled sodium channels extracted with detergent from nerve endings. Conversely, co-immunoprecipitation of synaptotagmin was achieved by antibodies against sodium channel subunits. Consistent with the co-immunoprecipitation assays, solubilized [3H]saxitoxin-prelabeled sodium channels were trapped on immobilized maltose binding protein (MBP)-synaptotagmin I. In vitro recombinant protein assays were employed to identify the interaction site of synaptotagmin I, which was located on the cytoplasmic loop between domains I and II of the sodium channel αIIA subunit. The co-immunoprecipitated synaptotagmin-sodium channel complexes were found to be Ca2+-dependent; this effect was mimicked by Ba2+ and Sr2+ but not Mg2+. Finally the complex was shown to be distinct from the synaptotagmin-SNARE protein complex that can selectively interact with presynaptic calcium channels (N and P/Q types). Thus, our findings demonstrate an unexpected and direct interaction between sodium channels and synaptotagmin. The Ca2+-regulated association between sodium channels and a protein implicated in vesicular fusion may have intriguing consequences for the establishment and regulation of neuronal excitability. PMID:10737807

  16. MAGID-II: a next-generation magnetic unattended ground sensor (UGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Paul A.; Mauriello, Fred; Huber, Philip

    2012-06-01

    A next generation magnetic sensor is being developed at L-3 Communications, Communication Systems East to enhance the ability of Army and Marine Corps unattended ground sensor (UGS) systems to detect and track targets on the battlefield. This paper describes a magnetic sensor that provides superior detection range for both armed personnel and vehicle targets, at a reduced size, weight, and level of power consumption (SWAP) over currently available magnetic sensors. The design integrates the proven technology of a flux gate magnetometer combined with advanced digital signal processing algorithms to provide the warfighter with a rapidly deployable, extremely low false-alarm-rate sensor. This new sensor improves on currently available magnetic UGS systems by providing not only target detection and direction information, but also a magnetic disturbance readout, indicating the size of the target. The sensor integrates with Government Off-the-Shelf (GOTS) systems such as the United States Army's Battlefield Anti-Intrusion System (BAIS) and the United States Marine Corps Tactical Remote Sensor System (TRSS). The system has undergone testing by the US Marine Corps, as well as extensive company testing. Results from these field tests are given.

  17. Sensors and sensor systems for guidance and navigation II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 22, 23, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Topics discussed in this volume include aircraft guidance and navigation, optics for visual guidance of aircraft, spacecraft and missile guidance and navigation, lidar and ladar systems, microdevices, gyroscopes, cockpit displays, and automotive displays. Papers are presented on optical processing for range and attitude determination, aircraft collision avoidance using a statistical decision theory, a scanning laser aircraft surveillance system for carrier flight operations, star sensor simulation for astroinertial guidance and navigation, autonomous millimeter-wave radar guidance systems, and a 1.32-micron long-range solid state imaging ladar. Attention is also given to a microfabricated magnetometer using Young's modulus changes in magnetoelastic materials, an integrated microgyroscope, a pulsed diode ring laser gyroscope, self-scanned polysilicon active-matrix liquid-crystal displays, the history and development of coated contrast enhancement filters for cockpit displays, and the effect of the display configuration on the attentional sampling performance.

  18. VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Von Eschen, R.L.; Scheele, P.F.

    1962-04-24

    A transistorized voltage regulator which provides very close voitage regulation up to about 180 deg F is described. A diode in the positive line provides a constant voltage drop from the input to a regulating transistor emitter. An amplifier is coupled to the positive line through a resistor and is connected between a difference circuit and the regulating transistor base which is negative due to the difference in voltage drop across thc diode and the resistor so that a change in the regulator output causes the amplifier to increase or decrease the base voltage and current and incrcase or decrease the transistor impedance to return the regulator output to normal. (AEC)

  19. Image quality and radiation exposure with a low tube voltage protocol for coronary CT angiography results of the PROTECTION II Trial.

    PubMed

    Hausleiter, Jörg; Martinoff, Stefan; Hadamitzky, Martin; Martuscelli, Eugenio; Pschierer, Iris; Feuchtner, Gudrun M; Catalán-Sanz, Paz; Czermak, Benedikt; Meyer, Tanja S; Hein, Franziska; Bischoff, Bernhard; Kuse, Miriam; Schömig, Albert; Achenbach, Stephan

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate image quality and radiation dose using a 100 kVp tube voltage scan protocol compared with standard 120 kVp for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). Concerns have been raised about radiation exposure during coronary CTA. The use of a 100 kVp tube voltage scan protocol effectively lowers coronary CTA radiation dose compared with standard 120 kVp, but it is unknown whether image quality is maintained. We enrolled 400 nonobese patients who underwent coronary CTA: 202 patients were randomly assigned to a 100 kVp protocol and 198 patients to a 120 kVp protocol. The primary end point was to demonstrate noninferiority in image quality with the 100 kVp protocol, which was assessed by a 4-point grading score (1 = nondiagnostic, 4 = excellent image quality). For the noninferiority analysis, a margin of -0.2 image quality score points for the difference between both scan protocols was pre-defined. Secondary end points included radiation dose and need for additional diagnostic tests during follow-up. The mean image quality scores in patients scanned with 100 kVp and 120 kVp were 3.30 ± 0.67 and 3.28 ± 0.68, respectively (p = 0.742); image quality of the 100 kVp protocol was not inferior, as demonstrated by the 97.5% confidence interval of the difference, which did not cross the pre-defined noninferiority margin of -0.2. The 100 kVp protocol was associated with a 31% relative reduction in radiation exposure (dose-length product: 868 ± 317 mGy × cm with 120 kVp vs. 599 ± 255 mGy × cm with 100 kVp; p < 0.0001). At 30-day follow-up, the need for additional diagnostic studies did not differ (13.4% vs. 19.2% for 100 kVp vs. 120 kVp, respectively; p = 0.114). A coronary CTA protocol using 100 kVp tube voltage maintained image quality, but reduced radiation exposure by 31% as compared with the standard 120 kVp protocol. Thus, 100 kVp scan protocols should be considered for nonobese patients to keep radiation exposure as low as

  20. Penicillamine-modified sensor for the voltammetric determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in natural samples.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ràfols, Clara; Serrano, Núria; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Ariño, Cristina; Esteban, Miquel

    2015-11-01

    A new penicillamine-GCE was developed based on the immobilization of d-penicillamine on aryl diazonium salt monolayers anchored to the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface and it was applied for the first time to the simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions by stripping voltammetric techniques. The detection and quantification limits at levels of µg L(-1) suggest that the penicillamine-GCE could be fully suitable for the determination of the considered ions in natural samples.

  1. D-penicillamine capped cadmium telluride quantum dots as a novel fluorometric sensor of copper(II).

    PubMed

    Mohammad-Rezaei, Rahim; Razmi, Habib; Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    D-penicillamine-capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (DPA-capped CdTe QDs) were synthesized as the new fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystal in aqueous solution. Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used for characterization of the QDs. Based on the quenching effect of Cu(2+) ions on the fluorescence intensity of DPA-capped CdTe QDs, a new fluorometric sensor for copper(II) detection was developed that showed good linearity over the concentration range 5 × 10(-9)-3 × 10(-6) M with the detection limit 0.4 × 10(-9) M. Owing to the strong affinity of the DPA to copper(II), the sensor showed appropriate selectivity for copper(II) compared with conventional QDs. The DPA-capped CdTe QDs was successfully applied for determination of Cu(2+) concentration in river, well and tap waters with satisfactory results.

  2. A Sensitive Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensor for Zinc(II) with High Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yuanyuan; Cao, Mingda; Li, Jiakai; Wang, Junbo

    2013-01-01

    A new fluorescent Zn2+ chemosensor (P1) based on a functionalized porphyrin was synthesized and characterized. P1 displayed dramatic ratiometric variations in absorption and fluorescent emission spectra upon exposure to Zn2+ due to the formation of a 1:1 Zn2+/P1 complex. The sensor also exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity toward Zn2+ over other common metal ions in the physiological pH range with a detection limit of 1.8 μM. The sensor showed fast response times and excellent reproducibility, thus confirming its potential applicability as a fluorescent sensor for Zn2+ sensing. PMID:23467028

  3. RF current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James A.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    1998-11-10

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  4. Sensors and sensor systems for guidance and navigation II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 22, 23, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Sharon S.

    Topics discussed in this volume include aircraft guidance and navigation, optics for visual guidance of aircraft, spacecraft and missile guidance and navigation, lidar and ladar systems, microdevices, gyroscopes, cockpit displays, and automotive displays. Papers are presented on optical processing for range and attitude determination, aircraft collision avoidance using a statistical decision theory, a scanning laser aircraft surveillance system for carrier flight operations, star sensor simulation for astroinertial guidance and navigation, autonomous millimeter-wave radar guidance systems, and a 1.32-micron long-range solid state imaging ladar. Attention is also given to a microfabricated magnetometer using Young's modulus changes in magnetoelastic materials, an integrated microgyroscope, a pulsed diode ring laser gyroscope, self-scanned polysilicon active-matrix liquid-crystal displays, the history and development of coated contrast enhancement filters for cockpit displays, and the effect of the display configuration on the attentional sampling performance. (For individual items see A93-28152 to A93-28176, A93-28178 to A93-28180)

  5. Mitochondrial complex II is a source of the reserve respiratory capacity that is regulated by metabolic sensors and promotes cell survival.

    PubMed

    Pfleger, J; He, M; Abdellatif, M

    2015-07-30

    The survival of a cell depends on its ability to meet its energy requirements. We hypothesized that the mitochondrial reserve respiratory capacity (RRC) of a cell is a critical component of its bioenergetics that can be utilized during an increase in energy demand, thereby, enhancing viability. Our goal was to identify the elements that regulate and contribute to the development of RRC and its involvement in cell survival. The results show that activation of metabolic sensors, including pyruvate dehydrogenase and AMP-dependent kinase, increases cardiac myocyte RRC via a Sirt3-dependent mechanism. Notably, we identified mitochondrial complex II (cII) as a target of these metabolic sensors and the main source of RRC. Moreover, we show that RRC, via cII, correlates with enhanced cell survival after hypoxia. Thus, for the first time, we show that metabolic sensors via Sirt3 maximize the cellular RRC through activating cII, which enhances cell survival after hypoxia.

  6. Mitochondrial complex II is a source of the reserve respiratory capacity that is regulated by metabolic sensors and promotes cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Pfleger, J; He, M; Abdellatif, M

    2015-01-01

    The survival of a cell depends on its ability to meet its energy requirements. We hypothesized that the mitochondrial reserve respiratory capacity (RRC) of a cell is a critical component of its bioenergetics that can be utilized during an increase in energy demand, thereby, enhancing viability. Our goal was to identify the elements that regulate and contribute to the development of RRC and its involvement in cell survival. The results show that activation of metabolic sensors, including pyruvate dehydrogenase and AMP-dependent kinase, increases cardiac myocyte RRC via a Sirt3-dependent mechanism. Notably, we identified mitochondrial complex II (cII) as a target of these metabolic sensors and the main source of RRC. Moreover, we show that RRC, via cII, correlates with enhanced cell survival after hypoxia. Thus, for the first time, we show that metabolic sensors via Sirt3 maximize the cellular RRC through activating cII, which enhances cell survival after hypoxia. PMID:26225774

  7. A nano-graphite-DNA hybrid sensor for magnified fluorescent detection of mercury(II) ions in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yin; Li, Bianmiao; Wang, Xu; Duan, Yixiang

    2014-04-07

    In this communication, we present a nano-graphite-DNA hybrid sensor for fluorescent detection of mercury(II) ions in aqueous solution for the first time. Furthermore, an amplification strategy based on nano-graphite for Hg(2+) detection by using DNase I was demonstrated. The proposed amplified assay was simple and cost-effective with a limit of detection (LOD) for Hg(2+) of 0.5 nM, which was about 20-fold lower than that of traditional unamplified homogeneous assays. We further demonstrated its practical application to detect Hg(2+) in a real sample.

  8. Power dissipation studies on planar n+-in-n pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingenberg, R.; Altenheiner, S.; Bryan, D.; Dungs, S.; Gisen, A.; Gößling, C.; Hillringhaus, B.; Kröninger, K.; Ratering, C.; Wittig, T.

    2016-09-01

    Research and development laboratory measurements of non-irradiated and irradiated planar n+-in-n pixel sensor structures are systematically investigated to determine the power dissipation of those sensors. Measurements were taken at different operation temperatures, sensor bias voltages, bulk thicknesses, sensor areas, and irradiation fluences. For planar n+-in-n pixel sensors irradiated to HL-LHC fluences of some 1016neqcm-2 a power dissipation area density of (126±8) mW cm-2 at a temperature of -25 °C and at an operation voltage of 800 V is derived for small sensors with an area of about 0.7cm2 . For large sensors as planned for the ATLAS phase-II upgrade a power dissipation of 100 mW cm-2 is expected.

  9. «Оn-off» fluorescent sensors for aromatic analytes based on zinc(II) bis(dipyrromethenate)s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksenofontov, A. A.; Guseva, G. B.; Antina, E. V.; Nuraneeva, E. N.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the results of spectral-luminescence research of binuclear zinc(II) helicates with tetra-, octa-, and decamethylsubstituted 3,3‧-bis(dipyrromethene)s ([Zn2L2]) in binary mixtures of cyclohexane with aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, and m-xylene). Structure effects of zinc(II) helicates, and aromaticity criteria of analytes (HOMA, NICS, δ) on the fluorescence quenching efficiency of [Zn2L2] in the presence of aromatic compounds was considered. It was found that decamethylsubstituted 3,3‧-bis(dipyrromethenate)s compared to tetra-, and octamethylsubstituted-analogs shows the highest fluorescence sensitivity to the presence of aromatic compounds. High specificity of spectral-luminescence characteristics changing in the presence of particular aromatic analytes provides the possibility of using [Zn2L2] helicates as new fluorescent sensors of aromatic compounds trace amount (120 ppb to 56 ppm) in organic media.

  10. Enhancement of chitosan-graphene oxide SPR sensor with a multi-metallic layers of Au-Ag-Au nanostructure for lead(II) ion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba; Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A.; Yaacob, Mohd Hanif; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Zan, Mohd Saiful Dzulkefly; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the enhancement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique by implementing a multi-metallic layers of Au-Ag-Au nanostructure in the chitosan-graphene oxide (CS-GO) SPR sensor for lead(II) ion detection. The performance of the sensor is analyzed via SPR measurements, from which the sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio and repeatability are determined. The nanostructure layers are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We showed that the proposed structure has increased the shift in the SPR angle up to 3.5° within the range of 0.1-1 ppm due to the enhanced evanescent field at the sensing layer-analyte interface. This sensor also exhibits great repeatability which benefits from the stable multi-metallic nanostructure. The SNR value of 0.92 for 5 ppm lead(II) ion solution and reasonable linearity range up to that concentration shows that the tri-metallic CS-GO SPR sensor gives a good response towards the lead(II) ion solution. The CS-GO SPR sensor is also sensitive to at least a 10-5 change in the refractive index. The results prove that our proposed tri-metallic CS-GO SPR sensor demonstrates a strong performance and reliability for lead(II) ion detection in accordance with the standardized lead safety level for wastewater.

  11. Study of built-in amplifier performance on HV-CMOS sensor for the ATLAS phase-II strip tracker upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Z.; Affolder, A.; Arndt, K.; Bates, R.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Blue, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Buckland, M.; Buttar, C.; Caragiulo, P.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Dragone, A.; Ehrler, F.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grillo, A.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Huffman, B. T.; John, J.; Kanisauskas, K.; Kenney, C.; Kramberger, J.; Mandić, I.; Maneuski, D.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; McMahon, S.; Meng, L.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Nickerson, R.; Peric, I.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Seidel, S.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Song, W.; Stanitzki, M.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Turchetta, R.; Vigani, L.; Volk, J.; Wang, R.; Warren, M.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Xiu, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, H.

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on the performance of analog readout electronics (built-in amplifier) integrated on the high-voltage (HV) CMOS silicon sensor chip, as well as its radiation hardness. Since the total collected charge from minimum ionizing particle (MIP) for the CMOS sensor is 10 times lower than for a conventional planar sensor, it is crucial to integrate a low noise built-in amplifier on the sensor chip to improve the signal to noise ratio of the system. As part of the investigation for the ATLAS strip detector upgrade, a test chip that comprises several pixel arrays with different geometries, as well as standalone built-in amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. Measurements of the gain and the noise of both the standalone amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays were performed before and after gamma radiation of up to 60 Mrad. Of special interest is the variation of the noise as a function of the sensor capacitance. We optimized the configuration of the amplifier for a fast rise time to adapt to the LHC bunch crossing period of 25 ns, and measured the timing characteristics including jitter. Our results indicate an adequate amplifier performance for monolithic structures used in HV-CMOS technology. The results have been incorporated in the next submission of a large-structure chip.

  12. Reduction of RF accelerating voltage of Pohang Light Source-II superconducting RF cavity for stable top-up mode operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Y.; Yu, I.; Park, I.; Chun, M. H.; Sohn, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II) is currently providing a top-up mode user-service operation with maximum available beam current of 400 mA and a beam emittance of below 10 nm-rad. The dimension of the beam bunch shortened to accomplish a low beam emittance of below 10 nm-rad from a high beam current of 400 mA increases the bunch charge density. As a result, the electron beam lifetime is significantly degraded and a high gradient of power is lost in the vacuum components of the storage ring. A study on how to reduce the bunch charge density without degrading beam emittance found that reducing the RF accelerating voltage (Vacc) can lower the bunch charge density by lengthening the bunch in the longitudinal direction. In addition, the Vacc required for stable operation with beam current of 400 mA can be reduced by lowering the external cavity quality factors (Qext values) of the superconducting cavities (SCs). To control the Qext values of SCs gradually without accessing the accelerator tunnel, a remote control motorized three-probe-tuner was installed in the transmission line of each SC. The optimum installation position of the three-probe-tuner was determined by using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation and by experimenting on various installation positions of the three-probe-tuner. The Qext values of all the SCs were lowered to 1.40 × 105, and then, the Vacc required to store the beam current of 400 mA was decreased from 4.8 MV to 4.2 MV, which corresponds to 10% lengthening of the beam bunches. The stable operation with the reduced Vacc was confirmed during a 400 mA ten-day top-up mode user-service. Currently, the RF system of the PLS-II storage ring delivers the user-service operation with lowered Qext values to reduce the power loss at the vacuum components as well as the cryogenic heat load of SCs, and no significant problems have been found. This method of reducing the Vacc may also be applied in other synchrotron facilities.

  13. Preparation of electrochemical sensor for lead(II) based on molecularly imprinted film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihua; Qin, Yaxin; Wang, Chu; Sun, Lijun; Lu, Xiaole; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2012-01-01

    A high selective voltammetric sensor for Pb2+ was introduced. The feasibility of utilizing strong interactions between Schiff bases and metal ion to prepare the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) electrochemical sensor for Pb2+ in aqueous solutions was studied. Some parameters affecting sensor response were optimized and then a calibration curve was plotted. A dynamic linear range of 3.00 × 10-7 to 5.00 × 10-5 mol/L was obtained. The redox process of Pb2+ on the imprinted electrode is controlled by surface reaction. The stability and the life of imprinted membrane were improved by storing into diluted Pb2+ ion solution. The proposed method was applied to determination of Pb2+ in the Yellow River.

  14. Design optimization of pixel sensors using device simulations for the phase-II CMS tracker upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, G.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Eber, R.; Eichorn, T.; Fernandez, M.; Lalwani, K.; Messineo, A.; Palomo, F. R.; Peltola, T.; Printz, M.; Ranjan, K.; Villa, I.; Hidalgo, S.

    2016-07-01

    In order to address the problems caused by the harsh radiation environment during the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), all silicon tracking detectors (pixels and strips) in the CMS experiment will undergo an upgrade. And so to develop radiation hard pixel sensors, simulations have been performed using the 2D TCAD device simulator, SILVACO, to obtain design parameters. The effect of various design parameters like pixel size, pixel depth, implant width, metal overhang, p-stop concentration, p-stop depth and bulk doping density on the leakage current and critical electric field are studied for both non-irradiated as well as irradiated pixel sensors. These 2D simulation results of planar pixels are useful for providing insight into the behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated silicon pixel sensors and further work on 3D simulation is underway.

  15. Exploring the quality of latest sensor prototypes for the CMS Tracker Phase II Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, A.

    2017-02-01

    The luminosity of the LHC will be increased by a factor of five to seven after the third long shutdown (LS3) scheduled in the mid of the next decade. The significant increase in luminosity along with the limitations of the current Tracker require a complete renewal of the CMS Outer Tracker, the Tracker Phase-2 Upgrade, during the LS3. New types of modules called PS and 2S modules are foreseen offering enhanced functionality and radiation hardness. Milestones in sensor R&D for the 2S modules as well as first characterization results are presented. AC-coupled silicon strip sensors of two vendors, produced on 6-inch as well as on 8-inch wafers, are considered which both are in n-on-p technology. Global as well as single strip parameters were measured providing insights into the quality of the sensors.

  16. Potentiometric and voltammetric polymer lab chip sensors for determination of nitrate, pH and Cd(II) in water.

    PubMed

    Jang, Am; Zou, Zhiwei; Lee, Kang Kug; Ahn, Chong H; Bishop, Paul L

    2010-11-15

    Due to their toxicity to humans and animals, heavy metals and nitrate in groundwater are of particular concern. The combination of high toxicity and widespread occurrence has created a pressing need for effective monitoring and measurement of nitrate and heavy metals in soil pore water and groundwater at shallow depths. In this work, a new electrochemical sensing platform with the self-assembly nanobeads-packed (nBP) hetero columns has been developed for the pH and nitrate measurements. In addition, for on-site determination of cadmium (Cd(II)), a bismuth (Bi(III)) based polymer lab chip sensor using the square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) sensing principle has been designed, fabricated and successfully characterized. Factors affecting sensitivity and precision of the sensor, including deposition potential and deposition time, were studied. Miniaturized electrochemical lab chip sensors could be very valuable in environmental monitoring area due to their many benefits, such as greatly reduced sensing cost, sensing system portability, and ease of use.

  17. Potentiometric and voltammetric polymer lab chip sensors for determination of nitrate, pH and Cd(II) in water

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Am; Zou, Zhiwei; Lee, Kang Kug; Ahn, Chong H.; Bishop, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Due to their toxicity to humans and animals, heavy metals and nitrate in groundwater are of particular concern. The combination of high toxicity and widespread occurrence has created a pressing need for effective monitoring and measurement of nitrate and heavy metals in soil pore water and groundwater at shallow depths. In this work, a new electrochemical sensing platform with the self-assembly nanobeads packed (nBP) hetero columns has been developed for the pH and nitrate measurements. In addition, for on-site determination of cadmium (Cd(II)), a bismuth (Bi(III)) based polymer lab chip sensor using the square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) sensing principle has been designed, fabricated and successfully characterized. Factors affecting sensitivity and precision of the sensor, including deposition potential and deposition time, were studied. Miniaturized electrochemical lab chip sensors could be very valuable in environmental monitoring area due to their many benefits, such as greatly reduced sensing cost, sensing system portability, and ease of use. PMID:21035635

  18. Label-free fluorescent sensor for lead ion detection based on lead(II)-stabilized G-quadruplex formation.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Shenshan; Wu, Yuangen; Luo, Yanfang; Liu, Le; He, Lan; Xing, Haibo; Zhou, Pei

    2014-10-01

    A label-free fluorescent DNA sensor for the detection of lead ions (Pb(2+)) based on lead(II)-stabilized G-quadruplex formation is proposed in this article. A guanine (G)-rich oligonucleotide, T30695, was used as a recognition probe, and a DNA intercalator, SYBR Green I (SG), was used as a signal reporter. In the absence of Pb(2+), the SG intercalated with the single-stranded random-coil T30695 and emitted strong fluorescence. While in the presence of Pb(2+), the random-coil T30695 would fold into a G-quadruplex structure and the SG could barely show weak fluorescence, and the fluorescence intensity was inversely proportional to the involving amount of Pb(2+). Based on this, a selective lead ion sensor with a limit of detection of 3.79 ppb (parts per billion) and a detection range from 0 to 600 ppb was constructed. Because detection for real samples was also demonstrated to be reliable, this simple, low-cost, sensitive, and selective sensor holds good potential for Pb(2+) detection in real environmental samples.

  19. Multi-reverse flow injection analysis integrated with multi-optical sensor for simultaneous determination of Mn(II), Fe(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III) in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Youngvises, Napaporn; Suwannasaroj, Kittigan; Jakmunee, Jaroon; AlSuhaimi, Awadh

    2017-05-01

    Multi-reverse flow injection analysis (Mr-FIA) integrated with multi-optical sensor was developed and optimized for the simultaneous determination of multi ions; Mn(II), Fe(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III) in water samples. The sample/standard solutions were propelled making use of a four channels peristaltic pump whereas 4 colorimetric reagents specific for the metal ions were separately injected in sample streams using multi-syringe pump. The color zones that formed in the individual mixing coils were then streamed into multi-channels spectrometer, which comprised of four flows through cell and four pairs of light emitting diode and photodiode, whereby signals were measured concurrently. The linearity range (along with detection limit, µgL(-1)) was 0.050-3.0(16), 0.30-2.0 (11), 0.050-1.0(12) and 0.10-1.0(50)mgL(-1), for Mn(II), Fe(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III), respectively. In the interim, the correlation coefficients were 0.9924-0.9942. The percentages relative standard deviation was less than 3. The proposed system was applied successfully to determine targeted metal ions simultaneously in natural water with high sample throughput and low reagent consumption, thus it satisfies the criteria of Green Analytical Chemistry (GAC) and its goals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) mixed chelates based on pyrenyl-pyridylimidazole and 2,2'-bipyridine ligands as efficient DNA intercalators and anion sensors.

    PubMed

    Mardanya, Sourav; Karmakar, Srikanta; Maity, Dinesh; Baitalik, Sujoy

    2015-01-20

    We report herein the synthesis and characterization of two monometallic ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) complexes of composition [(bpy)2M(HImzPPy)] (ClO4)2 derived from pyrenylimidazole-10-pyridin-2-yl-9H-9,11-diazacyclopenta[e]pyrene (HImzPPy) and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) ligands. X-ray crystallographic study shows that both crystals belong to the triclinic system having space group P1̅. The photophysical properties of 1 and 2 in acetonitrile indicate that the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excited state is mainly centered in the [M(bpy)2](2+) moiety of the complexes and slightly affected by the extended conjugation of the pyrenylimidazole moiety. Both complexes display one-electron reversible metal-centered oxidative processes and a number of quasi-reversible reductive processes. The binding affinities of the complexes toward calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were thoroughly studied through different methods such as absorption, emission, excited-state lifetime, circular dichroism, and thermal denaturation of DNA and a relative DNA binding study using ethidium bromide. All of these experiments account for the intercalative nature of both 1 and 2 toward CT-DNA as well as their light-switch behavior. The anion recognition study through different spectroscopic techniques reveals that both complexes act as "turn-on" luminescence sensors for H2PO4(-) and "turn-off" sensors toward F(-) and AcO(-). The imidazole N-H proton of the receptors gets deprotonated with the excessive addition of F(-) and AcO(-), while it interacts with H2PO4(-) through hydrogen-bonding interaction. Theoretical calculations (DFT and TD-DFT) were also performed to understand the photophysical properties of the metalloreceptors.

  1. Sensor Technology Comparison Method and Case Study, Part II Time Domain Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, D.; Collins, D.; Maechler, B.; Mayo, F.

    2008-12-01

    This study compares an accelerometer with geophone impulse response, then with deconvolution, to differentiate sensors' performance in the time domain. Part I (ref. 3) of this analysis covered frequency domain comparison only. Digital synthesis, which can closely resemble the whole geophysical data processing steps, provided further quantifying evidence of performance differentiators by statistical measures in terms of system time delay, correlation, and coherence. From a synthesized Ricker wavelet, the simulation revealed salient features of the two types of sensors. It discusses the interaction of noise level and deconvolution processing. There are a number of ways to evaluate sensor performance with mathematics. Traditionally, researchers used sensor transfer function for this purpose. One of the shortcomings of transfer function approach is that both amplitude and phase response are discussed separately but the impact in real world, time domain, takes into consideration both aspects. In frequency domain, it is difficult to establish an absolute scale (normalize in mathematical sense) for the total difference. Therefore it is logical to discuss the issues in time domain directly. Impulse response reveals hardware in time domain, instead of frequency domain as transfer function and reveals the intrinsic features of each sensor, making it easier to analyze and understand. Seismic wavelet interval in survey is normally in the range of 10s to 100s milliseconds and reflection wavelet is shorter. This requires a very quick sensor with rise/fall time less than ms without overshot/undershot. Therefore, the sensor's temporal resolution needs to be improved by deconvolution which makes the total filter as a δ(t), delta function. In this research, we propose to adopt other tools such as lagged maximum correlation in time domain and coherence function in spectrum (coherence discussion is omitted for part III). Lagged maximum correlation method is a statistical process

  2. Regulation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) currents by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in resting sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kostic, Sandra; Pan, Bin; Guo, Yuan; Yu, Hongwei; Sapunar, Damir; Kwok, Wai-Meng; Hudmon, Andy; Wu, Hsiang-En; Hogan, Quinn H

    2014-09-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is recognized as a key element in encoding depolarization activity of excitable cells into facilitated voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) function. Less is known about the participation of CaMKII in regulating VGCCs in resting cells. We examined constitutive CaMKII control of Ca(2+) currents in peripheral sensory neurons acutely isolated from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of adult rats. The small molecule CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 (1.0μM) reduced depolarization-induced ICa by 16-30% in excess of the effects produced by the inactive homolog KN-92. The specificity of CaMKII inhibition on VGCC function was shown by the efficacy of the selective CaMKII blocking peptide autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide in a membrane-permeable myristoylated form, which also reduced VGCC current in resting neurons. Loss of VGCC currents is primarily due to reduced N-type current, as application of mAIP selectively reduced N-type current by approximately 30%, and prior N-type current inhibition eliminated the effect of mAIP on VGCCs, while prior block of L-type channels did not reduce the effect of mAIP on total ICa. T-type currents were not affected by mAIP in resting DRG neurons. Transduction of sensory neurons in vivo by DRG injection of an adeno-associated virus expressing AIP also resulted in a loss of N-type currents. Together, these findings reveal a novel molecular adaptation whereby sensory neurons retain CaMKII support of VGCCs despite remaining quiescent.

  3. Sensor design using computer tools II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Arlington, VA, April 11, 12, 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, J. A.

    The present conference discusses topics in the computerized simulation of electronic sensor performance, subsystem design and testing, quality design and verification, and the relationship of optical engineering professionals to their computer design tools. Attention is given to advances in Landsat image processing and mapping, the modeling of linear scan electrooptic sensors, computer simulation-based design of multispectral scanners, laser imager computer simulation, and precise space telescope pointing by means of a quadrant detector. Also discussed are an adaptive telescope design using computer tools, a focal plane products data base, the use of personal computers in optical design, and the computer simulation of focal plane array performance using coupled ray trace and carrier diffusion models.

  4. Characterisation of irradiated thin silicon sensors for the CMS phase II pixel upgrade

    DOE PAGES

    Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Brondolin, E.; ...

    2017-08-22

    The high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, foreseen for 2026, necessitates the replacement of the CMS experiment’s silicon tracker. The innermost layer of the new pixel detector will be exposed to severe radiation, corresponding to a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of up tomore » $$\\Phi _{eq} = 2 \\times 10^{16}$$  cm$$^{-2}$$ , and an ionising dose of $${\\approx } 5$$  MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$$^{-1}$$ . Thin, planar silicon sensors are good candidates for this application, since the degradation of the signal produced by traversing particles is less severe than for thicker devices. Here in this article, the results obtained from the characterisation of 100 and 200 μm thick p-bulk pad diodes and strip sensors irradiated up to fluences of $$\\Phi _{eq} = 1.3 \\times 10^{16}$$  cm$$^{-2}$$ are shown.« less

  5. Characterisation of irradiated thin silicon sensors for the CMS phase II pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Hoch, M.; Hrubec, J.; König, A.; Steininger, H.; Waltenberger, W.; Alderweireldt, S.; Beaumont, W.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Beghin, D.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; Delannoy, H.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, Th.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Postiau, N.; Seva, T.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, F.; Zeid, S. Abu; Blekman, F.; De Bruyn, I.; De Clercq, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Deroover, K.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; De Visscher, S.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Michotte, D.; Musich, M.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Szilasi, N.; Marono, M. Vidal; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Härkönen, J.; Lampén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Eerola, P.; Tuuva, T.; Baulieu, G.; Boudoul, G.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Contardo, D.; Dupasquier, T.; Gallbit, G.; Lumb, N.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Vander Donckt, M.; Viret, S.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bonnin, C.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E.; Chanon, N.; Charles, L.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-Ch.; Gross, L.; Hosselet, J.; Jansova, M.; Tromson, D.; Autermann, C.; Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Kiesel, K. M.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pierschel, G.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Schael, S.; Schomakers, C.; Schulz, J.; Schwering, G.; Wlochal, M.; Zhukov, V.; Pistone, C.; Fluegge, G.; Kuensken, A.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya, M.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Beernaert, K.; Bertsche, D.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Hansen, K.; Haranko, M.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Keaveney, J.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kleinwort, C.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Maser, H.; Mittag, G.; Muhl, C.; Mussgiller, A.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Reichelt, O.; Savitskyi, M.; Schuetze, P.; Spannagel, S.; Walsh, R.; Zuber, A.; Biskop, H.; Buhmann, P.; Centis-Vignali, M.; Garutti, E.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Lapsien, T.; Matysek, M.; Perieanu, A.; Scharf, Ch.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sonneveld, J.; Steinbrück, G.; Vormwald, B.; Wellhausen, J.; Abbas, M.; Amstutz, C.; Barvich, T.; Barth, Ch.; Boegelspacher, F.; De Boer, W.; Butz, E.; Casele, M.; Colombo, F.; Dierlamm, A.; Freund, B.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S.; Husemann, U.; Kornmeyer, A.; Kudella, S.; Muller, Th.; Simonis, H. J.; Steck, P.; Weber, M.; Weiler, Th.; Anagnostou, G.; Asenov, P.; Assiouras, P.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Paspalaki, L.; Siklér, F.; Veszprémi, V.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Jain, G.; Ranjan, K.; Bakhshiansohl, H.; Behnamian, H.; Khakzad, M.; Naseri, M.; Cariola, P.; Creanza, D.; De Palma, M.; De Robertis, G.; Fiore, L.; Franco, M.; Loddo, F.; Sala, G.; Silvestris, L.; Maggi, G.; My, S.; Selvaggi, G.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Saizu, M. A.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Brianzi, M.; Ciaranfi, R.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Latino, G.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Russo, L.; Scarlini, E.; Sguazzoni, G.; Strom, D.; Viliani, L.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Dall'Osso, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Tosi, M.; De Canio, F.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Nodari, B.; Riceputi, E.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Comotti, D.; Ratti, L.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Cecchi, C.; Checcucci, B.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Gentsos, C.; Ionica, M.; Leonardi, R.; Manoni, E.; Mantovani, G.; Marconi, S.; Mariani, V.; Menichelli, M.; Modak, A.; Morozzi, A.; Moscatelli, F.; Passeri, D.; Placidi, P.; Postolache, V.; Rossi, A.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Storchi, L.; Spiga, D.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Arezzini, S.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Boccali, T.; Borrello, L.; Bosi, F.; Castaldi, R.; Ciampa, A.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Magazzu, G.; Martini, L.; Mazzoni, E.; Messineo, A.; Moggi, A.; Morsani, F.; Palla, F.; Palmonari, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Bellan, R.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Demaria, N.; Rivetti, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Mazza, G.; Migliore, E.; Monteil, E.; Pacher, L.; Ravera, F.; Solano, A.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Jaramillo Echeverria, R.; Moya, D.; Gonzalez Sanchez, F. J.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Abbaneo, D.; Ahmed, I.; Albert, E.; Auzinger, G.; Berruti, G.; Bianchi, G.; Blanchot, G.; Bonnaud, J.; Caratelli, A.; Ceresa, D.; Christiansen, J.; Cichy, K.; Daguin, J.; D'Auria, A.; Detraz, S.; Deyrail, D.; Dondelewski, O.; Faccio, F.; Frank, N.; Gadek, T.; Gill, K.; Honma, A.; Hugo, G.; Jara Casas, L. M.; Kaplon, J.; Kornmayer, A.; Kottelat, L.; Kovacs, M.; Krammer, M.; Lenoir, P.; Mannelli, M.; Marchioro, A.; Marconi, S.; Mersi, S.; Martina, S.; Michelis, S.; Moll, M.; Onnela, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Pavis, S.; Peisert, A.; Pernot, J.-F.; Petagna, P.; Petrucciani, G.; Postema, H.; Rose, P.; Tropea, P.; Troska, J.; Tsirou, A.; Vasey, F.; Vichoudis, P.; Verlaat, B.; Zwalinski, L.; Bachmair, F.; Becker, R.; di Calafiori, D.; Casal, B.; Berger, P.; Djambazov, L.; Donega, M.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M.; Perozzi, L.; Roeser, U.; Starodumov, A.; Tavolaro, V.; Wallny, R.; Zhu, D.; Amsler, C.; Bösiger, K.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, F.; Chiochia, V.; de Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Maier, R.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Taroni, S.; Yang, Y.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Kaestli, H.-C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, B.; Rohe, T.; Streuli, S.; Chen, P.-H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Lu, R.-S.; Moya, M.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Jacob, J.; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S.; Cole, J.; Hoad, C.; Hobson, P.; Morton, A.; Reid, I. D.; Auzinger, G.; Bainbridge, R.; Dauncey, P.; Hall, G.; James, T.; Magnan, A.-M.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Uchida, K.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Ilic, J.; Tomalin, I. R.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Narain, M.; Nelson, J.; Sagir, S.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Tersegno, D.; Watson-Daniels, J.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Flores, C.; Lander, R.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Squires, M.; Thomson, J.; Yohay, R.; Burt, K.; Ellison, J.; Hanson, G.; Olmedo, M.; Si, W.; Yates, B. R.; Gerosa, R.; Sharma, V.; Vartak, A.; Yagil, A.; Della Porta, G. Zevi; Dutta, V.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Kyre, S.; Mullin, S.; Patterson, A.; Qu, H.; White, D.; Dominguez, A.; Bartek, R.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Leontsinis, S.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Apresyan, A.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Canepa, A.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chramowicz, J.; Christian, D.; Cooper, W. E.; Deptuch, G.; Derylo, G.; Gingu, C.; Grünendahl, S.; Hasegawa, S.; Hoff, J.; Howell, J.; Hrycyk, M.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Kahlid, F.; Lei, C. M.; Lipton, R.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Liu, T.; Los, S.; Matulik, M.; Merkel, P.; Nahn, S.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Schneider, B.; Sellberg, G.; Shenai, A.; Spiegel, L.; Tran, N.; Uplegger, L.; Voirin, E.; Berry, D. R.; Chen, X.; Ennesser, L.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Makauda, S.; Mills, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L. J.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C. S.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bubna, M.; Hinton, N.; Jones, M.; Miller, D. H.; Shi, X.; Tan, P.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Wilson, G.; Ivanov, A.; Mendis, R.; Mitchell, T.; Skhirtladze, N.; Taylor, R.; Anderson, I.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Acosta, J. G.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Oliveros, S.; Perera, L.; Summers, D.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J.; Hahn, K.; Sevova, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Bartz, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Halkiadakis, E.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Walker, M.; Malik, S.; Norberg, S.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; McDermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Zientek, M.; Akgün, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Kilpatrick, M.; Nussbaum, T.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Covarelli, R.; Demina, R.; Hindrichs, O.; Petrillo, G.; Eusebi, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Perloff, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Delannoy, A. G.; D'Angelo, P.; Johns, W.

    2017-08-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, foreseen for 2026, necessitates the replacement of the CMS experiment's silicon tracker. The innermost layer of the new pixel detector will be exposed to severe radiation, corresponding to a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of up to Φ _{eq} = 2 × 10^{16} cm^{-2}, and an ionising dose of {≈ } 5 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb^{-1}. Thin, planar silicon sensors are good candidates for this application, since the degradation of the signal produced by traversing particles is less severe than for thicker devices. In this paper, the results obtained from the characterisation of 100 and 200 μ m thick p-bulk pad diodes and strip sensors irradiated up to fluences of Φ _{eq} = 1.3 × 10^{16} cm^{-2} are shown.

  6. A Novel Copper(II) Sensor Based on a Unique Water-soluble Porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Fei, Qiang; Shan, Hongyan; Huan, Yanfu; Zhang, Zhiquan; Mi, Hongyu; Xu, Hui; Li, Guanghua; Chen, Fei; Feng, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    A unique water-soluble porphyrin [5,10,15,20-tetra(3-ethoxy-4-hydroxy-5-sulfonate)phenyl porphyrin, H2TEHPPS] was designed and synthesized, which could be used as a potential sensor for the determination of Cu(2+). Studies were performed in the solution. The concentration of H2TEHPPS was 5 μmol L(-1). The optical properties of H2TEHPPS were investigated based on the absorption spectra. The results show that the absorbance of H2TEHPPS at 417 nm is directly proportional to the concentration of Cu(2+) in the range of 0 - 2.5 μmol L(-1). H2TEHPPS can thus be used as a novel class of Cu(2+) sensors.

  7. Tangent height registration method for the Version 1.4 data retrieval algorithm of the solar occultation sensor ILAS-II.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomoaki; Nakajima, Hideaki; Sugita, Takafumi; Ejiri, Mitsumu K; Irie, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Naoko; Terao, Yukio; Kawasaki, Hiroyuki; Usami, Masatoshi; Yokota, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Sasano, Yasuhiro

    2007-10-10

    The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) is a satellite-borne solar occultation sensor onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II). The ILAS-II succeeded the ILAS. The ILAS-II used four grating spectrometers to observe vertical profiles of gas volume mixing ratios of trace constituents and was also equipped with a Sun-edge sensor to determine tangent heights geometrically with high precision. The accuracy of gas volume mixing ratios depends on the accuracy of the tangent height determination. The combination method is a tangent height registration method that was developed to give appropriate tangent heights for the ILAS-II Version 1.4 data retrieval algorithm. This study describes the method used in the ILAS-II Version 1.4 retrieval algorithm to register tangent heights. The root-sum-square total random error is estimated to be 30 m, and the total systematic error is 180 m at an altitude of 30 km. The influence of the tangent height errors on the vertical profiles of gas volume mixing ratios in ILAS-II Version 1.4 is estimated by using the relative difference. The relative difference for each species is within 7% (20%) for an altitude shift of +/-100 m(+/-300 m).

  8. ON-OFF mechanism of a fluorescent sensor for the detection of Zn(II), Cd(II), and Cu(II)transition metal ions.

    PubMed

    Su, Huizhen; Chen, Xuebo; Fang, Weihai

    2014-01-07

    An ab initio multiconfigurational (CASPT2//CASSCF) approach has been employed to map radiative and nonradiative relaxation pathways for a cyclam-methylbenzimidazole fluorescent sensor and its metal ion (Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+)) complexes to provide an universal understanding of ON-OFF fluorescent mechanisms for the selective identification of these metal ions. The photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between the receptor and the signaling unit is quantitatively attributed for the first time to a newly generated transition of S0→SCT((1)nπ*), which is a typical (1)nπ* excitation but exhibits a significant charge transfer character and zwitterionic radical configuration. The present study contributes the two theoretical models of the competitive coexistence of radiative/nonradiative decay channel in (1)ππ*/SCT((1)nπ*) states for the detection of metal ions with d(10) configuration (i.e., Zn(2+), Cd(2+), etc.) and a downhill ladder relaxation pathway through multi nona-diabatic relays for the probing of d(9) cations (Cu(2+), etc.). These computational results will establish a benchmark for ON-OFF mechanisms of a fluorescent sensor that coordinates various transition metal ions with different electron configuration and radius.

  9. Multitone harmonic-balance simulations of an x-ray transition-edge sensor characterized at BESSY II

    SciTech Connect

    Rostem, K.; Goldie, D. J.; Withington, S.; Hoevers, H. F. C.; Gottardi, L.; Kuur, J. van der

    2010-07-15

    We present multitone harmonic-balance (MTHB) simulations of a Ti-Au x-ray transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter in a 5x5 pixel spectrometer array. The dynamic response of the TES microcalorimeter under simulation has been extremely well characterized at the BESSY II Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Berlin. We compare our simulated results directly with these measurements, and show that the MTHB algorithm is able to simulate to great accuracy the dynamic behavior of the TES, even when saturated by 6 keV photons. In this paper, we provide a detailed account of the MTHB simulations, and discuss the impact of this work on future missions such as the International X-ray Observatory.

  10. High Sensitive Sensor Fabricated by Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyvinyl Butyral Nanofibers for Detecting Cu (II) in Water

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Rui; Luo, Zhimin; Ma, Xiuling; Fan, Xiaoping; Xue, Liqun; Lin, Xiuzhu; Chen, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)/polyvinyl butyral (PVB) nanofibers were prepared by a simple electrospinning technique with PVB as matrix and GO as a functional nanomaterial. GO/PVB nanofibers on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were reduced through electrochemical method to form reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/PVB nanofibers. The morphology and structure of GO/PVB nanofiber were studied by scanning election microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). RGO/PVB modified GCE was used for fabricating an electrochemical sensor for detecting Cu (II) in water. The analysis results showed that RGO/PVB modified GCE had good analytical results with the linear range of 0.06–2.2 μM, detection limit of 4.10 nM (S/N = 3), and the sensitivity of 103.51 μA·μM−1·cm−2. PMID:25694783

  11. Integrated optics implementation of a fiber optic rotation sensor - Analysis and development. [for Mariner Mark II planetary explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartman, R. K.; Youmans, B. R.; Nerheim, N. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a fiber optic rotation sensor (FORS) for use on the Mariner Mark II series of planetary explorer craft and in other space applications. FORS is a closed-loop phase-nulling device and embodies a number of interesting innovations. Chief among these are the incorporation of the device's couplers, phase modulators, and polarizer on a single lithium niobate (LinbO3) integrate optics chip and a novel means of reading out angular position and rotation rate based on optical beat detection. Various aspects of the FORS design and operation are described and discussed. Particular attention is paid to analyzing errors attributable to polarizer imperfection and the so-called residual Michelson effect.

  12. Electrical Analysis of Piezoelectric Transformers and Associated High-Voltage Output Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    investigations have also been performed to eliminate the problem of surface flashover on the piezoelectric material [14]. Additionally, the use of output...actuators or sensors [1], [2]. However, by combining the piezoelectric and inverse-piezoelectric effects of certain materials into a single design , one...Additionally, these voltages are compared with theoretical values that were calculated based on the loads’ equivalent impedances. II. EXPERIMENTAL

  13. Biomimetic sensor for certain catecholamines employing copper(II) complex and silver nanoparticle modified glassy carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Sanghavi, Bankim J; Mobin, Shaikh M; Mathur, Pradeep; Lahiri, Goutam K; Srivastava, Ashwini K

    2013-01-15

    A dimeric Cu(II) complex [Cu(μ(2)-hep)(hep-H)](2)·2ClO(4) (1) containing bidentate (hep-H=2-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyridine) ligand was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Each Cu-ion in 1 is in a distorted square pyramidal geometry. Further 1 along with silver nanoparticles (SNPs) have been used as modifier in the construction of a biomimetic sensor (1-SNP-GCPE) for determining certain catecholamines viz., dopamine (DA), levodopa (l-Dopa), epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NE) using cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and adsorptive stripping square wave voltammetry (AdSSWV). Finally, the catalytic properties of the sensor were characterized by chronoamperometry. Employing AdSSWV, the calibration curves showed linear response ranging between 10(-6) and 10(-9)M for all the four analytes with detection limits (S/N=3) of 8.52×10(-10)M, 2.41×10(-9)M, 3.96×10(-10)M and 3.54×10(-10)M for DA, l-Dopa, EP and NE respectively. The lifetime of the biomimetic sensor was 3 months at room temperature. The prepared modified electrode shows several advantages such as simple preparation method, high sensitivity, high stability, ease of preparation and regeneration of the electrode surface by simple polishing along with excellent reproducibility. The method has been applied for the selective and precise analysis of DA, l-Dopa, EP and NE in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples.

  14. Modified carbon paste sensor for cetyltrimethylammonium ion based on its ion-associate with tetrachloropalladate(II).

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hosny; Khorshid, Amal

    2007-05-01

    A comparative study was made between developed chemically modified carbon paste electrodes and PVC membrane electrodes for the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The carbon paste electrode modified with cetyltrimethylammonium-tetrachloropalladate(II) (CTA-TClP) provides a more sensitive and stable device than that shown by electrodes with an inner reference solution. The best performance was obtained by an electrode based on the paste containing 3.6 wt% CTA-TCIP, 1.8 wt% ethylhexadecyldimethylammonium bromide, 37.6 wt% graphite and 57 wt% tricresyl phosphate. The sensor exhibited a Nernstian response for CTAB over a wide concentration range of 3.5 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-3) M with a detection limit of 2.0 x 10(-7) M between pH 2.7 and 8.2 with a fast response time of sensor was found to be tolerant against these compounds.

  15. Capacitively coupled RF voltage probe having optimized flux linkage

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James A.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    1999-02-02

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  16. A turn-on fluorescent solid-sensor for Hg(II) detection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A rhodamine organosilane derivative (Rh-UTES) has been obtained by one-pot synthesis. The chemical structure of Rh-UTES was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (FTIR) techniques. To obtain an inorganic-organic hybrid sensor, Rh-UTES was covalently immobilized on a porous silicon microcavity (PSiMc) via triethoxysilane groups. The attachment of the organic derivative into PSiMc was confirmed by FTIR, specular reflectance, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical performance of Rh-UTES receptor for Hg2+ detection was investigated by fluorescent spectroscopy and microscopy. Upon the addition of increasing amounts of Hg2+ ions, a remarkable enhancement in emission intensity was produced in both systems. In the solid phase, an increase of integrated fluorescent emission of 0.12- and 0.15-fold after Hg2+ receptor coordination was observed. The light harvesting capability of PSiMc devices allowed obtaining an enhanced fluorescent emission after Rh-UTES immobilization (277-fold). The fluorescence microscopy of hybrid PSiMc sensor provided an optical qualitative test for Hg2+ detection. PMID:25232294

  17. Effect of negative bias voltage on CrN films deposited by arc ion plating. II. Film composition, structure, and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qimin; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2008-09-15

    Chromium nitride (CrN) films were deposited on Si wafers by arc ion plating at various negative bias voltages and several groups of N{sub 2}/Ar gas flux ratios and chamber gas pressures. The authors systematically investigated the influence of negative bias voltage on the synthesis, composition, microstructure, and properties of the arc ion plating (AIP) CrN films. In this article, the authors investigated the influence of negative bias voltage on the chemical composition, structure, and mechanical properties of the CrN films. The results showed that the chemical composition and phase structure of the AIP CrN films were greatly altered by application of negative bias voltage. Due to the selective resputtering effect, substoichiometric CrN films were obtained. With increase in bias voltages, the main phases in the films transformed from Cr+CrN to Cr{sub 2}N at low N{sub 2}/Ar flow ratios, whereas the films at high N{sub 2}/Ar flow ratios retained the CrN phase structure. The CrN films experienced texture transformation from CrN (200) to CrN (220), and Cr{sub 2}N (300) to Cr{sub 2}N(300)+Cr{sub 2}N(110). Increase in negative bias voltage also resulted in microstructure evolution of coarse columnar grains{yields}fine columnar grains{yields}quasiamorphous microstructure{yields}recrystallized structures. From the experimental results, the authors proposed a new structure zone model based on enhanced bombardment of incident ions by application of negative bias voltage. The influence of negative bias voltage on the microhardness and residual stresses of the films and the inherent mechanisms were also explored.

  18. A novel, highly sensitive, selective, reversible and turn-on chemi-sensor based on Schiff base for rapid detection of Cu(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Sayed M.; Ali, Reham; Ali, Ibrahim A. I.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a novel optical fluoro-chemisensor was designed and synthesized for copper (II) ions detection. The sensor film is created by embedded N,N-Bis(2-hydroxo-5-bromobenzyl)ethylenediamine in poly vinyl chloride (PVC) film in presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as plasticizer. The receptor Schiff base reveals ;off-on; mode with high selectivity, significant sensitivity to Cu(II) ions. The selectivity of optical sensor for Cu(II) ions is the result of chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF). The optimal conditions of pH and response time at which higher efficiency of sensor film is performed was found to be 6.8 and 2.48 min. The possible interference of other metal ions in solution was examined in presence of different types of metal ions. This film shows high selectivity and ultra-sensitivity with low detection limit LOD (1.1 × 10- 8 M). Thus, these considerable properties make it viable to monitor copper metal ions within very low concentration range (0-15 × 10- 6 M Cu(II)) and highly selective even in the presence of different types of metal ions. The sensor reversibility was achieved by utilizing EDTA solution with concentration of 0.1 M solution.

  19. Non-Porous Iron(II)-Based Sensor: Crystallographic Insights into a Cycle of Colorful Guest-Induced Topotactic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Jiménez, Santiago; Feltham, Humphrey L C; Brooker, Sally

    2016-11-21

    Materials capable of sensing volatile guests at room temperature by an easily monitored set of outputs are of great appeal for development as chemical sensors of small volatile organics and toxic gases. Herein the dinuclear iron(II) complex, [Fe(II)2 (L)2 (CH3 CN)4 ](BF4 )4 ⋅2 CH3 CN (1) [L=4-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(3-pyridazinyl)-5-pyridyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole], is shown to undergo reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) transformations upon exposure to vapors of different guests: 1 (MeCN)⇌2 (EtOH)→3 (H2 O)⇌1 (MeCN). Whilst 1 and 2 remain dimetallic, SCSC to 3 involves conversion to a 1D polymeric chain (due to a change in L bridging mode), which, remarkably, can undergo SCSC de-polymerization, reforming dimetallic 1. Additionally, SC-XRD studies of two ordered transient forms, 1TF3 and 2TF3, confirm that guest exchange occurs by diffusion of the new guests into the non-porous lattices as the old guests leave. These reversible SCSC events also induce color and magnetic responses. Indeed dark red 1 is spin crossover active (T1/2 ↓ 356 K; T1/2 ↑ 369 K), whilst orange 2 and yellow 3 remain high spin. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Quantitative electrochemiluminescence detection of proteins: Avidin-based sensor and tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) label.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lanyun; Lü, Zhaozi; Wei, Hui; Wang, Erkang

    2008-06-15

    Quantitative electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection of a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was achieved via biotin-avidin interaction using an avidin-based sensor and a well-developed ECL system of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) derivative as label and tri-n-propylamine (TPA) as coreactant. To detect the protein, avidin was linked to the glassy carbon electrode through passive adsorptions and covalent interaction with carboxylate-terminated carbon nanotubes that was used as binder to immobilize avidin onto the electrode. Then, biotinylated BSA tagged with tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) label was attached to the prepared avidin surface. After binding of BSA labeled with tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) derivative to the surface-immobilized avidin through biotin, ECL response was generated when the self-assembled modified electrode was immersed in a TPA-containing electrolyte solution. Such double protein labeling protocol with a biotin label for biorecognition and ruthenium label for ECL detection facilitated the detection of protein compared to the classical double antibody sandwich format. The ECL intensity was linearly proportional to the feed concentration of BSA over two orders of magnitude in the range of 15nM to 7.5microM. The detection limit was estimated to be 1.5nM. Further application to the lysozyme analysis was carried out to validate the present approach for an effective and favorable protocol for the quantitative detection of proteins. The dynamic range of lysozyme was from 0.001gL(-1) to 0.1gL(-1) and the detection limit was 0.1mgL(-1). Electrochemical impedance and cyclic voltammetric measurements along with some necessary control experiments were conducted to characterize the successful formation of self-assembled modified electrodes and to grant the whole detection process.

  1. Large voltage modulation in magnetic field sensors from two-dimensional arrays of Y-Ba-Cu-O nano Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cybart, Shane A. Dynes, R. C.; Cho, E. Y.; Wong, T. J.; Glyantsev, V. N.; Huh, J. U.; Yung, C. S.; Moeckly, B. H.; Beeman, J. W.; Ulin-Avila, E.; Wu, S. M.

    2014-02-10

    We have fabricated and tested two-dimensional arrays of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} superconducting quantum interference devices. The arrays contain over 36 000 nano Josephson junctions fabricated from ion irradiation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} through narrow slits in a resist-mask that was patterned with electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Measurements of current-biased arrays in magnetic field exhibit large voltage modulations as high as 30 mV.

  2. Biomechanics of the Sensor–Tissue Interface—Effects of Motion, Pressure, and Design on Sensor Performance and Foreign Body Response—Part II: Examples and Application

    PubMed Central

    Helton, Kristen L; Ratner, Buddy D; Wisniewski, Natalie A

    2011-01-01

    This article is the second part of a two-part review in which we explore the biomechanics of the sensor–tissue interface as an important aspect of continuous glucose sensor biocompatibility. Part I, featured in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, describes a theoretical framework of how biomechanical factors such as motion and pressure (typically micromotion and micropressure) affect tissue physiology around a sensor and in turn, impact sensor performance. Here in Part II, a literature review is presented that summarizes examples of motion or pressure affecting sensor performance. Data are presented that show how both acute and chronic forces can impact continuous glucose monitor signals. Also presented are potential strategies for countering the ill effects of motion and pressure on glucose sensors. Improved engineering and optimized chemical biocompatibility have advanced sensor design and function, but we believe that mechanical biocompatibility, a rarely considered factor, must also be optimized in order to achieve an accurate, long-term, implantable sensor. PMID:21722579

  3. The dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-like protein 6 is an integral voltage sensor-interacting beta-subunit of neuronal K(V)4.2 channels.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Kevin; Tu, Liwei; Deutsch, Carol; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Auxiliary beta-subunits dictate the physiological properties of voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels in excitable tissues. In many instances, however, the underlying mechanisms of action are poorly understood. The dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-like protein 6 (DPP6) is a specific beta-subunit of neuronal K(V)4 channels, which may promote gating through interactions between the single transmembrane segment of DPP6 and the channel's voltage sensing domain (VSD). A combination of gating current measurements and protein biochemistry (in-vitro translation and co-immunoprecipitations) revealed preferential physical interaction between the isolated K(V)4.2-VSD and DPP6. Significantly weaker interactions were detected between DPP6 and K(V)1.3 channels or the K(V)4.2 pore domain. More efficient gating charge movement resulting from a direct interaction between DPP6 and the K(V)4.2-VSD is unique among the known actions of K(V) channel beta-subunits. This study shows that the modular VSD of a K(V) channel can be directly regulated by transmembrane protein-protein interactions involving an extrinsic beta-subunit. Understanding these interactions may shed light on the pathophysiology of recently identified human disorders associated with mutations affecting the dpp6 gene.

  4. Promiscuous gating modifiers target the voltage sensor of K(v)7.2, TRPV1, and H(v)1 cation channels.

    PubMed

    Kornilov, Polina; Peretz, Asher; Lee, Yoonji; Son, Karam; Lee, Jin Hee; Refaeli, Bosmat; Roz, Netta; Rehavi, Moshe; Choi, Sun; Attali, Bernard

    2014-06-01

    Some of the fascinating features of voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) in voltage-gated cation channels (VGCCs) are their modular nature and adaptability. Here we examined the VSD sensitivity of different VGCCs to 2 structurally related nontoxin gating modifiers, NH17 and NH29, which stabilize K(v)7.2 potassium channels in the closed and open states, respectively. The effects of NH17 and NH29 were examined in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) or K(v)7.2 channels, as well as in dorsal root ganglia neurons, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. NH17 and NH29 exert opposite effects on TRPV1 channels, operating, respectively, as an activator and a blocker of TRPV1 currents (EC50 and IC50 values ranging from 4 to 40 μM). Combined mutagenesis, electrophysiology, structural homology modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation indicate that both compounds target the VSDs of TRPV1 channels, which, like vanilloids, are involved in π-π stacking, H-bonding, and hydrophobic interactions. Reflecting their promiscuity, the drugs also affect the lone VSD proton channel mVSOP. Thus, the same gating modifier can promiscuously interact with different VGCCs, and subtle differences at the VSD-ligand interface will dictate whether the gating modifier stabilizes channels in either the closed or the open state.

  5. Development of a rotary disc voltammetric sensor system for semi-continuous and on-site measurements of Pb(II).

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Gu; Han, Jungyoup; Kwon, Soondong; Kang, Seoktae; Jang, Am

    2016-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry are widely used for determination of heavy metals due to their low detection limits. However, they are not applicable to on-site measurements of heavy metals as bulky equipment, and highly skilled laboratory staffs are needed as well. In this study, a novel analytical method using a rotary disc voltammetric (RDV) sensor has been successfully designed, fabricated and characterized for semi-continuous and on-site measurements of trace levels of Pb(II) in non-deoxygenating solutions. The square wave anodic stripping voltammetry was used to improve the sensitivity of the Pb(II) detection level with less than 10nM (2μgL(-1)). The RDV sensor has 24-sensing holes to measure concentrations of Pb(II) semi-continuously at sampling sites. Each sensing hole consists of a silver working electrode, an integrated silver counter, and a quasi-reference electrode, which requires only a small amount of samples (<30μL) for measurement of Pb(II) without disturbing and/or clogging the sensing environment. In addition, the RDV sensor showed a correlation coefficient of 0.998 for the Pb(II) concentration range of 10nM-10μM at the deposition time of 180s and its low detection limit was 6.19nM (1.3μgL(-1)). These results indicated that the advanced monitoring technique using a RDV sensor might provide environmental engineers with a reliable way for semi-continuous and on-site measurements of Pb(II).

  6. A Sensitive and Label-Free Pb(II) Fluorescence Sensor Based on a DNAzyme Controlled G-Quadruplex/Thioflavin T Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yanli; Wang, Lele; Li, Lanying; Xu, Li; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Pb(II) can cause serious damaging effects to human health, and thus, the study of Pb2+ detection methods to sensitively and selectively monitor Pb(II) pollution has significant importance. In this work, we have developed a label-free fluorescence sensing strategy based on a Pb(II) DNAzyme cleavage and the ThT/G-quadruplex complex. In the presence of Pb(II), a G-rich tail was cut and released from the substrate strand, which then would form a G-quadruplex structure by combination with ThT dye. The fluorescence signal increase was then measured for sensitive Pb(II) quantification with a limit of detection of 0.06 nM. Our sensor also demonstrated high selectivity against six different metal ions, which is very important for the analysis of complex samples. PMID:27999248

  7. Structural damage identification using multifunctional Bragg grating sensors: II. Damage detection results and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Daniel C.; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Thursby, Graham; Culshaw, Brian

    2006-10-01

    Damage detection is an important issue in structural health monitoring. Lamb waves are the most widely used acousto-ultrasonic guided waves for damage detection. This paper gives the results of experiments carried out to study the identification of damage using Bragg grating sensors as ultrasonic receivers of Lamb waves. The experiments involve a rectangular aluminium plate. Damage was introduced into the plate by drilling a hole into the centre of the plate. In order to obtain different severity of damage, the hole diameter was increased step by step. Several signal processing tools are presented and then applied to the Lamb wave signals in order to find a parameter that corresponds to the severity of damage. The parameter that serves as the damage index has to have small cross-sensitivity to other physical parameters, e.g. temperature. Therefore, additional experiments have been carried out to study the temperature dependence of the Lamb wave signals. In order to determine the influence of the temperature on the damage detection results, the cross-sensitivity is studied within this paper.

  8. Bioluminescent sensors for detection of bioavailable Hg(II) in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Selifonova, O. ); Burlage, R. ); Barkay, T. )

    1993-09-01

    Biosensors can complement analytical chemical methods by detection of biologically available metals in environmental samples. Effective biosensors should contain sensitive receptor and reporter components. The present study reports on the construction of biosensors for the detection of Mercury (II). The mercury resistance operon of transposon 21 (Tn21 mer), the best understood genetic system for detoxification of a heavy metal, was cloned upstream from a promoterless lux operon (luxCDABE) originating from Vibrio fischeri. The sensitivity, selectivity, quantitative response, and applications of the biosensors are discussed. The authors conclude that the mer-lux fusions provide a simple bioassay for the semiquantitative detection of mercury in contaminated waters and industrial wastewaters. 46 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. An Electromagnetic Sensor for the Autonomous Running of Visually Impaired and Blind Athletes (Part II: The Wearable Device)

    PubMed Central

    Pieralisi, Marco; Di Mattia, Valentina; Petrini, Valerio; De Leo, Alfredo; Manfredi, Giovanni; Russo, Paola; Scalise, Lorenzo; Cerri, Graziano

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the availability of technology developed to increase the autonomy of visually impaired athletes during sports is limited. The research proposed in this paper (Part I and Part II) focuses on the realization of an electromagnetic system that can guide a blind runner along a race track without the need for a sighted guide. In general, the system is composed of a transmitting unit (widely described in Part I) and a receiving unit, whose components and main features are described in this paper. Special attention is paid to the definition of an electromagnetic model able to faithfully represent the physical mechanisms of interaction between the two units, as well as between the receiving magnetic sensor and the body of the user wearing the device. This theoretical approach allows for an estimation of the signals to be detected, and guides the design of a suitable signal processing board. This technology has been realized, patented, and tested with a blind volunteer with successful results and this paper presents interesting suggestions for further improvements. PMID:28212348

  10. An Electromagnetic Sensor for the Autonomous Running of Visually Impaired and Blind Athletes (Part II: The Wearable Device).

    PubMed

    Pieralisi, Marco; Di Mattia, Valentina; Petrini, Valerio; De Leo, Alfredo; Manfredi, Giovanni; Russo, Paola; Scalise, Lorenzo; Cerri, Graziano

    2017-02-16

    Currently, the availability of technology developed to increase the autonomy of visually impaired athletes during sports is limited. The research proposed in this paper (Part I and Part II) focuses on the realization of an electromagnetic system that can guide a blind runner along a race track without the need for a sighted guide. In general, the system is composed of a transmitting unit (widely described in Part I) and a receiving unit, whose components and main features are described in this paper. Special attention is paid to the definition of an electromagnetic model able to faithfully represent the physical mechanisms of interaction between the two units, as well as between the receiving magnetic sensor and the body of the user wearing the device. This theoretical approach allows for an estimation of the signals to be detected, and guides the design of a suitable signal processing board. This technology has been realized, patented, and tested with a blind volunteer with successful results and this paper presents interesting suggestions for further improvements.

  11. Human neutrophil elastase detection with fluorescent peptide sensors conjugated to cellulosic and nanocellulosic materials: part II, structure/function analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is one of a number of proteases that is receiving increased attention as a marker for inflammatory diseases and sensor-based point of care diagnostics. Integral to sensor-based detection is the transducer surface which is the platform of the sensor's signal transmitta...

  12. Data Overview for Sensor Fish Samples Acquired at Ice Harbor, John Day, and Bonneville II Dams in 2005, 2006, and 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2008-03-12

    The purpose of this work was to acquire Sensor Fish data on turbine passage at Bonneville II, John Day, and Ice Harbor dams for later analysis and use. The original data sets have been entered into a database and are being maintained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory pending delivery to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers when requested. This report provides documentation for the data sets acquired and details about the operations of the Sensor Fish and interpretation of Sensor Fish data that will be necessary for later use of the acquired data. A limited review of the acquired data was conducted to assess its quality and to extract information that might prove useful to its later use.

  13. Highly sensitive amperometric sensor for micromolar detection of trichloroacetic acid based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Fe(II)-phtalocyanine modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Kurd, Masoumeh; Salimi, Abdollah; Hallaj, Rahman

    2013-04-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the detection of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is developed by subsequent immobilization of phthalocyanine (Pc) and Fe(II) onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) electrode showed a pair of well-defined and nearly reversible redox couple correspondent to (Fe(III)Pc/Fe(II)Pc) with surface-confined characteristics. The surface coverage (Γ) and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) of immobilized Fe(II)-Pc were calculated as 1.26×10(-10) mol cm(-2) and 28.13 s(-1), respectively. Excellent electrocatalytic activity of the proposed GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) system toward TCA reduction has been indicated and the three consequent irreversible peaks for electroreduction of CCl3COOH to CH3COOH have been clearly seen. The observed chronoamperometric currents are linearly increased with the concentration of TCA at concentration range up to 20mM. Detection limit and sensitivity of the modified electrode were 2.0 μM and 0.10 μA μM(-1) cm(-2), respectively. The applicability of the sensor for TCA detection in real samples was tested. The obtained results suggest that the proposed system can serve as a promising electrochemical platform for TCA detection.

  14. The CaVβ Subunit Protects the I-II Loop of the Voltage-gated Calcium Channel CaV2.2 from Proteasomal Degradation but Not Oligoubiquitination*

    PubMed Central

    Page, Karen M.; Rothwell, Simon W.; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2016-01-01

    CaVβ subunits interact with the voltage-gated calcium channel CaV2.2 on a site in the intracellular loop between domains I and II (the I-II loop). This interaction influences the biophysical properties of the channel and leads to an increase in its trafficking to the plasma membrane. We have shown previously that a mutant CaV2.2 channel that is unable to bind CaVβ subunits (CaV2.2 W391A) was rapidly degraded (Waithe, D., Ferron, L., Page, K. M., Chaggar, K., and Dolphin, A. C. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 9598–9611). Here we show that, in the absence of CaVβ subunits, a construct consisting of the I-II loop of CaV2.2 was directly ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome system. Ubiquitination could be prevented by mutation of all 12 lysine residues in the I-II loop to arginines. Including a palmitoylation motif at the N terminus of CaV2.2 I-II loop was insufficient to target it to the plasma membrane in the absence of CaVβ subunits even when proteasomal degradation was inhibited with MG132 or ubiquitination was prevented by the lysine-to-arginine mutations. In the presence of CaVβ subunit, the palmitoylated CaV2.2 I-II loop was protected from degradation, although oligoubiquitination could still occur, and was efficiently trafficked to the plasma membrane. We propose that targeting to the plasma membrane requires a conformational change in the I-II loop that is induced by binding of the CaVβ subunit. PMID:27489103

  15. Low-cost fiber-optic devices and sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high frequency CO II laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yun-Jiang

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we report novel long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) fabricated by using a new writing technique that is mainly based on the thermal shock effect of focused high-frequency CO II laser pulses at several kHz. Based on these novel LPFGs, an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise filter and a gain equalizer have been demonstrated for the noise reduction and the gain spectrum flattening of Er-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), respectively. By use of the unique bending, twisting and loading features of the LPFG, three tunable gain equalizers have been demonstrated for dynamic gain flattening of EDFAs. In addition, a number of novel fiber-optic sensors, including a bend-insensitive LPFG sensor that could solve the problem of cross-sensitivity between bend and other measurands, a torsion sensor that can realize absolute measurement of twist rate, and a load sensor that can achieve simultaneous measurement of transverse load and temperature using a single LPFG element are proposed and demonstrated. The unique features of these LPFGs are mainly due to the asymmetrical distribution of the refractive index on the cross-section of the LPFG induced by high-frequency CO II laser pulses.

  16. Membrane-perturbing properties of two Arg-rich paddle domains from voltage-gated sensors in the KvAP and HsapBK K(+) channels.

    PubMed

    Unnerståle, Sofia; Madani, Fatemeh; Gräslund, Astrid; Mäler, Lena

    2012-05-15

    Voltage-gated K(+) channels are gated by displacement of basic residues located in the S4 helix that together with a part of the S3 helix, S3b, forms a "paddle" domain, whose position is altered by changes in the membrane potential modulating the open probability of the channel. Here, interactions between two paddle domains, KvAPp from the K(v) channel from Aeropyrum pernix and HsapBKp from the BK channel from Homo sapiens, and membrane models have been studied by spectroscopy. We show that both paddle domains induce calcein leakage in large unilamellar vesicles, and we suggest that this leakage represents a general thinning of the bilayer, making movement of the whole paddle domain plausible. The fact that HsapBKp induces more leakage than KvAPp may be explained by the presence of a Trp residue in HsapBKp. Trp residues generally promote localization to the hydrophilic-hydrophobic interface and disturb tight packing. In magnetically aligned bicelles, KvAPp increases the level of order along the whole acyl chain, while HsapBKp affects the morphology, also indicating that KvAPp adapts more to the lipid environment. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements for HsapBKp show that overall the sequence has anisotropic motions. The S4 helix is well-structured with restricted local motion, while the turn between S4 and S3b is more flexible and undergoes slow local motion. Our results indicate that the calcein leakage is related to the flexibility in this turn region. A possibility by which HsapBKp can undergo structural transitions is also shown by relaxation NMR, which may be important for the gating mechanism.

  17. Molecular basis of the tarantula toxin jingzhaotoxin-III (β-TRTX-Cj1α) interacting with voltage sensors in sodium channel subtype Nav1.5.

    PubMed

    Rong, Mingqiang; Chen, Jinjun; Tao, Huai; Wu, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Peng; Lu, Ming; Su, Haibo; Chi, Yupeng; Cai, Tianfu; Zhao, Liqun; Zeng, Xiongzhi; Xiao, Yucheng; Liang, Songping

    2011-09-01

    With conserved structural scaffold and divergent electrophysiological functions, animal toxins are considered powerful tools for investigating the basic structure-function relationship of voltage-gated sodium channels. Jingzhaotoxin-III (β-TRTX-Cj1α) is a unique sodium channel gating modifier from the tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao, because the toxin can selectively inhibit the activation of cardiac sodium channel but not neuronal subtypes. However, the molecular basis of JZTX-III interaction with sodium channels remains unknown. In this study, we showed that JZTX-III was efficiently expressed by the secretory pathway in yeast. Alanine-scanning analysis indicated that 2 acidic residues (Asp1, Glu3) and an exposed hydrophobic patch, formed by 4 Trp residues (residues 8, 9, 28 and 30), play important roles in the binding of JZTX-III to Nav1.5. JZTX-III docked to the Nav1.5 DIIS3-S4 linker. Mutations S799A, R800A, and L804A could additively reduce toxin sensitivity of Nav1.5. We also demonstrated that the unique Arg800, not emerging in other sodium channel subtypes, is responsible for JZTX-III selectively interacting with Nav1.5. The reverse mutation D816R in Nav1.7 greatly increased the sensitivity of the neuronal subtype to JZTX-III. Conversely, the mutation R800D in Nav1.5 decreased JZTX-III's IC₅₀ by 72-fold. Therefore, our results indicated that JZTX-III is a site 4 toxin, but does not possess the same critical residues on sodium channels as other site 4 toxins. Our data also revealed the underlying mechanism for JZTX-III to be highly specific for the cardiac sodium channel.

  18. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  19. Fabrication of a highly selective cadmium (II) sensor based on 1,13-bis(8-quinolyl)-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxatridecane as a supramolecular ionophore.

    PubMed

    Ghaemi, Arezoo; Tavakkoli, Haman; Mombeni, Tayebeh

    2014-05-01

    A new cadmium (II) ion selective sensor based on 1,13-bis(8-quinolyl)-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxatridecane (kryptofix5) as a supramolecular carrier has been developed. The membrane solutions containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC), plasticizer, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) as a lipophilic ionic additive and kryptofix5 as an ionophore were directly coated on the surface of graphite rods. The best composition of the coated membrane (w/w%) was found to be: 30.0% PVC, 61.0% dioctyl sebacate (DOS), 6.0% NaTPB and 3.0% kryptofix5. The sensor indicates a good linear response for Cd(2+) cation over a wide concentration range from 1.0×10(-5) to 1.0×10(-1) M with a Nernstian slope of 29.8±0.1 mV/decade and the detection limit is 8.4×10(-6) M. The response time of the sensor is 15s and it can be used for 7 weeks without significant drift in potential. The sensor operates in the wide pH range of 1.0-6.0. This sensor reveals a very good selectivity toward Cd(2+) ion over a wide range of alkali, transition and heavy metal cations. The sensor was used as an indicator electrode for potentiometric titration of Cd(2+) using sodium fluoride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions with a sharp potential change that occurred at the end point. In addition, the proposed sensor was successfully used for determination of Cd(2+) cation in real water samples.

  20. The use of a polymer inclusion membrane in a paper-based sensor for the selective determination of Cu(II).

    PubMed

    Jayawardane, B Manori; Coo, Lilibeth dlC; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2013-11-25

    A disposable paper-based sensor (PBS) is described for the determination of Cu(II) in natural and waste waters at approximately 2 cents per measurement. The device makes use of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) to provide the selectivity for Cu(II). The PIM consists of 40 wt% di(2-ethlyhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the carrier, 10 wt% dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as a plasticizer, 49.5 wt% poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as the base polymer and 0.5 wt% (mm(-1)) 1-(2'-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) as the colourimetric reagent. High selectivity under mildly acidic conditions (HCl, pH 2.0) is achieved for Cu(II) in the presence of frequently encountered metal ions in natural and waste waters such as Fe(III), Al(III), Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Ca(II), Mg(II), and Ni(II). The laminated PBS consists of a PIM sensing disc (2mm in diameter) attached to the centre of a circular hydrophilic zone (7 mm in diameter) pretreated with 0.01 M HCl. This hydrophilic zone separates the sample port (a circular hole in the plastic cover) from the PIM sensing disc. After introducing 19.2 μL of a sample/standard solution to the sample port, Cu(II) diffuses across the hydrophilic zone and is extracted into the PIM disc as the Cu(II)-D2EHPA complex which subsequently reacts with PAN to produce the red-purple coloured Cu(II)-PAN complex. The colour intensity of the PIM disc is measured 15 min after sample/standard introduction by scanning using a flatbed scanner. Under optimal conditions the device is characterized by a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.06 and 0.21 mg L(-1) Cu(II), respectively, with two linear ranges together covering the Cu(II) concentration range from 0.1 to 30.0 mg L(-1). The PBS was successfully applied to the determination of Cu(II) in hot tap water and mine tailings water.

  1. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobates (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensors U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  2. Voltage change-induced gating transitions of the rabbit skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel

    PubMed Central

    Zahradníková, A; Mészáros, L G

    1998-01-01

    We used the planar lipid bilayer method to study single ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channels (RyRCs) from fast skeletal muscle of the rabbit. We found that changes in membrane voltage directly induced gating transitions of the RyRC: (i) in the steady state, even at activating Ca2+ concentrations (20 μm), at a constant membrane potential the channels resided in a low open probability (Po) state (inactivated-, I-mode), and (ii) upon abrupt changes of voltage, the apparent inactivation of the RyRCs was relieved, resulting in a rapid and transient increase in Po. The magnitude of the Po increase was a function of both the duration and the amplitude of the applied prepulse, but was independent of the channel activity during the prepulse. The voltage-induced Po increase probably involved major conformational changes of the channel, as it resulted in substantial alterations in the gating pattern of the channels: the voltage change-induced increase in Po was accompanied by the rapid appearance of two types of channel activity (high (H) and low (L) open probability modes). The response of the RyRC to voltage changes raises the interesting possibility that the activation of RyRC in situ might involve electrical events, i.e. a possible dipole-dipole coupling between the release channel and the voltage sensor. PMID:9547378

  3. Ozone Profiles in the High-latitude Stratosphere and Lower Mesosphere Measured by the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS)-II: Comparison with other Satellite Sensors and Ozonesondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugita, T.; Nakajima, H.; Yokota, T.; Kanzawa, H.; Gernandt, H.; Herber, A.; VonderGathen, P.; Koenig-Langlo, G.; Sato, K.; Dorokhov, V.; Yushkov, V. A.; Murayama, Y.; Yamamori, M.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Goutail, F.; Roscoe, H. K.; Deshler, T.; Yela, M.; Taalas, P.; Kyroe, E.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Allaart, M.; Litynska, Z.; Klekociuk, A.

    2006-01-01

    A solar occultation sensor, the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS)-II, measured 5890 vertical profiles of ozone concentrations in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere and of other species from January to October 2003. The measurement latitude coverage was 54-71degN and 64-88degS, which is similar to the coverage of ILAS (November 1996 to June 1997). One purpose of the ILAS-II measurements was to continue such high-latitude measurements of ozone and its related chemical species in order to help accurately determine their trends. The present paper assesses the quality of ozone data in the version 1.4 retrieval algorithm, through comparisons with results obtained from comprehensive ozonesonde measurements and four satellite-borne solar occultation sensors. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the ILAS-II ozone data agree with the other data within +/-10% (in terms of the absolute difference divided by its mean value) at altitudes between 11 and 40 km, with the median coincident ILAS-II profiles being systematically up to 10% higher below 20 km and up to 10% lower between 21 and 40 km after screening possible suspicious retrievals. Above 41 km, the negative bias between the NH ILAS-II ozone data and the other data increases with increasing altitude and reaches 30% at 61-65 km. In the Southern Hemisphere, the ILAS-II ozone data agree with the other data within 10% in the altitude range of 11-60 km, with the median coincident profiles being on average up to 10% higher below 20 km and up to 10% lower above 20 km.

  4. Ozone Profiles in the High-latitude Stratosphere and Lower Mesosphere Measured by the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS)-II: Comparison with other Satellite Sensors and Ozonesondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugita, T.; Nakajima, H.; Yokota, T.; Kanzawa, H.; Gernandt, H.; Herber, A.; VonderGathen, P.; Koenig-Langlo, G.; Sato, K.; Dorokhov, V.; hide

    2006-01-01

    A solar occultation sensor, the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS)-II, measured 5890 vertical profiles of ozone concentrations in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere and of other species from January to October 2003. The measurement latitude coverage was 54-71degN and 64-88degS, which is similar to the coverage of ILAS (November 1996 to June 1997). One purpose of the ILAS-II measurements was to continue such high-latitude measurements of ozone and its related chemical species in order to help accurately determine their trends. The present paper assesses the quality of ozone data in the version 1.4 retrieval algorithm, through comparisons with results obtained from comprehensive ozonesonde measurements and four satellite-borne solar occultation sensors. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the ILAS-II ozone data agree with the other data within +/-10% (in terms of the absolute difference divided by its mean value) at altitudes between 11 and 40 km, with the median coincident ILAS-II profiles being systematically up to 10% higher below 20 km and up to 10% lower between 21 and 40 km after screening possible suspicious retrievals. Above 41 km, the negative bias between the NH ILAS-II ozone data and the other data increases with increasing altitude and reaches 30% at 61-65 km. In the Southern Hemisphere, the ILAS-II ozone data agree with the other data within 10% in the altitude range of 11-60 km, with the median coincident profiles being on average up to 10% higher below 20 km and up to 10% lower above 20 km.

  5. 2,6-Bis(2-Benzimidazolyl)Pyridine Fluorescent Red-Shifted Sensor for Recognition of Zinc(II) and a Calorimetric Sensor for Iron Ions.

    PubMed

    Vosough Razavi, Bita; Badiei, Alireza; Lashgari, Negar; Mohammadi Ziarani, Ghodsi

    2016-09-01

    The ability of 2,6-bis(2-benzimidazolyl)pyridine (bbp) as an optical sensor was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, colorimetric and UV-visible techniques. The fluorescence spectra of bbp demonstrated a red-shifted upon addition of Zn(2+) ion, whereas rest of the cations did not induce any shift. Selectivity of the sensor was examined toward Zn(2+) in the presence of a wide range of cations, as interfering agents, that showed no disruption in its function. In addition, the pH effect was tested on the fluorescence response of bbp; which showed the efficiency of the sensor in a wide pH range. The limit of detection for Zn(2+) was estimated as 2.1 μM. Furthermore, the colorimetric studies were carried out and the observations showed a color change from colorless to purple by the addition of Fe(2+) ion and from colorless to yellow by the addition of Fe(3+). The UV-visible studies were carried out to confirm the colorimetric observations. The color changes occurred when Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) were added to the sensors solution, respectively. The detection limits were calculated as 2.8 × 10(-7) M and 3.5 × 10(-6) M for Fe(2+) and Fe(3+), respectively. Hence, bbp can be used as a dual mode optical sensor for detection of Zn(2+) by fluorescence and discriminately detection of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) visually.

  6. Readout circuit design of the retina-like CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fengmei; Song, Shengyu; Bai, Tingzhu; Cao, Nan

    2015-02-01

    Readout circuit is designed for a special retina-like CMOS image sensor. To realize the pixels timing drive and readout of the sensor, the Altera's Cyclone II FPGA is used as a control chip. The voltage of the sensor is supported by a voltage chip initialized by SPI with AVR MCU system. The analog image signal outputted by the sensor is converted to digital image data by 12-bits A/D converter ADS807 and the digital data is memorized in the SRAM. Using the Camera-link image grabber, the data stored in SRAM is transformed to image shown on PC. Experimental results show the circuit works well on retina-like CMOS timing drive and image readout and images can be displayed properly on the PC.

  7. Progress in sensor technology--progress in process control? Part II: results from a simulation benchmark study.

    PubMed

    Alex, J; Rieger, L; Winkler, S; Siegrist, H

    2003-01-01

    To show the impact of sensor behaviour on the control result, four strategies for aeration control are tested using different sensor characteristics. It is demonstrated, on the one hand, how an increasing response time will limit the achievable control quality and, on the other hand, how a given sensor characteristic can be taken into account for the controller design. The presented tests show that an improvement potential by control for WWTPs is available but this potential is limited compared to proper DO control with fixed set-points. To activate this control potential, sufficient control authority must be available and a careful control design is required. It can be shown that using feedback control, sensors with a small response time have significant advantages compared to conventional sensors. Using feed forward control, the improvement potential by control is considerably higher and additionally, the sensor delay can be integrated into the controller design. The presented discussion is based on simulation studies performed on a standardised benchmark case. For these tests it was necessary to include sensor models into the simulation model. It can be stated that the usage of sensor models is necessary for the application of dynamic simulation for the design and evaluation of WWTP control and in general to achieve realistic results.

  8. A rapid and visual turn-off sensor for detecting copper (II) ion based on DNAzyme coupled with HCR-based HRP concatemers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wentao; Tian, Jingjing; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Longjiao; Huang, Kunlun

    2017-01-01

    To solve the requirement of on-site, rapid, and visual detection of copper (II) (Cu2+) in aqueous solution, a turn-off sensor for detecting copper (II) ion was developed based on Cu2+-dependent DNAzyme as the recognition element and hybridization chain reaction (HCR)-based horseradish peroxidase (HRP) concatemers as the signal amplifier and the signal report element. The detection unit, which was composed of the immobilized Cu2+-dependent DNAzyme coupled with HCR-based HRP concatemers via Waston-Crick base pairing, could catalyze hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) via TMB, generating obvious green color and turning yellow after sulfuric acid termination with optical absorption at 450 nm. Upon Cu2+ addition, the substrate strand of the Cu2+-dependent DNAzyme concatenated with the HCR-based HRP complex was irreversibly cleaved, efficiently causing dramatic reduction of the detection signal. Under optimal conditions, the detection signal decreased with the concentration of Cu2+ in 5 min, exhibiting a linear calibration from 0.05 to 3 μM with a detection limit of 8 nM. The sensor also displayed a high selectivity for Cu2+ given the specificity and anti-interference of the detection unit, and this system was applicable for monitoring Cu2+ in real water samples. Generally speaking, the proposed sensor exhibits good potential in environment surveys. PMID:28266536

  9. A 9 megapixel large-area back-thinned CMOS sensor with high sensitivity and high frame-rate for the TAOS II program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratlong, Jérôme; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Lehner, Matthew; Jorden, Paul; Jerram, Paul; Johnson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) is a robotic telescope system using three telescopes in San Pedro Martir Observatory in Mexico. It measures occultation of background stars by small TransNeptunian Objects (TNO) in order to determine their size distribution. Each telescope focal plane uses ten buttable backthinned CMOS sensors. Key performance features of the sensors are: Large array format 4608 x 1920, Pixel size 16μm, Multi ROIs, 8 analogue video channels, Frame rate of 20-40 fps [using ROIs], Low noise <3e-, Cryogenic dark current <0.1e-/pixel/s, backthinned for >90% peak quantum efficiency. The paper describes top level application requirements for the TAOS II detector. The sensor design including the pixel and buttable package are described together with performance at room temperature and cryogenic temperature of backthinned devices. The key performance specifications have been demonstrated and will be presented. The production set of 40 devices are due for completion within 2017.

  10. A rapid and visual turn-off sensor for detecting copper (II) ion based on DNAzyme coupled with HCR-based HRP concatemers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Tian, Jingjing; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Longjiao; Huang, Kunlun

    2017-03-07

    To solve the requirement of on-site, rapid, and visual detection of copper (II) (Cu(2+)) in aqueous solution, a turn-off sensor for detecting copper (II) ion was developed based on Cu(2+)-dependent DNAzyme as the recognition element and hybridization chain reaction (HCR)-based horseradish peroxidase (HRP) concatemers as the signal amplifier and the signal report element. The detection unit, which was composed of the immobilized Cu(2+)-dependent DNAzyme coupled with HCR-based HRP concatemers via Waston-Crick base pairing, could catalyze hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) via TMB, generating obvious green color and turning yellow after sulfuric acid termination with optical absorption at 450 nm. Upon Cu(2+) addition, the substrate strand of the Cu(2+)-dependent DNAzyme concatenated with the HCR-based HRP complex was irreversibly cleaved, efficiently causing dramatic reduction of the detection signal. Under optimal conditions, the detection signal decreased with the concentration of Cu(2+) in 5 min, exhibiting a linear calibration from 0.05 to 3 μM with a detection limit of 8 nM. The sensor also displayed a high selectivity for Cu(2+) given the specificity and anti-interference of the detection unit, and this system was applicable for monitoring Cu(2+) in real water samples. Generally speaking, the proposed sensor exhibits good potential in environment surveys.

  11. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    SAGE II Data and Information The goals of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment ( SAGE ) II are to determine the spatial distributions of stratospheric ... profiles and calculating monthly averages of each. The SAGE II sensor (a Sun Photometer) was launched into a 57-degree inclination ...

  12. A highly selective and simple fluorescent sensor for mercury (II) ion detection based on cysteamine-capped CdTe quantum dots synthesized by the reflux method.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaojie; Qu, Lingbo; Yang, Ran; Zhou, Yuchen; Li, Jianjun

    2015-06-01

    Cysteamine (CA)-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) (CA-CdTe QDs) were prepared by the reflux method and utilized as an efficient nano-sized fluorescent sensor to detect mercury (II) ions (Hg(2+) ). Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence quenching effect of CA-CdTe QDs was linear at Hg(2+) concentrations in the range of 6.0-450 nmol/L. The detection limit was calculated to be 4.0 nmol/L according to the 3σ IUPAC criteria. The influence of 10-fold Pb(2+) , Cu(2+) and Ag(+) on the determination of Hg(2+) was < 7% (superior to other reports based on crude QDs). Furthermore, the detection sensitivity and selectivity were much improved relative to a sensor based on the CA-CdTe QDs probe, which was prepared using a one-pot synthetic method. This CA-CdTe QDs sensor system represents a new feasibility to improve the detection performance of a QDs sensor by changing the synthesis method.

  13. Evaluation of infrasound sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kromer, R.P.; McDonald, T.S.

    1998-08-01

    Sandia is evaluating the performance of various infrasound sensors that could be used as part of the International Monitoring Systems (IMS). Specifications for infrasound stations are outlined in CTBT/PC/II/1/Add.2. This document specifies minimum requirements for sensor, digitizer and system. The infrasound sensors evaluation task has the following objectives: provide an overview of the sensors presently in use; evaluate these sensors with respect to the requirements of the IMS.

  14. Secure Localization and Tracking in Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    temperature, humidity, acceleration, voltage, motion, radiation , etc. Using the analogy of the human nervous system, the numerous sensor nodes are...uses this model in radiation sensors. In this dissertation, we assume that the sensor node has a limited sensing range. When the event is out of the...been used to model acoustic amplitude sensors [40] and radiation sensors [37]. As mentioned in 10 Chapter 1, the sensor in a sensor node could be a sound

  15. Development of a reduced-graphene-oxide based superparamagnetic nanocomposite for the removal of nickel (II) from an aqueous medium via a fluorescence sensor platform.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Debabrata; Saha, Indranil; Ray, Suprakas Sinha; Maity, Arjun

    2015-09-15

    Reduced-graphene-oxide based superparamagnetic nanocomposite (GC) was fabricated and applied for the remediation of Ni(II) from an aqueous medium. The as-prepared GC was extensively characterized by Raman, TEM, AFM, SEM-EDX, SQUID, and BET analyses. Quantitative immobilization of Ni(II) in an aqueous solution by the fluorescent sensor platform of GC was explored at varying pH, doses, contact times, and temperatures. The pseudo-second-order kinetics equation governed the overall sorption process at optimized pH of 5 (±0.2). The superior monolayer sorption capacity was 228mgg(-1) at 300K. Negative ΔG(0) indicated the spontaneous sorption nature, whereas the positive ΔH(0) resulted from an increase in entropy (positive ΔS(0)) at the solid-liquid interface during the endothermic reaction. The lower enthalpy agreed with the relatively high regeneration (approximately 91%) of the GC by 0.1M HCl, because of the formation of stable tetrahedral complex. The physisorption was well corroborated by calculated sorption energy (EDR ∼7kJmol(-1)) and the nature of the Stern-Volmer plot of the fluorescence-quenching data with reaction time. The GC played a pivotal role as a static fluorescent sensor platform (fluorophore) for Ni(II) adsorption. Magnetic property also indicated that GC could be easily separated from fluids by exploiting its superparamagnetic property. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel voltammetric sensor for sensitive detection of mercury(II) ions using glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene-based ion imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Ghanei-Motlagh, Masoud; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Heydari, Abolfazl; Ghanei-Motlagh, Reza; Gupta, Vinod K

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a novel strategy was proposed to prepare ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Polymerization was performed using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, 2,2'-((9E,10E)-1,4-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-diylidene) bis(hydrazine-1-carbothioamide) (DDBHCT) as the chelating agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator, via surface imprinted technique. The RGO-IIP was characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrochemical procedure was based on the accumulation of Hg(II) ions at the surface of a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with RGO-IIP. The prepared RGO-IIP sensor has higher voltammetric response compared to the non-imprinted polymer (NIP), traditional IIP and RGO. The RGO-IIP modified electrode exhibited a linear relationship toward Hg(II) concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 80 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 0.02 μg L(-1) (S/N=3), below the guideline value from the World Health Organization (WHO). The applicability of the proposed electrochemical sensor to determination of mercury(II) ions in different water samples was reported.

  17. Enhanced fast-inactivated state stability of cardiac sodium channels by a novel voltage sensor SCN5A mutation, R1632C, as a cause of atypical Brugada syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tadashi; Kaneko, Yoshiaki; Saito, Akihiro; Ota, Masaki; Iijima, Takafumi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-11-01

    Mutations in SCN5A, which encodes the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels, can be associated with multiple electrophysiological phenotypes. A novel SCN5A R1632C mutation, located in the domain IV-segment 4 voltage sensor, was identified in a young male patient who had a syncopal episode during exercise and presented with atrial tachycardia, sinus node dysfunction, and Brugada syndrome. We sought to elucidate the functional consequences of the R1632C mutation. The wild-type (WT) or R1632C SCN5A mutation was coexpressed with β1 subunit in tsA201 cells, and whole-cell sodium currents (INa) were recorded using patch-clamp methods. INa density, measured at -20 mV from a holding potential of -120 mV, for R1632C was significantly lower than that for WT (R1632C: -433 ± 52 pA/pF, n = 14; WT: -672 ± 90 pA/pF, n = 15; P < .05); however, no significant changes were observed in the steady-state activation and fast inactivation rate. The steady-state inactivation curve for R1632C was remarkably shifted to hyperpolarizing potentials compared with that for WT (R1632C: V1/2 = -110.7 ± 0.8 mV, n = 16; WT: V1/2 = -85.9 ± 2.5 mV, n = 17; P < .01). The steady-state fast inactivation curve for R1632C was also shifted to the same degree. Recovery from fast inactivation after a 20-ms depolarizing pulse for R1632C was remarkably delayed compared with that for WT (R1632C: τ = 246.7 ± 14.3 ms, n = 8; WT: τ = 3.7 ± 0.3 ms, n = 8; P < .01). Repetitive depolarizing pulses at various cycle lengths greatly attenuated INa for R1632C than that for WT. R1632C showed a loss of function of INa by an enhanced fast-inactivated state stability because of a pronounced impairment of recovery from fast inactivation, which may explain the phenotypic manifestation observed in our patient. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Steerable Capacitive Proximity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenstrom, Del T.; Mcconnell, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Steerable capacitive proximity sensor of "capaciflector" type based partly on sensing units described in GSC-13377 and GSC-13475. Position of maximum sensitivity adjusted without moving sensor. Voltage of each driven shield adjusted separately to concentrate sensing electric field more toward one side or other.

  19. Let Visuals Tell the Story: Medication Adherence in Patients with Type II Diabetes Captured by a Novel Ingestion Sensor Platform

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Yashar; Littlewort, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases such as diabetes require high levels of medication adherence and patient self-management for optimal health outcomes. A novel sensing platform, Digital Health Feedback System (Proteus Digital Health, Redwood City, CA), can for the first time detect medication ingestion events and physiological measures simultaneously, using an edible sensor, personal monitor patch, and paired mobile device. The Digital Health Feedback System (DHFS) generates a large amount of data. Visual analytics of this rich dataset may provide insights into longitudinal patterns of medication adherence in the natural setting and potential relationships between medication adherence and physiological measures that were previously unknown. Objective Our aim was to use modern methods of visual analytics to represent continuous and discrete data from the DHFS, plotting multiple different data types simultaneously to evaluate the potential of the DHFS to capture longitudinal patterns of medication-taking behavior and self-management in individual patients with type II diabetes. Methods Visualizations were generated using time domain methods of oral metformin medication adherence and physiological data obtained by the DHFS use in 5 patients with type II diabetes over 37-42 days. The DHFS captured at-home metformin adherence, heart rate, activity, and sleep/rest. A mobile glucose monitor captured glucose testing and level (mg/dl). Algorithms were developed to analyze data over varying time periods: across the entire study, daily, and weekly. Following visualization analysis, correlations between sleep/rest and medication ingestion were calculated across all subjects. Results A total of 197 subject days, encompassing 141,840 data events were analyzed. Individual continuous patch use varied between 87-98%. On average, the cohort took 78% (SD 12) of prescribed medication and took 77% (SD 26) within the prescribed ±2-hour time window. Average activity levels per subjects ranged

  20. CDF Run-II Silicon Detector: Operations and Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, Michelle; /Fermilab

    2011-09-10

    The CDF Run-II silicon microstrip detector has seen almost 12 fb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collisions over the last 10 years. It has shown remarkable performance, with 80% of its channels still operating error-free, and only one of its eight layers approaching the operational limits for full depletion. The measured depletion voltage and signal-to-noise ratio of these sensors give unique information about the behavior of sensors irradiated slowly over a long period of time. Data from heavily irradiated, double-sided sensors excludes a monotonic electric field inside the sensor and is instead consistent with a doubly-peaked field that is lower in the center of the sensor and higher at the edges.

  1. Potentiation of prolactin secretion following lactotrope escape from dopamine action. II. Phosphorylation of the alpha(1) subunit of L-type, voltage-dependent calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M E; del Mar Hernández, M; Díaz-Muñoz, M; Clapp, C; de la Escalera, G M

    1999-07-01

    Modulation of Ca(2+) channels has been shown to alter cellular functions. It can play an important role in the amplification of signals in the endocrine system, including the pleiotropically regulated pituitary lactotropes. Prolactin (PRL) secretion is tonically inhibited by dopamine (DA), the escape from which triggers acute episodes of hormone secretion. The magnitude of these episodes is explained by a potentiation of the PRL-releasing action of secretagogues such as thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). While the mechanisms of this potentiation are not fully understood, it is known to be mimicked by the dihydropyridine, L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist Bay K 8644 and blocked by nifedipine and methoxyverapamil. The potentiation is also blocked by inhibitors of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C. We recently described that the escape from tonic actions of DA results in increased macroscopic Ca(2+) currents in GH(4)C(1) lactotropic clonal cells transfected with a cDNA encoding the long form of the human D(2)-DA receptor. Here we show that the withdrawal from DA potentiates the PRL-releasing action of TRH in GH(4)C(1)/D(2)-DAR cells to the same extent as in enriched lactotropes in primary culture. In both experimental models a low density of dihydropyridine receptors was shown by (+)-[(3)H]PN200-110 binding. Photoaffinity labelling with the dihydropyridine [(3)H]azidopine revealed a protein consistent with the alpha(1) subunit of L-type Ca(2+) channels of 165-170 kDa. In both experimental models, the facilitation of TRH action triggered by the escape from DA was correlated with an enhanced rate of phosphorylation of this putative alpha(1) subunit, the nature of which was further supported by immunoprecipitation with selective antibodies directed against the alpha(1C) and alpha(1D) subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels. We propose that PKA- and PKC-dependent phosphorylation of the alpha(1) subunit of high voltage activated, L-type Ca(2

  2. A Eu(II)-Containing Cryptate as a Redox Sensor in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Living Tissue.

    PubMed

    Ekanger, Levi A; Polin, Lisa A; Shen, Yimin; Haacke, E Mark; Martin, Philip D; Allen, Matthew J

    2015-11-23

    The Eu(II) ion rivals Gd(III) in its ability to enhance contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. However, all reported Eu(II)-based complexes have been studied in vitro largely because the tendency of Eu(II) to oxidize to Eu(III) has been viewed as a major obstacle to in vivo imaging. Herein, we present solid- and solution-phase characterization of a Eu(II)-containing cryptate and the first in vivo use of Eu(II) to provide contrast enhancement. The results indicate that between one and two water molecules are coordinated to the Eu(II) core upon dissolution. We also demonstrate that Eu(II)-based contrast enhancement can be observed for hours in a mouse.

  3. Domain-to-domain coupling in voltage-sensing phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Souhei; Matsuda, Makoto; Kawanabe, Akira; Okamura, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) consists of a transmembrane voltage sensor and a cytoplasmic enzyme region. The enzyme region contains the phosphatase and C2 domains, is structurally similar to the tumor suppressor phosphatase PTEN, and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphoinositides. The transmembrane voltage sensor is connected to the phosphatase through a short linker region, and phosphatase activity is induced upon membrane depolarization. Although the detailed molecular characteristics of the voltage sensor domain and the enzyme region have been revealed, little is known how these two regions are coupled. In addition, it is important to know whether mechanism for coupling between the voltage sensor domain and downstream effector function is shared among other voltage sensor domain-containing proteins. Recent studies in which specific amino acid sites were genetically labeled using a fluorescent unnatural amino acid have enabled detection of the local structural changes in the cytoplasmic region of Ciona intestinalis VSP that occur with a change in membrane potential. The results of those studies provide novel insight into how the enzyme activity of the cytoplasmic region of VSP is regulated by the voltage sensor domain. PMID:28744425

  4. High-Voltage Pulse Voltage Generator,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-21

    the invention: I. I. Kalyatskiy, V. I. Kurets, and V. I. Safronov Well-known are pulse voltage generators which employ the Arkad’yev- Marx principle of...P2, and hereafter the device operates like an ordinary GIN [pulse volt- age generator] according to the Arkad’yev- Marx principle. The Object of the...Invention The high-voltage pulse voltage generator, assembled according to the Arkad’yev- Marx arrangement, each stage of which incorporates reactive

  5. Electrochemical sensors based on gold nanoparticles modified with rhodamine B hydrazide to sensitively detect Cu(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Donglai; Hu, Bin; Kang, Mengmeng; Wang, Minghua; He, Linghao; Zhang, Zhihong; Fang, Shaoming

    2016-12-01

    An electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) modified with rhodamine B hydrazide (RBH) (AuNPs-RBH) was developed and applied in the highly sensitive and selective detection of Cu2+ in water. RBH molecules were bounded onto the surface of AuNPs via the strong interaction between the amino groups and Au NPs. The chemical structure variations were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and fluoresence spectroscopy. Additionally, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine Cu2+ ions in an aqueous solution with the developed AuNPs-RBH-based electrochemical sensor. Results show that the fabricated sensor exhibits good electrochemical performance because of the presence of Au NPs and high affinity with the Cu2+ resulting from the strong coordination chemistry between Cu2+ and RBH. The as-developed sensor towards detecting Cu2+ has a detection limitation of 12.5 fM within the concentration range of 0.1 pM-1 nM by using the electrochemical impedance technique. It also displays excellent selectivity, regeneration, stability, and practicability for Cu2+ detection. Therefore, the new strategy of the RBH-based electrochemical sensor exhibits great potential application in environment treatment and protection.

  6. FET charge sensor and voltage probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A MOSFET structure having a biased gate covered with an insulator is described. The insulator is of such a thickness as to render the structure capable of giving a measure of accumulated charge. The structure is also capable of being used in a stacked structure as a particle spectrometer.

  7. Low-Cost Linear Optical Sensors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Kenneth F.; Meisel, David D.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the properties and application of three light-to-voltage optical sensors. The sensors have been used for sensing diffraction patterns, the inverse-square law, and as a fringe counter with an interferometer. (MVL)

  8. Substitutions in the Domain III Voltage-sensing Module Enhance the Sensitivity of an Insect Sodium Channel to a Scorpion β-Toxin*

    PubMed Central

    Song, Weizhong; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Zhiqi; Luo, Ningguang; Turkov, Michael; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael; Goldin, Alan L.; Dong, Ke

    2011-01-01

    Scorpion β-toxins bind to the extracellular regions of the voltage-sensing module of domain II and to the pore module of domain III in voltage-gated sodium channels and enhance channel activation by trapping and stabilizing the voltage sensor of domain II in its activated state. We investigated the interaction of a highly potent insect-selective scorpion depressant β-toxin, Lqh-dprIT3, from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus with insect sodium channels from Blattella germanica (BgNav). Like other scorpion β-toxins, Lqh-dprIT3 shifts the voltage dependence of activation of BgNav channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes to more negative membrane potentials but only after strong depolarizing prepulses. Notably, among 10 BgNav splice variants tested for their sensitivity to the toxin, only BgNav1-1 was hypersensitive due to an L1285P substitution in IIIS1 resulting from a U-to-C RNA-editing event. Furthermore, charge reversal of a negatively charged residue (E1290K) at the extracellular end of IIIS1 and the two innermost positively charged residues (R4E and R5E) in IIIS4 also increased the channel sensitivity to Lqh-dprIT3. Besides enhancement of toxin sensitivity, the R4E substitution caused an additional 20-mV negative shift in the voltage dependence of activation of toxin-modified channels, inducing a unique toxin-modified state. Our findings provide the first direct evidence for the involvement of the domain III voltage-sensing module in the action of scorpion β-toxins. This hypersensitivity most likely reflects an increase in IIS4 trapping via allosteric mechanisms, suggesting coupling between the voltage sensors in neighboring domains during channel activation. PMID:21454658

  9. Voltage-dependent motion of the catalytic region of voltage-sensing phosphatase monitored by a fluorescent amino acid

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Souhei; Jinno, Yuka; Kawanabe, Akira; Okamura, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasmic region of voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) derives the voltage dependence of its catalytic activity from coupling to a voltage sensor homologous to that of voltage-gated ion channels. To assess the conformational changes in the cytoplasmic region upon activation of the voltage sensor, we genetically incorporated a fluorescent unnatural amino acid, 3-(6-acetylnaphthalen-2-ylamino)-2-aminopropanoic acid (Anap), into the catalytic region of Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP). Measurements of Anap fluorescence under voltage clamp in Xenopus oocytes revealed that the catalytic region assumes distinct conformations dependent on the degree of voltage-sensor activation. FRET analysis showed that the catalytic region remains situated beneath the plasma membrane, irrespective of the voltage level. Moreover, Anap fluorescence from a membrane-facing loop in the C2 domain showed a pattern reflecting substrate turnover. These results indicate that the voltage sensor regulates Ci-VSP catalytic activity by causing conformational changes in the entire catalytic region, without changing their distance from the plasma membrane. PMID:27330112

  10. Voltage-dependent motion of the catalytic region of voltage-sensing phosphatase monitored by a fluorescent amino acid.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Souhei; Jinno, Yuka; Kawanabe, Akira; Okamura, Yasushi

    2016-07-05

    The cytoplasmic region of voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) derives the voltage dependence of its catalytic activity from coupling to a voltage sensor homologous to that of voltage-gated ion channels. To assess the conformational changes in the cytoplasmic region upon activation of the voltage sensor, we genetically incorporated a fluorescent unnatural amino acid, 3-(6-acetylnaphthalen-2-ylamino)-2-aminopropanoic acid (Anap), into the catalytic region of Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP). Measurements of Anap fluorescence under voltage clamp in Xenopus oocytes revealed that the catalytic region assumes distinct conformations dependent on the degree of voltage-sensor activation. FRET analysis showed that the catalytic region remains situated beneath the plasma membrane, irrespective of the voltage level. Moreover, Anap fluorescence from a membrane-facing loop in the C2 domain showed a pattern reflecting substrate turnover. These results indicate that the voltage sensor regulates Ci-VSP catalytic activity by causing conformational changes in the entire catalytic region, without changing their distance from the plasma membrane.

  11. Enhancing the response of microbial fuel cell based toxicity sensors to Cu(II) with the applying of flow-through electrodes and controlled anode potentials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Changyong; Bian, Yanhong; Yang, Xufei; Huang, Xia; Girguis, Peter R

    2015-08-01

    The application of microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based toxicity sensors to real-world water monitoring is partly impeded by the limited sensitivity. To address this limitation, this study optimized the flow configurations and the control modes. Results revealed that the sensitivity increased by ∼15-41times with the applying of a flow-through anode, compared to those with a flow-by anode. The sensors operated in the controlled anode potential (CP) mode delivered better sensitivity than those operated in the constant external resistance (ER) mode over a broad range of anode potentials from -0.41V to +0.1V. Electrodeposition of Cu(II) was found to bias the toxicity measurement at low anode potentials. The optimal anode potential was approximately -0.15V, at which the sensor achieved an unbiased measurement of toxicity and the highest sensitivity. This value was greater than those required for electrodeposition while smaller than those for power overshoot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of mercury(II) with a surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensor based on functionalized gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Peng; Shi, Xiaofei; Curtin, Kathrine; Yang, Feng; Wu, Nianqiang

    2017-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles functionalized with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid can selectively capture Hg2+ in the presence of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, generating a fingerprint surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) peak at 374 cm-1. This SERS sensor exhibits a limit of detection of 5 ppt toward Hg2+ in water.

  13. Enhanced electrochemiluminescence sensor from tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) incorporated into MCM-41 and an ionic liquid-based carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Huang, Minghua; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wei, Hui; Xu, Yuanhong; Xu, Guobao; Wang, Erkang

    2007-07-01

    The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)] ion-exchanged in the sulfonic-functionalized MCM-41 silicas was developed with tripropylamine (TPrA) as a co-reactant in a carbon paste electrode (CPE) using a room temperature ionic liquid (IL) as a binder. The sulfonic-functionalized silicas MCM-41 were used for preparing an ECL sensor by the electrostatic interactions between Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) cations and sulfonic acid groups. We used the IL as a binder to construct the CPE (IL-CPE) to replace the traditional binder of the CPE (T-CPE)--silicone oil. The results indicated that the MCM-41-modified IL-CPE had more open structures to allow faster diffusion of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) and that the ionic liquid also acted as a conducting bridge to connect TPrA with Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) sites immobilized in the electrode, resulting in a higher ECL intensity compared with the MCM-41-modified T-CPE. Herein, the detection limit for TPrA of the MCM-41-modified IL-CPE was 7.2 nM, which was two orders of magnitude lower than that observed at the T-CPE. When this new sensor was used in flow injection analysis (FIA), the MCM-41-modified IL-CPE ECL sensor also showed good reproducibility. Furthermore, the sensor could also be renewed easily by mechanical polishing whenever needed.

  14. Novel carbon nanotube (CNT)-based ultrasensitive sensors for trace mercury(II) detection in water: A review.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Lok R; Ettore, Nicholas; Jacobs, Zachary L; Zarr, Asha; Weir, Mark H; Scheuerman, Phillip R; Kanel, Sushil R; Dubey, Brajesh

    2017-01-01

    Infamous for "Mad hatter syndrome" and "Minamata disease", mercury (Hg) is ranked high on the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's priority list of hazardous substances for its potent neurologic, renal, and developmental toxicities. Most typical exposures are via contaminated water and food. Although regulations and advisories are exercised at various levels, Hg pollution from both natural and anthropogenic sources has remained a major public health and safety concern. Rapid detection of solvated aqueous Hg(2+) ions at low levels is critical for immediate response and protection of those who are vulnerable (young children, pregnant and breast-feeding women) to acute and chronic exposures to Hg(2+). Various types of sensors capable of detecting Hg in water have been developed. In particular, the novel use of engineered carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has garnered attention due to their specificity and sensitivity towards Hg(2+) detection in solution. In this focused review, we describe the sensitivity, selectivity and mechanisms of Hg(2+) ion sensing at trace levels by employing CNT-based various sensor designs, and appraise the open literature on the currently applied and "proof-of-concept" methods. Five different types of CNT-based sensor systems are described: potentiometric, DNA-based fluorescence, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), colorimetric, and stripping voltammetric assays. In addition, the recognized merits and shortcomings for each type of electrochemical sensors are discussed. The knowledge from this succinct review shall guide the development of the next generation CNT-based biochemical sensors for rapid Hg(2+) detection in the environment, which is a significant first step towards human health risk analysis of this legacy toxicant.

  15. Voltage-dependent gating of KCNH potassium channels lacking a covalent link between voltage-sensing and pore domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lörinczi, Éva; Gómez-Posada, Juan Camilo; de La Peña, Pilar; Tomczak, Adam P.; Fernández-Trillo, Jorge; Leipscher, Ulrike; Stühmer, Walter; Barros, Francisco; Pardo, Luis A.

    2015-03-01

    Voltage-gated channels open paths for ion permeation upon changes in membrane potential, but how voltage changes are coupled to gating is not entirely understood. Two modules can be recognized in voltage-gated potassium channels, one responsible for voltage sensing (transmembrane segments S1 to S4), the other for permeation (S5 and S6). It is generally assumed that the conversion of a conformational change in the voltage sensor into channel gating occurs through the intracellular S4-S5 linker that provides physical continuity between the two regions. Using the pathophysiologically relevant KCNH family, we show that truncated proteins interrupted at, or lacking the S4-S5 linker produce voltage-gated channels in a heterologous model that recapitulate both the voltage-sensing and permeation properties of the complete protein. These observations indicate that voltage sensing by the S4 segment is transduced to the channel gate in the absence of physical continuity between the modules.

  16. Analysis of the interaction of tarantula toxin Jingzhaotoxin-III (β-TRTX-Cj1α) with the voltage sensor of Kv2.1 uncovers the molecular basis for cross-activities on Kv2.1 and Nav1.5 channels.

    PubMed

    Tao, Huai; Chen, Jin J; Xiao, Yu C; Wu, Yuan Y; Su, Hai B; Li, Dan; Wang, Heng Y; Deng, Mei C; Wang, Mei C; Liu, Zhong H; Liang, Song P

    2013-10-22

    Animal venoms contain a fascinating array of divergent peptide toxins that have cross-activities on different types of voltage-gated ion channels. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Jingzhaotoxin-III (JZTX-III), a 36-residue peptide from the tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao, is specific for Nav1.5 and Kv2.1 channels over the majority of other ion channel subtypes. JZTX-III traps the Nav1.5 DII voltage sensor at closed state by binding to the DIIS3-S4 linker. In this study, electrophysiological experiments showed that JZTX-III had no effect on five voltage-gated potassium channel subtypes (Kv1.4, Kv3.1, and Kv4.1-4.3), whereas it significantly inhibited Kv2.1 with an IC50 of 0.71 ± 0.01 μM. Mutagenesis and modeling data suggested that JZTX-III docks at the Kv2.1 voltage-sensor paddle. Alanine replacement of Phe274, Lys280, Ser281, Leu283, Gln284, and Val288 could decrease JZTX-III affinity by 7-, 9-, 34-, 12-, 9-, and 7-fold, respectively. Among them, S281 is the most crucial determinant, and the substitution with Thr only slightly reduced toxin sensitivity. In contrast, a single conversion of Ser281 to Ala, Phe, Ile, Val, or Glu increased the IC50 value by >34-fold. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis experiments indicated that the functional surface of JZTX-III bound to the Kv2.1 channel is composed of four hydrophobic residues (Trp8, Trp28, Trp30, and Val33) and three charged residues (Arg13, Lys15, and Glu34). The bioactive surfaces of JZTX-III interacting with Kv2.1 and Nav1.5 are only partially overlapping. These results strongly supported the hypothesis that animal toxins might use partially overlapping bioactive surfaces to target the voltage-sensor paddles of two different types of ion channels. Increasing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of toxins interacting with voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels may provide new molecular insights into the design of more potent ion channel inhibitors.

  17. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  18. Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC ( BLDC ) Motor by Yuan Chen, Joseph Conroy, and William Nothwang ARL-TR-6308 January 2013...TR-6308 January 2013 Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC ( BLDC ) Motor Yuan Chen, Joseph Conroy, and William Nothwang Sensors...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC ( BLDC ) Motor 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  19. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    DOEpatents

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  20. Aqueous synthesis of nontoxic Ag2Se/ZnSe quantum dots designing as fluorescence sensors for detection of Ag(I) and Cu(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Shuhong; Zhao, Zengxia; Wang, Zhuyuan; Cui, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    We reported the synthesis of water-soluble and nontoxic Ag(2)Se/ZnSe Quantum Dots (QDs) using for fluorescence sensors. The influences of various experimental conditions including the synthesis pH, types of ligand, feed ratios, and the refluxed time on the growth process and fluorescence of QDs were investigated in detail. Under optimal conditions, Ag(2)Se/ZnSe QDs show a single emission peak around 490 nm with the maximal photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QYs) of 13.7 %. As-prepared Ag(2)Se/ZnSe QDs can be used for detection of Ag(II) and Cu(II). The detection limits are 1 × 10(-6) mol/L to 5 × 10(-5) mol/L for Ag (I), and 2 × 10(-6) mol/L to 1.10 × 10(-4) mol/L for Cu(II).

  1. Integrating a DNA Strand Displacement Reaction with a Whispering Gallery Mode Sensor for Label-Free Mercury (II) Ion Detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengchi; Wu, Yuqiang; Niu, Zhongwei; Vollmer, Frank

    2016-07-29

    Mercury is an extremely toxic chemical pollutant of our environment. It has attracted the world's attention due to its high mobility and the ease with which it accumulates in organisms. Sensitive devices and methods specific for detecting mercury ions are, hence, in great need. Here, we have integrated a DNA strand displacement reaction with a whispering gallery mode (WGM) sensor for demonstrating the detection of Hg(2+) ions. Our approach relies on the displacement of a DNA hairpin structure, which forms after the binding of mercury ions to an aptamer DNA sequence. The strand displacement reaction of the DNA aptamer provides highly specific and quantitative means for determining the mercury ion concentration on a label-free WGM sensor platform. Our approach also shows the possibility for manipulating the kinetics of a strand displacement reaction with specific ionic species.

  2. Integrating a DNA Strand Displacement Reaction with a Whispering Gallery Mode Sensor for Label-Free Mercury (II) Ion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fengchi; Wu, Yuqiang; Niu, Zhongwei; Vollmer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is an extremely toxic chemical pollutant of our environment. It has attracted the world’s attention due to its high mobility and the ease with which it accumulates in organisms. Sensitive devices and methods specific for detecting mercury ions are, hence, in great need. Here, we have integrated a DNA strand displacement reaction with a whispering gallery mode (WGM) sensor for demonstrating the detection of Hg2+ ions. Our approach relies on the displacement of a DNA hairpin structure, which forms after the binding of mercury ions to an aptamer DNA sequence. The strand displacement reaction of the DNA aptamer provides highly specific and quantitative means for determining the mercury ion concentration on a label-free WGM sensor platform. Our approach also shows the possibility for manipulating the kinetics of a strand displacement reaction with specific ionic species. PMID:27483277

  3. Synthesis of a novel fluorescent sensor bearing dansyl fluorophores for the highly selective detection of mercury (II) ions.

    PubMed

    Wanichacheva, Nantanit; Watpathomsub, Supranee; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Grudpan, Kate

    2010-03-12

    A new macromolecule possessing two dansyl moieties and based on 2-[4-(2-aminoethylthio)butylthio]ethanamine was prepared as a fluorescent sensor and its mercury sensing properties toward various transition metal, alkali, and alkali earth ions were investigated. The designed compound exhibited pronounced Hg2+-selective ON-OFF type fluorescence switching upon binding. The new compound provided highly selective sensing to Hg2+ in acetonitrile-water solvent mixtures with a detection limit of 2.49 x 10(-7) M or 50 ppb. The molecular modeling results indicated that ions-recognition of the sensor originated from a self assembly process of the reagent and Hg2+ to form a helical wrapping structure with the favorable electrostatic interactions of Hg2+coordinated with sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen atoms and aromatic moieties.

  4. Mixed voltage VLSI design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    A technique for minimizing the power dissipated in a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) chip by lowering the operating voltage without any significant penalty in the chip throughput even though low voltage operation results in slower circuits. Since the overall throughput of a VLSI chip depends on the speed of the critical path(s) in the chip, it may be possible to sustain the throughput rates attained at higher voltages by operating the circuits in the critical path(s) with a high voltage while operating the other circuits with a lower voltage to minimize the power dissipation. The interface between the gates which operate at different voltages is crucial for low power dissipation since the interface may possibly have high static current dissipation thus negating the gains of the low voltage operation. The design of a voltage level translator which does the interface between the low voltage and high voltage circuits without any significant static dissipation is presented. Then, the results of the mixed voltage design using a greedy algorithm on three chips for various operating voltages are presented.

  5. Integrated Sensing and Processing (ISP) Phase II: Demonstration and Evaluation for Distributed Sensor Networks and Missile Seeker Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    ground. If so, determine ROC’s to determine detector parameters, and motes network topology. o Magnetometer [Extra] Person Walking with Metal /Cell...Phone – Determine if sensor can sense Metal or Cell Phones magnetic field. If so, determine ROC’s to determine detector parameters, and motes...data is upsampled by the ratio of voice recorder samples to mote samples within that time period. Figures 12 and 13 show the beginning and endings of

  6. Voltage monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canicatti, C. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a system for monitoring the voltage at a remote location and determining when the voltage exceeds upper and lower levels. The system includes transmission lines for transmitting the voltage back to a central station and applying such to an amplifier having a pair of outputs. One of the outputs of the amplifier is applied to an oscillograph. The other output is fed through an isolation transformer, a full wave rectifier, to a pair of unijunctional transistor circuits for producing pulses when the voltage exceeds or drops below a predetermined level. These pulses, in turn, energize a relay which turns on the oscillograph for recording the voltages being monitored.

  7. High Voltage SPT Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Jacobson, David; Jankovsky, Robert

    2001-01-01

    A 2.3 kW stationary plasma thruster designed to operate at high voltage was tested at discharge voltages between 300 and 1250 V. Discharge specific impulses between 1600 and 3700 sec were demonstrated with thrust between 40 and 145 mN. Test data indicated that discharge voltage can be optimized for maximum discharge efficiency. The optimum discharge voltage was between 500 and 700 V for the various anode mass flow rates considered. The effect of operating voltage on optimal magnet field strength was investigated. The effect of cathode flow rate on thruster efficiency was considered for an 800 V discharge.

  8. An in situ generated achiral Cu(II)-containing polymer complex sensor for enantioselective recognition induced from L-/D-histidine enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guo; Meng, Fandian; Wang, Yuxiang; Cheng, Yixiang; Zhu, Chengjian

    2014-12-01

    A novel achiral polymer P-1 is synthesized by the polymerization of (2,5-bis(octyloxy)-1,4-phenylene)diboronic acid (M-1) with pyridine-2,6-diylbis(methanylylidene)bis(4-iodoaniline) (M-2) via Pd-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction. The tridentate ligand in the main chain backbone can further coordinate with Cu(2+) to afford the corresponding achiral copper-containing polymer complex P-2, which selectively responds to L-/D-histidine with significant fluorescence enhancement over other amino acids. Interestingly, P-2 exhibits obvious CD response toward L- or D-histidine compared with its model compound MC, indicating that this kind Cu(II)-containing polymer complex sensor can be used as an effective chemosensor for enantioselective recognition of histidine enantiomers by means of CD spectroscopy.

  9. Polypyrrole thin film sensor base surface plasmon resonance for detection of Cu(II) and Fe(III) in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrolhosseini, Amir R.; Noor, A. S. M.; Moksin, Mohd Maarof; Abdi, Mahnaz M.; Soleimani, Hassan; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Talib, Zainal Abdin

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the performance of surface plasmon resonance method incorporated with polypyrrole sensing layer was examined for detection of Cu (II) and Fe (III) ions in aqueous solutions. The polypyrrole was prepared by electro-oxidation method on a gold layer for the detecting low concentration ions (0.1, 1 5 10 20 ppm). The experiments carried out at room temperature, and each sample was flowed through the flow cell. A photodiode registered the SPR signals as the function of rotation angle and thickness of layers. For observing the association and dissociation processes, the experiments repeated more than ten times, and the sensorgrams were obtained. Furthermore, Langmuir model was utilized to describe the binding interactions of ions with the polypyrrole layer. The lower concentration detection limit was about 0.1 ppm and the terminal resonance angles were occurred after the 300 s. The sensor was also found to be more sensitive to the presence of Cu than Fe ions.

  10. Status and performance of the CDF Run II silicon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Boveia, A.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The CDF Run II silicon detector with its 8 layers of double- and single-sided silicon microstrip sensors and a total 722,432 readout channels is one of the largest silicon detector devices currently in use by a HEP experiment. We report our experience commissioning and operating this complex device during the first 4 years of Run II. As the luminosity delivered by the Tevatron increases, we have observed measurable effects of radiation damage in studies of charge collection and noise versus applied bias voltage at many different integrated luminosities. We discuss these studies and their impact on the expected lifetime of the detector.

  11. Terbium(III)/gold nanocluster conjugates: the development of a novel ratiometric fluorescent probe for mercury(II) and a paper-based visual sensor.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Anwei; Shi, Guoyue

    2015-08-21

    In this work, a novel ratiometric fluorescent probe was developed for rapid, highly accurate, sensitive and selective detection of mercury(II) (Hg(2+)) based on terbium(III)/gold nanocluster conjugates (Tb(3+)/BSA-AuNCs), in which bovine serum albumin capped gold nanoclusters (BSA-AuNCs) acted as the signal indicator and terbium(III) (Tb(3+)) was used as the build-in reference. Our proposed ratiometric fluorescent probe exhibited unique specificity toward Hg(2+) against other common environmentally and biologically important metal ions, and had high accuracy and sensitivity with a low detection limit of 1 nM. In addition, our proposed probe was effectively employed to detect Hg(2+) in the biological samples from the artificial Hg(2+)-infected rats. More significantly, an appealing paper-based visual sensor for Hg(2+) was designed by using filter paper embedded with Tb(3+)/BSA-AuNC conjugates, and we have further demonstrated its feasibility for facile fluorescent sensing of Hg(2+) in a visual format, in which only a handheld UV lamp is used. In the presence of Hg(2+), the paper-based visual sensor, illuminated by a handheld UV lamp, would undergo a distinct fluorescence color change from red to green, which can be readily observed with naked eyes even in trace Hg(2+) concentrations. The Tb(3+)/BSA-AuNC-derived paper-based visual sensor is cost-effective, portable, disposable and easy-to-use. This work unveiled a facile approach for accurate, sensitive and selective measuring of Hg(2+) with self-calibration.

  12. Peak radiated power measurement of the DOE Mark II container tag with integrated ST-676 sensor radio frequency identification device.

    SciTech Connect

    Jursich, Mark

    2010-04-01

    The total peak radiated power of the Department of Energy Mark II container tag was measured in the electromagnetic reverberation chamber facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The tag's radio frequency content was also evaluated for possible emissions outside the intentional transmit frequency band. No spurious emissions of any significance were found, and the radiated power conformed to the manufacturer's specifications.

  13. Fuel sensor-less control of a liquid feed fuel cell under dynamic loading conditions for portable power sources (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. L.; Chen, C. Y.; Sung, C. C.; Liou, D. H.; Chang, C. Y.; Cha, H. C.

    This work presents a new fuel sensor-less control scheme for liquid feed fuel cells that is able to control the supply to a fuel cell system for operation under dynamic loading conditions. The control scheme uses cell-operating characteristics, such as potential, current, and power, to regulate the fuel concentration of a liquid feed fuel cell without the need for a fuel concentration sensor. A current integral technique has been developed to calculate the quantity of fuel required at each monitoring cycle, which can be combined with the concentration regulating process to control the fuel supply for stable operation. As verified by systematic experiments, this scheme can effectively control the fuel supply of a liquid feed fuel cell with reduced response time, even under conditions where the membrane electrolyte assembly (MEA) deteriorates gradually. This advance will aid the commercialization of liquid feed fuel cells and make them more adaptable for use in portable and automotive power units such as laptops, e-bikes, and handicap cars.

  14. Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane. The resulting infrared sensor can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. An alternative embodiment is implemented using a corrugated membrane to permit large deflection without complicated clamping and high deflection voltages. The alternative embodiment also employs a pinhole aperture in a membrane to accommodate environmental temperature variation and a sealed chamber to eliminate environmental contamination of the tunneling electrodes and undesireable accoustic coupling to the sensor.

  15. Using of Rhizopus arrhizus as a sensor modifying component for determination of Pb(II) in aqueous media by voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Yüce, Meral; Nazir, Hasan; Dönmez, Gönül

    2010-10-01

    For the sensitive determination of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions, a new voltammetric biosensor based on carbon paste electrode modified with Rhizopus arrhizus was developed. The preconcentrated ions at open circuit were reduced by using differential pulse stripping voltammetry technique. The obtained current values were related to the concentration of Pb(II) in the solutions. The best results were achieved at pH 7 with 0.01 M Tris-HCl buffer solution applying a preconcentration time of 12 min. The linear range for the biosensor was found to be within 1.0 x 10(-7)-1.25 x 10(-5) M, with a detection limit of 0.5 x 10(-8) M. The selectivity of the microbial biosensor was explored by adding interfering heavy metals to accumulation medium one by one, and their matrix effects were also investigated in the model metal solutions. Energy dispersive X-ray spectra analysis were applied to show the specific effect of the fungal biomass on the Pb(II) determination.

  16. Effect of shear rate on the response of microbial fuel cell toxicity sensor to Cu(II).

    PubMed

    Shen, Yujia; Wang, Meng; Chang, In Seop; Ng, How Yong

    2013-05-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) was successfully developed as a toxicity biomonitoring system, giving a quick response to Cu(II) toxic events. The objective was to increase MFC sensitivity to Cu(II) toxicity by evaluating the impact of shear rate caused by mixing and intermittent nitrogen sparging on the biofilm structure. Low shear rate - achieved by continuously feeding the wastewater into the MFC at a low flow rate of 1.3 mL min(-1) during the enrichment period - resulted in low biomass density (124 g VSS L(-1) of biofilm), high porosity and reduced levels of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Consequently, the sensitivity was improved. Scattered nitrogen sparging also increased the sensitivity by reducing the EPS level. It suggested that MFC enriched under low flow rate with intermittent nitrogen sparging could produce an anodic biofilm that was less dense, more porous, contained less EPS and ultimately displayed higher sensitivity to Cu(II) toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Batch and hydrodynamic monitoring of vitamin C using novel periodate selective sensors based on a newly synthesized Ni(II)-Schiff bases complexes as a neutral receptors.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Ayman A Abdel; Kamel, Ayman H

    2010-01-15

    A highly selective membrane electrodes based on a two newly synthesized nickel (II) Schiff bases, [NiL(1)] and [NiL(2)] where L(1) and L(2) are N,N/bis(salicylaldehyde)4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine (H(2)L(1)) and N,N/bis(salicylaldehyde)4,5-dichloro-1,2-phenylenediamine (H(2)L(2)) were used as a neutral carrier ionophores for static and hydrodynamic potentiometric mode of operations for the determination of periodate. Under static mode of operation, the sensors displayed a near-Nernstian slope of -66.1+/-0.8 and -59.9+/-1.1mV decade(-1) of activity and detection limits to 5.2x10(-6) and 7.3x10(-6)molL(-1) for the sensors based on [NiL(1)] and [NiL(2)], respectively. Under hydrodynamic mode of operation (FIA), the slope of the calibration plot, limit of detection, and working linear range were -71.1mV decade(-1) of activity, 7.3x10(-6) and 1.0x10(-5) to 1.0x10(-3)molL(-1), respectively. The response time of the sensors in whole concentration ranges was very short (<10s). The response of the sensors was independent on the pH range of 3-8. A tubular version was further developed and coupled to a flow injection system for ascorbic acid (AA) determination in beverages and pharmaceutical preparations. This approach was achieved by selecting a 50-cm reactor and an overall flow of 3mLmin(-1), and injecting volume 100microL of AA standards in a 1.0x10(-4)molL(-1) IO(4)(-) solution. Under these conditions, a linearity range of 2-13microgmL(-1), with a slope of 4.97mV (mg/L)(-1) (r(2)=0.9995), detection limit 0.9mgL(-1) and a reproducibility of +/-1.1mV (n=5) was recorded. This simple and inexpensive flow injection analysis manifold, with a good potentiometric detector, enabled the analysis of approximately 50 samples h(-1) without requiring pretreatment procedures. An average recovery of 98.8% and a mean standard deviation of 1.3% were obtained.

  18. A mercury(II) selective sensor based on N,N'-bis(salicylaldehyde)-phenylenediamine as neutral carrier for potentiometric analysis in water samples.

    PubMed

    Abu-Shawish, Hazem M

    2009-08-15

    Mercuric ions in water samples were determined by a new modified carbon paste electrode based on N,N'-bis(salicylaldehyde)-phenylenediamine (salophen) as a chemical modifier. The construction, performance, and applications of mercury carbon paste electrode are described. The electrode displays a linear log[Hg(2+)] versus EMF response over a wide concentration range of 3.2 x 10(-7) to 3.2 x 10(-4) with Nernstian slope of 58.8+/-0.3 mV/decade with limit of detection 1.5 x 10(-7) over the pH range 3.8-7.8; the presence of the complex Hg(OH)(+) ion explains the slope of the response curve. The proposed sensor shows a reasonable discrimination ability towards Hg(II) in comparison to some alkali, alkaline earth transition and heavy metal ions. The modified electrode was applied as indicator electrode in potentiometric titration and successfully used to determine mercury(II) in water samples with satisfactory results.

  19. Comparative studies of mercapto thiadiazoles self-assembled on gold nanoparticle as ionophores for Cu(II) carbon paste sensors.

    PubMed

    Mashhadizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Khani, Hadi; Foroumadi, Alireza; Sagharichi, Parishad

    2010-04-30

    Comparative studies of the potentiometric behavior of three mercapto compounds [2-((5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol] (MTMP), [5-(2-methoxy benzylidene amino)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol] (MBYT) and [5-(pyridin-2-ylmethyleneamino)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol] (PYTT) self-assembled on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as ionophores in carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) have been made. These mercapto thiadiazole compounds were self-assembled onto gold nanoparticles and then incorporated within carbon paste electrode. The self-assembled ionophores exhibit a high selectivity for copper ion (Cu(2+)), in which the sulfur and nitrogen atoms in their structure play a role as the effective coordination donor site for the copper ion. These carbon paste electrodes were applied as indicator electrodes for potentiometric determination of copper ions. The sensor based on PYTT exhibits the working concentration range of 4.0 x 10(-9) to 7.0 x 10(-2) M and a Nernstian slope of 28.7+/-0.3 mV decade(-1) of copper activity. The detection limit of electrode was 1.0 x 10(-9) M and potential response was pH independent across the range of 3.0-6.5. It exhibited a quick response time of <5 s and could be used for a period of 45 days. The ion selectivity of this electrode for Cu(2+) was over 10(4) times that for other metal cations. The application of prepared sensors has been demonstrated for the determination of copper ions in spiked water and natural water samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Results from On-Board CSA-CP and CDM Sensor Readings During the Burning and Suppression of Solids II (BASS-II) Experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Miller, Fletcher J.; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Link, Shmuel; T'ien, James S.; Wichman, Indrek

    2015-01-01

    For the first time on ISS, BASS-II utilized MSG working volume dilution with gaseous nitrogen (N2). We developed a perfectly stirred reactor model to determine the N2 flow time and flow rate to obtain the desired reduced oxygen concentration in the working volume for each test. We calibrated the model with CSA-CP oxygen readings offset using the Mass Constituents Analyzer reading of the ISS ambient atmosphere data for that day. This worked out extremely well for operations, and added a new vital variable, ambient oxygen level, to our test matrices. The main variables tested in BASS-II were ambient oxygen concentration, ventilation flow velocity, and fuel type, thickness, and geometry. BASS-II also utilized the on-board CSA-CP for oxygen and carbon monoxide readings, and the CDM for carbon dioxide readings before and after each test. Readings from these sensors allow us to evaluate the completeness of the combustion. The oxygen and carbon dioxide readings before and after each test were analyzed and compared very well to stoichiometric ratios for a one step gas-phase reaction. The CO versus CO2 followed a linear trend for some datasets, but not for all the different geometries of fuel and flow tested. Lastly, we calculated the heat release rates during each test from the oxygen consumption and burn times, using the constant 13.1 kJ of heat released per gram of oxygen consumed. The results showed that the majority of the tests had heat release rates well below 100 Watts.

  1. Wireless powering for electrochemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peplowski, Andrzej; Janczak, Daniel; Jakubowska, Małgorzata

    2016-09-01

    System of wireless energy supply for a electrochemical sensor is presented. As a first step, various theoretical models of the sensor were considered and a new model, proper for the application studied, was proposed to enable further design stages. In the experiment conducted, it was verified, that the sensor, working in an amperometric mode and in the presence of constant or quasi-constant voltage supply, could be electrically approximated as element of the constant impedance value. Given this, power-consumption was calculated for the sensor using Ohm's law and the proof of concept device was fabricated to evaluate performance of the sensor under theoretically calculated conditions. The results obtained were comparable to the data previously recorded using conventional laboratory potentiostat. For verification of the resistive character of the sensor, chronoamperometric method was employed, with sensor's response complying with the theoretical prediction for quasi-constant powering signal and being influenced only by major voltage changes. Calculated power consumption of the sensor was Pmax. = 18.23μW. Concerning sensor's requirement for quasiconstant voltage, simple half-wave rectifier was designed that was connected to the antenna used for powering signal reception. In the second experiment, calibration of the sensor was performed, yielding sensitivity s = 2.03 μA/μmol/L and linear correlation coefficient ρ = 0.986 and thus confirming proper operation of the device in the conditions considered.

  2. Driven shielding capacitive proximity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor); McConnell, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A capacitive proximity sensing element, backed by a reflector driven at the same voltage as and in phase with the sensor, is used to reflect the field lines away from a grounded robot arm towards an intruding object, thus dramatically increasing the sensor's range and sensitivity.

  3. Microporous Cd(II) metal-organic framework as fluorescent sensor for nitroaromatic explosives at the sub-ppm level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing-Po; Han, Lu-Lu; Wang, Zhi; Guo, Ling-Yu; Sun, Di

    2016-03-01

    A novel Cd(II) metal-organic framework (MOF) based on a rigid biphenyltetracarboxylic acid, [Cd4(bptc)2(DMA)4(H2O)2·4DMA] (1) was successfully synthesized under the solvothermal condition and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and further consolidated by elemental analyses, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared spectra (IR) and luminescent measurements. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compound 1 is 4-connected PtS (Point symbol: {42·84}) network based on [Cd2(COO)4] secondary building units (SBUs). Its inherent porous and emissive characteristics make them to be a suitable fluorescent probe to sense small solvents and nitroaromatic explosives. Compound 1 shows obviously solvent-dependent emissive behaviors, especially for acetone with very high fluorescence quenching effect. Moreover, compound 1 displays excellent sensing of nitroaromatic explosives at sub-ppm level, giving a detection limit of 0.43 ppm and 0.37 ppm for nitrobenzene (NB) and p-nitrotoluene (PNT), respectively. This shows this Cd(II) MOF can be used as fluorescence probe for the detection of nitroaromatic explosives.

  4. Plasmonics-Based Multifunctional Electrodes for Low-Power-Consumption Compact Color-Image Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keng-Te; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Lai, Yu-Sheng; Chi, Yi-Min; Chu, Ting-Wei

    2016-03-01

    High pixel density, efficient color splitting, a compact structure, superior quantum efficiency, and low power consumption are all important features for contemporary color-image sensors. In this study, we developed a surface plasmonics-based color-image sensor displaying a high photoelectric response, a microlens-free structure, and a zero-bias working voltage. Our compact sensor comprised only (i) a multifunctional electrode based on a single-layer structured aluminum (Al) film and (ii) an underlying silicon (Si) substrate. This approach significantly simplifies the device structure and fabrication processes; for example, the red, green, and blue color pixels can be prepared simultaneously in a single lithography step. Moreover, such Schottky-based plasmonic electrodes perform multiple functions, including color splitting, optical-to-electrical signal conversion, and photogenerated carrier collection for color-image detection. Our multifunctional, electrode-based device could also avoid the interference phenomenon that degrades the color-splitting spectra found in conventional color-image sensors. Furthermore, the device took advantage of the near-field surface plasmonic effect around the Al-Si junction to enhance the optical absorption of Si, resulting in a significant photoelectric current output even under low-light surroundings and zero bias voltage. These plasmonic Schottky-based color-image devices could convert a photocurrent directly into a photovoltage and provided sufficient voltage output for color-image detection even under a light intensity of only several femtowatts per square micrometer. Unlike conventional color image devices, using voltage as the output signal decreases the area of the periphery read-out circuit because it does not require a current-to-voltage conversion capacitor or its related circuit. Therefore, this strategy has great potential for direct integration with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible circuit

  5. Energy harvesting in high voltage measuring techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żyłka, Pawel; Doliński, Marcin

    2016-02-01

    The paper discusses selected problems related to application of energy harvesting (that is, generating electricity from surplus energy present in the environment) to supply autonomous ultra-low-power measurement systems applicable in high voltage engineering. As a practical example of such implementation a laboratory model of a remote temperature sensor is presented, which is self-powered by heat generated in a current-carrying busbar in HV- switchgear. Presented system exploits a thermoelectric harvester based on a passively cooled Peltier module supplying micro-power low-voltage dc-dc converter driving energy-efficient temperature sensor, microcontroller and a fibre-optic transmitter. Performance of the model in laboratory simulated conditions are presented and discussed.

  6. Window comparator for voltages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit determines whether voltage is within preselected range of voltage levels.Device requires fewer components than previous window comparators and is less susceptible to errors from reference drift. Comparator is useful in process-control circuitry, measuring instruments, and checkout equipment.

  7. Development of a Hydrazine/Nitrogen Dioxide Fiber Optic Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrawis, Alfred S.; Santiago, Josephine

    2003-01-01

    Bromothymol Blue (BT)/Bromocresol Green (BG) mixture (1/1) in hydrogel (l/l), produces a blue-green indicator for HZ and/or NO2. The stability over a two months period of this BT/BG (1/1) indicator solution was tested and no evidence of performance deterioration was detected. A dual HZ/NO2 prototype sensor utilizing an acid-base indicator was previously constructed. A monitor and control circuit are also designed, built d tested during the course of this project. The circuit is controlled with Motorola MC68HC II microcontroller evaluation board to monitor the voltage level out of the photodetector. Low-pass filter and amplifier are used to interface the sensor's small voltage with the microcontroller's AD input. The sensor, interface circuit and the microcontroller board are then all placed in one unit and powered with a single power supply. The unit is then tested several times and the response was consistent and proved the feasibility of dual "J@ leak detection. Other sensor types, suitable for silica glass fiber, smaller in size, more rugged and suitable for use on board of the Space Shuttle and missile canisters, are then proposed.

  8. Allosteric Voltage Gating of Potassium Channels I

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Frank T.; Cui, Jianmin; Aldrich, Richard W.

    1999-01-01

    Activation of large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels is controlled by both cytoplasmic Ca2+ and membrane potential. To study the mechanism of voltage-dependent gating, we examined mSlo Ca2+-activated K+ currents in excised macropatches from Xenopus oocytes in the virtual absence of Ca2+ (<1 nM). In response to a voltage step, IK activates with an exponential time course, following a brief delay. The delay suggests that rapid transitions precede channel opening. The later exponential time course suggests that activation also involves a slower rate-limiting step. However, the time constant of IK relaxation [τ(IK)] exhibits a complex voltage dependence that is inconsistent with models that contain a single rate limiting step. τ(IK) increases weakly with voltage from −500 to −20 mV, with an equivalent charge (z) of only 0.14 e, and displays a stronger voltage dependence from +30 to +140 mV (z = 0.49 e), which then decreases from +180 to +240 mV (z = −0.29 e). Similarly, the steady state GK–V relationship exhibits a maximum voltage dependence (z = 2 e) from 0 to +100 mV, and is weakly voltage dependent (z ≅ 0.4 e) at more negative voltages, where Po = 10−5–10−6. These results can be understood in terms of a gating scheme where a central transition between a closed and an open conformation is allosterically regulated by the state of four independent and identical voltage sensors. In the absence of Ca2+, this allosteric mechanism results in a gating scheme with five closed (C) and five open (O) states, where the majority of the channel's voltage dependence results from rapid C–C and O–O transitions, whereas the C–O transitions are rate limiting and weakly voltage dependent. These conclusions not only provide a framework for interpreting studies of large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel voltage gating, but also have important implications for understanding the mechanism of Ca2+ sensitivity. PMID:10436003

  9. Voltage correction power flow

    SciTech Connect

    Rajicic, D.; Ackovski, R.; Taleski, R. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    A method for power flow solution of weakly meshed distribution and transmission networks is presented. It is based on oriented ordering of network elements. That allows an efficient construction of the loop impedance matrix and rational organization of the processes such as: power summation (backward sweep), current summation (backward sweep) and node voltage calculation (forward sweep). The first step of the algorithm is calculation of node voltages on the radial part of the network. The second step is calculation of the breakpoint currents. Then, the procedure continues with the first step, which is preceded by voltage correction. It is illustrated that using voltage correction approach, the iterative process of weakly meshed network voltage calculation is faster and more reliable.

  10. Voltage verification unit

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Edward J [Virginia Beach, VA

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  11. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, M. S.; Lerner, B.; Boselli, A.; Lamagna, A.; Obregon, P. D. Pareja; Julian, P. M.; Mandolesi, P. S.; Buffa, F. A.

    2009-05-23

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  12. Ultra Low-Voltage Energy Harvesting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    INFORMATION THERMAL METRICI1>12) bq25504 RGT (16 PINS ) UNITS eJA Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance 48.5 eJCtop Junction-to~ case (top) thermal...battery to the VSTOR pin whenever the battery voltage is below the UV setting. To prevent overcharging of the storage element, the battery is no...On-Chip Temperature Sensor with Programmable Overtemperature Shutoff DESCRIPTION Battery Status Output Battery Good Output Pin Programmable

  13. Electrocatalytic cermet sensor

    DOEpatents

    Shoemaker, Erika L.; Vogt, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor for O.sub.2 and CO.sub.2 gases. The gas sensor includes a plurality of layers driven by a cyclic voltage to generate a unique plot characteristic of the gas in contact with the sensor. The plurality of layers includes an alumina substrate, a reference electrode source of anions, a lower electrical reference electrode of Pt coupled to the reference source of anions, a solid electrolyte containing tungsten and coupled to the lower reference electrode, a buffer layer for preventing flow of Pt ions into the solid electrolyte and an upper catalytically active Pt electrode coupled to the buffer layer.

  14. Electrocatalytic cermet sensor

    DOEpatents

    Shoemaker, E.L.; Vogt, M.C.

    1998-06-30

    A sensor is described for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} gases. The gas sensor includes a plurality of layers driven by a cyclic voltage to generate a unique plot characteristic of the gas in contact with the sensor. The plurality of layers includes an alumina substrate, a reference electrode source of anions, a lower electrical reference electrode of Pt coupled to the reference source of anions, a solid electrolyte containing tungsten and coupled to the lower reference electrode, a buffer layer for preventing flow of Pt ions into the solid electrolyte and an upper catalytically active Pt electrode coupled to the buffer layer. 16 figs.

  15. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, Michael E.; Sullivan, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  16. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  17. A dual-potential electrochemiluminescence ratiometric sensor for sensitive detection of dopamine based on graphene-CdTe quantum dots and self-enhanced Ru(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaomin; Tan, Xingrong; Yuan, Ruo; Chen, Shihong

    2017-04-15

    A novel dual-potential ratiometric electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor was designed for detecting dopamine (DA) based on graphene-CdTe quantum dots (G-CdTe QDs) as the cathodic emitter and self-enhanced Ru(II) composite (TAEA-Ru) as the anodic emitter. TAEA-Ru was prepared by linking ruthenium(II) tris(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato) with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine. Firstly, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane founctionalized G-CdTe QDs was used as the substrate for capturing target DA via the specific recognition of the diol of DA to the oxyethyl group of APTES. Then, Cu2O nanocrystals supported TAEA-Ru was further bound by the strong interaction between amino groups of DA and carboxyl groups of the Cu2O-TAEA-Ru. With the increase in DA concentration, the loading of Cu2O-TAEA-Ru at the electrode increased. As a result, the anodic ECL signal from TAEA-Ru increased, and the cathodic ECL signal from G-CdTe QDs/O2 system decreased correspondingly. Such a decrease was resulted from the ECL resonance energy transfer (RET) from G-CdTe QDs to TAEA-Ru as well as the dual quenching effects of Cu2O to G-CdTe QDs, namely the ECL-RET from G-CdTe QDs to Cu2O and the consumption of coreactant O2 by Cu2O. Based on the ratio of two ECL signals, the determination of DA was achieved with a linear range from 10.0 fM to 1.0nM and a detection limit low to 2.9 fM (S/N=3). The combination of G-CdTe QDs/O2 and TAEA-Ru would break the limitation of the same coreatant shared in previous ECL ratiometric systems and provide a potential appli