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Sample records for iii biological isoenzymic

  1. Isoenzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    The uses of isoenzyme assays are reviewed as they relate to solutions of practical problems. Emphasizes their use of diagnostic tools in medicine, specifically in cardiac profiling. Suggests that principles of isoenzyme assays readily demonstrate molecular structure, acid-base equilibria, kinetics, and electrochemistry to general chemistry…

  2. Isoenzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    The uses of isoenzyme assays are reviewed as they relate to solutions of practical problems. Emphasizes their use of diagnostic tools in medicine, specifically in cardiac profiling. Suggests that principles of isoenzyme assays readily demonstrate molecular structure, acid-base equilibria, kinetics, and electrochemistry to general chemistry…

  3. The activity of class I, II, III, and IV alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Orywal, Karolina; Jelski, Wojciech; Zdrodowski, Michał; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    The metabolism of cancerous cells is in many ways different than in healthy cells. In endometrial cancer, cells exhibit activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which participate in the metabolism of many biological substances. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolism of endometrial cancer cells and normal endometrial cells by measurement of ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activities in these tissues. The study material consists of cancerous endometrial tissues obtained from 34 patients. Total ADH activity was measured using the photometric method and ALDH activity using the fluorometric method. For the measurement of class I and II ADH isoenzyme activity, we employed the fluorometric method, with class-specific fluorogenic substrates. The activity of class III and IV ADH was measured using the photometric method. The activity of the class I ADH isoenzyme was significantly higher in the endometrial cancer tissues when compared with normal endometrial tissues. The other classes of ADH tested did not show significant differences between activity of cancerous cells and healthy endometrium. The activity of total ADH was also significantly higher in endometrial cancer. The increased activity of total ADH in endometrial cancer, especially the class I isoenzyme and normal activity of ALDH, may be the cause of disorders in metabolic pathways that use these isoenzymes and could increase the concentration of acetaldehyde, which is cancerogenic substance. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 24:334-339, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The activity of class I, II, III and IV alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase in ovarian cancer and ovarian cysts.

    PubMed

    Orywal, K; Jelski, W; Zdrodowski, M; Szmitkowski, M

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism of cancerous cells is in many ways different than in healthy cells. In ovarian cancer, cells exhibit activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which participate in metabolism of many biological substances. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolism of ovarian cancer cells, ovarian cysts and normal ovarian cells by measurement of ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activities. The study material consisted of 36 cancerous ovarian tissues. Class III, IV of ADH and total ADH activity was measured by the photometric method and class I, II ADH and ALDH activity by the fluorometric method with class-specific fluorogenic substrates. The activity of the class I ADH isoenzyme and the total ADH was significantly higher in ovarian cancer as compared to ovarian cysts and healthy tissues but there are no significant differences between ovarian cysts and healthy cells. The other classes of ADH tested, did not show significant differences between activity of cancerous cells and healthy ovary. The increased activity of total ADH in ovarian cancer, especially the class I isoenzyme and normal activity of ALDH, may be the factor for the disturbances in important biological substances metabolism and could increase the concentration of highly carcinogenic acetaldehyde.

  5. Population Genetics of Marine Pelecypods. III. Epistasis between Functionally Related Isoenzymes of MYTILUS EDULIS

    PubMed Central

    Mitton, Jeffry B.; Koehn, Richard K.

    1973-01-01

    The distribution of interlocus genotypic combinations was examined in Mytilus edulis for interdependence between two loci synthesizing functionally related isoenzymes. There is significant dependence between the Leucine Aminopeptidase and Aminopeptidase loci, which we attribute to epistasis, since the magnitude of dependency varies with age. Furthermore, dependency varies in magnitude with position in the intertidal zone from which samples were taken, suggesting that epistasis is a function of the combination of certain non-homologous alleles as well as of the environmental circumstance in which the combinations occur. PMID:4700061

  6. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  10. Purification of swine carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme III and measurement of its levels in tissues and plasma.

    PubMed

    Nishita, T; Harada, T; Sakanoue, H; Arai, S; Itoh, S; Orito, K; Arishima, K

    2014-02-01

    The changes in the levels of carbonic anhydrase isozyme III (CA-III) in swine plasma and urine have not been previously determined or reported. CA-III is relatively specific to skeletal muscles, and should therefore be a useful diagnostic marker for muscle diseases. We isolated CA-III from swine muscle tissues and determined CA-III levels in the plasma and urine from both healthy and diseased pigs. The levels of CA-III in the tissues of female swine (age, 3 months) and plasma of young swine (age, 1-5 months) and adult female pigs (age, 2-3 years) were determined using the ELISA system for swine CA-III. The mean (± SD) levels of CA-III in the skeletal muscles were 3.8 ± 3.2 mg/g (wet tissue), and in the plasma, 230 ± 193 ng/ml at 1 month, 189 ± 208 ng/ml at 2 months, 141 ± 148 ng/ml at 3 months, 78 ± 142 ng/ml at 4 months and 53 ± 99 ng/ml at 5 months. The mean level of CA-III in the plasma samples from 2- to 3-year-old pigs was 18 ± 60 ng/ml. CA-III in the plasma samples was found to decrease from 1 month until 3 years of age (p < 0.01). We performed far-western blotting to clarify the cause of the observed decrease in CA-III in plasma. Our results demonstrated that CA-III is bound to the transferrin and albumin. In addition, we determined that the levels of CA-III in plasma and urine samples were higher in diseased swine compared with the healthy pigs.

  11. Peafowl lactate dehydrogenase: problem of isoenzyme identification.

    PubMed

    Rose, R G; Wilson, A C

    1966-09-16

    Peafowl, like other vertebrates, contain multiple forms of lactate dehydrogenase. The electrophoretic properties of the peafowl isoenzymes are unusual in that the isoenzyme from heart tissue can be either more or less anodic than that of muscle, depending on the pH. This finding focuses attention on the problem of isoenzyme identification. It is suggested that isoenzymes be identified on the basis of properties that are chemically and biologically more significant than electrophoretic mobility.

  12. The activity of class I, II, III and IV alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase in the sera of bladder cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Orywal, Karolina; Jelski, Wojciech; Werel, Tadeusz; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Studies on alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in the sera of patients with malignant neoplasms show that cancer cells in many organs may release ADH isoenzymes into the blood. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the activity of ADH isoenzymes and ALDH in the sera of patients with bladder cancer (BCa), and with different grades of the disease. Blood samples were taken from 39 patients with BCa (15 patients with low-grade and 24 with high-grade BCa) and from 60 healthy subjects. Class III and IV of ADH and total ADH activity were measured using the photometric method, while class I and II ADH and ALDH activity using the fluorometric method with class-specific fluorogenic substrates. The activity of the class I ADH isoenzyme and total ADH was significantly higher in the sera of BCa patients as compared to control group. Analysis of ALDH activity did not show statistically significant differences between the tested groups. Significantly higher total activity of ADH in comparison to control was found in both, low-grade and high-grade BCa group. The activity of ADH class I was also significantly higher in high-grade BCa group when compared to low-grade patients and controls. The increase of total ADH activity in the sera of BCa patients seems to be caused by isoenzymes released from cancerous cells. The higher activity of ADH I probably resulted from metastatic tumors as significant increase was detected only in the sera of high-grade bladder cancer patients.

  13. CPK isoenzymes test

    MedlinePlus

    Creatine phosphokinase - isoenzymes; Creatine kinase - isoenzymes; CK - isoenzymes; Heart attack - CPK; Crush - CPK ... Anderson JL. St segment elevation acute myocardial infarction and ... . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ...

  14. Expression of cAMP and cGMP-phosphodiesterase isoenzymes 3, 4, and 5 in the human clitoris: immunohistochemical and molecular biology study.

    PubMed

    Oelke, Matthias; Hedlund, Petter; Albrecht, Knut; Ellinghaus, Peter; Stief, Christian G; Jonas, Udo; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Uckert, Stefan

    2006-05-01

    Only a little research has focused on the evaluation of female sexual function. With sexual stimulation, the clitoris becomes engorged with blood and tumescent. Nevertheless, only little is known about the significance of the cyclic nucleotide-mediated signal transduction in the control of this process. We sought to elucidate the presence of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoenzymes 3, 4, and 5 in the human clitoris using immunohistochemical and molecular biology methods. Thin sections of clitoral specimens were incubated with primary antibodies directed against PDE isoenzymes 3, 4, and 5. Next, the sections were incubated with either Texas red or fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled secondary antibodies, and visualization was done using laser microscopy. The expression of mRNA encoding for various PDE isoenzymes was evaluated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Immunofluorescence indicating the presence of PDE4 (cyclic adenosine monophosphate-PDE) was observed in the nonvascular smooth musculature of the corpus cavernosum clitoris, sinusoidal endothelial and subendothelial layers, and nerve fibers innervating the tissue. Immunoreactivity specific for PDE5 (cyclic guanosine monophosphate-PDE) was limited to the smooth muscle of the clitoral erectile tissue. The fluorescein isothiocyanate reaction indicating the expression of PDE3 (cyclic adenosine monophosphate-PDE) was registered to a certain degree only in the clitoral epidermis. In the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction studies, a predominant expression of mRNA encoding for PDE1A was registered, but only small amounts of mRNA encoding for PDE4 and PDE5 were detected. Our results have demonstrated the presence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-PDE and cyclic guanosine monophosphate-PDE in the human clitoris and may indicate a regulatory function of these enzymes in the cyclic nucleotide-mediated control of smooth muscle tone.

  15. CYP-450 isoenzymes catalyze the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after reaction with the azo dye Sudan III.

    PubMed

    Zanoni, Thalita Boldrin; Lizier, Thiago M; Assis, Marilda das Dores; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2013-07-01

    This work describes the mutagenic response of Sudan III, an adulterant food dye, using Salmonella typhimurium assay and the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after different oxidation methods of this azo dye. For that, we used metabolic activation by S9, catalytic oxidation by ironporphyrin and electrochemistry oxidation in order to simulate endogenous oxidation conditions. The oxidation reactions promoted discoloration from 65% to 95% of Sudan III at 1 × 10(-4)molL(-1) and generation of 7.6 × 10(-7)molL(-1) to 0.31 × 10(-4)molL(-1) of aniline, o-anisidine, 2-methoxi-5-methylaniline, 4-aminobiphenyl, 4,4'-oxydianiline; 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane and 2,6-dimethylaniline. The results were confirmed by LC-MS-MS experiments. We also correlate the mutagenic effects of Sudan III using S. typhimurium with the strain TA1535 in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation (S9) with the metabolization products of this compound. Our findings clearly indicate that aromatic amines are formed due to oxidative reactions that can be promoted by hepatic cells, after the ingestion of Sudan III. Considering that, the use of azo compounds as food dyestuffs should be carefully controlled.

  16. ALP isoenzyme test

    MedlinePlus

    Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme test ... anything for 10 to 12 hours before the test, unless your health care provider tells you to do so. Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  17. New Trends in Biology Teaching, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, R.

    In this third volume of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations's (UNESCO) series on "New Trends in Biology Teaching," a total of 32 papers (mostly published during the period from 1967 to 1970 in leading biology-teaching periodicals of the world) is compiled for the purpose of promoting information exchange. The…

  18. New Trends in Biology Teaching, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, R.

    In this third volume of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations's (UNESCO) series on "New Trends in Biology Teaching," a total of 32 papers (mostly published during the period from 1967 to 1970 in leading biology-teaching periodicals of the world) is compiled for the purpose of promoting information exchange. The…

  19. Molecular Biology of STLV-III and HTLV-IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-22

    proviral clones to assess heterogeneity in a given virus population. The modifications to the standard Sanger method are: 1 . An increased primer-to...IIi AD-A228 929 il~t COP, A CONTRACT NO: DAND17-87-C-7187 TITLE: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF STLV-III AND HTLV -IV PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joseph Sodroski...21702-5012 63105A 63105H29 AC 072 11. TITLE (Include Security Clasification) Molecular Biology of STLV-III and HTLV -IV 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Joseph

  20. Characterization of Giardia lamblia groups A and B from North India by isoenzyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Paintlia, A S; Mahajan, R C; Chakraborti, A; Sehgal, R; Ganguly, N K

    1999-06-01

    Giardia lamblia (syn. G. intestinalis) infection in young adults leads to acute/chronic diarrhea in some individuals and is asymptomatic in others. Recently, G. lamblia strains have been characterized as group A (symptomatic) and group B (asymptomatic or control) by advanced isoenzyme and molecular biology studies. In the present brief pilot study, ten G. lamblia isolates obtained from five symptomatic (group A) and five asymptomatic (group B) persons were characterized by isoenzyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Isoenzyme analysis demonstrated remarkable homogeneity in seven enzyme patterns, the exception, being that of phosphoglucomutase, for which two zymodemes (I and III) were observed. In contrast, RAPD analysis showed homogeneity for eight primers; exceptions were two primers, A02 and B05, which separated group A G. lamblia isolates into two rapdemes (A(R1) and A(R2)) and group B G. lamblia isolates into four rapdemes (B(R1), B(R2), B(R3) and B(R4)). Further phenetic analysis showed average genetic distances of 0.105 within group A and 0.121 within group B G. lamblia isolates according to Jaccord's distance scale, which suggests that both lineages appear to consist of a range of variants with no significant (P < 0.05) genetic diversity. The two techniques demonstrated a positive association with regard to differentiation between group A and group B G. lamblia isolates. These very preliminary results indicate that RAPD analysis could be a potentially useful substitute for isoenzyme analysis.

  1. Molecular Biology of STLV-III and HTLV-IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-10

    AD-A228 948 DTIC FILE COpy AD C3NTRACT NO: DAMD17-87-C-7187 TITLE: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF STLV-III AND HTLV -IV PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joseph Sodroski...NO.Frederick, Maryland 21702-5012 63105A 63105H29 AC 072 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Molecular Biology of STLV-III and HTLV -IV 12...FROM7/ 1 /88 TO6/-.10 891 1989 August 10 I 17 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES L1ISUBJECT TERMS (Co €ki ’ orrreve f tfnrcessar endfNiti" y b/ck

  2. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition. Set III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

    The predominant focus of the 24 Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set III activities is on animal behavior, and the adaptations and diversity of both plants and animals. Night time activities, games, investigation, experimentation, and crafts are used to study ants, birds, clams, water snails, water striders, spiders,…

  3. Effects of alkyl substituents of xanthine on phosphodiesterase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Sakai, R; Kurita, M; Ohmae, S; Sanae, F; Sawanishi, H; Hasegawa, T; Takagi, K

    1995-03-01

    The structure-activity relationships of a series of alkylxanthine derivatives were investigated. The partition coefficient of alkylxanthines enlarged with an elongation of the alkyl chain at the 1-, 3-, or 7-position of xanthine. There was a mild correlation between the apparent partition coefficient and the tracheal relaxant activity or the inhibitory activity on phosphodiesterase (PDE) IV isoenzyme, while the tracheal relaxant activity closely correlated with the PDE IV inhibitory activity. Regarding substituents at different positions, the alkylation at the 3-position increased the inhibitory activity on every PDE isoenzyme. The alkylation at the 1-position potentiated the inhibitory activity on PDE IV with the alkyl chain length, but decreased the activities on other PDE isoenzymes. The alkylation at the 7-position was characteristic in its decrease in inhibitory activity on PDE III. These results suggested that the potency of the inhibitory activity of xanthine derivatives on PDE isoenzymes is not dependent simply upon their hydrophobicity but upon change in the affinity for the active sites on PDE isoenzymes by the introduction of the alkyl group at particular positions of the xanthine skeleton.

  4. Lipoxygenase isoenzymes: a spectroscopic and structural characterization of soybean seed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Draheim, J E; Carroll, R T; McNemar, T B; Dunham, W R; Sands, R H; Funk, M O

    1989-02-15

    Applying recent developments in protein purification techniques, a number of lipoxygenase isoenzymes have been isolated in satisfactory quantities for a detailed physical and structural characterization. Four seed isoenzymes from two soybean cultivars have been studied by peptide mapping, free thiol and iron content determinations, and C-terminal analysis as well as by uv-visible absorption and EPR spectroscopy. While differences between the type 1 enzyme and the other isoenzymes were readily detected using proteolytic peptide mapping, digestion with dilute hydrochloric acid and C-terminal analysis both revealed structural features which were similar in all of the isoenzymes. One clear difference between the lipoxygenases was in their free sulfhydryl group content. The uv-visible absorption spectrum of each native isoenzyme was consistent with expectations for the experimental aromatic amino acid content. All of the isoenzymes contained one non-heme iron atom per molecule of protein. The oxidation of each isoenzyme with product hydroperoxide resulted in the conversion of the iron from an EPR silent state into several forms with EPR signals characteristic of high spin iron(III). The EPR spectra of all isoenzymes were remarkably similar. A time course EPR and catalytic activity study revealed that the various EPR active states represent a complex equilibrium between iron atoms in different environments. The pH dependence for the EPR and absorption spectroscopy lends support to the hypothesis that acid/base chemistry represents an important aspect of lipoxygenase catalysis.

  5. Determination of iron (III) in food, biological and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Verma, Chitra; Tapadia, Kavita; Soni, Anupam Bala

    2017-04-15

    The nanodrop spectrophotometric (NDS) determination of iron (III) in water samples has been established. The proposed method is simple, selective and highly sensitive. The extraction of Fe (III)-thiocyanate complex was done by novel organic reagents such as N-phenylacetamide, N-alkylacetamide, (alkyl=butyl, hexyl and octyl group) in chloroform. The Fe (III) extract was examined in the strong acidic (HCl+H2SO4) solution. The maximum value of molar absorptivity was found to be 1.8×10(5)Lmol(-1)cm(-1) at λmax, 477nm (⩾9 fold enrichments) for N-octylacetamide (N-OAA). The method obeys the Beers Law within the range of 0.05μgmL(-1)-6.0μgmL(-1). The detection limit and RSD value of the method were found to be 5ppb and 0.5906% respectively. The correlation coefficient, slope and intercept were calculated and found to be 0.9989, 0.1112, and 0.0048, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amount of iron (III) in food, biological and environmental samples.

  6. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoenzymes in guinea-pig tracheal muscle and bronchorelaxation by alkylxanthines.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Kurita, M; Sakai, R; Sanae, F; Wakusawa, S; Takagi, K

    1994-09-15

    In this study the phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoenzymes in guinea-pig trachealis smooth muscle were separated by DEAE-Sepharose anion exchange chromatography, identified, and characterized. Furthermore the effect of theophylline and 1-n-butyl-3-n-propylxanthine (BPX) on the isolated PDE isoenzymes and on their tracheal relaxant effect were investigated and compared with the nonxanthine PDE inhibitors amrinone and Ro 20-1724. We identified five distinct isoenzymes in guinea-pig tracheal muscle; calcium/calmodulin-stimulated cyclic AMP PDE (PDE I), cyclic GMP-stimulated cyclic AMP PDE (PDE II), cyclic GMP-inhibited and amrinone-sensitive cyclic AMP PDE (PDE III), cyclic AMP-specific and Ro 20-1724-sensitive PDE (PDE IV), and cyclic GMP-specific PDE (PDE V). BPX strongly inhibited the PDE IV isoenzyme with high selectivity, while the inhibitory effect of theophylline was weak. The PDE IV inhibitors BPX and Ro 20-1724 synergistically increased the relaxant effect of the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol in carbachol-contracted trachea much more strongly than theophylline. In contrast, amrinone, a PDE III inhibitor, hardly influenced the relaxant effect of salbutamol, suggesting that the PDE IV isoenzyme is functionally associated with beta 2-adrenoceptors in guinea-pig trachea and that inhibition of this enzyme potentiates the ability of salbutamol to increase the intracellular cyclic AMP content. These results indicate that the PDE IV isoenzyme plays a significant role in alkylxanthine-mediated relaxation of guinea-pig trachea.

  7. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Biologically Active Lanthanide (III) Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostova, I.; Trendafilova, N.; Georgieva, I.; Rastogi, V. K.; Kiefer, W.

    2008-11-01

    The complexation ability and the binding mode of the ligand coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCCA) to La(III), Ce(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III) and Dy(III) lanthanide ions (Ln(III)) are elucidated at experimental and theoretical level. The complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, DTA and TGA data as well as 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. FTIR and Raman spectroscopic techniques as well as DFT quantum chemical calculations were used for characterization of the binding mode and the structures of lanthanide(III) complexes of HCCA. The metal—ligand binding mode is predicted through molecular modeling and energy estimation of different Ln—CCA structures using B3LYP/6-31G(d) method combined with a large quasi-relativistic effective core potential for lanthanide ion. The energies obtained predict bidentate coordination of CCA- to Ln(III) ions through the carbonylic oxygen and the carboxylic oxygen. Detailed vibrational analysis of HCCA, CCA- and Ln(III) complexes based on both calculated and experimental frequencies confirms the suggested metal—ligand binding mode. The natural bonding analysis predicts strongly ionic character of the Ln(III)-CCA bonding in the- complexes studied. With the relatively resistant tumor cell line K-562 we obtained very interesting in-vitro results which are in accordance with our previously published data concerning the activity of lanthanide(III) complexes with other coumarin derivatives.

  8. Amylolytic Isoenzymes of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris1

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Martin J.; Hartman, Paul A.

    1972-01-01

    Thermoactinomyces vulgaris strain 5 produced two electrophoretically different α-amylases. Precipitation with ammonium sulfate and acetone did not alter the electrophoretic mobilities of either amylase isoenzyme. Patterns of the hydrolysis products of amylose by the two amylase isoenzymes were essentially identical. Images PMID:5057774

  9. Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme patterns in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Reidarson, T H; McBain, J; Dalton, L M

    1999-06-01

    Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme activity was analyzed in cetaceans. Animals that were treated by i.m. injection and others that received azole therapy had distinctly different LDH isoenzyme profiles. A third distinctive pattern was occasionally observed in clinically normal animals with elevations in total transaminase and LDH activity levels. DH isoenzyme activity patterns were not affected by mild or moderate hemolysis, refrigeration after 24 hr, or freezing for 24 hr with subsequent thawing. However, severe hemolysis produced artifactual changes similar to those observed in individuals that received injections but of a lesser magnitude. DH isoenzyme activity patterns may provide useful corroboration of other clinical findings when diagnostic modalities are limited, especially to differentiate nonspecific enzyme elevation from nonpathologic elevations in serum enzyme concentrations due to i.m. injections or azole therapy.

  10. The oxidation of As(III) in groundwater using biological manganese removal filtration columns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Sun, Wenyong; Ge, Huoqing; Yao, Renda

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is known as a toxic element to humans, and has been reported to co-exist with iron and manganese in groundwater worldwide. The typical method for arsenic removal from groundwater is to oxidize trivalent (As(III)) to pentavalent (As(V)) followed by the As(V) removal. This study aims to evaluate the oxidization efficiency of As(III) in a mature biological manganese (Mn(2+)) removal filtration system with different elevated influent As(III) concentrations. The effects of influent Mn(2+) concentrations, influent As(III) concentrations, filtration rates and dissolved oxygen (DO) levels on the efficiency of As(III) oxidation were assessed. The results showed that As(III) oxidation can be simultaneously achieved with removing Mn(2+) in the filtration system. The oxidation efficiency was not impacted by increasing the influent As(III) concentration up to nearly 2500 µg L(-1), but the filtration rate was limited at 11 m h(-1) for maintaining the effluent As(III) concentration below 10 µg L(-1). The oxidation process followed first-order kinetics with the constant reaching 0.56-0.61 min(-1). The As(III) oxidation process was most likely to be mediated by the bacterial community initially developed for Mn(2+) removal in the filtration system, which performed the catalytic oxidation for As(III).

  11. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of biologically active compounds derived from oxalyldihydrazide and benzil, and their Cr(III), Fe(III) and Mn(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Singh, D P; Kumar, Ramesh; Singh, Jitender

    2009-04-01

    A new series of complexes have been synthesized by template condensation of oxalyldihydrazide and benzil in methanolic medium in the presence of trivalent chromium, manganese and iron salts forming complexes of the type [M(C(32)H(24)N(8)O(4))X]X(2) where M = Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III) and X = Cl(-1), NO(3)(-1), CH(3)COO(-1). The complexes have been characterized with the help of elemental analyses, conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, NMR, infrared and far infrared spectral studies. On the basis of these studies, a five coordinate square pyramidal geometry has been proposed for all these complexes. The biological activities of the metal complexes have been tested in vitro against a number of pathogenic bacteria to assess their inhibiting potential. Some of these complexes have been found to exhibit remarkable antibacterial activities.

  12. Separation of turkey lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes using isoelectric focusing technique.

    PubMed

    Heinová, Dagmar; Kostecká, Zuzana; Csank, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.8 did not allow to separate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes of turkey origin. Five electrophoretically distinguishable forms of the enzyme were detected in serum and tissues of turkey using IEF technique in a pH range of 3-9. Generally, three different groups were seen: (i) those having an anodic domination (heart, kidney, pancreas, and erythrocytes) with mainly LDH-1 fraction, (ii) those having a cathodic domination (breast muscle and serum) with prevalence of LDH-5, and (iii) those with a more uniform distribution (liver, spleen, lung, and brain). The specific enzyme activity was the highest in the breast muscle, followed by heart muscle, and brain. Low activities were detected in serum, kidney, and liver.

  13. Asparaginyl deamidation in two glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    DeLuna, Alexander; Quezada, Héctor; Gómez-Puyou, Armando; González, Alicia

    2005-03-25

    The non-enzymatic deamidation of asparaginyl residues is a major source of spontaneous damage of several proteins under physiological conditions. In many cases, deamidation and isoaspartyl formation alters the biological activity or stability of the native polypeptide. Rates of deamidation of particular residues depend on many factors including protein structure and solvent exposure. Here, we investigated the spontaneous deamidation of the two NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which have different kinetic properties and are differentially expressed in this yeast. Our results show that Asn54, present in Gdh3p but missing in the GDH1-encoded homologue, is readily deamidated in vitro under alkaline conditions. Relative to the native enzyme, deamidated Gdh3p shows reduced protein stability. The different deamidation rates of the two isoenzymes could explain to some extent, the relative in vivo instability of the allosteric Gdh3p enzyme, compared to that of Gdh1p. It is thus possible that spontaneous asparaginyl modification could play a role in the metabolic regulation of ammonium assimilation and glutamate biosynthesis.

  14. The formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase isoenzymes in Methanobacterium wolfei and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum: induction of the molybdenum isoenzyme by molybdate and constitutive synthesis of the tungsten isoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Hochheimer, A; Hedderich, R; Thauer, R K

    1998-10-01

    Formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase catalyzes the first step in methane formation from CO2 in methanogenic archaea. Methanobacterium wolfei and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum have been shown to contain two isoenzymes, a tungsten-containing isoenzyme (Fwd) and a molybdenum-containing isoenzyme (Fmd). We report here that in both thermophilic organisms the encoding genes are organized in a highly conserved fwdHFGDACB tungsten operon and in an fmdECB molybdenum operon. In both organisms, the tungsten isoenzyme was found to be constitutively transcribed, whereas the transcription of the molybdenum operon was induced by molybdate. Induction by molybdate was not significantly affected by tungstate.

  15. Distinct physiological functions of thiol peroxidase isoenzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Park, S G; Cha, M K; Jeong, W; Kim, I H

    2000-02-25

    A new type of peroxidase ("thiol peroxidase"; TPx) having cysteine as the primary site of catalysis has been discovered from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. In addition to two yeast TPx isoforms (TSA I and TSA II/AHPC1) previously described, three additional TPx homologues were identified by analysis of the open reading frame data base for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three novel isoforms showed a distinct thiol peroxidase activity supported by thioredoxin, and appeared to be distinctively localized in cytoplasm, mitochondria, and nucleus. Each isoform was named after its subcellular localization such as cytoplasmic TPx I (cTPx I or TSA I), cTPx II, cTPx III (TSA II/AHPC1), mitochondrial TPx (mTPx), and nuclear TPx (nTPx). Their transcriptional activities suggest that cTPx I and cTPx III are the most predominant isoforms among the five type isoforms. Transcriptional activities of TPx isoenzymes during yeast life span were quite different from each other. Unlike other TPx null mutants, cTPx I null mutant was hypersensitive to various oxidants except for 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide. The null mutant was more resistant toward 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide and acidic culture than its wild type. The severe growth retardation of cTPx II mutant resulted in accumulation of G(1)-phased cells. Based on kinetic properties of five isoforms, their subcellular localizations, and distinct physiology of each null mutant, we discussed the physiological functions of five types of TPx isoenzymes in yeast throughout the full growth cycle.

  16. [NADPH oxidases, Nox: new isoenzymes family].

    PubMed

    Chuong Nguyen, Minh Vu; Lardy, Bernard; Paclet, Marie-Hélène; Rousset, Francis; Berthier, Sylvie; Baillet, Athan; Grange, Laurent; Gaudin, Philippe; Morel, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases, Nox, are a family of isoenzymes, composed of seven members, whose sole function is to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although Nox catalyze the same enzymatic reaction, they acquired from a common ancestor during evolution, specificities related to their tissue expression, subcellular localization, activation mechanisms and regulation. Their functions could vary depending on the pathophysiological state of the tissues. Indeed, ROS are not only bactericidal weapons in phagocytes but also essential cellular signaling molecules and their overproduction is involved in chronic diseases and diseases of aging. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the function of Nox and the emergence of Nox inhibitors, require a thorough knowledge of their nature and structure. The objectives of this review are to highlight, in a structure/function approach, the main similar and differentiated properties shared by the human Nox isoenzymes.

  17. Enzymes and isoenzymes in pathogenesis and diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.M.; Werner, M.; Zaidman, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This book, based on 19 review articles discusses how enzymes and isoenzymes can be used in diagnosis, and the role they play in the pathogenesis of disease. The opening reports concentrate on the digestive system. Topics covered are advances in the diagnostic use of alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes, enzymes of value in pancreatic disease, and the modulation by steroids of gamma-glutamyltransferase in fetal hepatocytes. Advances are described such as the multiplicity of enzyme defects at the root of common inherited metabolic diseases. Newer applications of enzymology are shown, as in the role of purine-related enzymes in leukemia and immunodeficiency states. The role of enzymes in metabolic abnormalities such as oxylate formation, disorders of peroxisomal metabolism, hyperphenylalaninemia, and methemoglobinemia is explored.

  18. Identification of human pulmonary alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Capelli, A; Cerutti, C G; Lusuardi, M; Donner, C F

    1997-04-01

    An increase of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients affected by pulmonary fibrosis in chronic interstitial lung disorders. To characterize the ALP isoenzymes in such cases, we used gel filtration, agarose gel electrophoresis, heat and amino acid inhibition assays, wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) precipitation, and an immunoassay specific for the bone-isoform of ALP. Only one anodic band representing a high-molecular-weight isoform of ALP (Mr approximately 2,000 kDa) was observed on electrophoresis of BALF. The inhibition assay results were consistent for a tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme sensitive to a temperature of 56 degrees C (71.9 +/- 2.5% inhibition) and to homoarginine (65.7 +/- 1.9%), and resistant to L-phenylalanine and L-leucine. Less than 13% of ALP activity was heat-stable. After incubation of BALF specimens with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase D plus Nonidet P-40, or with phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C alone, an electrophoretic cathodic band (Mr approximately 220 kDa) appeared near the bone band of a standard serum. With the WGA assay, 84.4 +/- 3.3% of ALP precipitated and the band disappeared. After immunoassay for the bone isoform, a mean of less than 5% enzyme activity was measured. We conclude that the ALP found in BALF is a pulmonary isoform of a tissue nonspecific isoenzyme.

  19. Creatine kinase MB isoenzyme in dermatomyositis: a noncardiac source

    SciTech Connect

    Larca, L.J.; Coppola, J.T.; Honig, S.

    1981-03-01

    Three patients with polymyositis had elevated serum levels of creatine kinase MB isoenzyme. The presence of this isoenzyme is used extensively to diagnose myocardial infarction, but the isoenzyme is also found in sera of patients with primary muscular and neuromuscular disorders. Researchers studied cardiac function in two of our patients with electrocardiograms, technetium stannous pyrophosphate scanning, and technetium 99m-labeled erythrocyte gated blood pool imaging and in the third patient by postmortem examination. There was no evidence of myocardial involvement to account for the high serum levels of isoenzyme. Creatine kinase MB in the sera of patients with polymyositis does not necessarily indicate myocardial necrosis.

  20. Glutathione transferase isoenzymes from human prostate.

    PubMed Central

    Di Ilio, C; Aceto, A; Bucciarelli, T; Angelucci, S; Felaco, M; Grilli, A; Federici, G

    1990-01-01

    By using affinity-chromatography and isoelectric-focusing techniques, several forms of glutathione transferase (GSTs) were resolved from human prostate cytosol. All the three major classes of GST, i.e. Alpha, Mu and Pi, are present in human prostate. However, large inter-individual variation in the qualitative and quantitative expression of different isoenzymes resulted in the samples investigated. The most abundant group of prostate isoenzymes showed acid (pI 4.3-4.7) behaviour and were classified as Pi class GSTs on the basis of their immunological and structural properties. Immunohistochemical staining of Pi class GSTs was prevalently distributed in the epithelial cells surrounding the alveolar lumen. Class Mu GSTs are also expressed, although in small amounts and in a limited number of samples, by human prostate. The major cationic isoenzyme purified from prostate, GST-9.6; (pI 9.6; apparent subunit molecular mass of 28 kDa), appears to be different from the cationic GST alpha-epsilon forms isolated from human liver and kidney as evidenced by its structural, kinetical and immunological properties. This enzyme, which accounts for about 20-30% (on protein basis) of total amount of GSTs, is expressed by only 40% of samples. GST-9.6 has the ability to cross-react in immunoblotting analysis with antisera raised against rat liver GST 2-2, rather than with antisera raised against members of human Alpha, Mu and Pi class GSTs. Although prostate GST-9.6 shows close relationship with the human skin GST pI 9.9, it does not correspond to any other known human GST. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2241927

  1. Accurate determination of serum ASAT isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, A; Ojala, K

    1978-01-01

    An improved electrophoretic modification for measuring aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) isoenzymes is presented. This method fulfils the clinical requirements for sensitivity and allows the detection of 1 U/l mitochondria ASAT activity at 25 degree C. The procedure is relatively simple, requiring about one hour for a series of 8 determinations. Mitochondrial ASAT activity was found in all patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction pathological activity was observed for several days longer than that of total serum ASAT enzyme. None of the 25 healthy people studied had mitochondrial ASAT in their serum.

  2. Eu(III)-Sensitized Luminescence Probe for Determination of Tolnaftate in Pharmaceuticals and Biological Fluids.

    PubMed

    Alarfaj, Nawal A; El-Tohamy, Maha F

    2016-01-01

    A highly selective, sensitive, accurate, and reproducible luminescence procedure for determination of antifungal drug tolnaftate was developed. The introduced method was based on the formation of Europa Universalis III (Eu(III))-tolnaftate complex using sodium sulfite as a deoxygenated agent in the presence of acetate buffer (pH = 6) and micellar solution of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate. The optimum conditions (effect of pH, buffer, surfactant, Eu(III), and sodium sulfite concentrations) for the luminescence signal were investigated and optimized. The luminescence signals were recorded at λex = 270 nm and λem = 460 nm. The method has a good linear response (0.2-130 μg/mL(-1)) between the luminescence intensity and the concentrations of the drug (r = 0.999), with a LOD 0.07 μg/mL(-1) and LOQ 0.2 μg/mL(-1). The luminescence signals of Eu (III)-tolnaftate-sodium dodecyl sulfate were found to be 200-fold more sensitive without the presence of micelle solution. The interferences of some additives, metals, amino acids, sugars, and other related pharmacological action drugs were examined and no interference was recorded. The proposed method was used for quick and simple determination of tolnaftate in its pharmaceuticals and biological fluids.

  3. Purification and characterization of acylphosphatase erythrocyte isoenzyme from turkey muscle.

    PubMed

    Stefani, M; Degl'Innocenti, D; Berti, A; Cappugi, G; Manao, G; Camici, G; Ramponi, G

    1990-10-01

    An acylphosphatase has been purified from turkey muscle in a rapid and high-yield way. The enzyme has been characterized for structural, kinetic, and immunological parameters, as well as with regard to its stability to thermal, urea, and phenylglyoxal inactivation. The enzyme is quite different from the turkey muscular isoenzyme, and shows structural and kinetic properties that are very similar to those previously reported for the erythrocyte isoenzyme from human erythrocytes and from chicken muscle. From the data reported it appears that this enzyme corresponds to the acylphosphatase erythrocyte isoenzyme. Unlike the erythrocyte isoenzymes studied so far, this enzyme is able to cross-react with antibodies that are raised against the muscular isoenzyme.

  4. Biology of Budding Bacteria III. Fine Structure of Rhodomicrobium and Hyphomicrobium spp

    PubMed Central

    Conti, S. F.; Hirsch, Peter

    1965-01-01

    Conti, S. F. (Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, N.H.), and Peter Hirsch. Biology of budding bacteria. III. Fine structure of Rhodomicrobium and Hyphomicrobium spp. J. Bacteriol. 89:503–512. 1965.—The ultrastructure of 14 strains of hyphomicrobia, and of Rhodomicrobium vannielii, was investigated by means of electron microscopy of thin sections. The majority of the strains of hyphomicrobia possessed a well-developed internal membrane system, which appeared to be derived by invagination from the cytoplasmic membrane. The subcellular organization of the hyphomicrobia and R. vannielii was investigated. Images PMID:14255720

  5. Chemical and biological reduction of Mn (III)-pyrophosphate complexes: Potential importance of dissolved Mn (III) as an environmental oxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostka, Joel E.; Luther, George W., III; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1995-03-01

    Dissolved Mn (III) is a strong oxidant which could play an important role in the biogeochemistry of aquatic environments, but little is known about this form of Mn. Mn(III) was shown to form a stable complex with pyrophosphate which is easily measured by uv-vis spectrophotometry. The Mn(III)-pyrophosphate complex was produced at concentrations of 5 μM to 10 mM Mn at neutral pH. Inorganic electron donors, Fe(II) and sulfide, abiotically reduced Mn(III)-pyrophosphate in seconds with a stoichiometry of 1:1 and near 1:2 reductant:Mn (III), respectively. Shewanella putrefaciens strain MR-1 catalyzed the reduction of Mn(III)-pyrophosphate with formate or lactate as electron donors. Reduction of Mn(III) catalyzed by MR-1 was inhibited under aerobic conditions but only slightly under anaerobic conditions upon addition of the alternate electron acceptor, nitrate. MR-1 catalyzed reduction was also inhibited by metabolic inhibitors including formaldehyde, tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS), carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), 2- n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO), but not antimycin A. When formate or lactate served as electron donor for Mn(III) reduction, carbon oxidation to CO 2 was coupled to the respiration of Mn (III). Using the incorporation of 3H-leucine into the TCA-insoluble fraction of culture extracts, it was shown that Mn (III) reduction was coupled to protein synthesis in MR-1. These data indicate that Mn (III) complexes may be produced under conditions found in aquatic environments and that the reduction of Mn(III) can be coupled to the cycling of Fe, S, and C.

  6. Purification and Characterization of Aspartate Aminotransferase Isoenzymes from Carrot Suspension Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Turano, Frank J.; Wilson, Barbara J.; Matthews, Benjamin F.

    1990-01-01

    Three aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes were identified from extracts of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures. These isoenzymes were separated by DEAE chromatography and were analyzed on native gradient polyacrylamide gels. The relative molecular weights of the isoenzymes were 111,000 ± 5000, 105,000 ± 5000, and 94,000 ± 4000 daltons; they were designated forms I, II, and III, respectively. Form I, the predominant form, has been purified to apparent homogeneity (>300-fold) using immunoaffinity chromatography with rabbit anti-pig AAT antibodies. Form I has a subunit size of 43,000 Mr, as determined on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Isoelectric focusing (IEF)-PAGE has resolved three bands at a pl of approximately 5.2. Form I may be composed of subunits of similar molecular weight and different charges, and the three bands with AAT activity on the IEF-PAGE gel are a combination of hetero- and homodimers. Form I has a broad pH optimum of 7.5 to 10.0. Km values of 23.6, 2.8, 0.05, and 0.22 millimolar were obtained for glutamate, aspartate, oxaloacetate, and α-ketoglutarate, respectively. The mode of action is a ping-pong-bi-bi mechanism. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667320

  7. Purification and characterization of aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes from carrot suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Turano, F J; Wilson, B J; Matthews, B F

    1990-03-01

    Three aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes were identified from extracts of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures. These isoenzymes were separated by DEAE chromatography and were analyzed on native gradient polyacrylamide gels. The relative molecular weights of the isoenzymes were 111,000 +/- 5000, 105,000 +/- 5000, and 94,000 +/- 4000 daltons; they were designated forms I, II, and III, respectively. Form I, the predominant form, has been purified to apparent homogeneity (>300-fold) using immunoaffinity chromatography with rabbit anti-pig AAT antibodies. Form I has a subunit size of 43,000 M(r), as determined on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Isoelectric focusing (IEF)-PAGE has resolved three bands at a pl of approximately 5.2. Form I may be composed of subunits of similar molecular weight and different charges, and the three bands with AAT activity on the IEF-PAGE gel are a combination of hetero- and homodimers. Form I has a broad pH optimum of 7.5 to 10.0. K(m) values of 23.6, 2.8, 0.05, and 0.22 millimolar were obtained for glutamate, aspartate, oxaloacetate, and alpha-ketoglutarate, respectively. The mode of action is a ping-pong-bi-bi mechanism.

  8. Organogold(III) compounds as experimental anticancer agents: chemical and biological profiles.

    PubMed

    Massai, Lara; Cirri, Damiano; Michelucci, Elena; Bartoli, Gianluca; Guerri, Annalisa; Cinellu, Maria A; Cocco, Fabio; Gabbiani, Chiara; Messori, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    In the last few years gold(III) complexes have attracted growing attention in the medicinal chemistry community as candidate anticancer agents. In particular some organogold(III) compounds manifested quite attractive pharmacological behaviors in preclinical studies. Here we compare the chemical and biological properties of the novel organogold(III) complex [Au(bipy(dmb)-H)(NH(CO)CH3)][PF6] (Aubipy(aa)) with those of its parent compounds [Au(bipy(dmb)-H)(OH)][PF6] (Aubipy(c)) and [Au2(bipy(dmb)-H)2)(μ-O)][PF6]2 (Au2bipy(c)), previously synthesized and characterized. The three study compounds were comparatively assessed for their antiproliferative actions against HCT-116 cancer cells, revealing moderate cytotoxic effects. Proapoptotic and cell cycle effects were also monitored. Afterward, to gain additional mechanistic insight, the three gold compounds were challenged against the model proteins HEWL, RNase A and cytochrome c and reactions investigated through UV-Vis and ESI-MS analysis. A peculiar and roughly invariant protein metalation profile emerges in the three cases consisting of protein binding of {Au(bipy(dmb)-H)} moieties. The implications of these results are discussed in the frame of current knowledge on anticancer gold compounds.

  9. Differential expression of hydrogenase isoenzymes in Escherichia coli K-12: evidence for a third isoenzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Sawers, R G; Ballantine, S P; Boxer, D H

    1985-01-01

    The cellular contents of the nickel-containing, membrane-bound hydrogenase isoenzymes 1 and 2 (hydrogenases 1 and 2) were analyzed by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Their expression was differentially influenced by nutritional and genetic factors. Hydrogenase 2 content was enhanced after growth with either hydrogen and fumarate or glycerol and fumarate and correlated reasonably with cellular hydrogen uptake capacity. Hydrogenase 1 content was negligible under the above conditions but was enhanced by exogenous formate. Its expression was greatly reduced in a pfl mutant, which is unable to synthesise formate, but was restored to normal levels when the growth medium included formate. A mutation in the anaerobic regulatory gene, fnr, led to low overall hydrogenase activity and greatly reduced levels of both isoenzymes and abolished the formate enhancement of hydrogenase 1 content. Formate hydrogenlyase activity was similarly reduced in the fnr strain but, in contrast, was restored, as was overall hydrogenase activity, to normal levels by growth in the presence of formate. Low H2 uptake activity was found for the fnr strain under all growth conditions examined. Hydrogenase 1 content, therefore, does not correlate with formate hydrogenlyase activity and its role is unclear. A third hydrogenase isoenzyme, immunologically distinct from hydrogenases 1 and 2, whose expression is enhanced by formate, is present and forms part of the formate hydrogenlyase. We suggest that the effect of the fnr gene product on formate hydrogenlyase expression is mediated via internal formate. Images PMID:3905769

  10. Proton and gallium(III) binding properties of a biologically active salicylidene acylhydrazide.

    PubMed

    Hakobyan, Shoghik; Boily, Jean-François; Ramstedt, Madeleine

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation causes a range of problems in our society, especially in health care. Salicylidene acylhydrazides (hydrazones) are promising antivirulence drugs targeting secretion systems used during bacterial infection of host cells. When mixed with the gallium ion they become especially potent as bacterial and biofilm growth-suppressing agents, although the mechanisms through which this occurs are not fully understood. At the base of this uncertainty lies the nature of hydrazone-metal interactions. This study addresses this issue by resolving the equilibrium speciation of hydrazone-gallium aqueous solutions. The protonation constants of the target 2-oxo-2-[N-(2,4,6-trihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazino]-acetamide (ME0163) hydrazone species and of its 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde and oxamic acid hydrazide building blocks were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry to achieve this goal. These studies show that the hydrazone is an excessively strong complexing agent for gallium and that its antivirulence properties are predominantly ascribed to monomeric 1:1Ga-ME0163 complexes of various Ga hydrolysis and ME0163 protonation states. The chelation of Ga(III) to the hydrazone also increased the stability of the compounds against acid-induced hydrolysis, making this group of compounds very interesting for biological applications where the Fe-antagonist action of both Ga(III) and the hydrazone can be combined for enhanced biological effect. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes for phosphorescence sensing of biological metal ions.

    PubMed

    You, Youngmin; Cho, Somin; Nam, Wonwoo

    2014-02-17

    Phosphorescence signaling provides a valuable alternative to conventional bioimaging based on fluorescence. The benefits of using phosphorescent molecules include improved sensitivity and capabilities for effective elimination of background signals by time-gated acquisition. Cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes are promising candidates for facilitating phosphorescent bioimaging because they provide synthetic versatility and excellent phosphorescence properties. In this Forum Article, we present our recent studies on the development of phosphorescence sensors for the detection of metal ions based on cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes. The constructs contained cyclometalating (C^N) ligands with the electron densities and band-gap energies of the C^N ligand structures systematically varied. Receptors that chelated zinc, cupric, and chromium ions were tethered to the ligands to create phosphorescence sensors. The alterations in the C^N ligand structures had a profound influence on the phosphorescence responses to metal ions. Mechanistic studies suggested that the phosphorescence responses could be explained on the basis of the modulation of photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) from the receptor to the photoexcited iridium species. The PeT behaviors strictly adhered to the Rehm-Weller principle, and the occurrence of PeT was located in the Marcus-normal region. It is thus anticipated that improved responses will be obtainable by increasing the excited-state reduction potential of the iridium(III) complexes. Femtosecond transient absorption experiments provided evidence for the presence of an additional photophysical mechanism that involved metal-ion-induced alteration of the intraligand charge-transfer (ILCT) transition state. Utility of the mechanism by PeT and ILCT has been demonstrated for the phosphorescence sensing of biologically important transition-metal ions. In particular, the phosphorescence zinc sensor could report the presence of intracellular zinc pools by

  12. Antimony(III) complexes with 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidines: Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tunç, Turgay; Karacan, Mehmet Sayım; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Sarı, Musa; Karacan, Nurcan; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2015-12-01

    Novel pyrimidine compound bearing disulfide bridge, 5,5'-disulfanediylbis(2-amino-4,6-dimetoxypyrimidine) (3) was synthesized by reduction of 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxy-5-thiocyanatopyrimidine for the first time, and its structure was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Novel binuclear antimony(III) compound of (3), {Sb[5,5'-disulfanediylbis(2-amino-4,6-dimetoxypyrimidine)]Cl3}2 (4) and mononuclear antimony(III) compounds, SbL2Cl3, [L: 2-amino-5-thiol-4,6-dimethoxy pyrimidine (2) and 2-amino-5-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylthio)-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine (6)] were synthesized and characterized with the help of elemental analysis, molecular conductivity, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR and LC-MS techniques. The geometrical structures optimized by a DFT/B3LYP/LANL2DZ method of the compounds, indicated that monomeric compounds have square pyramidal shape. Both antileishmanial activity against Leishmania tropica promastigote and glutathione reductase inhibitory activity were determined in vitro. The results showed that (3) has the best biological activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Purification and characterization of two lipoxygenase isoenzymes from germinating barley.

    PubMed

    Doderer, A; Kokkelink, I; van der Veen, S; Valk, B E; Schram, A W; Douma, A C

    1992-03-27

    Two lipoxygenase isoenzymes (linoleate: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.13.11.12) present in the embryo of germinating barley seed have been purified to homogeneity and characterized. Both isoenzymes are monomeric proteins with a molecular mass of approx. 90 kDa and crossreact on Western blots with antibodies raised against pea lipoxygenase. They have an apparent Km of approx. 16 microM for linoleic acid. The isoenzymes differ in the product formed upon incubation with linoleic acid. One of the isoenzymes (lipoxygenase 1) solely forms the 9-HPOD as a product whereas the 13-HPOD is the major product formed by the other isoenzyme (lipoxygenase 2). Lipoxygenase 1 shows a pH-optimum of 6.5, is active in a broad pH range and has an isoelectric point of 5.2-5.3. Lipoxygenase 2 has the same pH optimum, but is active in a narrow pH range and has a significantly higher pI, namely 6.8-6.9. The occurrence of two isoenzymes was confirmed by peptide analysis of the proteins. Amino acid sequence data obtained from proteolytic fragments of lipoxygenase 1 show up to 50% identity with other plant lipoxygenases.

  14. Severe Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities and Chondrodysplasia in Mice Lacking Collagen Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase Isoenzyme II in Combination with a Reduced Amount of Isoenzyme I.

    PubMed

    Aro, Ellinoora; Salo, Antti M; Khatri, Richa; Finnilä, Mikko; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Sormunen, Raija; Pakkanen, Outi; Holster, Tiina; Soininen, Raija; Prein, Carina; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Aszódi, Attila; Tuukkanen, Juha; Kivirikko, Kari I; Schipani, Ernestina; Myllyharju, Johanna

    2015-07-03

    Collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylases (C-P4H-I, C-P4H-II, and C-P4H-III) catalyze formation of 4-hydroxyproline residues required to form triple-helical collagen molecules. Vertebrate C-P4Hs are α2β2 tetramers differing in their catalytic α subunits. C-P4H-I is the major isoenzyme in most cells, and inactivation of its catalytic subunit (P4ha1(-/-)) leads to embryonic lethality in mouse, whereas P4ha1(+/-) mice have no abnormalities. To study the role of C-P4H-II, which predominates in chondrocytes, we generated P4ha2(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, they had no apparent phenotypic abnormalities. To assess possible functional complementarity, we established P4ha1(+/-);P4ha2(-/-) mice. They were smaller than their littermates, had moderate chondrodysplasia, and developed kyphosis. A transient inner cell death phenotype was detected in their developing growth plates. The columnar arrangement of proliferative chondrocytes was impaired, the amount of 4-hydroxyproline and the Tm of collagen II were reduced, and the extracellular matrix was softer in the growth plates of newborn P4ha1(+/-);P4ha2(-/-) mice. No signs of uncompensated ER stress were detected in the mutant growth plate chondrocytes. Some of these defects were also found in P4ha2(-/-) mice, although in a much milder form. Our data show that C-P4H-I can to a large extent compensate for the lack of C-P4H-II in proper endochondral bone development, but their combined partial and complete inactivation, respectively, leads to biomechanically impaired extracellular matrix, moderate chondrodysplasia, and kyphosis. Our mouse data suggest that inactivating mutations in human P4HA2 are not likely to lead to skeletal disorders, and a simultaneous decrease in P4HA1 function would most probably be required to generate such a disease phenotype. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Intraspecific variation of isoenzymes in Taenia taeniaeformis.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, M; Ito, A; Kurosawa, T; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M; Agatsuma, T

    1995-02-01

    The technique of isoenzyme electrophoresis was applied to Japanese wild populations of Taenia taeniaeformis (isolated from Norway rats) and three laboratory reared isolates (KRN isolated from a Malaysian Norway rat, BMM from a Belgian house mouse and ACR from a Japanese gray red-backed vole). The average heterozygosities of Japanese wild populations were fairly small and total genetic variability was 0.0499. The genetic make-up of T. taeniaeformis in Norway rats was rather uniform in the whole of Japan. In KRN isolate, each of all 10 loci examined possessed the allele which was predominant in Japanese wild populations. Similarly, each of 9 loci in BMM isolate possessed the same alleles, but one of 2 alleles at HK locus was different from that in the others. T. taeniaeformis parasitizing house mice and rats were considered to be genetically closely related to each other. In ACR isolate, 7 out of 10 loci possessed different alleles from those in the other populations. It was considered that ACR isolate was genetically distant and its phylogenetic origin in Japan should be different from worms parasitizing Norway rats.

  16. Purification and thermal and high-pressure inactivation of pectinmethylesterase isoenzymes from tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum): a novel pressure labile isoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Lucía; Duvetter, Thomas; Monfort, Silvia; Clynen, Elke; Schoofs, Liliane; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2007-10-31

    Tomato pectinmethylesterase (PME) was successfully purified by a two-step method consisting of affinity chromatography followed by cation exchange chromatography. According to this procedure, four different isoenzymes were identified representing molar masses around 34.5-35.0 kDa. Thermal and high-pressure inactivation kinetics of the two major isoenzymes of tomato PME were studied. A striking difference between their process stability was found. The thermostable isoenzyme was completely inactivated after 5.0 min at 70 degrees C, whereas for the thermolabile isoenzyme, temperatures at around 60 degrees C were sufficient for complete inactivation. The thermostable isoenzyme was also found to be pressure stable since no inactivation was observed after 5.0 min of treatment at 800 MPa and 20 or 40 degrees C. The thermolabile isoenzyme appeared to be pressure labile since it could be completely inactivated after 5.0 min of treatment at 700 MPa and 20 degrees C or 650 MPa and 40 degrees C. Inactivation kinetics at pH 6.0 could be accurately described by a first-order model.

  17. The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) measurement in the sera of patients with brain tumor

    PubMed Central

    Laniewska-Dunaj, Magdalena; Orywal, Karolina; Kochanowicz, Jan; Rutkowski, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) exist in the brain. Alcohol dehydrogenase and ALDH are also present in brain tumor cells. Moreover, the activity of class I isoenzymes was significantly higher in cancer than healthy brain cells. The activity of these enzymes in tumor tissue is reflected in the serum and could thus be helpful for diagnostics of brain neoplasms. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of ADH and ALDH as markers for brain tumors. Material and methods Serum samples were taken for routine biochemical investigation from 115 patients suffering from brain tumors (65 glioblastomas, 50 meningiomas). For the measurement of the activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, fluorometric methods were used. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method. Results There was a significant increase in the activity of ADH I isoenzyme and ADH total in the sera of brain tumor patients compared to the controls. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH I was 78%, specificity 85%, and positive and negative predictive values were 86% and 76% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ADH I increased with the stage of the carcinoma. Area under receiver-operating characteristic curve for ADH I was 0.71. Conclusions The results suggest a potential role for ADH I as a marker for brain tumor. PMID:28261287

  18. Determination of sulpiride in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids using a Cr (III) enhanced chemiluminescence method.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Naeem; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Shah, Jasmin; Lee, Sang Hak; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive and simple method for identifying sulpiride in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids is presented. The method is based on increased chemiluminescence (CL) intensity of a luminol-H2O2 system in response to the addition of Cr (III) under alkaline conditions. The CL intensity of the luminol-H2O2-Cr (III) system was greatly enhanced by the addition of sulpiride and the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of sulpiride in a sample solution. Various parameters affecting the CL intensity were systematically investigated and optimized for determination of the sulpiride in a sample. Under the optimum conditions, the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of sulpiride in the range of 0.068-4.0 µg/mL, with a good correlation coefficient of 0.997. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 8.50 × 10(-6) µg/mL and 2.83 × 10(-5) µg/mL, respectively. The method presented here produced good reproducibility with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.70% (n = 7). The effects of common excipients and metal ions were studied for their interference effect. The method was validated statistically through recovery studies and successfully applied for the determination of sulpiride in pure form, pharmaceutical preparations and spiked human plasma samples. The percentage recoveries were found to range from 99.10 to 100.05% for pure form, 98.12 to 100.18% for pharmaceutical preparations and 97.9 to 101.4% for spiked human plasma.

  19. Experimental study on the inhibition of biological reduction of Fe(III)EDTA in NOx absorption solution*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wu, Cheng-zhi; Zhang, Shi-han; Shi, Yao; Lei, Le-cheng

    2005-01-01

    Scrubbing of NOx from the gas phase with Fe(II)EDTA has been shown to be highly effective. A new biological method can be used to convert NO to N2 and regenerate the chelating agent Fe(II)EDTA for continuous NO absorption. The core of this biological regeneration is how to effectively simultaneous reduce Fe(III)EDTA and Fe(II)EDTA-NO, two mainly products in the ferrous chelate absorption solution. The biological reduction rate of Fe(III)EDTA plays a main role for the NOx removal efficiency. In this paper, a bacterial strain identified as Klebsiella Trevisan sp. was used to demonstrate an inhibition of Fe(III)EDTA reduction in the presence of Fe(II)EDTA-NO. The competitive inhibition experiments indicted that Fe(II)EDTA-NO inhibited not only the growth rate of the iron-reduction bacterial strain but also the Fe(III)EDTA reduction rate. Cell growth rate and Fe(III)EDTA reduction rate decreased with increasing Fe(II)EDTA-NO concentration in the solution. PMID:16187414

  20. Metabolic isoenzyme shifts in cancer as potential novel therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Ononye, S N; Shi, W; Wali, V B; Aktas, B; Jiang, T; Hatzis, C; Pusztai, L

    2014-12-01

    The functional redundancy of metabolic enzyme expression may present a new strategy for developing targeted therapies in cancer. To satisfy the increased metabolic demand required during neoplastic transformations and proliferation, cancer cells may rely on additional isoforms of a metabolic enzyme to satisfy the increased demand for metabolic precursors, which could subsequently render cancer cells more vulnerable to isoform-specific inhibitors. In this review, we provide a survey of common isoenzyme shifts that have been reported to be important in cancer metabolism and link those to metabolic pathways that currently have drugs in various stages of development. This phenomenon suggests a potentially new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer by identifying shifts in the expression of metabolic isoenzymes between cancer and normal cells. We also delineate other putative metabolic isoenzymes that could be targets for novel targeted therapies for cancer. Changes in isoenzyme expression that occur during neoplastic transformations or in response to environmental pressure in cancer cells may result in isoenzyme diversity that may subsequently render cancer cells more vulnerable to isoform-specific inhibitors due to reliance on a single isoform to perform a vital enzymatic function.

  1. A bacterial type III secretion-based protein delivery tool for broad applications in cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Ittig, Simon J.; Schmutz, Christoph; Kasper, Christoph A.; Amstutz, Marlise; Schmidt, Alexander; Sauteur, Loïc; Vigano, M. Alessandra; Low, Shyan Huey; Affolter, Markus; Cornelis, Guy R.; Nigg, Erich A.

    2015-01-01

    Methods enabling the delivery of proteins into eukaryotic cells are essential to address protein functions. Here we propose broad applications to cell biology for a protein delivery tool based on bacterial type III secretion (T3S). We show that bacterial, viral, and human proteins, fused to the N-terminal fragment of the Yersinia enterocolitica T3S substrate YopE, are effectively delivered into target cells in a fast and controllable manner via the injectisome of extracellular bacteria. This method enables functional interaction studies by the simultaneous injection of multiple proteins and allows the targeting of proteins to different subcellular locations by use of nanobody-fusion proteins. After delivery, proteins can be freed from the YopE fragment by a T3S-translocated viral protease or fusion to ubiquitin and cleavage by endogenous ubiquitin proteases. Finally, we show that this delivery tool is suitable to inject proteins in living animals and combine it with phosphoproteomics to characterize the systems-level impact of proapoptotic human truncated BID on the cellular network. PMID:26598622

  2. Changes in isoenzyme patterns of a cloned culture of nonpathogenic Entamoeba histolytica during axenization.

    PubMed Central

    Mirelman, D; Bracha, R; Wexler, A; Chayen, A

    1986-01-01

    The axenization of an Entamoeba histolytica isolate with a nonpathogenic isoenzyme electrophoretic pattern (zymodeme) was recently achieved for the first time (15). Forty days after the cells were transferred to the medium used for axenic cultivation, the amebae developed virulence properties, and the zymodeme converted to a pathogenic pattern. To exclude the possibility that the original isolate consisted of two zymodeme populations and that conditions of growth selected for a particular population, the experiment was repeated with a cloned culture of a nonpathogenic (zymodeme III) strain, E. histolytica SAW 1734R clAR, isolated by and obtained from P. G. Sargeaunt. Axenization was accomplished, as before, by transferring trophozoites to TYI-S-33 medium containing a mixture of antibiotics to suppress the growth of the associated bacterial flora and a nutritional supplement consisting of gamma-irradiated bacteria. A change in the hexokinase and phosphoglucomutase isoenzyme pattern was observed 21 days after the amebae had been transferred to the axenic medium but before complete axenization of the amebae had occurred. The change in zymodeme was accompanied by an increase in virulence, as evidenced by the ability of fewer amebae to induce hepatic abscesses in hamsters. A reverse conversion to a nonpathogenic zymodeme was also accomplished by reassociating and subculturing the newly converted pathogenic trophozoites of strain SAW 1734R clAR with the bacterial flora that accompanied this ameba in the original xenic culture. The electromobilities of the hexokinase isoenzymes changed back to their original pattern 7 days after the amebae were returned to xenic growth conditions. Our in vitro results demonstrate that culture conditions and bacterial flora can cause changes in the zymodeme and virulence of a cloned ameba isolate and raise the concern that this could happen also in vivo. Thus, the finding of a particular zymodeme in a culture of E. histolytica isolated

  3. Comparative investigations on the biological effects of As (III) and As (V) in clam Ruditapes philippinarum using multiple biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenglong; Xu, Hai'e; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2015-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a known pollutant with two chemical forms, arsenite (As (III)) and arsenate (As (V)), in marine environment. Clam Ruditapes philippinarum is an important fishery species along the Bohai coast. In this study, the biological effects induced by the two arsenic chemical forms (arsenite and arsenate) were compared using multiple biochemical indices in the digestive glands of clam R. philippinarum. The production of reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic responses exhibited that both As (III) and As (V) induced immune, oxidative and osmotic stresses in clam digestive glands. The differential metabolic biomarkers, histidine and taurine, indicated the differential responsive mechanisms in osmotic regulation in clam digestive glands. In addition, both arsenic treatments enhanced the anaerobiosis metabolism in clam digestive glands. Overall, this work illustrated that arsenite and arsenate induced similar biological effects in clams, which might be accounted for the biological transformation of arsenate to arsenite in clams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Incorporation of Carbohydrate Residues into Peroxidase Isoenzymes in Horseradish Roots

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Jow Y.; Shannon, Leland M.

    1973-01-01

    Sliced root tissue of the horseradish plant (Armoracia rusticana), when incubated with mannose-U-14C, incorporated radioactivity into peroxidase isoenzymes. Over 90% of the radioactivity in the highly purified peroxidase isoenzymes was present in the neutral sugar residues of the molecule, i.e. fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose. When the root slices were incubated simultaneously with leucine-4,5-3H and mannose-U-14C, cycloheximide strongly inhibited leucine incorporation into the peptide portion of peroxidase isoenzymes but had little effect on the incorporation of 14C into the neutral sugars. These results indicated that synthesis of the peptide portion of peroxidase was completed before the monosaccharide residues were attached to the molecule. This temporal relationship between the synthesis of protein and the attachment of carbohydrate residues in the plant glycoprotein, horseradish peroxidase, appears to be similar to that reported for glycoprotein biosynthesis in many mammalian systems. PMID:16658584

  5. Cr(III), Fe(III) and Co(III) complexes of tetradentate (ONNO) Schiff base ligands: Synthesis, characterization, properties and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskioğlu, Eren; Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban; Çete, Servet; Hamurcu, Fatma; Erk, Birgül

    2008-08-01

    A series of metal complexes were synthesized from equimolar amounts of Schiff bases: 1,4-bis[3-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldimine)propyl]piperazine (bappnaf) and 1,8-bis[3-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldimine)- p-menthane (damnaf) with metal chlorides. All of synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (UV-vis, IR, 1H- 13C NMR, LC-MS) and thermal (TGA-DTA) methods, magnetic and conductance measurements. Schiff base complexes supposed in tetragonal geometry have the general formula [M(bappnaf or damnaf)]Cl· nH 2O, where M = Cr(III), Co(III) and n = 2, 3. But also Fe(III) complexes have octahedral geometry by the coordination of two water molecules and the formula is [Fe(bappnaf or damnaf)(H 2O) 2]Cl. The changes in the selected vibration bands in FT-IR indicate that Schiff bases behave as (ONNO) tetradentate ligands and coordinate to metal ions from two phenolic oxygen atoms and two azomethine nitrogen atoms. Conductance measurements suggest 1:1 electrolytic nature of the metal complexes. The synthesized compounds except bappnaf ligand have the antimicrobial activity against the bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 11230), Yersinia enterocolitica (ATCC 1501), Bacillus magaterium (RSKK 5117), Bacillus subtilis (RSKK 244), Bacillus cereus (RSKK 863) and the fungi: Candida albicans (ATCC 10239). These results have been considerably interest in piperazine derivatives due to their significant applications in antimicrobial studies.

  6. Toxicokinetics of drugs of abuse: current knowledge of the isoenzymes involved in the human metabolism of tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, heroin, morphine, and codeine.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Hans H; Sauer, Christoph; Theobald, Denis S

    2006-06-01

    This review summarizes the major metabolic pathways of the drugs of abuse, tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, heroin, morphine, and codeine, in humans including the involvement of isoenzymes. This knowledge may be important for predicting their possible interactions with other xenobiotics, understanding pharmaco-/toxicokinetic and pharmacogenetic variations, toxicological risk assessment, developing suitable toxicological analysis procedures, and finally for understanding certain pitfalls in drug testing. The detection times of these drugs and/or their metabolites in biological samples are summarized and the implications of the presented data on the possible interactions of drugs of abuse with other xenobiotics, ie, inhibition or induction of individual polymorphic and nonpolymorphic isoenzymes, discussed.

  7. Evaluation of microbial reduction of Fe(III)EDTA in a chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated NOx removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Li; Cheng-Zhi Wu; Shi-Han Zhang; Ke Shao; Yao Shi

    2007-01-15

    A chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated process can be used to remove nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gas. In such a process, nitric oxide (NO) can be effectively absorbed by the ferrous chelate of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Fe(II)EDTA) to form Fe(II)EDTA-NO, which can be biologically regenerated by denitrifying bacteria. However, in the course of these processes, part of the Fe(II)EDTA is also oxidized to Fe(III)EDTA. The reduction of Fe(III)EDTA to Fe(II)EDTA depends on the activity of iron-reducing bacteria in the system. Therefore, the effectiveness of the system relies on how to effectively bioreduce Fe(III)EDTA and Fe(II)EDTA-NO in the system. In this paper, a strain identified as Escherichia coli FR-2 (iron-reducing bacterium) was used to investigate the reduction rate of Fe(III)EDTA. The experimental results indicate that Fe(II)EDTA-NO and Fe(II)EDTA in the system can inhibit both the FR-2 cell growth and thus affect the Fe(III)EDTA reduction. The FR-2 cell growth rate and Fe(III)EDTA reduction rate decreased with increasing Fe(II)EDTA-NO and Fe(II)EDTA concentration in the solution. When the concentration of Fe(II)EDTA-NO reached 3.7 mM, the FR-2 cell growth almost stopped. A mathematical model was developed to explain the cell growth and inhibition kinetics. The predicted results are close to the experimental data and provide a preliminary evaluation of the kinetics of the biologically mediated reactions necessary to regenerate the spent scrubber solution. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Quantitation of Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes Using Agarose Containing Wheat Germ Lectin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    biliary (liver II) are the major isoenzymes increased. 2. Bone Disease - derived from osteoblast - active osteomalacia. - Paget’s disease, osteogenic...liver I and biliary isoenzymes are the major isoenzymes increased. 7. Reflecting Vascular Proliferation Following infarcts of the heart, lung, kidney and...Leukemia and lymphoma either primary association with tumor or reflecting infiltration at various sites. - liver I and biliary isoenzymes are the major

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in biological samples after micelle-mediated extraction.

    PubMed

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Bozorgzadeh, Elaheh

    2009-10-30

    This work presents a micelle-mediated extraction method for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) species in biological samples as a prior preconcentration step to their spectrophotometric determination. The analytical system is based on the selective reaction between Sb(III) and bromopyrogallol red (BPR) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and potassium iodide at pH 6.4. Total Sb concentration was determined after reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) in the presence of potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. The optimal extraction and reaction conditions were studied and the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limit of detection, linear range, preconcentration factor, and improvement factors) were obtained. Linearity for Sb(III) and Sb(V) were obeyed in the range of 0.2-20.0 ng mL(-1) and 0.4-25.0 ng mL(-1), respectively. The detection limit for the determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) were 0.05 ng mL(-1) and 0.08 ng mL(-1), respectively. The interference effect of some anions and cations was also studied. The method was applied to the determination of Sb(III) in the presence of Sb(V) and total antimony in blood plasma and urine samples.

  10. Isoenzyme patterns and phylogenetic relationships in Acanthamoeba spp. isolated from contact lens containers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Myung-Soo; Kim, Han-Jip; Im, Kyung-Il

    1999-01-01

    In order to refer to the basic information regarding the identification of isolates obtained from a contact lens container in Korea, the isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis was employed to compare the isoenzyme band patterns among Acanthamoeba spp. including eight isolates and the simple pairwise dissimilarity analysis was carried out. For an alkaline phosphate development, isolate 7 and Acanthamoeba polyphaga showed homologous band patterns, and isolates 1, 2, and 3 showed the same patterns. For lactate dehydrogenase, similar patterns were observed in isolates 2 and 3. Isolates 3 and 5 showed homologous band patterns for malate dehydrogenase and glucose phosphate isomerase. For hexokinase, isolates 4, 7, and A. hatchetti showed the same band patterns. In others, a considerable number of interstrain polymorphisms was observed in nine isoenzyme band patterns. In Acanthamoeba group II, genetic distances among isolates 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 ranged from 0.104 to 0.200. In comparison to A. castellanii, A. hatchetti, and A. polyphaga, genetic distances of isolates 7 and 8 were 0.254 and 0.219, respectively. In Acanthamoeba group III, including A. culbertsoni, A. healyi, and A. royreba, isolate 6 had genetic distances which ranged from 0.314 to 0.336. Finally, when comparing to the six reference Acanthamoeba, it was possible to classify isolates 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, as genetically close-related species and as independent species group. Furthermore, isolates 6, 7 and 8 were identified as independent species as well. PMID:10634038

  11. Role of platelet chemokines, PF-4 and CTAP-III, in cancer biology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    With the recent addition of anti-angiogenic agents to cancer treatment, the angiogenesis regulators in platelets are gaining importance. Platelet factor 4 (PF-4/CXCL4) and Connective tissue activating peptide III (CTAP-III) are two platelet-associated chemokines that modulate tumor angiogenesis, inflammation within the tumor microenvironment, and in turn tumor growth. Here, we review the role of PF-4 and CTAP-III in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis; the results of clinical trial using recombinant PF-4 (rPF-4); and the use of PF-4 and CTAP-III as cancer biomarkers. PMID:23800319

  12. Class III Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Acute Leukemia – Biological Functions and Modern Laboratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berenstein, Rimma

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a complex disease caused by deregulation of multiple signaling pathways. Mutations in class III receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been implicated in alteration of cell signals concerning the growth and differentiation of leukemic cells. Point mutations, insertions, or deletions of RTKs as well as chromosomal translocations induce constitutive activation of the receptor, leading to uncontrolled proliferation of undifferentiated myeloid blasts. Aberrations can occur in all domains of RTKs causing either the ligand-independent activation or mimicking the activated conformation. The World Health Organization recommended including RTK mutations in the AML classification since their detection in routine laboratory diagnostics is a major factor for prognostic stratification of patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based methods are well-validated for the detection of fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutations and can easily be applied for other RTKs. However, when methodological limitations are reached, accessory techniques can be applied. For a higher resolution and more quantitative approach compared to agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR fragments can be separated by capillary electrophoresis. Furthermore, high-resolution melting and denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography are reliable presequencing screening methods that reduce the sample amount for Sanger sequencing. Because traditional DNA sequencing is time-consuming, next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an innovative modern possibility to analyze a high amount of samples simultaneously in a short period of time. At present, standardized procedures for NGS are not established, but when this barrier is resolved, it will provide a new platform for rapid and reliable laboratory diagnostic of RTK mutations in patients with AML. In this article, the biological and physiological role of RTK mutations in AML as well as possible laboratory methods for their detection will be

  13. Upon Accounting for the Impact of Isoenzyme Loss, Gene Deletion Costs Anticorrelate with Their Evolutionary Rates

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yu; Segrè, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    System-level metabolic network models enable the computation of growth and metabolic phenotypes from an organism’s genome. In particular, flux balance approaches have been used to estimate the contribution of individual metabolic genes to organismal fitness, offering the opportunity to test whether such contributions carry information about the evolutionary pressure on the corresponding genes. Previous failure to identify the expected negative correlation between such computed gene-loss cost and sequence-derived evolutionary rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been ascribed to a real biological gap between a gene’s fitness contribution to an organism “here and now” and the same gene’s historical importance as evidenced by its accumulated mutations over millions of years of evolution. Here we show that this negative correlation does exist, and can be exposed by revisiting a broadly employed assumption of flux balance models. In particular, we introduce a new metric that we call “function-loss cost”, which estimates the cost of a gene loss event as the total potential functional impairment caused by that loss. This new metric displays significant negative correlation with evolutionary rate, across several thousand minimal environments. We demonstrate that the improvement gained using function-loss cost over gene-loss cost is explained by replacing the base assumption that isoenzymes provide unlimited capacity for backup with the assumption that isoenzymes are completely non-redundant. We further show that this change of the assumption regarding isoenzymes increases the recall of epistatic interactions predicted by the flux balance model at the cost of a reduction in the precision of the predictions. In addition to suggesting that the gene-to-reaction mapping in genome-scale flux balance models should be used with caution, our analysis provides new evidence that evolutionary gene importance captures much more than strict essentiality. PMID:28107392

  14. Upon accounting for the impact of isoenzyme loss, gene deletion costs anticorrelate with their evolutionary rates

    DOE PAGES

    Jacobs, Christopher; Lambourne, Luke; Xia, Yu; ...

    2017-01-20

    Here, system-level metabolic network models enable the computation of growth and metabolic phenotypes from an organism's genome. In particular, flux balance approaches have been used to estimate the contribution of individual metabolic genes to organismal fitness, offering the opportunity to test whether such contributions carry information about the evolutionary pressure on the corresponding genes. Previous failure to identify the expected negative correlation between such computed gene-loss cost and sequence-derived evolutionary rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been ascribed to a real biological gap between a gene's fitness contribution to an organism "here and now"º and the same gene's historical importance asmore » evidenced by its accumulated mutations over millions of years of evolution. Here we show that this negative correlation does exist, and can be exposed by revisiting a broadly employed assumption of flux balance models. In particular, we introduce a new metric that we call "function-loss cost", which estimates the cost of a gene loss event as the total potential functional impairment caused by that loss. This new metric displays significant negative correlation with evolutionary rate, across several thousand minimal environments. We demonstrate that the improvement gained using function-loss cost over gene-loss cost is explained by replacing the base assumption that isoenzymes provide unlimited capacity for backup with the assumption that isoenzymes are completely non-redundant. We further show that this change of the assumption regarding isoenzymes increases the recall of epistatic interactions predicted by the flux balance model at the cost of a reduction in the precision of the predictions. In addition to suggesting that the gene-to-reaction mapping in genome-scale flux balance models should be used with caution, our analysis provides new evidence that evolutionary gene importance captures much more than strict essentiality.« less

  15. Upon Accounting for the Impact of Isoenzyme Loss, Gene Deletion Costs Anticorrelate with Their Evolutionary Rates.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Christopher; Lambourne, Luke; Xia, Yu; Segrè, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    System-level metabolic network models enable the computation of growth and metabolic phenotypes from an organism's genome. In particular, flux balance approaches have been used to estimate the contribution of individual metabolic genes to organismal fitness, offering the opportunity to test whether such contributions carry information about the evolutionary pressure on the corresponding genes. Previous failure to identify the expected negative correlation between such computed gene-loss cost and sequence-derived evolutionary rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been ascribed to a real biological gap between a gene's fitness contribution to an organism "here and now" and the same gene's historical importance as evidenced by its accumulated mutations over millions of years of evolution. Here we show that this negative correlation does exist, and can be exposed by revisiting a broadly employed assumption of flux balance models. In particular, we introduce a new metric that we call "function-loss cost", which estimates the cost of a gene loss event as the total potential functional impairment caused by that loss. This new metric displays significant negative correlation with evolutionary rate, across several thousand minimal environments. We demonstrate that the improvement gained using function-loss cost over gene-loss cost is explained by replacing the base assumption that isoenzymes provide unlimited capacity for backup with the assumption that isoenzymes are completely non-redundant. We further show that this change of the assumption regarding isoenzymes increases the recall of epistatic interactions predicted by the flux balance model at the cost of a reduction in the precision of the predictions. In addition to suggesting that the gene-to-reaction mapping in genome-scale flux balance models should be used with caution, our analysis provides new evidence that evolutionary gene importance captures much more than strict essentiality.

  16. Biological Oxidation of As (III) in a Full-Scale Iron Removal Plant

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of arsenic removal from water is largely dependent on the oxidation state of the arsenic. As (III) is much more difficult to remove relative to the oxidized As (V) form. Arsenic in ground waters across the Midwest is typically in the form of As (III), and ther...

  17. Biological Oxidation of As (III) in a Full-Scale Iron Removal Plant

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of arsenic removal from water is largely dependent on the oxidation state of the arsenic. As (III) is much more difficult to remove relative to the oxidized As (V) form. Arsenic in ground waters across the Midwest is typically in the form of As (III), and ther...

  18. The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) measurement in the sera of colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jelski, Wojciech; Mroczko, Barbara; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2010-10-01

    The activity of total alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and class I isoenzymes is significantly higher in colorectal cancer tissue than in healthy mucosa. The activity of these enzymes in cancer cells is probably reflected in the sera and could thus be helpful for diagnosing colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) as tumor markers for colorectal cancer. We defined diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve for tested enzymes. Serum samples were taken from 182 patients with colorectal cancer before treatment and from 160 control subjects. Total ADH activity and class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by photometric, but ALDH activity and ADH I and II by the fluorometric method, with class-specific fluorogenic substrates. There was significant increase in the activity of ADH I isoenzyme and ADH total in the sera of colorectal cancer patients compared to the control. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH I was 76%, specificity 82%, AND positive and negative predictive values were 85 and 74%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ADH I increased with the stage of the carcinoma. The area under ROC curve for ADH I was 0.72. The results suggest a potential role for ADH I as marker for colorectal cancer.

  19. The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) measurement in the sera of gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jelski, Wojciech; Orywal, Karolina; Laniewska, Magdalena; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2010-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are present in gastric cancer cells (GC). Moreover, the activity of total ADH and class IV isoenzymes is significantly higher in cancer tissue than in healthy mucosa. The activity of these enzymes in cancer cells is probably reflected in the sera and could thus be helpful for diagnostics of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of ADH and ALDH as tumor markers for gastric cancer. We defined diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive value for positive and negative results, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve for tested enzymes. Serum samples were taken from 168 patients with gastric cancer before treatment and from 168 control subjects. Total ADH activity and class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by photometric but ALDH activity and ADH I and II by the fluorometric method, with class-specific fluorogenic substrates. There was significant increase in the activity of ADH IV isoenzyme and ADH total in the sera of gastric cancer patients compared to the control. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH IV was 73%, specificity 79%, positive and negative predictive values were 81 and 72% respectively. Area under ROC curve for ADH IV was 0.67. The results suggest a potential role for ADH IV as marker of gastric cancer.

  20. Conference Report: ESF-COST High-Level Research Conference Natural Products Chemistry, Biology and Medicine III.

    PubMed

    Catino, Arthur

    2010-12-01

    Natural Products Chemistry, Biology and Medicine III was the third conference in a series of events sponsored by the European Science Foundation (ESF) and the European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST). Scientists came together from within and outside the EU to present cutting-edge developments in chemical synthesis. Research areas included the synthesis of natural products, methods development, isolation/structural elucidation and chemical biology. As our capacity to produce new chemotherapeutic agents relies on chemical synthesis, this year's conference has never been so timely. This report highlights several of the scientific contributions presented during the meeting.

  1. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862.1445 Section 862.1445 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  2. Changes of serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Wada, H; Niwa, N; Hayakawa, T; Tsuge, H

    1996-10-01

    Changes of serum alkaline phosphatase (sALP) isoenzymes under fasting conditions were examined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), amino-acids (L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), L-homoarginine (L-HArg)) inhibition and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) treatment. The sALP of non-fasted rats was separated into three bands (S1, S2, S3) by PAGE. The molecular weight (M.W.) of S1 corresponded to that of an isoenzyme found in the ileum. By the addition of L-Phe, the staining intensity of S1 was weakened, S2 and S3 remained unchanged and the total activity of the isoenzymes extracted from intestine decreased. On the other hand, the activity of isoenzymes extracted from kidney and bone decreased by the addition of L-HArg. Therefore, S1 was judged to be derived from intestine. The activities of total sALP and S1 decreased from 16 h of fasting. Total sALP activity and sALP activity of the supernatant prepared by WGA treatment decreased, whereas the ALP activity of the precipitate (difference between total sALP activity and supernatant sALP activity) did not change. The activity band of the precipitate corresponded to that of S3 by PAGE. Therefore, S3 was judged to be derived from bone. In conclusion, under fasting conditions, the activity of S1 decreased while the activities of S2 and S3 remained unchanged.

  3. Surfactant-Assisted Nanodrop Spectrophotometer Determination of Iron(III) in a Single Drop of Food, Biological, and Environmental Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Tapadia, K.; Sahin, R.; Shrivas, K.

    2016-01-01

    A surfactant-assisted nanodrop spectrophotometric (NDS) method has been developed for the determination of the iron(III) content in single drops (1 μ L) of food, biological, and or environmental sample using disodium 1-nitroso-2-naphthol-3,6-sulfonate (Nitroso-R salt) as a complexing agent and Tween-80 as non-ionic surfactant at pH 4.0. This method is based on the formation of a complex between the Fe(III) present in a sample and the Nitroso-R-salt in the presence of a surfactant to form a green-colored Fe(III)-Nitroso-R salt complex, which can be measured using a NDS method at a λ max = 710 nm. This system was found to obey Beer's law at concentrations in the range of 50-5000 μ g/L with slope, intercept and correlation coefficient values of 0.683, 0.102, and 0.986, respectively. The molar absorptivity of the complex in terms of the Fe(III) content was determined to be 4.86 × 10 5 L· mol -1 · cm -1 . The detection limit and %RSD values of the method were found to be 17 × 10-3 mg/L and ±1.3706%, respectively. This newly developed method was successfully applied to the determination of the Fe(III) content in single drops of food, biological, and environmental samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry.

  4. Distance measurements in model Bis-Gd(III) complexes with flexible “bridge”. Emulation of biological molecules having flexible structure with Gd(III) labels attached

    PubMed Central

    Potapov, A.; Song, Y.; Meade, T. J.; Goldfarb, D.; Astashkin, A.V.; Raitsimring, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we continue to explore Gd(III) as a possible spin label for high field Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER) based distance measurements in biological molecules with flexible geometry. For this purpose, a bis-Gd(III) complex with a flexible “bridge” was used as a model. The distances in the model were expected to be distributed in the range of 5-26 Å, allowing us to probe the shortest limits of accessible distances which were found to be as small as 13 Å. The upper distance limit for these labels was also evaluated and was found to be about 60 Å. Various pulse duration setups can result in apparent differences in the distribution function derived from DEER kinetics due to short distance limit variations. The advantages, such as the ability to perform measurements at cryogenic temperatures and high repetition rates simultaneously, the use of very short pumping and observation pulses without mutual interference, the lack of orientational selectivity, as well as the shortcomings, such as the limited mw operational frequency range and intrinsically smaller amplitude of oscillation related to dipolar interaction as compared with nitroxide spin labels are discussed. Most probably the use of nitroxide and Gd based labels for distance measurements will be complementary depending on the particulars of the problem and the availability of instrumentation. PMID:20418132

  5. Reactivity of chromium(III) nutritional supplements in biological media: an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Annie; Mulyani, Irma; Levina, Aviva; Lay, Peter A

    2008-05-19

    Chromium(III) nutritional supplements are widely used due to their purported ability to enhance glucose metabolism, despite growing evidence on low activity and the potential genotoxicity of these compounds. Reactivities of Cr(III) complexes used in nutritional formulations, including [Cr3O(OCOEt)6(OH2)3](+) (A), [Cr(pic)3] (pic=2-pyridinecarboxylato(-) (B), and trans-[CrCl2(OH2)4](+) (CrCl3.6H2O; C), in a range of natural and simulated biological media (artificial digestion systems, blood and its components, cell culture media, and intact L6 rat skeletal muscle cells) were studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The XANES spectroscopic data were processed by multiple linear-regression analyses with the use of a library of model Cr(III) compounds, and the results were corroborated by the results of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry. Complexes A and B underwent extensive ligand-exchange reactions under conditions of combined gastric and intestinal digestion (in the presence of a semisynthetic meal, 3 h at 310 K), as well as in blood serum and in a cell culture medium (1-24 h at 310 K), with the formation of Cr(III) complexes with hydroxo and amino acid/protein ligands. Reactions of compounds A-C with cultured muscle cells led to similar ligand-exchange products, with at least part of Cr(III) bound to the surface of the cells. The reactions of B with serum greatly enhanced its propensity to be converted to Cr(VI) by biological oxidants (H2O2 or glucose oxidase system), which is proposed to be a major cause of both the insulin-enhancing activity and toxicity of Cr(III) compounds (Mulyani, I.; Levina, A.; Lay, P. A. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 4504-4507). This finding enhances the current concern over the safety of consumption of large doses of Cr(III) supplements, particularly [Cr(pic)3].

  6. Reactivity of Chromium(III) Nutritional Supplements in Biological Media: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, A.; Mulyani, I.; Levina, A.; Lay, P.A.

    2009-05-22

    Chromium(III) nutritional supplements are widely used due to their purported ability to enhance glucose metabolism, despite growing evidence on low activity and the potential genotoxicity of these compounds. Reactivities of Cr(III) complexes used in nutritional formulations, including [Cr3O(OCOEt)6(OH2)3]+ (A), [Cr(pic)3] (pic) = 2-pyridinecarboxylato(-) (B), and trans-[CrCl2(OH2)4]+ (CrCl3 {center_dot} 6H2O; C), in a range of natural and simulated biological media (artificial digestion systems, blood and its components, cell culture media, and intact L6 rat skeletal muscle cells) were studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The XANES spectroscopic data were processed by multiple linear-regression analyses with the use of a library of model Cr(III) compounds, and the results were corroborated by the results of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry. Complexes A and B underwent extensive ligand-exchange reactions under conditions of combined gastric and intestinal digestion (in the presence of a semisynthetic meal, 3 h at 310 K), as well as in blood serum and in a cell culture medium (1-24 h at 310 K), with the formation of Cr(III) complexes with hydroxo and amino acid/protein ligands. Reactions of compounds A-C with cultured muscle cells led to similar ligand-exchange products, with at least part of Cr(III) bound to the surface of the cells. The reactions of B with serum greatly enhanced its propensity to be converted to Cr(VI) by biological oxidants (H2O2 or glucose oxidase system), which is proposed to be a major cause of both the insulin-enhancing activity and toxicity of Cr(III) compounds (Mulyani, I.; Levina, A.; Lay, P. A. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 4504-4507). This finding enhances the current concern over the safety of consumption of large doses of Cr(III) supplements, particularly [Cr(pic)3].

  7. Separation of tissue and serum acid phosphatase isoenzymes by ion-exchange column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mercer, D W

    1977-01-01

    I describe a simple, rapid ion-exchange column-chromatographic technique for separating the acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) isoenzymes in human serum and tissue. Extracts of platelets, spleen, liver, erythrocytes, and prostate were used to determine optimum conditions for separating these isoenzymes. Samples layered on mini-colunms of DEAE-Sephadex A-50 were eluted stepwise with sodium chloride (100, 200, and 300 mmol/liter, buffered with tris (hydroxymethyl)aminomethane). Activity in column effluents was measured with p-nitrophenol phosphate as substrate, and their isoenzyme content was assessed by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. Comparision of activity patterns so derived for various tissues revealed prostatic tissue to be a rich source of acid phosphatase isoenzyme 2 activity. Evaluation of sera from six patients with prostatic cancer revealed isoenzyme patterns with prominent amount of isoenzyme 2 (3.8 to 27.6 U/liter). sera from 10 healthy laboratory technicians contained isoenzyme 2 in the range of 0.3-0.5 U/liter. Samples from two patients with abnormally high activity owing to nonprostatic conditions (Gaucher's disease and carcinoma of lung) exhibited less than 2 U of isoenzyme 2 per liter and acid phosphatase isoenzymes 3-5 that were 50- to 100-fold the normal range. Quantification of isoenzyme 2 by DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography as described appears to provide a more sensitive and specific approach to diagnosis of prostatic cancer.

  8. Biological and protein-binding studies of newly synthesized polymer-cobalt(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, G; Pradeep, I; Arunachalam, S; Vignesh, S; Arthur James, R; Arun, R; Premkumar, K

    2016-03-01

    The polymer-cobalt(III) complexes, [Co(bpy)(dien)BPEI]Cl3 · 4H2O (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dien = diethylentriamine, BPEI = branched polyethyleneimine) were synthesized and characterized. The interaction of these complexes with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated under physiological conditions using various physico-chemical techniques. The results reveal that the fluorescence quenching of serum albumins by polymer-cobalt(III) complexes took place through static quenching. The binding of these complexes changed the molecular conformation of the protein considerably. The polymer-cobalt(III) complex with x = 0.365 shows antimicrobial activity against several human pathogens. This complex also induces cytotoxicity against MCF-7 through apoptotic induction. However, further studies are needed to decipher the molecular mode of action of polymer-cobalt(III) complex and for its possible utilization in anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Production of L-phenylacetyl carbinol by biotransformation: product and by-product formation and activities of the key enzymes in wild-type and ADH isoenzyme mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, P; Ward, O P

    1991-08-20

    The capacities of yeast wild-type and mutants strains known to lack specific ADH isoenzymes to produce L-phenylacetyl carbinol (PAC) and benzyl alcohol in biotransformation trials were also investigated. Pyruvate decarboxylase activity, responsible for PAC formation and ADH activity, which can participate in reduction of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol, was also determined in each strain. In addition, the capacity of each strain to produce ethanol was investigated. Mutant strains lacking all of the isoenzymes, ADH-I, ADH-II, and ADH-III, still exhibited some ADH activity and were capable of production of benzyl alcohol and ethanol.

  10. Luminescent dendritic cyclometalated iridium(III) polypyridine complexes: synthesis, emission behavior, and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Liu, Hua-Wei; Fong, Tommy Tsz-Him; Chen, Xian-Guang; Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing

    2010-06-21

    Luminescent dendritic cyclometalated iridium(III) polypyridine complexes [{Ir(N--C)(2)}(n)(bpy-n)](PF(6))(n) (HN--C = 2-phenylpyridine, Hppy, n = 8 (ppy-8), 4 (ppy-4), 3 (ppy-3); HN--C = 2-phenylquinoline, Hpq, n = 8 (pq-8), 4 (pq-4), 3 (pq-3)) have been designed and synthesized. The properties of these dendrimers have been compared to those of their monomeric counterparts [Ir(N--C)(2)(bpy-1)](PF(6)) (HN--C = Hppy (ppy-1), Hpq (pq-1)). Cyclic voltammetric studies revealed that the iridium(IV/III) oxidation and bpy-based reduction occurred at about +1.24 to +1.29 V and -1.21 to -1.27 V versus SCE, respectively, for all the complexes. The molar absorptivity of the dendritic iridium(III) complexes is approximately proportional to the number of [Ir(N--C)(2)(N--N)] moieties in one complex molecule. However, the emission lifetimes and quantum yields are relatively independent of the number of [Ir(N--C)(2)(N--N)] units, suggesting negligible electronic communications between these units. Upon photoexcitation, the complexes displayed triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)MLCT) (dpi(Ir) --> pi*(bpy-n)) emission. The interaction of these complexes with plasmid DNA has been investigated by agarose gel retardation assays. The results showed that the dendritic iridium(III) complexes, unlike their monomeric counterparts, bound to the plasmid, and the interaction was electrostatic in nature. The lipophilicity of all the complexes has been determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, the cellular uptake of the complexes by the human cervix epithelioid carcinoma (HeLa) cell line has been examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), laser-scanning confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry. Upon internalization, all the complexes were localized in the perinuclear region, forming very sharp luminescent rings surrounding the nuclei. Interestingly, in addition to these rings, HeLa cells treated with the dendritic

  11. Radioimmunoassay of carbonic anhydrase III in rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, A; Jeffery, S; Wilson, C; Carter, N

    1984-01-01

    A specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for the rat carbonic anhydrase III isoenzyme was developed. High concentrations of carbonic anhydrase III were detected in soleus muscle and male liver. Female liver and other skeletal muscles contained significantly lower concentrations, and only trace amounts were found in heart, prostate, kidney, brain, plasma, urine and, possibly, erythrocytes. PMID:6424658

  12. Mononuclear Ru(III) Schiff base complexes: Synthesis, spectral, redox, catalytic and biological activity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, N. Padma; Arunachalam, S.; Manimaran, A.; Muthupriya, D.; Jayabalakrishnan, C.

    2009-04-01

    An octahedral ruthenium(III) Schiff base complexes of the type [RuX(EPh 3)(L)] (where, X = Cl/Br; E = As/P; L = dianion of the Schiff bases derived from acetoacetanilide with o-phenylenediamine and salicylaldehyde/ o-hydroxyacetophenone/ o-vanillin/2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde) have been synthesized from the reactions of equimolar reactions of [RuX 3(EPh 3) 3] and Schiff bases in benzene. The new Ru(III) Schiff base complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, electronic, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra, EPR spectral studies, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical studies. The new complexes were found to be effective catalysts for aryl-aryl coupling and the oxidation of alcohols into their corresponding carbonyl compounds, respectively, using molecular oxygen atmosphere at ambient temperature. Further, the new Ru(III) Schiff base complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera, Salomonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureaus.

  13. Negative Potentials Across Biological Membranes Promote Fusion by Class II and Class III Viral Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Markosyan, Ruben M.

    2010-01-01

    Voltage was investigated as a factor in the fusion of virions. Virions, pseudotyped with a class II, SFV E1 or VEEV E, or a class III protein, VSV G, were prepared with GFP within the core and a fluorescent lipid. This allowed both hemifusion and fusion to be monitored. Voltage clamping the target cell showed that fusion is promoted by a negative potential and hindered by a positive potential. Hemifusion occurred independent of polarity. Lipid dye movement, in the absence of content mixing, ceased before complete transfer for positive potentials, indicating that reversion of hemifused membranes into two distinct membranes is responsible for voltage dependence and inhibition of fusion. Content mixing quickly followed lipid dye transfer for a negative potential, providing a direct demonstration that hemifusion induced by class II and class III viral proteins is a functional intermediate of fusion. In the hemifused state, virions that fused exhibited slower lipid transfer than did nonfusing virions. All viruses with class II or III fusion proteins may utilize voltage to achieve infection. PMID:20427575

  14. Glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 3 (GDH3) of Arabidopsis thaliana is less thermostable than GDH1 and GDH2 isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Laura; Polverini, Eugenia; Degola, Francesca; Baruffini, Enrico; Restivo, Francesco Maria

    2014-10-01

    NAD(H)-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.4.1.2) is an abundant and ubiquitous enzyme that may exist in different isoenzymic forms. Variation in the composition of the GDH isoenzyme pattern is observed during plant development and specific cell, tissue and organ localization of the different isoforms have been reported. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the isoenzymatic pattern are still obscure. Regulation may be exerted at several levels, i.e. at the level of transcription and translation of the relevant genes, but also when the enzyme is assembled to originate the catalytically active form of the protein. In Arabidopsis thaliana, three genes (GDH1, GDH2 and GDH3) encode three different GDH subunits (β, α and γ) that randomly associate to form a complex array of homo- and hetero-hexamers. In order to asses if the different Arabidopsis GDH isoforms may display different structural properties we have investigated their thermal stability. In particular the stability of GDH1 and GDH3 isoenzymes was studied using site-directed mutagenesis in a heterologous yeast expression system. It was established that the carboxyl terminus of the GDH subunit is involved in the stabilization of the oligomeric structure of the enzyme.

  15. Luminescent Rhenium(I) and Iridium(III) Polypyridine Complexes as Biological Probes, Imaging Reagents, and Photocytotoxic Agents.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing

    2015-12-15

    Although the interactions of transition metal complexes with biological molecules have been extensively studied, the use of luminescent transition metal complexes as intracellular sensors and bioimaging reagents has not been a focus of research until recently. The main advantages of luminescent transition metal complexes are their high photostability, long-lived phosphorescence that allows time-resolved detection, and large Stokes shifts that can minimize the possible self-quenching effect. Also, by the use of transition metal complexes, the degree of cellular uptake can be readily determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For more than a decade, we have been interested in the development of luminescent transition metal complexes as covalent labels and noncovalent probes for biological molecules. We argue that many transition metal polypyridine complexes display triplet charge transfer ((3)CT) emission that is highly sensitive to the local environment of the complexes. Hence, the biological labeling and binding interactions can be readily reflected by changes in the photophysical properties of the complexes. In this laboratory, we have modified luminescent tricarbonylrhenium(I) and bis-cyclometalated iridium(III) polypyridine complexes of general formula [Re(bpy-R(1))(CO)3(py-R(2))](+) and [Ir(ppy-R(3))2(bpy-R(4))](+), respectively, with reactive functional groups and used them to label the amine and sulfhydryl groups of biomolecules such as oligonucleotides, amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Additionally, using a range of biological substrates such as biotin, estradiol, and indole, we have designed luminescent rhenium(I) and iridium(III) polypyridine complexes as noncovalent probes for biological receptors. The interesting results generated from these studies have prompted us to investigate the possible applications of luminescent transition metal complexes in intracellular systems. Thus, in the past few years, we have developed an interest

  16. Effect of some new cAMP analogs on cAMP-dependent protein kinase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Szücs, K; Sági, G; Vereb, G

    1992-06-01

    1. Ten new cAMP analogs were synthesized by replacing the purine ring with with indazole, benzimidazole or benztriazole and/or their nitro and amino derivatives. 2. Each analog proved effective in activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase I (PK-I) purified from rabbit skeletal muscle and cAMP-dependent protein kinase II (PK-II) from bovine heart and chasing 8-[3H]cAMP bound to regulatory subunits in the half-maximal effective concentrations of 2 x 10(-8)-8 x 10(-6) M. 3. The N-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-indazole-3'5'-cyclophosphate(I) proved a very poor chaser and activator of both isoenzymes, but when indazole was attached at its N-2 to ribose (IV) or when its H at C-4 (equivalent to the position of amino-group in adenine) was substituted by an amino-(III) or especially nitro-group (II) its efficiency was dramatically increased. 4. Analogs containing benztriazole ring proved as powerful as cAMP irrespective of the presence of substituents (VII-X). 5. Benzimidazole derivatives with amino-(VI) or nitro-group (V) activated PK-II 3 and 20 times better than PK-I. 6. Attaching of ribose to N-2 of indazole or benztriazole increased the affinity to PK-II 10 and 4 times, respectively. 7. Chasing efficiency of cAMP analogs at half-saturating [3H]cAMP tended to correlate with activating potency only for PK-I but at saturating [3H]cAMP concentration for both isoenzymes. 8. On the basis of synergistic activation with 8-Br-cAMP a site 2-selective binding of nitro-benzimidazole (V) and unsubstituted benztriazole (VII) derivatives to PK-II is suggested.

  17. A robust two-stage design identifying the optimal biological dose for phase I/II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yong; Lee, J Jack

    2017-01-15

    We propose a robust two-stage design to identify the optimal biological dose for phase I/II clinical trials evaluating both toxicity and efficacy outcomes. In the first stage of dose finding, we use the Bayesian model averaging continual reassessment method to monitor the toxicity outcomes and adopt an isotonic regression method based on the efficacy outcomes to guide dose escalation. When the first stage ends, we use the Dirichlet-multinomial distribution to jointly model the toxicity and efficacy outcomes and pick the candidate doses based on a three-dimensional volume ratio. The selected candidate doses are then seamlessly advanced to the second stage for dose validation. Both toxicity and efficacy outcomes are continuously monitored so that any overly toxic and/or less efficacious dose can be dropped from the study as the trial continues. When the phase I/II trial ends, we select the optimal biological dose as the dose obtaining the minimal value of the volume ratio within the candidate set. An advantage of the proposed design is that it does not impose a monotonically increasing assumption on the shape of the dose-efficacy curve. We conduct extensive simulation studies to examine the operating characteristics of the proposed design. The simulation results show that the proposed design has desirable operating characteristics across different shapes of the underlying true dose-toxicity and dose-efficacy curves. The software to implement the proposed design is available upon request. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Purification and characterization of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase isoenzymes from Datura innoxia.

    PubMed

    Kuske, C R; Ticknor, L O; Guzmán, E; Gurley, L R; Valdez, J G; Thompson, M E; Jackson, P J

    1994-02-25

    Three isoenzyme forms (designated A, B, and C) of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase were purified from Datura innoxia suspension cultures. Isoenzyme A is the most abundant form, comprising 45-60% of the total activity. Isoenzymes C and B comprise 35-40% and 10-20% of the activity, respectively. The specific activities of the purified isoenzymes are similar (870-893 mumol of cysteine/min/mg of protein). Molecular masses for isoenzymes A, B, and C, estimated by analytical size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography, are 63, 86, and 63 kDa, respectively. Isoenzymes A and B are homodimers; isoenzyme C is a heterodimer. Spectral analysis indicates that these isoenzymes possess a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate cofactor that binds the O-acetylserine substrate. Binding is reversible by addition of the sulfide substrate. The O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase isoenzymes are active over a broad temperature range, with maximum activity between 42 and 58 degrees C. They are active only between pH 7 and 8, with optimal activity at pH 7.6. Kinetic analysis indicates these enzymes are allosterically regulated and exhibit positive cooperativity with respect to both substrates. They are inhibited by sulfide concentrations above 200 microM. The kinetic analysis together with the physical and spectrophotometric characteristics indicate that the O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase enzymes have two active sites.

  19. A novel and sensitive method for recognition and indirect determination of Al III in biological fluid based on the quenching of resonance Rayleigh scattering intensities of "Al III-EV-DNA" complexing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Xiufen; Li, Desheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Caihua; Cao, Qing; Xiancong, Tao; Bi, Shuping

    2008-01-01

    A novel method for recognition and indirect determination of Al III by using biological molecules has been established based on the quenching of RRS intensity. In the weak acidic medium, the reaction of ethyl violet (EV) and DNA would result in great enhancement of RRS intensity. However, the presence of Al III would lead to the decrease of the RRS intensity owing to the competition coordination of Al with DNA. The decreased intensity of RRS is directly proportional to the concentration of Al III in the range of (0.1-2.5) × 10 -6 and (0.30-4.5) × 10 -5 M, respectively. The method has high sensitivity and its detection limit (3 σ) is 3.6 × 10 -8 M. The characteristics of RRS spectra of the system, the optimum conditions of the reaction, and the reaction mechanism have been investigated. The method can recognize Al III selectively owing to its strong binding to the phosphate backbone of DNA, and has been applied to the determination of Al III concentration in synthetic biological samples with satisfactory results. Therefore, the proposed method is promising as an effective means for selective recognition and sensitive determination in situ of Al III. Furthermore, this study would contribute to further understanding of the biological significance of Al neurotoxicity.

  20. Energy from biological processes. Volume III. Appendixes, Part B: Agriculture, unconventional crops, and select biomass wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This volume contains the following working papers written for OTA to assist in preparation of the report, Energy from Biological Processes: The Potential of Producing Energy From Agriculture; Cropland Availability for Biomass Production; Energy From Agriculture: Unconventional Crops; Energy From Aquaculture Biomass Systems: Fresh and Brackish Water Aquatic Plants; Energy From Agriculture: Animal Wastes; and Energy From Agriculture: Agricultural Processing Wastes.

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a class of mitochondrially-targeted gadolinium(III) agents.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Daniel E; Aitken, Jade B; de Jonge, Martin D; Issa, Fatiah; Harris, Hugh H; Rendina, Louis M

    2014-12-08

    A structure-activity relationship study of a library of novel bifunctional Gd(III) complexes covalently linked to arylphosphonium cations is reported. Such complexes have been designed for potential application in binary cancer therapies such as neutron capture therapy and photon activation therapy. A positive correlation was found between lipophilicity and cytotoxicity of the complexes. Mitochondria uptake was determined by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and Gd uptake was determined by means of quantification using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging. A negative correlation between lipophilicity and tumour selectivity of the Gd(III) complexes was demonstrated. This study highlights the delicate balance required to minimise in vitro cytotoxicity and optimise in vitro tumour selectivity and mitochondrial localisation for this new class of mitochondrially-targeted binary therapy agents. We also report the highest in vitro tumour selectivity for any Gd agent reported to date, with a T/N (tumour/normal cell) ratio of up to 23.5±6.6.

  2. Kinetico-mechanistic studies on methemoglobin generation by biologically active thiosemicarbazone iron(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Basha, Maram T; Bordini, Jeane; Richardson, Des R; Martinez, Manuel; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2016-09-01

    The oxidation of human oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) to methemoglobin (metHb) is an undesirable side effect identified in some promising thiosemicarbazone anti-cancer drugs. This is attributable to oxidation reactions driven by Fe(III) complexes of these drugs formed in vivo. In this work the Fe(III) complexes of selected 2-benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazones (HBpT), 2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazones (HApT), and the clinically trialled thiosemicarbazone, Triapine® (3-amino-2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, H3-AP), have been studied. This was achieved by time-resolved UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy and the sequential oxidation of the α- and β-chains of HbO2 at distinctly different rates has been identified. A key structural element, namely a terminal -NH2 group on the thiosemicarbazone moiety, was found to be an important common feature of the most active HbO2 oxidising complexes that were investigated. Therefore, these studies indicate that an unsubstituted -NH2 moiety at the terminus of the thiosemicarbazone group should be avoided in the design of future compounds from this class. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of hyaluronan synthase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Kari; Nikunen, Kaisa; Kärnä, Riikka; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Rilla, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan synthases (HAS) are unique plasma membrane glycosyltransferases secreting this glycosaminoglycan directly to the extracellular space. The three HAS isoenzymes (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3) expressed in mammalian cells differ in their enzymatic properties and regulation by external stimuli, but clearly distinct functions have not been established. To overview the expression of different HAS isoenzymes during embryonic development and their subcellular localization, we immunostained mouse embryonic samples and cultured cells with HAS antibodies, correlating their distribution to hyaluronan staining. Their subcellular localization was further studied by GFP-HAS fusion proteins. Intense hyaluronan staining was observed throughout the development in the tissues of mesodermal origin, like heart and cartilages, but also for example during the maturation of kidneys and stratified epithelia. In general, staining for one or several HASs correlated with hyaluronan staining. The staining of HAS2 was most widespread, both spatially and temporally, correlating with hyaluronan staining especially in early mesenchymal tissues and heart. While epithelial cells were mostly negative for HASs, stratified epithelia became HAS positive during differentiation. All HAS isoenzymes showed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity, both in tissue sections and cultured cells, while plasma membrane staining was also detected, often in cellular extensions. HAS1 had brightest signal in Golgi, HAS3 in Golgi and microvillous protrusions, whereas most of the endogenous HAS2 immunoreactivity was localized in the ER. This differential pattern was also observed with transfected GFP-HASs. The large proportion of intracellular HASs suggests that HAS forms a reserve that is transported to the plasma membrane for rapid activation of hyaluronan synthesis.

  4. Quantitative method for determining serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity II. Development and clinical application of method for measuring four serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, M D; Peake, M J; Walmsley, R N

    1986-01-01

    A method for quantitating the liver, bone, intestinal and placental alkaline phosphatase activity of serum, using an algorithm for converting selective inactivation by guanidine hydrochloride, L-phenylalanine, and heat into equivalent isoenzyme activity is described. The method can individually quantify mixtures of isoenzymes to within a margin of 3%; it has acceptable reproducibility and has been used to develop both age and sex related reference ranges. Analysis time is about 30 minutes. The clinical reliability of this method has been shown in a study of 101 patients, in 79% of whom isoenzyme results were compatible with the final clinical diagnosis; in 10% a clinical diagnosis resulted from isoenzyme analysis, and in a further 11% the source of the increased alkaline phosphatase activity was identified and supported by electrophoresis, with a definite clinical diagnosis yet to be made. PMID:3760234

  5. DNA-Directed Cell-Free Synthesis of Biologically Active Transfer RNA: su+III Tyrosyl-tRNA

    PubMed Central

    Zubay, Geoffrey; Cheong, Loretta; Gefter, Malcolm

    1971-01-01

    Biologically active su+III tyrosyl-tRNA has been synthesized in a DNA-directed cell-free system from Escerichia coli. Such a system should be most useful for studying the mechanism of tRNA synthesis. This tRNA is capable of suppressing amber mutations in the gene coding for β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) and, therefore, must be capable of being charged and transferring amino acids. A 4-fold stimulation in the activity of the tRNA formed de novo is obtained with isopentenyl pyrophosphate, a compound involved in the post-transcriptional acylation of an adenine base adjacent to the anticodon. It has been suggested elsewhere that formation of RNA subject to stringent control may be inhibited by guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp). However, guanosine tetraphosphate did not affect the synthesis of su+III tyrosyl-tRNA, even though the synthesis of this tRNA is subject to stringent control. PMID:4943792

  6. Biological sulfate reduction in the acidogenic phase of anaerobic digestion under dissimilatory Fe (III)--reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yaobin; Chang, Jinghui; Quan, Xie; Li, Qi

    2013-04-15

    In this study, a novel approach was developed for sulfate - containing wastewater treatment via dosing Fe₂O₃ in a two - stage anaerobic reactor (A1, S1). The addition of Fe₂O₃ in its second stage i.e. acidogenic sulfate-reducing reactor (S1) resulted in microbial reduction of Fe (III), which significantly enhanced the biological sulfate reduction. In reactor S1, increasing influent sulfate concentration to 1400 mg/L resulted in a higher COD removal (27.3%) and sulfate reduction (57.9%). In the reference reactor without using Fe₂O₃ (S2), the COD and sulfate removal were 15.6% and 29%, respectively. The combined performance of the two-stage anaerobic reactor (A1, S1) also showed a higher COD removal of 74.2%. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant bacteria with high similarity to IRB species as well as sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio and acidogenic bacteria (AB) were enriched in S1. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) analysis presented a higher proportion of sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio marrakechensis and Fe (III) reducer Iron-reducing bacteria HN54 in S1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. KINETICS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P450 ISOENZYMES IN HUMAN LIVER MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kinetics of Bromodichloromethane Metabolism by
    Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes in Human Liver Microsomes

    Guangyu Zhao and John W. Allis

    ABSTRACT
    The kinetic constants for the metabolism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) by three cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes have ...

  8. KINETICS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P450 ISOENZYMES IN HUMAN LIVER MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kinetics of Bromodichloromethane Metabolism by
    Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes in Human Liver Microsomes

    Guangyu Zhao and John W. Allis

    ABSTRACT
    The kinetic constants for the metabolism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) by three cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes have ...

  9. Creatine kinase radioimmunoassay and isoenzyme electrophoresis compared in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Homburger, H.A.; Jacob, G.L.

    1980-07-01

    We compared, in 116 patients, the relative usefulness of results of tests for creatine kinase B-isoenzymes, as measured by radioimmunoassay, and the MB isoenzyme, as measured by electrophoresis, in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The radioimmunoassay was specific for isoenzymes of creatine kinase containing the B subunit. All patients with acute transmural infarcts had positive test results by both techniques, but concentrations of B-isoenzymes were more frequently above normal than were MB bands in the case of patients with acute subendocardial infarcts and in the case of all patients with acute myocardial infarcts from whom sera were collected more than 24 h after onset of chest pain. Concentrations of B-isoenzymes also were increased, even when MB bands were not electrophoretically detectable in specimens from several patients without documented acute myocardial infarcts. These abnormal results presumably were caused by increased concentrations of the BB isoenzyme in serum. Accordingly, an increased concentration of B-isoenzymes had less diagnostic specificity and predictive value for acute myocardial infarction than did a detectable MB band. Results of isoenzyme electrophoresis were more reliable for establishing this diagnosis, but the results of radioimmunoassay were more reliable for excluding it in patients with chest pain as the primary symptom.

  10. Biological Potential of Halfsandwich Ruthenium(II) and Iridium (III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Gerd; Mojić, Marija; Bulatović, Mirna; Mijatović, Sanja; Maksimović-Ivanić, Danijela; Steinborn, Dirk; Kaluđerović, Goran N

    2016-01-01

    In vitro studies with the ruthenium(II) and analogous iridium(III) complexes [Ru(η6- p-cymene)Cl2{Ph2PCH2CH2CH2S(O)xPh-κP}], [Ru(η6-p-cymene)Cl{Ph2PCH2CH2CH2S(O)xPh- κP,κS}][PF6] (1-4), [Ir(η5-C5Me5)Cl2{Ph2PCH2CH2CH2S(O)xPh-κP}] and [Ir(η5-C5Me5)Cl{Ph2 PCH2CH2CH2S(O)xPh-κP,κS}][PF6] (5-8; x = 0, 1) revealed the high selectivity toward the 8505C, A253, MCF-7, SW480 and 518A2 cancer cell lines. Thus, the cationic ruthenium complex 4 proved to be the most selective one. In case of the neutral and cationic ruthenium complexes 1-4 the caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death was proven as the main cause of the drug's tumoricidal action on 8505C cell line.

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopic, DFT and in vitro biological studies of vanadium(III) complexes of aryldithiocarbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andotra, Savit; Kumar, Sandeep; Kour, Mandeep; Vikas; Chayawan; Sharma, Vishal; Jaglan, Sundeep; Pandey, Sushil. K.

    2017-06-01

    Vanadium(III) tris(dithiocarbonates), [(ROCS2)3V] (R = o-, m-, p-CH3C6H4 and 4-Cl-3-CH3C6H3) and donor stabilized addition complexes [(ROCS2)2V(Cl)·L] [L = NC5H5 or P(C6H5)3] were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, mass, TGA/DTA, SEM magnetic susceptibility and heteronuclear NMR (1H, 13C and 31P) spectroscopic studies. The cytotoxicity of the complexes was measured in vitro using the cultivated human cell lines. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the ligands and its vanadium complexes were also investigated through their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals. The antimicrobial activity of ligands and some complexes has been conducted against three bacterial strains and fungus. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations of ligands and vanadium complexes were performed by the DFT/B3LYP/LANL2DZ method to obtain the optimized molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), thermodynamic properties and various other quantum-mechanical parameters.

  12. Does exercise training alter myocardial creatine kinase MB isoenzyme content?

    PubMed

    Miller, T D; Rogers, P J; Bauer, B A; O'Brien, J F; Squires, R W; Bailey, K R; Bove, A A

    1989-08-01

    Skeletal muscle biopsies from highly trained endurance athletes have been shown to contain an increased percentage of the creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) isoenzyme, which has been attributed to continuous regeneration of the skeletal muscle fibers in response to exercise-induced injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether myocardium undergoes a similar degenerative-regenerative process as a result of exercise training. Fifteen mongrel dogs underwent a 12-wk period of training (N = 8) or cage confinement (N = 7). The animals were then sacrificed, and samples of left and right ventricular myocardium were analyzed for total CK activity and CK-MB isoenzyme content. Percentages of CK-MB were slightly but insignificantly higher from both ventricles of exercise-trained as compared with cage-confined dogs: left ventricle, 4.6 +/- 0.6% vs 3.3 +/- 0.6%, respectively (P = 0.15); right ventricle, 4.0 +/- 0.4% vs 3.0 +/- 0.8%, respectively (P = 0.29). We conclude that chronic exercise training does not induce physiologically important degenerative changes in myocardium.

  13. Improved radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, C.S.; Mumm, S.R.; Roberts, R.

    1981-11-01

    We describe convenient and relatively rapid procedures for purifying creatine kinase isoenzymes MM, BB, and MB, and their use in an improved radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes in plasma. The modifications include use of: (a) BB with a specific activity of 400 kU/G, which can be labeled with a specific radioactivity of 20 Ci/g; (b) albumin-free purified MB as inhibitor; (c) antiserum to MB creatine kinase; and (d) a second-antibody technique that necessitates only a 15-min incubation. The radioimmunoassay for MB has a sensitivity of 0.2 ..mu..g/L (80 mU/L) and a CV of <5%. Plasma MB average 22 (SD 12) ..mu..g/L in 200 normal subjects; 24 (SD 12) ..mu..g/L in 200 patients with chest pain without infarction; and 23 (SD 7) ..mu..g/L in 43 patients with renal disease, whether measured before or after dialysis. Peak values for plasma MB averaged 191 (SD 86) ..mu..g/L in 325 patients with documented myocardial infarction; BB was negligible. Extensive clinical experience indicates the radioimmunoassay to be suitably rapid, highly sensitive, and reliable as a diagnostic assay for MB on plasma.

  14. Changes in arginase isoenzymes pattern in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowska, Alicja; Krawczyk, Marek; Baranczyk-Kuzma, Anna

    2008-12-12

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common tumors worldwide affecting preferentially patients with liver cirrhosis. The studies were performed on tissues obtained during surgery from 50 patients with HCC, 40 with liver cirrhosis and 40 control livers. It was found that arginase activity in HCC was nearly 5- and 15-fold lower than in cirrhotic and normal livers, respectively. Isoenzymes AI (so-called liver-type arginase) and AII (extrahepatic arginase) were identified by Western blotting in all studied tissues, however the amount of AI, as well as the expression of AI-mRNA were lower in HCC, in comparison with normal liver, and those of AII were significantly higher. Since HCC is arginine-dependent, and arginine is essential for cells growth, the decrease of AI may preserve this amino acid within tumor cells. Concurrently, the rise of AII can increase the level of polyamines, compounds crucial for cells proliferation. Thus, both arginase isoenzymes seem to participate in liver cancerogenesis.

  15. Purification of major lignin peroxidase isoenzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium by chromatofocusing.

    PubMed

    Ollikka, P; Leppänen, V M; Anttila, T; Suominen, I

    1995-06-01

    The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces several isoforms of lignin peroxidase, which catalyzes the oxidative depolymerization of lignin To date, ion-exchange chromatography and preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF) have been commonly used for isolation of lignin peroxidase isoenzymes. In this work we have purified major lignin peroxidases to high purity by a one-step chromatographic method, chromatofocusing. The purified isoenzymes were identified by analytical IEF using isoenzymes purified by preparative IEF as standards. The specific activities and spectral properties of the isoenzymes were comparable with the previously published data. The predominant isoenzyme under the growth conditions used was LiP 4.65. Almost 50% of the lignin peroxidase activity applied into the column was recovered in the LiP 4.65 fraction. The total recovery of the lignin peroxidase activity was over 80%.

  16. Changes in lactate and malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in salmonella under the effect of potassium dichloroisocyanurate.

    PubMed

    Kotova, A L

    1978-01-01

    The method of enzyme-electrophoresis in agar gel according to Wieme (1959) was used for the study of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) isoenzymes of 24-hour and 48-hour Salmonella cultures exposed to a 0.02% solution of potassium dichloroisocyanurate (PDIC). Severe repression of LDH and MDH isoenzymes was observed immediately after the exposure of the culture to the disinfectant solution. A significant decrease in the content of the isoenzyme LDH1 and of the cytoplasmic fraction (C1) of MDH simultaneously with the appearance of the fractions LDH4, LDH1a and LDH1b were established in the strains cultured on MPA in the course of 24 hours following the exposure. A tendency to a decrease in the LDH1 content was preserved in the experimental cultures after 48 hours, but the spectrum of MDH isoenzymes showed almost no differences in comparison with that of MDH isoenzymes in 48-hour cultures of the control strains.

  17. Chromium(III) sorption enhancement through NTA - modification of biological materials

    SciTech Connect

    Low, K.S.; Lee, C.K.; Lee, P.L.

    1997-03-01

    The use of low-cost biological materials for the removal and recovery of heavy metals from solution has been investigated extensively in recent times. To enhance their sorption capacities various chemical modifications on the sorbents were attempted. Freer et al. showed that bark from the Pinus radiata (D. Don) had a greater sorption capacity for metals after treatment with both inorganic acid and formaldehyde. Apple wastes treated with phosphorus oxychloride improved the efficiency of removing metal ions. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-modified groundnut, Arachis hypogea, was reported to improve the sorption of cadmium and lead ions. Modifications with the aid of dyes also enhanced metal sorption. Moss and coconut husk (CH) are readily obtainable in Malaysia. Their sorption potential for metals has been reported. This paper reports on the metal sorption enhancement of these two biosorbents after chemical modification with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Microcalorimetric studies of the biological effects of Ho(III) on Halobacterium halobium R1.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liu; Yi, Liu; Xi, Li; Ping, Shen

    2008-04-01

    The biological effect of Ho3+ on Halobacterium halobium R1 growth was analyzed using the microcalorimetric method. Using the LKB-2277 Bioactivity Monitor with the ampoule method at 37 degrees C, the thermogenic curves of the growth of H. halobium R1 were obtained. Then, the maximum power (P (m)) and the growth rate constants (k) were determined, and the values of P (m) and k were linked to the concentration of Ho3+. In all, the addition of Ho3+ cause a decrease in the maximum heat production and growth rate constants. To confirm the results, the shapes of H. halobium R1 cell addition with Ho3+ using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were observed. According to the thermogenic curves and TEM photos of H. halobium R1 under different conditions, it is clear that the metabolic mechanism of H. halobium R1 growth has been changed with the addition of Ho3+.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of platinum II, III, and IV pivaloamidine complexes.

    PubMed

    Sinisi, Marilù; Gandin, Valentina; Saltarella, Teresa; Intini, Francesco P; Pacifico, Concetta; Marzano, Christine; Natile, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Imino ligands have proven to be able to activate the trans geometry of platinum(II) complexes towards antitumor activity. These ligands, like aromatic N-donor heterocycles, have a planar shape but, different from the latter, have still an H atom on the coordinating nitrogen which can be involved in H-bond formation. Three classes of imino ligands have been extensively investigated: iminoethers (HN=C(R)OR'), ketimines (HN=CRR'), and amidines (HN=C(R)NR'R″). The promising efficacy of the platinum compounds with amidines (activity comparable to that of cisplatin for cis complexes and much greater than that of transplatin for trans complexes) prompted us to extend the investigation to amidine complexes with a bulkier organic residue (R = t-Bu). The tert-butyl group can confer greater affinity for lipophilic environments, thus potentiating the cellular uptake of the compound. In the present study we describe the synthesis and characterization of pivaloamidine complexes of platinum(II), (cis and trans-[PtCl2(NH3){Z-HN=C(t-Bu)NH2}] and cis and trans-[PtCl2{Z-HN=C(t-Bu)NH2}2]), platinum(III) ([Pt2Cl4{HN=C(t-Bu)NH}2(NH3)2]), and platinum(IV) (trans-[PtCl4(NH3){Z-HN=C(t-Bu)NH2}] and trans-[PtCl4{Z-HN=C(t-Bu)NH2}2]). The cytotoxicity of all new Pt complexes was tested toward a panel of cultured cancer cell lines, including cisplatin and multidrug resistant variants. In addition, cellular uptake and DNA binding, perturbations of cell cycle progression, induction of apoptosis, and p53 activation were investigated for the most promising compound trans-[PtCl2(NH3){Z-HN=C(t-Bu)NH2}]. Remarkably, the latter complex was able to overcome both acquired and intrinsic cisplatin resistance.

  20. Elucidation of different cold-adapted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) trypsin X isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Stefansson, Bjarki; Sandholt, Gunnar B; Gudmundsdottir, Ágústa

    2017-01-01

    Trypsins from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), consisting of several isoenzymes, are highly active cold-adapted serine proteases. These trypsins are isolated for biomedical use in an eco-friendly manner from underutilized seafood by-products. Our group has explored the biochemical properties of trypsins and their high potential in biomedicine. For broader utilization of cod trypsins, further characterization of biochemical properties of the individual cod trypsin isoenzymes is of importance. For that purpose, a benzamidine purified trypsin isolate from Atlantic cod was analyzed. Anion exchange chromatography revealed eight peaks containing proteins around 24kDa with tryptic activity. Based on mass spectrometric analysis, one isoenzyme gave the best match to cod trypsin I and six isoenzymes gave the best match to cod trypsin X. Amino terminal sequencing of two of these six trypsin isoenzymes showed identity to cod trypsin X. Three sequence variants of trypsin X were identified by cDNA analysis demonstrating that various forms of this enzyme exist. One trypsin X isoenzyme was selected for further characterization based on abundance and stability. Stepwise increase in catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of this trypsin X isoenzyme was obtained with substrates containing one to three amino acid residues. The study demonstrates that the catalytic efficiency of this trypsin X isoenzyme is comparable to that of cod trypsin I, the most abundant and highly active isoenzyme in the benzamidine cod trypsin isolate. Differences in pH stability and sensitivity to inhibitors of the trypsin X isoenzyme compared to cod trypsin I were detected that may be important for practical use.

  1. Molecular structure and biological studies on Cr(III), Mn(II) and Fe(III) complexes of heterocyclic carbohydrazone ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu El-Reash, G. M.; El-Gammal, O. A.; Radwan, A. H.

    2014-03-01

    The chelating behavior of the ligand (H2APC) based on carbohydrazone core modified with pyridine end towards Cr(III), Mn(II) and Fe(III) ions have been examined. The 1H NMR and IR data for H2APC revealed the presence of two stereoisomers syn and anti in both solid state and in solution in addition to the tautomeric versatility based on the flexible nature of the hydrazone linkage leading to varied coordination modes. The spectroscopic data confirmed that the ligand behaves as a monobasic tridentate in Cr(III) and Fe(III) complexes and as neutral tetradentate in Mn(II) complex. The electronic spectra as well as the magnetic measurements confirmed the octahedral geometry for all complexes. The bond length and angles were evaluated by DFT method using material studio program for all complexes. The thermal behavior and the kinetic parameters of degradation were determined using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. The antioxidant (DDPH and ABTS methods), anti-hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of the compounds have been screened. Cr(III) complex and H2APC showed the highest antioxidant activity using ABTS and DPPH methods. With respect to in vitro Ehrlich ascites assay, H2APC exhibited the potent activity followed by Fe(III) and Cr(III)complexes.

  2. Synthesis, characterisation and biological evaluation of lanthanide(III) complexes with 3-acetylcoumarin-o-aminobenzoylhydrazone (ACAB).

    PubMed

    Gudasi, Kalagouda B; Shenoy, Rashmi V; Vadavi, Ramesh S; Patil, Manjula S; Patil, Siddappa A

    2005-09-01

    Lanthanide(III) complexes of the general formula [Ln(ACAB)(2)(NO(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)].NO(3).H(2)O where Ln=La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) and Y(III), ACAB=3-acetylcoumarin-o-aminobenzoylhydrazone have been isolated and characterised based on elemental analyses, molar conductance, IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR, UV, TG/DTA and EPR spectral studies. The ligand behaves in bidentate fashion coordinating through hydrazide >C=O and nitrogen of >C=N. A coordination number of ten is assigned to the complexes. Antibacterial and Antifungal studies indicate an enhancement of activity of the ligand on complexation.

  3. N,N-diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) as a substrate and mechanism-based inhibitor for human ALDH isoenzymes

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Cynthia A.; Parajuli, Bibek; Buchman, Cameron D.; Dria, Karl; Hurley, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    N,N-diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) is a commonly used “selective” inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase isoenzymes in cancer stem cell biology due to its inclusion as a negative control compound in the widely utilized Aldefluor assay. Recent evidence has accumulated that DEAB is not a selective inhibitory agent when assayed in vitro versus ALDH1, ALDH2 and ALDH3 family members. We sought to determine the selectivity of DEAB toward ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, ALDH1B1, ALDH1L1, ALDH2, ALDH3A1, ALDH4A1 and ALDH5A1 isoenzymes and determine the mechanism by which DEAB exerts its inhibitory action. We found that DEAB is an excellent substrate for ALDH3A1, exhibiting a Vmax/KM that exceeds that of its commonly used substrate, benzaldehyde. DEAB is also a substrate for ALDH1A1, albeit an exceptionally slow one (turnover rate ~0.03 min−1). In contrast, little if any turnover of DEAB was observed when incubated with ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, ALDH1B1, ALDH2 or ALDH5A1. DEAB was neither a substrate nor an inhibitor for ALDH1L1 or ALDH4A1. Analysis by enzyme kinetics and QTOF mass spectrometry demonstrates that DEAB is an irreversible inhibitor of ALDH1A2 and ALDH2 with apparent bimolecular rate constants of 2900 and 86,000 M−1 s−1, respectively. The mechanism of inactivation is consistent with the formation of quinoid-like resonance state following hydride transfer that is stabilized by local structural features that exist in several of the ALDH isoenzymes. PMID:25512087

  4. Multiple functional UV devices based on III-Nitride quantum wells for biological warfare agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Savage, Susan; Persson, Sirpa; Noharet, Bertrand; Junique, Stéphane; Andersson, Jan Y.; Liuolia, Vytautas; Marcinkevicius, Saulius

    2009-02-01

    We have demonstrated surface normal detecting/filtering/emitting multiple functional ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronic devices based on InGaN/GaN, InGaN/AlGaN and AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with operation wavelengths ranging from 270 nm to 450 nm. Utilizing MQW structure as device active layer offers a flexibility to tune its long cut-off wavelength in a wide UV range from solar-blind to visible by adjusting the well width, well composition and barrier height. Similarly, its short cut-off wavelength can be adjusted by using a GaN or AlGaN block layer on a sapphire substrate when the device is illuminated from its backside, which further provides an optical filtering effect. When a current injects into the device under forward bias the device acts as an UV light emitter, whereas the device performs as a typical photodetector under reverse biases. With applying an alternating external bias the device might be used as electroabsorption modulator due to quantum confined Stark effect. In present work fabricated devices have been characterized by transmission/absorption spectra, photoresponsivity, electroluminescence, and photoluminescence measurements under various forward and reverse biases. The piezoelectric effect, alloy broadening and Stokes shift between the emission and absorption spectra in different InGaN- and AlGaN-based QW structures have been investigated and compared. Possibilities of monolithic or hybrid integration using such multiple functional devices for biological warfare agents sensing application have also be discussed.

  5. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Lanthanide (III) Nitrate Complexes with N-(2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl) methylene) Nicotinohydrazide Schiff Base.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Ahmed K; Taha, Ziyad A; Ajlouni, Abdulaziz M; Al-Momani, Waleed M; Idris, Idris M; Hamra, Eman A

    2016-01-01

    The field of coordination chemistry has registered a phenomenal growth during the last few decades. It is well known that precious metals have been used for medicinal purposes for at least 3500 years. At that time, precious metals were believed to benefit health because of their rarity, but research has now well established the link between medicinal properties of inorganic drugs and specific biological properties. The current study was designed to explain the synthesis and characterization of the lanthanide (III) nitrate complexes with N-(2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl) methylene) nicotinohydrazide schiff base and to evaluate the antibacterial and the antioxidant activities of the schiff base and it's lanthanide ion complexes. Antimicrobial activity of the Lanthanide (III) nitrate complexes with N-(2- hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl) methylene) nicotinohydrazide schiff base was estimated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, µg/mL) using a micro-broth dilution method for different clinical isolates such as Eschereshia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. The antioxidant activities of the ligand and its lanthanide complexes were tested using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer by preparing 5x10-4M of all tested samples and DPPH in Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). Our present study has shown that moderate antimicrobial activity exists against both ligand and its complexes. There was no significant difference between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria towards the tested ligand and its complexes. The free ligand has scavenging activity between 13-21 % while all complexes are more efficient in quenching DPPH than free ligand. The results obtained herein indicate that the ligand and its complexes have a considerable antibacterial activity as well as antioxidant activity in quenching DPPH. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Enolase isoenzymes in adult and developing Xenopus laevis and characterization of a cloned enolase sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Segil, N; Shrutkowski, A; Dworkin, M B; Dworkin-Rastl, E

    1988-01-01

    As part of a study of glycolysis during early development we have examined the pattern of expression of enolase isoenzymes in Xenopus laevis. In addition, the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone coding for the complete amino acid sequence of one enolase gene (ENO1) in X. laevis was determined. X. laevis ENO1 shows highest homology to mammalian non-neuronal enolase. Analysis of enolase isoenzymes in X. laevis by non-denaturing electrophoresis on cellulose acetate strips revealed five isoenzymes. One form was present in all tissues tested, two additional forms were expressed in oocytes, embryos, adult liver and adult brain, and two further forms were restricted to larval and adult muscle. Since enolase is a dimer, three different monomers (gene products) could account for the observed number of isoenzymes. This pattern of enolase isoenzyme expression in X. laevis differs from that of birds and mammals. In birds and mammals the most acidic form is neuron-specific and there is only one major isoenzyme expressed in the liver. RNAase protection experiments showed the presence of ENO1 mRNA in oocytes, liver and muscle, suggesting that it codes for a non-tissue-restricted isoenzyme. ENO1 mRNA concentrations are high in early oocytes, decrease during oogenesis and decrease further after fertilization. Enolase protein, however, is maintained at high concentrations throughout this period. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3390159

  7. Native myosin from adult rabbit skeletal muscle: isoenzymes and states of aggregation.

    PubMed

    Morel, J E; D'hahan, N; Taouil, K; Francin, M; Aguilar, A; Dalbiez, J P; Merah, Z; Grussaute, H; Hilbert, B; Ollagnon, F; Selva, G; Piot, F

    1998-04-21

    The globular heads of skeletal muscle myosin have been shown to exist as isoenzymes S1 (A1) and S1 (A2), and there are also isoforms of the heavy chains. Using capillary electrophoresis, we found two dominant isoenzymes of the whole native myosin molecule, in agreement with what has previously been found by various techniques for native and nondenatured myosin from adult rabbits. Findings about possible states of aggregation of myosin and its heads are contradictory. By analytical ultracentrifugation, we confirmed the existence of a tail-tail dimer. By laser light scattering, we found a head-head dimer in the presence of MgATP. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with analytical ultracentrifugation and laser light scattering led us to refine these results. We found tail-tail dimers in a conventional buffer. We found tail-tail and head-head dimers in the presence of 0.5 mM MgATP and pure head-head dimers in the presence of 6 mM MgATP. All the dimers were homodimers. Naming the dominant isoenzymes of myosin a and b, we observed tail-tail dimers with isoenzyme a (TaTa) and with isoenzyme b (TbTb) and also head-head dimers with isoenzyme a (HaHa) and with isoenzyme b (HbHb).

  8. The use of isoenzyme electrophoresis in the taxonomy of Strongyloides.

    PubMed

    Viney, M E; Ashford, R W

    1990-02-01

    The limited usefulness of traditional taxonomic methods combined with the discovery of a Strongyloides parasitic in man in Papua New Guinea (PNG) that resembles S. fuelleborni, a parasite of man and other primates in tropical Africa, has precipitated the need to apply new methods to the taxonomy of the genus. In this study isoenzyme electrophoresis has been used on Strongyloides isolates of many different origins. Cluster analysis of the data suggested that existence of three main groups within the material considered, consisting of (1) isolates of S. stercoralis, (2) isolates from PNG domestic animals, and (3) isolates from PNG man and African non-human primates. The taxonomic implications of these groups are considered.

  9. Immunohistochemical analysis of amylase isoenzymes in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Higashiyama, M; Doi, S; Tomita, N; Monden, T; Murotani, M; Kawasaki, Y; Kobayashi, T; Shimano, T; Ogawa, M; Takai, S

    1991-01-01

    The expression of amylase in various histological types of thyroid cancer was studied by an immunohistochemical technique, using a polyclonal antiamylase antiserum and two monoclonal antibodies specific for salivary and pancreatic-type amylases, respectively. Amylase was expressed in 21 of 24 (88%) thyroid cancers by polyclonal antiserum analysis. Analysis by monoclonal antibodies, however, showed that only 13 (54%) cases and three (13%) cases contained salivary-type and pancreatic-type amylases, respectively. Moreover, immunoreactivity for pancreatic-type amylase was detected only in medullary carcinoma; other histological types were positive for salivary-type amylase. These results show that thyroid cancer frequently expresses amylase, and suggest that the differences between amylase isoenzymes in thyroid cancer may correlate with those found between cellular origin of tumour. Images PMID:1713922

  10. Identification of selective inhibitors for human neuraminidase isoenzymes using C4,C7-modified 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA) analogues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Albohy, Amgad; Zou, Yao; Smutova, Victoria; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V; Cairo, Christopher W

    2013-04-11

    In the past two decades, human neuraminidases (human sialidases, hNEUs) have been found to be involved in numerous pathways in biology. The development of selective and potent inhibitors of these enzymes will provide critical tools for glycobiology, help to avoid undesired side effects of antivirals, and may reveal new small-molecule therapeutic targets for human cancers. However, because of the high active site homology of the hNEU isoenzymes, little progress in the design and synthesis of selective inhibitors has been realized. Guided by our previous studies of human NEU3 inhibitors, we designed a series of C4,C7-modified analogues of 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA) and tested them against the full panel of hNEU isoenzymes (NEU1, NEU2, NEU3, NEU4). We identified inhibitors with up to 38-fold selectivity for NEU3 and 12-fold selectivity for NEU2 over all other isoenzymes. We also identified compounds that targeted NEU2 and NEU3 with similar potency.

  11. 21 CFR 862.1360 - Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transpeptidase and isoenzymes measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as alcoholic cirrhosis and primary and secondary liver tumors. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1360 - Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... transpeptidase and isoenzymes measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as alcoholic cirrhosis and primary and secondary liver tumors. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1360 - Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... transpeptidase and isoenzymes measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as alcoholic cirrhosis and primary and secondary liver tumors. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1360 - Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... transpeptidase and isoenzymes measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as alcoholic cirrhosis and primary and secondary liver tumors. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1360 - Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... transpeptidase and isoenzymes measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as alcoholic cirrhosis and primary and secondary liver tumors. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  16. Isoenzyme and ultrastructural characterization of Leishmania tropica axenic amastigotes and promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Hatam, Gholam Reza; Bahrami, Somayeh; Razavi, S Mostafa; Oryan, Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    Leishmania tropica is one of the main etiological agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. For ultrastructural and isoenzyme study, axenic amastigotes were cultured in a brain-heart infusion medium containing 20 % fetal calf serum, pH 4.5, and incubated at 37 °C in 5 % CO(2). Different stages of L. tropica revealed the same isoenzyme profiles after comparing four enzyme systems including phosphoglucomutase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and nucleoside hydrolase II. Different isoenzyme patterns for glucose-phosphate isomerase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, nucleoside hydrolase I, and malic enzyme enzymic systems were seen; thus, these isoenzyme systems among the eight systems studied were more efficient in characterizing L. tropica amastigotes. The structure of the axenic amastigotes was essentially similar to that of the promastigotes except for some important characteristics including the flagellum, flagellar pocket, paraxial rod, and the subpellicular microtubules.

  17. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1215 Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1215 Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1215 Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1215 Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system...

  1. Isolation and characterization of a homogeneous isoenzyme of wheat germ acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Waymack, P P; Van Etten, R L

    1991-08-01

    An acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, acid optimum; EC 3.1.3.2) isoenzyme from wheat germ was purified 7000-fold to homogeneity. The effect of wheat germ sources and their relationship to the isoenzyme content and purification behavior of acid phosphatases was investigated. Extensive information about the purification and stabilization of the enzyme is provided. The instability of isoenzymes in the latter stages of purification appeared to be the result of surface inactivation together with a sensitivity to dilution that could be partially offset by addition of Triton X-100 during chromatographic procedures. Added sulfhydryl protecting reagents had no effect on activity or stability, which was greatest in the pH range 4-7. The purified isoenzyme was homogeneous by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and exhibited the highest specific activity and turnover number reported for any acid phosphatase. The molecular weights of the pure isoenzyme and of related isoenzymes from wheat germ were found to be identical (58,000). The pure isoenzyme contained a single polypeptide chain and had a negligible carbohydrate content. The amino acid composition was determined. Of the various reasons that were considered to explain isoenzyme occurrence, a genetic basis was considered most likely. The enzyme was found to exhibit substrate inhibition with some substrates below pH 6, while above pH 8 it exhibited downwardly curving Lineweaver-Burk plots of the type that are generally described as "substrate activation". The observation of a phosphotransferase activity was consistent with the formation of a covalent phosphoenzyme intermediate, while inactivation by diethyl pyrocarbonate was consistent with the presence of an active site histidine.

  2. Structural, spectral, DFT, pH-metric and biological studies on Cr(III), Mn(II) and Fe(III) complexes of dithione heterocyclic thiosemicarbazide ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu El-Reash, Gaber M.; El-Gammal, Ola A.; El-Gamil, Mohammed M.

    2013-03-01

    Cr(III), Mn(II) and Fe(III) complexes derived from the quadruple potential dithione heterocyclic thiosemicarbazide ligand (H2PET) have been prepared and characterized by conventional techniques. The isolated complexes were assigned the formulae, [Cr(HPET)(H2O)2Cl2]·3H2O, [Mn(HPET)(H2O)Cl]2 and [Fe(HPET)(H2O)2Cl2]·H2O, respectively. IR data revealed that the ligand behaves as monobasic bidentate through (Cdbnd N)py and (Csbnd S) groups in both Cr(III) and Fe(III) complexes. In the binuclear Mn(II) complex, H2PET acts as NSNS monobasic tetradente via (Cdbnd N)py, (Csbnd S), (Cdbnd S) and the new azomethine, (Ndbnd C)* groups. An octahedral geometry for all complexes was proposed. The bond lengths, bond angles, HOMO, LUMO and dipole moment have been calculated by DFT using materials studio program to confirm the geometry of H2PET and its metal complexes. The ligand association constant and the stability constants of its complexes in addition to the thermodynamic parameters were calculated from pH metrically at 298, 308 and 318°K in 50% dioxane-water mixture, respectively. Also, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different thermal degradation steps of the complexes were determined by Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. Moreover, the anti-oxidant (using ABTS and DPPH methods), anti-hemolytic, and cytotoxic activities of the compounds have been tested.

  3. Mass spectrometric peptide mapping analysis and structural characterization of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isoenzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Gauss, C; Klein, J; Post, K; Suckau, D; Schneider, K; Thomas, H; Oesch, F; Przybylski, M

    1990-01-01

    The direct molecular weight determination and structural analysis of polypeptides and peptide mixtures have become amenable by the recent development of fast atom bombardment (FABMS) and 252Cf-plasma desorption (PDMS) mass spectrometry. FABMS and PDMS peptide mapping, i.e., the direct analysis of peptide mixtures resulting from proteolytic digestion, have been developed as powerful methods for the structural characterization of epoxide-metabolizing isoenzymes. The major advantage of this approach is provided by the selectivity of the endoproteolytic cleavage, combined with the specific and accurate molecular weight determination of complex digest mixtures containing peptides up to several thousands daltons in size. Furthermore, the mass spectrometric peptide mapping analysis can be combined with a range of protein-chemical modification reactions and with sequential degradation such as by carboxypeptidases. Both FABMS and PDMS peptide mapping have already been successfully applied to the structural differentiation of glutathione transferase and epoxide hydrolase isoenzymes in cases where references sequence data for at least one isoenzyme form was available. In the application described here, for a series of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DDH) isoenzymes with hitherto undetermined primary structures, a direct correlation between the structural differentiation from peptide mapping data and differences in their substrate specificities could be demonstrated. The mass spectrometric peptide mapping analysis of isoenzymes proved to be an efficient basis for the elucidation of the structure of one major DDH isoenzyme form; partial sequence data for this protein are reported. PMID:2272334

  4. Comparisons of subunit 5A and 5B isoenzymes of yeast cytochrome c oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Dodia, Raksha; Meunier, Brigitte; Kay, Christopher W. M.; Rich, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Subunit 5 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is essential for assembly and has two isoforms, 5A and 5B. 5A is expressed under normoxic conditions, whereas 5B is expressed at very low oxygen tensions. As a consequence, COX5A-deleted strains (Δcox5A) have no or only low levels of CcO under normoxic conditions rendering them respiratory deficient. Previous studies have reported that respiratory growth could be restored by combining Δcox5A with mutations of ROX1 that encodes a repressor of COX5B expression. In these mutants, 5B isoenzyme expression level was 30–50% of wild-type (5A isoenzyme) and exhibited a maximum catalytic activity up to 3-fold faster than that of 5A isoenzyme. To investigate the origin of this effect, we constructed a mutant strain in which COX5B replaced COX5A downstream of the COX5A promoter. This strain expressed wild-type levels of the 5B isoenzyme, without the complication of additional effects caused by mutation of ROX1. When produced this way, the isoenzymes displayed no significant differences in their maximum catalytic activities or in their affinities for oxygen or cytochrome c. Hence the elevated activity of the 5B isoenzyme in the rox1 mutant is not caused simply by exchange of isoforms and must arise from an additional effect that remains to be resolved. PMID:25241981

  5. The prognostic roles of ALDH1 isoenzymes in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Guo, Xiaoguang; Wang, Ziwei; Li, Xiaofeng; Bu, Youquan; Bai, Xuefeng; Zheng, Liansheng; Huang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity has been determined to be present in the stem cells of several kinds of cancers including gastric cancer (GC). Nevertheless, which ones of ALDH1’s isoenzymes are leading to ALDH1 activity remains elusive. In this study, we examined the prognostic value and hazard ratio (HR) of individual ALDH1 isoenzymes in patients with GC using “The Kaplan–Meier plotter” database. mRNA high expression level of ALDH1A1 was not found to be significantly correlated with the overall survival (OS) of all patients with GC followed for 20 years, HR =0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7–1.05), P=0.13. mRNA high expression level of ALDH1A2 was also not significantly correlated with OS for all patients with GC, HR =1.13 (95% CI: 0.91–1.41), P=0.25. mRNA high expression level of ALDH1A3 was found to be significantly correlated with worsened OS in either intestinal-type patients, HR =2.24 (95% CI: 1.44–3.49), P=0.00026, or diffuse-type patients, HR =1.91 (95% CI: 1.02–3.59), P=0.04. Interestingly, mRNA high expression level of ALDH1B1 was found to be significantly correlated with better OS for all patients with GC, HR =0.66 (95% CI: 0.53–0.81), P=7.8e–05, and mRNA high expression level of ALDH1L1 was found to be significantly correlated with worsened OS for all patients with GC, HR =1.23 (95% CI: 1–1.51), P=0.048. Furthermore, our results also indicate that ALDH1A3 and ALDH1L1 are potential major contributors to the ALDH1 activity in GC, since mRNA high expression levels of ALDH1A3 and ALDH1L1 were found to be significantly correlated with worsened OS for all patients with GC. Based on our study, ALDH1A3 and ALDH1L1 are potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for patients with GC. PMID:27354812

  6. Inhibitory and Activating Effects of Some Flavonoid Derivatives on Human Pyruvate Kinase Isoenzyme M2.

    PubMed

    Adem, Sevki; Aslan, Abdulselam; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Krohn, Karsten; Guler, Caglar; Comaklı, Veysel; Demirdag, Ramazan; Kuzu, Muslum

    2016-02-01

    Pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (PKM2) is expressed excessively in many different cancer types and it plays an important role in the control of glucose metabolism. Thus, it is evaluated as an important target in the development of medication for cancer. The flavonoids comprise a large group of natural products with variable phenolic structures and occur mainly in plants. They are of great interest due to their biological properties. In this study, the effects of various flavonoid derivatives on the PKM2 enzyme activity were analyzed in vitro. The flavonoid derivatives 1 and 2 showed inhibition effect with IC50 values of <60 μM. IC50 values of compounds 3-8 were calculated as 134, 415, 145, 163, 295 μM, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The molecules 9-12 showed an activation effect with values of AC50 of less than 90 μM. The IC50 values of the derivatives 13-17 were calculated as 115, 150, 200, 221, and 275 μM, respectively. The results show that catechin derivatives can be probably used as lead compounds for the design of PKM2 enzyme activators and inhibitors.

  7. Capsaicin: a potent inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Arabaci, Betul; Gulcin, Ilhami; Alwasel, Saleh

    2014-07-10

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) is a zinc containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the rapid and reversible conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) into a proton (H+) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ion. On the other hand, capsaicin is the main component in hot chili peppers and is used extensively used in spices, food additives and drugs; it is responsible for their spicy flavor and pungent taste. There are sixteen known CA isoforms in humans. Human CA isoenzymes I, and II (hCA I and hCA II) are ubiquitous cytosolic isoforms. In this study, the inhibition properties of capsaicin against the slow cytosolic isoform hCA I, and the ubiquitous and dominant rapid cytosolic isozymes hCA II were studied. Both CA isozymes were inhibited by capsaicin in the micromolar range. This naturally bioactive compound has a Ki of 696.15 µM against hCA I, and of 208.37 µM against hCA II.

  8. The emperor's new clothes: hypersensitivity of the new cardiac isoenzymes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ma Ai Thanda; Cherian, Vivek; Chow, R. Dobbin

    2013-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) myocardial infarction (MI) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are commonly recognized as two of the most challenging and vexing entities in clinical practice. When either is considered in a differential diagnosis, they warrant close consideration because of the life-threatening nature of these conditions. Their signs and symptoms overlap and, on rare occasions, they both can be simultaneously present in a single patient. Cardiac troponins are considered reliable markers of myocardial injury and are critical to the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes. However, they can also be elevated in cases of PE. We herewith present a case of a woman who initially presented with syncope and then subsequently dyspnea. She manifested elevated cardiac isoenzymes, right-sided electrocardiogram abnormalities, and RV hypokinesis on echocardiography. She was initially diagnosed with RV infarct and managed with an interventional cardiology approach. However, her symptom of dyspnea persisted and the patient was eventually diagnosed with PE. Clinicians should entertain the diagnosis of PE in patients with elevated troponin I and evidence of right-sided cardiac compromise. PMID:23882396

  9. [Systematics and genegeography of Juniperus communis inferred from isoenzyme data].

    PubMed

    Khantemirova, E V; Berkutenko, A N; Semerikov, V L

    2012-09-01

    Using isoenzyme analysis, 35 populations of Juniperus communis L. from various parts of the Russian species range and by one population from Sweden and Alaska were studied. The total sample size was 1200 plants. As a result, the existence ofJ. communis var. oblonga in North Caucasus and J. communis var. depressa in North America was confirmed, but genetic differences between J. communis var. communis and J. communis var. saxatilis were not detected in the main part of the Russian species range (European part of Russia, Ural, Siberia). These populations proved to be genetically uniform with the same predominant allelic frequencies, which may evidence recent settling of this species from one of Central or East European refugium. J. communis var. saxatilis from northeastern Russia inhabiting the region behind Verkhoyansk mountain and Russian Far East showed considerable differentiation in frequencies of alleles at three loci and geographical subdivision. These populations also exhibit high intrapopulation variation. This can be connected with the refugium in this territory. The origin of this group is probably connected with migrations from Central Asia (Tibet) in the direction to northeastern Russia along mountains connecting Central and North Asia. It is also assumed that migrations of this species previously proceeded across the Beringian land bridge.

  10. Education, income and ethnic differences in cumulative biological risk profiles in a national sample of US adults: NHANES III (1988-1994).

    PubMed

    Seeman, Teresa; Merkin, Sharon S; Crimmins, Eileen; Koretz, Brandon; Charette, Susan; Karlamangla, Arun

    2008-01-01

    Data from the nationally representative US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III cohort were used to examine the hypothesis that socio-economic status is consistently and negatively associated with levels of biological risk, as measured by nine biological parameters known to predict health risks (diastolic and systolic blood pressure, pulse, HDL and total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, c-reactive protein, albumin and waist-hip ratio), resulting in greater cumulative burdens of biological risk among those of lower education and/or income. As hypothesized, consistent education and income gradients were seen for biological parameters reflecting cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory risk: those with lower education and income exhibiting greater prevalence of high-risk values for each of nine individual biological risk factors. Significant education and income gradients were also seen for summary indices reflecting cumulative burdens of cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory risks as well as overall total biological risks. Multivariable cumulative logistic regression models revealed that the education and income effects were each independently and negatively associated with cumulative biological risks, and that these effects remained significant independent of age, gender, ethnicity and lifestyle factors such as smoking and physical activity. There were no significant ethnic differences in the patterns of association between socio-economic status and biological risks, but older age was associated with significantly weaker education and income gradients.

  11. Speciation analysis of aluminium(III) in natural waters and biological fluids by complexing with various catechols followed by differential pulse voltammetry detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Bi, Shuping; Yang, Li; Gu, Xiaodong; Ma, Pengju; Gan, Ning; Wang, Xianlong; Long, Xiufeng; Zhang, Fuping

    2002-12-01

    The biological effects of aluminium have received much attention in recent years. Speciation of Al is of basic relevance as it concerns its reactivity and bioavailability. A differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) procedure is proposed for speciation analysis of Al(III) in natural waters and biological fluids using six catechols (L-dopa, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, caffeic acid and o-benzenediol) as electroactive ligands. The decrease of the DPV anodic peak current for each catechol ligand is linear with the increase of Al concentration. This speciation analysis idea is based on the measurement of the complexation capacity, namely, different affinities of Al(III) for catechols and organic ligands under two pH conditions. The labile monomeric Al fraction (mainly inorganic aluminium) is determined at pH 4.6, while the total monomeric Al fraction is determined at pH 8.5. The principle for Al(III) speciation analysis by an electrochemical method is discussed. This sensitive and simple fractionation method is successfully applied to the speciation analysis of Al in natural waters and the results agree well with those of Driscoll's method. The speciation analysis of Al in biological fluids is also explored and the results are compared with those obtained by ultrafiltration and dialysis. Compared with other speciation protocols the electrochemical method possesses some remarkable advantages: rapidity, high sensitivity, cheap instrumentation and a simple operation procedure.

  12. Phylogeny, topology, structure and functions of membrane-bound class III peroxidases in vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Lüthje, Sabine; Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Hopff, David; Möller, Benjamin

    2011-07-01

    Peroxidases are key player in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species during cellular metabolism and oxidative stress. Membrane-bound isoenzymes have been described for peroxidase superfamilies in plants and animals. Recent studies demonstrated a location of peroxidases of the secretory pathway (class III peroxidases) at the tonoplast and the plasma membrane. Proteomic approaches using highly enriched plasma membrane preparations suggest organisation of these peroxidases in microdomains, a developmentally regulation and an induction of isoenzymes by oxidative stress. Phylogenetic relations, topology, putative structures, and physiological function of membrane-bound class III peroxidases will be discussed.

  13. Lanthanide ion probes of structure in biology. Environmentally sensitive fine structure in laser-induced terbium(III) luminescence.

    PubMed

    Sudnick, D R; Horrocks, W D

    1979-05-23

    The 488 nm line of the CW argon ion laser provides a convenient visible source for the direct excitation of the emissive 5D4 state of the Tb(III) ion. Room temperature emission spectra of Tb(III) in a variety of environments have been examined under relatively high resolution. The samples studied include structurally well-characterized crystalline solids, model chelate complexes in solution and Tb(III) bound to the enzyme thermolysin and the protein parvalbumin. The fine structure in the emissions is caused by ligand field splittings of both ground and excited state J manifolds. These spectra provide signatures sensitive to the immediate coordination environment of the Tb(III) ion. Solid state/solution state structural comparisons are made. The emission fine structure reveal differences between the EF side calcium-binding sites of parvalbumin and the calcium site 1 of thermolysin.

  14. Identification of 5α-reductase isoenzymes in canine skin.

    PubMed

    Bernardi de Souza, Lucilene; Paradis, Manon; Zamberlam, Gustavo; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile; Price, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Alopecia X in dogs is a noninflammatory alopecia that may be caused by a hormonal dysfunction. It may be similar to androgenic alopecia in men that is caused by the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The 5α-reductase isoenzymes, 5αR1 and 5αR2, and a recently described 5αR3, are responsible for the conversion of testosterone into DHT. However, which 5α-reductases are present in canine skin has not yet been described. The main objective of this study was to determine the pattern of expression of 5α-reductase genes in canine skin. Skin biopsies were obtained from healthy, intact young-mature beagles (three males, four females) at three anatomical sites normally affected by alopecia X (dorsal neck, back of thighs and base of tail) and two sites generally unaffected (dorsal head and ventral thorax). Prostate samples (n = 3) were collected as positive controls for 5α-reductase mRNA abundance measurement by real-time PCR. We detected mRNA encoding 5αR1 and 5αR3 but not 5αR2. There were no significant differences in 5αR1 and 5αR3 mRNA levels between the different anatomical sites, irrespective of gender (P > 0.05). Moreover, the mean mRNA abundance in each anatomical site did not differ between males and females (P > 0.05). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the expression of 5α-reductases in canine skin and the expression of 5αR3 in this tissue. These results may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of alopecia X and to determine more appropriate treatments for this disorder. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  15. Further insights into the isoenzyme composition and activity of glutamate dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Jean-Xavier; Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Bouton, Sophie; Pageau, Karine; Lea, Peter J.; Dubois, Frédéric; Hirel, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Following the discovery that in Arabidopsis, a third isoenzyme of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is expressed in the mitochondria of the root companion cells, we have re-examined the GDH isoenzyme composition. By analyzing the NADH-GDH isoenzyme composition of single, double and triple mutants deficient in the expression of the three genes encoding the enzyme, we have found that the α, β and γ polypeptides that comprise the enzyme can be assembled into a complex combination of heterohexamers in roots. Moreover, we observed that when one or two of the three root isoenzymes were missing from the mutants, the remaining isoenzymes compensated for this deficiency. The significance of such complexity is discussed in relation to the metabolic and signaling function of the NADH-GDH enzyme. Although it has been shown that a fourth gene encoding a NADPH-dependent enzyme is present in Arabidopsis, we were not able to detect corresponding enzyme activity, even in the triple mutant totally lacking NADH-GDH activity. PMID:23299333

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in children with bacterial and aseptic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nussinovitch, Moshe; Finkelstein, Yaron; Elishkevitz, Keren Politi; Volovitz, Benjamin; Harel, Daniella; Klinger, Gil; Razon, Yaron; Nussinovitch, Udi; Nussinovitch, Naomi

    2009-10-01

    Differentiation of bacterial from aseptic meningitis may be difficult. Our aim was to determine the pattern of distribution of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with bacterial and aseptic meningitis. One hundred and fifty-seven patients with suspected meningitis were enrolled in the study. They were divided into 3 groups according to the culture- or bacterial antigen assay-proven diagnosis and CSF findings: bacterial meningitis (n = 31), aseptic meningitis (n = 65), and non-meningitis (n = 61). Total LDH level and percentages of LDH isoenzymes in the CSF were measured in each patient. Each group showed a distinct LDH isoenzyme distribution pattern, with a statistically significant difference among the groups in the percentages of the various isoenzymes. Compared with the non-meningitis group, total LDH activity in the CSF was high in the aseptic meningitis group (49.82+/-35.59 U/L, P < 0.001) and exaggerated in the bacterial meningitis group (944.53+/-112.3 U/L, P < 0.001). Low LDH-2 levels were unique to bacterial meningitis (P < 0.01), whereas high LDH-3 levels were characteristic of aseptic meningitis (P < 0.05). Both groups had low levels of LDH-1 and high levels of LDH-4 and LDH-5. In conclusion, the LDH isoenzyme pattern may be of clinical diagnostic value in meningitis, particularly when culture results are pending.

  17. Purification and basic biochemical characterization of 19 recombinant plant peroxidase isoenzymes produced in Pichia pastoris☆

    PubMed Central

    Krainer, Florian W.; Pletzenauer, Robert; Rossetti, Laura; Herwig, Christoph; Glieder, Anton; Spadiut, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The plant enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is used in several important industrial and medical applications, of which especially biosensors and diagnostic kits describe an emerging field. Although there is an increasing demand for high amounts of pure enzyme preparations, HRP is still isolated from the plant as a mixture of different isoenzymes with different biochemical properties. Based on a recent next generation sequencing approach of the horseradish transcriptome, we produced 19 individual HRP isoenzymes recombinantly in the yeast Pichia pastoris. After optimizing a previously reported 2-step purification strategy for the recombinant isoenzyme HRP C1A by substituting an unfavorable size exclusion chromatography step with an anion exchange step using a monolithic column, we purified the 19 HRP isoenzymes with varying success. Subsequent basic biochemical characterization revealed differences in catalytic activity, substrate specificity and thermal stability of the purified HRP preparations. The preparations of the isoenzymes HRP A2A and HRP A2B were found to be highly interesting candidates for future applications in diagnostic kits with increased sensitivity. PMID:24342173

  18. Two Isoenzymes of NADH-dependent Glutamate Synthase in Root Nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng-Ling; Cullimore, Julie V.

    1988-01-01

    The specific activity of plant NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT) in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. is over threefold higher than the specific activity of ferredoxin-dependent GOGAT. The NADH-GOGAT is composed of two distinct isoenzymes (NADH-GOGAT I and NADH-GOGAT II) which can be separated from crude nodule extracts by ion-exchange chromatography. Both NADH-GOGAT isoenzymes have been purified to apparent homogeneity and shown to be monomeric proteins with similar Mrs of about 200,000. They are both specific for NADH as reductant. An investigation of their kinetic characteristics show slight differences in their Kms for l-glutamine, 2-oxoglutarate, and NADH, and they have different pH optima, with NADH-GOGAT I exhibiting a broad pH optimum centering at pH 8.0 whereas NADH-GOGAT II has a much narrower pH optimum of 8.5. The specific activity of NADH-GOGAT in roots is about 27-fold lower than in nodules and consists almost entirely of NADH-GOGAT I. During nodulation both isoenzymes increase in activity but the major increase is due to NADH-GOGAT II which increases over a time course similar to the increase in nitrogenase activity. This isoenzyme is twice as active as NADH-GOGAT I in mature nodules. The roles and regulation of these two isoenzymes in the root nodule are discussed. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16666475

  19. Structure and function comparison of Micropechis ikaheka snake venom phospholipase A2 isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Lok, Shee-Mei; Gao, Rong; Rouault, Morgane; Lambeau, Gerard; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2005-03-01

    Comparison of the crystal structures of three Micropechis ikaheka phospholipase A2 isoenzymes (MiPLA2, MiPLA3 and MiPLA4, which exhibit different levels of pharmacological effects) shows that their C-terminus (residues 110-124) is the most variable. M-Type receptor binding affinity of the isoenzymes has also been investigated and MiPLA4 binds to the rabbit M-type receptor with high affinity. Examination of surface charges of the isoenzymes reveals a trend of increase in positive charges with potency. The isoenzymes are shown to oligomerize in a concentration-dependent manner in a semi-denaturing gel. The C-termini of the medium (MiPLA4) and highly potent (MiPLA2) isoenzyme molecules cluster together, forming a highly exposed area. A BLAST search using the sequence of the most potent MiPLA2 results in high similarity to Staphylococcus aureus clotting factor A and cadherin 11. This might explain the myotoxicity, anticoagulant and hemoglobinuria effects of MiPLA2s.

  20. Serum chemistry alterations, including creatine kinase isoenzymes, in furazolidone toxicosis of ducklings: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Webb, D M; DeNicola, D B; Van Vleet, J F

    1991-01-01

    Furazolidone induces a cardiotoxicosis when fed in toxic concentrations to newly hatched ducklings. This preliminary experiment was designed to determine if creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymic activities or other serum analytes would be useful as indicators of these cardiac alterations. Sera from 12 ducklings (six fed a control ration and six fed the control ration with 700 mg furazolidone added per kg of feed [700 ppm] for 28 days) were analyzed for CK isoenzymic activities, electrolytes, nitrogenous metabolites, hepatic enzymic activities, bilirubin, and glucose. Statistically significant differences between control and treated groups were detected for creatine kinase MB (CK-MB, cardiac muscle origin) isoenzymic activity and bilirubin, potassium, calcium, and total carbon dioxide concentrations. Differences other than CK-MB isoenzymic activity were generally explained by factors related to the toxicosis or sample handling. These findings suggest that CK-MB isoenzymic activity may be useful to detect and monitor the progress of cardiac injury in furazolidone toxicosis, thereby increasing the usefulness of this model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Our findings, analyzed on the Kodak Ektachem 700 Dry Chemistry Analyzer, are compared with serum chemistry values reported in the literature.

  1. Effect of chitosan on peroxidase activity and isoenzyme profile in hairy root cultures of Armoracia lapathifolia.

    PubMed

    Flocco, Cecilia G; Giulietti, María

    2003-09-01

    Hairy root cultures of Armoracia lapathifolia established by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 9402 present a level and isoenzyme pattern of peroxidases (POD) comparable to nontransformed roots. Elicitation with chitosan (10, 50, and 100 mg/L) was used in order to improve POD production. Total POD activity increased about 170% after 48 h of treatment with chitosan 100 mg/L. Elicitation effect on soluble and ionically cell-wall-bound POD fractions of A. lapathifolia hairy roots was analyzed. POD activity of the ionically cell-wall-bound protein fraction increased in the presence of chitosan in a dose-response manner. No effect on soluble POD fractions was observed, but the isoenzyme pattern analyzed by isoelectrofocusing showed an increase of an acidic isoenzyme (pI = 3.4) after the elicitation treatment. The ionically cell-wall-bound protein fraction showed only basic isoenzymes, with an increase of an isoenzyme of pI = 8.7, after the elicitation treatment.

  2. Differences in catalytic properties between native isoenzymes of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET).

    PubMed

    Steele, N M; Fry, S C

    2000-08-01

    Four isoenzymes of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET; EC 2.4.1.207) were isolated from sprouting mung bean seedlings (M35, M45, M55a, M55b) and two from cauliflower florets (C30, C45). Purification in each case was by ammonium sulphate precipitation, reversible formation of a covalent xyloglucan-enzyme complex, and cation-exchange chromatography. The isoenzymes differed in pH optimum (range 5.0-6.5), Km for the nonasaccharide XLLGol (Gal2.Xyl3.Glc3.glucitol) as acceptor substrate, ability to utilise diverse oligosaccharides as acceptor substrate, and ability to bind to carboxymethyl-cellulose (and thus possibly to other polyanions such as pectin in the cell wall). None of the isoenzymes was particularly cold-tolerant, unlike one XET (TCH4) of Arabidopsis. The two cauliflower isoenzymes had higher Km values for XLLGol (70-130 microM) than the four mung bean isoenzymes (16-35 microM). We suggest that this difference is related to the major roles of the XETs in these two tissues: integration of new xyloglucan into the walls of the densely cytoplasmic cauliflower florets, and re-structuring of existing wall material in the rapidly vacuolating bean shoots.

  3. Biological effects of chicken type III interferon on expression of interferon-stimulated genes in chickens: comparison with type I and type II interferons.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yasumitsu; Matsuda, Akiko; Usui, Tatsufumi; Sugai, Toru; Asano, Atsushi; Yamano, Yoshiaki

    2012-11-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are key mediators that activate host defense mechanisms against viruses. The recently identified mammalian Type III IFN has biological effects similar to type I IFN. However, the biological effects of type III IFN have not yet been characterized in birds. We compared the effects of chicken type III IFN (IFN-λ) with type I (IFN-β) and type II (IFN-γ) IFNs on IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) using recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant chicken IFN-λ inhibited influenza virus replication and induced the mRNA expression of the ISGs, Mx and OAS, in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs) in a dose-dependent manner. However, the effective dose of IFN-λ was higher than that of IFN-β and IFN-γ. Furthermore, the effect of IFN-λ on induction of Mx and OAS was lesser than that of IFN-β, but comparable to that of IFN-γ. These results indicate that chicken IFN-λ has the potential to induce ISGs and inhibit viral replication in chicken cells.

  4. Carbon dots preparation as a fluorescent sensing platform for highly efficient detection of Fe(III) ions in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Hamishehkar, Hamed; Ghasemzadeh, Bahar; Naseri, Abdolhossein; Salehi, Roya; Rasoulzadeh, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Water-soluble carbon dots (CDs) were prepared, using a facile hydrothermal oxidation route of cyclic oligosaccharide α-CD, as carbon sources, and alkali as additives. The successful synthesis of CDs was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), FTIR, UV-visible absorption, and emission fluorescence. The characterizations showed that the prepared CDs are spherical and well-dispersed in water with average diameters of approximately 2 nm. These water-soluble CDs have excellent photo stability towards photo bleaching during 30 days. The obtained CDs showed a strong emission at the wavelength of 450 nm, with an optimum excitation of 360 nm. The fluorescence quenching of CDs in the presence of Fe(III) ions was used as fluorescent probes for quantifying Fe(III) ions in aqueous solution. Under optimum condition, the fluorescence intensity versus Fe(III) concentration gave a linear response, according to Stern-Volmer equation. The linearity range of the calibration curve and the limit of detection were 1.60×10(-5) to 16.6×10(-5) mol L(-1), and 6.05×10(-6) mol L(-1), respectively, which was in the range for serum analysis of Fe(III). It was concluded that the prepared CDs had a great potential as fluorescent probes for applications in analysis of Fe(III) ions in the blood serum samples, which is hardly interfered by other ions.

  5. Synthesis, spectroscopic, photoluminescence properties and biological evaluation of novel Zn(II) and Al(III) complexes of NOON tetradentate Schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Abdel Aziz, Ayman A; Badr, Ibrahim H A; El-Sayed, Ibrahim S A

    2012-11-01

    Novel mononuclear Zn(II) and Al(III) complexes were synthesized from the reactions of Zn(OAc)(2).2H(2)O and anhydrous AlCl(3) with neutral N2O2 donor tetradentate Schiff bases; N,N'bis(salicylaldehyde)4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine (H(2)L(1)) and N,N'bis(salicylaldehyde)4,5-dichloro-1,2-phenylenediamine (H(2)L(2)). The new complexes were fully characterized by using micro analyses (CHN), FT-IR, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis spectra and thermal analysis. The analytical data have been showed that, the stoichiometry of the complexes is 1:1. Spectroscopic data suggested tetrahedral and square pyramidal geometries for Zn(II) and Al(III) complexes, respectively. The synthesized Zn(II), and Al(III) complexes exhibited intense fluorescence emission in the visible region upon UV-excitation in methylene chloride solution at ambient temperature. This high fluorescence emission was assigned to the strong coordination of the ligands to the small and the highly charged Zn(II) and Al(III) ions. Such strong coordination seems to extend the π-conjugation of the complexes. Thermal analysis measurements indicated that the complexes have good thermal stability. As a potential application the biological activity (e.g., antimicrobial action) of the prepared ligands and complexes was assessed by in-vitro testing of their effect on the growth of various strains of bacteria and fungi.

  6. LDH isoenzyme pattern of uninvolved gastric mucosa of patients with gastric carcinoma and benign gastric disease.

    PubMed

    Woollams, R; Barratt, P J; Orwell, R L; Piper, D W

    1976-01-01

    The LDH isoenzyme pattern of the uninvolved mucosa of gastric cancer patients differs as regards the LDH isoenzyme pattern from that of similar tissue of patients with benign gastric disease; the former tissue is characterised by a high M/H ratio of the LDH isoenzymes (M and H sub-units). A high M/H ratio characterises antral mucosa when the latter is compared with fundic mucosa. Mucosa showing superficial and atrophic gastritis also has a higher M/H ratio, whereas the presence of intestinal metaplasia does not appear to influence the M/H ratio. These observations are consistent with the concept that the tissue from which the cancer arose may possess a pre-malignant biochemical lesion.

  7. Evaluation of hypotheses concerning the origin of Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) using isoenzyme data.

    PubMed

    Raelson, J V; Grant, W F

    1988-08-01

    An isoenzyme survey was conducted for several geographically dispersed accessions of four diploid Lotus species, L. alpinus Schleich., L. japonicus (Regel) Larsen, L. tenuis Waldst. et Kit and L. uliginosus Schkuhr, and for the tetraploid L. corniculatus L., in order to ascertain whether isoenzyme data could offer additional evidence concerning the origin of L. corniculatus. Seven enzyme systems were examined using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. These were PGI, TPI, MDH, IDH, PGM, 6-PGDH, and ME. Lotus uliginosus had monomorphic unique alleles, that were not found within L. corniculatus, at 7 loci. These loci and alleles are: Tpi1-112, Pgm1,2-110, Pgm3-82, Mdh3-68, 6-Pgdh1-110, 6-Pgdh2-98,95, and Me2-100. Other diploid taxa contained alleles found in L. corniculatus for these and other loci. The implications of the isoenzyme data to theories on the origin of L. corniculatus are discussed.

  8. Observations on the alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme distribution in maternal and amniotic fluid compartments in Nigerian parturients.

    PubMed

    Okpere, E; Okorodudu, A; Gbinigie, O

    1988-01-01

    Estimation of the alkaline phosphates isoenzymes in paired maternal serum and amniotic fluids in term uncomplicated pregnancies and in patients with pre-eclampsia, showed poor correlation coefficients between the levels of both heat stable and heat labile isoenzymes. There was a statistically significant fall in AF (P less than .05) HSAP in pre-eclampsia and a highly significant rise of HLAP in meconial liquor. It is concluded that the poor correlation between the levels of HSAP in maternal serum and amniotic fluid (despite their common source of origin), the normal levels of HLAP in maternal serum in the presence of significantly high levels of HSAP in maternal serum in the presence of significantly diminished levels in amniotic fluid point to a state of relatively diminished permeability of the chorioamniotic membranes to the alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in Nigerians.

  9. Canine serum thermostable alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme from a dog with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yu-ichi; Sato, Jun; Sato, Reeko; Yasuda, Jun; Naito, Yoshihisa

    2006-10-01

    A dog histopathologically diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) showed very high serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. A supernatant of ascitic fluid and tumor tissue extracted from the dog also showed much higher ALP activity than normal. ALP isoenzyme analysis of samples was performed using polyacrylamide gel disk electrophoresis, and a wide, broad abnormal band was observed. By various treatments, the abnormal band showed thermostability, which is a characteristic of tumor-associated ALP that has only been reported in humans. The thermostable ALP isoenzyme was not found in sera from 39 dogs with several types of tumor that originated from the liver, except for HCC, nor was it found in 10 dogs with hepatic diseases that did not include hepatic tumors. The thermostable ALP isoenzyme seemed to be associated with canine HCC.

  10. Decolorization of Azo, Triphenyl Methane, Heterocyclic, and Polymeric Dyes by Lignin Peroxidase Isoenzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Ollikka, Pauli; Alhonmäki, Kirsi; Leppänen, Veli-Matti; Glumoff, Tuomo; Raijola, Timo; Suominen, Ilari

    1993-01-01

    The ligninolytic enzyme system of Phanerochaete chrysosporium decolorizes several recalcitrant dyes. Three isolated lignin peroxidase isoenzymes (LiP 4.65, LiP 4.15, and LiP 3.85) were compared as decolorizers with the crude enzyme system from the culture medium. LiP 4.65 (H2), LiP 4.15 (H7), and LiP 3.85 (H8) were purified by chromatofocusing, and their kinetic parameters were found to be similar. Ten different types of dyes, including azo, triphenyl methane, heterocyclic, and polymeric dyes, were treated by the crude enzyme preparation. Most of the dyes lost over 75% of their color; only Congo red, Poly R-478, and Poly T-128 were decolorized less than the others, 54, 46, and 48%, respectively. Five different dyes were tested for decolorization by the three purified isoenzymes. The ability of the isoenzymes to decolorize the dyes in the presence of veratryl alcohol was generally comparable to that of the crude enzyme preparation, suggesting that lignin peroxidase plays a major role in the decolorization and that manganese peroxidase is not required to start the degradation of these dyes. In the absence of veratryl alcohol, the decolorization activity of the isoenzymes was in most cases dramatically reduced. However, LiP 3.85 was still able to decolorize 20% of methylene blue and methyl orange and as much as 60% of toluidine blue O, suggesting that at least some dyes can function as substrates for isoenzyme LiP 3.85 but not to the same extent for LiP 4.15 or LiP 4.65. Thus, the isoenzymes have different specificities towards dyes as substrates. Images PMID:16349103

  11. Decolorization of Azo, Triphenyl Methane, Heterocyclic, and Polymeric Dyes by Lignin Peroxidase Isoenzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Ollikka, P; Alhonmäki, K; Leppänen, V M; Glumoff, T; Raijola, T; Suominen, I

    1993-12-01

    The ligninolytic enzyme system of Phanerochaete chrysosporium decolorizes several recalcitrant dyes. Three isolated lignin peroxidase isoenzymes (LiP 4.65, LiP 4.15, and LiP 3.85) were compared as decolorizers with the crude enzyme system from the culture medium. LiP 4.65 (H2), LiP 4.15 (H7), and LiP 3.85 (H8) were purified by chromatofocusing, and their kinetic parameters were found to be similar. Ten different types of dyes, including azo, triphenyl methane, heterocyclic, and polymeric dyes, were treated by the crude enzyme preparation. Most of the dyes lost over 75% of their color; only Congo red, Poly R-478, and Poly T-128 were decolorized less than the others, 54, 46, and 48%, respectively. Five different dyes were tested for decolorization by the three purified isoenzymes. The ability of the isoenzymes to decolorize the dyes in the presence of veratryl alcohol was generally comparable to that of the crude enzyme preparation, suggesting that lignin peroxidase plays a major role in the decolorization and that manganese peroxidase is not required to start the degradation of these dyes. In the absence of veratryl alcohol, the decolorization activity of the isoenzymes was in most cases dramatically reduced. However, LiP 3.85 was still able to decolorize 20% of methylene blue and methyl orange and as much as 60% of toluidine blue O, suggesting that at least some dyes can function as substrates for isoenzyme LiP 3.85 but not to the same extent for LiP 4.15 or LiP 4.65. Thus, the isoenzymes have different specificities towards dyes as substrates.

  12. Serum adenosine deaminase and its isoenzyme activities in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Bahadır, Göksel; Döventaş, Yasemin Erdoğan; Turkal, Rana; Koldaş, Macit; Basınoğlu, Filiz; Dane, Banu; Altunkaynak, Emine

    2011-01-01

    Objective ADA is widely distributed in human tissues, which may contribute to the maturation of the immunological system, especially the proliferation and differentiation of lymphoid cells, and seems to be critical at different stages of the maturation process. The activity of ADA changes in diseases characterized by the alteration of cell-mediated immunity. In this study we examined changes in serum total ADA activity and the patterns of two ADA isoenzymes, ADA-1 and ADA-2, in healthy pregnant women, and evaluated the possible role of the alteration of cell-mediated immunity during pregnancy as causes of changes in ADA activity. Materials and Methods: We measured serum activities of total ADA, ADA-1 and ADA-2 in healthy pregnant women (n=129) and age-matched healthy nonpregnant women (n=42). We divided the study group into three different subgroups: first trimester, second trimester and third trimester. Results Serum ADA, ADA-1 and ADA-2 activities in healthy pregnant women were significantly lower than in nonpregnant women (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively). ADA (p<0.001) and ADA-2 (p<0.001) activities in the first trimester were significantly lower than in the control group. However, there were no significant differences between the first trimester and control group according to their ADA-1 activities (p=0.016). ADA (p<0.001), ADA-1 (p<0.001) and ADA-2 (p<0.008) activities in the second trimester were significantly lower than in the control group. Combined trisomy 21 risk, biochemical trisomy 21 risk, age risk and trisomy 18 + Nuchal translucency (NT) risk were calculated using a first trimester screening test in 63 pregnant women. Furthermore, trisomy 21 risk, age risk and trisomy 18 risk were calculated by triple test in 52 pregnant women. ADA, ADA-1 and ADA-2 activities were not significantly correlated with risks in the first trimester screening test. ADA-1 activity was slightly significantly negative correlated with age risk (r= −0.314, p<0

  13. Serum adenosine deaminase and its isoenzyme activities in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bahadır, Göksel; Döventaş, Yasemin Erdoğan; Turkal, Rana; Koldaş, Macit; Basınoğlu, Filiz; Dane, Banu; Altunkaynak, Emine

    2011-01-01

    ADA is widely distributed in human tissues, which may contribute to the maturation of the immunological system, especially the proliferation and differentiation of lymphoid cells, and seems to be critical at different stages of the maturation process. The activity of ADA changes in diseases characterized by the alteration of cell-mediated immunity. In this study we examined changes in serum total ADA activity and the patterns of two ADA isoenzymes, ADA-1 and ADA-2, in healthy pregnant women, and evaluated the possible role of the alteration of cell-mediated immunity during pregnancy as causes of changes in ADA activity. We measured serum activities of total ADA, ADA-1 and ADA-2 in healthy pregnant women (n=129) and age-matched healthy nonpregnant women (n=42). We divided the study group into three different subgroups: first trimester, second trimester and third trimester. Serum ADA, ADA-1 and ADA-2 activities in healthy pregnant women were significantly lower than in nonpregnant women (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively). ADA (p<0.001) and ADA-2 (p<0.001) activities in the first trimester were significantly lower than in the control group. However, there were no significant differences between the first trimester and control group according to their ADA-1 activities (p=0.016). ADA (p<0.001), ADA-1 (p<0.001) and ADA-2 (p<0.008) activities in the second trimester were significantly lower than in the control group. Combined trisomy 21 risk, biochemical trisomy 21 risk, age risk and trisomy 18 + Nuchal translucency (NT) risk were calculated using a first trimester screening test in 63 pregnant women. Furthermore, trisomy 21 risk, age risk and trisomy 18 risk were calculated by triple test in 52 pregnant women. ADA, ADA-1 and ADA-2 activities were not significantly correlated with risks in the first trimester screening test. ADA-1 activity was slightly significantly negative correlated with age risk (r= -0.314, p<0.05) and trisomy 18 risk (p<0.05) in the triple

  14. [Investigation of biologically active compounds at the Department of Organic Chemistry of University of Debrecen 1992-2009. Part III].

    PubMed

    Antus, Sándor

    2010-01-01

    The author briefly reviews the beginning of the carbohydrate chemistry in Hungary with special regard to the results achieved at the Department of Organic Chemistry of University of Debrecen and summarizes the most important synthetic and pharmaceutical results obtained in this field between 1992-2009, part III.

  15. Spectroscopic investigation on kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanism for electron transfer reaction of iron(III) complex with sulphur centered radical in stimulated biological system.

    PubMed

    Deepalakshmi, S; Sivalingam, A; Kannadasan, T; Subramaniam, P; Sivakumar, P; Brahadeesh, S T

    2014-04-24

    Electron transfer reactions of biological organic sulphides with several metal ions to generate sulphide radical cations are a great concern in biochemical process. To understand the mechanism, a stimulated biological system having model compounds, iron(III)-bipyridyl complex with thio-diglycolic acid (TDGA) was investigated. Spectroscopic study reveals the kinetics and thermodynamics of the reaction in aqueous perchloric acid medium. The reaction follows first and fractional order of 0.412 with respect to [Fe(bpy)3](3+) and TDGA, respectively. The oxidation is insensitive to variation in [H(+)] but slightly decreases with increase in ionic strength ([I]). Addition of acrylamide, a radical scavenger has no effect on the rate of the reaction. The high negative value of ΔS(#) (-74.3±1.09 J K(-1) mol(-1)) indicates the complex formed has a definite orientation higher than the reactants. Based on the above results, a suitable reaction mechanism for this reaction is proposed.

  16. IFPA meeting 2015 workshop report III: nanomedicine applications and exosome biology, xenobiotics and endocrine disruptors and pregnancy, and lipid.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, C; Caniggia, I; Clifton, V; Göhner, C; Harris, L; Hemmings, D; Jawerbaum, A; Johnstone, E; Jones, H; Keelan, J; Lewis, R; Mitchell, M; Murthi, P; Powell, T; Saffery, R; Smith, R; Vaillancourt, C; Wadsack, C; Salomon, C

    2016-12-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting, as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At the IFPA meeting 2015 there were twelve themed workshops, three of which are summarized in this report. These workshops were related to various aspects of placental biology but collectively covered areas of pregnancy pathologies and placental metabolism: 1) nanomedicine applications and exosome biology; 2) xenobiotics and endocrine disruptors and pregnancy; 3) lipid mediators and placental function.

  17. Biological changes observed on rice and biological and genetic changes observed on tabacco after space flight in the orbital station SALYUT-7 (Biobloc III experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayonove, J.; Burg, M.; Mir, A.; Delpoux, M.

    Caryopses and isolated embryos from Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Tobacco seeds (Nicotiana tabacum L. variety Xanthi) were studied in the Biobloc III container aboard the Soviet orbital space station SALYUT 7. The recovery from radiation damage under conditions of space flight was observed for rice caryopsis and embryos gamma irradiated (Co 60, 50 grays) prior to launch. There was a large decrease in the percentage of germinating seeds from the Tobacco strain tested when the seeds were exposed to heavy ions. Among the germinating plantlets there were few morphological anomalies. Furthermore, there was a significant greater amount of genetic change in those samples held in grids as compared to those in bags.

  18. Organelle-Bound Malate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes Are Synthesized as Higher Molecular Weight Precursors 1

    PubMed Central

    Gietl, Christine; Hock, Bertold

    1982-01-01

    Biosynthesis of malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes was studied in cotyledons of watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad., var. Stone Mountain). The glyoxysomal and mitochondrial isoenzymes are synthesized as higher molecular weight precursors which can be immunoprecipitated by mono-specific antibodies from the products of in vitro translation in reticulocyte lysates programed with cotyledonary mRNA and with the same size from enzyme extracts of pulse-labeled cotyledons. During translocation from the cytosol into the organelles, processing takes place. An 8 kilodalton extra sequence is cleaved from the glyoxysomal precursor and a 3.3 kilodalton extra sequence from the mitochondrial precursor producing the native subunits of 33 and 38 kilodaltons, respectively. The data support a post-translational translocation of the organelle-destined malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes. The in vitro translation of the cytosolic malate dehydrogenase I yields a product which has the same molecular weight as the subunit of the native isoenzyme (39.5 kilodaltons). Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:16662520

  19. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system. 862.1215 Section 862.1215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. 862.1050 Section 862.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  1. Synaptosomal lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme composition is shifted toward aerobic forms in primate brain evolution.

    PubMed

    Duka, Tetyana; Anderson, Sarah M; Collins, Zachary; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Ely, John J; Hof, Patrick R; Wildman, Derek E; Goodman, Morris; Grossman, Lawrence I; Sherwood, Chet C

    2014-01-01

    With the evolution of a relatively large brain size in haplorhine primates (i.e. tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), there have been associated changes in the molecular machinery that delivers energy to the neocortex. Here we investigated variation in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression and isoenzyme composition of the neocortex and striatum in primates using quantitative Western blotting and isoenzyme analysis of total homogenates and synaptosomal fractions. Analysis of isoform expression revealed that LDH in synaptosomal fractions from both forebrain regions shifted towards a predominance of the heart-type, aerobic isoform LDH-B among haplorhines as compared to strepsirrhines (i.e. lorises and lemurs), while in the total homogenate of the neocortex and striatum there was no significant difference in LDH isoenzyme composition between the primate suborders. The largest increase occurred in synapse-associated LDH-B expression in the neocortex, with an especially remarkable elevation in the ratio of LDH-B/LDH-A in humans. The phylogenetic variation in the ratio of LDH-B/LDH-A was correlated with species-typical brain mass but not the encephalization quotient. A significant LDH-B increase in the subneuronal fraction from haplorhine neocortex and striatum suggests a relatively higher rate of aerobic glycolysis that is linked to synaptosomal mitochondrial metabolism. Our results indicate that there is a differential composition of LDH isoenzymes and metabolism in synaptic terminals that evolved in primates to meet increased energy requirements in association with brain enlargement.

  2. Appearance of Three Chloroplast Isoenzymes in Dark-grown Pea Plants and Pea Seeds 12

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Eun Yoon; Anderson, Louise E.

    1973-01-01

    Activity peaks characteristic of the chloroplastic Calvin cycle enzymes triose-phosphate isomerase, ribose 5-phosphate isomerase, and fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase are found in isoelectric focusing patterns of dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings and seeds. Apparently, in this higher plant these three chloroplastic isoenzymes can be formed in the absence of light and of chloroplast formation. PMID:16658311

  3. SYNAPTOSOMAL LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOENZYME COMPOSITION IS SHIFTED TOWARD AEROBIC FORMS IN PRIMATE BRAIN EVOLUTION

    PubMed Central

    Duka, Tetyana; Anderson, Sarah M.; Collins, Zachary; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Ely, John J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Wildman, Derek E.; Goodman, Morris; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2014-01-01

    With the evolution of a relatively large brain size in haplorhine primates (i.e., tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans), there have been associated changes in the molecular machinery that delivers energy to the neocortex. Here we investigated variation in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression and isoenzyme composition of the neocortex and striatum in primates using quantitative Western blotting and isoenzyme analysis of total homogenates and synaptosomal fractions. Analysis of isoform expression revealed that LDH in the synaptosomal fraction from both forebrain regions shifted towards a predominance of the heart-type, aerobic isoforms, LDHB, among haplorhines as compared to strepsirrhines (i.e., lorises and lemurs), while in total homogenate of neocortex and striatum there was no significant difference in the LDH isoenzyme composition between the primate suborders. The largest increase occurred in synapse-associated LDH-B expression in the neocortex, displaying an especially remarkable elevation in the ratio of LDH-B to LDH-A in humans. The phylogenetic variation in LDH-B to LDH-A ratio was correlated with species typical brain mass, but not encephalization quotient. A significant LDHB increase in the sub-neuronal fraction from haplorhine neocortex and striatum suggests a relatively higher rate of aerobic glycolysis that is linked to synaptosomal mitochondrial metabolism. Our results indicate that there is differential composition of LDH isoenzymes and metabolism in synaptic terminals that evolved in primates to meet increased energy requirements in association with brain enlargement. PMID:24686273

  4. Inhibition of Pig Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Isoenzymes by 3-Mercaptopicolinic Acid and Novel Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Jorge; Latorre, Pedro; Carrodeguas, José Alberto; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Sancho, Javier; López-Buesa, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    There exist two isoforms of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) in pig populations that differ in a single amino acid (Met139Leu). The isoenzymes have different kinetic properties, affecting more strongly the Km and Vmax of nucleotides. They are associated to different phenotypes modifying traits of considerable economic interest. In this work we use inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity to search for further differences between these isoenzymes. On the one hand we have used the well-known inhibitor 3-mercaptopicolinic acid. Its inhibition patterns were the same for both isoenzymes: a three-fold decrease of the Ki values for GTP in 139Met and 139Leu (273 and 873 μM, respectively). On the other hand, through screening of a chemical library we have found two novel compounds with inhibitory effects of a similar magnitude to that of 3-mercaptopicolinic acid but with less solubility and specificity. One of these novel compounds, (N'1-({5-[1-methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]-2-thienyl}methylidene)-2,4-dichlorobenzene-1-carbohydrazide), exhibited significantly different inhibitory effects on either isoenzyme: it enhanced threefold the apparent Km value for GTP in 139Met, whereas in 139Leu, it reduced it from 99 to 69 μM. The finding of those significant differences in the binding of GTP reinforces the hypothesis that the Met139Leu substitution affects strongly the nucleotide binding site of PEPCK-C.

  5. Androgen Regulation of 5α-Reductase Isoenzymes in Prostate Cancer: Implications for Prostate Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Ding, Zhiyong; Wang, Zhengxin; Lu, Jing-Fang; Maity, Sankar N.; Navone, Nora M.; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Mills, Gordon B.; Kim, Jeri

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme 5α-reductase, which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), performs key functions in the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. The three isoenzymes of 5α-reductase identified to date are encoded by different genes: SRD5A1, SRD5A2, and SRD5A3. In this study, we investigated mechanisms underlying androgen regulation of 5α-reductase isoenzyme expression in human prostate cells. We found that androgen regulates the mRNA level of 5α-reductase isoenzymes in a cell type–specific manner, that such regulation occurs at the transcriptional level, and that AR is necessary for this regulation. In addition, our results suggest that AR is recruited to a negative androgen response element (nARE) on the promoter of SRD5A3 in vivo and directly binds to the nARE in vitro. The different expression levels of 5α-reductase isoenzymes may confer response or resistance to 5α-reductase inhibitors and thus may have importance in prostate cancer prevention. PMID:22194926

  6. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. 862.1050 Section 862.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. 862.1050 Section 862.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. 862.1050 Section 862.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. 862.1050 Section 862.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  10. Inhibition of Pig Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Isoenzymes by 3-Mercaptopicolinic Acid and Novel Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Jorge; Latorre, Pedro; Carrodeguas, José Alberto; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Sancho, Javier; López-Buesa, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    There exist two isoforms of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) in pig populations that differ in a single amino acid (Met139Leu). The isoenzymes have different kinetic properties, affecting more strongly the Km and Vmax of nucleotides. They are associated to different phenotypes modifying traits of considerable economic interest. In this work we use inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity to search for further differences between these isoenzymes. On the one hand we have used the well-known inhibitor 3-mercaptopicolinic acid. Its inhibition patterns were the same for both isoenzymes: a three-fold decrease of the Ki values for GTP in 139Met and 139Leu (273 and 873 μM, respectively). On the other hand, through screening of a chemical library we have found two novel compounds with inhibitory effects of a similar magnitude to that of 3-mercaptopicolinic acid but with less solubility and specificity. One of these novel compounds, (N'1-({5-[1-methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]-2-thienyl}methylidene)-2,4-dichlorobenzene-1-carbohydrazide), exhibited significantly different inhibitory effects on either isoenzyme: it enhanced threefold the apparent Km value for GTP in 139Met, whereas in 139Leu, it reduced it from 99 to 69 μM. The finding of those significant differences in the binding of GTP reinforces the hypothesis that the Met139Leu substitution affects strongly the nucleotide binding site of PEPCK-C. PMID:27391465

  11. Biological oxygen sensing via two-photon absorption by an Ir(III) complex using a femtosecond fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritomo, Hiroki; Fujii, Akinari; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Tobita, Seiji; Kawamata, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Near-infrared two-photon absorption of the phosphorescent Ir(III) complex (2,4-pentanedionato-κO 2,κO 4)bis[2-(6-phenanthridinyl-κN)benzo[b]thien-3-yl-κC]iridium (BTPHSA) was characterized. It exhibited a 800-1200 nm two-photon absorption band, and thus could be electronically excited by 1030-nm femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Yb-doped fiber lasers. By using BTPHSA, oxygen concentrations in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells were imaged. These results demonstrate two-photon oxygen sensing of live tissues via easily operable excitation sources.

  12. Locally Generated Methylseleninic Acid Induces Specific Inactivation of Protein Kinase C Isoenzymes

    PubMed Central

    Gundimeda, Usha; Schiffman, Jason Eric; Chhabra, Divya; Wong, Jourdan; Wu, Adela; Gopalakrishna, Rayudu

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we show that methylselenol, a selenometabolite implicated in cancer prevention, did not directly inactivate protein kinase C (PKC). Nonetheless, its oxidation product, methylseleninic acid (MSA), inactivated PKC at low micromolar concentrations through a redox modification of vicinal cysteine sulfhydryls in the catalytic domain of PKC. This modification of PKC that occurred in both isolated form and in intact cells was reversed by a reductase system involving thioredoxin reductase, a selenoprotein. PKC isoenzymes exhibited variable sensitivity to MSA with Ca2+-dependent PKC isoenzymes (α, β, and γ) being the most susceptible, followed by isoenzymes δ and ε. Other enzymes tested were inactivated only with severalfold higher concentrations of MSA than those required for PKC inactivation. This specificity for PKC was further enhanced when MSA was generated within close proximity to PKC through a reaction of methylselenol with PKC-bound lipid peroxides in the membrane. The MSA-methylselenol redox cycle resulted in the catalytic oxidation of sulfhydryls even with nanomolar concentrations of selenium. MSA inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in DU145 prostate cancer cells at a concentration that was higher than that needed to inhibit purified PKCα but in a range comparable with that required for the inhibition of PKCε. This MSA-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis decreased with a conditional overexpression of PKCε and increased with its knock-out by small interfering RNA. Conceivably, when MSA is generated within the vicinity of PKC, it specifically inactivates PKC isoenzymes, particularly the promitogenic and prosurvival ε isoenzyme, and this inactivation causes growth inhibition and apoptosis. PMID:18922790

  13. Serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in laboratory beagle dogs detected by polyacrylamide-gel disk electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Nishihara, Yoshito; Kimura, Sayaka; Goto, Ken; Nakamura, Daichi; Wakita, Atsushi; Urasoko, Yoshinaka

    2011-10-01

    Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is frequently measured in toxicity studies. Itoh et al. (2002) reported that a commercially available polyacrylamide-gel (PAG) disk electrophoresis kit used in humans (AlkPhor System, Jokoh Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) for identifying serum ALP isoenzymes was useful for veterinary clinicopathological diagnosis in mongrel dogs. In the present study, based on the report of Itoh et al. (2002), we tried to expand the application range of this kit to laboratory beagle dogs which are commonly used in toxicity studies. In order to identify the origin of each ALP isoenzyme, tissue ALP extracts from the liver, bone and small intestine and serum samples were treated with neuraminidase, anti-small intestinal ALP antibody, ALP inhibitor levamisole and/or wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). The main serum ALP isoenzymes in 5-month-old intact beagle dogs were bone-derived (bone and atypical ALP: corresponding to human variant bone ALP) and they tended to decrease with age. However, liver-derived ALP isoenzyme greatly increased in the serum of cholestasis model dogs. The cholestasis model dogs also had a large molecular ALP detected in the resolving gel. This ALP could be originated from intestinal ALP or corticosteroid-induced ALP (CALP), because the activity remained even after levamisole inhibition. CALP was observed in intact laboratory beagle dogs with individual differences. These results suggest that the present method is a useful tool for detecting serum ALP isoenzymes in laboratory beagle dogs and concomitant levamisole inhibition with another gel is applicable for the evaluation of organ toxicity.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new dysprosium(III) complex containing 2,9-dimethyl 1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Zohreh; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam

    2017-02-01

    The binding of [Dy(dmp)2Cl3(OH2)], where dmp is 2,9-dimethyl 1,10-phenanthroline, with Fish salmon DNA (FS-DNA) is investigated by absorption and emission spectroscopy, quenching studies, salt dependent, and gel electrophoresis. The binding constant (Kb) of the interaction is calculated as (1.27 ± .05) × 10(5) M(-1) from absorption spectral titration data. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV), thermodynamic parameters involves ΔG°, ∆H°, and ∆S° are calculated by fluorescent data and Van't Hoff equation. The thermodynamic studies show that the reaction for the binding of the complex with FS-DNA is endothermic and entropically driven (ΔS° > 0, ΔH° > 0). The effect of the complex concentration on FS-DNA cleavage reactions is also investigated by gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the Dy(III) complex has been screened for its antibacterial activity. The experimental results suggest that the Dy(III) complex binds significantly to FS-DNA by hydrophobic groove binding mode and the complex has more efficient antibacterial activity compared to its metal salt.

  15. Cardiac troponin T and creatine kinase MB isoenzyme as biochemical markers of ischemia after heart preservation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Carrier, M; Solymoss, B C; Cartier, R; Leclerc, Y; Pelletier, L C

    1994-01-01

    An ischemic preservation period of less than 4 to 6 hours for the donor heart is considered safe in heart transplantation. To determine the severity of myocardial cell damage, we measured serum creatine kinase MB isoenzyme activity, creatine kinase MB isoenzyme mass concentration, and troponin T release in 14 patients during the first 48 hours after heart transplantation. All donors had normal cardiac function at echocardiographic evaluation. The heart was arrested with cold crystalloid cardioplegic solution and preserved in a hypothermic solution. All patients survived the first week after transplantation. Total ischemic time averaged 126 +/- 33 minutes (range 88 to 195 minutes). Maximal creatine kinase MB isoenzyme activity, creatine kinase MB isoenzyme mass concentration, and troponin T serum values after transplantation averaged 130 +/- 44 IU/L, 140 +/- 121 ng/ml, and 3.3 +/- 1.4 ng/ml, respectively. No significant correlation was found between ischemic time and peak levels of creatine kinase MB isoenzyme activity (r = 0.22), creatine kinase MB isoenzyme mass (r = 0.37) and troponin T (r = 0.12). A moderate correlation between ischemic time and the initial slope of time-activity curve of creatine kinase MB isoenzyme mass (r = 0.66, p = 0.01) and of troponin T release (r = 0.55, p = 0.03) was observed. Ischemic time and donor age were significantly related to creatine kinase MB isoenzyme mass (R2 = 0.61) and to troponin T (R2 = 0.47) initial release slopes. In conclusion, during a short period of ischemic preservation, myocardial cell damage appears to be mild and best reflected by the elevation and the time-activity curves of release of cardiac troponin T and creatine kinase MB isoenzyme mass.

  16. Synthesis, photoluminescence and biological properties of terbium(III) complexes with hydroxyketone and nitrogen containing heterocyclic ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonam; Kumar, Rajesh; Boora, Priti; Khatkar, Anurag; Khatkar, S. P.; Taxak, V. B.

    2016-01-01

    The ternary terbium(III) complexes [Tb(HDAP)3ṡbiq], [Tb(HDAP)3ṡdmph] and [Tb(HDAP)3ṡbathophen] were prepared by using methoxy substituted hydroxyketone ligand HDAP (2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyacetophenone) and an ancillary ligand 2,2-biquinoline or 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline or bathophenanthroline respectively. The ligand and synthesized complexes were characterised based on elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H NMR. Thermal behaviour of the synthesized complexes illustrates the general decomposition patterns of the complexes by thermogravimetric analysis. Photophysical properties such as excitation spectra, emission spectra and luminescence decay curves of the complexes were investigated in detail. The main green emitting peak at 548 nm can be attributed to 5D4 → 7F5 of Tb3+ ion. Thus, these complexes might be used to make a bright green light-emitting diode for display purpose. In addition the in vitro antibacterial activities of HDAP and its Tb(III) complexes against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger are reported. The Tb3+ complexes were found to be more potent antimicrobial agent as compared to the ligand. Among all these complexes, [Tb(HDAP)3ṡbathophen] exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity which proves its potential usefulness as an antimicrobial agent. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity tests were carried out by using DPPH method which indicates that the complexes have considerable antioxidant activity when compared with the standard ascorbic acid.

  17. Synthesis, photoluminescence and biological properties of terbium(III) complexes with hydroxyketone and nitrogen containing heterocyclic ligands.

    PubMed

    Poonam; Kumar, Rajesh; Boora, Priti; Khatkar, Anurag; Khatkar, S P; Taxak, V B

    2016-01-05

    The ternary terbium(III) complexes [Tb(HDAP)3⋅biq], [Tb(HDAP)3⋅dmph] and [Tb(HDAP)3⋅bathophen] were prepared by using methoxy substituted hydroxyketone ligand HDAP (2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyacetophenone) and an ancillary ligand 2,2-biquinoline or 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline or bathophenanthroline respectively. The ligand and synthesized complexes were characterised based on elemental analysis, FT-IR and (1)H NMR. Thermal behaviour of the synthesized complexes illustrates the general decomposition patterns of the complexes by thermogravimetric analysis. Photophysical properties such as excitation spectra, emission spectra and luminescence decay curves of the complexes were investigated in detail. The main green emitting peak at 548nm can be attributed to (5)D4→(7)F5 of Tb(3+) ion. Thus, these complexes might be used to make a bright green light-emitting diode for display purpose. In addition the in vitro antibacterial activities of HDAP and its Tb(III) complexes against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger are reported. The Tb(3+) complexes were found to be more potent antimicrobial agent as compared to the ligand. Among all these complexes, [Tb(HDAP)3⋅bathophen] exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity which proves its potential usefulness as an antimicrobial agent. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity tests were carried out by using DPPH method which indicates that the complexes have considerable antioxidant activity when compared with the standard ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Properties of the two isoenzymes of methyl-coenzyme M reductase in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    PubMed

    Bonacker, L G; Baudner, S; Mörschel, E; Böcher, R; Thauer, R K

    1993-10-15

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyses the methane-forming step in the energy metabolism of methanogenic Archaea. It brings about the reduction of methyl-coenzyme M (CH3-S-CoM) by 7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate (H-S-HTP). Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum contains two isoenzymes of MCR, designated MCR I and MCR II, which are expressed differentially under different conditions of growth. These two isoenzymes have been separated, purified and their catalytic and spectroscopic properties determined. Initial-velocity measurements of the two-substrate reaction showed that the kinetic mechanism for both isoenzymes involved ternary-complex formation. Double reciprocal plots of initial rates versus the concentration of either one of the two substrates at different constant concentrations of the other substrate were linear and intersected on the abcissa to the left of the 1/v axis. The two purified isoenzymes differed in their Km values for H-S-HTP and for CH3-S-CoM and in Vmax. MCR I displayed a Km for H-S-HTP of 0.1-0.3 mM, a Km for CH3-S-CoM of 0.6-0.8 mM and a Vmax of about 6 mumol.min-1 x mg-1 (most active preparation). MCR II showed a Km for H-S-HTP of 0.4-0.6 mM, a Km for CH3-S-CoM of 1.3-1.5 mM and a Vmax of about 21 mumol.min-1 x mg-1 (most active preparation). The pH optimum of MCR I was 7.0-7.5 and that of MCR II 7.5-8.0. Both isoenzymes exhibited very similar temperature activity optima and EPR properties. The location of MCR I and of MCR II within the cell, determined via immunogold labeling, was found to be essentially identical. The possible basis for the existence of MCR isoenzymes in M. thermoautotrophicum is discussed.

  19. Biological evaluation of alginate-based hydrogels, with antimicrobial features by Ce(III) incorporation, as vehicles for a bone substitute.

    PubMed

    Morais, D S; Rodrigues, M A; Lopes, M A; Coelho, M J; Maurício, A C; Gomes, R; Amorim, I; Ferraz, M P; Santos, J D; Botelho, C M

    2013-09-01

    A novel hydrogel, based on an alginate/hyaluronate mixture and Ce(III) ions, with effective bioactive and antimicrobial ability was developed to be used as vehicle of a synthetic bone substitute producing an injectable substitute (IBS). Firstly, three different IBSs were prepared using three developed alginate-based hydrogels, the hydrogel Alg composed by alginate, the hydrogel Alg/Ch composed by an alginate/chitosan mixture and the hydrogel Alg/HA composed by an alginate/hyaluronate mixture. MG63 cells viability on the IBSs was evaluated, being observed a significantly higher cell viability on the Alg/HA_IBS at all time points, which indicates a better cell adaptation to the material, increasing their predisposition to produce extracellular matrix and thus allowing a better bone regeneration. Moreover, SEM analysis showed evident filopodia and a spreader shape of MG63 cells when seeded on Alg/HA_IBS. This way, based upon the in vitro results, the hydrogel Alg/HA was chosen to the in vivo study by subcutaneous implantation in an animal model, promoting a slight irritating tissue response and visible tissue repairing. The next step was to grant antimicrobial properties to the hydrogel that showed the best biological behavior by incorporation of Ce(III) ions into the Alg/HA, producing the hydrogel Alg/HA2. The antimicrobial activity of these hyaluronate-based hydrogels was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Results showed that Ce(III) ions can significantly enhance the hydrogel antimicrobial ability without compromising the osteoconductivity improvement promoted by the vehicle association to the synthetic bone substitute.

  20. Structural, DFT and biological studies on Cr(III) complexes of semi and thiosemicarbazide ligands derived from diketo hydrazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Alduaij, O. K.; Ahmed, Sara F.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; El-Gammal, O. A.

    2016-12-01

    Three ligands have been prepared by addition ethanolic suspension of 2-hydrazino-2-oxo-N-phenyl-acetamide to phenyl isocyanate (H2PAPS), phenyl isothiocyanate (H2PAPT) and benzoyl isothiocyanate (H2PABT). The Cr(III) chloride complexes were prepared and characterized by conventional techniques. The data confirmed that the complexes have the following formulaes, [Cr(H2PAPS)Cl3], [Cr(HPAPT)Cl2(H2O)2] and [Cr(HPABT)Cl2(H2O)]. The IR spectra of complexes shows that H2PAPS behaves as neutral tridentate via both CO of hydrazide moiety and Cdbnd N(azomethine) due to enolization of CO isocyanate without deprotonation. H2PAPT suggests the coordination as mononegative bidentate via both CO of hydrazide moiety in keto and deprotonated enolic oxygen atoms. H2PABT act as mononegative tridentate via carbonyl oxygen (Cdbnd O)3, the deprotonated enolic oxygen atom (dbnd Csbnd Osbnd)1 and NH1 groups. The experimental IR data of ligands are compared with those obtained theoretically from DFT calculations. Also, the bond lengths, bond angles, HOMO, LUMO and dipole moments have been calculated. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gap reveals that charge transfer occurs within the ligand molecules. The calculated values of binding energies indicates the higher stability of metal complexes than of ligands. Also, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different thermal degradation steps of the complexes were determined by Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods.

  1. An application of Ag(III) complex chemiluminescence system for the determination of enoxacin in capsule and biological fluid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiyun; Sun, Hanwen

    2010-01-01

    Ag(III) complex chemiluminescence (CL) system was applied for the determination of enoxacin (ENX). The CL conditions of [Ag(HIO(6))(2)](5-)-H(2)SO(4)-ENX systems without any luminescence reagent were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of ENX in the range from 6.6 × 10(-5) to 3.3 × 10(-3) g/L. The limit of detection (s/n = 3) was 2.0 × 10(-5) g/L. The recovery of ENX from the spiked pharmaceutical preparations was in the range of 82.9-108% with a relative standard deviation of 1.9-3.0%. For spiked serum and urine samples the recovery of ENX was in the range of 83.7-110% with a relative standard deviation of 1.1-2.8%. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of the drug in capsule, serum and urine samples.

  2. Suspension cell culture as a tool for the characterization of class III peroxidases in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Cesarino, Igor; Araújo, Pedro; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Creste, Silvana; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Secreted class III peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) are implicated in a broad range of physiological processes throughout the plant life cycle. However, the unambiguous determination of the precise biological role of an individual class III peroxidase isoenzyme is still a difficult task due to genetic redundancy and broad substrate specificity in vitro. In addition, many difficulties are encountered during extraction and analysis of cell wall proteins. Since class III peroxidases are also secreted into the apoplast, the use of suspension cell cultures can facilitate isolation and functional characterization of individual isoforms. Here, we report on the characterization of class III peroxidases secreted in the spent medium of sugarcane suspension cell cultures. After treatment with specific inducers of cell wall lignification, peroxidases were isolated and activities assayed with guaiacol, syringaldazine and coniferyl alcohol. Enzymatic activity was not significantly different after treatments, regardless of the substrate, with the exception of methyl-jasmonate treatment, which led to a decreased guaiacol peroxidase activity. Remarkably, peroxidases isolated from the medium were capable of oxidizing syringaldazine, an analog to sinapyl alcohol, suggesting that sugarcane cultures can produce peroxidases putatively correlated to lignification. A proteomic approach using activity staining of 2-DE gels revealed a complex isoperoxidase profile, composed predominantly of cationic isoforms. Individual spots were excised and analyzed by LC-ESI-Q-TOF and homology-based search against the Sugarcane EST Database resulted in the identification of several proteins. Spatio-temporal expression pattern of selected genes was determined for validation of identified class III peroxidases that were preferentially expressed during sugarcane stem development.

  3. Impact of religiosity/spirituality on biological and preclinical markers related to cardiovascular disease. Results from the SPILI III study.

    PubMed

    Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Tsetis, Dimitrios; Castanas, Elias; Shea, Sue; Venihaki, Maria; Lionis, Christos

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring to what extent psychosocial factors, such as religiosity/spirituality and sense of coherence, mediate the negative effects of stress on a variety of cardiometabolic indicators, i.e., hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and atherosclerotic bio-clinical markers. A total of 220 subjects (66.2±16.0 years) of the SPILI III cohort (1988-2012) attending a primary care setting in Spili, a rural town in Crete, represented the target group for the present study. Of these, 195 (88.6%) participated in the re-examination (67.2±15.2 years). All participants underwent a standardized procedure including evaluation of anthropometric measurements, biochemical indicators of atherosclerosis, stress hormones, in parallel with ultrasound measurements of carotid intima media thickness (IMT). Religiosity, spirituality and sense of coherence were evaluated with the use of international questionnaires translated into the Greek language and linguistically validated. Participants with higher levels of religious and spiritual beliefs presented lower levels of carotid IMT (1.01±0.101 vs 1.53±0.502 mm, p<0.001). Patterns of inverse relationships were also observed between religiosity/spirituality and prevalence of diabetes (35.1% vs. 2%, p<0.001) with an estimated diabetes risk, fully adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI: 0.91 (0.87-0.94). Highly religious participants presented lower serum cortisol levels (12.3±5.8 vs. 18.2±5.1 μg/dl, p<0.001). Sense of coherence was positively associated with religiosity/spirituality [mean SOC (SD): 123±20 vs. 158±15) p<0.001]. These findings may be associated with a possible favourable effect of religiosity/spirituality on several cardio-metabolic determinants, therefore deserving further attention by healthcare practitioners and researchers.

  4. Dual-Emissive Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Polypyridine Complexes as Ratiometric Biological Probes and Organelle-Selective Bioimaging Reagents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Liu, Hua-Wei; Tang, Man-Chung; Choi, Alex Wing-Tat; Zhu, Nianyong; Wei, Xi-Guang; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing

    2015-07-06

    In this Article, we present a series of cyclometalated iridium(III) polypyridine complexes of the formula [Ir(N^C)2(N^N)](PF6) that showed dual emission under ambient conditions. The structures of the cyclometalating and diimine ligands were changed systematically to investigate the effects of the substituents on the dual-emission properties of the complexes. On the basis of the photophysical data, the high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) emission features of the complexes were assigned to triplet intraligand ((3)IL) and triplet charge-transfer ((3)CT) excited states, respectively. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations supported these assignments and indicated that the dual emission resulted from the interruption of the communication between the higher-lying (3)IL and the lower-lying (3)CT states by a triplet amine-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)NLCT) state. Also, the avidin-binding properties of the biotin complexes were studied by emission titrations, and the results showed that the dual-emissive complexes can be utilized as ratiometric probes for avidin. Additionally, all the complexes exhibited efficient cellular uptake by live HeLa cells. The MTT and Annexin V assays confirmed that no cell death and early apoptosis occurred during the cell imaging experiments. Interestingly, laser-scanning confocal microscopy revealed that the complexes were selectively localized on the cell membrane, mitochondria, or both, depending on the nature of the substituents of the ligands. The results of this work will contribute to the future development of dual-emissive transition metal complexes as ratiometric probes and organelle-selective bioimaging reagents.

  5. Purification and crystallization of yeast hexokinase isoenzymes. Characterization of different forms by chromatofocusing.

    PubMed

    Jacob, L; Beecken, V; Bartunik, L J; Rose, M; Bartunik, H D

    1991-11-29

    The yeast hexokinase isoenzymes PI and PII have been purified in large amounts (20 mg) from overproducing yeast strains. The purification procedures of hexokinase PI and PII include anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel and chromatofocusing on PBE 94, hydrophobic interaction chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose (necessary for the isolation of the isoenzyme PI); in the final step either a Mono Q HR 5/5 or a Fractogel EMD TMAE 650(S) column was used. Hexokinase preparations were characterized before crystallization by chromatofocusing on a Mono P HR 5/20 FPLC column, where different forms of hexokinase can be rapidly distinguished by their elution behaviour. From both purified hexokinase PI and PII, large crystals were grown that diffract X-rays to high resolution.

  6. [Species specificity of the isoenzyme profile of lactate dehydrogenase in organs of rodents of various ecogenesis].

    PubMed

    Kozhevnikova, L K; Tiutiunnik, N N; Unzhakov, A R; Meldo, Kh I

    2004-02-01

    Separation of isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC. 1.1.1.27) in extracts of heart, kidney, liver, spleen, lungs of nutrias, chinchillas by agar gel electrophoresis reveals a species specificity in ratio of electrophoretic fractions of the enzyme. The isoenzymes of LDH were seem to play an important role in adaptation of fur animals to environmental conditions. It has been shown that in semiaquatic mammals--nutrias, the relative content of the A-subunits in the isoenzymatic spectrum of LDH in organs was increased as compared with terrestrial animals--chinchillas, whereas relative content of B-subunits in these organs of chinchillas was very high. This is an example of subtle biochemical specialisation of function at molecular level to environmental conditions.

  7. Purification and characterization of the membrane-bound nitrate reductase isoenzymes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, M; Olivares, J; Bedmar, E J

    1996-08-19

    Two respiratory membrane-bound nitrate reductase (NR) isoenzymes, NRI and NRII, have been purified for the first time from one single microorganism. Triton X-100-solubilized NRs were purified by a three-step procedure of differential centrifugation, Q-Sepharose chromatography, and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. Both isoenzymes were purified to homogeneity by the criteria of NR activity staining in polyacrylamide gels run under non-denaturating conditions and coincident staining of the protein band by silver nitrate. NRI is composed of three subunits of 116 kDa, 68 kDa, and 56 kDa, whereas NRII is composed of four subunits of 116 kDa, 68 kDa, 59 kDa, and 56 kDa. The 116-kDa subunit of NRI and the 59-kDa subunit of NRII exhibited immunological cross-reactivity with the respiratory NR of Pseudomonas stutzeri strain ZoBell.

  8. Electrophoretic differences in the isoenzymes of two mosquito gregarines, Ascogregarina barretti and A. geniculati.

    PubMed

    Rowton, E D; Munstermann, L E

    1984-02-01

    Cross-infection experiments demonstrated that Ascogregarina barretti, from Aedes triseriatus, completes its life cycle in Aedes geniculatus. Parasite numbers were comparable to infection with Ascogregarina geniculati, making the separation of these parasites by host preference difficult. However, electrophoresis readily distinguished isoenzymes from the two morphologically similar gregarine species. Different migration rates were obtained for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2, lactate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase. The migration rates were also different for parasite and host isoenzymes. When a single, heavily infected gut was subjected to electrophoresis the isocitrate dehydrogenase bands of each were clearly distinguishable on the same electrophoretic track. Electrophoresis appears to be a reliable method for resolving taxonomic complications of mosquito gregarines, a group often with wide host specificities and variable taxonomic characters.

  9. Natural product inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase I and II isoenzymes: osajin and pomiferin.

    PubMed

    Dilek, Esra; Erol, Hüseyin Serkan; Cakir, Ahmet; Koc, Murat; Halici, Mesut Bünyami

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to purify carbonic anhydrase I and II isoenzymes from human erythrocyte, isolate two natural products osajin (OSJ) and pomiferin (PMF) from Maclura pomifera fruits, and evaluate the in vitro effect of these natural metabolites on these isoenzymes. These natural products may be used as starting points for drug discovery (like drugs used in several therapeutic applications, including antiglaucoma activity). For the purification procedure, the Sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-sulphonamide affinity chromatography was used. Column chromatography and thin layer chromatography methods were used for isolation of OSJ and PMF from M. pomifera fruits and their chemical structures were elucidated by IR, 1D, and 2D NMR methods. We compared inhibitory effects of these natural products with inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds and found that these products demonstrated average inhibition effects. We thought that this study will give inspiration to scientists interested in this issue.

  10. Isoenzyme analysis of stocks of trypanosomes isolated from cattle in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Boid, R; Mleche, W C

    1985-11-01

    Three trypanosome stocks isolated from cattle in Indonesia were shown to differ markedly from an Indonesian stock of Trypanosoma evansi on the basis of the isoenzyme banding patterns of 12 soluble enzymes. The results obtained for these stocks were not consistent with those reported for typical forms of T evansi but were very similar to enzyme patterns obtained for rodent adapted stocks of T vivax.

  11. An aberrant adenylate kinase isoenzyme from the serum of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hamada, M; Okuda, H; Oka, K; Watanabe, T; Ueda, K; Nojima, M; Kuby, S A; Manship, M; Tyler, F H; Ziter, F A

    1981-08-13

    The sera from patients with human Duchenne (X-linked) progressive muscular dystrophy contain elevated adenylate kinase (ATP: AMP phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.4.3) activities, in addition to their characteristically high creatine kinase (ATP; creatine N-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.3.2) activities. By agarose gel electrophoresis of human Duchenne dystrophic serum, the presence of an apparently normal human serum adenylate kinase together with a variant species of adenylate kinase was detected. The latter enzyme species appeared, in its mobility, to be similar to that of the normal human liver-type adenylate kinase. The presence of this aberrant liver-type adenylate kinase could also be demonstrated by characteristic (for the liver type) inhibition patterns with P1,P5-di-(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) and phosphoenolpyruvate. On the other hand, by inhibition titrations with an anti-muscle-type adenylate kinase, hemolysates from the erythrocytes of several Duchenne and Becker's dystrophics were found to contain approx. 96% muscle-type adenylate kinase and their serum approx. 97% muscle-type adenylate kinase. These same patients contained approx. 89% M-M type creatine kinase in their serum (by inhibition against anti-human muscle-type creatine kinase) indicative of the presence also of M-B plus B-B type active isoenzymes. All of these data can best be explained by the presence of a variant or mutant adenylate kinase isoenzyme in the dystrophic serum. This isoenzyme appears to resemble the liver type in its inhibition patterns with P1,P5-di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) and phosphoenolpyruvate, and in its heat stability (compare also the agarose gel electrophoresis pattern); but structurally, it is a muscle type, or derived from a muscle type, as shown immunologically by inhibition reactions with anti-muscle-type adenylate kinase. Whether this is a fetal-type isoenzyme of adenylate kinase will require further

  12. K1-95-HW, cruise report 1995: preliminary results. Phase III: sediment chemistry and biological sampling survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torresan, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Barber, J.H.; Wong, F.L.

    1995-01-01

    Mamala Bay, off the south shore of the island of Oahu, has been used as a repository of dredged material primarily from Pearl and Honolulu Harbors for over a century. The U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are conducting an integrated study on the distribution and character of dredged materials as well as the effects of dredged material on the marine environment. A three phase study is providing information to evaluate the effects on seafloor substrate and the benthic fauna. The studies include geophysical profiling and imaging, bottom photography, sampling, chemical and physical analyses of sediment, and evaluations of the benthic population, population density, and adverse impacts to the benthic fauna. Phase 1, conducted in 1993, inventoried the seafloor via remote sensing. Sidescan sonar and subbottom profilers characterized the seafloor in and around the disposal sites, and the resulting products reveal the character and extent of the dredged material. These data were used to plan Phase 2 in 1994, a sampling program that employed subbottom profilers, video and still photography, and seafloor sampling to ground truth the sonar mosaic and identify the seafloor substrates responsible for the various acoustic signatures on the sonar images and subbottom profiles. Box coring provided the samples necessary to distinguish dredged material from native sediment, and for the chemical analyses used to determine contaminant concentrations. Phase 3 studies conducted in June of 1995 consisted of box core sampling for chemical and biological analyses. Specific studies include: infaunal taxonomy and population density, bioassay/bioaccumulation, sediment chemistry, and post-disposal resuspension and transport. The 1995 survey, conducted June 14 through 17, resulted in the collection of 39 box cores from 20 different stations. Multiple box cores were composited at 7 different locations occupied in 1994, to provide

  13. [Activity of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in cancer].

    PubMed

    Choromańska, Barbara; Luto, Magdalena; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Kępka, Alina; Janica, Jacek; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Dadan, Jacek; Myśliwiec, Piotr; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2011-11-23

    There were approximately 93,060 deaths from cancers in Poland in 2008, and about 105,000 are predicted for the year 2025. Early detection of cancer is a major problem throughout the world, which is why many researchers are still looking for specific and sensitive markers of malignant tumors. Our work is a review of recent publications on activity of N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase (HEX) and its isoenzymes A (HEX A) and B (HEX B) as potential markers of malignant tumors. HEX is the most active of the lysosomal exoglycosidases, taking part in degradation of glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans). HEX cleaves N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine from non-reducing ends of oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins, glycolipids and glycosaminoglycans. The activity of HEX, and its isoenzymes A (HEX A) and B (HEX B), was determined by spectrophotometric and isoelectric focusing methods. There was a statistically significant increase in activity of HEX in tumors of the kidney, pancreas, thyroid, colon, ovary, brain, salivary gland, stomach and larynx, which suggests potential applicability of HEX and its isoenzymes in cancer diagnosis.

  14. Lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes and protein-bound sialic acid in regenerating rat liver.

    PubMed

    Allalouf, D; Schwarzman, S; Levinsky, H; Feller, N; Hart, J; Zoher, S; Menache, R

    1986-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) isoenzyme patterns and protein-bound sialic acid content were compared between normal, regenerating rat liver 10 days after partial hepatectomy and fetal rat liver. For this purpose, liver from ten adult rats and two pools of ten fetal livers each were examined. Isoenzymes were separated by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate and their percent distribution calculated after quantitation by densitometry of the bands. LDH-5 and LDH-4 combined represented in all the tissues examined 90%-94% of the total activity. LDH-5/LDH-4 ratios were nearly equivalent in the normal and regenerated liver (7.14, 6.41), but substantially lower in fetal liver (2.50). Two bands of AP were visualized in electropherograms. AP-1/AP-2 ratio was lower in regenerated liver (1.57) as compared to normal liver (2.27) and still lower in fetal liver (1.06). Protein-bound sialic acid was, on protein basis, slightly but not significantly higher in regenerated liver (1.71 microgram/mg protein) than in normal liver (1.43), and significantly higher in fetal liver (1.87). The relatively small differences in isoenzyme patterns and in protein-bound sialic acid between regenerated and normal liver as compared to those between fetal and normal tissue add support to the view that the cells in regenerated liver are not of embryonic origin.

  15. Liquid-chromatographic separation and on-line bioluminescence detection of creatine kinase isoenzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Denton, M.S.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    Isoenzymes of creatine kinase were separated by anion-exchange chromatography, with use of an elution gradient containing lithium acetate (0.1 to 0.6 mol/L). A stream splitter was used to divert a 5% side stream of column effluent, which was subsequently mixed with the reagents necessary for bioluminescence assay of the separated isoenzymes. The use of the stream splitter greatly decreased the rate of consumption of reagent and, when combined with a peristaltic pumping system, permitted independent control of the side-stream flow rate. Thus both the residence interval in a delay coil in which the ATP reaction product is formed and the bioluminescence emission was monitored in a flow-through fluorometer without use of an external light source or filters. Separation and detection of the isoenzymes of creatine kinase were rapid, sensitive, and highly selective. The incremental decrease of bioluminescence response owing to inhibition by the ions in the eluent was less than 31% across the entire gradient.

  16. Sequence of the lid affects activity and specificity of Candida rugosa lipase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Brocca, Stefania; Secundo, Francesco; Ossola, Mattia; Alberghina, Lilia; Carrea, Giacomo; Lotti, Marina

    2003-10-01

    The fungus Candida rugosa produces multiple lipase isoenzymes (CRLs) with distinct differences in substrate specificity, in particular with regard to selectivity toward the fatty acyl chain length. Moreover, isoform CRL3 displays high activity towards cholesterol esters. Lipase isoenzymes share over 80% sequence identity but diverge in the sequence of the lid, a mobile loop that modulates access to the active site. In the active enzyme conformation, the open lid participates in the substrate-binding site and contributes to substrate recognition. To address the role of the lid in CRL activity and specificity, we substituted the lid sequences from isoenzymes CRL3 and CRL4 in recombinant rCRL1, thus obtaining enzymes differing only in this stretch of residues. Swapping the CRL3 lid was sufficient to confer to CRL1 cholesterol esterase activity. On the other hand, a specific shift in the chain-length specificity was not observed. Chimeric proteins displayed different sensitivity to detergents in the reaction medium.

  17. A test for adequate wastewater treatment based on glutathione S transferase isoenzyme profile.

    PubMed

    Grammou, A; Samaras, P; Papadimitriou, C; Papadopoulos, A I

    2013-04-01

    Discharge to the environment of treated or non-treated municipal wastewater imposes several threats to coastal and estuarine ecosystems which are difficult to assess. In our study we evaluate the use of the isoenzyme profile of glutathione S transferase (GST) in combination with the kinetic characteristics of the whole enzyme and of heme peroxidase, as a test of adequate treatment of municipal wastewater. For this reason, Artemia nauplii were incubated in artificial seawater prepared by wastewater samples, such as secondary municipal effluents produced by a conventional activated sludge unit and advanced treated effluents produced by the employment of coagulation, activated carbon adsorption and chlorination as single processes or as combined ones. Characteristic changes of the isoenzyme pattern and the enzymes' kinetic properties were caused by chlorinated secondary municipal effluent or by secondary non-chlorinated effluent. Advanced treatment by combination of coagulation and/or carbon adsorption resulted to less prominent changes, suggesting more adequate treatment. Our results suggest that GST isoenzyme profile in combination with the kinetic properties of the total enzyme family is a sensitive test for the evaluation of the adequateness of the treatment of reclaimed wastewater and the reduction of potentially harmful compounds. Potentially, it may offer a 'fingerprint' characteristic of a particular effluent and probably of the treatment level it has been subjected.

  18. Structure of the Type III Pantothenate Kinase from Bacillus Anthracis at 2.0 A Resolution: Implications for Coenzyme A-Dependent Redox Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Nicely,N.; Parsonage, D.; Paige, C.; Newton, G.; Fahey, R.; Leonardi, R.; Jackowski, S.; Mallett, T.; Claiborne, A.

    2007-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoASH) is the major low-molecular weight thiol in Staphylococcus aureus and a number of other bacteria; the crystal structure of the S. aureus coenzyme A-disulfide reductase (CoADR), which maintains the reduced intracellular state of CoASH, has recently been reported [Mallett, T.C., Wallen, J.R., Karplus, P.A., Sakai, H., Tsukihara, T., and Claiborne, A. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 11278-89]. In this report we demonstrate that CoASH is the major thiol in Bacillus anthracis; a bioinformatics analysis indicates that three of the four proteins responsible for the conversion of pantothenate (Pan) to CoASH in Escherichia coli are conserved in B. anthracis. In contrast, a novel type III pantothenate kinase (PanK) catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthetic pathway in B. anthracis; unlike the E. coli type I PanK, this enzyme is not subject to feedback inhibition by CoASH. The crystal structure of B. anthracis PanK (BaPanK), solved using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion data and refined at a resolution of 2.0 {angstrom}, demonstrates that BaPanK is a new member of the Acetate and Sugar Kinase/Hsc70/Actin (ASKHA) superfamily. The Pan and ATP substrates have been modeled into the active-site cleft; in addition to providing a clear rationale for the absence of CoASH inhibition, analysis of the Pan-binding pocket has led to the development of two new structure-based motifs (the PAN and INTERFACE motifs). Our analyses also suggest that the type III PanK in the spore-forming B. anthracis plays an essential role in the novel thiol/disulfide redox biology of this category A biodefense pathogen.

  19. Reactions of potent antitumor complex trans-[Ru(III)Cl4(indazole)2]- with a DNA-relevant nucleobase and thioethers: insight into biological action.

    PubMed

    Egger, Alexander; Arion, Vladimir B; Reisner, Erwin; Cebrián-Losantos, Berta; Shova, Sergiu; Trettenhahn, Günter; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2005-01-10

    Reactions of the complex trans-[RuCl(4)(Hind)(2)](-) (Hind = indazole), which is of clinical relevance today, with both the DNA model nucleobase 9-methyladenine (made) and the thioethers R(2)S (R = Me, Et), as models of the methionine residue in biological molecules possibly acting as nitrogen-competing sulfur-donor ligands for ruthenium atom, have been investigated to get insight into details of mechanism leading to antitumor activity. Three novel ruthenium complexes, viz., [Ru(III)Cl(3)(Hind)(2)(made)], 1, [Ru(II)Cl(2)(Hind)(2)(Me(2)S)(2)], 2, and [Ru(II)Cl(2)(Hind)(2)(Et(2)S)(2)], 3, have been isolated as solids. Oxidation of 2 and 3 with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of 12 M HCl in chloroform afforded the monothioether adducts, viz., [Ru(III)Cl(3)(Hind)(2)(Me(2)S)], 4, and [Ru(III)Cl(3)(Hind)(2)(Et(2)S)], 5. By dissolution of 2 or 3 in DMSO, replacement of both R(2)S ligands by DMSO molecules occurred with isolation of trans,trans,trans-[Ru(II)Cl(2)(Hind)(2)(DMSO)(2)], 6. The products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis, electrospray mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray crystallography (1.CH(2)Cl(2).CH(3)OH and 1.1.1H(2)O.0.9CH(3)OH, 2, and 5). The first crystallographic evidence for the monofunctional coordination of the 9-methyladenine ligand to ruthenium via N7 and the self-pairing of the complex molecules via H-bonding, using the usual Watson-Crick pairing donor and acceptor sites of two adjacent 9-methyladenine ligands, is reported. The electrochemical behavior of 1-5 has been studied in DMF and DMSO by cyclic voltammetry. The redox potential values have been interpreted on the basis of the Lever's parametrization method. The E(L) parameter was estimated for 9-methyladenine at 0.18 V, showing that this ligand behaves as a weaker net electron donor than imidazole (E(L) = 0.12 V). The kinetics of the reductively induced stepwise replacement of chlorides by DMF in 4 and 5 were studied by digital simulation of the cyclic

  20. Ethanol Metabolism by HeLa Cells Transduced with Human Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes: Control of the Pathway by Acetaldehyde Concentration†

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Michinaga; Cyganek, Izabela; Sanghani, Paresh C.; Cho, Won Kyoo; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Human class I alcohol dehydrogenase 2 isoenzymes (encoded by the ADH1B locus) have large differences in kinetic properties; however, individuals inheriting the alleles for the different isoenzymes exhibit only small differences in alcohol elimination rates. This suggests that other cellular factors must regulate the activity of the isoenzymes. Methods The activity of the isoenzymes expressed from ADH1B*1, ADH1B*2, and ADH1B*3 cDNAs was examined in stably transduced HeLa cell lines, including lines which expressed human low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). The ability of the cells to metabolize ethanol was compared with that of HeLa cells expressing rat class I ADH (HeLa-rat ADH cells), rat hepatoma (H4IIEC3) cells, and rat hepatocytes. Results The isoenzymes had similar protein half-lives in the HeLa cells. Rat hepatocytes, H4IIEC3 cells, and HeLa-rat ADH cells oxidized ethanol much faster than the cells expressing the ADH1B isoenzymes. This was not explained by high cellular NADH levels or endogenous inhibitors; but rather because the activity of the β1 and β2 ADHs were constrained by the accumulation of acetaldehyde, as shown by the increased rate of ethanol oxidation by cell lines expressing β2 ADH plus ALDH2. Conclusion The activity of the human β2 ADH isoenzyme is sensitive to inhibition by acetaldehyde, which likely limits its activity in vivo. This study emphasizes the importance of maintaining a low steady–state acetaldehyde concentration in hepatocytes during ethanol metabolism. PMID:21166830

  1. Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Michinaga; Cyganek, Izabela; Sanghani, Paresh C; Cho, Won Kyoo; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W

    2011-01-01

    Human class I alcohol dehydrogenase 2 isoenzymes (encoded by the ADH1B locus) have large differences in kinetic properties; however, individuals inheriting the alleles for the different isoenzymes exhibit only small differences in alcohol elimination rates. This suggests that other cellular factors must regulate the activity of the isoenzymes. The activity of the isoenzymes expressed from ADH1B*1, ADH1B*2, and ADH1B*3 cDNAs was examined in stably transduced HeLa cell lines, including lines which expressed human low K(m) aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). The ability of the cells to metabolize ethanol was compared with that of HeLa cells expressing rat class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) (HeLa-rat ADH cells), rat hepatoma (H4IIEC3) cells, and rat hepatocytes. The isoenzymes had similar protein half-lives in the HeLa cells. Rat hepatocytes, H4IIEC3 cells, and HeLa-rat ADH cells oxidized ethanol much faster than the cells expressing the ADH1B isoenzymes. This was not explained by high cellular NADH levels or endogenous inhibitors; but rather because the activity of the β1 and β2 ADHs was constrained by the accumulation of acetaldehyde, as shown by the increased rate of ethanol oxidation by cell lines expressing β2 ADH plus ALDH2. The activity of the human β2 ADH isoenzyme is sensitive to inhibition by acetaldehyde, which likely limits its activity in vivo. This study emphasizes the importance of maintaining a low steady-state acetaldehyde concentration in hepatocytes during ethanol metabolism. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Effects of pH and inhibitors on the absorption spectrum of cobalt(II)-substituted carbonic anhydrase III from bovine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Engberg, P; Lindskog, S

    1984-05-21

    Bovine apocarbonic anhydrase III has been prepared by incubation with 2-carboxy-1,10-phenanthroline at pH 5.5. The Co(II)-substituted enzyme has been prepared and its absorption spectrum has been studied. The spectrum is nearly pH-independent above pH 6. It is very similar to the high pH spectral forms of Co(II)-carbonic anhydrases I and II. The spectra of complexes with the sulfonamide inhibitor, acetazolamide, and with CN- and NCO - are virtually identical to the spectra of the corresponding complexes with Co(II)-isoenzymes I and II. The spectrum of the N-3 complex indicates that this anion is bound somewhat differently in Co(II) isoenzyme III than in the other Co(II)-substituted isoenzymes.

  3. Versatile sample environments and automation for biological solution X-ray scattering experiments at the P12 beamline (PETRA III, DESY).

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Clement E; Spilotros, Alessandro; Schwemmer, Frank; Graewert, Melissa A; Kikhney, Alexey; Jeffries, Cy M; Franke, Daniel; Mark, Daniel; Zengerle, Roland; Cipriani, Florent; Fiedler, Stefan; Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2015-04-01

    A high-brilliance synchrotron P12 beamline of the EMBL located at the PETRA III storage ring (DESY, Hamburg) is dedicated to biological small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and has been designed and optimized for scattering experiments on macromolecular solutions. Scatterless slits reduce the parasitic scattering, a custom-designed miniature active beamstop ensures accurate data normalization and the photon-counting PILATUS 2M detector enables the background-free detection of weak scattering signals. The high flux and small beam size allow for rapid experiments with exposure time down to 30-50 ms covering the resolution range from about 300 to 0.5 nm. P12 possesses a versatile and flexible sample environment system that caters for the diverse experimental needs required to study macromolecular solutions. These include an in-vacuum capillary mode for standard batch sample analyses with robotic sample delivery and for continuous-flow in-line sample purification and characterization, as well as an in-air capillary time-resolved stopped-flow setup. A novel microfluidic centrifugal mixing device (SAXS disc) is developed for a high-throughput screening mode using sub-microlitre sample volumes. Automation is a key feature of P12; it is controlled by a beamline meta server, which coordinates and schedules experiments from either standard or nonstandard operational setups. The integrated SASFLOW pipeline automatically checks for consistency, and processes and analyses the data, providing near real-time assessments of overall parameters and the generation of low-resolution models within minutes of data collection. These advances, combined with a remote access option, allow for rapid high-throughput analysis, as well as time-resolved and screening experiments for novice and expert biological SAXS users.

  4. Versatile sample environments and automation for biological solution X-ray scattering experiments at the P12 beamline (PETRA III, DESY)

    PubMed Central

    Blanchet, Clement E.; Spilotros, Alessandro; Schwemmer, Frank; Graewert, Melissa A.; Kikhney, Alexey; Jeffries, Cy M.; Franke, Daniel; Mark, Daniel; Zengerle, Roland; Cipriani, Florent; Fiedler, Stefan; Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I.

    2015-01-01

    A high-brilliance synchrotron P12 beamline of the EMBL located at the PETRA III storage ring (DESY, Hamburg) is dedicated to biological small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and has been designed and optimized for scattering experiments on macromolecular solutions. Scatterless slits reduce the parasitic scattering, a custom-designed miniature active beamstop ensures accurate data normalization and the photon-counting PILATUS 2M detector enables the background-free detection of weak scattering signals. The high flux and small beam size allow for rapid experiments with exposure time down to 30–50 ms covering the resolution range from about 300 to 0.5 nm. P12 possesses a versatile and flexible sample environment system that caters for the diverse experimental needs required to study macromolecular solutions. These include an in-vacuum capillary mode for standard batch sample analyses with robotic sample delivery and for continuous-flow in-line sample purification and characterization, as well as an in-air capillary time-resolved stopped-flow setup. A novel microfluidic centrifugal mixing device (SAXS disc) is developed for a high-throughput screening mode using sub-microlitre sample volumes. Automation is a key feature of P12; it is controlled by a beamline meta server, which coordinates and schedules experiments from either standard or nonstandard operational setups. The integrated SASFLOW pipeline automatically checks for consistency, and processes and analyses the data, providing near real-time assessments of overall parameters and the generation of low-resolution models within minutes of data collection. These advances, combined with a remote access option, allow for rapid high-throughput analysis, as well as time-resolved and screening experiments for novice and expert biological SAXS users. PMID:25844078

  5. Size-dependent effects of nanoparticles on the activity of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Froehlich, Eleonore; Kueznik, Tatjana; Samberger, Claudia; Roblegg, Eva; Wrighton, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Nanoparticles are known to be able to interfere with cellular metabolism and to cause cytotoxicity and moreover may interfere with specific cellular functions. Serious effects on the latter include changes in liver cell function. The cytochrome P450 system is expressed in many cells but is especially important in hepatocytes and hormone-producing cells. The interaction of polystyrene nanoparticles with the most important drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP2A1 expressed individually in insect cells (BACULOSOMES) was studied by the cleavage of substrates coupled to a fluorescent dye. The data obtained for individual isoenzymes were compared to metabolism in microsomes isolated from normal liver and from the hepatoma cell line H4-II-E-C3. Small (20-60 nm) carboxyl polystyrene particles but not larger (200 nm) ones reached high intracellular concentrations in the vicinity of the endoplasmic reticulum. These small particles inhibited the enzymatic activity of CYP450 isoenzymes in BACULOSOMES and substrate cleavage in normal liver microsomes. They moreover increased the effect of known inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 system (cimetidine, phenobarbital and paclitaxel). Substrate cleavage by the hepatoma cell line H4-II-E-C3 in contrast was undetectable, making this cell line unsuitable for this type of study. Our results thus demonstrate that nanoparticles can inhibit the metabolism of xenobiotics by the CYP450 system in model systems in vitro. Such inhibition could also potentially occur in vivo and possibly cause adverse effects in persons receiving medication.

  6. Drosophila melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase. Biochemical properties of the NAD+-plus-acetone-induced isoenzyme conversion.

    PubMed Central

    Winberg, J O; McKinley-McKee, J S

    1988-01-01

    The NAD+ + acetone-induced isoenzyme conversion of the Drosophila melanogaster AdhS alleloenzyme was studied. Absorption and fluorescence spectra as well as electrophoretic and kinetic methods show that the conversion process proceeds through three steps. Initially a binary enzyme-NAD+ complex is formed, followed by a ternary enzyme-NAD+-acetone complex with a KEO,Ac of 1.7 M. The last step is a rate-limiting irreversible process in which NAD+ and acetone are covalently linked to the enzyme. A Vm of 2.4 min-1 was obtained at pH 8.6. PMID:3134011

  7. Head group specificity of phospholipase D isoenzymes from poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Oblozinsky, M; Ulbrich-Hofmann, R; Bezakova, L

    2005-02-01

    The biocatalytical potential of two new phospholipase D (PLD) isoenzymes from poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.), PLD-A and PLD-B, was examined by comparing their activities in phospholipid transformation. Both enzymes showed the same ratio in rates of hydrolysis [phosphatidylcholine (PC):phosphatidylglycerol (PG):phosphatidylserine:phosphatidylinositol = 1:0.5:0.3:0.1] and were inactive towards phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). PLD-A did not catalyze head group exchange whereas PLD-B showed a high transphosphatidylation potential in the conversion of PC into PG and PE. This enzyme also catalyzed the transesterification of octadecylphosphocholine into octadecylphosphoglycerol or octadecylphosphoethanolamine.

  8. Optimization and evaluation of cardiac enzymes and isoenzymes measured on a random access analyzer.

    PubMed

    Savory, J; Stallings, R G; Bruns, D E; Savory, M G; Margrey, M; Boyd, J C

    1985-01-01

    Four serum enzymes and isoenzymes used in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), lactate dehydrogenase LD and LD-1, creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB have been adapted to the Technicon RA-1000 automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Analytical parameters have been adjusted to provide clinically acceptable precision for all four assays. Correlations with centrifugal analyzer procedures gave correlation coefficients ranging from 0.998 to 0.999. A limited clinical study of the CK-MB assay indicated that a discriminant value of 13 U per L could separate AMI from non-AMI patients.

  9. Glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 3 (GDH3) of Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by a combined effect of nitrogen and cytokinin.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Laura; Degola, Francesca; Polverini, Eugenia; Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Dubois, Frédéric; Hirel, Bertrand; Restivo, Francesco Maria

    2013-12-01

    In higher plants, NAD(H)-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.4.1.2) is an abundant enzyme that exists in different isoenzymic forms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, three genes (Gdh1, Gdh2 and Gdh3) encode three different GDH subunits (β, α and γ) that randomly associate to form a complex array of homo- and heterohexamers. The modification of the GDH isoenzyme pattern and its regulation was studied during the development of A. thaliana in the gdh1, gdh2 single mutants and the gdh1-2 double mutant, with particular emphasis on GDH3. Investigations showed that the GDH3 isoenzyme could not be detected in closely related Arabidopsis species. The induction and regulation of GDH3 activity in the leaves and roots was investigated following nitrogen deprivation in the presence or absence of sucrose or kinetin. These experiments indicate that GDH3 is likely to play an important role during senescence and nutrient remobilization.

  10. Method of empirical dependences in estimation and prediction of activity of creatine kinase isoenzymes in cerebral ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeeva, Tatiana F.; Moshkova, Albina N.; Erlykina, Elena I.; Khvatova, Elena M.

    2016-04-01

    Creatine kinase is a key enzyme of energy metabolism in the brain. There are known cytoplasmic and mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes. Mitochondrial creatine kinase exists as a mixture of two oligomeric forms - dimer and octamer. The aim of investigation was to study catalytic properties of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial creatine kinase and using of the method of empirical dependences for the possible prediction of the activity of these enzymes in cerebral ischemia. Ischemia was revealed to be accompanied with the changes of the activity of creatine kinase isoenzymes and oligomeric state of mitochondrial isoform. There were made the models of multiple regression that permit to study the activity of creatine kinase system in cerebral ischemia using a calculating method. Therefore, the mathematical method of empirical dependences can be applied for estimation and prediction of the functional state of the brain by the activity of creatine kinase isoenzymes in cerebral ischemia.

  11. Isoenzymes of peroxidase and esterase related to morphogenesis in Mammillaria gracillis Pfeiff. tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Balen, Biljana; Krsnik-Rasol, Marijana; Simeon-Rudolf, Vera

    2003-11-01

    In vitro propagated plants of the cactus Mammillaria gracillis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) spontaneously produced callus. The habituated callus regenerated normal and hyperhydric shoots without the addition of grown regulators. Tumours were obtained by infecting cactus explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens; the wild strain B6S3 (tumour TW) or with the rooty mutant GV3101 (tumour TR). Both tumour lines grew vigorously, never expressing any morphogenic potential. In this study, cactus shoots, callus, normal and hyperhydric regenerants and TW and TR tumours were compared with regard to peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) and esterase activity, and isoenzyme patterns. Guaiacol peroxidase activity was the lowest in the cactus shoots and in the normal regenerants. Callus, hyperhydric regenerants and tumours had peroxidase activity of 6 to 7 times higher. Esterase activity was measured with 1- and 2-naphthylacetate as broad-spectrum substrates. The highest esterase activity was determined in tumours with both substrates. All tissues, except the TR tumour, had higher esterase activity for 2-compared to 1-naphtylacetate. Peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme patterns were not completely identical among the investigated tissues.

  12. Enzyme activities in fish spermatozoa with focus on lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes from herring Clupea harengus.

    PubMed

    Gronczewska, Jadwiga; Zietara, Marek S; Biegniewska, Anna; Skorkowski, Edward F

    2003-03-01

    The activities of NAD- and NADP-dependent dehydrogenases and creatine kinase were compared in extracts of spermatozoa from herring (Clupea harengus), carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The activity of malic enzyme in herring spermatozoa was approximately 5 and 36 times higher than in carp and catfish spermatozoa. In contrast, lactate dehydrogenase activity in herring spermatozoa was very low. Herring spermatozoa possess two isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase: LDH-A(2)B(2) and LDH-B(4). Both herring spermatozoa isozymes were separated, partly purified and characterized by kinetic and physico-chemical properties. The pH optima and K(m) values for pyruvate reduction were 7.1, 7.25, 7.6 and 0.22, 0.07, 0.09 mM for LDH-A(4), LDH-A(2)B(2) and LDH-B(4), respectively. The isoenzymes also have different thermostabilities. High activity of malic enzyme in herring spermatozoa suggests adaptation to metabolism at high oxygen tension.

  13. Antigenic relationships between petunia peroxidase a and specific peroxidase isoenzymes in other Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, T; de Jong, A; Wijsman, H J; van Loon, L C

    1990-07-01

    A highly specific rabbit antiserum raised against peroxidase (PRXa) from petunia (Petunia hybrida) was used to investigate the antigenic relatedness of peroxidases in the Solanaceae. After SDS-PAGE of crude leaf extracts from a large number of species of this family, immunoblotting revealed that cross-reacting protein bands were present in all species tested. In order to determine whether these protein bands represent peroxidases, the peroxidase isoenzymes in thorn apple (Datura stramonium L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were further analyzed. Immunoblots obtained after native PAGE revealed that the antiserum only recognized fast-moving peroxidase isoenzymes that are localized in the apoplast. Despite their serological relatedness, these peroxidases differed with respect to heat stability and apparent molecular weight. Differences in avidity for the petunia PRXa antiserum were suggested by immunoprecipitation with antibodies bound to protein A-Sepharose. The antiserum did not react with peroxidases from horseradish (Armoracea rusticana Gaertn., Mey and Scherb), turnip (Brassica napus L.), African marigold (Tagetes cresta L.), maize (Zea mays L.), and oats (Avena sativa L.). Apparently, the Solanaceae contain orthologous genes encoding the fast-moving anionic peroxidases homologous to petunia PRXa.

  14. Identification, characterization and structure of a new Delta class glutathione transferase isoenzyme

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The insect GST (glutathione transferase) supergene family encodes a varied group of proteins belonging to at least six individual classes. Interest in insect GSTs has focused on their role in conferring insecticide resistance. Previously from the mosquito malaria vector Anopheles dirus, two genes encoding five Delta class GSTs have been characterized for structural as well as enzyme activities. We have obtained a new Delta class GST gene and isoenzyme from A. dirus, which we name adGSTD5-5. The adGSTD5-5 isoenzyme was identified and was only detectably expressed in A. dirus adult females. A putative promoter analysis suggests that this GST has an involvement in oogenesis. The enzyme displayed little activity for classical GST substrates, although it possessed the greatest activity for DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] observed for Delta GSTs. However, GST activity was inhibited or enhanced in the presence of various fatty acids, suggesting that the enzyme may be modulated by fatty acids. We obtained a crystal structure for adGSTD5-5 and compared it with other Delta GSTs, which showed that adGSTD5-5 possesses an elongated and more polar active-site topology. PMID:15717864

  15. Phosphoglycerate mutase, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase, creatine kinase and enolase activity and isoenzymes in breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Durany, N; Joseph, J; Jimenez, O M; Climent, F; Fernández, P L; Rivera, F; Carreras, J

    1999-01-01

    We have compared the levels of phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1), 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.13), creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) and enolase (EC 4.2.1.11) activities and the distribution of their isoenzymes in normal breast tissue and in breast carcinoma. Tumour tissue had higher phosphoglycerate mutase and enolase activity than normal tissue. Creatine kinase activity was higher in seven out of 12 tumours. In contrast 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase activity was lower. Phosphoglycerate mutase, enolase and 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase presented greater changes in the oestrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-negative breast carcinomas than in the steroid receptor-positive tumours. Determined by electrophoresis, type BB phosphoglycerate mutase, type BB creatine kinase and αα-enolase were the major isoenzymes detected in normal breast tissue. Types αγ and γγ enolase, types MB and MM phosphoglycerate mutase were detected in much lower proportions. In tumours a decrease of phosphoglycerate mutase isoenzymes possessing M-type subunit and some increase of enolase isoenzymes possessing γ-type subunit was observed. No detectable change was observed in the creatine kinase phenotype. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10638961

  16. Patient-reported outcomes from a randomised phase III study of baricitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to biological agents (RA-BEACON).

    PubMed

    Smolen, Josef S; Kremer, Joel M; Gaich, Carol L; DeLozier, Amy M; Schlichting, Douglas E; Xie, Li; Stoykov, Ivaylo; Rooney, Terence; Bird, Paul; Sánchez Bursón, Juan Miguel; Genovese, Mark C; Combe, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    To assess baricitinib on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis, who had insufficient response or intolerance to ≥1 tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFis) or other biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs). In this double-blind phase III study, patients were randomised to once-daily placebo or baricitinib 2 or 4 mg for 24 weeks. PROs included the Short Form-36, EuroQol 5-D, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F), Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Patient's Global Assessment of Disease Activity (PtGA), patient's assessment of pain, duration of morning joint stiffness (MJS) and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire-Rheumatoid Arthritis. Treatment comparisons were performed with logistic regression for categorical measures or analysis of covariance for continuous variables. 527 patients were randomised (placebo, 176; baricitinib 2 mg, 174; baricitinib 4 mg, 177). Both baricitinib-treated groups showed statistically significant improvements versus placebo in most PROs. Improvements were generally more rapid and of greater magnitude for patients receiving baricitinib 4 mg than 2 mg and were maintained to week 24. At week 24, more baricitinib-treated patients versus placebo-treated patients reported normal physical functioning (HAQ-DI <0.5; p≤0.001), reductions in fatigue (FACIT-F ≥3.56; p≤0.05), improvements in PtGA (p≤0.001) and pain (p≤0.001) and reductions in duration of MJS (p<0.01). Baricitinib improved most PROs through 24 weeks compared with placebo in this study of treatment-refractory patients with previously inadequate responses to bDMARDs, including at least one TNFi. PRO results aligned with clinical efficacy data for baricitinib. NCT01721044; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Role of creatine kinase isoenzymes on muscular and cardiorespiratory endurance: genetic and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Echegaray, M; Rivera, M A

    2001-01-01

    The ability to perform well in activities that require muscular and cardiorespiratory endurance is a trait influenced, in a considerable part, by the genetic make-up of individuals. Early studies of performance and recent scans of the human genome have pointed at various candidate genes responsible for the heterogeneity of these phenotypes within the population. Among these are the genes for the various creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme subunits. CK and phosphocreatine (PCr) form an important metabolic system for temporal and spatial energy buffering in cells with large variations in energy demand. The different CK isoenzyme subunits (CK-M and CK-B) are differentially expressed in the tissues of the body. Although CK-M is the predominant form in both skeletal and cardiac muscle, CK-B is expressed to a greater extent in heart than in skeletal muscle. Studies in humans and mice have shown that the expression of CK-B messenger RNA (mRNA) and the abundance and activity of the CK-MB dimer increase in response to cardiorespiratory endurance training. Increases in muscle tissue CK-B content can be energetically favourable because of its lower Michaelis constant (Km) for ADP. The activity of the mitochondrial isoform of CK (Scmit-CK) has also been significantly and positively correlated to oxidative capacity and to CK-MB activity in muscle. In mice where the CK-M gene has been knocked out, significant increases in fatigue resistance together with cellular adaptations increasing aerobic capacity have been observed. These observations have led to the notion that this enzyme may be responsible for fatigue under normal circumstances, most likely because of the local cell compartment increase in inorganic phosphate concentration. Studies where the Scmit-CK gene was knocked out have helped demonstrate that this isoenzyme is very important for the stimulation of aerobic respiration. Human studies of CK-M gene sequence variation have shown a significant association between a

  18. Characterization of human foetal intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Comparison with the isoenzymes from the adult intestine and human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, C M; Enns, C A; Sussman, H H

    1983-01-01

    The molecular structure of human foetal intestinal alkaline phosphatase was defined by high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and amino acid inhibition studies. Comparison was made with the adult form of intestinal alkaline phosphatase, as well as with alkaline phosphatases isolated from cultured foetal amnion cells (FL) and a human tumour cell line (KB). Two non-identical subunits were isolated from the foetal intestinal isoenzyme, one having same molecular weight and isoelectric point as placental alkaline phosphatase, and the other corresponding to a glycosylated subunit of the adult intestinal enzyme. The FL-cell and KB-cell alkaline phosphatases were also found to contain two subunits similar to those of the foetal intestinal isoenzyme. Characterization of neuraminidase digests of the non-placental subunit showed it to be indistinguishable from the subunits of the adult intestinal isoenzyme. This implies that no new phosphatase structural gene is involved in the transition from the expression of foetal to adult intestinal alkaline phosphatase, but that the molecular changes involve suppression of the placental subunit and loss of neuraminic acid from the non-placental subunit. Enzyme-inhibition studies demonstrated an intermediate response to the inhibitors tested for the foetal intestinal, FL-cell and KB-cell isoenzymes when compared with the placental, adult intestinal and liver forms. This result is consistent with the mixed-subunit structure observed for the former set of isoenzymes. In summary, this study has defined the molecular subunit structure of the foetal intestinal form of alkaline phosphatase and has demonstrated its expression in a human tumour cell line. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6882358

  19. Laccase isoenzymes of Pleurotus eryngii: characterization, catalytic properties, and participation in activation of molecular oxygen and Mn2+ oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, C; Guillén, F; Martínez, A T; Martínez, M J

    1997-01-01

    Two laccase isoenzymes produced by Pleurotus eryngii were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity (42- and 43-fold) with an overall yield of 56.3%. Laccases I and II from this fungus are monomeric glycoproteins with 7 and 1% carbohydrate content, molecular masses (by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of 65 and 61 kDa, and pIs of 4.1 and 4.2, respectively. The highest rate of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) oxidation for laccase I was reached at 65 degrees C and pH 4, and that for laccase II was reached at 55 degrees C and pH 3.5. Both isoenzymes are stable at high pH, retaining 60 to 70% activity after 24 h from pH 8 to 12. Their amino acid compositions and N-terminal sequences were determined, the latter strongly differing from those of laccases of other basidiomycetes. Antibodies against laccase I reacted with laccase II, as well as with laccases from Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, and Pleurotus floridanus. Different hydroxy- and methoxy-substituted phenols and aromatic amines were oxidized by the two laccase isoenzymes from P. eryngii, and the influence of the nature, number, and disposition of aromatic-ring substituents on kinetic constants is discussed. Although both isoenzymes presented similar substrate affinities, the maximum rates of reactions catalyzed by laccase I were higher than those of laccase II. In reactions with hydroquinones, semiquinones produced by laccase isoenzymes were in part converted into quinones via autoxidation. The superoxide anion radical produced in the latter reaction dismutated, producing hydrogen peroxide. In the presence of manganous ion, the superoxide union was reduced to hydrogen peroxide with the concomitant production of manganic ion. These results confirmed that laccase in the presence of hydroquinones can participate in the production of both reduced oxygen species and manganic ions. PMID:9172335

  20. Effects of anaerobic regulatory mutations and catabolite repression on regulation of hydrogen metabolism and hydrogenase isoenzyme composition in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, D J; Sawers, R G; Rugman, P A; Boxer, D H; Higgins, C F

    1986-10-01

    Hydrogen metabolism in Salmonella typhimurium is differentially regulated by mutations in the two anaerobic regulatory pathways, defined by the fnr (oxrA) and oxrC genes, and is controlled by catabolite repression. The synthesis of the individual hydrogenase isoenzymes is also specifically influenced by fnr and oxrC mutations and by catabolite repression in a manner entirely consistent with the proposed role for each isoenzyme in hydrogen metabolism. Synthesis of hydrogenase isoenzyme 2 was found to be fnr dependent and oxrC independent, consistent with a role in respiration-linked hydrogen uptake which was shown to be similarly regulated. Also in keeping with such a respiratory role was the finding that both hydrogen uptake and the expression of isoenzyme 2 are under catabolite repression. In contrast, formate hydrogenlyase-dependent hydrogen evolution, characteristic of fermentative growth, was reduced in oxrC strains but not in fnr strains. Hydrogenase 3 activity was similarly regulated, consistent with a role in hydrogen evolution. Unlike the expression of hydrogenases 2 and 3, hydrogenase 1 expression was both fnr and oxrC dependent. Hydrogen uptake during fermentative growth was also both fnr and oxrC dependent. This provided good evidence for a distinction between hydrogen uptake during fermentation- and respiration-dependent growth and for a hydrogen-recycling process. The pattern of anaerobic control of hydrogenase activities illustrated the functional diversity of the isoenzymes and, in addition, the physiological distinction between the two anaerobic regulatory pathways, anaerobic respiratory genes being fnr dependent and enzymes required during fermentative growth being oxrC dependent.

  1. Serum creatine kinase isoenzyme BB is a poor index to the size of various brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J G; Bazan, C; Gage, C L; Prihoda, T J; Gillham, S L

    1989-04-01

    We divided patients with brain lesions into three groups: (a) patients with primary or metastatic brain cancer, (b) brain infarctions, and (c) brain contusion(s). We analyzed each patient's sera for creatine kinase isoenzyme BB (CK-BB), using a monoclonal antibody kit (Impres-BB; International Immunoassay Laboratories). Computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans were performed on each patient. The size of the various lesions was measured from the CAT scan and recorded in milliliters. Total CK, CK-BB, and their ratios were compared with the volume of damaged brain tissue. We found no correlation between any of the variables and the various brain lesions. We attribute this lack of correlation to an intact blood-brain barrier, the rapid elimination or inactivation of CK-BB, or some combination of these factors.

  2. Solubility, phase transition, kinetic ripening and growth rates of porcine pancreatic α-amylase isoenzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boistelle, Roland; Astier, Jean Pierre; Marchis-Mouren, Guy; Desseaux, Véronique; Haser, Richard

    1992-09-01

    Two polymorphic modifications, A and B, of porcine pancreatic α-amylase were grown between 4 and 30°C. A and B crystals are made up by two isoenzymes so that four crystal varieties (AI, AII, BI, BII) exist. A and B are easily distinguished due to their typical crystal habits but there is no difference between AI and AII or BI and BII respectively at least as concerns their unit cells, crystal habits and solubilities for instance. On the other hand, the growth rates are somewhat different, even if the overall rate determining step is volume diffusion. The transition temperature between A and B polymorphs is 18°C, A being stable above this temperature. A and B can undergo a phase transition by slightly changing the temperature around the transition point. Kinetic ripening experiments show that ripening can be used for growing larger crystals at the expenses of smaller ones.

  3. Modulation of alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme levels in Zymomonas mobilis by iron and zinc.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, K F; Eddy, C K; Ingram, L O

    1989-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is an unusual microorganism which utilizes both iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHII) and zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHI) isoenzymes during fermentative growth. This organism is obligately ethanologenic, and alcohol dehydrogenase activity is essential. The activities of ADHI and ADHII were altered by supplementing growth medium with iron or zinc salts and by iron starvation. Growth under iron-limiting conditions (chelators, minimal medium) reduced ADHII activity but did not prevent the synthesis of the ADHII protein. The inactive form of this enzyme appeared quite stable, was not renatured by iron addition, and persisted in the cell. The iron-induced increase in ADHII activity required de novo synthesis which was blocked by antibiotic additions. The ability of Z. mobilis to synthesize ADHII and ADHI may be advantageous in nature. Images PMID:2914864

  4. Opposite transitions of chick brain catalytically active cytosolic creatine kinase isoenzymes during development.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, O; Jiménez, E

    2000-12-01

    Postnatally the rat brain synthesizes catalytic forms of muscle type (MM) and heart type (MB) creatine kinase (CK), besides the supposedly sole type vertebrate brain-specific (BB) CK. We intended to demonstrate that in Rhode Island chicken brain, cytosolic (c) CK isoenzymatic transitions. (for example BB-CK is followed by the appearance of MB-CK and MM-CK during muscle differentiation), can also occur during development and aging. Cytosolic post 125000 x g, mitochondrial CK-free, brain samples were obtained for zone electrophoresis separation and identification of catalytically active cCK isoforms. BB-CK was never found during chicken brain ontogeny. Against the accepted view, an opposite isoenzyme transition pattern from MM through BB-CK was found in the chicken embryonic brain from the very early stages of development up to day 2 post-hatching. At very early stages of chicken brain ontogeny constitutive MM- and MB-CK isoenzymes were present before the advent of creatine. It seems to be that typical and atypical brain MM- and MB-CK could be working as ATPases in the absence of creatine before embryonic stage 28 (day 5.5) and/or such CK isoforms may begin to form part of the slow component b in developing early neurons and later in the nuclei of glial cells to be used by the CK/phosphocreatine (PC) system as the neural tissues mature. The post-hatching transition pattern showed simultaneous expression of more than one CK isoenzyme within the same neural sample as in post-natal rat brain, presumably due to regional differential transphosphorylation requirements. Strain-dependent enzymatic specific activities have been reported in several species. Since equivalent values of brain CK specific activity were obtained previously from the embryonic plateau phase of CK activity during White Leghorn development, and those from Rhode Island brain neurons cultured 11 days, we compared if, in vivo, a similar brain CK specific activity pattern was physiologically equivalent

  5. Discovery of tankyrase inhibiting flavones with increased potency and isoenzyme selectivity.

    PubMed

    Narwal, Mohit; Koivunen, Jarkko; Haikarainen, Teemu; Obaji, Ezeogo; Legala, Ongey E; Venkannagari, Harikanth; Joensuu, Päivi; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Lehtiö, Lari

    2013-10-24

    Tankyrases are ADP-ribosyltransferases that play key roles in various cellular pathways, including the regulation of cell proliferation, and thus, they are promising drug targets for the treatment of cancer. Flavones have been shown to inhibit tankyrases and we report here the discovery of more potent and selective flavone derivatives. Commercially available flavones with single substitutions were used for structure-activity relationship studies, and cocrystal structures of the 18 hit compounds were analyzed to explain their potency and selectivity. The most potent inhibitors were also tested in a cell-based assay, which demonstrated that they effectively antagonize Wnt signaling. To assess selectivity, they were further tested against a panel of homologous human ADP-ribosyltransferases. The most effective compound, 22 (MN-64), showed 6 nM potency against tankyrase 1, isoenzyme selectivity, and Wnt signaling inhibition. This work forms a basis for rational development of flavones as tankyrase inhibitors and guides the development of other structurally related inhibitors.

  6. Ozone inhalation in rats: effects on alkaline phosphatase and lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes in lavage and plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtman, J.P.; Moon, H.L.; Miles, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    Ozone is found in urban and rural atmospheres and is produced from a variety of natural and man-made sources. Animal studies conducted at typical ambient levels result in reproducible morphological, biochemical and functional effects. Ozone damages type I epithelial cells, induces proliferation of type II cells and produces inflammation of the terminal bronchiolar-alveolar duct region. Ozone increases lung oxygen utilization and increases glutathione metabolism. Ozone increases airway resistance. The authors measured lactic dehydrogenase (LD) isoenzymes to ascertain the tissue giving rise to the increased LD activity in lavage. They also assayed acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase activities, and protein levels since these parameters were increased in rat lung lavage after particulate exposure. They determined white cell differential and red cell morphology parameters because previous investigators reported that ozone increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio.

  7. Direct oxidation of polymeric substrates by multifunctional manganese peroxidase isoenzyme from Pleurotus ostreatus without redox mediators

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    VPs (versatile peroxidases) sharing the functions of LiP (lignin peroxidase) and MnP (manganese peroxidase) have been described in basidiomycetous fungi Pleurotus and Bjerkandera. Despite the importance of this enzyme in polymer degradation, its reactivity with polymeric substrates remains poorly understood. In the present study, we first report that, unlike LiP, VP from Pleurotus ostreatus directly oxidized two polymeric substrates, bovine pancreatic RNase and Poly R-478, through a long-range electron pathway without redox mediators. P. ostreatus produces several MnP isoenzymes, including the multifunctional enzyme MnP2 (VP) and a typical MnP isoenzyme MnP3. MnP2 (VP) depolymerized a polymeric azo dye, Poly R-478, to complete its catalytic cycle. Reduction of the oxidized intermediates of MnP2 (VP) to its resting state was also observed for RNase. RNase inhibited the oxidation of VA (veratryl alcohol) in a competitive manner. Blocking of the exposed tryptophan by N-bromosuccinimide inhibited the oxidation of RNase and VA by MnP2 (VP), but its Mn2+-oxidizing activity was retained, suggesting that Trp-170 exposed on an enzyme surface is a substrate-binding site both for VA and the polymeric substrates. The direct oxidation of RNase and Poly R by MnP2 (VP) is in sharp contrast with redox mediator-dependent oxidation of these polymers by LiP from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Molecular modelling of MnP2 (VP) revealed that the differences in the dependence on redox mediators in polymer oxidation by MnP2 (VP) and LiP were explained by the anionic microenvironment surrounding the exposed tryptophan. PMID:15461584

  8. Metabolic indicators of drought stress tolerance in wheat: glutamine synthetase isoenzymes and Rubisco.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zoltán; Németh, Edit; Guóth, Adrienn; Bona, Lajos; Wodala, Barnabás; Pécsváradi, Attila

    2013-06-01

    Drought stress has a considerable impact on the ecosystem and agriculture. Continuous water deficit induces early leaf senescence in plants. During this process, chloroplasts are degraded and photosynthesis drastically drops. The objective of this investigation was to look into the regulation of nitrogen and carbon metabolism during water deficit. Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; EC 4.1.1.39) and the total protein contents inform us of the sink-source relation in plants. Glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) isoenzymes are good markers of plastid status (GS2) and the nitrogen metabolism (GS1). Tolerant and sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes were tested, which are widely used in agriculture. The amount of protein, Rubisco and GS isoforms in leaves were measured during the grain filling period, as indicative traits that ultimately determine the onset and stage of senescence. The symptoms of senescence first appeared on the oldest and finally on the youngest leaves. Drought stress disrupted the sequentiality of senescence in the sensitive varieties. An untimely senescence appeared in flag leaves, earlier than in the older leaves. Total protein and Rubisco contents decreased and the GS2 isoenzyme declined considerably in the youngest leaves. In the tolerant varieties, however, these physiological parameters did not change under drought, only the sequential senescence of leaf levels accelerated in some cases compared to the control, well-watered plants. Our results revealed that GS is a good indicator of drought stress, which can be applied for the characterization of wheat cultivars in terms of drought stress tolerance.

  9. Co-expression of glutaminase K and L isoenzymes in human tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The pattern of expression of glutaminase isoenzymes in tumour cells has been investigated to clarify its role in the malignant transformation and the prospect of its use as a clinically relevant factor. Using leukaemia cells from medullar blood of human patients and several established human cancer cell lines, we have developed a competitive RT (reverse transcriptase)-PCR assay to quantify simultaneously K-type (kidney-type) and L-type (liver-type) glutaminase mRNAs. Co-expression of both transcripts and higher amounts of L-type mRNA were always found in all cancer cell types analysed. However, mature lymphocytes from the medullar blood of a patient suffering aplasia did not express the K-type transcript and showed a 15-fold increase of L-type transcript. Co-expression was also confirmed at the protein level using isoform-specific antibodies; nevertheless, it did not correlate with the relative abundance of glutaminase transcripts and strong K-type protein signals were detected. On the other hand, marked differences were found with regard to glutamate inhibition and phosphate activation of tumour glutaminase activity. Taken together, the protein data suggest that K isoform would account for the majority of glutaminase activity in these human tumour cells. The results confirm that simultaneous expression of both isoenzymes in human cancer cells is a more frequent event than previously thought. Furthermore, the present work and other previous data suggest that K isoform is up-regulated with increased rates of proliferation, whereas prevalence of the L isoform seems to be related with resting or quiescent cell states. PMID:15496140

  10. Hexokinase isoenzymes from the Novikoff hepatoma. Purification, kinetic and structural characterization, with emphasis on hexokinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Radojković, J; Ureta, T

    1987-01-01

    The purification to homogeneity of hexokinases B and C from the cytosol of rat Novikoff hepatoma was achieved by a protocol using an initial chromatography on Blue 2-agarose to separate the isoenzymes from each other. After that step each hexokinase was subjected to chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite and Sephacryl S-300, followed by re-chromatography on hydroxyapatite. The final preparations of hexokinases B and C had specific activities of 86 and 23.5 units/mg of protein respectively, and gave single bands on electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions or in SDS/polyacrylamide gels. Mr values of about 100,000 were found for both isoenzymes either by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography or by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Values of apparent Km for glucose and ATP of pure hexokinase B were similar to those reported for the enzyme from other sources. The apparent Km value for glucose of hexokinase C was 0.025 mM. Marked inhibition of hexokinase C by glucose concentrations above 0.2 mM was found. The effect was partially relieved by ATP concentrations above 1 mM and was independent of pH. Glucose 6-phosphate was inhibitory, but the Ki value (0.18 mM) is higher than those reported for other animal hexokinases. The amino acid composition of hexokinase C was found to be similar to those reported for hexokinases B and D. Also, an immune serum directed against hexokinase A was able, at low dilutions, to bind hexokinases B and C. An immune serum directed against hexokinase C was able, at low dilutions, to bind hexokinase B and also, but weakly, hexokinase A. Images Fig. 3. PMID:3593283

  11. Separation of pectin methylesterase isoenzymes from tomato fruits using short monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Vovk, Irena; Simonovska, Breda; Bencina, Mojca

    2005-02-11

    One of the main forms of tomato pectin methylesterase (PME; EC 3.1.1.1.1) that is applicable to the food industry was isolated from fresh tomato fruit. The extraction of the PME isoenzymes involved washing the fresh tomato flesh with water in order to remove sugars and than solubilizing the enzymes with a diluted HCl solution at pH 1.6. The extract was then neutralized to pH 7.4 using buffer solution. After filtration, the solution was directly fractioned using Convective Interaction Media (CIM) short monolithic disk column bearing sulfonyl (SO3) groups and using a linear gradient from 0 to 700 mM NaCl. The injection volume was 3 ml and the diameter of the column was 12 mm and length 3 mm. The isolated fractions were monitored for protein content and PME activity. The fraction with the targeted enzyme, which showed NaCl independent activity, was further purified and concentrated by ultrafiltration and finally purified by a second semi-preparative cation-exchange chromatography step using a CIM carboxymethyl (CM) disk monolithic column consisting of two disks and applying a step gradient. From 1 kg of fresh tomato fruits, 7.5 mg of purified PME with molecular mass estimated to be 26 000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was obtained. A fraction with mixed PME and polygalacturonase activity was also obtained. Compared to the published procedures for the isolation and purification of PME from plant materials, this new procedure is much faster and more efficient. The potential application of CIM disk short monolithic columns in the analysis and semi-preparative extraction and isolation of the PME isoenzyme is presented.

  12. Creatine kinase isoenzyme activity during and after an ultra-distance (200 km) run.

    PubMed

    Son, H J; Lee, Y H; Chae, J H; Kim, C K

    2015-12-01

    It is commonly assumed that creatine kinase (CK) activity in plasma is related to the state of an inflammatory response at 24-48 h, and also it has shown biphasic patterns after a marathon run. No information is available on CK isoenzymes after an ultra-marathon run. The purpose of the present study is to examine the CK isoenzymes after a 200 km ultra-marathon run and during the subsequent recovery. Blood samples were obtained during registration 1 2 h before the 200-km race and during the race at 100 km, 150 km and at the end of 200 km, as well as after a 24 h period of recovery. Thirty-two male ultra-distance runners participated in the study. Serum CPK showed a marked increase throughout the race and 24 h recovery period (p < 0.001). Serum CK during the race occurs mostly in the CK-MM isoform and only minutely in the CK-MB isoform and is unchanged in the CK-BB isoform. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), oestradiol, AST and ALT increased significantly from the pre-race value at 100 km and a further increase took place by the end of the 200 km run. The results of our study demonstrate a different release pattern of creatine kinase after an ultra-distance (200 km) run compared to the studies of marathon running and intense eccentric exercise, and changes in several biomarkers, indicative of muscle damage during the race, were much more pronounced during the latter half (100-200 km) of the race. However, the increases in plasma concentration of muscle enzymes may reflect not only structural damage, but also their rate of clearance.

  13. Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) new complexes of 5-aminosalicylic acid: Spectroscopic, thermal characterization and biological activity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Madiha H.; Mohamed, Gehad G.

    2013-04-01

    The complexing behavior of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid; 5-ASA) towards the transition metal ions namely, Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been examined by elemental analyses, magnetic measurements, electronic, IR and 1H NMR. Thermal properties and decomposition kinetics of all complexes are investigated. The interpretation, mathematical analyses and evaluation of kinetic parameters of all thermal decomposition stages have been evaluated using Coats-Redfern equation. The free ligand and its metal complexes have been tested in vitro against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans fungi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillis subtilies and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in order to assess their antimicrobial potential. The results indicate that the metal complexes are also found to have more antimicrobial activity than the parent 5-ASA drug.

  14. Study of chemical bonding, physical and biological effect of metformin drug as an organized medicine for diabetes patients with chromium(III) and vanadium(IV) ions.

    PubMed

    Adam, Abdel Majid A; Sharshar, T; Mohamed, Mahmoud A; Ibrahim, Omar B; Refat, Moamen S

    2015-01-01

    New vanadium(IV) and chromium(III) complexes of metformin (MFN) were synthesized upon the chemical interaction between vanadyl(II) sulfate monohydrate or chromium(III) chloride hexahydrate with metformin diabetic drug in the media of a pure grade of methanol solvent. The [(VO)2(MFN)2(SO4)2]2H2O and [Cr(MFN)3]·Cl3·6H2O complexes were discussed using microanalytical measurements, molar conductance, spectroscopic (infrared, ESR, XRD, and UV-vis), effective magnetic moment, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal analyses (TG/DTG). The elemental analysis shows that VO(II) and Cr(III) complexes were associated with 1:1 and 1:3M ratios, respectively. The infrared spectroscopic results data received from the comparison between free MFN free ligand and their vanadyl(II) and chromium(III) complexes were proven that metformin reacted with respected metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its two imino groups. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters were estimated from the DTG curves. The microstructure changes of the VO(II) and Cr(III) complexes have been probed using positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) and positron annihilation Doppler broadening (PADB) techniques. The PAL and PADB line-shape parameters were found to be dependent on the structure, electronic configuration and molecular weight of metal complexes. Antimicrobial activity of the metformin free ligand and its vanadyl(II) and chromium(III) complexes were evaluated against the gram negative and gram positive bacteria strains and different fungal strains. Moderate antimicrobial activity recorded by disk diffusion inhibition growth zone method in vanadyl(II) and chromium(III) complexes compared to metformin free ligand.

  15. Spectroscopic and biological approach in the characterization of a novel 14-membered [N4] macrocyclic ligand and its palladium(II), platinum(II), ruthenium(III) and iridium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Rani, Soni; Kumar, Sumit; Chandra, Sulekh

    2014-01-24

    A novel, tetradentate nitrogen donor [N4] macrocyclic ligand, i.e. 3,5,14,16-tetramethyl-2,6,13,17-tetraazatricyclo[12,0,0(7-12)] cosa-1(22),2,5,7,9,11,13,16,18,20-decaene(L), has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, Mass, and (1)H NMR spectral studies. Complexes of Pd(II), Pt(II), Ru(III) and Ir(III) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, Mass, electronic spectral and thermal studies. On the basis of molar conductance the complexes may be formulated as [PdL]Cl2, [PtL]Cl2, [Ru(L)Cl2]Cl and [Ir(L)Cl2]Cl. The complexes are insoluble in most common solvents, including water, ethanol, carbon tetrachloride and acetonitrile, but soluble in DMF/DMSO. The value of magnetic moment indicates that all the complexes are diamagnetic except Ru(III) complex which shows magnetic moment corresponding to one unpaired electron. The magnetic moment of Ru(III) complex is 1.73 B.M. at room temperature. The antimicrobial activities of ligand and its complexes have been screened in vitro, as growth inhibiting agents. The antifungal and antibacterial screening were carried out using Food Poison and Disc Diffusion Method against plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria Alternaria porri, Fusarium oxysporum, Xanthomonas compestris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. The compounds were dissolved in DMSO to get the required solutions. The required medium used for these activities was PDA and nutrient agar. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spectroscopic and biological approach in the characterization of a novel 14-membered [N4] macrocyclic ligand and its Palladium(II), Platinum(II), Ruthenium(III) and Iridium(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Soni; Kumar, Sumit; Chandra, Sulekh

    2014-01-01

    A novel, tetradentate nitrogen donor [N4] macrocyclic ligand, i.e. 3,5,14,16-tetramethyl-2,6,13,17-tetraazatricyclo[12,0,07-12] cosa-1(22),2,5,7,9,11,13,16,18,20-decaene(L), has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, Mass, and 1H NMR spectral studies. Complexes of Pd(II), Pt(II), Ru(III) and Ir(III) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, Mass, electronic spectral and thermal studies. On the basis of molar conductance the complexes may be formulated as [PdL]Cl2, [PtL]Cl2, [Ru(L)Cl2]Cl and [Ir(L)Cl2]Cl. The complexes are insoluble in most common solvents, including water, ethanol, carbon tetrachloride and acetonitrile, but soluble in DMF/DMSO. The value of magnetic moment indicates that all the complexes are diamagnetic except Ru(III) complex which shows magnetic moment corresponding to one unpaired electron. The magnetic moment of Ru(III) complex is 1.73 B.M. at room temperature. The antimicrobial activities of ligand and its complexes have been screened in vitro, as growth inhibiting agents. The antifungal and antibacterial screening were carried out using Food Poison and Disc Diffusion Method against plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria Alternaria porri, Fusarium oxysporum, Xanthomonas compestris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. The compounds were dissolved in DMSO to get the required solutions. The required medium used for these activities was PDA and nutrient agar.

  17. Glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB and troponin I for monitoring patients with percutaneous coronary intervention - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Skitek, Milan; Kranjec, Igor; Jerin, Aleš

    2014-02-01

    The glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB (GPBB), as an ischemic marker, has not yet been investigated after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). ose aim of the study was to monitor GPBB, creatine kinase myocardial isoform (CK-MB) mass) and troponin I (TnI) value after PCI in correlation with ischemic incidents. Forty-two consecutive patients undergoing elective PCI were included in the study. Baseline blood samples and two more after the PCI (3 and 24 hours) were taken. The significance of cardiac markers in twenty-ththe stable patients with baseline values of CK-MB mass and TnI below the upper reference limit (URL) was evaluated based on ischemic incidents after PCI. TnI value was the only biomarker that was statistically significant at 3 and 24 hours after PCI in group of 23 stable patients. An overall comparisonthe biomarkers of 18 patients without and five patients with ischemic incidents displayed significant differences only for the baseline GPBB (p=0.019) and CK-MB mass 24 hours after PCI (p=0.034). Ischemic incidents were independently predictable only based on overall CK-MB mass measurements (OR=1.680, p=0.041) and particularly GPBB at baseline (OR=1.899, p=0.008) and CK-MB mass 24 hours after PCI (OR=2.111, p=0.022). Only significant increases in TnI were observed after elective PCI with ischemic incidents predicted using GPBB and CK-MB mass measurements.

  18. Reduction of vanadium(V) to vanadium(IV) by NADPH, and vanadium(IV) to vanadium(III) by cysteine methyl ester in the presence of biologically relevant ligands.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad K; Tsuboya, Chieko; Kusaka, Hiroko; Aizawa, Sen-ichi; Ueki, Tatsuya; Michibata, Hitoshi; Kanamori, Kan

    2007-08-01

    To better understand the mechanism of vanadium reduction in ascidians, we examined the reduction of vanadium(V) to vanadium(IV) by NADPH and the reduction of vanadium(IV) to vanadium(III) by L-cysteine methyl ester (CysME). UV-vis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic studies indicated that in the presence of several biologically relevant ligands vanadium(V) and vanadium(IV) were reduced by NADPH and CysME, respectively. Specifically, NADPH directly reduced vanadium(V) to vanadium(IV) with the assistance of ligands that have a formation constant with vanadium(IV) of greater than 7. Also, glycylhistidine and glycylaspartic acid were found to assist the reduction of vanadium(IV) to vanadium(III) by CysME.

  19. Comparative ligational, optical band gap and biological studies on Cr(III) and Fe(III) complexes of hydrazones derived from 2-hydrazinyl-2-oxo-N-phenylacetamide with both vanillin and O-vanillin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; Attia, M. I.; El-Tabai, M. N.

    2015-09-01

    The Cr(III) and Fe(III) complexes of hydrazones derived from the condensation of 2-hydrazinyl-2-oxo-N-phenylacetamide with both vanillin and o-vanillin synthesized and characterized by different conventional physicochemical techniques. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different decomposition steps were calculated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger equations. The bond lengths, bond angles, HOMO, LUMO, dipole moment and binding energy calculated by DFT calculations. The optical band gap (Eg) values equal 3.28, 3.03, 3.58 and 3.57 eV for [Cr(HL1)Cl2(H2O)2](0.75H2O), [Cr(HL2)Cl2(H2O)](H2O), [Fe(HL1)Cl2(H2O)2](0.5H2O) and [Fe(HL2)2Cl(H2O)](3H2O) complexes, respectively. The antibacterial activities tested against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacteria.

  20. Expression of human glutathione S-transferase 2 in Escherichia coli. Immunological comparison with the basic glutathione S-transferases isoenzymes from human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Board, P G; Pierce, K

    1987-01-01

    A plasmid, termed pTacGST2, which contains the complete coding sequence of a GST2 (glutathione S-transferase 2) subunit and permits the expression of the protein in Escherichia coli was constructed. The expressed protein had the same subunit Mr as the enzyme from normal human liver and retained its catalytic function with both GST and glutathione peroxidase activity. Antiserum raised against the bacterially synthesized protein cross-reacted with all the basic GST isoenzymes in human liver. The electrophoretic mobility in agarose of the bacterially expressed isoenzyme suggested that its pI is identical with that of the cationic isoenzyme from human liver previously termed GST2 type 1. The available evidence suggests that the three common cationic isoenzymes found in human liver are the products of two very similar gene loci. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3325043

  1. Study for identification of beneficial uses of Space (BUS). Volume 2: Technical report. Book 1: Development and business analysis of space processed isoenzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A separation method to provide reasonable yields of high specificity isoenzymes for the purpose of large scale, early clinical diagnosis of diseases and organic damage such as, myocardial infarction, hepatoma, muscular dystrophy, and infectous disorders is presented. Preliminary development plans are summarized. An analysis of required research and development and production resources is included. The costs of such resources and the potential profitability of a commercial space processing opportunity for electrophoretic separation of high specificity isoenzymes are reviewed.

  2. Cloning of the two pyruvate kinase isoenzyme structural genes from Escherichia coli: the relative roles of these enzymes in pyruvate biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, E; Flores, N; Martinez, A; Valle, F; Bolívar, F

    1995-01-01

    We report the cloning of the pykA and pykF genes from Escherichia coli, which code for the two pyruvate kinase isoenzymes (ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferases; EC 2.7.1.40) in this microorganism. These genes were insertionally inactivated with antibiotic resistance markers and utilized to interrupt one or both pyk genes in the E. coli chromosome. With these constructions, we were able to study the role of these isoenzymes in pyruvate biosynthesis. PMID:7559366

  3. Isoenzyme patterns: a valuable molecular tool for the differentiation of Zygosaccharomyces species and detection of misidentified isolates.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Filomena L; Pais, Célia; Spencer-Martins, Isabel; Leão, Cecília

    2004-08-01

    Electrophoretic analysis of esterase, acid phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes was performed in 39 strains classified into six species of the yeast genus Zygosaccharomyces. The electrophoretic profiles obtained allowed the clear separation of Z. bailii, Z. bisporus, Z. florentinus, Z. lentus, Z. mellis and Z. rouxii, strains of the latter species clustering into two subgroups. Furthermore, this methodology enabled the detection of misidentified strains, as subsequently confirmed by DNA-DNA reassociation and sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. Cluster analysis of the global electrophoretic data and those obtained using only two of the isoenzyme systems, esterase and lactate dehydrogenase, yielded similar grouping of the strains examined, indicating that these enzymes are good markers for the differentiation of Zygosaccharomyces species.

  4. The lysosomal N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) isoenzymes in plasma: study of distribution in a general population by a simple routine chromatofocusing procedure.

    PubMed

    Goi, G; Bairati, C; Roggi, C; Maccarini, L; Tettamanti, G; Meloni, C; Lombardo, A

    1993-11-30

    We have adapted for routine analysis a pre-existing method for separating the three major N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) isoenzyme forms--A, B+I1 and I2--by chromatofocusing followed by fluorimetric assay of the enzyme activity. This method combines good resolution, accurate quantification of the different isoenzymes and high reproducibility with an acceptable degree of analytical precision. We have applied it to studying the isoenzyme levels in the plasma of a general population of 417 subjects and have analysed these enzyme activities as functions of age, sex, body mass and declared alcohol consumption. Unlike the levels of unfractionated enzyme, levels of all the isoenzymes were higher in men than in women at all ages except in the 20-29 year group. Isoenzyme I2 showed the greatest sex difference. On the whole, with increasing age, both sexes showed more or less regular increases in plasma levels of all the isoenzymes. We also found significant correlations for the population as a whole with age and with body mass index. The only significant correlation with alcohol consumption was for B+I1 in men.

  5. [The contribution of different alpha-amylase isoenzymes of the commodity grain spring wheat in the formation of falling number values].

    PubMed

    Mamytova, N S; Kuzovlev, V A; Khakimzhanov, A A; Fursov, O V

    2014-01-01

    The participation of various isoenzymes of alpha-amylase in the formation of falling number values of the commodity grain of wheat grown in the Republic of Kazakhstan was investigated. It was found that active isoenzymes alpha-AMY1 and alpha-AMY2 of the embryonic shield were present in the grain with an index over 200. A significant decrease in the falling number depended mainly on the synthesis of alpha-AMY1 and alpha-AMY2 isoenzymes in the aleurone layer. In the grain, isoenzymes with high isoelectric points (p1 > or = 7.3) were found; these isoenzymes belong to alpha-amylase or late maturing or alpha-amylase of practically mature grains. It was discovered that the exogenous hormone (gibberellic acid) induced synthesis of alpha-amylase isoenzymes of scutellum, whole caryopses, and aleurone. It was shown that the impact of exogenous gibberellic acid on the activity and structure of alpha-amylase is reduced in grain with a low falling number.

  6. Isoenzyme characterization of Leishmania isolated from human cases with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis from the State of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Canto-Lara, S B; Cardenas-Maruffo, M F; Vargas-Gonzalez, A; Andrade-Narvaez, F

    1998-04-01

    Seventy-five isolates from the State of Campeche, Mexico, an area endemic for localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), were characterized by isoenzyme markers (glucose phosphate isomerase, mannose phospate isomerase, nucleoside hydrolase, phosphoglucomutase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). Seventy (93.3%) were identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and 5 (6.7%) as L. (Viannia) braziliensis. This is the first report of authochthonus human LCL caused by L. (V.) braziliensis in the State of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

  7. Isoenzymes A and B of N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase in serum and urine of patients with pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Snarska, Jadwiga; Jankowska, Anna; Puchalski, Zbigniew; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent malignant tumor of the pancreas. Biochemical diagnostics of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is based on determination of carcinoma antigen (CA 19-9) in the blood. Determination of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase (HEX) in the serum and urine was used in diagnosis of renal and gastric cancers. Therefore the aim of our research was to estimate N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase (HEX) and its isoenzymes (HEX A and HEX B) in the serum and urine as potential markers of pancreatic cancer. Serum and urine samples were collected from 15 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and 15 healthy persons. The activity of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase and its isoenzymes (A and B) was determined by a colorimetric method of Zwierz et al. Absorbancy of the yellow product of the colorimetric reaction was determined on the microplate reader EL(x)800 produced by BIO-TEK. The concentration of HEX, HEX A and B was expressed in pKat/mL, and the specific activity in pKat/mg of protein. Protein concentration was determined in the serum by the biuret and in the urine by the Lowry method, respectively, and expressed in mg/mL. The concentration and specific activity of HEX and its isoenzyme A were significantly higher in the serum and urine of pancreatic cancer patients in comparison with the concentration and specific activity in the serum and urine of healthy people. The results suggest that the activity of HEX and its isoenzyme A determined in the serum and urine can be used as a potential marker of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  8. High sensitive C-reactive protein as a systemic inflammatory marker and LDH-3 isoenzyme in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Nillawar, Anup N; Bardapurkar, J S; Bardapurkar, S J

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease, mainly due to tobacco smoke. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are mandatory to diagnose COPD which shows irreversible airway obstruction. This study was aimed at understanding the behavior of biochemical parameters such as high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes in COPD. Cytoplasmic cellular enzymes, such as LDH in the extracellular space, although of no further metabolic function in this space, are of benefit because they serve as indicators suggestive of disturbances of the cellular integrity induced by pathological conditions. The lung pattern is characterized by proportional increases in isoenzymes 3, 4, and 5. Hs-CRP indicates low grade of systemic inflammation. Total (n = 45) patients of COPD (diagnosed on PFTs) were included. We followed the guidelines laid by the institute ethical committee. Investigations performed on the serum were the serum for hs-CRP, LDH isoenzymes on agarose gel electrophoresis. The results obtained showed that the value of hs-CRP was 4.6 ± 0.42 mg/L. The isoenzymes pattern was characterized by an increase in LDH-3 and LDH-4 fractions. This is evident even in those patients with normal LDH (n = 13) levels. This study states that there is a moderate positive correlation in between CRP and LDH-3 (r = 0.33; P = 0.01). Raised LDH-3 levels do not correlate with FEV(1) % (forced expiratory volume in first second) predicted. Moreover, it associates positively with hs-CRP and smoking status and negatively with body mass index. This underlines the potential of these parameters to complement the present system of staging which is solely based upon FEV(1) % predicted.

  9. Relative expression of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in human liver and association with the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, L M; Henderson, C J; Glancey, M J; Back, D J; Park, B K; Ball, S E; Kitteringham, N R; McLaren, A W; Miles, J S; Skett, P

    1992-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s play a central role in the metabolism and disposition of an extremely wide range of drugs and chemical carcinogens. Individual differences in the expression of these enzymes may be an important determinant in susceptibility to adverse drug reactions, chemical toxins and mutagens. In this paper, we have measured the relative levels of expression of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes from eight gene families or subfamilies in a panel of twelve human liver samples in order to determine the individuality in their expression and whether any forms are co-regulated. Isoenzymes were identified in most cases on Western blots based on the mobility of authentic recombinant human cytochrome P450 standards. The levels of the following P450 proteins correlated with each other: CYP2A6, CYP2B6 and a protein from the CYP2C gene subfamily, CYP2E1 and a member of the CYP2A gene subfamily, CYP2C8, CYP3A3/A4 and total cytochrome P450 content. Also, the levels of two proteins in the CYP4A gene subfamily were highly correlated. These correlations are consistent with the relative regulation of members of these gene families in rats or mice. In addition, the level of expression of specific isoenzymes has also been compared with the rate of metabolism of a panel of drugs, carcinogens and model P450 substrates. These latter studies demonstrate and confirm that the correlations obtained in this manner represent a powerful approach towards the assignment of the metabolism of substrates by specific human P450 isoenzymes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1736885

  10. SAGE III

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-13

    SAGE III Data and Information The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas ... on the spacecraft. SAGE III produced L1 and L2 scientific data from 5/07/2002 until 12/31/2005. The flight of the second instrument is as ... Additional Info:  Data Format: HDF-EOS or Big Endian/IEEE Binary SCAR-B Block:  ...

  11. Synthesis, physicochemical characterization, DFT calculation and biological activities of Fe(III) and Co(II)-omeprazole complexes. Potential application in the Helicobacter pylori eradication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Marcos G.; Vega Hissi, Esteban G.; Rizzi, Alberto C.; Brondino, Carlos D.; Salinas Ibañez, Ángel G.; Vega, Alba E.; Silva, Humberto J.; Mercader, Roberto; Narda, Griselda E.

    2014-03-01

    The reaction between the antiulcer agent omeprazole (OMZ) with Fe(III) and Co(II) ions was studied, observing a high ability to form metal complexes. The isolated microcrystalline solid complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), magnetic measurements, thermal study, FTIR, UV-Visible, Mössbauer, electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and DFT calculations. The metal-ligand ratio for both complexes was 1:2 determined by elemental and thermal analysis. FTIR spectroscopy showed that OMZ acts as a neutral bidentate ligand through the pyridinic nitrogen of the benzimidazole ring and the oxygen atom of the sulfoxide group, forming a five-membered ring chelate. Electronic, Mössbauer, and EPR spectra together with magnetic measurements indicate a distorted octahedral geometry around the metal ions, where the coordination sphere is completed by two water molecules. SEM and XRPD were used to characterize the morphology and the crystal nature of the complexes. The most favorable conformation for the Fe(III)-OMZ and Co(II)-OMZ complexes was obtained by DFT calculations by using B3LYP/6-31G(d)&LanL2DZ//B3LYP/3-21G(d)&LanL2DZ basis set. Studies of solubility along with the antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori for OMZ and its Co(II) and Fe(III) complexes are also reported. Free OMZ and both metal complexes showed antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Co(II)-OMZ presented a minimal inhibitory concentration ˜32 times lower than that of OMZ and ˜65 lower than Fe(III)-OMZ, revealing its promising potential use for the treatment of gastric pathologies associated with the Gram negative bacteria. The morphological changes observed in the cell membrane of the bacteria after the incubation with the metal-complexes were also analyzed by SEM microscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes was proved by the viability test.

  12. Acid-base status of the newborn in relation to cord blood serum creatine kinase isoenzymes' activities.

    PubMed

    Nikliński, W; Jóźwik, M; Pałynyczko, Z; Bartnicki, J; Urban, J

    1989-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes are considered to be specific tissue injury markers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate CK isoenzymes (CK-MM, CK-MB, and CK-BB) in umbilical cord blood sera of newborns in relation to their acid-base status. Investigations were performed in a group of 75 newborns delivered after 37 weeks of pregnancy. We estimated CK-isoenzymes with the use of DEAE-Sepharose C1-6B column chromatography. Total CK activity was measured using kits supplied by Boehringer-Mannheim (Monotest-R CK-NAC aktiviert). Newborns were considered hypoxic if umbilical artery blood pH was under 7.2 and/or base excess less than -10 mmol/L. Of 75 newly born infants 26 had features of perinatal hypoxia. We were unable to demonstrate significant differences in total CK, CK-MM and CK-MB activities in examined groups of newborns. We found a significant rise of CK-BB activity in cord sera of hypoxic infants. Our results show that the fetal brain is the most vulnerable to a hypoxic state.

  13. Stereoselectivity of rat liver glutathione transferase isoenzymes for alpha-bromoisovaleric acid and alpha-bromoisovalerylurea enantiomers.

    PubMed Central

    Te Koppele, J M; Coles, B; Ketterer, B; Mulder, G J

    1988-01-01

    The stereoselectivity of purified rat GSH transferases towards alpha-bromoisovaleric acid (BI) and its amide derivative alpha-bromoisovalerylurea (BIU) was investigated. GSH transferase 2-2 was the only enzyme to catalyse the conjugation of BI and was selective for the (S)-enantiomer. The conjugation of (R)- and (S)-BIU was catalysed by the isoenzymes 2-2, 3-3 and 4-4. Transferase 1-1 was less active, and no catalytic activity was observed with transferase 7-7. Isoenzymes 1-1 and 2-2 of the Alpha multigene family preferentially catalysed the conjugation of the (S)-enantiomer of BIU (and BI), whereas isoenzymes 3-3 and 4-4 of the Mu multigene family preferred (R)-BIU. The opposite stereoselectivity of conjugation of BI and BIU previously observed in isolated rat hepatocytes and the summation of activities of enzymes known to be present in hepatocytes on the basis of present data are in accord. PMID:3421896

  14. Serum creatine kinase and CK-MB isoenzyme responses to acute and prolonged swimming in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Symanski, J D; McMurray, R G; Silverman, L M; Smith, B W; Siegel, A J

    1983-04-01

    Six highly-trained male swimmers completed a maximum work capacity tethered swim and a 1-h continuous tethered swim at approximately 70% VO2max in order to evaluate total serum creatine kinase and CK-MB isoenzyme changes. Venous blood obtained before, 5 min post-, 6 h post-, and 24 h post-exercise was analyzed for total serum CK (kinetic UV method, normal = less than 100 U/l) and CK-MB isoenzyme (quantitative electrophoretic technique, normal = less than 5 U/l). VO2max averaged 4.59 +/- 0.28 l/min, with a mean total work time of 24.5 min to achieve maximum capacity. Mean resting total CK was 100.5 +/- 15.8 U/l. Compared to rest, neither swim bout produced a significant (p greater than 0.05) elevation in mean total creatine kinase. No CK-MB isoenzyme was observed in any post-exercise blood sample. Swimming, performed by highly-trained swimmers at high levels of intensity or for prolonged durations, may not impose sufficient degrees of trauma producing muscular stress. Therefore, the structural integrity of the cell membrane is maintained and the loss of intracellular creatine kinase to the bloodstream prevented.

  15. Alternative mRNA splicing of 3'-terminal exons generates ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, T; Yoshimura, K; Tamoi, M; Takeda, T; Shigeoka, S

    1997-01-01

    We have isolated two cDNA clones encoding spinach (Spinacia oleracea) stromal and thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes [Ishikawa, Sakai, Yoshimura, Takeda and Shigeoka (1996) FEBS Lett. 384, 289-293]. The gene (ApxII) encoding both chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes was isolated and the organization of the gene was determined. Alignment between the cDNAs and the gene for chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes indicates that both enzymes arise from a common pre-mRNA by alternative splicing of two 3'-terminal exons. Genomic Southern-blot analysis supported this finding. The gene spanned nearly 8.5 kbp and contained 13 exons split by 12 introns. The penultimate exon 12 (residues 7376-7530) for the stromal ascorbate peroxidase mRNA consisted of one codon for Asp365 before the TAA termination codon, and the entire 3'-untranslated region, including a potential polyadenylation signal (AATAAA). The final exon 13 (residues 7545-7756) for the thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase mRNA consisted of the corresponding coding sequence of the hydrophobic C-terminal region, the TGA termination codon and the entire 3'-untranslated region, including a potential polyadenylation signal (AATATA). Both exons were interrupted by a 14 bp non-coding sequence. Northern-blot and reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that the transcripts for stromal and thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase are present in spinach leaves. PMID:9396722

  16. Comparative Isoenzyme Electrophoreses between the Brown-Spotted Locust, Cyrtacanthacris tatarica, and the Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, G.; Amer, S. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), and the brownspotted locust, Cyrtacanthacris tatarica (Linné) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), were collected from Saudi Arabia to investigate their relationships. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses of five arbitrarily chosen metabolic enzymes extracted from the leg muscles of the two locust taxa were conducted. These enzymes were acid phosphatase (Acph), alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), β esterase (β est), malic enzyme (Mal) and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh). Twenty presumptive gene loci and 26 polymorphic alleles were recorded. Acph did not discriminate between the two locust species, while the other four isoenzymes discriminated between them. Most of the alleles were monomeric, but Mal and Mdh exhibited dimeric alleles in the samples of C. tatarica. β est fractions were more expressed in C. tatarica, and the three enzymes β est, Mal, and Mdh discriminated clearly between the two species. The similarity coefficient that was calculated according to the number of sharing alleles between the two locusts was found to be 0.69. The isoenzyme variation presented herein seemed to reflect either their physiological adaptation or the taxonomic consequences between the two taxa. Collecting more isoenzymes for more samples could have taxonomic value. PMID:25373167

  17. 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase from Penicillium citrinum: molecular and enzymic properties of two isoenzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, T; Inoue, T; Ichishima, E

    1993-01-01

    Two isoforms of acidic 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidases have been isolated from culture filtrate of Penicillium citrinum. The pI values of the two forms, designated 1,2-alpha-mannosidase Ia and Ib, were 4.6 and 4.7 respectively. Isoenzymes Ia and Ib exhibited the same molecular mass which was determined to be 53 kDa by SDS/PAGE and 54 kDa by gel-permeation chromatography. Enzymes Ia and Ib hydrolysed yeast mannan and 1,2-alpha-linked mannooligosaccharides, but did not hydrolyse p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-mannoside. The optimal pH for the hydrolysis of Man(alpha 1-->2)Man was 5.0 for both isoenzymes. Similar kinetic parameters were determined for the two forms. Activation energy was a little lower for Ia than Ib. There was little difference between the enzymes with regard to their performance at acidic or alkaline pH. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the two enzymes were identical. Analysis of C-terminal peptides, which were prepared by tryptic digestion and anhydrotrypsin-agarose chromatography, showed that Ia and Ib had the same amino acid sequences in the C-terminal region. Tryptic digestion revealed a slight difference between the isoenzymes in the pattern of cleaved peptides on SDS/PAGE. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:8452520

  18. A Unifying Mathematical Framework for Genetic Robustness, Environmental Robustness, Network Robustness and their Trade-offs on Phenotype Robustness in Biological Networks. Part III: Synthetic Gene Networks in Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Lin, Ying-Po

    2013-01-01

    Robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are ubiquitous systematic properties that are observed in biological systems at many different levels. The underlying principles for robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are universal to both complex biological systems and sophisticated engineering systems. In many biological networks, network robustness should be large enough to confer: intrinsic robustness for tolerating intrinsic parameter fluctuations; genetic robustness for buffering genetic variations; and environmental robustness for resisting environmental disturbances. Network robustness is needed so phenotype stability of biological network can be maintained, guaranteeing phenotype robustness. Synthetic biology is foreseen to have important applications in biotechnology and medicine; it is expected to contribute significantly to a better understanding of functioning of complex biological systems. This paper presents a unifying mathematical framework for investigating the principles of both robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation for synthetic gene networks in synthetic biology. Further, from the unifying mathematical framework, we found that the phenotype robustness criterion for synthetic gene networks is the following: if intrinsic robustness + genetic robustness + environmental robustness ≦ network robustness, then the phenotype robustness can be maintained in spite of intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental disturbances. Therefore, the trade-offs between intrinsic robustness, genetic robustness, environmental robustness, and network robustness in synthetic biology can also be investigated through corresponding phenotype robustness criteria from the systematic point of view. Finally, a robust synthetic design that involves network evolution algorithms with desired behavior under intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental

  19. A Unifying Mathematical Framework for Genetic Robustness, Environmental Robustness, Network Robustness and their Trade-offs on Phenotype Robustness in Biological Networks. Part III: Synthetic Gene Networks in Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Lin, Ying-Po

    2013-01-01

    Robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are ubiquitous systematic properties that are observed in biological systems at many different levels. The underlying principles for robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are universal to both complex biological systems and sophisticated engineering systems. In many biological networks, network robustness should be large enough to confer: intrinsic robustness for tolerating intrinsic parameter fluctuations; genetic robustness for buffering genetic variations; and environmental robustness for resisting environmental disturbances. Network robustness is needed so phenotype stability of biological network can be maintained, guaranteeing phenotype robustness. Synthetic biology is foreseen to have important applications in biotechnology and medicine; it is expected to contribute significantly to a better understanding of functioning of complex biological systems. This paper presents a unifying mathematical framework for investigating the principles of both robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation for synthetic gene networks in synthetic biology. Further, from the unifying mathematical framework, we found that the phenotype robustness criterion for synthetic gene networks is the following: if intrinsic robustness + genetic robustness + environmental robustness ≦ network robustness, then the phenotype robustness can be maintained in spite of intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental disturbances. Therefore, the trade-offs between intrinsic robustness, genetic robustness, environmental robustness, and network robustness in synthetic biology can also be investigated through corresponding phenotype robustness criteria from the systematic point of view. Finally, a robust synthetic design that involves network evolution algorithms with desired behavior under intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental

  20. Biological responses of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) exposed to the inorganic arsenic species As(III) and As(V): effects of concentration and duration of exposure.

    PubMed

    Duman, Fatih; Ozturk, Fatma; Aydin, Zeki

    2010-06-01

    The accumulation of arsenic (As) and physiological responses of Lemna minor L. under different concentration (0, 1, 4, 16 and 64 microM) and duration (1, 2, 4 and 6 days) of two species As, NaAsO(2) and Na(2)HAsO(4).7H(2)O, were studied in hydroponics. The accumulation of both As species depended on As concentration and exposure duration. The highest accumulation of As was found as 17408 and 8674 microg g(-1), for plants exposed to 64 microM of As(III) and As(V), respectively, after 6 days. Two-way ANOVA analyses indicated that, for plants exposed to arsenite (As(III)), exposure duration had a greater effect than concentration on As accumulation. Conversely, exposure concentration had a greater effect on As accumulation in plants exposed to arsenate (As(V)). Arsenic exposure levels, approaching 16 microM for As(III) and 64 microM for As(V), did not significantly affect EC values. Beyond these exposure concentrations, EC values increased in a manner that depended on duration. Significant effect of As(III) on lipid peroxidation was observed at 1 microM application whereas, this effect started to be significant after an exposure to 16 microM As(V). For both As(III) and As(V), photosynthetic pigment levels slightly increased for the first day with respect to the control, followed by a gradual decline at higher concentrations and durations. An increase in protein content and enzyme activity was observed at moderate exposure conditions, followed by a decrease. Significant positive correlations were determined between accumulated As and ion leakage and lipid peroxidation. Negative correlations were found between accumulated As and total chlorophyll and protein content. Our results suggested that exposure duration and concentration had a strong synergetic effect on antioxidant enzyme activity. The findings of the present study may be useful when this plant is used as a phytoremediator in arsenic-polluted water.

  1. Phosphoglycerate Mutases Function as Reverse Regulated Isoenzymes in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942

    PubMed Central

    Jablonsky, Jiri; Hagemann, Martin; Schwarz, Doreen; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoglycerate-mutase (PGM) is an ubiquitous glycolytic enzyme, which in eukaryotic cells can be found in different compartments. In prokaryotic cells, several PGMs are annotated/localized in one compartment. The identification and functional characterization of PGMs in prokaryotes is therefore important for better understanding of metabolic regulation. Here we introduce a method, based on a multi-level kinetic model of the primary carbon metabolism in cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, that allows the identification of a specific function for a particular PGM. The strategy employs multiple parameter estimation runs in high CO2, combined with simulations testing a broad range of kinetic parameters against the changes in transcript levels of annotated PGMs. Simulations are evaluated for a match in metabolic level in low CO2, to reveal trends that can be linked to the function of a particular PGM. A one-isoenzyme scenario shows that PGM2 is a major regulator of glycolysis, while PGM1 and PGM4 make the system robust against environmental changes. Strikingly, combining two PGMs with reverse transcriptional regulation allows both features. A conclusion arising from our analysis is that a two-enzyme PGM system is required to regulate the flux between glycolysis and the Calvin-Benson cycle, while an additional PGM increases the robustness of the system. PMID:23484009

  2. The isoenzyme of glutaminyl cyclase is an important regulator of monocyte infiltration under inflammatory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cynis, Holger; Hoffmann, Torsten; Friedrich, Daniel; Kehlen, Astrid; Gans, Kathrin; Kleinschmidt, Martin; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Wolf, Raik; Wermann, Michael; Stephan, Anett; Haegele, Monique; Sedlmeier, Reinhard; Graubner, Sigrid; Jagla, Wolfgang; Müller, Anke; Eichentopf, Rico; Heiser, Ulrich; Seifert, Franziska; Quax, Paul H A; de Vries, Margreet R; Hesse, Isabel; Trautwein, Daniela; Wollert, Ulrich; Berg, Sabine; Freyse, Ernst-Joachim; Schilling, Stephan; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Acute and chronic inflammatory disorders are characterized by detrimental cytokine and chemokine expression. Frequently, the chemotactic activity of cytokines depends on a modified N-terminus of the polypeptide. Among those, the N-terminus of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2 and MCP-1) is modified to a pyroglutamate (pE-) residue protecting against degradation in vivo. Here, we show that the N-terminal pE-formation depends on glutaminyl cyclase activity. The pE-residue increases stability against N-terminal degradation by aminopeptidases and improves receptor activation and signal transduction in vitro. Genetic ablation of the glutaminyl cyclase iso-enzymes QC (QPCT) or isoQC (QPCTL) revealed a major role of isoQC for pE1-CCL2 formation and monocyte infiltration. Consistently, administration of QC-inhibitors in inflammatory models, such as thioglycollate-induced peritonitis reduced monocyte infiltration. The pharmacologic efficacy of QC/isoQC-inhibition was assessed in accelerated atherosclerosis in ApoE3*Leiden mice, showing attenuated atherosclerotic pathology following chronic oral treatment. Current strategies targeting CCL2 are mainly based on antibodies or spiegelmers. The application of small, orally available inhibitors of glutaminyl cyclases represents an alternative therapeutic strategy to treat CCL2-driven disorders such as atherosclerosis/restenosis and fibrosis. PMID:21774078

  3. NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Purification, kinetic properties, and physiological roles.

    PubMed

    DeLuna, A; Avendano, A; Riego, L; Gonzalez, A

    2001-11-23

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenases (NADP-GDHs) encoded by GDH1 and GDH3 catalyze the synthesis of glutamate from ammonium and alpha-ketoglutarate. The GDH2-encoded NAD(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase degrades glutamate producing ammonium and alpha-ketoglutarate. Until very recently, it was considered that only one biosynthetic NADP-GDH was present in S. cerevisiae. This fact hindered understanding the physiological role of each isoenzyme and the mechanisms involved in alpha-ketoglutarate channeling for glutamate biosynthesis. In this study, we purified and characterized the GDH1- and GDH3-encoded NADP-GDHs; they showed different allosteric properties and rates of alpha-ketoglutarate utilization. Analysis of the relative levels of these proteins revealed that the expression of GDH1 and GDH3 is differentially regulated and depends on the nature of the carbon source. Moreover, the physiological study of mutants lacking or overexpressing GDH1 or GDH3 suggested that these genes play nonredundant physiological roles. Our results indicate that the coordinated regulation of GDH1-, GDH3-, and GDH2-encoded enzymes results in glutamate biosynthesis and balanced utilization of alpha-ketoglutarate under fermentative and respiratory conditions. The possible relevance of the duplicated NADP-GDH pathway in the adaptation to facultative metabolism is discussed.

  4. Polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis of alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in bone and liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Warnes, T W; Hine, P; Kay, G

    1976-01-01

    Acrylamide gel disc electrophoresis provides a reliable and reasonably rapid method of differentiating the raised serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) of bone origin from that of liver origin. The technique has been placed for the first time on a semiquantitative basis. Measurement of both band width and band position effectively distinguishes the bone from the liver isoenzyme, but band width provides superior discrimination. An origin band was seen in none of the normal subjects and in only 7% of patients with bone disease but was present in 78% of patients with liver disease, a highly significant increase. Fifty percent of normal individuals had a small-intestinal band in serum taken two hours after a meal, as did 35% of patients with liver disease, but the incidence of intestinal bands in bone disease was only 11%, significantly less than in the other two groups. The genetic control of small-intestinal AP in serum has been confirmed, but it has been demonstrated that the decrease of intestinal AP in bone disorders is not genetically determined. Images PMID:977779

  5. Expression and induction of cytochrome p450 isoenzymes in human skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Neis, M M; Wendel, A; Wiederholt, T; Marquardt, Y; Joussen, S; Baron, J M; Merk, H F

    2010-01-01

    Organotypic skin models are frequently used for a wide range of applications and latterly also for dermatotoxicological studies. To evaluate their practicability for the investigation of xenobiotic metabolism in human skin we compared three types of organotypic skin models, acquired by purchase from different manufacturers, to a self-constructed in-house model with regard to cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme expression on mRNA and protein level and the inducibility of these enzymes by aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. To induce enzyme activity, models were treated with benzanthracene, liquor carbonis detergens, pix lithanthracis or dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent control. RNA was isolated by phenol-chloroform extraction and purified. Gene expression patterns were studied by cDNA microarray analysis. Microarray data were confirmed by real-time PCR. For quality control of the models and to detect and localize enzyme expression, immunofluorescence staining was performed with antibodies against CYPs and structure proteins. The immunofluorescence staining demonstrated the regular structure of our models. We could provide evidence for the expression of CYP types 1A1, 1B1, 2E1, 2C and 3A5 in organotypic skin models. The expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 was highly inducible by treatment with liquor carbonis detergens. The proof of the expression and inducibility of CYP enzymes in organotypic skin models suggests that skin equivalents are a valuable tool that can emulate CYP-dependent metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics in human skin.

  6. Prognostic value of creatine kinase BB-isoenzyme in high risk newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Ruth, V J

    1989-01-01

    Serum creatine kinase BB-isoenzyme (CK-BB) activity was studied on the first day of life in 31 acutely asphyxiated infants, 70 infants born after high risk pregnancies (pre-eclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation, or both), and 47 very low birthweight infants. Neuro-developmental evaluation was carried out at 2.2-2.5 years. Eight infants died with, and eight without, hypoxic-ischaemic lesions of the brain, 14 had cerebral palsy, 16 had mild motor impairment, six had developmental delay without motor impairment, and 96 were normal at follow up. Infants who died with brain injury had significantly higher CK-BB activity than infants with normal outcomes (geometric mean 12 U/l); the mean difference was 82 U/l with a 95% confidence interval from 31 to 219 U/l. CK-BB in infants with cerebral palsy and mild motor impairment (geometric means 12 and 15 U/l, respectively) were similar to controls. CK-BB activity after birth is predictive of neonatal death but not of neurological damage in survivors. PMID:2751331

  7. The isoenzyme of glutaminyl cyclase is an important regulator of monocyte infiltration under inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    Cynis, Holger; Hoffmann, Torsten; Friedrich, Daniel; Kehlen, Astrid; Gans, Kathrin; Kleinschmidt, Martin; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Wolf, Raik; Wermann, Michael; Stephan, Anett; Haegele, Monique; Sedlmeier, Reinhard; Graubner, Sigrid; Jagla, Wolfgang; Müller, Anke; Eichentopf, Rico; Heiser, Ulrich; Seifert, Franziska; Quax, Paul H A; de Vries, Margreet R; Hesse, Isabel; Trautwein, Daniela; Wollert, Ulrich; Berg, Sabine; Freyse, Ernst-Joachim; Schilling, Stephan; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-09-01

    Acute and chronic inflammatory disorders are characterized by detrimental cytokine and chemokine expression. Frequently, the chemotactic activity of cytokines depends on a modified N-terminus of the polypeptide. Among those, the N-terminus of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2 and MCP-1) is modified to a pyroglutamate (pE-) residue protecting against degradation in vivo. Here, we show that the N-terminal pE-formation depends on glutaminyl cyclase activity. The pE-residue increases stability against N-terminal degradation by aminopeptidases and improves receptor activation and signal transduction in vitro. Genetic ablation of the glutaminyl cyclase iso-enzymes QC (QPCT) or isoQC (QPCTL) revealed a major role of isoQC for pE(1) -CCL2 formation and monocyte infiltration. Consistently, administration of QC-inhibitors in inflammatory models, such as thioglycollate-induced peritonitis reduced monocyte infiltration. The pharmacologic efficacy of QC/isoQC-inhibition was assessed in accelerated atherosclerosis in ApoE3*Leiden mice, showing attenuated atherosclerotic pathology following chronic oral treatment. Current strategies targeting CCL2 are mainly based on antibodies or spiegelmers. The application of small, orally available inhibitors of glutaminyl cyclases represents an alternative therapeutic strategy to treat CCL2-driven disorders such as atherosclerosis/restenosis and fibrosis.

  8. Two highly homologous phospholipase D isoenzymes from Papaver somniferum L. with different transphosphatidylation potential.

    PubMed

    Lerchner, Alexandra; Mansfeld, Johanna; Schäffner, Ines; Schöps, Regina; Beer, Helge K; Ulbrich-Hofmann, Renate

    2005-12-15

    The genes of two phospholipase D (PLD) isoenzymes, PLD1 and PLD2, from poppy seedlings (2829 and 2828 bp) were completely sequenced. The two genes have 96.9% identity in the encoding region and can be assigned to the alpha-type of plant PLDs. The corresponding amino acid sequences do not contain any signal sequences. One Asn-glycosylation site, six and two phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase, respectively, and two phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding motifs could be identified. Like in most plant PLDs, two HKD motifs and one C2 domain are present. PLD1 and PLD2 have ten and nine cysteine residues. The two enzymes were expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity by Ca2+ ion-mediated hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The Ca2+ ion concentration needed for carrier binding of the two enzymes in chromatography as well as for optimum activity was found to be considerably higher (>100 mM) than with other alpha-type plant PLDs. Although PLD1 and PLD2 differ in eleven amino acids only, they showed remarkable differences in their transphosphatidylation activity. Two amino acid exchanges within and near the first HKD motif contribute to this difference as shown by the A349E/E352Q-variant of PLD2.

  9. Increase in lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-4 and splenocyte toxicity in methomyl-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Lohitnavy, O; Sinhaseni, P

    1998-09-01

    The toxic effect of methomyl was studied in rats after a single or repeated oral administration. Rats treated with a single dose of methomyl (3, 5, or 7 mg/kg) showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity on day 1. The highest level of LDH activity was observed on day 3 in rats receiving 7 mg/kg of methomyl. The total LDH activity returned to normal on day 7 after dosing. Specific increases in LDH-3 and LDH-4 isoenzyme activities were observed. In rats treated with a single dose of 6 and 8 mg/kg of methomyl, spleen weight and splenocyte viability significantly dropped (P < 0.05) on days 1 and 3, respectively. Splenotoxicity was prevented by pretreatment with 60 mg/kg of N-acetylcysteine. The results suggest that the splenotoxic effect of methomyl is more likely directly related to oxidative cell injury than to cholinesterase inhibition. The significance of cytotoxic effects and the nature of cytotoxicity in relation to reactive oxidative damage deserve further investigation.

  10. Divergent lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme profile in cellular compartments of primate forebrain structures.

    PubMed

    Duka, Tetyana; Collins, Zachary; Anderson, Sarah M; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Ely, John J; Hof, Patrick R; Wildman, Derek E; Goodman, Morris; Grossman, Lawrence I; Sherwood, Chet C

    2017-07-01

    The compartmentalization and association of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with specific cellular structures (e.g., synaptosomal, sarcoplasmic or mitochondrial) may play an important role in brain energy metabolism. Our previous research revealed that LDH in the synaptosomal fraction shifts toward the aerobic isoforms (LDH-B) among the large-brained haplorhine primates compared to strepsirrhines. Here, we further analyzed the subcellular localization of LDH in primate forebrain structures using quantitative Western blotting and ELISA. We show that, in cytosolic and mitochondrial subfractions, LDH-B expression level was relatively elevated and LDH-A declined in haplorhines compared to strepsirrhines. LDH-B expression in mitochondrial fractions of the neocortex was preferentially increased, showing a particularly significant rise in the ratio of LDH-B to LDH-A in chimpanzees and humans. We also found a significant correlation between the protein levels of LDH-B in mitochondrial fractions from haplorhine neocortex and the synaptosomal LDH-B that suggests LDH isoforms shift from a predominance of A-subunits toward B-subunits as part of a system that spatially buffers dynamic energy requirements of brain cells. Our results indicate that there is differential subcellular compartmentalization of LDH isoenzymes that evolved among different primate lineages to meet the energy requirements in neocortical and striatal cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytotoxicity of Pyrazine-Based Cyclometalated (C^Npz^C)Au(III) Carbene Complexes: Impact of the Nature of the Ancillary Ligand on the Biological Properties

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of a series of cyclometalated gold(III) complexes supported by pyrazine-based (C^N^C)-type pincer ligands is reported, including the crystal structure of a cationic example. The compounds provide a new platform for the study of antiproliferative properties of gold(III) complexes. Seven complexes were tested: the neutral series (C^Npz^C)AuX [X = Cl (1), 6-thioguanine (4), C≡CPh (5), SPh (6)] and an ionic series that included the N-methyl complex [(C^NpzMe^C)AuCl]BF4 (7) and the N-heterocyclic carbene complexes [(C^Npz^C)AuL]+ with L = 1,3-dimethylbenzimidazol-2-ylidene (2) or 1,3,7,9-tetramethylxanthin-8-ylidene (3). Tests against human leukemia cells identified 1, 2, 3, and 4 as particularly promising, whereas protecting the noncoordinated N atom on the pyrazine ring by methylation (as in 7) reduced the cytotoxicity. Complex 2 proved to be the most effective of the entire series against the HL60 leukemia, MCF-7 breast cancer, and A549 lung cancer cell lines, with IC50 values down to submicromolar levels, associated with a lower toxicity toward healthy human lung fibroblast cells. The benzimidazolylidene complex 2 accumulated more effectively in human lung cancer cells than its caffeine-based analogue 3 and the gold(III) chloride 1. Compound 2 proved to be unaffected by glutathione under physiological conditions for periods of up to 6 days and stabilizes the DNA G-quadruplex and i-motif structures; the latter is the first such report for gold compounds. We also show the first evidence of inhibition of MDM2–p53 protein–protein interactions by a gold-based compound and identified the binding mode of the compound with MDM2 using saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy combined with docking calculations. PMID:28441013

  12. Cytotoxicity of Pyrazine-Based Cyclometalated (C^N(pz)^C)Au(III) Carbene Complexes: Impact of the Nature of the Ancillary Ligand on the Biological Properties.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Benoît; Fernandez-Cestau, Julio; Angulo, Jesus; Cominetti, Marco M D; Waller, Zoë A E; Searcey, Mark; O'Connell, Maria A; Bochmann, Manfred

    2017-05-15

    The synthesis of a series of cyclometalated gold(III) complexes supported by pyrazine-based (C^N^C)-type pincer ligands is reported, including the crystal structure of a cationic example. The compounds provide a new platform for the study of antiproliferative properties of gold(III) complexes. Seven complexes were tested: the neutral series (C^N(pz)^C)AuX [X = Cl (1), 6-thioguanine (4), C≡CPh (5), SPh (6)] and an ionic series that included the N-methyl complex [(C^N(pzMe)^C)AuCl]BF4 (7) and the N-heterocyclic carbene complexes [(C^N(pz)^C)AuL](+) with L = 1,3-dimethylbenzimidazol-2-ylidene (2) or 1,3,7,9-tetramethylxanthin-8-ylidene (3). Tests against human leukemia cells identified 1, 2, 3, and 4 as particularly promising, whereas protecting the noncoordinated N atom on the pyrazine ring by methylation (as in 7) reduced the cytotoxicity. Complex 2 proved to be the most effective of the entire series against the HL60 leukemia, MCF-7 breast cancer, and A549 lung cancer cell lines, with IC50 values down to submicromolar levels, associated with a lower toxicity toward healthy human lung fibroblast cells. The benzimidazolylidene complex 2 accumulated more effectively in human lung cancer cells than its caffeine-based analogue 3 and the gold(III) chloride 1. Compound 2 proved to be unaffected by glutathione under physiological conditions for periods of up to 6 days and stabilizes the DNA G-quadruplex and i-motif structures; the latter is the first such report for gold compounds. We also show the first evidence of inhibition of MDM2-p53 protein-protein interactions by a gold-based compound and identified the binding mode of the compound with MDM2 using saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy combined with docking calculations.

  13. BIOPLUME III

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BIOPLUME III is a two-dimensional finite difference model for simulating the natural attenuation of organic contaminants in groundwater due to the processes of advection, dispersion, sorption, and biodegradation.

  14. Ruthenium(III) Complexes of Heterocyclic Tridentate (ONN) Schiff Base: Synthesis, Characterization and its Biological Properties as an Antiradical and Antiproliferative Agent

    PubMed Central

    Ejidike, Ikechukwu P.; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    The current work reports the synthesis, spectroscopic studies, antiradical and antiproliferative properties of four ruthenium(III) complexes of heterocyclic tridentate Schiff base bearing a simple 2′,4′-dihydroxyacetophenone functionality and ethylenediamine as the bridging ligand with RCHO moiety. The reaction of the tridentate ligands with RuCl3·3H2O lead to the formation of neutral complexes of the type [Ru(L)Cl2(H2O)] (where L = tridentate NNO ligands). The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-vis, conductivity measurements, FTIR spectroscopy and confirmed the proposed octahedral geometry around the Ru ion. The Ru(III) compounds showed antiradical potentials against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, with DPPH scavenging capability in the order: [(PAEBOD)RuCl2] > [(BZEBOD)RuCl2] > [(MOABOD)RuCl2] > [Vit. C] > [rutin] > [(METBOD)RuCl2], and ABTS radical in the order: [(PAEBOD)RuCl2] < [(MOABOD)RuCl2] < [(BZEBOD)RuCl2] < [(METBOD)RuCl2]. Furthermore, in vitro anti-proliferative activity was investigated against three human cancer cell lines: renal cancer cell (TK-10), melanoma cancer cell (UACC-62) and breast cancer cell (MCF-7) by SRB assay. PMID:26742030

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi III from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) from Northeastern Venezuela and its biological behavior in murine model. Risk of emergency of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Morocoima, Antonio; Carrasco, Hernán J; Boadas, Johanna; Chique, José David; Herrera, Leidi; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2012-11-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas' disease, was isolated from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) captured in rural communities Northeastern Venezuela from Nueva Esparta State (no endemic for Chagas' disease), Monagas and Anzoátegui States (endemics). The isolates, genetically typed by PCR-RFLP as belonging to the TcIII DTU, have demonstrated in murine model heterogenic parasitemia, mortality and histotropism with marked parasitism in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth myocytes that showed correlation with lymphobasophilic inflammatory infiltrates. Our finding of T. cruzi infected armadillos in Isla Margarita (Nueva Esparta State), together with reports of triatomine vectors in this region, the accentuated synanthropy of armadillos, intense economic activity, migration due to tourism and the lack of environmental education programs all of them represent risks that could cause the emergence of Chagas' disease in this area. This is the first report of the TcIII DTU in Northeastern Venezuela, thus widening the geographic distribution of this DTU. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation on the self-association of an inorganic coordination compound with biological activity (Casiopeína III-ia) in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Marín-Medina, Alejandro; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Ruíz-Azuara, Lena; Carrillo-Nava, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    From studies using different experimental techniques employed to determine the presence of aggregates e.g. isothermal titration calorimetry, surface tension, electrical conductivity, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, dynamic and static light scattering, it is clearly demonstrated that the compound [Cu(4, 4'-dimethyl-2, 2'-bipyridine)(acetylacetonato)H2O]NO3 (Casiopeína III-ia), promising member of a family of new generation compounds for cancer treatment, is able to auto associate in aqueous media. Physicochemical properties associated with the formation of the aggregates were determined in pure water and in phosphate buffer media in order to simulate physiological conditions. From isothermal titration calorimetry and electrical conductivity measurements we calculated the dissociation constant of the aggregates, KD . For pure water the values obtained in both techniques are 2.73 × 10(-4) and 5.93 × 10(-4) M respectively while for the buffer media we obtained 4.61 × 10(-4) and 1.57 × 10(-3) M. The enthalpy of dissociation, ∆HD , calculated from the calorimetric data shows that the presence of the phosphate ions has an energetic effect on the aggregate stability since in pure water a value of 18.79 kJ mol(-1) was obtained in comparison with the buffer media where a value 4 times bigger was found (70.48 kJ mol(-1)). With the data collected from these techniques the number of monomers calculated which participate in the formation of the aggregates is around two. From our surface tension, electrical conductivity and UV-Vis spectrophotometry measurements the critical aggregate concentration, cac, was determined. For each technique specific concentration ranges were obtained but we can summarize that the cac in pure water is between 3 and 3.5 mM and for the buffer media is between 3.5 and 4 mM. Dynamic light scattering measurements provide us with the hydrodynamic diameter of the aggregates and from static light scattering measurements we determined the

  17. Biological effects of high-LET particles on corn-seed embryos in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project--Biostack III experiment.

    PubMed

    Peterson, D D; Benton, E V; Tran, M; Yang, T; Freeling, M; Craise, L; Tobias, C A

    1977-01-01

    High-LET particle hits in embryos of Zea mays corn seeds, flown as part of Biostack III in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, were determined via plastic nuclear track detectors. Based on etched particle-track measurements, 41 embryos were hit in seed layer 1 which contained 80 seeds, and 49 hits occurred in layer 2 which contained 79 seeds. The mean LET value and range of atomic numbers of recorded hits is, respectively, 210 +/- 57 keV micrometers -1 and 9 < or approximately Z < or approximately 26. Detailed analysis of one particular seed showing marked growth anomalies revealed two hits in the central region of the embryo. These two hits had LET values in the region of 100-150 keV micrometers-1, and Z > or approximately 20.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, electro chemistry, catalytic and biological activities of ruthenium(III) complexes with bidentate N, O/S donor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, K. P.; Parameswari, K.; Chinnusamy, V.; Prabhakaran, R.; Natarajan, K.

    2006-11-01

    New hexa-coordinated ruthenium(III) complexes of the type [RuX 2(EPh 3) 2(L)] (E = P or As; X = Cl or Br; L = monobasic bidentate Schiff base derived from the condensation of benzhydrazide with furfuraldehyde, 2-acetylfuran and 2-acetylthiophene) have been synthesized from the equimolar amounts of [RuX 3(EPh 3) 3] or [RuBr 3(PPh 3) 2(MeOH)] and Schiff bases in benzene. The new complexes have been characterized by analytical, spectral (IR, electronic and EPR), magnetic moment, and cyclic voltammetry. An octahedral structure has been tentatively proposed. All the complexes have exhibited catalytic activity for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol, cyclohexanol and cinnamylalcohol in the presence of N-methylmorpholine- N-oxide as co-oxidant. All the new complexes were found to be active against the bacteria such as E. coli, Pseudomonas, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. The activity was compared with standard Streptomycin.

  19. Faecal pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 for colorectal cancer screening: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tonus, Carolin; Sellinger, Markus; Koss, Konrad; Neupert, Gero

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To present a critical discussion of the efficacy of the faecal pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 (faecal M2-PK) test for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening based on the currently available studies. METHODS: A literature search in PubMed and Embase was conducted using the following search terms: fecal Tumor M2-PK, faecal Tumour M2-PK, fecal M2-PK, faecal M2-PK, fecal pyruvate kinase, faecal pyruvate kinase, pyruvate kinase stool and M2-PK stool. RESULTS: Stool samples from 704 patients with CRC and from 11 412 healthy subjects have been investigated for faecal M2-PK concentrations in seventeen independent studies. The mean faecal M2-PK sensitivity was 80.3%; the specificity was 95.2%. Four studies compared faecal M2-PK head-to-head with guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT). Faecal M2-PK demonstrated a sensitivity of 81.1%, whereas the gFOBT detected only 36.9% of the CRCs. Eight independent studies investigated the sensitivity of faecal M2-PK for adenoma (n = 554), with the following sensitivities: adenoma < 1 cm in diameter: 25%; adenoma > 1 cm: 44%; adenoma of unspecified diameter: 51%. In a direct comparison with gFOBT of adenoma > 1 cm in diameter, 47% tested positive with the faecal M2-PK test, whereas the gFOBT detected only 27%. CONCLUSION: We recommend faecal M2-PK as a routine test for CRC screening. Faecal M2-PK closes a gap in clinical practice because it detects bleeding and non-bleeding tumors and adenoma with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:22912551

  20. Clinical and preclinical treatment of urologic diseases with phosphodiesterase isoenzymes 5 inhibitors: an update

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Xin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase isoenzymes 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) are the first-line therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). The constant discoveries of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) cell-signaling pathway for smooth muscle (SM) control in other urogenital tracts (UGTs) make PDE5-Is promising pharmacologic agents against other benign urological diseases. This article reviews the literature and contains some previously unpublished data about characterizations and activities of PDE5 and its inhibitors in treating urological disorders. Scientific discoveries have improved our understanding of cell-signaling pathway in NO/cGMP-mediated SM relaxation in UGTs. Moreover, the clinical applications of PDE5-Is have been widely recognized. On-demand PDE5-Is are efficacious for most cases of ED, while daily-dosing and combination with testosterone are recommended for refractory cases. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulators also have promising role in the management of severe ED conditions. PDE5-Is are also the first rehabilitation strategy for postoperation or postradiotherapy ED for prostate cancer patients. PDE5-Is, especially combined with α-adrenoceptor antagonists, are very effective for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) except on maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) with tadalafil recently proved for BPH with/without ED. Furthermore, PDE5-Is are currently under various phases of clinical or preclinical researches with promising potential for other urinary and genital illnesses, such as priapism, premature ejaculation, urinary tract calculi, overactive bladder, Peyronie's disease, and female sexual dysfunction. Inhibition of PDE5 is expected to be an effective strategy in treating benign urological diseases. However, further clinical studies and basic researches investigating mechanisms of PDE5-Is in disorders of UGTs are required. PMID:26620458

  1. Arogenate dehydratase isoenzymes profoundly and differentially modulate carbon flux into lignins.

    PubMed

    Corea, Oliver R A; Ki, Chanyoung; Cardenas, Claudia L; Kim, Sung-Jin; Brewer, Sarah E; Patten, Ann M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2012-03-30

    How carbon flux differentially occurs in vascular plants following photosynthesis for protein formation, phenylpropanoid metabolism (i.e. lignins), and other metabolic processes is not well understood. Our previous discovery/deduction that a six-membered arogenate dehydratase (ADT1-6) gene family encodes the final step in Phe biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana raised the fascinating question whether individual ADT isoenzymes (or combinations thereof) differentially modulated carbon flux to lignins, proteins, etc. If so, unlike all other lignin pathway manipulations that target cell wall/cytosolic processes, this would be the first example of a plastid (chloroplast)-associated metabolic process influencing cell wall formation. Homozygous T-DNA insertion lines were thus obtained for five of the six ADTs and used to generate double, triple, and quadruple knockouts (KOs) in different combinations. The various mutants so obtained gave phenotypes with profound but distinct reductions in lignin amounts, encompassing a range spanning from near wild type levels to reductions of up to ∼68%. In the various KOs, there were also marked changes in guaiacyl:syringyl ratios ranging from ∼3:1 to 1:1, respectively; these changes were attributed to differential carbon flux into vascular bundles versus that into fiber cells. Laser microscope dissection/pyrolysis GC/MS, histochemical staining/lignin analyses, and pADT::GUS localization indicated that ADT5 preferentially affects carbon flux into the vascular bundles, whereas the adt3456 knock-out additionally greatly reduced carbon flux into fiber cells. This plastid-localized metabolic step can thus profoundly differentially affect carbon flux into lignins in distinct anatomical regions and provides incisive new insight into different factors affecting guaiacyl:syringyl ratios and lignin primary structure.

  2. Correlation study of adenosine deaminase and its isoenzymes in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Lokendra Bahadur; Thapa, Sangita; Subedi, Nuwadatta

    2017-01-01

    Objective Adenosine deaminase (ADA) plays an important role in cell-mediated immunity and modulation of insulin activity. Its clinical and diagnostic significance in Nepalese type 2 diabetes is not yet characterized. So, this study's objective was to determine the isoenzymatic activities of ADA (ADA1, ADA2, and total ADA) and show its correlation with demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical characteristics of type 2 Nepalese subjects with diabetes. Research design and methods This is a hospital-based cross-sectional study including 80 type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and same number of age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls. Data were collected using preformed set of questionnaires and biochemical data were obtained from the laboratory analysis of the patient's blood samples. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS V.20. Results A significantly higher (p<0.001) mean values of body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial blood sugar (PPBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipid profiles except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were found in type 2 diabetic cases compared with controls. Serum ADA activities were significantly higher in cases compared with controls (p<0.001) showing significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with FBS, PPBS, HbA1c, and alcoholism; while no correlation was found with age, sex, ethnicity, BMI, waist–hip ratio, dietary habits, smoking, and duration of diabetes. Conclusions Serum ADA activities were significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients compared with controls having significant positive correlation with glycemic parameters. Serum ADA and its isoenzymes could be used as biomarkers for assessing glycemic status in patients with type 2 DM. PMID:28321313

  3. Arogenate Dehydratase Isoenzymes Profoundly and Differentially Modulate Carbon Flux into Lignins*

    PubMed Central

    Corea, Oliver R. A.; Ki, Chanyoung; Cardenas, Claudia L.; Kim, Sung-Jin; Brewer, Sarah E.; Patten, Ann M.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2012-01-01

    How carbon flux differentially occurs in vascular plants following photosynthesis for protein formation, phenylpropanoid metabolism (i.e. lignins), and other metabolic processes is not well understood. Our previous discovery/deduction that a six-membered arogenate dehydratase (ADT1–6) gene family encodes the final step in Phe biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana raised the fascinating question whether individual ADT isoenzymes (or combinations thereof) differentially modulated carbon flux to lignins, proteins, etc. If so, unlike all other lignin pathway manipulations that target cell wall/cytosolic processes, this would be the first example of a plastid (chloroplast)-associated metabolic process influencing cell wall formation. Homozygous T-DNA insertion lines were thus obtained for five of the six ADTs and used to generate double, triple, and quadruple knockouts (KOs) in different combinations. The various mutants so obtained gave phenotypes with profound but distinct reductions in lignin amounts, encompassing a range spanning from near wild type levels to reductions of up to ∼68%. In the various KOs, there were also marked changes in guaiacyl:syringyl ratios ranging from ∼3:1 to 1:1, respectively; these changes were attributed to differential carbon flux into vascular bundles versus that into fiber cells. Laser microscope dissection/pyrolysis GC/MS, histochemical staining/lignin analyses, and pADT::GUS localization indicated that ADT5 preferentially affects carbon flux into the vascular bundles, whereas the adt3456 knock-out additionally greatly reduced carbon flux into fiber cells. This plastid-localized metabolic step can thus profoundly differentially affect carbon flux into lignins in distinct anatomical regions and provides incisive new insight into different factors affecting guaiacyl:syringyl ratios and lignin primary structure. PMID:22311980

  4. Structural and Kinetic Properties of Lumazine Synthase Isoenzymes in the Order Rhizobiales

    SciTech Connect

    Klinke,S.; Zylberman, V.; Bonomi, H.; Haase, I.; Guimaraes, B.; Braden, B.; Bacher, A.; Fischer, M.; Goldbaum, F.

    2007-01-01

    6, 7-Dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine synthase (lumazine synthase; LS) catalyzes the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin in plants and microorganisms. This protein is known to exhibit different quaternary assemblies between species, existing as free pentamers, decamers (dimers of pentamers) and icosahedrally arranged dodecamers of pentamers. A phylogenetic analysis on eubacterial, fungal and plant LSs allowed us to classify them into two categories: Type I LSs (pentameric or icosahedral) and Type II LSs (decameric). The Rhizobiales represent an order of ?-proteobacteria that includes, among others, the genera Mesorhizobium, Agrobacterium and Brucella. Here, we present structural and kinetic studies on several LSs from Rhizobiales. Interestingly, Mesorhizobium and Brucella encode both a Type-I LS and a Type-II LS called RibH1 and RibH2, respectively. We show that Type II LSs appear to be almost inactive, whereas Type I LSs present a highly variable catalytic activity according to the genus. Additionally, we have solved four RibH1/RibH2 crystallographic structures from the genera Mesorhizobium and Brucella. The relationship between the active-site architecture and catalytic properties in these isoenzymes is discussed, and a model that describes the enzymatic behavior is proposed. Furthermore, sequence alignment studies allowed us to extend our results to the genus Agrobacterium. Our results suggest that the selective pressure controlling the riboflavin pathway favored the evolution of catalysts with low reaction rates, since the excess of flavins in the intracellular pool in Rhizobiales could act as a negative factor when these bacteria are exposed to oxidative or nitrosative stress.

  5. Creatine kinase isoenzymes in serum from cord blood and the blood of healthy full-term infants during the first three postnatal days.

    PubMed

    Jedeikin, R; Makela, S K; Shennan, A T; Rowe, R D; Ellis, G

    1982-02-01

    Isoenzymes of creatine kinase (ATP:creatine phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.3.2; CK) were measured by electrophoresis in serum from cord blood and skin-puncture blood taken from 45 healthy full-term infants during the first three postnatal days. Mean total CK activities (in U/L at 30 degrees C) were 185 in cord samples, 536 in samples taken between 5--8 h postnatally, 494 between 24--33 h, and 288 in the 72-100 h samples. Values for all three isoenzymes increased to a peak over this period, with the highest values generally being found in the samples taken 5--33 h after birth; the subsequent decline was most rapid for CK-BB. Serum CK isoenzymes in cord samples and those taken at 72--100 h in the 11 babies delivered by cesarian section did not differ significantly from those of babies delivered vaginally. However the postnatal increases in total CK, CK-MM, and CK-MB (but not in CK-BB) were significantly greater in those patients born by vaginal delivery. The reasons for the increases in CK isoenzymes after birth are not clear, but our results and reported studies on the ontogeny of CK suggest that CK-MB cannot be regarded as a "cardiac-specific" isoenzyme in the neonatal period.

  6. Misconceptions regarding basic thermodynamics and enzyme kinetics have led to erroneous conclusions regarding the metabolic importance of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme expression.

    PubMed

    Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne

    2017-02-02

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate involving the coenzyme NAD(+) . Part of the foundation for the proposed shuttling of lactate from astrocytes to neurons during brain activation is the differential distribution of LDH isoenzymes between the two cell types. In this short review, we outline the basic kinetic properties of the LDH isoenzymes expressed in neurons and astrocytes, and argue that the distribution of LDH isoenzymes does not in any way govern directional flow of lactate between the two cellular compartments. The two main points are as follows. First, in line with the general concept of chemical catalysis, enzymes do not influence the thermodynamic equilibrium of a chemical reaction but merely the speed at which equilibrium is obtained. Thus, differential distribution of LDH isoenzymes with different kinetic parameters does not predict which cells are producing and which are consuming lactate. Second, the thermodynamic equilibrium of the reaction is toward the reduced substrate (i.e., lactate), which is reflected in the concentrations measured in brain tissue, suggesting that the reaction is at near-equilibrium at steady state. To conclude, the cellular distribution of LDH isoenzymes is of little if any consequence in determining any directional flow of lactate between neurons and astrocytes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Studies of the development of basic, neutral and acidic isoenzymes of glutathione S-transferase in human liver, adrenal, kidney and spleen.

    PubMed Central

    Faulder, C G; Hirrell, P A; Hume, R; Strange, R C

    1987-01-01

    The ontogeny of basic, near-neutral and acidic glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes was studied by using chromatofocusing and ion-exchange chromatography. These isoenzyme sets demonstrated tissue-specific patterns of expression. For example, whereas basic isoenzymes were identified in all liver and adrenal cytosols obtained after 10 weeks gestation, these forms were not detected in kidney until 10 weeks post-natal age and in spleen until about 40 weeks post-natal age. Our data indicate that the basic monomers B1 and B2 are present in liver cytosol at 21 weeks gestation. Expression of the near-neutral isoenzymes was usually weak; for example, they were not generally expressed in liver until 30 weeks gestation, and no developmental patterns in their expression could be identified in adrenal, kidney and spleen. The acidic isoenzymes were usually strongly expressed in adrenal, kidney and spleen, although there was a decline in the level of expression in kidney after birth. PMID:3566710

  8. Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS): a high stability, Val187Ile isoenzyme common among African Americans and its relationship to risk for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tippin, Brigette L.; Levine, A. Joan; Materi, Alicia M.; Song, Wen-Liang; Keku, Temitope O.; Goodman, Julie E.; Sansbury, Leah B.; Das, Sudipto; Dai, Aihua; Kwong, Alan M.; Lin, Amy M.; Lin, John M.; Park, Jae Man; Patterson, Ruth E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Garavito, R. Michael; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Cho, Wonhwa; Lawson, John A.; Kapoor, Shiv; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Marchand, Loïc Le; Haile, Robert W.; Sandler, Robert S.; Lin, Henry J.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal tumors in ApcMin/+ mice are suppressed by over-production of HPGDS, which is a glutathione transferase that forms prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). We characterized naturally occurring HPGDS isoenzymes, to see if HPGDS variation is associated with human colorectal cancer risk. We used DNA heteroduplex analysis and sequencing to identify HPGDS variants among healthy individuals. HPGDS isoenzymes were produced in bacteria, and their catalytic activities were tested. To determine in vivo effects, we conducted pooled case-control analyses to assess whether there is an association of the isoenzyme with colorectal cancer. Roughly 8% of African Americans and 2% of Caucasians had a highly stable Val187lle isoenzyme (with isoleucine instead of valine at position 187). At 37 °C, the wild-type enzyme lost 15% of its activity in one hour, whereas the Val187Ile form remained >95% active. At 50 °C, the half life of native HPGDS was 9 minutes, compared to 42 minutes for Val187Ile. The odds ratio for colorectal cancer among African Americans with Val187Ile was 1.10 (95% CI, 0.75–1.62; 533 cases, 795 controls). Thus, the Val187Ile HPGDS isoenzyme common among African Americans is not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Other approaches will be needed to establish a role for HPGDS in occurrence of human intestinal tumors, as indicated by a mouse model. PMID:21821144

  9. Biology of biomechanics: Finite element analysis of a statically determinate system to rotate the occlusal plane for correction of a skeletal Class III open-bite malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, W Eugene; Viecilli, Rodrigo F; Chang, Chris; Katona, Thomas R; Paydar, Nasser H

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of adequate animal or in-vitro models, the biomechanics of human malocclusion must be studied indirectly. Finite element analysis (FEA) is emerging as a clinical technology to assist in diagnosis, treatment planning, and retrospective analysis. The hypothesis tested is that instantaneous FEA can retrospectively simulate long-term mandibular arch retraction and occlusal plane rotation for the correction of a skeletal Class III malocclusion. Seventeen published case reports were selected of patients treated with statically determinate mechanics using posterior mandible or infrazygomatic crest bone screw anchorage to retract the mandibular arch. Two-dimensional measurements were made for incisor and molar movements, mandibular arch rotation, and retraction relative to the maxillary arch. A patient with cone-beam computed tomography imaging was selected for a retrospective FEA. The mean age for the sample was 23.3 ± 3.3 years; there were 7 men and 10 women. Mean incisor movements were 3.35 ± 1.55 mm of retraction and 2.18 ± 2.51 mm of extrusion. Corresponding molar movements were retractions of 4.85 ± 1.78 mm and intrusions of 0.85 ± 2.22 mm. Retraction of the mandibular arch relative to the maxillary arch was 4.88 ± 1.41 mm. Mean posterior rotation of the mandibular arch was -5.76° ± 4.77° (counterclockwise). The mean treatment time (n = 16) was 36.2 ± 15.3 months. Bone screws in the posterior mandibular region were more efficient for intruding molars and decreasing the vertical dimension of the occlusion to close an open bite. The full-cusp, skeletal Class III patient selected for FEA was treated to an American Board of Orthodontics Cast-Radiograph Evaluation score of 24 points in about 36 months by en-masse retraction and posterior rotation of the mandibular arch: the bilateral load on the mandibular segment was about 200 cN. The mandibular arch was retracted by about 5 mm, posterior rotation was about 16.5°, and molar intrusion was about 3

  10. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) As of FY 2015 President’s Budget...00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Responsible Office References Program Name Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) DoD Component Air Force

  11. Characterization of papain-like isoenzymes from latex of Asclepias curassavica by molecular biology validated by proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Obregón, Walter D; Liggieri, Constanza S; Trejo, Sebastian A; Avilés, Francesc X; Vairo-Cavalli, Sandra E; Priolo, Nora S

    2009-01-01

    Latices from Asclepias spp are used in wound healing and the treatment of some digestive disorders. These pharmacological actions have been attributed to the presence of cysteine proteases in these milky latices. Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae), "scarlet milkweed" is a perennial subshrub native to South America. In the current paper we report a new approach directed at the selective biochemical and molecular characterization of asclepain cI (acI) and asclepain cII (acII), the enzymes responsible for the proteolytic activity of the scarlet milkweed latex. SDS-PAGE spots of both purified peptidases were digested with trypsin and Peptide Mass Fingerprints (PMFs) obtained showed no equivalent peptides. No identification was possible by MASCOT search due to the paucity of information concerning Asclepiadaceae latex cysteine proteinases available in databases. From total RNA extracted from latex samples, cDNA of both peptidases was obtained by RT-PCR using degenerate primers encoding Asclepiadaceae cysteine peptidase conserved domains. Theoretical PMFs of partial polypeptide sequences obtained by cloning (186 and 185 amino acids) were compared with empirical PMFs, confirming that the sequences of 186 and 185 amino acids correspond to acI and acII, respectively. N-terminal sequences of acI and acII, characterized by Edman sequencing, were overlapped with those coming from the cDNA to obtain the full-length sequence of both mature peptidases (212 and 211 residues respectively). Alignment and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that acI and acII belong to the subfamily C1A forming a new group of papain-like cysteine peptidases together with asclepain f from Asclepias fruticosa. We conclude that PMF could be adopted as an excellent tool to differentiate, in a fast and unequivocal way, peptidases with very similar physicochemical and functional properties, with advantages over other conventional methods (for instance enzyme kinetics) that are time consuming and afford less reliable results.

  12. Biological activity of neutral and cationic iridium(III) complexes with κP and κP,κS coordinated Ph₂PCH₂S(O)xPh (x = 0-2) ligands.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Gerd; Mijatović, Sanja; Ranđelović, Ivan; Bulatović, Mirna; Miljković, Djordje; Maksimović-Ivanić, Danijela; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich; Steinborn, Dirk; Kaluđerović, Goran N

    2013-11-01

    Neutral iridium(III) complexes of the type [Ir(η(5)-C₅Me₅)Cl₂{Ph₂PCH₂S(O)xPh-κP}] (1-3) with diphenylphosphino-functionalized methyl phenyl sulfides, sulfoxides, and sulfones Ph₂PCH₂S(O)xPh (x = 0, L1; 1, L2; 2, L3) and the cationic complex [Ir(η(5)-C₅Me₅)Cl{Ph₂PCH₂SPh-κP,κS}][PF6] (4) were synthesized and fully characterized analytically and spectroscopically. Furthermore, the structure of 2 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The biological potential of the neutral and cationic iridium(III) complexes was tested in vitro against the cell lines 8505C, A253, MCF-7, SW480 and 518A2. Complex [Ir(η(5)-C₅Me₅)Cl₂{Ph₂PCH₂S(O)Ph-κP}] (2), with ligand L2 κP coordinated containing a pendent sulfinyl group, is the most active one (IC₅₀ values of about 3 μM), thus, with activities comparable to cisplatin. Complex 2 proved to have an even a higher antiproliferative activity than cisplatin against 8505C and SW480 cell lines, used as a model system of highly anaplastic cancers with low sensitivity to conventional chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin. Additional experiments demonstrated that apoptosis and autophagic cell death contribute to the drug's tumoricidal action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel chemiluminescence quenching method for determination of sulfonamides in pharmaceutical and biological fluid based on luminol-Ag(III) complex reaction in alkaline solution.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hanwen; Chen, Peiyun; Li, Liqing; Cheng, Peng

    2011-05-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) quenching method for the determination of sulfonamides is proposed. The CL reaction between Ag(III) complex [Ag(HIO₆)₂]⁵⁻ and luminol in alkaline solution was investigated. The quenching effect of sulfonamides on CL emission of [Ag(HIO₆)₂]⁵⁻-luminol system was found. Quenching degree of CL emission was proportional to sulfonamide concentration. The effects of the reaction conditions on CL emission and quenching were examined. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits (s/n = 3) were 7.2, 17 and 8.3 ng/mL for sulfadiazine, sulfameter, and sulfadimethoxine, respectively. The recoveries of the three drugs were in the range of 91.3-110% with RSDs of 1.9-2.7% for urine samples, and 106-112% with RSDs of 1.6-2.8% for serum samples. The proposed method was used for the determination of sulfadiazine at clinically relevant concentrations in real urine and serum samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopy and biological investigations of manganese(III) Schiff base complexes derived from heterocyclic β-diketone with various primary amine and 2,2'-bipyridyl.

    PubMed

    Surati, Kiran R

    2011-06-01

    The mixed ligand mononuclear complex [Mn(bipy)(HPMFP)(OAc)]ClO(4) was synthesized by reaction of Mn(OAc)(3)·2H(2)O with HPMFP and 2,2'-bipyridyl. The corresponding Schiff base complexes were prepared by condensation of [Mn(bipy)(HPMFP)(OAc)]ClO(4) with ethylenediamine, ethanolamine and glycine (where HPMFP=1-phenyl-3methyl-4-formyl-2-pyrazolin-5one, bipy=2,2'-bipyridyl). All the compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, conductometry measurements and (1)H and (13)C NMR, FT-IR, mass spectrometry. Electronic spectral and magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate square pyramidal geometry around manganese(III) ion. The thermal stabilities, activation energy E*, entropy change ΔS*, enthalpy change ΔH* and heat capacity of thermal degradation for these complexes were determined by TGA and DSC. The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of four coordination compounds and ligand HPMFP were investigated. In vitro activates of Bacillus subtillis (MTCC-619), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96), Escherichia coli (MTCC-722) and Klebsiella pneumonia (MTCC-109) bacteria and the fungus Candida albicans (ATCC-90028) were determined. All the compounds showed good antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activities increased as formation of Schiff base.

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopy and biological investigations of manganese(III) Schiff base complexes derived from heterocyclic β-diketone with various primary amine and 2,2'-bipyridyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surati, Kiran R.

    2011-06-01

    The mixed ligand mononuclear complex [Mn(bipy)(HPMFP)(OAc)]ClO 4 was synthesized by reaction of Mn(OAc) 3·2H 2O with HPMFP and 2,2'-bipyridyl. The corresponding Schiff base complexes were prepared by condensation of [Mn(bipy)(HPMFP)(OAc)]ClO 4 with ethylenediamine, ethanolamine and glycine (where HPMFP = 1-phenyl-3methyl-4-formyl-2-pyrazolin-5one, bipy = 2,2'-bipyridyl). All the compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, conductometry measurements and 1H and 13C NMR, FT-IR, mass spectrometry. Electronic spectral and magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate square pyramidal geometry around manganese(III) ion. The thermal stabilities, activation energy E*, entropy change Δ S*, enthalpy change Δ H* and heat capacity of thermal degradation for these complexes were determined by TGA and DSC. The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of four coordination compounds and ligand HPMFP were investigated. In vitro activates of Bacillus subtillis (MTCC-619), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96), Escherichia coli (MTCC-722) and Klebsiella pneumonia (MTCC-109) bacteria and the fungus Candida albicans (ATCC-90028) were determined. All the compounds showed good antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activities increased as formation of Schiff base.

  16. Structure, kinetic characterization and subcellular localization of the two ribulose 5-phosphate epimerase isoenzymes from Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Soledad Natalia; Valsecchi, Wanda Mariela; Maugeri, Dante; Delfino, José María; Cazzulo, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    The enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) ribulose-5-phosphate-epimerase (RPE) is encoded by two genes present in the genome of Trypanosoma cruzi CL Brener clone: TcRPE1 and TcRPE2. Despite high sequence similarity at the amino acid residue level, the recombinant isoenzymes show a strikingly different kinetics. Whereas TcRPE2 follows a typical michaelian behavior, TcRPE1 shows a complex kinetic pattern, displaying a biphasic curve, suggesting the coexistence of -at least- two kinetically different molecular forms. Regarding the subcellular localization in epimastigotes, whereas TcRPE1 is a cytosolic enzyme, TcRPE2 is localized in glycosomes. To our knowledge, TcRPE2 is the first PPP isoenzyme that is exclusively localized in glycosomes. Over-expression of TcRPE1, but not of TcRPE2, significantly reduces the parasite doubling time in vitro, as compared with wild type epimastigotes. Both TcRPEs represent single domain proteins exhibiting the classical α/β TIM-barrel fold, as expected for enzymes with this activity. With regard to the architecture of the active site, all the important amino acid residues for catalysis -with the exception of M58- are also present in both TcRPEs models. The superimposition of the binding pocket of both isoenzyme models shows that they adopt essentially identical positions in the active site with a residue specific RMSD < 2Å, with the sole exception of S12, which displays a large deviation (residue specific RMSD: 11.07 Å). Studies on the quaternary arrangement of these isoenzymes reveal that both are present in a mixture of various oligomeric species made up of an even number of molecules, probably pointing to the dimer as their minimal functional unit. This multiplicity of oligomeric species has not been reported for any of the other RPEs studied so far and it might bear implications for the regulation of TcRPEs activity, although further investigation will be necessary to unravel the physiological significance of these

  17. Site-directed mutation studies of human liver cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes in the CYP2C subfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Veronese, M E; Doecke, C J; Mackenzie, P I; McManus, M E; Miners, J O; Rees, D L; Gasser, R; Meyer, U A; Birkett, D J

    1993-01-01

    Evidence from human studies in vivo and in vitro strongly suggests that the methylhydroxylation of tolbutamide and the 4-hydroxylation of phenytoin, the major pathways in the elimination of these two drugs, are catalysed by the same cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme(s). In the present study we used site-directed mutagenesis and cDNA expression in COS cells to characterize in detail the kinetics of tolbutamide and phenytoin hydroxylations by seven CYP2C proteins (2C8, 2C9 and variants, and 2C10) in order to define the effects of small changes in amino acid sequences and the likely proteins responsible in the metabolism of these two drugs in man. Tolbutamide was hydroxylated to varying extents by all expressed cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes, although activity was much lower for the expressed 2C8 protein. While the apparent Km values for the 2C9/10 isoenzymes (71.6-131.7 microM) were comparable with the range of apparent Km values previously observed in human liver microsomes, the apparent Km for 2C8 (650.5 microM) was appreciably higher. The 2C8 enzyme also showed quite different sulphaphenazole inhibition characteristics. The 4-hydroxylation of phenytoin was also more efficiently catalysed by the 2C9/10 enzymes. These enzymes showed similarities in kinetics of phenytoin hydroxylation and sulphaphenazole inhibition compared with human liver phenytoin hydroxylase. Also of interest was the observation that, among the 2C9 variants, small differences in amino acid composition could appreciably affect both tolbutamide and phenytoin hydroxylations. The amino acid substitution Cys-144-->Arg increased both the rates of tolbutamide and phenytoin hydroxylations, while the Leu-359-->Ile change had a greater effect on phenytoin hydroxylation. We conclude that: (1) although 2C8 and 2C9/10 proteins metabolize tolbutamide. only 2C9/10 proteins play a major role in human liver; (2) 2C9/10 proteins also appear to be chiefly responsible for phenytoin hydroxylation; and (3) subtle differences in

  18. Structure, kinetic characterization and subcellular localization of the two ribulose 5-phosphate epimerase isoenzymes from Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Soledad Natalia; Valsecchi, Wanda Mariela; Maugeri, Dante; Delfino, José María; Cazzulo, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    The enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) ribulose-5-phosphate-epimerase (RPE) is encoded by two genes present in the genome of Trypanosoma cruzi CL Brener clone: TcRPE1 and TcRPE2. Despite high sequence similarity at the amino acid residue level, the recombinant isoenzymes show a strikingly different kinetics. Whereas TcRPE2 follows a typical michaelian behavior, TcRPE1 shows a complex kinetic pattern, displaying a biphasic curve, suggesting the coexistence of -at least- two kinetically different molecular forms. Regarding the subcellular localization in epimastigotes, whereas TcRPE1 is a cytosolic enzyme, TcRPE2 is localized in glycosomes. To our knowledge, TcRPE2 is the first PPP isoenzyme that is exclusively localized in glycosomes. Over-expression of TcRPE1, but not of TcRPE2, significantly reduces the parasite doubling time in vitro, as compared with wild type epimastigotes. Both TcRPEs represent single domain proteins exhibiting the classical α/β TIM-barrel fold, as expected for enzymes with this activity. With regard to the architecture of the active site, all the important amino acid residues for catalysis -with the exception of M58- are also present in both TcRPEs models. The superimposition of the binding pocket of both isoenzyme models shows that they adopt essentially identical positions in the active site with a residue specific RMSD < 2Å, with the sole exception of S12, which displays a large deviation (residue specific RMSD: 11.07 Å). Studies on the quaternary arrangement of these isoenzymes reveal that both are present in a mixture of various oligomeric species made up of an even number of molecules, probably pointing to the dimer as their minimal functional unit. This multiplicity of oligomeric species has not been reported for any of the other RPEs studied so far and it might bear implications for the regulation of TcRPEs activity, although further investigation will be necessary to unravel the physiological significance of these

  19. Deciphering the role of the type II glyoxalase isoenzyme YcbL (GlxII-2) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reiger, Matthias; Lassak, Jürgen; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG) requires glyoxalases I and II. Glyoxalase I (gloA/GlxI) isomerizes the hemithioacetal, formed spontaneously from MG and glutathione (GSH) to S-lactoylglutathione (SLG), which is hydrolyzed by glyoxalase II (gloB/GlxII) to lactate and GSH. YcbL from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an unusual type II glyoxalase whose role in MG detoxification has remained enigmatic. Here we show that YcbL (gloC/GlxII-2) acts as an accessory type II glyoxylase in E. coli. The two isoenzymes have additive effects and ensure maximal MG degradation.

  20. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  1. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  2. The glycosomal-membrane associated phosphoglycerate kinase isoenzyme A plays a role in sustaining the glucose flux in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes.

    PubMed

    Barros-Álvarez, Ximena; Cáceres, Ana J; Ruiz, Maria T; Michels, Paul A M; Concepción, Juan Luis; Quiñones, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    In Trypanosoma cruzi three isoenzymes of phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) are found which are simultaneously expressed: the cytosolic isoenzyme PGKB as well as two glycosomal enzymes, PGKA and PGKC. In this paper, we show that PGKA in T. cruzi epimastigotes is associated to the glycosomal membrane; it is responsible for about 23% of the glycosomal PGK activity, the fraction that remains in the pellet after osmotic shock treatment of purified organelles, in contrast to the 77% soluble activity that is mainly attributed to PGKC. Antibodies against the unique 80 amino-acid insertion of PGKA blocked almost completely the glucose consumption by epimastigotes that were partially permeabilized with digitonin. These results indicate that PGKA is the predominant isoenzyme for sustaining glycolysis through the glycosomes of these parasites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel solid fluorescence method for the fast determination of quercetin in biological samples based on the quercetin-Al(III) complex imprinted polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yufei; Feng, Ting; Li, Gongke

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a novel solid fluorescence method was proposed and applied to the fast determination of quercetin in urine and onion skin samples by using metal coordination imprinted polymer membrane, which was regarded as a recognition element. The quercetin-Al(III) imprinted polymer was immobilized in the microporous polypropylene fiber membrane via consecutive in situ polymerization. The CIP membrane had the porous, loose and layer upon layer structure. The CIP membrane was characterized by electron microscope photographs, infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis and solvent-resistant investigation. The extraction conditions including extraction solvent, extraction time, desorption solvent were optimized. Compared with MIP and NIP membrane, CIP membrane had been proved to be peculiar selective for quercetin even in presence of the structurally similar compounds such as kaempferol, rutin, naringenin and alpinetin. The CIP membrane was characteristic of high selectivity, stable and sensitive response to quercetin in polar environment. Under the optimum condition, there was a linear relationship between the state fluorescent response and the concentration of quercetin. The linear calibration range was over 0.02 mg L-1-0.80 mg L-1 with a detection limit of 5 μg L-1. The method was characteristic of flexible and good repeatability with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.1%. The proposed method was also successfully applied for the determination of quercetin in urine and onion skin samples without complicated pretreatment. The recoveries were 84.0-112.4% and RSDs varied from 1.5% to 6.8%. The results obtained by the proposed method agreed well with those obtained by HPLC method.

  4. Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A & B in workers exposed to cadmium at cadmium plating

    PubMed Central

    Kalahasthi, Ravi Babu; Rajmohan, HR; Rajan, BK; Kumar M, Karuna

    2007-01-01

    Objective The present study was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium exposure on Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in workers exposed at cadmium plating. Methods 50 subjects using cadmium during cadmium plating formed the study group. An equal number of age-sex matched subjects working in administrative section formed the control group. Urinary cadmium levels were determined by using a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B were determined by using spectrophotmetric method. Results A significant increase of urinary total N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B profiles were noted in study as compared to controls. The levels of urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B profiles were positively and significantly correlated with cadmium levels in urine. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effect of urinary cadmium or life style confounding factors (age, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption) on urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B. The analysis showed that the study subjects who had urine cadmium levels greater than 5 μg/g of creatinine, work duration >15 years, smoking and body mass index variables were significantly associated with urinary total N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase but not on isoenzymes A&B. Conclusion The results presented in this study shows that the increased levels of urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase observed in cadmium-exposed workers could be used as biomarkers for suggesting preventive measure. PMID:17659077

  5. Enzymatic Kinetic Properties of the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme C4 of the Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Lian; Wei, Dengbang; Li, Xiao; Xu, Lina; Wei, Linna

    2016-01-01

    Testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4) is one of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes that catalyze the terminal reaction of pyruvate to lactate in the glycolytic pathway. LDH-C4 in mammals was previously thought to be expressed only in spermatozoa and testis and not in other tissues. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) belongs to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family. It is a hypoxia-tolerant species living in remote mountain areas at altitudes of 3000–5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Surprisingly, Ldh-c is expressed not only in its testis and sperm, but also in somatic tissues of plateau pika. To shed light on the function of LDH-C4 in somatic cells, Ldh-a, Ldh-b, and Ldh-c of plateau pika were subcloned into bacterial expression vectors. The pure enzymes of Lactate Dehydrogenase A4 (LDH-A4), Lactate Dehydrogenase B4 (LDH-B4), and LDH-C4 were prepared by a series of expression and purification processes, and the three enzymes were identified by the method of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The enzymatic kinetics properties of these enzymes were studied by Lineweaver-Burk double-reciprocal plots. The results showed the Michaelis constant (Km) of LDH-C4 for pyruvate and lactate was 0.052 and 4.934 mmol/L, respectively, with an approximate 90 times higher affinity of LDH-C4 for pyruvate than for lactate. At relatively high concentrations of lactate, the inhibition constant (Ki) of the LDH isoenzymes varied: LDH-A4 (Ki = 26.900 mmol/L), LDH-B4 (Ki = 23.800 mmol/L), and LDH-C4 (Ki = 65.500 mmol/L). These data suggest that inhibition of lactate by LDH-A4 and LDH-B4 were stronger than LDH-C4. In light of the enzymatic kinetics properties, we suggest that the plateau pika can reduce reliance on oxygen supply and enhance its adaptation to the hypoxic environments due to increased anaerobic glycolysis by LDH-C4. PMID:26751442

  6. Myosin isoenzymes in fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscles of normal and dystrophic mice.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, R B; Hoh, J F

    1983-10-01

    An analysis of the native myosin isoenzyme composition, myosin light-chain distribution and histochemical profile of fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscles of normal and dystrophic (129 REJ dy/dy) mice has been performed, and the results correlated with the known contractile abnormalities of murine dystrophic muscles. Normal mouse slow-twitch soleus contained two isomyosins (slow myosin, SM and intermediate myosin, IM) which were electrophoretically distinct from the three major isomyosins (FM1, FM2, FM3) of fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (e.d.l.) muscle. The calcium-activated ATPase activities of FM1, FM2, FM3 and IM at pH 9.2 were each much higher than that of SM, and this difference is reflected in the histochemical profile of muscle, as demonstrated with the myofibrillar ATPase reaction at alkaline pH. E.d.l. Type II fibres retained myofibrillar ATPase activity following pre-incubation of histochemical sections at pH 4.6, and were therefore classified Type IIB, whereas soleus Type II fibres did not, and were classified Type IIA. It was concluded that Type I (slow) fibres contain SM, Type IIA (intermediate) fibres contain IM, and Type IIB (fast) fibres contain FM1-FM3. Each electrophoretically distinct myosin contained a different combination of the five skeletal myosin light chains (LCs). Thus different normal muscles, which differed in their isomyosin profiles, differed also in their light-chain composition. Analysis of the distribution of native myosins (FM1, FM2, FM3, IM, SM, in order of decreasing gel migration rate) in dystrophic muscles revealed increased proportions of the slower-migrating forms, when compared with the distribution in the corresponding normal muscles. The shift in isomyosin distribution would explain the known decrease in the proportion of myosin light chain (LCf3) in murine dystrophic muscle. The abnormal isomyosin distribution in the dystrophic muscle is correlated with its altered histochemical characteristics, and with well

  7. Enzymatic Kinetic Properties of the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme C₄ of the Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Lian; Wei, Dengbang; Li, Xiao; Xu, Lina; Wei, Linna

    2016-01-07

    Testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C₄) is one of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes that catalyze the terminal reaction of pyruvate to lactate in the glycolytic pathway. LDH-C₄ in mammals was previously thought to be expressed only in spermatozoa and testis and not in other tissues. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) belongs to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family. It is a hypoxia-tolerant species living in remote mountain areas at altitudes of 3000-5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Surprisingly, Ldh-c is expressed not only in its testis and sperm, but also in somatic tissues of plateau pika. To shed light on the function of LDH-C₄ in somatic cells, Ldh-a, Ldh-b, and Ldh-c of plateau pika were subcloned into bacterial expression vectors. The pure enzymes of Lactate Dehydrogenase A₄ (LDH-A₄), Lactate Dehydrogenase B₄ (LDH-B₄), and LDH-C₄ were prepared by a series of expression and purification processes, and the three enzymes were identified by the method of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The enzymatic kinetics properties of these enzymes were studied by Lineweaver-Burk double-reciprocal plots. The results showed the Michaelis constant (Km) of LDH-C₄ for pyruvate and lactate was 0.052 and 4.934 mmol/L, respectively, with an approximate 90 times higher affinity of LDH-C₄ for pyruvate than for lactate. At relatively high concentrations of lactate, the inhibition constant (Ki) of the LDH isoenzymes varied: LDH-A₄ (Ki = 26.900 mmol/L), LDH-B₄ (Ki = 23.800 mmol/L), and LDH-C₄ (Ki = 65.500 mmol/L). These data suggest that inhibition of lactate by LDH-A₄ and LDH-B₄ were stronger than LDH-C₄. In light of the enzymatic kinetics properties, we suggest that the plateau pika can reduce reliance on oxygen supply and enhance its adaptation to the hypoxic environments due to increased anaerobic glycolysis by LDH-C₄.

  8. Detection of polypeptides and amylase isoenzyme modifications related to malting quality during malting process of barley by two-dimensional electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing with immobilized pH gradients.

    PubMed

    Görg, A; Postel, W; Weiss, W

    1992-01-01

    Two cultivars ("Alexis" and "Lenka") of contrasting final attenuation values were malted, and the protein and amylase isoenzyme composition, as well as the change in protein and amylase isoenzyme composition during malting, was investigated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total proteins, and isoelectric focusing of amylase isoenzymes, respectively. Isoelectric focusing demonstrated that significant differences exist between the amylase isoenzyme patterns of the two cultivars, suggesting a correlation between the presence of certain amylase isoenzyme bands and final attenuation. This finding was confirmed by analysis of 36 barley cultivars with a wide range of quality. It was shown that all cultivars which are of low or, at best, moderate final attenuation values exhibit the amylase band "B" (isoelectric point approximately 6.8), whereas those cultivars which are predominantly of high malting grade do not possess this "B" isoenzyme band, but exhibit the pronounced "A" isoenzyme band (isoelectric point approximately 6.5) instead, suggesting that these isoenzymes (which we suppose to be beta-amylases) can be utilized to predict the final attenuation values of unknown barley samples or new lines. However, "final attenuation" is a complex function. Preliminary results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicate that other factors, such as total amount of amylases, or a 19 kDa A hordein-like polypeptide, which was degraded faster in the low malting grade cultivar "Lenka", may also have a role in determining quality.

  9. Structures of almond hydroxynitrile lyase isoenzyme 5 provide a rationale for the lack of oxidoreductase activity in flavin dependent HNLs.

    PubMed

    Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Bakhuis, Janny; Steinkellner, Georg; Jolink, Fenneke; Keijmel, Esther; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Gruber, Karl

    2016-10-10

    Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) catalyze the asymmetric addition of HCN to aldehydes producing enantiomerically pure cyanohydrins. These enzymes can be heterologously expressed in large quantities making them interesting candidates for industrial applications. The HNLs from Rosaceae evolved from flavin dependent dehydrogenase/oxidase structures. Here we report the high resolution X-ray structure of the highly glycosylated Prunus amygdalus HNL isoenzyme5 (PaHNL5 V317A) expressed in Aspergillus niger and its complex with benzyl alcohol. A comparison with the structure of isoenzyme PaHNL1 indicates a higher accessibility to the active site and a larger cavity for PaHNL5. Additionally, the PaHNL5 complex structure with benzyl alcohol was compared with the structurally related aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO). Even though both enzymes contain an FAD-cofactor and histidine residues at crucial positions in the active site, PaHNL5 lacks the oxidoreductase activity. The structures indicate that in PaHNLs benzyl alcohol is bound too far away from the FAD cofactor in order to be oxidized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adult-onset multiple acyl CoA dehydrogenation deficiency associated with an abnormal isoenzyme pattern of serum lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Fuminobu; Baba, Kousuke; Toyooka, Keiko; Liang, Wen-Chen; Nishino, Ichizo; Yamadera, Misaki; Sumi, Hisae; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshiro

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of a 37 year-old male with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD). The patient had suffered from exercise intolerance in his hip and thigh muscles for one year. Then, restriction of carbohydrates for a diet made his symptoms rapidly deteriorate. Blood test revealed compound heterozygosity for two novel missense mutations in the electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase gene (ETFDH), and an abnormal LDH isoenzyme pattern: LDH-1 (60.0%) and LDH-2 (26.0%) predominated with abnormally elevated LDH-1/LDH-2 ratio (2.3), compared with muscle-derived LDH-5 (4.0%). Oral riboflavin treatment significantly improved his exercise intolerance and the LDH profile: LDH-1 (34.4%), LDH-2 (34.9%), LDH-5 (6.9%) and LDH-1/LDH-2 ratio (1.0). The abnormal LDH isoenzyme pattern may be one feature of adult-onset MADD selectively affecting type I muscle fibers with relatively high LDH-1 content. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional analysis of the gene encoding the clavaminate synthase 2 isoenzyme involved in clavulanic acid biosynthesis in Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    PubMed Central

    Paradkar, A S; Jensen, S E

    1995-01-01

    A Streptomyces clavuligerus mutant disrupted in cas2, encoding the clavaminate synthase (CAS2) isoenzyme, was constructed by a gene replacement procedure. The resulting cas2 mutant showed no clavulanic acid production when grown in starch-asparagine medium. However, in soy medium, the cas2 mutant did produce clavulanic acid, although in amounts less than those produced by wild-type cultures. This medium-dependent leaky phenotype correlated well with the presence of the cas1 transcript, encoding the CAS1 isoenzyme, in cultures grown in soy medium and with its absence from those grown in starch-asparagine medium. This suggested that CAS1 and CAS2 both contribute to clavulanic acid production but that their production is regulated differently. Under nutritional conditions in which cas1 expression is blocked, cas2 becomes essential for clavulanic acid production. Northern (RNA) analysis revealed that while cas1 is transcribed as a 1.4-kb monocistronic transcript only, cas2 is transcribed both as a 1.2-kb monocistronic transcript and as part of a 5.3-kb polycistronic transcript. High-resolution S1 nuclease analysis located the transcription start point of the monocistronic cas2 transcript at a C residue 103 nucleotides upstream from the cas2 start codon. PMID:7868606

  12. Glutathione S-transferase iso-enzymes in perfusate from pumped kidneys are associated with delayed graft function.

    PubMed

    Hall, I E; Bhangoo, R S; Reese, P P; Doshi, M D; Weng, F L; Hong, K; Lin, H; Han, G; Hasz, R D; Goldstein, M J; Schröppel, B; Parikh, C R

    2014-04-01

    Accurate and reliable assessment tools are needed in transplantation. The objective of this prospective, multi-center study was to determine the associations of the alpha and pi iso-enzymes of glutathione S-transferase (GST), measured from perfusate solution at the start and end (base and post) of kidney allograft machine perfusion, with subsequent delayed graft function (DGF). We also compared GST iso-enzyme perfusate levels from discarded versus transplanted kidneys. A total of 428 kidneys were linked to outcomes as recorded by the United Network of Organ Sharing. DGF, defined as any dialysis in the first week of transplant, occurred in 141 recipients (32%). Alpha- and pi-GST levels significantly increased during machine perfusion. The adjusted relative risks (95% confidence interval) of DGF with each log-unit increase in base and post pi-GST were 1.14 (1.0-1.3) and 1.36 (1.1-1.8), respectively. Alpha-GST was not independently associated with DGF. There were no significant differences in GST values between discarded and transplanted kidneys, though renal resistance was significantly higher in discarded kidneys. We found pi-GST at the end of machine perfusion to be independently associated with DGF. Further studies should elucidate the utility of GST for identifying injured kidneys with regard to organ allocation, discard and recipient management decisions.

  13. Macro creatine kinases: results of isoenzyme electrophoresis and differentiation of the immunoglobulin-bound type by radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Bohner, J.; Stein, W.; Steinhart, R.; Wurzburg, U.; Eggstein, M.

    1982-04-01

    In 2.9% of sera from 1253 unselected patients we detected two different types of macromolecular creatine kinases (CK;EC 2.7.3.2). One macro type was represented by immunoglobulin-linked CK; in sera containing macro CK-BB isoenzyme, /sup 125/I-labeled CK-BB was bound with high affinity to the immunoglobulin fraction. Furthermore, during electrophoresis, macro CK-BB mostly migrated between CK-MB and CK-MM, and was fixed to Protein A from Staphlococcus aureus. We therefore propose radioelectrophoresis as a specific, highly sensitive, and simple method for detecting this type of macro CK. This form occurs predominantly in elderly women, is not correlated to any specific disease, and persists in blood over a long period of time. In contrast, a second type (macro-CK type 2) never bound radiolabeled CK isoenzymes, and was not adsorbed to protein A. Electrophoretic migration of this macro-CK type 2 was generally cathodic to CK-MM. We observed this type in severely ill patients, frequently those suffering from malignant tumors. Clinical observations and biochemical data suggest that macro-CK type 2 is of mitochondrial origin.

  14. Mammalian sphingosine kinase (SphK) isoenzymes and isoform expression: challenges for SphK as an oncotarget

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yiguang; Nassif, Najah T.; McGowan, Eileen M.

    2017-01-01

    The various sphingosine kinase (SphK) isoenzymes (isozymes) and isoforms, key players in normal cellular physiology, are strongly implicated in cancer and other diseases. Mutations in SphKs, that may justify abnormal physiological function, have not been recorded. Nonetheless, there is a large and growing body of evidence demonstrating the contribution of gain or loss of function and the imbalance in the SphK/S1P rheostat to a plethora of pathological conditions including cancer, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. SphK is expressed as two isozymes SphK1 and SphK2, transcribed from genes located on different chromosomes and both isozymes catalyze the phosphorylation of sphingosine to S1P. Expression of each SphK isozyme produces alternately spliced isoforms. In recent years the importance of the contribution of SpK1 expression to treatment resistance in cancer has been highlighted and, additionally, differences in treatment outcome appear to also be dependent upon SphK isoform expression. This review focuses on an exciting emerging area of research involving SphKs functions, expression and subcellular localization, highlighting the complexity of targeting SphK in cancer and also comorbid diseases. This review also covers the SphK isoenzymes and isoforms from a historical perspective, from their first discovery in murine species and then in humans, their role(s) in normal cellular function and in disease processes, to advancement of SphK as an oncotarget. PMID:28415564

  15. Mammalian sphingosine kinase (SphK) isoenzymes and isoform expression: challenges for SphK as an oncotarget.

    PubMed

    Hatoum, Diana; Haddadi, Nahal; Lin, Yiguang; Nassif, Najah T; McGowan, Eileen M

    2017-05-30

    The various sphingosine kinase (SphK) isoenzymes (isozymes) and isoforms, key players in normal cellular physiology, are strongly implicated in cancer and other diseases. Mutations in SphKs, that may justify abnormal physiological function, have not been recorded. Nonetheless, there is a large and growing body of evidence demonstrating the contribution of gain or loss of function and the imbalance in the SphK/S1P rheostat to a plethora of pathological conditions including cancer, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. SphK is expressed as two isozymes SphK1 and SphK2, transcribed from genes located on different chromosomes and both isozymes catalyze the phosphorylation of sphingosine to S1P. Expression of each SphK isozyme produces alternately spliced isoforms. In recent years the importance of the contribution of SpK1 expression to treatment resistance in cancer has been highlighted and, additionally, differences in treatment outcome appear to also be dependent upon SphK isoform expression. This review focuses on an exciting emerging area of research involving SphKs functions, expression and subcellular localization, highlighting the complexity of targeting SphK in cancer and also comorbid diseases. This review also covers the SphK isoenzymes and isoforms from a historical perspective, from their first discovery in murine species and then in humans, their role(s) in normal cellular function and in disease processes, to advancement of SphK as an oncotarget.

  16. The role of hydroxo-bridged dinuclear species and the influence of "innocent" buffers in the reactivity of cis-[Co(III)(cyclen)(H₂O)₂]³⁺ and [Co(III)(tren)(H₂O)₂]³⁺ complexes with biologically relevant ligands at physiological pH.

    PubMed

    Basallote, Manuel G; Martínez, Manuel; Vázquez, Marta

    2014-07-28

    In view of the relevance of the reactivity of inert tetraamine Co(III) complexes having two substitutionally active cis positions capable of interact with biologically relevant ligands, the study of the reaction of cis-[Co(cyclen)(H2O)2](3+) and [Co(tren)(H2O)2](3+) with chlorides, inorganic phosphate and 5'-CMP (5'-cytidinemonophosphate) has been pursued at physiological pH. The results indicate that, in addition to the actuation of the expected labilising conjugate-base mechanism, the formation of mono and inert bis hydroxo-bridged species is relevant for understanding their speciation and reactivity. The reactivity pattern observed also indicates the key role played by the "innocent" buffers frequently used in most in vitro studies, which can make the results unreliable in many cases. The differences between the reactivity of inorganic and biologically relevant phosphates has also been found to be remarkable, with outer-sphere hydrogen bonding interactions being a dominant factor for the process. While for the inorganic phosphate substitution process the formation of μ-η(2)-OPO2O represents the termination of the reactivity monitored, for 5'-CMP only the formation of η(1)-OPO3 species is observed, which evolve with time to the final dead-end bis hydroxo-bridged complexes. The promoted hydrolysis of the 5'-CMP phosphate has not been observed in any of the processes studied.

  17. Sexual dimorphism in rat cerebrum and cerebellum: different patterns of catalytically active creatine kinase isoenzymes during postnatal development and aging.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Oscar; Jiménez, Esperanza

    2002-12-01

    During postnatal development, maturation and aging the Wistar rat cerebrum and cerebellum synthesize, in a different sex-dependent manner, catalytically active dimeric cytosolic (c) muscle-type (MM) and heart-type (MB) creatine kinase (CK), besides the supposedly sole type brain-specific (BB) CK. In both sexes, typical and atypical neuromuscular cCK isoenzymes were present during the study for 26 months. As in rat heart, females showed more cerebral cCK variants (41%) in comparison to males. Female rats exhibited about 93% more cerebellar variants of cCK isoenzymes as compared to males. The male cerebellum showed predominantly BB- and MB-CK during the whole study in comparison to the female one that contained all neuromuscular cCK variants. Only female rats showed decreases and increases of cerebral CK specific activity. In contrast to males, coinciding with the weaning period, cerebral female CK activity decreased 45% from 14 to 21 days and increased about 3-fold in female rats and only 1.3-fold in males from 21 to 45 days of age. Contrary to the remarkable 4-fold increase of chicken brain CK specific activity exhibited at old age, the rat did not show another cerebral CK activity increase during senescence in either sex. However, sex differences of CK specific activity appeared in the cerebellum at all ages. From the sex-specific plateau phase at 45-60 days until 2.2 years of age, about a 41% independent increase of cerebellar CK specific activity was observed in both sexes. After puberty, the differential cerebellum-cerebrum values of CK specific activity were higher for female rats than males during youth, adulthood and senescence. The present work shows that in rat cerebrum and cerebellum, production of ATP through anaerobic transphosphorylation by the CK/PC system is sex-and age-specific, especially in the cerebellum, when glycolysis and the Krebs cycle lose capacity. As in rat heart, under physiological conditions at all ages the several cCK isoenzymes do

  18. Distinct prognostic values and potential drug targets of ALDH1 isoenzymes in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    You, Qinghua; Guo, Huanchen; Xu, Dongxiang

    2015-01-01

    Increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity has been found in the stem cell populations of leukemia and some solid tumors including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, which ALDH1’s isoenzymes are contributing to ALDH1 activity remains elusive. In addition, the prognostic value of individual ALDH1 isoenzyme is not clear. In the current study, we investigated the prognostic value of ALDH1 isoenzymes in NSCLC patients through the Kaplan–Meier plotter database, which contains updated gene expression data and survival information from a total of 1,926 NSCLC patients. High expression of ALDH1A1 mRNA was found to be correlated to a better overall survival (OS) in all NSCLC patients followed for 20 years (hazard ratio [HR] 0.88 [0.77–0.99], P=0.039). In addition, high expression of ALDH1A1 mRNA was also found to be correlated to better OS in adenocarcinoma (Ade) patients (HR 0.71 [0.57–0.9], P=0.0044) but not in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients (HR 0.92 [0.72–1.16], P=0.48). High expression of ALDH1A2 and ALDH1B1 mRNA was found to be correlated to worser OS in all NSCLC patients, as well as in Ade, but not in SCC patients. High expression of both ALDH1A3 and ALDH1L1 mRNA was not found to be correlated to OS in all NSCLC patients. These results strongly support that ALDH1A1 mRNA in NSCLC is associated with better prognosis. In addition, our current study also supports that ALDH1A2 and ALDH1B1 might be major contributors to the ALDH1 activity in NSCLC, since high expression of ALDH1A2 and ALDH1B1 mRNA was found to be significantly correlated to worser OS in all NSCLC patients. Based on our study, ALDH1A2 and ALDH1B1 might be excellent potential drug targets for NSCLC patients. PMID:26366059

  19. [Evolutionary-biological peculiarities of transglutaminase. Structure, physiological functions, application].

    PubMed

    Shleĭkin, A G; Danilov, N P

    2011-01-01

    Transglutaminasc (protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase, EC 2.3.2.13, TG) catalyzes reactions of the acyl transfer, which introduce the epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine bonds between proteins to create polymers of high mol. mass. Properties of the TG enzyme are described. Its structure is considered: there are characterized items of the TG life cycle and stability, its biological (physiological) role, and significance in pathology and medicine as well as obtaining of the purified enzyme preparations and their use. There are compared TG from different sources: of animal and microbial origin. Mechanism of catalysis of microbial TG is discussed. There are presented characteristics of isoenzymes from different biological sources.

  20. Locally generated methylseleninic acid induces specific inactivation of protein kinase C isoenzymes: relevance to selenium-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gundimeda, Usha; Schiffman, Jason Eric; Chhabra, Divya; Wong, Jourdan; Wu, Adela; Gopalakrishna, Rayudu

    2008-12-12

    In this study, we show that methylselenol, a selenometabolite implicated in cancer prevention, did not directly inactivate protein kinase C (PKC). Nonetheless, its oxidation product, methylseleninic acid (MSA), inactivated PKC at low micromolar concentrations through a redox modification of vicinal cysteine sulfhydryls in the catalytic domain of PKC. This modification of PKC that occurred in both isolated form and in intact cells was reversed by a reductase system involving thioredoxin reductase, a selenoprotein. PKC isoenzymes exhibited variable sensitivity to MSA with Ca(2+)-dependent PKC isoenzymes (alpha, beta, and gamma) being the most susceptible, followed by isoenzymes delta and epsilon. Other enzymes tested were inactivated only with severalfold higher concentrations of MSA than those required for PKC inactivation. This specificity for PKC was further enhanced when MSA was generated within close proximity to PKC through a reaction of methylselenol with PKC-bound lipid peroxides in the membrane. The MSA-methylselenol redox cycle resulted in the catalytic oxidation of sulfhydryls even with nanomolar concentrations of selenium. MSA inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in DU145 prostate cancer cells at a concentration that was higher than that needed to inhibit purified PKC alpha but in a range comparable with that required for the inhibition of PKC epsilon. This MSA-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis decreased with a conditional overexpression of PKC epsilon and increased with its knock-out by small interfering RNA. Conceivably, when MSA is generated within the vicinity of PKC, it specifically inactivates PKC isoenzymes, particularly the promitogenic and prosurvival epsilon isoenzyme, and this inactivation causes growth inhibition and apoptosis.

  1. Thermostability of lactate dehydrogenase LDH-A4 isoenzyme: effect of heat shock protein DnaK on the enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Zietara, M S; Skorkowski, E F

    1995-11-01

    Cells exposed to temperature a few degrees higher than their growth temperature synthesize heat shock proteins (hsp) which may then compose even 20% of total protein content. This paper examined the in vitro protective effect of heat shock protein DnaK (70 kDa) from Escherichia coli against the heat inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-A4. The LDH-A4 isoenzyme was purified from fish skeletal muscle using the affinity chromatography on Oxamate-agarose. The enzyme was then heated in the absence and the presence of DnaK protein in a water bath at either 51 or 55 degrees C. The LDH activity was determined by measuring the change in absorbency at 340 nm min-1 at 30 degrees C. The addition of DnaK protein to the LDH-A4 isoenzyme before heat treatment can protect enzyme activity against mild thermal inactivation. Incubation of the LDH-A4 isoenzyme at 51 degrees C in the presence of DnaK protein stimulates its activity by about 30%. The presence of 2 mM ATP can raise LDH activity by another 10%. No significant recovery was observed when DnaK protein was added to LDH at 25 degrees C following earlier inactivation. The maximal activities (Vmax) in the presence of DnaK protein are almost twice those without DnaK protein in the case of heat-treated LDH-A4 isoenzyme at 51 degrees C. The observed protection of LDH-A4 activity increased with the increasing DnaK protein concentration in the incubation medium. Results suggested that the presence of DnaK protein can protect LDH-A4 from heat inactivation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Isoenzyme-specific up-regulation of glutathione transferase and aldo-keto reductase mRNA expression by dietary quercetin in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Odbayar, Tseye-Oidov; Kimura, Toshinori; Tsushida, Tojiro; Ide, Takashi

    2009-05-01

    The impact of quercetin on the mRNA expression of hepatic enzymes involved in drug metabolism was evaluated with a DNA microarray and real-time PCR. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an experimental diet containing either 0, 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 g/kg of quercetin for 15 days. The DNA microarray analysis of the gene expression profile in pooled RNA samples from rats fed diets containing 0, 5, and 20 g/kg of quercetin revealed genes of some isoenzymes of glutathione transferase (Gst) and aldo-keto reductase (Akr) to be activated by this flavonoid. Real-time PCR conducted with RNA samples from individual rats fed varying amounts of quercetin together with the microarray analysis showed that quercetin caused marked dose-dependent increases in the mRNA expression of Gsta3, Gstp1, and Gstt3. Some moderate increases were also noted in the mRNA expression of isoenzymes belonging to the Gstm class. Quercetin also dose-dependently increased the mRNA expression of Akr1b8 and Akr7a3. However, it did not affect the parameters of the other Gst and Akr isoenzymes. It is apparent that quercetin increases the mRNA expression of Gst and Akr involved in drug metabolism in an isoenzyme-specific manner. Inasmuch as Gst and Akr isoenzymes up-regulated in their gene expression are involved in the prevention and attenuation of cancer development, this consequence may account for the chemopreventive propensity of quercetin.

  3. Response of superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) during thermo-acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus.

    PubMed

    Camejo, Daymi; Martí, María del C; Nicolás, Emilio; Alarcón, Juan J; Jiménez, Ana; Sevilla, Francisca

    2007-11-01

    dark treatment plus heat shock. The activity of Fe-SOD isoenzymes was most enhanced in heat-acclimated plants but was unaltered in the plants that received the dark treatment. Total CuZn-SOD activity was reduced in all treatments. Darkness had an inhibitory effect on the Mn-SOD isoenzyme activity, which was compensated by the effect of a rise in air temperature to 35 degrees C. These results show that the heat tolerance of tomatoplants may be increased by the previous imposition of a moderately high temperature and could be related with the thermal stability in the photochemical reactions and a readjustment of V(cmax) and J(max). Some isoenzymes, such as the Fe-SODs, may also play a role in the development of heat-shock tolerance through heat acclimation. In fact, the pattern found for these isoenzymes in heat-acclimated Amalia plants was similar to that previously described in other heat-tolerant tomato genotypes.

  4. Creatinine kinase isoenzyme-MB: A simple prognostic biomarker in patients with pulmonary embolism treated with thrombolytic therapy.

    PubMed

    Bozbay, Mehmet; Uyarel, Huseyin; Avsar, Sahin; Oz, Ahmet; Keskin, Muhammed; Tanik, Veysel Ozan; Bakhshaliyev, Nijat; Ugur, Murat; Pehlivanoglu, Seckin; Eren, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    Creatinine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB) is a biomarker for detecting myocardial injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between admission CK-MB levels and in-hospital and long-term clinical outcomes in pulmonary embolism (PE) patients treated with thrombolytic tissue-plasminogen activator. A total of 148 acute PE patients treated with tissue-plasminogen activator enrolled in the study. The study population was divided into 2 tertiles, based on admission CK-MB levels. The high CK-MB group (n=35) was defined as having a CK-MB level in the third tertile (>31.5 U/L), and the low group (n=113) was defined as having a level in the lower 2 tertiles (≤31.5 U/L). High CK-MB group had a higher incidence of in-hospital mortality (37.1% vs 1.7%, P<.001). Admission systolic blood pressure and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion were lower in the high CK-MB group. In the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, a CK-MB value of more than 31.5 U/L yielded a sensitivity of 86.7% and specificity of 83.5% for predicting in-hospital mortality. During long-term follow-up, recurrent PE, major and minor bleeding, and mortality rates were similar in both groups. Creatinine kinase isoenzyme-MB is a simple, widely available, and useful biomarker for predicting adverse in-hospital clinical outcomes in PE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and structural characterization of silver(I), aluminium(III) and cobalt(II) complexes with 4-isopropyltropolone (hinokitiol) showing noteworthy biological activities. Action of silver(I)-oxygen bonding complexes on the antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Nomiya, Kenji; Yoshizawa, Akira; Tsukagoshi, Ken; Kasuga, Noriko Chikaraishi; Hirakawa, Shoko; Watanabe, Jun

    2004-01-01

    Through two unequivalent oxygen donor atoms of the hinokitiol (Hhino; C10H12O2; 4-isopropyltropolone) ligand that showed noteworthy biological activities, the dimeric, silver(I)-oxygen bonding complex [Ag(hino)]2 1, the monomeric aluminium(III) complex [Al(hino)3].0.5H2O 4 and the cobalt(II) complex "[Co(hino)2]2.H2O" 6 were synthesized and characterized with elemental analysis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), FTIR and solution (1H and 13C) NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of 1 was determined by Rietveld analysis based on X-ray powder diffraction (XPD) data and those of [Al(hino)3].MeOH 4a and [Co(hino)2(EtOH)]2 6a, being obtained as yellow block crystals and red platelet crystals, respectively, by crystallization of 4 and 6, were determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The antimicrobial activities of 1, 4 and 6, evaluated with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; microg ml(-1)), were compared with those of other metal complexes (M=Na, Li, Cs, Ca, V, Zn) with the hino- ligand. The antimicrobial activities observed in the alkali-metal salts strongly suggested that they were attributed to the effect of the anionic hino- species. The antimicrobial activities of 1 were significantly enhanced, whereas those of other metal complexes were suppressed, compared with those of the neutral Hhino and anionic hino- molecules. The antimicrobial activities observed in 1 were comparable with those of other recently found silver(I)-oxygen bonding complexes, the ligands of which had no activity. Thus, it is proposed that the antimicrobial activities of the silver(I)-oxygen bonding complexes are due to a direct interaction or complexation of the silver(I) ion with biological ligands such as protein, enzyme and membrane, and the coordinating ligands of the silver(I) complexes play the role of a carrier of the silver(I) ion to the biological system.

  6. [Biological evaluation of Cuban plants. III].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Misas, C A; Rojas Hernández, N M; López Abraham, A M

    1979-01-01

    Aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts were prepared from different parts of species of the families Martiniaceae, Caricaceae, Umbeliferae, Nictaginaceae and Fitolacaceae in order to prove their antimicrobial action on bacteria which have a clinical interest in humans and live in our environment. The gel double-layer diffusion method was applied. The best results were obtained from Carica papaya leave extracts.

  7. Biological Individuality of Man

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    RECIPIENT’S CAT * LOO NUMBER Biological Individuality of Man 5 TlrPE OF REPORT a PERIOD COVERED Technical « PERFORMING ORO REPORT...Variability 13 A. Background , 13 B. Slatistictl Approaches to Biological Variability 13 C. Genetic Aspects of Biological Variability . 14 III...ioiological determinants of individuality. Only recently, have genetic infaienccs been investigated and the potentialities for future control of bio

  8. Comparative Studies on Ferredoxin-NADP+ Oxidoreductase Isoenzymes Derived from Different Organs by Antibodies Specific for the Radish Root- and Leaf-Enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Morigasaki, S.; Jin, T.; Wada, K.

    1993-01-01

    Determination of the prosthetic group and titration of sulfhydryl group of ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) from roots of radish (Raphanus sativus var acanthiformis cv Miyashige) confirmed its similarity to leaf-FNR. Antisera directed against radish root-FNR and leaf-FNR distinguished the enzyme forms from roots and leaves of radish as well as other flowering plants. The FNR isoenzymes showed organ-specific distributions. In horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) and cultured liverwort cells (Marchantia polymorpha), at least two FNR isoenzymes were distinguished by the antisera. FNR from Chlorella vulgaris reacted only with the anti-root-FNR antiserum. FNR from a cyanobacterium, Spirulina spp., failed to react with either antiserum. PMID:12231952

  9. Biological Control in Agroecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Suzanne W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Living organisms are used as biological pest control agents in (i) classical biological control, primarily for permanent control of introduced perennial weed pests or introduced pests of perennial crops; (ii) augmentative biological control, for temporary control of native or introduced pests of annual crops grown in monoculture; and (iii) conservative or natural control, in which the agroecosystem is managed to maximize the effect of native or introduced biological control agents. The effectiveness of biological control can be improved if it is based on adequate ecological information and theory, and if it is integrated with other pest management practices.

  10. [Concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone and activity of N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase and its isoenzymes, in serum of patients with thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Zwierz, Piotr; Szajda, Sławomir D; Snarska, Jadwiga; Supronowicz, Zbigniew B; Zawadzki, Paweł; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Kamińsk, Fabian

    2006-11-01

    Thyroid cancer consists 1% of all malignant neoplasms. It is not known interrelationship between concentration of TSH in blood serum and condition of thyroid cancer. Thyroid cancer is difficult for diagnosis and differentiation. Therefore it is necessary to search for biochemical markers helpful in diagnostics of thyroid cancer. Significant increase in activity of N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in serum of patients with neoplasms of kidney and pancreas suggest approporiateness of evaluation of HEX and its isoenzymes in diagnostics of thyroid cancer. of the study--evaluation of TSH concentration and activity of HEX and its isoenzymes A and B, in serum of patients with thyroid cancer. Blood was taken from 7 patients with thyroid cancer (6 men and 1 woman). Control consisted of 7 healthy men. In blood serum concentration of TSH was determined with immunoenzymatic method on analyzer Axsym of Abbott and expressed in microU/mL. The activity of HEX and its isoenzymes A and B was determined by method of Chatterjee et al., as modified by Zwierz et.al. Determination of HEX was performed on microplate reader ELX800 BIO-TEK. Activity of HEX, HEX A and B was expressed in pKat/mL, and specific activity in pKat/mg protein). Protein was determined by biuret method and results were expressed in mg/mL. Concentration of HEX A activity in serum of thyroid cancer patients is significantly higherin comparison to healthymen (p = 0.0191). Also specific activity of HEX A in serum of thyroid cancer patients is significantly higher in comparison to healthy men (p = 0.0393). 1. Determination of TSH concentration in serum of thyroid cancer before the operation may confirm euthyreosis. 2. Determination of HEX A activity in serum may be helpful in diagnostics of thyroid cancer.

  11. Prognostic value of troponin and creatine kinase muscle and brain isoenzyme measurement after noncardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Hiralal, Rajesh; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Yusuf, Salim; Cook, Deborah; Villar, Juan Carlos; McQueen, Matthew; McFalls, Edward; Filipovic, Miodrag; Schünemann, Holger; Sear, John; Foex, Pierre; Lim, Wendy; Landesberg, Giora; Godet, Gilles; Poldermans, Don; Bursi, Francesca; Kertai, Miklos D; Bhatnagar, Neera; Devereaux, P J

    2011-04-01

    There is uncertainty regarding the prognostic value of troponin and creatine kinase muscle and brain isoenzyme measurements after noncardiac surgery. The current study undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis. The study used six search strategies and included noncardiac surgery studies that provided data from a multivariable analysis assessing whether a postoperative troponin or creatine kinase muscle and brain isoenzyme measurement was an independent predictor of mortality or a major cardiovascular event. Independent investigators determined study eligibility and abstracted data in duplicate. Fourteen studies, enrolling 3,318 patients and 459 deaths, demonstrated that an increased troponin measurement after surgery was an independent predictor of mortality (odds ratio [OR] 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-5.2), but there was substantial heterogeneity (I(2) = 56%). The independent prognostic capabilities of an increased troponin value after surgery in the 10 studies that assessed intermediate-term (≤ 12 months) mortality was an OR = 6.7 (95% CI 4.1-10.9, I(2) = 0%) and in the 4 studies that assessed long-term (more than 12 months) mortality was an OR = 1.8 (95% CI 1.4-2.3, I(2) = 0%; P < 0.001 for test of interaction). Four studies, including 1,165 patients and 202 deaths, demonstrated an independent association between an increased creatine kinase muscle and brain isoenzyme measurement after surgery and mortality (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5-4.0, I(2) = 4%). An increased troponin measurement after surgery is an independent predictor of mortality, particularly within the first year; limited data suggest an increased creatine kinase muscle and brain isoenzyme measurement also predicts subsequent mortality. Monitoring troponin measurements after noncardiac surgery may allow physicians to better risk stratify and manage their patients.

  12. New insights into the post-translational modification of multiple phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoenzymes by phosphorylation and monoubiquitination during sorghum seed development and germination

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Ballesta, Isabel; Baena, Guillermo; Gandullo, Jacinto; Wang, Liqun; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William Charles; Echevarría, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; E.C. 4.1.1.31) was characterized in developing and germinating sorghum seeds, focusing on the transcript and polypeptide abundance of multiple plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PTPC) genes, and the post-translational modification of each isoenzyme by phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination during germination. We observed high levels of SbPPC4 (Sb07g014960) transcripts during early development (stage I), and extensive transcript abundance of SbPPC2 (Sb02g021090) and SbPPC3 (Sb04g008720) throughout the entire life cycle of the seed. Although tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of immunopurified PTPC indicated that four different PTPC isoenzymes were expressed in the developing and germinating seeds, SbPPC3 was the most abundant isozyme of the developing seed, and of the embryo and the aleurone layer of germinating seeds. In vivo phosphorylation of the different PTPC isoenzymes at their conserved N-terminal seryl phosphorylation site during germination was also established by MS/MS analysis. Furthermore, three of the four isoenzymes were partially monoubiquitinated, with MS/MS pinpointing SbPPC2 and SbPPC3 monoubiquitination at the conserved Lys-630 and Lys-624 residues, respectively. Our results demonstrate that monoubiquitination and phosphorylation simultaneously occur in vivo with different PTPC isozymes during seed germination. In addition, we show that PTPC monoubiquitination in germinating sorghum seeds always increases at stage II (emergence of the radicle), is maintained during the aerobic period of rapid cell division and reserve mobilization, and remains relatively constant until stage IV–V when coleoptiles initiate the formation of the photosynthetic tissues. PMID:27194739

  13. The genes of all seven CYP3A isoenzymes identified in the equine genome are expressed in the airways of horses.

    PubMed

    Tydén, E; Löfgren, M; Hakhverdyan, M; Tjälve, H; Larsson, P

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the gene expression of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) isoenzymes in the tracheal and bronchial mucosa and in the lung of equines using TaqMan probes. The results show that all seven CYP3A isoforms identified in the equine genome, that is, CYP3A89, CYP3A93, CYP3A94, CYP3A95, CYP3A96, CYP3A97 and CYP3A129, are expressed in the airways of the investigated horses. Though in previous studies, CYP3A129 was found to be absent in equine intestinal mucosa and liver, this CYP3A isoform is expressed in the airways of horses. The gene expression of the CYP3A isoenzymes varied considerably between the individual horses studied. However, in most of the horses CYP3A89, CYP3A93, CYP3A96, CYP3A97 and CYP3A129 were expressed to a high extent, while CYP3A94 and CYP3A95 were expressed to a low extent in the different parts of the airways. The CYP3A isoenzymes present in the airways may play a role in the metabolic degradation of inhaled xenobiotics. In some instances, the metabolism may, however, result in bioactivation of the xenobiotics and subsequent tissue injury. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Changes in Sugars, Enzymic Activities and Acid Phosphatase Isoenzyme Profiles of Bananas Ripened in Air or Stored in 2.5% O2 with and without Ethylene 1

    PubMed Central

    Kanellis, Angelos K.; Solomos, Theophanes; Mattoo, Autar K.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of 2.5% O2, both alone and in combination with ethylene, on respiration, sugar accumulation and activities of pectin methylesterase and acid phosphatase during ripening of bananas (Musa paradisiaca sapientum). In addition, the changes in the phosphatase isoenzyme profiles are also analyzed. Low oxygen diminished respiration and slowed down the accumulation of sugars and development of the yellow color. Furthermore, low O2 prevented the rise in acid phosphatase activities and this suppression was not reversed by the inclusion of 100 microliters per liter ethylene in 2.5% O2 atmosphere. Gel electrophoresis of both the soluble and particulate cell-free fractions under nondenaturing conditions revealed the presence of 8 and 9 isoenzymes in the soluble and particulate fractions, respectively. Low O2 suppressed the appearance of all isoenzymes, and the addition of 500 microliters per liter ethylene to the low oxygen atmosphere did not reverse this effect. Similarly, the decline in pectin methylesterase that was observed in air-ripened fruits was prevented by 2.5% O2 alone and in combination with 500 microliters per liter ethylene. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16666745

  15. [Inducible expression of a promoter of the gene encoding barley beta-1, 3-glucanase isoenzyme GIII in transgenic rice].

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Feng; Zhu, Rui; Xie, Long-Xu; Xu, Pei-Lin

    2005-04-01

    A promoter of the gene encoding beta-1, 3-glucanase isoenzyme GIII was amplified from barley genomic DNA using PCR. The GIII gene promoter, designated P(GIII), was ligated upstream of the gus report gene and pGIII-gus fusion fragment was then cloned into a binary vector pCAMBIA1300 for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Taipei 309). PCR analyses indicated that the fusion gene was present in all T0 transgenic plants. The integration of the gene into rice genomic DNA was further confirmed by Southern blot. Histochemical staining and spectrofluorophotometric analyses of transgenic rice leaves showed that the GUS activity was increased after treatment with SA and fungal elicitor. Northern blot analysis also showed expression of such induction. Histochemical staining of T(1) rice seeds displayed marked GUS activity after induction with SA and elicitor, while no GUS activity was detected in untreated T(1) rice seeds. The results presented here strongly suggested that P(GIII) could be pathogen-inducible promoter.

  16. Hepatic ALT isoenzymes are elevated in gluconeogenic conditions including diabetes and suppressed by insulin at the protein level

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Kun; Zhong, Shao; Xie, Keming; Yu, Daozhan; Yang, Rongze; Gong, Da-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Alanine transaminase (ALT) plays an important role in gluconeogenesis by converting alanine into pyruvate for glucose production. Early studies have shown that ALT activities are upregulated in gluconeogenic conditions and may be implicated in the development of diabetes. Since ALT consists of two isoforms, ALT1 and ALT2, with distinctive subcellular and tissue distributions, whether and how they are regulated are largely unknown. In this study, we found that both ALT isoforms in the liver were increased in diabetic GK rats and during fasting. However in ob/ob mice, only ALT2, but not ALT1, protein levels were elevated and the increase of ALT2 is correlated with that of ALT activity. We further demonstrated that, in vitro, both ALT1 and ALT2 were induced by glucocorticoid dexamethasone but suppressed by insulin in Fao hepatoma cells. Finally, we showed that the over-expression of ALT1 and ALT2 in Fao cells directly increased glucose output. Correctively, we have revealed the similarity and difference in the regulation of ALT isoforms in gluconeogenic conditions at the protein level, supporting that ALT isoenzymes play an important role in glucose metabolism and may be implicated the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. PMID:25865565

  17. [N-acetyl-cystein-(NAC)-activated creatinkinase (CK) and isoenzyme CK-MB in the serum of children].

    PubMed

    Sitzmann, F C; Orth, H

    1983-08-01

    We have examined the variation of creatinekinase levels (NAC-activated) with age in 170 children. The subjects included 40 neonates, 18 premature neonates, 40 small babies, 32 infants and 40 schoolchildren. The enzyme activity of CK-MM was very high in the first hours after delivery and remained high for a few days. The isoenzyme MB in healthy newborns also showed a higher catalytic concentration. These values (about 2-12 U/l) reached normal levels of adults within 4 months of life (0.5-5 U/l). The same rule applied to CK-MM: enzyme activities of 160 U/l and more in the first days of life declined to 16-75 U/l during the first 4 months. No correlation between birth trauma and the increase in serum-CK was found. Because of the increased CK-MM (and CK-MB) found in normal newborns screening for Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy should be postponed for a few weeks after delivery. In view of the relatively high endogenous serum CK-MB in the neonates (release of CK-MB from the skeletal muscle) the test lacks the specificity for cardiac damage. Intramuscular injections of several drugs lead to a distinct increase in CK activity. A rise of CK-MM was seen 4-24 h after catheterization of the heart.

  18. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Entamoeba nuttalli Strains Showing Novel Isoenzyme Patterns from Wild Toque Macaques in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Hiroshi; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Feng, Meng; Bandara, K B Anura T; Kobayashi, Seiki; Cheng, Xunjia; Hirayama, Kenji; Rajapakse, R P V Jayanthe

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed the revival of the name Entamoeba nuttalli for a virulent ameba strain, P19-061405, from a rhesus macaque and located it phylogenetically between E. histolytica and E. dispar. As E. nuttalli was originally described for an ameba found in a toque macaque in Sri Lanka, the prevalence and characteristics of Entamoeba species in wild toque macaques were examined. PCR analysis of 227 stool samples from six locations showed positive rates for E. nuttalli, E. dispar, and E. histolytica of 18.5%, 0.4%, and 0%, respectively. Fifteen E. nuttalli strains were cultured successfully from five locations. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene showed only three nucleotide differences in comparison with P19-061405 strain. In isoenzyme analysis, the pattern of hexokinase in Sri Lankan strains was different from that of P19-061405 strains and the difference was confirmed by analysis of the genes. Hepatic inoculation of one of the Sri Lankan E. nuttalli strains in hamsters resulted in amebic abscess formation and body weight loss. These results demonstrate that E. nuttalli is prevalent in wild toque macaques and that several characteristics of the strains are unique. We conclude that use of the name E. nuttalli is appropriate for the new Entamoeba species found in nonhuman primates. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  19. Two radioimmunoassays compared with isoenzyme electrophoresis for the detection of serum creatine kinase-MB in acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, L.R.; Shuler, S.E.; Genre, C.F.; Mackenzie, F.J.; Garcia, M.M.

    1982-02-01

    We have evaluated two commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) reagent kits for the estimation of the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK). Although both methods use CK-B antisera and radioiodinated CK-B, one (''M'' for Mallinckrodt) uses hybridized CK-MB for calibration, while the other (''NMS'' for Nuclear Medical Systems) uses CK-B. Both assays provide adequate sensitivity, precision, and specificity for the estimation of serum CK-MB. Ninety-nine patients admitted consecutively to our coronary care unit were studied. Apparent CK-MB was measured by both RIAs and results compared with CK-MB enzymatic activity after electrophoresis (E). CK-MG was elevated, as judged by E and by M, in all of 42 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and in 40 of the 42 by NMS. Of the 57 patients who did not have an AMI, eight had elevated CK-MB by E, 16 by M, and 25 by NMS. Patients with persistently elevated apparent CK-MB concentrations not associated with AMI were identified by M and by NMS, but not by E. The ability to differentiate AMI from no infarction in patients was best with E, and was not satisfactory by NMS. Although the detection of AMI by M equaled that by E, the large number of apparent false-positive results hindered the clinical application of RIA CK-MB measurements.

  20. Spectroscopic, biological, and molecular modeling studies on the interactions of [Fe(III)-meloxicam] with G-quadruplex DNA and investigation of its release from bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Malihe; Khayamian, Taghi; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Sayed Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim; Jannesari, Zahra; Khaksar, Ghazale

    2015-01-01

    The guanine-rich sequence, specifically in DNA, telomeric DNA, is a potential target of anticancer drugs. In this work, a mononuclear Fe(III) complex containing two meloxicam ligands was synthesized as a G-quadruplex stabilizer. The interaction between the Fe(III) complex and G-quadruplex with sequence of 5'-G3(T2AG3)3-3' (HTG21) was investigated using spectroscopic methods, molecular modeling, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The spectroscopic methods of UV-vis, fluorescence, and circular dichroism showed that the metal complex can effectively induce and stabilize G-quadruplex structure in the G-rich 21-mer sequence. Also, the binding constant between the Fe(III) complex and G-quadruplex was measured by these methods and it was found to be 4.53(±0.30) × 10(5) M(-1)). The PCR stop assay indicated that the Fe(III) complex inhibits DNA amplification. The cell viability assay showed that the complex has significant antitumor activities against Hela cells. According to the UV-vis results, the interaction of the Fe(III) complex with duplex DNA is an order of magnitude lower than G-quadruplex. Furthermore, the release of the complex incorporated in bovine serum albumin nanoparticles was also investigated in physiological conditions. The release of the complex followed a bi-phasic release pattern with high and low releasing rates at the first and second phases, respectively. Also, in order to obtain the binding mode of the Fe(III) complex with G-quadruplex, molecular modeling was performed. The molecular docking results showed that the Fe(III) complex was docked to the end-stacked of the G-quadruplex with a π-π interaction, created between the meloxicam ligand and the guanine bases of the G-quadruplex.

  1. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    modernization of the constellation . GPS III complies with 10 United States Code (USC) § 2281, ensuring the continued sustainment and operation of GPS for... constellations , further increasing the accuracy and availability of user PNT solutions. GPS III December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 16:15:29 UNCLASSIFIED

  2. Pyruvate-kinase isoenzymes from zygotic and microspore-derived embryos of Brassica napus : Developmental profiles and subunit composition.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, R S; Gauthier, D A; Turpin, D H; Pomeroy, M K; Plaxton, W C

    1992-05-01

    Polyclonal antibodies against castor-oil seed cytosolic and leucoplastic pyruvate kinases (PKc and PKp, respectively; EC 2.7.1.40) were utilized to examine the subunit compositions and developmental profiles of canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Topas) PKc and PKp over 6 d of seed germination and 35 d of culture of microspore-derived embryos. The PKc from germinating seeds appears to be composed of a single type of 56-kDa subunit, whereas the enzyme from cultured embryos contains equal proportions of immunologically related 57- and 56-kDa subunits. The PKp was immunologically undetectable in germinating seeds, while the enzyme from cultured embryos consisted of immunologically related 64- and 58-kDa subunits in a ratio of about 1∶2, respectively. The large increase in PK activity that occurs between the second and fourth days of seed gemination is based upon de-novo synthesis of PKc. Between 7 and 14 d of culture of microspore-derived embryos, the levels of PKp and PK maximal activity increased approx. 3- and 2.5-fold, respectively. These increases were coincident with an approximately fourfold rise in the in-vivo pyruvate: phosphoenolpyruvate concentration ratio. Conversely, PKc was not only far less abundant relative to PKp, but its level remained constant over 35 d of microspore-embryo culture. Developing non-zygotic (microspore-derived) embryos strongly resembled ripening zygotic (seed) embryos in terms of PK specific activity as well as relative amounts and subunit compositions of PKc and PKp. The results indicate that the synthesis of PK isoenzymes in B. napus seeds is highly regulated and that this regulation follows a preset developmental program.

  3. Specific genetic deficiencies of the A and B isoenzymes of monoamine oxidase are characterized by distinct neurochemical and clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Lenders, J W; Eisenhofer, G; Abeling, N G; Berger, W; Murphy, D L; Konings, C H; Wagemakers, L M; Kopin, I J; Karoum, F; van Gennip, A H; Brunner, H G

    1996-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) exists as two isoenzymes and plays a central role in the metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters. In this study we compared the neurochemical phenotypes of previously described subjects with genetically determined selective lack of MAO-A or a lack of both MAO-A and MAO-B with those of two subjects with a previously described X chromosome microdeletion in whom we now demonstrate selective MAO-B deficiency. Mapping of the distal deletion breakpoint demonstrates its location in intron 5 of the MAO-B gene, with the deletion extending proximally into the Norrie disease gene. In contrast to the borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavioral phenotype in subjects with selective MAO-A deficiency and the severe mental retardation in patients with combined MAO-A/MAO-B deficiency and Norrie disease, the MAO-B-deficient subjects exhibit neither abnormal behavior nor mental retardation. Distinct neurochemical profiles characterize the three groups of MAO-deficient patients. In MAO-A-deficient subjects, there is a marked decrease in deaminated catecholamine metabolites and a concomitant marked elevation of O-methylated amine metabolites. These neurochemical changes are only slightly exaggerated in patients with combined lack of MAO-A and MAO-B. In contrast, the only biochemical abnormalities detected in subjects with the MAO-B gene deletion are a complete absence of platelet MAO-B activity and an increased urinary excretion of phenylethylamine. The differences in neurochemical profiles indicate that, under normal conditions, MAO-A is considerably more important than MAO-B in the metabolism of biogenic amines, a factor likely to contribute to the different clinical phenotypes. PMID:8613523

  4. Identification of cDNA clones encoding secretory isoenzyme forms: sequence determination of canine pancreatic prechymotrypsinogen 2 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Pinsky, S D; LaForge, K S; Luc, V; Scheele, G

    1983-01-01

    A cDNA library has been constructed from canine poly(A)+ mRNA. Clones containing cDNA inserts coding for prechymotrypsinogen 2 (isoelectric point = 7.1; Mr = 27,500), one of three canine pancreatic isoenzyme forms, were selected by colony hybridization using a cDNA probe synthesized from immunoselected prechymotrypsinogen 2 mRNA. To verify that cDNA clones code for prechymotrypsinogen 2 forms that translocate across rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes and fold into stable and identifiable secretory proteins, we conducted in vitro translation of hybrid-selected mRNA in the presence of microsomal membranes and optimal concentrations of glutathione and analyzed nascent translation products in their nonreduced state by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing/NaDodSO4 gel electrophoresis and fluorography. A near full-length chymotrypsinogen 2 cDNA and its primed extension were used to determine the nucleotide sequence for the entire coding region of prechymotrypsinogen 2 mRNA and 87 residues, including a poly(A) addition signal, in the 3' nontranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence shows a 263-residue presecretory protein containing an 18-residue amino-terminal transport peptide (Met-Ala-Phe-Leu-Trp-Leu-Leu-Ser-Cys-Phe-Ala-Leu-Leu-Gly-Thr-Ala-Phe-Gly ), which we have previously shown to mediate the translocation of chymotrypsinogen 2 across the rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Following the transport peptide is a 245-residue proenzyme, which shows 82% and 80% sequence identity with bovine chymotrypsinogens A and B, respectively. Conserved among the three zymogens are 10 Cys residues that form five disulfide bonds in bovine chymotrypsinogens A and B and the residues that are required for zymogen activation, substrate binding, and catalytic activity. Images PMID:6584866

  5. Glutathione S-transferases in human renal cortex and neoplastic tissue: enzymatic activity, isoenzyme profile and immunohistochemical localization.

    PubMed

    Rodilla, V; Benzie, A A; Veitch, J M; Murray, G I; Rowe, J D; Hawksworth, G M

    1998-05-01

    1. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in the cytosol of renal cortex and tumours from eight men and eight women was measured using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as a substrate. GST activities ranged from 685 to 2192 nmol/min/mg protein in cortex (median 1213) and from non-detectable (minimum 45) to 2424 nmol/min/mg protein in tumours (median 469). The activities in the tumours were lower than those in the normal cortices (p < 0.05). 2. In men, the activity in the cortical cytosol was in all cases higher than that measured in the corresponding tumours (p < 0.05). In women, the difference in activity between cortices and tumours was not significantly different (p > 0.05). 3. The age of the patients ranged from 42 to 81 years (median 62) and was not found to play a role in the levels of GST activity observed in cortex or in renal tumours from either sex. 4. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies confirmed that GST-alpha was the predominant form expressed both in normal cortex and tumour and probably accounted for most of the GST activity present in these samples. GST-mu and GST-phi were expressed in both tumours and normal cortex and, while in some cases the level of expression in the cortices was higher than that found in the tumours, the reverse was also observed. Within the GST-mu class, GST M1/M2 was only detected in one sample (tumour), which showed the highest overall expression of GST-mu. GSTM3 was the predominant isoenzyme of the mu class in normal and tumour tissue, whereas GTM4 and GSTM5 were not detected. 5. These differences could have functional significance where xenobiotics or cytotoxic drugs are specific substrates for the different classes of GSTs.

  6. Characterization of a functional recombinant human creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme prepared by tandem affinity purification from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lihui; Su, Wen; Wang, Meng; Huang, Wei; Zhao, Haijian; Zhang, Enyi; Jin, Junhua; Xu, Hongtao; Xiao, Fei

    2017-07-01

    Creatine kinase isoform CK-MB has been widely applied as a biomarker of myocardial injury. While a variety of methods have been used to measure CK-MB activity or mass in clinical laboratories, a CK-MB standard is needed to eliminate between-method bias. Because the in vitro expression of human creatine kinase generates three isoenzymes, CK-MM, CK-MB, and CK-BB, it is important to establish an effective method to purify the isoform CK-MB from the mixture. In this study, we aimed at using tandem affinity purification (TAP) to purify recombinant CK-MB protein and evaluate its value in clinical laboratories. After the optimized sequence coding CK-M and CK-B were synthesized, they were combined with TAP tags (6His and SBP) and inserted into a pRSFDuet vector; then, the constructed 6His-CK-M-SBP-CK-B-pRSF plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) for expression. After TAP, we obtained purified CK-MB protein. We also did recovery testing using the engineered CK-MB and standard CK-MB (Randox) at different concentrations, and the results suggested that the engineered CK-MB could be used as the reference material. Moreover, the stability study of recombinant CK-MB showed high stability during long-term storage at -80 °C. In conclusion, the TAP-purified recombinant CK-MB protein may be a much better and cheaper standard or reference material for clinical laboratories.

  7. Ribonuclease revisited: structural insights into ribonuclease III family enzymes.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Ian J; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2007-02-01

    Ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzymes occur ubiquitously in biology and are responsible for processing RNA precursors into functional RNAs that participate in protein synthesis, RNA interference and a range of other cellular activities. Members of the RNase III enzyme family, including Escherichia coli RNase III, Rnt1, Dicer and Drosha, share the ability to recognize and cleave double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), typically at specific positions or sequences. Recent biochemical and structural data have shed new light on how RNase III enzymes catalyze dsRNA hydrolysis and how substrate specificity is achieved. A major theme emerging from these studies is that accessory domains present in different RNase III enzymes are the key determinants of substrate selectivity, which in turn dictates the specialized biological function of each type of RNase III protein.

  8. An atypical distribution of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) brain may reflect a biochemical adaptation to diving.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller; Fabrizius, Andrej; Folkow, Lars P; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    The brains of some diving mammals can withstand periods of severe hypoxia without signs of deleterious effects. This may in part be due to an enhanced cerebral capacity for anaerobic energy production. Here, we have tested this hypothesis by comparing various parameters of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the brain of the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) with those in the brains of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and mouse (Mus musculus). We found that mRNA and protein expression of lactate dehydrogenase a (LDHA) and lactate dehydrogenase b (LDHB), and also the LDH activity were significantly higher in the ferret brain than in brains of the hooded seal and the mouse (p < 0.0001). No conspicuous differences in the LDHA and LDHB sequences were observed. There was also no difference in the buffering capacities of the brains. Thus, an enhanced capacity for anaerobic energy production likely does not explain the higher hypoxia tolerance of the seal brain. However, the brain of the hooded seal had higher relative levels of LDHB isoenzymes (LDH1 and LDH2) compared to the non-diving mammals. Moreover, immunofluorescence studies showed more pronounced co-localization of LDHB and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the cortex of the hooded seal. Since LDHB isoenzymes primarily catalyze the conversion of lactate to pyruvate, this finding suggests that the contribution of astrocytes to the brain aerobic metabolism is higher in the hooded seal than in non-diving species. The cerebral tolerance of the hooded seal to hypoxia may therefore partly rely on different LDH isoenzymes distribution.

  9. Amino Acid Residues Critical for the Specificity for Betaine Aldehyde of the Plant ALDH10 Isoenzyme Involved in the Synthesis of Glycine Betaine1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Sánchez, Ángel G.; González-Segura, Lilian; Mújica-Jiménez, Carlos; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Montiel, Carmina; Martínez-Castilla, León P.; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A.

    2012-01-01

    Plant Aldehyde Dehydrogenase10 (ALDH10) enzymes catalyze the oxidation of ω-primary or ω-quaternary aminoaldehydes, but, intriguingly, only some of them, such as the spinach (Spinacia oleracea) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (SoBADH), efficiently oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) forming the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB), which confers tolerance to osmotic stress. The crystal structure of SoBADH reported here shows tyrosine (Tyr)-160, tryptophan (Trp)-167, Trp-285, and Trp-456 in an arrangement suitable for cation-π interactions with the trimethylammonium group of BAL. Mutation of these residues to alanine (Ala) resulted in significant Km(BAL) increases and Vmax/Km(BAL) decreases, particularly in the Y160A mutant. Tyr-160 and Trp-456, strictly conserved in plant ALDH10s, form a pocket where the bulky trimethylammonium group binds. This space is reduced in ALDH10s with low BADH activity, because an isoleucine (Ile) pushes the Trp against the Tyr. Those with high BADH activity instead have Ala (Ala-441 in SoBADH) or cysteine, which allow enough room for binding of BAL. Accordingly, the mutation A441I decreased the Vmax/Km(BAL) of SoBADH approximately 200 times, while the mutation A441C had no effect. The kinetics with other ω-aminoaldehydes were not affected in the A441I or A441C mutant, demonstrating that the existence of an Ile in the second sphere of interaction of the aldehyde is critical for discriminating against BAL in some plant ALDH10s. A survey of the known sequences indicates that plants have two ALDH10 isoenzymes: those known to be GB accumulators have a high-BAL-affinity isoenzyme with Ala or cysteine in this critical position, while non GB accumulators have low-BAL-affinity isoenzymes containing Ile. Therefore, BADH activity appears to restrict GB synthesis in non-GB-accumulator plants. PMID:22345508

  10. Differential expression of five protein kinase C isoenzymes in FAO and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines compared with normal rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ducher, L; Croquet, F; Gil, S; Davy, J; Féger, J; Bréhier, A

    1995-12-14

    We analyzed the expression of five protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in cytosolic and membrane fractions from normal rat hepatocytes compared with those of two tumorigenic cell lines FAO and HepG2. Western blots with PKC-specific isoenzymes polyclonal antibodies provide evidences for the presence of the five isoforms alpha, beta II, delta, epsilon and zeta in normal rat hepatocytes. In hepatoma cells, we show differences in the level of expression, the molecular sizes and the responses to Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA).

  11. A survey for isoenzymes of glucosephosphate isomerase, phosphoglucomutase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in C3-, C 4-and crassulacean-acid-metabolism plants, and green algae.

    PubMed

    Herbert, M; Burkhard, C; Schnarrenberger, C

    1979-01-01

    Two isoenzymes each of glucosephosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.9), phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.43) were separated by (NH4)2SO4 gradient solubilization and DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography from green leaves of the C3-plants spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), of the Crassulacean-acid-metabolism plants Crassula lycopodioides Lam., Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. and Sedum rubrotinctum R.T. Clausen, and from the green algae Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardii. After isolation of cell organelles from spinach leaves by isopyenic centrifugation in sucrose gradients one of two isoenzymes of each of the four enzymes was found to be associated with whole chloroplasts while the other was restricted to the soluble cell fraction, implying the same intracellular distribution of these isoenzymes also in the other species.Among C4-plants, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were found in only one form in corn (Zea mays L.), sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) and Coix lacrymajobi L., but as two isoenzymes in Atriplex spongiosa L. and Portulaca oleracea L. In corn, the two dehydrogenases were mainly associated with isolated mesophyll protoplasts while in Atriplex spongiosa they were of similar specific activity in both mesophyll protoplasts and bundle-sheath strands. In all five C4-plants three isoenzymes of glucosephosphate isomerase and phosphoglucomutase were found. In corn two were localized in the bundle-sheath strands and the third one in the mesophyll protoplasts. The amount of activity of the enzymes was similar in each of the two cell fractions. Apparently, C4 plants have isoenzymes not only in two cell compartments, but also in physiologically closely linked cell types such as mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells.

  12. Evidence for a hyperglycaemia-dependent decrease of antithrombin III-thrombin complex formation in humans.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Marchi, E; Barbanti, M; Lefèbvre, P

    1990-03-01

    In the presence of increased levels of fibrinopeptide A, decreased antithrombin III biological activity, and thrombin-antithrombin III complex levels are seen in diabetic patients. Induced-hyperglycaemia in diabetic and normal subjects decreased antithrombin III activity and thrombin-antithrombin III levels, and increased fibrinopeptide A plasma levels, while antithrombin III concentration did not change; heparin was shown to reduced these phenomena. In diabetic patients, euglycaemia induced by insulin infusion restored antithrombin III activity, thrombin-antithrombin III complex and fibrinopeptide A concentrations; heparin administration had the same effects. These data stress the role of a hyperglycaemia-dependent decrease of antithrombin III activity in precipitating thrombin hyperactivity in diabetes mellitus.

  13. Propranolol oxidation by human liver microsomes--the use of cumene hydroperoxide to probe isoenzyme specificity and regio- and stereoselectivity.

    PubMed

    Otton, S V; Gillam, E M; Lennard, M S; Tucker, G T; Woods, H F

    1990-11-01

    isoenzymes. It is confirmed that P450IID6 does not contribute to the N-desisopropylation of propranolol. Furthermore, the finding that mephenytoin did not inhibit the appearance of this metabolite is not consistent with the results of in vivo studies suggesting the involvement of the same enzyme in the side-chain oxidation of propranolol and the 4-hydroxylation of mephenytoin.

  14. Protein kinase C-theta isoenzyme selective stimulation of the transcription factor complex AP-1 in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Baier-Bitterlich, G; Uberall, F; Bauer, B; Fresser, F; Wachter, H; Grunicke, H; Utermann, G; Altman, A; Baier, G

    1996-01-01

    T-lymphocyte stimulation requires activation of several protein kinases, including the major phorbol ester receptor protein kinase C (PKC), ultimately leading to induction of lymphokines, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2). The revelant PKC isoforms which are involved in the activation cascades of nuclear transcription factors involved in IL-2 production have not yet been clearly defined. We have examined the potential role of two representative PKC isoforms in the induction of the IL-2 gene, i.e., PKC-alpha and PKC-theta, the latter being expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cell lines, particularly T cells. Similar to that of PKC-alpha, PKC-theta overexpression in murine EL4 thymoma cells caused a significant increase in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced transcriptional activation of full-length IL-2-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and NF-AT-CAT but not of NF-IL2A-CAT or NF-kappaB promoter-CAT reporter gene constructs. Importantly, the critical AP-1 enhancer element was differentially modulated by these two distinct PKC isoenzymes, since only PKC-theta but not PKC-alpha overexpression resulted in an approximately 2.8-fold increase in AP-1-collagenase promoter CAT expression in comparison with the vector control. Deletion of the AP-1 enhancer site in the collagenase promoter rendered it unresponsive to PKC-theta. Expression of a constitutively active mutant PKC-theta A148E (but not PKC-alpha A25E) was sufficient to induce activation of AP-1 transcription factor complex in the absence of PMA stimulation. Conversely, a catalytically inactive PKC-theta K409R (but not PKC-alpha K368R) mutant abrogated endogenous PMA-mediated activation of AP-1 transcriptional complex. Dominant negative mutant Ha-RasS17N completely inhibited the PKC-O A148E-induced signal, PKC-O. Expression of a constitutively active mutant PKC-O A148E (but not PKC-alpha A25E) was sufficient to induce activation of AP-1 transcription factor complex in the absence of PMA stimulation

  15. The carp muscle-specific sub-isoenzymes of creatine kinase form distinct dimers at different temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hsi-Wen; Liu, Cheng-Wen; Hui, Cho-Fat; Wu, Jen-Leih

    2002-01-01

    We have previously cloned three muscle-specific sub-isoforms of creatine kinase (CK, EC 2.7.3.2) from the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ), designated M1-CK, M2-CK, and M3-CK. The enzyme has a key role in maintaining the energy homoeostasis of cells with fluctuating energy requirements. In the present paper, we report that all three M-CKs in the red and white muscle of different temperature-acclimatized carp were ubiquitously distributed in the cytosol and along membranes. In addition, the expression levels of these isoforms were not significantly altered in response to the temperature acclimatization. Interestingly, our studies showed that the formation of distinct homo- or heterodimers among these three M-CKs was found at various temperatures. At higher temperature, the M1M1-CK and M2M2-CK homodimers, and the M1M3-CK heterodimer are the predominant MM-CKs, whereas the M3M3-CK achieves its homodimeric state at lower temperature. We postulated testable homology models to investigate the chemical properties of these dimeric interfaces. M1M1-CK was used as a reference to compare the structural differences with the M3M3-CK dimer. The calculated solvent accessible surface area that was buried in the contact interfaces of the M1M1-CK and M3M3-CK dimers showed an overall decrease of 12% in the M3M3-CK interface. The modelling analysis also suggested a net decrease of twelve hydrophobic residues and a Phe(3)-->Lys substitution in the M3M3-CK interface. An increase in thermolability of the M3M3-CK homodimer might be due to the decrease in subunit ion pairs and buried surface area in this dimer. Based on our findings, we propose that the carp-muscle-specific CK isoenzymes could undergo shuffling to form distinct M-CK homo- or heterodimers in acclimatization to environmental temperatures. PMID:12213085

  16. Studies on Some New Ru(III) Complexes Using aryl-azo Pentane- 2,4-dione and 2,6-bis (2'-Benzimidazolyl) Pyridine as Ligands: Synthesis, Spectroscopic, Luminescent, Electrochemical and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Yadaw, Ajay K.; Phadke, Ratna S.; Choi, Chang S.; Araki, Koji

    2001-01-01

    Some ruthenium(III) complexes with aryl-azo 2,4-pentanedione as co-ligands (L1H - L3H2) have been synthesized and characterized spectroscopically IR, 1H NMR, UV/Vis, ESR, conductimetric) along with elemental analysis and FAB-mass data. Their luminescent and redox properties have been studied. The antibacterial, anti-HIV and antitmnour activities have also been reported. PMID:18475977

  17. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: guaiacol and catechol derivatives effectively inhibit certain human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes (hCA I, II, IX and XII).

    PubMed

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Passaponti, Maurizio; Supuran, Claudiu T; Gülçin, İlhami

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are widespread metalloenzymes in higher vertebrates including humans. A series of phenolic compounds, including guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-propylguaiacol, eugenol, isoeugenol, vanillin, syringaldehyde, catechol, 3-methyl catechol, 4-methyl catechol and 3-methoxy catechol were investigated for their inhibition of all the catalytically active mammalian isozymes of the Zn(2+)-containing CA (EC 4.2.1.1). All the phenolic compounds effectively inhibited human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes (hCA I, II, IX and XII), with Kis in the range of 2.20-515.98 μM. The various isozymes showed diverse inhibition profiles. Among the tested phenolic derivatives, compounds 4-methyl catechol and 3-methoxy catechol showed potent activity as inhibitors of the tumour-associated transmembrane isoforms (hCA IX and XII) in the submicromolar range, with high selectivity. The results obtained from this research may lead to the design of more effective carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme inhibitors (CAIs) based on such phenolic compound scaffolds.

  18. [Interference of CK-BB isoenzyme in the determination of CK-MB using the immunoinhibition method in patients with pulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Vrbica, Z; Durović, O; Oreb, N

    1997-11-01

    An increase in serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) isoenzyme is regarded as a specific indicator of acute myocardial infarction. We analyzed retrospectively the clinical data of 94 patients whose serum creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) was measured with immunoinhibition kit which measures all residual CK activity following inactivation of M-subunit. There were 21 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), 17 patients with pneumonia, 17 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TBC), 16 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 10 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 8 patients with malignancies of other origin (NPL), and 5 patients with chronic heart diseases. The results revealed that serum concentrations of CK-MB in SCLC, NSCLC and TBC were significantly greater than those in other groups (P < 0.1). Clinical examination showed no evidence of myocardial infarction, injury, or tumor involvement of the heart. We assumed that those results are due to interference of the CK-BB isoenzyme in the immunoinhibition method. So we suggest that in clinical practice, markedly elevated levels of CK-MB measured with immunoinhibition kit, after the exclusion of the myocardial injury, may point toward the existence of a malignancy or TBC of the lungs.

  19. Diagnostic value of serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme and amino acid patterns in several schistosomal and non-schistosomal disorders as compared to other biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S A; Gad, M Z

    1996-08-01

    Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme and amino acid (a.a) patterns were evaluated in comparison to several other biochemical parameters for liver and renal function with the objective of clarifying the differential diagnosis of hepatic disorders and predicting the outcome of schistosomal infection in Egyptian patients. Patients examined included those with complicated hepatic disorders and others with different stages of schistosomal infestation, hepatoma or bladder cancer, in addition to a normal control group. Several biochemical parameters appeared to be useful in establishing consistent differences or similarities between the studied groups. Examples are; elevated serum AST/ALT ratio and methionine content in chronic schistosomiasis, elevated serum urea/creatinine ratio and leucine content in all schistosomal patients and extremely high levels of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in the urine of non-schistosomal bladder cancer patients. In addition, characteristic LDH isoenzyme profiles distinguish between the studied groups, in particular separating chronic schistosomiasis from schistosomal bladder cancer and hepatoma from other hepatic disorders.

  20. Synthesis of 4-[2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)cyclopentyl]-1,2-dimethoxybenzene Derivatives and Evaluations of Their Carbonic Anhydrase Isoenzymes Inhibitory Effects.

    PubMed

    Artunç, Tekin; Çetinkaya, Yasin; Göçer, Hülya; Gülçin, İlhami; Menzek, Abdullah; Şahin, Ertan; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-04-01

    Rearrangement of 1,6-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)hexane-1,6-dione (8) gave two isomeric products having cyclopentene moiety. Starting from the major product (3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)cyclopent-1-en-1-yl]methanone (11), eight new compounds (16-23) were obtained by the reactions such as reduction (by catalytic hydrogenation and NaBH4 ), nitration, 1,4-addition, bromination, and esterification reactions. Carbonic anhydrases (CA, E.C.4.2.1.1) are ubiquitous metalloenzymes present in almost all living organism that catalyze a simple reaction, the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and water (H2 O) to bicarbonate ion (HCO3 (-) ) and a proton (H(+) ). CA isoenzymes I and II (hCA I and II) inhibition effects of synthesized eleven new and four known compounds (8-13 and 15-23) were investigated. Inhibition studies of the hCA I and II with 4-[2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)cyclopentyl]-1,2-dimethoxybenzene derivatives revealed that they possess effective inhibitory potency. Cytosolic hCA I and II isoenzymes were potently inhibited by new synthesized 4-[2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)cyclopentyl]-1,2-dimethoxybenzene derivatives with Ki s in the range of 313.16-1537.00 nm against hCA I and in the range of 228.31-1927.31 nm against hCA II, respectively. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Comparative horizontal starch gel isoenzyme electrophoresis of Lymnaea (Bullastra) cumingiana (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae) and related taxa in the Indo-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Monzon, R B; Thammapalerd, N; Kitikoon, V; Temcharoen, P; Sornmani, S; Viyanant, V

    1994-03-01

    Foot muscle tissue extracts from six lymnaeid species of the Indo-Pacific region [Lymnaea (Bullastra) cumingiana and L. (Radix) quadrasi from the Philippines, L. (R.) rubiginosa from Indonesia and Thailand, and L. (R.) viridis from Guam and Hong Kong] were subjected to horizontal starch gel isoenzyme electrophoresis and assayed for seven isoenzymes (AcP, AlP, CA, EST, LAP, CAT and GOT) to elucidate their taxonomic relationships. L. cumingiana exhibited banding patterns for EST, LAP and CAT uniquely different from the rest, thus supporting the hypothesis that it is a distinct species. Zymogram patterns for AlP, CA, EST and LAP attest to the close affinity between L. quadrasi and L. rubiginosa (Indonesia and Thailand). Minor differences suggest a closer relationship between the two geographical strains of L. rubiginosa than with L. quadrasi, lending support to the hypothesis that L. quadrasi is inseparable as a race or variety from the typical L. swinhoei Adams, which in turn is but a race of L. auricularia, which also encompasses L. rubiginosa. The two geographical strains of L. viridis from Guam and Hong Kong showed the greatest consistency with regards to similarity and congruence in banding patterns. Non-specific esterases (EST) were the most useful in distinguishing the six species from each other.

  2. Studies on adenosine triphosphate transphosphorylases. Human isoenzymes of adenylate kinase: isolation and physicochemical comparison of the crystalline human ATP-AMP transphosphorylases from muscle and liver.

    PubMed

    Kuby, S A; Fleming, G; Frischat, A; Cress, M C; Hamada, M

    1983-02-10

    Procedures are described for the isolation, in crystalline form, of the adenylate kinases from autopsy samples of human muscle and from human liver. Weight average molecular weights were determined by sedimentation equilibrium to be 22,000 (+/- 700) and 25,450 (+/- 160) for the human muscle and liver isoenzymes, respectively. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, their molecular weights were estimated to be 21,700 and 26,500 for the muscle and liver enzymes, respectively. Both isoenzymes are accordingly monomeric proteins in their native state. Amino acid analyses are reported here for the normal human liver, calf liver, and rabbit liver adenylate kinases and compared with the normal human muscle, calf muscle, and rabbit muscle myokinases. The liver types as a group and the muscle types as a group show a great deal of homology, but some distinct differences are evident between the liver and muscle enzyme groups, especially in the number of residues of His, Pro, half-cystine, and the presence of tryptophan in the liver enzymes. The normal human liver adenylate kinase, as isolated in this report, has proved to be similar in its properties, if not identical, to the adenylate kinase isolated directly from human liver mitochondria (Hamada, M., Sumida, M., Okuda, H., Watanabe, T., Nojima, M., and Kuby, S. A. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 13120-13128). Therefore, the liver-type adenylate kinase may be considered a mitochondrial type.

  3. Comparison of Biolog GEN III MicroStation semi-automated bacterial identification system with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing for the identification of bacteria of veterinary interest.

    PubMed

    Wragg, P; Randall, L; Whatmore, A M

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in phenotypic and chemotaxonomic methods have improved the ability of systems to resolve bacterial identities at the species level. Key to the effective use of these systems is the ability to draw upon databases which can be augmented with new data gleaned from atypical or novel isolates. In this study we compared the performance of the Biolog GEN III identification system (hereafter, GEN III) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing in the identification of isolates of veterinary interest. The use of strains that had proven more difficult to identify by routine methods was designed to test the systems' abilities at the extremes of their performance range. Over an 18month period, 100 strains were analysed by all three methods. To highlight the importance of identification to species level, a weighted scoring system was devised to differentiate the capacity to identify at genus and species levels. The overall relative weighted scores were 0.869:0.781:0.769, achieved by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, GEN III and MALDI-TOF MS respectively, when compared to the 'gold standard'. Performance to the genus level was significantly better using 16S rRNA gene sequencing; however, performance to the species level was similar for all three systems. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Column solid phase extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of manganese(II) and iron(III) ions in water, food and biological samples using 3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid on synthesized graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Pourjavid, Mohammad Reza; Sehat, Ali Akbari; Arabieh, Masoud; Yousefi, Seyed Reza; Hosseini, Majid Haji; Rezaee, Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    A modified, selective, highly sensitive and accurate procedure for the determination of trace amounts of manganese and iron ions is established in the presented work. 3-(1-Methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid (MPPC) and graphene oxide (GO) were used in a glass column as chelating reagent and as adsorbent respectively prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The adsorption mechanism of titled metals complexes on GO was investigated by using computational chemistry approach based on PM6 semi-empirical potential energy surface (PES). The effect of some parameters including pH, flow rate and volume of sample and type, volume and concentration of eluent, as well as the adsorption capacity of matrix ions on the recovery of Mn(II) and Fe(III) was investigated. The limit of detection was 145 and 162 ng L(-1) for Mn(II) and Fe(III), respectively. Calibration was linear over the range of 0.31-355 μg L(-1) for Mn(II) and 0.34-380 μg L(-1) for Fe(III) ions. The method was successfully applied for the determination of understudied ions in water, food and biological samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. LDH isoenzyme blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... body tissues such as the heart, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, brain, blood cells, and lungs. LDH exists in ... LDH-5 is highest in the liver and skeletal muscle. All of these can be measured in the ...

  6. Type III polyketide synthases in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Yohei; Ohnishi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) are simple homodimers of ketosynthases which catalyze the condensation of one to several molecules of extender substrate onto a starter substrate through iterative decarboxylative Claisen condensation reactions. Type III PKSs have been found in bacteria and fungi, as well as plants. Microbial type III PKSs, which are involved in the biosynthesis of some lipidic compounds and various secondary metabolites, have several interesting characteristics that are not shared by plant type III PKSs. Further, many compounds produced by microbial type III PKSs have significant biological functions and/or important pharmaceutical activities. Thus, studies on this class of enzymes will expand our knowledge of the biosynthetic machineries that generate natural products and generate new findings about microbial physiology. The recent development of next-generation DNA sequencing has allowed for an increase in the number of microbial genomes sequenced and the discovery of many microbial type III PKS genes. Here, we describe basic methods to study microbial type III PKSs whose genes are easy to clone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Paul R.

    Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The…

  8. Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Paul R.

    Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The…

  9. Ligational behavior of thiosemicarbazone, semicarbazone and thiocarbohydrazone ligands towards VO(IV), Ce(III), Th(IV) and UO 2(VI) ions: Synthesis, structural characterization and biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebl, M.; Seleem, H. S.; El-Shetary, B. A.

    2010-01-01

    Mono- and binuclear VO(IV), Ce(III), Th(IV) and UO 2(VI) complexes of thiosemicarbazone, semicarbazone and thiocarbohydrazone ligands derived from 4,6-diacetylresorcinol were synthesized. The structures of these complexes were elucidated by elemental analyses, IR, UV-vis, ESR, 1H NMR and mass spectra as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermal analyses. The thiosemicarbazone (H 4L 1) and the semicarbazone (H 4L 2) ligands behave as dibasic pentadentate ligands in case of VO(IV) and UO 2(VI) complexes, tribasic pentadentate in case of Ce(III) complexes and monobasic pentadentate in case of Th(IV) complexes. However, the thiocarbohydrazone ligand (H 3L 3) acts as a monobasic tridentate ligand in all complexes except the VO(IV) complex in which it acts as a dibasic tridentate ligand. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were also tested against Rhizobium bacteria and Fusarium-Oxysporium fungus. The metal complexes of H 4L 1 ligand showed a higher antibacterial effect than the free ligand while the other ligands (H 4L 2 and H 3L 3) showed a higher effect than their metal complexes. The antifungal effect of all metal complexes is lower than the free ligands.

  10. Patterns of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase isoenzymes in the epidermis and hepatopancreas and induction of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase activity by 20-hydroxyecdysone in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator.

    PubMed

    Zou, E; Fingerman, M

    1999-11-01

    A new staining method for detection of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase on denaturing SDS polyacrylamide gels was developed. The isoenzyme pattern of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase in the epidermis of the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, is different from that in the hepatopancreas. Two isoforms of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, with molecular weights of 89 and 45.6 kDa, are present in the hepatopancreas while there is only one form of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, 89 kDa, in the epidermis. No sexual dimorphism was found in these patterns of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase isoenzymes. The characteristic isoenzyme patterns in the epidermis and hepatopancreas occurred consistently throughout the molting cycle. Injections of the molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, at 25 microg/g live weight, into crabs in premolt substage D1, significantly increased N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase activity in the epidermis by 86%. Since only one form of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, 89 kDa, is present in the epidermis, the elevation in epidermal enzymatic activity after 20-hydroxyecdysone administration is entirely accounted for by this N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase isoenzyme. The results reported herein are the first direct evidence that in a crustacean N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase activity is regulated by the steroid molting hormone.

  11. Chronic cardiac reactions. IV. Effect of drugs and altered functional loads on cardiac energetics as inferred from myofibrillar ATPase and the myosin isoenzyme population.

    PubMed

    Rupp, H; Wahl, R; Jacob, R

    1987-01-01

    A major determinant of myocardial energetics is the ATPase activity of myofibrils. In order to account for chronic changes in myofibrillar ATPase, the state equation of the intertropomyosin-interaction model of Tawada et al. was extended by introducing the rates of cross-bridge cycling of myofibrils composed of V-1 or V-3 and the concentration of the myosin isoenzymes. Cross-bridge cycling rates of 1.0 or 0.7 were derived for myofibrils composed of V-1 or V-3, respectively. Ca2+ responsiveness and positive co-operativity were not significantly affected by the myosin isoenzymes. Redistribution of the myosin isoenzyme population and thus altered myocardial energetics was observed following administration of various drugs and as a result of different functional loads. Besides thyroid hormones, catecholamines had a marked influence on myosin. Reducing the adrenergic drive by administration of atenolol, guanethidine or reserpine led to a shift in the direction of V-3. Since serum T3 levels were not significantly reduced by these interventions, the drugs act most probably at the organ level. The functional states responsible for the increase in the proportion of V-3 (pressure load, intermittent feeding, schedule-induced stress) also did not affect circulating T3 in a manner that could entirely explain the redistribution. Hypertrophy-induced dilution of sympathetic nerve fibres or reduced adrenergic responsiveness most likely play a role in the redistribution. An increase in the proportion of V-1 was observed following swimming exercise but not, however, after spontaneous or enforced running. In the swim-exercised rats, T3 was markedly reduced. Thus, the trigger reactions linked most probably to the high adrenergic drive during swimming have to overcome the lower T3 level. It is concluded that myocardial energetics can be decisively altered by a variety of drugs and functional loads, whereby the trigger reactions leading to an altered gene expression of myosin cannot be

  12. SUPERSTARS III: K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  13. Synthesis, interaction with double-helical DNA and biological activity of the water soluble complex cis-dichloro-1,2-propylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetato ruthenium (III) (RAP).

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, Rosario A; Delmani, Fátima; Manteca, Consolación; Torreblanca, José; Moreno, Javier; García-Herdugo, Gregorio; González-Vílchez, Francisco

    2006-11-01

    The effects exerted by the new complex cis-dichloro-1,2-propylenediaminetetraacetato ruthenium (III), H[RuCl(2)(PDTA-H(2))] [1, RAP], on DNA and cultured tumor cells (ovarian carcinoma TG cell line) were studied. The comparative study of circular dichroism (CD) spectra obtained from DNA and RAP-DNA system evidences the interaction of the complex with DNA. Compound 1 also interacted with tumor TG cells to slow their proliferation rate. BrdU incorporation was enhanced in cells treated with compound 1, as evidenced by a single-cell electrophoresis method (comet assay), in accordance with RAP-induced DNA damage. DNA migration of compound 1-treated cells was similar to that induced by noxious agents other than cross-linking chemicals. The stability of [RuCl(2)(PDTA-H(2))]-DNA binding is suggested by the high degree of damage that persisted after removal of compound 1 from the culture medium.

  14. Preparation, characterization and biological activity of Fe(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and UO 2(II) complexes of new cyclodiphosph(V)azane of sulfaguanidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharaby, Carmen M.

    2005-11-01

    Novel hexachlorocyclodiphosph(V)azane of sulfaguanidine, H 4L, l,3-[ N'-amidino-sulfanilamide]-2,2,2,4,4,4-hexachlorocyclodiphosph(V)azane was prepared and its coordination behaviour towards the transition metal ions Fe(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and UO 2(II) was studied. The structures of the isolated products are proposed based on elemental analyses, IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR, mass spectra, reflectance, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The hyperfine interactions in the isolated complex compounds were studied using 14.4 keV γ-ray from radioactive 57Co (Mössbauer spectroscopy). The data show that the ligand are coordinated to the metal ions via the sulfonamide O and deprotonated NH atoms in an octahedral manner. The H 4L ligand forms complexes of the general formulae [(MX z) 2(H 2L)H 2O) n] and [(FeSO 4) 2 (H 4L) (H 2O) 4], where X = NO 3 in case of UO 2(II) and Cl in case of Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II). The molar conductance data show that the complexes are non-electrolytes. The thermal behaviour of the complexes was studied and different thermodynamic parameters were calculated using Coats-Redfern method. Most of the prepared complexes showed high bactericidal activity and some of the complexes show more activity compared with the ligand and standards.

  15. Engineering the Expression and Characterization of Two Novel Laccase Isoenzymes from Coprinus comatus in Pichia pastoris by Fusing an Additional Ten Amino Acids Tag at N-Terminus

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Chunjuan; Zheng, Fei; Long, Liangkun; Wang, Jing; Ding, Shaojun

    2014-01-01

    The detail understanding of physiological/biochemical characteristics of individual laccase isoenzymes in fungi is necessary for fundamental and application purposes, but our knowledge is still limited for most of fungi due to difficult to express laccases heterologously. In this study, two novel laccase genes, named lac3 and lac4, encoding proteins of 547 and 532-amino acids preceded by 28 and 16-residue signal peptides, respectively, were cloned from the edible basidiomycete Coprinus comatus. They showed 70% identity but much lower homology with other fungal laccases at protein level (less than 58%). Two novel laccase isoenzymes were successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris by fusing an additional 10 amino acids (Thr-Pro-Phe-Pro-Pro-Phe-Asn-Thr-Asn-Ser) tag at N-terminus, and the volumetric activities could be dramatically enhanced from undetectable level to 689 and 1465 IU/l for Lac3 and Lac4, respectively. Both laccases possessed the lowest Km and highest kcat/Km value towards syringaldazine, followed by ABTS, guaiacol and 2,6-dimethylphenol similar as the low redox potential laccases from other microorganisms. Lac3 and Lac4 showed resistant to SDS, and retained 31.86% and 43.08% activity in the presence of 100 mM SDS, respectively. Lac3 exhibited higher decolorization efficiency than Lac4 for eleven out of thirteen different dyes, which may attribute to the relatively higher catalytic efficiency of Lac3 than Lac4 (in terms of kcat/Km) towards syringaldazine and ABTS. The mild synergistic decolorization by two laccases was observed for triphenylmethane dyes but not for anthraquinone and azo dyes. PMID:24710109

  16. Activity of N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase (HEX) and its isoenzymes A and B in human milk during the first 3 months of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Dudzik, D; Knas, M; Gocal, M; Borzym-Kluczyk, M; Szajda, S D; Knaś-Karaszewska, K; Tomaszewski, J; Zwierz, K

    2008-01-01

    Milk contains free and bound oligo- and heteropolisaccharides, which protect newborns against pathogens and have nutritional value. N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase (HEX), the most active lysosomal exoglycosidase, modify and degrade oligo- and heteropolysaccharides. The objective of our study was to determine HEX activity and isoenzymes A and B in the progression of lactation. Human milk samples were collected from 51 women on the 3rd, 21st and 100th day postpartum. Enzymatic activity was determined the Zwierz et al method modified by Marciniak et al. Protein and lactose concentrations were determined by a MilkoScan 4000 apparatus. The total HEX activity decreased by the 21st day in comparison to the 3rd day, and increased by the 100th day as compared to the 21st day. HEX A activity decreased by the 21st and the 100th day as compared to the 3rd day. HEX B activity decreased by 21st day and has the tendency to decrease by the 100th day as compared to the 3rd day. Protein concentration decreased and the lactose concentration increased in milk taken on the 21st day in comparison to concentration of protein and lactose on the 3rd day. HEX and its isoenzymes' activity significantly correlate with the progression of lactation. At the beginning of lactation, HEX A activity, which releases hexosamines from acidic oligosaccharides, dominates; later, HEX B releases hexosamines from neutral oligosaccharides. To better understand the degradation of human milk oligosaccharides, it would be useful to investigate and document their detailed structures and evaluate the activity of other exoglycosidases' activity in human breast milk over the course of lactation.

  17. 5alpha-Reductase activity in Lycopersicon esculentum: cloning and functional characterization of LeDET2 and evidence of the presence of two isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Fabiana; Bardazzi, Irene; De Blasi, Paola; Simi, Lisa; Scarpi, Dina; Guarna, Antonio; Serio, Mario; Racchi, Milvia L; Danza, Giovanna

    2005-08-01

    The full-length cDNA (LeDET2) encoding a 257 amino acid protein homolog of Arabidopsis DET2 (AtDET2) was isolated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). LeDET2 has 76% similarity with AtDET2 and structural characteristics conserved among plant and mammalian steroid 5alpha-reductases (5alphaRs). LeDET2 is ubiquitously expressed in tomato tissues with higher levels in leaf than in stem, root, seed and callus. When expressed in mammalian cells (COS-7), recombinant LeDET2 was active on substrates typical of mammalian 5alphaRs (progesterone, testosterone, androstenedione), but reduced at very low levels campestenone, the substrate described for AtDET2. Similar results were obtained with the expression in COS-7 of recombinant AtDET2 that showed 5alphaR activity for progesterone and not for campestenone. Recombinant LeDET2 was inhibited by several inhibitors of the human 5alphaRs and the application of an active inhibitor to tomato seedlings induced dwarfism and morphological changes similar to BR-deficient mutants. In tomato tissues, campestenone was 5alpha-reduced in leaf, stem and root homogenates, like progesterone and testosterone, while androstenedione was converted to testosterone, evidencing for the first time a 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in plants. Moreover, two separate 5alphaR activities with different kinetic characteristic and response to inhibitors were characterized in tomato tissues. The presence of two 5alphaR isoenzymes was demonstrated also in Arabidopsis using the det2-1 mutant, in which a residual 5alphaR activity for campestenone and progesterone was evidenced and characterized. Therefore, the existence of two isoenzymes of 5alphaR is probably characteristic of the whole plant kingdom highlighting the similarities between the animal and plant steroid biosynthetic pathways.

  18. Comparison of diazo-coupling, formazan, and silver staining techniques for visualizing alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes after electrophoresis in homogeneous-pore and gradient-pore polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Hodson, A W; Skillen, A W

    1988-03-01

    Three techniques for visualization of alkaline phosphatase after polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis are compared. These are diazo-dye simultaneous coupling with the substrate sodium naphthyl phosphate and 5-chloro-2-toluene diazonium chloride; formazan precipitation with the substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; and silver staining with the substrate sodium glycerophosphate. Each staining technique was tested with gradient-pore and homogeneous-pore acrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The main factors assessed are sensitivity; separation of the human serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes of the liver, bone, and intestinal types; and differences in substrate affinity, as well as the complexity of each technique. Using the three techniques only minor differences in substrate affinity are evident. There is some nonspecific staining with the diazo-coupling technique but not with the formazan and silver staining techniques. The differences, in the mobility of the liver, bone, and intestinal isoenzymes achieved by homogeneous-pore gel electrophoresis are sufficient to allow them to be clearly distinguished. However, only very small differences in mobility are found with gradient-pore gel electrophoresis, but the sharper bands in this medium allow much smaller amounts of activity to be detected. As little as 160 microU of enzyme can be visualized by the diazo technique. Silver staining gives an approximately fourfold increase in sensitivity over the formazan technique, which in turn gives a fourfold increase over the diazo technique. An important aspect of the silver staining technique is the potential of increasing sensitivity much further by improvements in the photographic physical development stage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Antithrombin III blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AT III) is a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of ... may mean you have an increased risk of blood clotting. This can occur when there is not enough ...

  20. [A population-genetics approach to the problem of nonspecific biological resistance of the human body. III. The ABO and rhesus blood group systems of healthy and sick children and their mothers].

    PubMed

    Kurbatova, O L; Botvin'ev, O K; Altukhov, Iu P

    1984-04-01

    ABO and Rhesus blood types have been specified in 2047 diseased newborns, diseased infants and children who died before the age of one, as well as in their mothers. 527 healthy children and their mothers were investigated as a control group. A significant difference in the ABO phenotype frequencies has been revealed between: i) healthy and dead children, ii) mothers of diseased newborns and mothers of healthy children, iii) dead children and their mothers. The significant increase in the incidence of maternal Rhesus-negative phenotype, as compared with the control group, was shown in the groups of diseased newborns, diseased infants and dead children. In the same groups, mothers differ significantly from their children with respect to the frequency of Rhesus phenotypes. The incidence of Rhesus-incompatible mother-child pairs in the groups of diseased newborns, diseased infants and dead children was shown to be two times higher than the respective frequency in the control group and the expected frequency. A certain increase in the frequency of ABO-incompatible pairs was revealed in the groups of diseased newborns and dead children, but the difference, as compared to the control group, did not prove to be statistically significant. A hypothesis was advanced to the effect that the mother-child incompatibility for Rhesus and ABO antigens may result not only in fetal wastage and haemolytic disease of newborns, but also in the decrease of child's resistance to diseases of different origin.

  1. Biological activity and redistribution of nucleolar proteins of two different cell lines treated with cis-dichloro-1,2-propylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetato ruthenium (III) (RAP).

    PubMed

    Delmani, Fatima Azzahra; Torreblanca, José; Moreno, Javier; García-Herdugo, Gregorio; Vilaplana, Rosario; González-Víltchez, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    The interaction of a newly synthesized antitumor complex cis-dichloro-1,2-propylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetato ruthenium (III) (RAP) with DNA was investigated in vitro through a number of techniques including comet assay, immunoprecipitation, and immunolocalization of certain nucleolar proteins (the upstream binding factor (UBF) and fibrillarin) involved in DNA transcription, rRNA processing, and ribosomal assembly. The results showed that RAP binds to the DNA of two cell lines (H4 and Hs-683) causing a delay in cell proliferation rate leading to a number of cellular modifications. These modifications include DNA-damage assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis method (comet assay) and variation in the expression of nucleolar proteins; UBF was more abundant in RAP treated cells, this was explained by the high affinity of this protein to DNA modified by RAP. On the other hand, fibrillarin was found in less quantities in RAP treated cells which was explained by a de-regulation of the ribosomal machinery caused by RAP.

  2. All biology is computational biology.

    PubMed

    Markowetz, Florian

    2017-03-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science.

  3. All biology is computational biology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science. PMID:28278152

  4. Antithrombin III: biodistribution in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Knot, E A; de Jong, E; ten Cate, J W; Gie, L K; van Royen, E A

    1987-12-18

    Five healthy volunteers were injected intravenously with 73-90 uCi purified human 131I-Antithrombin III (AT III), specific biological activity 5.6 U/mg. The tracer data were analysed using a three compartment model. The plasma radioactivity half life was 66.2 +/- 1.2 (sem) h, the fractional catabolic rate constant of the plasma pool was 0.025 +/- 0.002 (sem) h-1. These data were comparable with those described in the literature. Because of the difficulty in translating the mathematical analysis of various compartments into the biological model, biodistribution was monitored by a gamma camera linked to a DEC PDP 11/34 computer system. Dynamic and static images were obtained at fixed time intervals following the injection of 131I-AT III. Whole body scanning at intervals between the time of injection (t = 0) and t = 24.5 h showed 131I-AT III distribution over the heart, lungs, liver, spleen and great vessels. Dynamic scanning was performed over the heart, spleen and liver. Overlayed frames in the first ten minutes after the 131I-AT III injection showed the following radioactivity expressed as percentage of the injected dose; 5.9% +/- 0.3 (sem) over the heart, 10.6% +/- 0.9 (sem) over the liver and 1.1% +/- 0.1 (sem) over the spleen. A slower decline of the radioactivity between t = 0 and t = 24 h; (19%) was measured over the liver compared with the radioactivity disappearance over the heart region. This shows, in combination with the fact that the radioactivity disappearance over the heart was identical with the radioactivity decline measured in the plasma samples that retention of 131I-AT III occurred in the liver.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Ligational behaviour of lomefloxacin drug towards Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Th(IV) and UO(2)(VI) ions: synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity studies.

    PubMed

    Abd el-Halim, Hanan F; Mohamed, Gehad G; el-Dessouky, Maher M I; Mahmoud, Walaa H

    2011-11-01

    Nine new mononuclear Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Th(IV) and UO(2)(VI) complexes of lomefloxacin drug were synthesized. The structures of these complexes were elucidated by elemental analyses, IR, XRD, UV-vis, (1)H NMR as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermal analyses. The dissociation constants of lomefloxacin and stability constants of its binary complexes have been determined spectrophotometrically in aqueous solution at 25±1°C and at 0.1 M KNO(3) ionic strength. The discussion of the outcome data of the prepared complexes indicate that the lomefloxacin ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand through OO coordination sites and coordinated to the metal ions via the carbonyl oxygen and protonated carboxylic oxygen with 1:1 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry for all complexes. The molar conductance measurements proved that the complexes are electrolytes. The powder XRD study reflects the crystalline nature for the investigated ligand and its complexes except Mn(II), Zn(II) and UO(2)(II). The geometrical structures of these complexes are found to be octahedral. The thermal behaviour of these chelates is studied where the hydrated complexes lose water molecules of hydration in the first steps followed by decomposition of the anions, coordinated water and ligand molecules in the subsequent steps. The activation thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. A comparative study of the inhibition zones of the ligand and its metal complexes indicates that metal complexes exhibit higher antibacterial effect against one or more bacterial species than the free LFX ligand. The antifungal and anticancer activities were also tested. The antifungal effect of almost metal complexes is higher than the free ligand. LFX, [Co(LFX)(H(2)O)(4)]·Cl(2) and [Zn(LFX)(H(2)O)(4)]·Cl(2) were found to be very active with IC50 values 14, 11.2 and 43.1, respectively. While, other

  6. Ligational behaviour of lomefloxacin drug towards Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Th(IV) and UO 2(VI) ions: Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Halim, Hanan F. Abd; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Dessouky, Maher M. I.; Mahmoud, Walaa H.

    2011-11-01

    Nine new mononuclear Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Th(IV) and UO 2(VI) complexes of lomefloxacin drug were synthesized. The structures of these complexes were elucidated by elemental analyses, IR, XRD, UV-vis, 1H NMR as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermal analyses. The dissociation constants of lomefloxacin and stability constants of its binary complexes have been determined spectrophotometrically in aqueous solution at 25 ± 1 °C and at 0.1 M KNO 3 ionic strength. The discussion of the outcome data of the prepared complexes indicate that the lomefloxacin ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand through OO coordination sites and coordinated to the metal ions via the carbonyl oxygen and protonated carboxylic oxygen with 1:1 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry for all complexes. The molar conductance measurements proved that the complexes are electrolytes. The powder XRD study reflects the crystalline nature for the investigated ligand and its complexes except Mn(II), Zn(II) and UO 2(II). The geometrical structures of these complexes are found to be octahedral. The thermal behaviour of these chelates is studied where the hydrated complexes lose water molecules of hydration in the first steps followed by decomposition of the anions, coordinated water and ligand molecules in the subsequent steps. The activation thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. A comparative study of the inhibition zones of the ligand and its metal complexes indicates that metal complexes exhibit higher antibacterial effect against one or more bacterial species than the free LFX ligand. The antifungal and anticancer activities were also tested. The antifungal effect of almost metal complexes is higher than the free ligand. LFX, [Co(LFX)(H 2O) 4]·Cl 2 and [Zn(LFX)(H 2O) 4]·Cl 2 were found to be very active with IC50 values 14, 11.2 and 43.1, respectively. While, other complexes had

  7. Failures in Phase III: Causes and Consequences.

    PubMed

    Seruga, Bostjan; Ocana, Alberto; Amir, Eitan; Tannock, Ian F

    2015-10-15

    Phase III randomized controlled trials (RCT) in oncology fail to lead to registration of new therapies more often than RCTs in other medical disciplines. Most RCTs are sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry, which reflects industry's increasing responsibility in cancer drug development. Many preclinical models are unreliable for evaluation of new anticancer agents, and stronger evidence of biologic effect should be required before a new agent enters the clinical development pathway. Whenever possible, early-phase clinical trials should include pharmacodynamic studies to demonstrate that new agents inhibit their molecular targets and demonstrate substantial antitumor activity at tolerated doses in an enriched population of patients. Here, we review recent RCTs and found that these conditions were not met for most of the targeted anticancer agents, which failed in recent RCTs. Many recent phase III RCTs were initiated without sufficient evidence of activity from early-phase clinical trials. Because patients treated within such trials can be harmed, they should not be undertaken. The bar should also be raised when making decisions to proceed from phase II to III and from phase III to marketing approval. Many approved agents showed only better progression-free survival than standard treatment in phase III trials and were not shown to improve survival or its quality. Introduction of value-based pricing of new anticancer agents would dissuade the continued development of agents with borderline activity in early-phase clinical trials. When collaborating with industry, oncologists should be more critical and better advocates for cancer patients.

  8. Type III burst pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zongjun; Fu, Qijun; Lu, Quankang

    2000-05-01

    We present a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0-2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory (BAO). Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. We call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is a nice interpretation of type III burst pair since the plasma beta β~=0.01 is much less than 1 and the beams have velocity of about 1.07×10^8 cm s^-1 after leaving the reconnection region if we assume that the ambient magnetic field strength is about 100 G.

  9. Type III burst pair.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongjun, Ning; Fu, Qijun; Quankang, Lu

    2000-05-01

    Presents a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0 - 2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory. Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. The authors call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is an interpretation of type III burst pair.

  10. Column chromatographic pre-concentration of iron(III) in alloys and biological samples with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol-3,6-disulphonate and benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium-perchlorate adsorbent supported on naphthalene using atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miura, J; Arima, S; Satake, M

    1990-09-01

    The solid ion-pair material produced from the reaction between benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (BDTA) and sodium perchlorate on naphthalene provides the basis for a simple, rapid and selective technique for pre-concentrating iron from up to 500 ml of aqueous solution. Iron reacts with disodium 1-nitroso-2-naphthol-3,6-disulphonate (Nitroso-R salt) to form a water-soluble coloured chelate anion. The iron chelate anion forms a water-insoluble, stable iron-Nitroso-R-BDTA complex on naphthalene packed in a column. Trace amounts of iron are quantitatively retained on naphthalene in the pH range 3.5-7.5 and at a flow-rate of 1-2 ml min-1. The solid mass is dissolved out from the column with 5 ml of N,N-dimethylformamide and iron is determined by means of an atomic absorption spectrometer at 248 nm. The calibration graph is linear for concentrations of iron over the range of 0.5-20 micrograms in 5 ml of final solution. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation were calculated. The detection limit of the method was 0.0196 micrograms ml-1 of iron. The sensitivity for 1% absorption was 0.072 microgram ml-1 (0.165 microgram ml-1 by direct atomic absorption spectrometry of aqueous solution). The proposed method was applied to the determination of iron in standard alloys and biological samples.

  11. Proceedings from the National Cancer Institute's Second International Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: part III. Prevention and treatment of relapse after allogeneic transplantation.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Marcos; Porter, David L; Battiwalla, Minoo; Bishop, Michael R; Giralt, Sergio A; Hardy, Nancy M; Kröger, Nicolaus; Wayne, Alan S; Schmid, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    In the Second Annual National Cancer Institute's Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, the Scientific/Educational Session on the Prevention and Treatment of Relapse after Allogeneic Transplantation highlighted progress in developing new therapeutic approaches since the first relapse workshop. Recent insights that might provide a basis for the development of novel, practical clinical trials were emphasized, including utilization of newer agents, optimization of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), and investigation of novel cellular therapies. Dr. de Lima discussed pre-emptive and maintenance strategies to prevent relapse after transplantation, for example, recent promising results suggestive of enhanced graft-versus-tumor activity with hypomethylating agents. Dr. Schmid provided an overview of adjunctive strategies to improve cell therapy for relapse, including cytoreduction before DLI, combination of targeted agents with DLI, and considerations in use of second transplantations. Dr. Porter addressed strategies to enhance T cell function, including ex vivo activated T cells and T cell engineering, and immunomodulatory approaches to enhance T cell function in vivo, including exogenous cytokines and modulation of costimulatory pathways.

  12. HERMES III source characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Radasky, W.A. ); Halbleib, J. ); Nunan, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Distant Light Program sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (RAEE) is directed toward understanding the response of electronic systems to Source Region EMP (SREMP) and will result in the development of proven system hardening and validation techniques for SREMP. This program relies very strongly on testing in above ground test (AGT) simulators such as the HERMES III gamma ray simulator at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This paper describes theoretical and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the gamma ray flux produced by HERMES III in terms of its time dependence, spatial variation and spectrum. As part of this characterization, the calibration of various measuring devices must be considered. This paper describes the progress made in characterizing the HERMES III radiation output through December of 1990.

  13. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  14. Synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Adam G; McClintock, Maria K

    2010-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology has made rapid progress in a number of areas including method development, novel applications and community building. In seeking to make biology “engineerable,” synthetic biology is increasing the accessibility of biological research to researchers of all experience levels and backgrounds. One of the underlying strengths of synthetic biology is that it may establish the framework for a rigorous bottom-up approach to studying biology starting at the DNA level. Building upon the existing framework established largely by the Registry of Standard Biological Parts, careful consideration of future goals may lead to integrated multi- scale approaches to biology. Here we describe some of the current challenges that need to be addressed or considered in detail to continue the development of synthetic biology. Specifically, discussion on the areas of elucidating biological principles, computational methods and experimental construction methodologies are presented. PMID:21326830

  15. Effect of Co-Ligands on Chemical and Biological Properties of 99mTc(III) Complexes [99mTc(L)(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe] (L = Cl, F, SCN and N3; CDOH2 = Cyclohexanedione Dioxime)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yumin; Ji, Shundong; Tomaselli, Elena; Ernest, Carley; Freiji, Tom; Liu, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction 99mTc-Teboroxime ([99mTcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe]) is a member of the BATO (boronic acid adducts of technetium dioximes) class of 99mTc(III) complexes. This study sought to explore the impact of co-ligands on solution stability, heart uptake and myocardial retention of [99mTc(L)(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe] (99mTc-Teboroxime: L = Cl; 99mTc-Teboroxime(F): L = F; 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN): L = SCN; and 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3): L = N3). Methods Radiotracers 99mTc-Teboroxime(L) (L = F, SCN and N3) were prepared by reacting 99mTc-Teboroxime with NaF, NaSCN and NaN3, respectively. Biodistribution and imaging studies were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Image quantification was performed to compare their heart retention and liver clearance kinetics. Results Complexes 99mTc-Teboroxime(L) (L = F, SCN and N3) were prepared in high yield with high radiochemical purity. All new radiotracers were stable for >6 h in the kit matrix. In its HPLC chromatogram, 99mTc-Teboroxime showed one peak at ~15.5 min, which was shorter than that of 99mTc-Teboroxime(F) (~16.4 min). There were two peaks for 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN) at 16.5 and 18.3 min. 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3) appeared as a single peak at 18.4 min. Their heart retention and liver clearance curves were best fitted to the bi-exponential decay function. The half-times of fast/slow components were 1.6 ± 0.4/60.7±8.9 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime, 0.8±0.2/101.7±20.7 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(F), 1.2±0.3/84.8±16.6 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN), and 2.9±0.9/51.6±5.0 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3). The 2-min heart uptake followed the order of 99mTc-Teboroxime (3.00±0.37%ID/g) > 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3) (2.66±0.01 %ID/g) ≈ 99mTc-Sestamibi (2.55±0.46 %ID/g) > 99mTcN-MPO (2.38±0.15 %ID/g). 99mTc-Teboroxime remains the best in first-pass extraction. The best image acquisition window is 0 – 5 min for 99mTc-Teboroximine and 0 – 15 min for 99mTc-Teboroximine(N3). Conclusion Co-ligands had significant impact on the heart uptake and myocardial retention

  16. Summary of Session III

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-06-19

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002.

  17. CITY III Director's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game which allows the participants to make decisions affecting various aspects of the economic, governmental, and social sectors of a simulated urban area. The game director selects one of five possible starting city configurations, may set a number of conditions in the city before the start of play, and…

  18. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  19. Maintenance of biological and biochemical characteristics of human colorectal tumours during serial passage in immune-deprived mice.

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, J. A.; Taylor, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of serial passage in immune-deprived mice on certain biological and biochemical parameters has been studied in a series of 6 human colorectal tumour xenografts. Histological integrity is maintained for up to 10 serial passages, together with production of epithelial mucins and carcinoembryonic antigen. Passaged tumours retain human lactate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzyme patterns and a human chromosome constitution. The induction of a murine tumour has been identified in this system, and the importance of routine checks for the presence of human tissue during serial passage is stressed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:629858

  20. Cationic cobalt(III) complex as anion receptor for biologically important anion: Synthesis, characterization and X-ray structure of [Co(phen) 3](C 7H 4NSO 3) 3.8.5H 2O where C 7H 4NSO 3 = saccharinate ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajnesh; Sharma, Raj Pal; Brandão, Paula; Felix, Vitor; Venugopalan, Paloth

    2008-11-01

    In an effort to explore [Co(phen) 3] 3+ complex cation as anion receptor for biologically important saccharinate ion, yellow coloured single crystals of [Co(phen) 3](C 7H 4NSO 3) 3.8.5H 2O were obtained by slow evaporation of solution, obtained by mixing the separately dissolved, tris(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III)chloride and sodium saccharinate in aqueous medium in 1:3 molar ratio. The newly synthesized complex salt was characterized by elemental analysis, TGA, conductance, solubility product measurements and spectroscopic studies (IR, UV/Visible, 1H and 13C NMR). Single crystal X-ray structure determination of [Co(phen) 3](C 7H 4NSO 3) 3.8.5H 2O revealed that compound crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system with space group P1¯ where a = 12.3795(4), b = 12.7598(4), c = 19.0414(5) Å, α = 71.544(2), β = 76.457(2), γ = 9 77.213(2)°, V = 2738.19(14) Å 3, Z = 2. The crystal lattice is stabilized by hydrogen bonding interactions of type O sbnd H⋯O and C sbnd H⋯O (through second sphere coordination) besides the electrostatic forces of attraction. The solubility product and conductance measurements indicated that the affinity of cationic tris(1,10-phenanthroline) cobalt (III), [Co(phen) 3] 3+ is greater for saccharinate ion than for chloride ion in aqueous medium. The structural studies suggest that [Co(phen) 3] 3+ is a potential anion receptor for the saccharinate ion.

  1. Chemical Properties And Toxicity of Chromium(III) Nutritional Supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Levina, A.; Lay, P.A.

    2009-05-19

    The status of Cr(III) as an essential micronutrient for humans is currently under question. No functional Cr(III)-containing biomolecules have been definitively described as yet, and accumulated experience in the use of Cr(III) nutritional supplements (such as [Cr(pic){sub 3}], where pic = 2-pyridinecarboxylato) has shown no measurable benefits for nondiabetic people. Although the use of large doses of Cr(III) supplements may lead to improvements in glucose metabolism for type 2 diabetics, there is a growing concern over the possible genotoxicity of these compounds, particularly of [Cr(pic){sub 3}]. The current perspective discusses chemical transformations of Cr(III) nutritional supplements in biological media, with implications for both beneficial and toxic actions of Cr(III) complexes, which are likely to arise from the same biochemical mechanisms, dependent on concentrations of the reactive species. These species include: (1) partial hydrolysis products of Cr(III) nutritional supplements, which are capable of binding to biological macromolecules and altering their functions; and (2) highly reactive Cr(VI/V/IV) species and organic radicals, formed in reactions of Cr(III) with biological oxidants. Low concentrations of these species are likely to cause alterations in cell signaling (including enhancement of insulin signaling) through interactions with the active centers of regulatory enzymes in the cell membrane or in the cytoplasm, while higher concentrations are likely to produce genotoxic DNA lesions in the cell nucleus. These data suggest that the potential for genotoxic side-effects of Cr(III) complexes may outweigh their possible benefits as insulin enhancers, and that recommendations for their use as either nutritional supplements or antidiabetic drugs need to be reconsidered in light of these recent findings.

  2. Enzymatic activity and proteomic profile of class III peroxidases during sugarcane stem development.

    PubMed

    Cesarino, Igor; Araújo, Pedro; Sampaio Mayer, Juliana Lischka; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2012-06-01

    Class III peroxidases are present as large multigene families in all land plants. This large number of genes together with the diversity of processes catalyzed by peroxidases suggests possible functional specialization of each isoform. However, assigning a precise role for each individual peroxidase gene has continued to be a major bottleneck. Here we investigated the enzyme activity and translational profile of class III peroxidases during stem development of sugarcane as a first step in the estimation of physiological functions of individual isoenzymes. Internodes at three different developmental stages (young, developing and mature) were divided into pith (inner tissue) and rind (outer tissue) fractions. The rind of mature internodes presented the highest enzymatic activity and thus could be considered the ideal tissue for the discovery of peroxidase gene function. In addition, activity staining of 2DE gels revealed different isoperoxidase profiles and protein expression regulation among different tissue fractions. In-gel tryptic digestion of excised spots followed by peptide sequencing by LC-MS/MS positively matched uncharacterized peroxidases in the sugarcane database SUCEST. Multiple spots matching the same peroxidase gene were found, which reflects the generation of more than one isoform from a particular gene by post-translational modifications. The identified sugarcane peroxidases appear to be monocot-specific sequences with no clear ortholog in dicot model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  3. [Analysis of UQCRB gene mutation in a child with mitochondrial complex III deficiency].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Hong, Fang; Qian, Guling; Tong, Fan; Zhou, Xuelian; Huang, Xiaolei; Yang, Rulai; Huang, Xinwen

    2017-06-10

    To delineate the clinical, biochemical and genetic mutational characteristics of a child with mitochondrial complex III deficiency. Clinical information and results of auxiliary examination of the patient were analyzed. Next-generation sequencing of the mitochondrial genome and related nuclear genes was carried out. Suspected mutation was confirmed in both parents with Sanger sequencing. Heterozygous deletion was mapped with chromosomal microarray analysis and confirmed with real-time PCR. The patient presented with vomiting, polypnea, fever, metabolic acidosis, hyperlactatemia, hypoglycemia, dysfunction of coagulation and immune system, in addition with increased lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase isoenzyme. Elevation of blood alanine and acylcarnitines as well as urinary ketotic dicarboxylic acid were also noted. The patient also presented development delay, mental retardation and hypotonia. Sequence analysis revealed two mutations in the nuclear gene UQCRB, which included a previously reported frameshift mutation c.306_309delAAAA(p.Arg105Lysfs*22) and a novel large deletion encompassing the entire UQCRB gene. The clinical, biochemical and gene mutation characteristics of a child with mitochondrial complex III deficiency caused by mutations of the UQCRB gene have been delineated.

  4. Pacific Barrier Radar III (PACBAR III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. D.; Sigler, J. D.

    1983-11-01

    The Pacific Barrier (PACBAR III) C-band radar is being installed at the Western Space and Missile Center to furnish Revolution 0 detection of foreign launches. Previously installed on a tracking ship, the upgraded system will also identify and target space objects, maintain a catalog, and cover maneuvers and decay of space objects. Nominal operation will comprise a search of a predesignated 15 deg azimuth with the capability of detecting a 6 sq m target in a 400 km orbit, track spacecraft in orbits up to 800 km altitude, have a range resolution of about 80 yd, provide realtime payload and rocket body discrimination, and transmit two-way digital message traffic between the Center and NORAD in Cheyenne Mt. Interlaced vertical and horizontal pulses will augment the search and acquisition capabilities, and the antenna will have a 140 deg plunge range. The transmitter will function at 5.4-5.65 GHz, 320 p/sec, with a peak power of 0.8 MW, and the system will have a nonambiguous range of 32,768 nmi.

  5. [The isoenzyme identification of Leishmania isolates taken from greater gerbils, sandflies and human patients in foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Strelkova, M V; Eliseev, L N; Ponirovskiĭ, E N; Erokhin, P I; Rakitskaia, T A; Valevich, T A; Sysoev, V V; Allenov, V A; Adamishina, T A; Dergacheva, T I

    1993-01-01

    In 1991-1992, 230 isolates were obtained in the Tedzhen oasis and its adjacent desert areas: 172 isolates from great gerbils, 39 from P. papatasi, and 19 from human cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. All the isolates were identified by the isoenzyme polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by 8 enzymes. The characteristics of Leishmania circulation in the hyperendemic foci of Turkmenistan were similar to those previously studied in the mesoendemic areas of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. L. turanica which is non-pathogenic for man prevailed among infected great gerbils in winter, spring, and early summer, making the natural foci epidemiologically safe in that period of time. It was only in August-September that the great gerbil infection rate by L. major appeared to increase, occasionally reaching 100%. Epizootics due to L. major are developing in the presence of L. turanica, therefore most isolates are clone mixtures of L. major and L. turanica. P. papatasi is the only vector in the Tedzhen oasis; there has been strong evidence for its transmission of both L. major and L. turanica, which makes the concept inconsistent that P. papatasi is associated only with L. major. The overall analysis of recent findings of the distribution of L. major in the populations of great gerbils makes it possible to limit the former endemic zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis areas to 40 degrees N latitude and the southern borders of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Within this area, the distribution of L. major is uneven and associated basically with rivers, valleys, oases, and foothill desert plains.

  6. Pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 is a glycolytic sensor differentially regulating cell proliferation, cell size and apoptotic cell death dependent on glucose supply

    SciTech Connect

    Spoden, Gilles A.; Rostek, Ursula; Lechner, Stefan; Mitterberger, Maria; Mazurek, Sybille; Zwerschke, Werner

    2009-10-01

    The glycolytic key regulator pyruvate kinase M2 (M2-PK or PKM2) can switch between a highly active tetrameric and an inactive dimeric form. The transition between the two conformations regulates the glycolytic flux in tumor cells. We developed specific M2-PK-binding peptide aptamers which inhibit M2-PK, but not the 96% homologous M1-PK isoenzyme. In this study we demonstrate that, at normal blood glucose concentrations, peptide aptamer-mediated inhibition of M2-PK induces a significant decrease of the population doubling (PDL rate) and cell proliferation rate as well as an increase in cell size, whereas under glucose restriction an increase in PDL and cell proliferation rates but a decrease in cell size was observed. Moreover, M2-PK inhibition rescues cells from glucose starvation-induced apoptotic cell death by increasing the metabolic activity. These findings suggest that M2-PK is a metabolic sensor which regulates cell proliferation, cell growth and apoptotic cell death in a glucose supply-dependent manner.

  7. Involvement of methyltransferase-activating protein and methyltransferase 2 isoenzyme II in methylamine:coenzyme M methyltransferase reactions in Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro.

    PubMed Central

    Wassenaar, R W; Daas, P J; Geerts, W J; Keltjens, J T; van der Drift, C

    1996-01-01

    The enzyme systems involved in the methyl group transfer from methanol and from tri- and dimethylamine to 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (coenzyme M) were resolved from cell extracts of Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro grown on methanol and trimethylamine, respectively. Resolution was accomplished by ammonium sulfate fractionation, anion-exchange chromatography, and fast protein liquid chromatography. The methyl group transfer reactions from tri- and dimethylamine, as well as the monomethylamine:coenzyme M methyltransferase reaction, were strictly dependent on catalytic amounts of ATP and on a protein present in the 65% ammonium sulfate supernatant. The latter could be replaced by methyltransferase-activating protein isolated from methanol-grown cells of the organism. In addition, the tri- and dimethylamine:coenzyme M methyltransferase reactions required the presence of a methylcobalamin:coenzyme M methyltransferase (MT2), which is different from the analogous enzyme from methanol-grown M. barkeri. In this work, it is shown that the various methylamine:coenzyme M methyltransfer steps proceed in a fashion which is mechanistically similar to the methanol:coenzyme M methyl transfer, yet with the participation of specific corrinoid enzymes and a specific MT2 isoenzyme. PMID:8955317

  8. Different rates of synthesis and degradation of two chloroplastic ammonium-inducible NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes during induction and deinduction in Chlorella sorokiniana cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bascomb, N.F.; Prunkard, D.E.; Schmidt, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of accumulation (per milliliter of culture) of the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-subunits, associated with chloroplast-localized ammonium inducible nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) isoenzymes, were measured during a 3 hour induction of synchronized daughter cells of Chlorella sorokiniana in 29 millimolar ammonium medium under photoautotrophic conditions. The ..beta..-subunit holoenzyme(s) accumulated in a linear manner for 3 hours without an apparent induction lag. A 40 minute induction lag preceded the accumulation of the ..cap alpha..-subunit holoenzyme(s). After 120 minutes, the ..cap alpha..-subunit ceased accumulating and thereafter remained at a constant level. From pulse-chase experiments, using /sup 35/SO/sub 4/ and immunochemical procedures, the rate of synthesis of the ..cap alpha..-subunit was shown to be greater than the ..beta..-subunit during the first 80 minutes of induction. The ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-subunits had different rates of degradation during the induction period (t/sub 1/2/ = 50 versus 150 minutes, respectively) and during the deinduction period (t/sub 1/2/ = 5 versus 13.5 minutes) after removal of ammonium from the culture. During deinduction, total NADP-GDH activity decreased with a half-time of 9 minutes. Cycloheximide completely inhibited the synthesis and degradation of both subunits. A model for regulation of expression of the NADP-GDH gene was proposed.

  9. Optimized preservation of isoforms of creatine kinase MM isoenzyme in plasma specimens and their rapid quantification by semi-automated chromatofocusing.

    PubMed

    Abendschein, D R; Fontanet, H L; Nohara, R

    1990-05-01

    We report a convenient chromatofocusing procedure for rapid and sensitive quantification of isoforms of the MM isoenzyme of creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) in plasma and efficient methods for preserving isoform profiles during handling of specimens. The assay involves use of prepacked, re-usable Mono P chromatofocusing columns and a "Fast Protein Liquid Chromatograph" (FPLC) system with on-line detection of isoform enzymatic activity in column effluent. Profiles of isoforms are analyzed within 25 min with the use of a 1-mL column; the lower limit of sensitivity for CK activity is 5 mU, and recovery of each isoform is within 1% of the amount added to plasma. Collection of blood specimens in Vacutainer Tubes containing 28.5 mumol of EDTA (final concentration in plasma, 7 to 10 mmol/L) inhibited carboxypeptidase activity in plasma by 76%, sufficient to essentially abolish isoform conversion in vitro at room temperature. These methods should facilitate applications of isoform analysis for diagnosis of myocardial infarction and coronary artery recanalization.

  10. Recombinantly expressed isoenzymic aminopeptidases from Helicoverpa armigera (American cotton bollworm) midgut display differential interaction with closely related Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, R; Agrawal, Neema; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Sivakumar, S; Ahmad, Suhail; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2003-01-01

    Several investigators have independently identified membrane-associated aminopeptidases in the midgut of insect larvae as the initial interacting ligand to the insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. Though several isoenzymes of aminopeptidases have been identified from the midgut of an insect and their corresponding cDNA cloned, only one of the isoform has been expressed heterologously and studied for its binding to Cry toxins. Here we report the cloning and expression of two aminopeptidases N from Helicoverpa armigera (American cotton bollworm) (HaAPNs). The full-length cDNA of H. armigera APN1 (haapn1) is 3205 bp in size and encodes a 1000-amino-acid protein, while H. armigera APN2 (haapn2) is 3116 bp in size and corresponds to a 1012-amino-acid protein. Structurally these proteins show sequence similarity to other insect aminopeptidases and possess characteristic aminopeptidase motifs. Both the genes have been expressed in Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) cells using a baculovirus expression vector. The expressed aminopeptidases are membrane-associated, catalytically active and glycosylated. Ligand-blot analysis of both these aminopeptidases with bioactive Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins displayed differential interaction. All the three toxins bound to HaAPN1, whereas only Cry1Ac interacted with HaAPN2. This is the first report demonstrating differential Cry-toxin-binding abilities of two different aminopeptidases from a susceptible insect. PMID:12441000

  11. Hyper III on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Hyper III was a full-scale lifting-body remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) built at what was then the NASA Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California. The Flight Research Center (FRC--as Dryden was named from 1959 until 1976) already had experience with testing small-scale aircraft using model-airplane techniques, but the first true remotely piloted research vehicle was the Hyper III, which flew only once in December 1969. At that time, the Center was engaged in flight research with a variety of reentry shapes called lifting bodies, and there was a desire both to expand the flight research experience with maneuverable reentry vehicles, including a high-performance, variable-geometry craft, and to investigate a remotely piloted flight research technique that made maximum use of a research pilot's skill and experience by placing him 'in the loop' as if he were in the cockpit. (There have been, as yet, no female research pilots assigned to Dryden.) The Hyper III as originally conceived was a stiletto-shaped lifting body that had resulted from a study at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. It was one of a number of hypersonic, cross-range reentry vehicles studied at Langley. (Hypersonic means Mach 5--five times the speed of sound--or faster; cross-range means able to fly a considerable distance to the left or right of the initial reentry path.) The FRC added a small, deployable, skewed wing to compensate for the shape's extremely low glide ratio. Shop personnel built the 32-foot-long Hyper III and covered its tubular frame with dacron, aluminum, and fiberglass, for about $6,500. Hyper III employed the same '8-ball' attitude indicator developed for control-room use when flying the X-15, two model-airplane receivers to command the vehicle's hydraulic controls, and a telemetry system (surplus from the X-15 program) to transmit 12 channels of data to the ground not only for display and control but for data

  12. Hyper III on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Hyper III was a full-scale lifting-body remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) built at what was then the NASA Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California. The Flight Research Center (FRC--as Dryden was named from 1959 until 1976) already had experience with testing small-scale aircraft using model-airplane techniques, but the first true remotely piloted research vehicle was the Hyper III, which flew only once in December 1969. At that time, the Center was engaged in flight research with a variety of reentry shapes called lifting bodies, and there was a desire both to expand the flight research experience with maneuverable reentry vehicles, including a high-performance, variable-geometry craft, and to investigate a remotely piloted flight research technique that made maximum use of a research pilot's skill and experience by placing him 'in the loop' as if he were in the cockpit. (There have been, as yet, no female research pilots assigned to Dryden.) The Hyper III as originally conceived was a stiletto-shaped lifting body that had resulted from a study at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. It was one of a number of hypersonic, cross-range reentry vehicles studied at Langley. (Hypersonic means Mach 5--five times the speed of sound--or faster; cross-range means able to fly a considerable distance to the left or right of the initial reentry path.) The FRC added a small, deployable, skewed wing to compensate for the shape's extremely low glide ratio. Shop personnel built the 32-foot-long Hyper III and covered its tubular frame with dacron, aluminum, and fiberglass, for about $6,500. Hyper III employed the same '8-ball' attitude indicator developed for control-room use when flying the X-15, two model-airplane receivers to command the vehicle's hydraulic controls, and a telemetry system (surplus from the X-15 program) to transmit 12 channels of data to the ground not only for display and control but for data

  13. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Biological properties

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous biological degradations that wood is exposed to in various environments. Biological damage occurs when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Biological organisms, such as bacteria, mold, stain, decay fungi, insects, and marine borers, depend heavily on temperature and moisture conditions to grow. A higher...

  16. Covalency in Americium(III) Hexachloride

    DOE PAGES

    Cross, Justin Neil; Su, Jing; Batista, Enrigue R.; ...

    2017-06-14

    Developing a better understanding of covalency (or orbital mixing) is of fundamental importance. Covalency occupies a central role in directing chemical and physical properties for almost any given compound or material. Hence, the concept of covalency has potential to generate broad and substantial scientific advances, ranging from biological applications to condensed matter physics. Given the importance orbital mixing combined with the difficultly in measuring covalency, estimating or inferring covalency often leads to fiery debate. Consider the 60-year controversy sparked by SEABORG and COWORKERS (1954) when it was proposed that covalency from 5f-orbitals contributed to the unique behavior of americium inmore » chloride matrixes. Herein, we describe the use of ligand K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electronic structure calculations to quantify the extent of covalent bonding in – arguably – one of the most difficult systems to study, the Am–Cl interaction within AmCl63-. We observed both 5fand 6d-orbital mixing with the Cl-3p orbitals; however, contributions from the 6d-orbitals were more substantial. Comparisons with the isoelectronic EuCl63- indicated similar bonding for the AmIII 6d- and EuIII 5d-orbitals. Meanwhile, the results confirmed SEABORG’S 1954 hypothesis that AmIII 5f-orbital covalency was more substantial than 4forbital mixing for EuIII.« less

  17. [Biological weapons].

    PubMed

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  18. The Mark III VLBI System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Levine, J. I.; Nesman, E. F.; Webber, J. C.; Hinteregger, H. F.

    1988-01-01

    Geodetic measurements have errors in centimeter range. Collection of three reports describes both equipment and results of some measurements taken with Mark III very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) system. Has demonstrated high accuracy over short baselines, where phase-delay measurements used. Advanced hardware, called Mark III A, developed to improve system performance and efficiency. Original Mark III hardware and III A subsystem upgrades developed as part of NASA Crustal Dynamics Project at Haystack Observatory.

  19. Gold(III) complexes in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Maia, Pedro Ivo da Silva; Deflon, Victor M; Abram, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    A number of gold(III) compounds has been designed with the objective of overcoming the disadvantages associated with the platinum-based drugs for cancer treatment. Compounds of a remarkable structural manifold show significant antiproliferative effects in vitro against a number of cancer cells, including cisplatin resistant ones. The target of most of them is, unlike that of cisplatin, not the DNA. Although the mechanisms of action displayed by the gold compounds in biological media are still under investigation, many studies show evidence that the cellular targets are mitochondria-based. Recent advances in gold(III) medicinal chemistry also recommend such compounds for other pharmacological applications such as the treatment of viral or parasitic diseases. The radioactive isotopes (198)Au and (199)Au present potential in radiotherapy.

  20. Objectives and methodology of BIOBADASER phase iii.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Piedra, Carlos; Hernández Miguel, M Victoria; Manero, Javier; Roselló, Rosa; Sánchez-Costa, Jesús Tomás; Rodríguez-Lozano, Carlos; Campos, Cristina; Cuende, Eduardo; Fernández-Lopez, Jesús Carlos; Bustabad, Sagrario; Martín Domenech, Raquel; Pérez-Pampín, Eva; Del Pino-Montes, Javier; Millan-Arcineas, Ana Milena; Díaz-González, Federico; Gómez-Reino, Juan Jesús

    2017-09-18

    Describe the objectives, methods and results of the first year of the new version of the Spanish registry of adverse events involving biological therapies and synthetic drugs with an identifiable target in rheumatic diseases (BIOBADASER III). Multicenter prospective registry of patients with rheumatic inflammatory diseases being treated with biological drugs or synthetic drugs with an identifiable target in rheumatology departments in Spain. The main objective of BIOBADASER Phase III is the registry and analysis of adverse events; moreover, a secondary objective was added consisting of assessing the effectiveness by means of the registry of activity indexes. Patients in the registry are evaluated at least once every year and whenever they experience an adverse event or a change in treatment. The collection of data for phase iii began on 17 December 2015. During the first year, 35 centers participated. The number of patients included in this new phase in December 2016 was 2,664. The mean age was 53.7 years and the median duration of treatment was 8.1 years. In all, 40.4% of the patients were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. The most frequent adverse events were infections and infestations. BIOBADASER Phase III has been launched to adapt to a changing pharmacological environment, with the introduction of biosimilars and small molecules in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. This new stage is adapted to the changes in the reporting of adverse events and now includes information related to activity scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential for nonenzymatic reduction of Fe(III) via electron shuttling in subsurface sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovely, Derek R.

    2000-01-01

    The potential for various substances to serve as electron shuttles between Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms and insoluble Fe(III) oxides in aquifer sediments was evaluated in order to determine whether abiological mechanisms might play a role in the apparent microbial reduction of Fe(III) in subsurface sediments. Humic substances (humics) and the humics analogue, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), which were previously found to stimulate microbial reduction of synthetic poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide under laboratory conditions, were found to also stimulate the reduction of aquifer Fe(III) oxides by indigenous microorganisms. Electron shuttling via biological reduction of U(VI) or S° followed by abiological reduction of Fe(III) by U(IV) or sulfide enhanced the reduction of synthetic Fe(III) oxide in cell suspensions, but these potential electron shuttles did not stimulate Fe(III) reduction when they were added to aquifer sediments. These results emphasize the importance of evaluating potential mechanisms for Fe(III) reduction with natural Fe(III) oxides, under environmentally relevant conditions. The finding that humics and other extracellular quinones can serve as electron shuttles to the Fe(III) oxides found in subsurface environments suggests that some Fe(III) reduction which was previously considered to be the result of direct enzymatic reduction of Fe(III) oxides may instead result from abiotic reduction of Fe(III) by microbially reduced humics or other microbially generated hydroquinones.

  2. Epigenetic regulation of noncoding RNA transcription by mammalian RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kunkeaw, Nawapol; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, In-Hoo; Lee, Yong Sun

    2017-02-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) synthesizes a range of medium-sized noncoding RNAs (collectively 'Pol III genes') whose early established biological roles were so essential that they were considered 'housekeeping genes'. Besides these fundamental functions, diverse unconventional roles of mammalian Pol III genes have recently been recognized and their expression must be exquisitely controlled. In this review, we summarize the epigenetic regulation of Pol III genes by chromatin structure, histone modification and CpG DNA methylation. We also recapitulate the association between dysregulation of Pol III genes and diseases such as cancer and neurological disorders. Additionally, we will discuss why in-depth molecular studies of Pol III genes have not been attempted and how nc886, a Pol III gene, may resolve this issue.

  3. Type III Hyperlipoproteinaemia

    PubMed Central

    Borrie, Peter

    1969-01-01

    Eighteen patients with type III hyperlipoproteinaemia, diagnosed on the basis of skin lesions, serum lipids, and lipoprotein electrophoresis, have been fully investigated over a period of 15 years. The incidence of coronary artery disease was only slightly increased, and was not increased at all among first-degree relatives. Peripheral occlusive arterial disease was probably more common. An increased incidence of carbohydrate intolerance was found in neither the patients nor their relatives. The effects of treatment on the skin were uniformly good. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5783124

  4. Canine Antithrombin-III: Some Biochemical and Biologic Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-02

    8217 •, 3. Immunodiffusion Immunodiffusion tests were performed by the method of Ouchterlony (70) using a 196 agarose matrix. Volumes of samples tested...cross (specie) reactivities - an anticipated finding in view of the apparent antigen similarities. Results obtained with Ouchterlony double diffusion...York, Academic Press: 1953, pp. 393-460. 70. Ouchterlony , D.: Diffusion in gel methods for immunological analysis. Prog. Allergy 5:1 (1958). 71

  5. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume III, Number 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    experimental errors psychic healing, dowsing, and telepathy . In addi- inherent in these experiments , there was no dif- tion , tests of human sensitivity... synthetic and naturall y occurring cellular surface area of rat liver cells tha t phospholipid membranes were studied using Reman perturb water suggest

  6. Molecular Biology of STLV-III and HTLV-IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-22

    gel bands, pooled, and sedimented. The DNA pellet was resuspended in a lOp1 reaction volume containing T4 DNA ligase . Ligations were incubated...this procedure, all enzymes were from New England Biolabs, approximately 5u. of each restriction enzyme and approximately 3 Weiss u. of T4 DNA ligase were...volume 2-propanol. The fragments were re-ligated using T4 DNA ligase , in a 200pl reaction volume containing 15% PEG-8000, for 0.5-2hr at room temperature

  7. Biological indeterminacy.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, Ralph J

    2012-09-01

    Reductionist explanations in biology generally assume that biological mechanisms are highly deterministic and basically similar between individuals. A contrasting view has emerged recently that takes into account the degeneracy of biological processes--the ability to arrive at a given endpoint by a variety of available paths, even within the same individual. This perspective casts significant doubt on the prospects for the ability to predict behavior accurately based on brain imaging or genotyping, and on the ability of neuroscience to stipulate ethics.

  8. N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in blood serum and urine, as a potential colon cancer markers.

    PubMed

    Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Borzym-Kluczyk, Małgorzata; Snarska, Jadwiga; Puchalski, Zbigniew; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase (HEX), and its isoenzymes A (HEX A) and B (HEX B) activity in blood serum and urine as potential markers of colorectal cancer. The study was performed in blood serum and urine of 32 patients with adenocarcinoma, 6 with adenocarcinoma mucinosum of the colon, and 20 healthy people. The activity of HEX, HEX A and HEX B was determined in blood serum and urine by spectrophotometric method of Marciniak et al. The concentration of CEA was determined in blood serum by immunoenzymatic method (MEIA). The concentration of protein was assessed by the Lowry method, whereas the concentration of creatinine in urine by the Jaffe method (without deproteinization). A significant increase in the concentration of HEX, HEX A and HEX B activity was proved in serum and urine of patients with colon adenocarcinoma. In patients with colon adenocarcinoma mucinosum, the higher activity of HEX was revealed in blood serum compared to healthy people, and the significantly higher activity of HEX and HEX B expressed as pKat/mg of creatinine, was found in urine. We observe a significant increase in the activity of HEX, HEX A and HEX B expressed in pKat/mg of creatinine was found in urine of patients bearing tumor of diameter 6.0-7.0 cm in comparison to patients with tumor of diameter 4.0-5.0 cm. The present study results suggest that determination of HEX, HEX A and HEX B activity in blood serum and urine may be used to detect colon cancer in its early stages. However, the use of HEX, HEX A and HEX B activity in oncological diagnostics requires further studies on a larger group of patients.

  9. Akt-dependent Activation of the Heart 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/Fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB2) Isoenzyme by Amino Acids*

    PubMed Central

    Novellasdemunt, Laura; Tato, Irantzu; Navarro-Sabate, Aurea; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Méndez-Lucas, Andrés; Perales, Jose Carlos; Garcia-Dorado, David; Ventura, Francesc; Bartrons, Ramon; Rosa, Jose Luis

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal regulation of metabolism and signaling allows cells to modulate their activity in accordance with their metabolic resources. Thus, amino acids could activate signal transduction pathways that control cell metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the effect of amino acids on fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) metabolism. We demonstrate that amino acids increase Fru-2,6-P2 concentration in HeLa and in MCF7 human cells. In conjunction with this, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity, glucose uptake, and lactate concentration were increased. These data correlate with the specific phosphorylation of heart 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase (PFKFB2) isoenzyme at Ser-483. This activation was mediated by the PI3K and p38 signaling pathways. Furthermore, Akt inactivation blocked PFKFB2 phosphorylation and Fru-2,6-P2 production, thereby suggesting that the above signaling pathways converge at Akt kinase. In accordance with these results, kinase assays showed that amino acid-activated Akt phosphorylated PFKFB2 at Ser-483 and that knockdown experiments confirmed that the increase in Fru-2,6-P2 concentration induced by amino acids was due to PFKFB2. In addition, similar effects on Fru-2,6-P2 metabolism were observed in freshly isolated rat cardiomyocytes treated with amino acids, which indicates that these effects are not restricted to human cancer cells. In these cardiomyocytes, the glucose consumption and the production of lactate and ATP suggest an increase of glycolytic flux. Taken together, these results demonstrate that amino acids stimulate Fru-2,6-P2 synthesis by Akt-dependent PFKFB2 phosphorylation and activation and show how signaling and metabolism are inextricably linked. PMID:23457334

  10. [Risk of pharmacological interactions due to the co-administration of statins and cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4-metabolized drugs: multicentre, crossover study].

    PubMed

    Mostaza, José María; Lahoz, Carlos; Morales-Olivas, Francisco; Pinto, Xavier; Tranche, Salvador; Suarez-Tembra, Manuel; Mantilla, Teresa; Rius, Joan

    2014-11-18

    Statins are safe but have a significant potential for pharmacological interactions. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of potential interactions throughout the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4) system in a large sample of statin-treated subjects and to determine which factors, from the patient and the physician, were associated with a higher risk of interactions. This is an observational, cross-over, population study that included 7,880 subjects treated with statins. Both data from patients and from the1,681 participating physicians were recorded and analyzed. Fifty-nine percent of the participants were receiving a statin metabolized by the CYP3A4, and 21.5% of all participants received a drug, different from a statin, metabolized by the CYP3A4. There were no differences in the frequency of utilization of statins metabolized or not by the CYP3A4 in relation to the simultaneous prescription of drugs metabolized by the same pathway (22 vs. 21%, respectively). Globally, 12.9% of all participants were at risk of an interaction. These patients were older, received a higher number of drugs and had more comorbidity. Sixty percent of the physicians mentioned that the possibility of an interaction greatly conditioned their selection of a particular statin. Likewise, 56% of them had software that alerted of possible interactions. These aspects, however, did not influence the number of patients at risk of interactions. The proportion of statin-treated patients at risk of interaction is elevated. Physicians do not usually pay attention to this possibility despite having available alert software and therapeutic alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Tissue-specific induction of the mRNA for an extracellular invertase isoenzyme of tomato by brassinosteroids suggests a role for steroid hormones in assimilate partitioning.

    PubMed

    Goetz, M; Godt, D E; Roitsch, T

    2000-06-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) induce various growth responses when applied exogenously to plant tissues, and the analysis of biosynthetic mutants reveals an essential role for plant growth and development. Only a few BR-regulated genes have been identified so far, and the corresponding gene products are assumed to be involved in cell elongation. The present study shows that BR growth responses are linked to the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism by induction of the mRNA for the key enzyme of an apoplastic phloem-unloading pathway. Addition of BRs to autotrophic tomato suspension culture cells specifically elevates the activity of cell-wall-bound invertase, whereas the intracellular invertase activities were not affected. This enhanced enzyme activity was shown to correlate with the induction of the mRNA of extracellular invertase Lin6, whereas the mRNA levels of the other three extracellular invertase isoenzymes were not affected. The induction level induced by different BRs correlates with their growth-promoting activity. The physiological significance of this regulation is further supported by the low concentrations and short incubation times required to induce Lin6 mRNA. This regulatory mechanism results in an elevated uptake of sucrose via the hexose monomers, and thus an increased supply of carbohydrates to the BR-treated cells. Experiments with tomato seedlings showed that the localized BR-dependent growth response of the hypocotyl elongation zone was accompanied by a specific induction of Lin6 mRNA that is restricted to the corresponding tissues. This study demonstrates a role of BRs in tissue-specific source/sink regulation.

  12. The diagnostic value of both troponin T and creatinine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) in detecting combined renal and myocardial injuries in asphyxiated infants.

    PubMed

    Sadoh, Wilson E; Eregie, Charles O; Nwaneri, Damian U; Sadoh, Ayebo E

    2014-01-01

    Troponin T (cTnT) and Creatinine Kinase Isoenzyme (CK-MB) are both markers of myocardial injuries. However, CK-MB is also elevated in acute kidney injury. The diagnostic value of both cTnT and cardiac CK-MB in combined myocardial and acute kidney injuries (AKI) in asphyxiated neonates was evaluated. 40 asphyxiated infants and 40 non-asphyxiated controls were consecutively recruited. Serum levels of cTnT, CK-MB and creatinine were measured. Myocardial injury and AKI were defined as cTnT >95th percentile of the control and serum creatinine >1.0 mg/dl respectively. Of the 40 subjects, 9 (22.50%), 8 (20.00%) and 4 (10.00%) had myocardial injury, AKI and combined AKI and myocardial injuries respectively. The mean cTnT and CK-MB values were highest in infants with combined AKI and myocardial injuries. The Mean cTnT in infants with AKI, myocardial injury and combined AKI and myocardial injuries were 0.010±0.0007 ng/ml, 0.067±0.040 ng/ml and 0.084±0.067 ng/ml respectively, p = 0.006. The mean CK-MB in infants with AKI, myocardial injury and combined AKI and myocardial injuries were 2.78±0.22 ng/ml, 1.28±0.11 ng/ml and 4.58±0.52 ng/ml respectively, p = <0.0001. In severe perinatal asphyxia, renal and myocardial injuries could co-exist. Elevated cTnT signifies the presence of myocardial injury. Elevated CK-MB indicates either myocardial injury, AKI or both. Therefore renal injury should be excluded in asphyxiated infants with elevated CK-MB.

  13. Interrelationship of rotavirus infection and Creatine Kinase-MB isoenzyme levels in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Guangzhou, China, 2012-2015.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianbin; Zheng, Haiqing; Gupta, Ramit Kumar; Li, Huixian; Shi, Hui; Pan, Liyan; Gong, Sitang; Liang, Huiying

    2017-08-09

    Elevated levels of Creatine Kinase-MB (CK-MB) Isoenzyme are a common phenomenon among rotavirus (RV) diarrhea. However, few studies have addressed this issue using large sample size. In current study, 1,118 children (age <5 years) hospitalized with diarrhea in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from 2012 to 2015 were finally included. Changing pattern of CK-MB and its relationship with RV-infection were analyzed and characterized. Multivariate linear regression models showed that RV-positive cases had a 28% rise in CK-MB compared to RV-negative cases (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.41, P < 0.01) after controlling for age, gender, season of admission, and weight. The pattern of change showed that CK-MB level of RV-positive group started to rise immediately at the 1(st) day of diarrhea, reached the peak on days 2 to 4, declined during 4-9 days, and then reached a relatively stable level when compared to the RV-negative group. Mediation analyses showed that indirect effect of RV infection on the increase of CK-MB via Vesikari score was significant (β = 8.01, P < 0.01), but direct effect was not (β = 9.96, P = 0.12). Thus, elevated CK-MB value is a common finding in RV-infection and completely mediated by the severity of diarrhea. CK-MB monitoring may help to identify children with more severe viral infection.

  14. Ectodomain cleavage of the EGF ligands HB-EGF, neuregulin1-beta, and TGF-alpha is specifically triggered by different stimuli and involves different PKC isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Herrlich, Andreas; Klinman, Eva; Fu, Jonathan; Sadegh, Cameron; Lodish, Harvey

    2008-12-01

    Metalloproteinase cleavage of transmembrane proteins (ectodomain cleavage), including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligands heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), neuregulin (NRG), and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), is important in many cellular signaling pathways and is disregulated in many diseases. It is largely unknown how physiological stimuli of ectodomain cleavage--hypertonic stress, phorbol ester, or activation of G-protein-coupled receptors [e.g., by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)]--are molecularly connected to metalloproteinase activation. To study this question, we developed a fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)- based assay that measures cleavage of EGF ligands in single living cells. EGF ligands expressed in mouse lung epithelial cells are differentially and specifically cleaved depending on the stimulus. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes or metalloproteinase inhibition by batimastat (BB94) showed that different regulatory signals are used by different stimuli and EGF substrates, suggesting differential effects that act on the substrate, the metalloproteinase, or both. For example, hypertonic stress led to strong cleavage of HB-EGF and NRG but only moderate cleavage of TGF-alpha. HB-EGF, NRG, and TGF-alpha cleavage was not dependent on PKC, and only HB-EGF and NRG cleavage were inhibited by BB94. In contrast, phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA) -induced cleavage of HB-EGF, NRG, and TGF-alpha was dependent on PKC and sensitive to BB94 inhibition. LPA led to significant cleavage of only NRG and TGF-alpha and was inhibited by BB94; only LPA-induced NRG cleavage required PKC. Surprisingly, specific inhibition of atypical PKCs zeta and iota [not activated by diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium] significantly enhanced TPA-induced NRG cleavage. Employed in a high-throughput cloning strategy, our cleavage assay should allow the identification of candidate proteins involved in signal transduction of different

  15. Differential regulation of trypsinogen mRNA translation: full-length mRNA sequences encoding two oppositely charged trypsinogen isoenzymes in the dog pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Pinsky, S D; LaForge, K S; Scheele, G

    1985-01-01

    In the absence of changes in functional mRNA levels, stimulation of the pancreas with caerulein, a peptide analog of cholecystokinin, has been previously shown to increase the synthesis of anionic but not cationic trypsinogen. To look for structure-function correlations, a high-yield, full-length cDNA library has been constructed from canine pancreatic poly(A)+ mRNA. Full-length clones coding for the two major trypsinogen isoenzyme forms have been identified by colony hybridization and verified by in vitro translation of hybrid-selected mRNA in the presence of microsomal membranes and an optimal redox potential. Disulfide-bonded translation products were separated and identified by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. Nucleotide sequence analysis allowed us to deduce the amino acid sequences for the anionic and cationic forms of canine trypsinogen, which contain 232 and 231 residues, respectively (77% amino acid identity), and the 15-residue amino terminal signal sequences (53% amino acid identity) associated with the two presecretory forms. Measurements of relative and absolute mRNA levels, when related to relative protein synthesis values, indicated that the translational efficiency of anionic trypsinogen mRNA exceeded that of cationic trypsinogen mRNA by 1.5- to 2.9-fold under basal conditions. Analysis of the 5' noncoding regions of trypsinogen mRNAs revealed a striking conservation of sequence (10 of 12 bases) between dog and rat anionic trypsinogen forms. This contrasted markedly with the divergence of the 5' noncoding regions observed between dog anionic and cationic trypsinogen mRNAs. Images PMID:3841794

  16. The correlation between CYP2D6 isoenzyme activity and haloperidol efficacy and safety profile in patients with alcohol addiction during the exacerbation of the addiction

    PubMed Central

    Sychev, Dmitry Alekseevich; Zastrozhin, Mikhail Sergeevich; Smirnov, Valery Valerieevich; Grishina, Elena Anatolievna; Savchenko, Ludmila Mikhailovna; Bryun, Evgeny Alekseevich

    2016-01-01

    Background Today, it is proved that isoenzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 are involved in metabolism of haloperidol. In our previous investigation, we found a medium correlation between the efficacy and safety of haloperidol and the activity of CYP3A4 in patients with alcohol abuse. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the activity of CYP2D6 and the efficacy and safety of haloperidol in patients with diagnosed alcohol abuse. Methods The study involved 70 men (average age: 40.83±9.92 years) with alcohol addiction. A series of psychometric scales were used in the research. The activity of CYP2D6 was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry using the ratio of 6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline to pinoline. Genotyping of CYP2D6 (1846G>A) was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results According to results of correlation analysis, statistically significant values of Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) between the activity of CYP2D6 and the difference of points in psychometric scale were obtained in patients receiving haloperidol in injection form (Sheehan Clinical Anxiety Rating Scale =−0.721 [P<0.001] and Udvald for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale =0.692 [P<0.001]) and in those receiving haloperidol in tablet form (Covi Anxiety Scale =−0.851 [P<0.001] and Udvald for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale =0.797 [P<0.001]). Conclusion This study demonstrated the correlations between the activity of CYP2D6 isozyme and the efficacy and safety of haloperidol in patients with alcohol addiction. PMID:27695358

  17. BEIR-III controverly

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    How certain of the areas addressed by the Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) have attempted to deal with the scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides is discussed, and what effect this may have on decision-making for the regulation of societal activities concerned with the health effects in human populations exposed to low-level radiation. (ACR)

  18. Population III Hypernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J.; Wiggins, Brandon K.; Even, Wesley; Johnson, Jarrett L.; Fryer, Chris L.

    2014-12-01

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M ⊙ hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ~ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  19. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J.; Wiggins, Brandon K.; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ☉} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ∼ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  20. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    PubMed

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  1. Disconnecting XRCC1 and DNA ligase III.

    PubMed

    Katyal, Sachin; McKinnon, Peter J

    2011-07-15

    DNA strand break repair is essential for the prevention of multiple human diseases, particularly those which feature neuropathology. To further understand the pathogenesis of these syndromes, we recently developed animal models in which the DNA single-strand break repair (SSBR) components, XRCC1 and DNA Ligase III (LIG3), were inactivated in the developing nervous system. Although biochemical evidence suggests that inactivation of XRCC1 and LIG3 should share common biological defects, we found profound phenotypic differences between these two models, implying distinct biological roles for XRCC1 and LIG3 during DNA repair. Rather than a key role in nuclear DNA repair, we found LIG3 function was central to mitochondrial DNA maintenance. Instead, our data indicate that DNA Ligase 1 is the main DNA ligase for XRCC1-mediated DNA repair. These studies refine our understanding of DNA SSBR and the etiology of neurological disease.

  2. Disconnecting XRCC1 and DNA ligase III

    PubMed Central

    Katyal, Sachin

    2011-01-01

    DNA strand break repair is essential for the prevention of multiple human diseases, particularly those which feature neuropathology. To further understand the pathogenesis of these syndromes, we recently developed animal models in which the DNA single-strand break repair (SSBR) components, XRCC1 and DNA Ligase III (LIG3), were inactivated in the developing nervous system. Although biochemical evidence suggests that inactivation of XRCC1 and LIG3 should share common biological defects, we found profound phenotypic differences between these two models, implying distinct biological roles for XRCC1 and LIG3 during DNA repair. Rather than a key role in nuclear DNA repair, we found LIG3 function was central to mitochondrial DNA maintenance. Instead, our data indicate that DNA Ligase 1 is the main DNA ligase for XRCC1-mediated DNA repair. These studies refine our understanding of DNA SSBR and the etiology of neurological disease. PMID:21636980

  3. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including chi-square tests on a microcomputer, an integrated biology game, microscope slides of leaf stomata, culturing soil nematodes, technique for watering locust egg-laying tubes, hazards of biological chemicals (such as benzene, benzidene, calchicine,…

  4. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  5. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  6. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program…

  7. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program…

  8. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of biology to be used in biology courses in secondary schools. Among those experiments presented are demonstrating the early stages of ferns and mosses and simple culture methods for fern prothalli. (HM)

  9. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including chi-square tests on a microcomputer, an integrated biology game, microscope slides of leaf stomata, culturing soil nematodes, technique for watering locust egg-laying tubes, hazards of biological chemicals (such as benzene, benzidene, calchicine,…

  10. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of biology to be used in biology courses in secondary schools. Among those experiments presented are demonstrating the early stages of ferns and mosses and simple culture methods for fern prothalli. (HM)

  11. Ixekizumab, an interleukin-17A specific monoclonal antibody, for the treatment of biologic-naive patients with active psoriatic arthritis: results from the 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active (adalimumab)-controlled period of the phase III trial SPIRIT-P1

    PubMed Central

    Mease, Philip J; Ritchlin, Christopher T; Okada, Masato; Cuchacovich, Raquel S; Shuler, Catherine L; Lin, Chen-Yen; Braun, Daniel K; Lee, Chin H; Gladman, Dafna D

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of ixekizumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits interleukin-17A, in a double-blind phase III trial enrolling patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods Patients naive to biologic therapy with active PsA were randomised to subcutaneous injections of placebo (N=106), adalimumab 40 mg once every 2 weeks (active reference; N=101), ixekizumab 80 mg once every 2 weeks (IXEQ2W) (N=103), or ixekizumab 80 mg once every 4 weeks (IXEQ4W) (N=107). Both ixekizumab regimens included a 160-mg starting dose. The primary objective was to assess the superiority of IXEQ2W or IXEQ4W versus placebo as measured by the proportion of patients achieving an American College of Rheumatology 20 (ACR20) response at week 24. Results Significantly more patients treated with ixekizumab achieved an ACR20 response with IXEQ2W (62.1%) or IXEQ4W (57.9%) than placebo (30.2%) (p≤0.001; non-responder imputation method). Disease activity and functional disability were significantly improved with both ixekizumab doses versus placebo at weeks 12 and 24, and there was significantly less progression of structural damage at week 24 (p≤0.01). Clearance of plaque psoriasis was greater with ixekizumab than placebo (p≤0.001). Efficacy results with adalimumab, the active reference arm, showed significant improvements versus placebo. Treatment-emergent adverse events were more frequent with ixekizumab (65.7–66.4%) and adalimumab (64.4%) than placebo (47.2%) (p<0.05). Conclusions In biologic-naive patients with active PsA, ixekizumab treatment resulted in improvements in disease activity and physical function, as well as in the inhibition of structural damage progression. Overall, adverse events were more frequent in all active groups compared with placebo. Trial registration number NCT01695239; EudraCT2011-002326-49; Results. PMID:27553214

  12. Ixekizumab, an interleukin-17A specific monoclonal antibody, for the treatment of biologic-naive patients with active psoriatic arthritis: results from the 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active (adalimumab)-controlled period of the phase III trial SPIRIT-P1.

    PubMed

    Mease, Philip J; van der Heijde, Désirée; Ritchlin, Christopher T; Okada, Masato; Cuchacovich, Raquel S; Shuler, Catherine L; Lin, Chen-Yen; Braun, Daniel K; Lee, Chin H; Gladman, Dafna D

    2017-01-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of ixekizumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits interleukin-17A, in a double-blind phase III trial enrolling patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Patients naive to biologic therapy with active PsA were randomised to subcutaneous injections of placebo (N=106), adalimumab 40 mg once every 2 weeks (active reference; N=101), ixekizumab 80 mg once every 2 weeks (IXEQ2W) (N=103), or ixekizumab 80 mg once every 4 weeks (IXEQ4W) (N=107). Both ixekizumab regimens included a 160-mg starting dose. The primary objective was to assess the superiority of IXEQ2W or IXEQ4W versus placebo as measured by the proportion of patients achieving an American College of Rheumatology 20 (ACR20) response at week 24. Significantly more patients treated with ixekizumab achieved an ACR20 response with IXEQ2W (62.1%) or IXEQ4W (57.9%) than placebo (30.2%) (p≤0.001; non-responder imputation method). Disease activity and functional disability were significantly improved with both ixekizumab doses versus placebo at weeks 12 and 24, and there was significantly less progression of structural damage at week 24 (p≤0.01). Clearance of plaque psoriasis was greater with ixekizumab than placebo (p≤0.001). Efficacy results with adalimumab, the active reference arm, showed significant improvements versus placebo. Treatment-emergent adverse events were more frequent with ixekizumab (65.7-66.4%) and adalimumab (64.4%) than placebo (47.2%) (p<0.05). In biologic-naive patients with active PsA, ixekizumab treatment resulted in improvements in disease activity and physical function, as well as in the inhibition of structural damage progression. Overall, adverse events were more frequent in all active groups compared with placebo. NCT01695239; EudraCT2011-002326-49; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Cyclometalated iridium(III) polypyridine dibenzocyclooctyne complexes as the first phosphorescent bioorthogonal probes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing; Chan, Bruce Ting-Ngok; Liu, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Li, Steve Po-Yam; Tang, Tommy Siu-Ming

    2013-05-14

    We report the synthesis, photophysical behavior, and biological properties of new cyclometalated iridium(iii) polypyridine complexes appended with a dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO) moiety; these complexes have been utilized as the first phosphorescent bioorthogonal probes for azide-modified biomolecules.

  14. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  15. A possible role for chromium(III) in genotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, E.T. )

    1991-05-01

    Chromium is found in the environment in two major forms: reduced Cr{sup III} and Cr{sup VI}, or chromate. Chromate, the most biologically active species, is readily taken up by living cells and reduced intracellularly, via reactive intermediates, to stable Cr{sup III} species. Cr{sup III}, the most abundant form of chromium in the environment, does not readily cross cell membranes and is relatively inactive in vivo. However, intracellular Cr{sup III} can react slowly with both nucleic acids and proteins and can be genotoxic. The authors have investigated the genotoxicity of Cr{sup III} in vitro using a DNA replication assay and in vivo by CaCl{sub 2}-mediated transfection of chromium-treated DNA into Escherichia coli. These results suggest that Cr{sup III} alters the interaction between the DNA template and the polymerase such that the binding strength of the DNA polymerase is increased and the fidelity of DNA replication is decreased. These interactions may contribute to the mutagenicity of chromium ions in vivo and suggest that Cr{sup III} can contribute to chromium-mediated carcinogenesis.

  16. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  17. High-valent copper in biomimetic and biological oxidations.

    PubMed

    Keown, William; Gary, J Brannon; Stack, T Daniel P

    2017-04-01

    A long-standing debate in the Cu-O2 field has revolved around the relevance of the Cu(III) oxidation state in biological redox processes. The proposal of Cu(III) in biology is generally challenged as no spectroscopic or structural evidence exists currently for its presence. The reaction of synthetic Cu(I) complexes with O2 at low temperature in aprotic solvents provides the opportunity to investigate and define the chemical landscape of Cu-O2 species at a small-molecule level of detail; eight different types are characterized structurally, three of which contain at least one Cu(III) center. Simple imidazole or histamine ligands are competent in these oxygenation reactions to form Cu(III) complexes. The combination of synthetic structural and reactivity data suggests (1) that Cu(I) should be considered as either a one or two electron reductant reacting with O2, (2) that Cu(III) reduction potentials of these formed complexes are modest and well within the limits of a protein matrix and (3) that primary amine and imidazole ligands are surprisingly good at stabilizing Cu(III) centers. These Cu(III) complexes are efficient oxidants for hydroxylating phenolate substrates with reaction hallmarks similar to that performed in biological systems. The remarkable ligation similarity of the synthetic and biological systems makes it difficult to continue to exclude Cu(III) from biological discussions.

  18. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

    PubMed Central

    Beeston, John

    1953-01-01

    The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense. PMID:13059641

  19. Biological monitoring of radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    1998-11-01

    Complementary to physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry systems have been developed and applied which weight the different components of environmental radiation according to their biological efficacy. They generally give a record of the accumulated exposure of individuals with high sensitivity and specificity for the toxic agent under consideration. Basically three different types of biological detecting/monitoring systems are available: (i) intrinsic biological dosimeters that record the individual radiation exposure (humans, plants, animals) in measurable units. For monitoring ionizing radiation exposure, in situ biomarkers for genetic (e.g. chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes, germ line minisatellite mutation rates) or metabolic changes in serum, plasma and blood (e.g. serum lipids, lipoproteins, lipid peroxides, melatonin, antibody titer) have been used. (ii) Extrinsic biological dosimeters/indicators that record the accumulated dose in biological model systems. Their application includes long-term monitoring of changes in environmental UV radiation and its biological implications as well as dosimetry of personal UV exposure. (iii) Biological detectors/biosensors for genotoxic substances and agents such as bacterial assays (e.g. Ames test, SOS-type test) that are highly sensitive to genotoxins with high specificity. They may be applicable for different aspects in environmental monitoring including the International Space Station.

  20. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSTA Journal, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Provides hands-on biology activities using plastic bottles that allow students to become engaged in asking questions, creating experiments, testing hypotheses, and generating answers. Activities explore terrestrial and aquatic systems. (MKR)

  1. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. Murphy/CDC OSHA's Ebola webpage provides ... OSHA offers, visit OSHA's Workers' page. In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. Murphy/CDC OSHA's Ebola webpage provides ...

  2. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new experiments in biology are described by teachers for use in classrooms. Broad areas covered include enzyme action, growth regulation, microscopy, respiration, germination, plant succession, leaf structure and blood structure. Explanations are detailed. (PS)

  3. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSTA Journal, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Provides hands-on biology activities using plastic bottles that allow students to become engaged in asking questions, creating experiments, testing hypotheses, and generating answers. Activities explore terrestrial and aquatic systems. (MKR)

  4. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Ten ideas that have been tried out by the authors in schools are presented for biology teachers. The areas covered include genetics, dispersal of seeds, habituation in earthworms, respiration, sensory neurons, fats and oils. A reading list is provided. (PS)

  5. Biological monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.H.; Dillon, H.K.

    1986-02-01

    Biological monitoring is defined as the measurement and assessment of workplace agents or their metabolites in tissues, secreta, excreta, expired air, or any combination of these to evaluate exposure and health risk compared to an appropriate reference. Biological monitoring offers several advantages: it takes into account individual variability in biological activity resulting from a chemical insult. It takes into account the effects of personal physical activity and individual life styles. It is a valuable adjunct to ambient monitoring and health surveillance. The importance of chemical speciation in the toxicity of pollutants is discussed. Basic protocols for lead, aluminum, cadmium, mercury, selenium, and nickel are presented. Basic criteria for biological monitoring methods are presented. 11 references, 1 table.

  6. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Ten ideas that have been tried out by the authors in schools are presented for biology teachers. The areas covered include genetics, dispersal of seeds, habituation in earthworms, respiration, sensory neurons, fats and oils. A reading list is provided. (PS)

  7. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Some helpful ideas are proposed for use by biology teachers. Topics included are Food Webs,'' Key to Identification of Families,'' Viruses,'' Sieve Tube,'' Woodlice,'' Ecology of Oak Leaf Roller Moth,'' and Model Making.'' (PS)

  8. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new experiments in biology are described by teachers for use in classrooms. Broad areas covered include enzyme action, growth regulation, microscopy, respiration, germination, plant succession, leaf structure and blood structure. Explanations are detailed. (PS)

  9. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Some helpful ideas are proposed for use by biology teachers. Topics included are Food Webs,'' Key to Identification of Families,'' Viruses,'' Sieve Tube,'' Woodlice,'' Ecology of Oak Leaf Roller Moth,'' and Model Making.'' (PS)

  10. The Involvement of Specific PKC Isoenzymes in Phorbol Ester-Mediated Regulation of Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Expression and Steroid Synthesis in Mouse Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Pulak R.; Soh, Jae-Won; Stocco, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a multigene family of serine/threonine kinases. PKC is involved in regulating adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis; however, the functional relevance of the different PKC isoenzymes remains obscure. In this study, we demonstrate that MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells express several PKC isoforms to varying levels and that the activation of PKC signaling, by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) elevated the expression and phosphorylation of PKCα, -δ, -ε, and -μ/protein kinase D (PKD). These responses coincided with the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and progesterone synthesis. Targeted silencing of PKCα, δ, and ε and PKD, using small interfering RNAs, resulted in deceases in basal and PMA-mediated StAR and steroid levels and demonstrated the importance of PKD in steroidogenesis. PKD was capable of controlling PMA and cAMP/PKA-mediated synergism involved in the steroidogenic response. Further studies pointed out that the regulatory events effected by PKD are associated with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and c-Jun/c-Fos-mediated transcription of the StAR gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that the activation of phosphorylated CREB, c-Jun, and c-Fos by PMA was correlated with in vivo protein-DNA interactions and the recruitment of CREB-binding protein, whereas knockdown of PKD suppressed the association of these factors with the StAR promoter. Ectopic expression of CREB-binding protein enhanced the trans-activation potential of CREB and c-Jun/c-Fos in StAR gene expression. Using EMSA, a −83/−67-bp region of the StAR promoter was shown to bind PKD-transfected MA-10 nuclear extract in a PMA-responsive manner, targeting CREB and c-Jun/c-Fos proteins. These findings provide evidence for the presence of multiple PKC isoforms and demonstrate the molecular events by which selective isozymes, especially PKD, influence PMA/PKC signaling involved in the regulation of the

  11. Expression of 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase and its isoenzyme in Klebsiella pneumoniae for bioconversion of glycerol into 1,3-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Zhuge, Bin; Zhang, Cheng; Fang, Huiying; Zhuge, Jian; Permaul, Kugen

    2010-08-01

    In the Klebsiella pneumoniae reduction pathway for 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) synthesis, glycerol is first dehydrated to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) and then reduced to 1,3-PD with NADH consumption. Rapid conversion of 3-HPA to 1,3-PD is one of the ways to improve the yield of 1,3-PD from glycerol and to avoid 3-HPA accumulation, which depends on enzyme activity of the reaction and the amount of reducing equivalents available from the oxidative pathway of glycerol. In the present study, the yqhD gene, encoding 3-propanediol oxidoreductase isoenzyme from Escherichia coli and the dhaT gene, encoding 3-propanediol oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae were expressed individually and co-expressed in K. pneumoniae using the double tac promoter expression plasmid pEtac-dhaT-tac-yqhD. The three resultant recombinant strains (K. pneumoniae/pEtac-yqhD, K. pneumoniae/pEtac-dhaT, and K. pneumoniae/pEtac-dhaT-tac-yqhD) were used for fermentation studies. Experimental results showed that the peak values for 3-HPA production in broth of the three recombinant strains were less than 25% of that of the parent strain. Expression of dhaT reduced formation of by-products (ethanol and lactic acid) and increased molar yield of 1,3-PD slightly, while expression of yqhD did not enhance molar yield of 1,3-PD, but increased ethanol concentration in broth as NADPH participation in transforming 3-HPA to 1,3-PD allowed more cellular NADH to be used to produce ethanol. Co-expression of both genes therefore decreased by-products and increased the molar yield of 1,3-PD by 11.8%, by catalyzing 3-HPA conversion to 1,3-propanediol using two cofactors (NADH and NADPH). These results have important implications for further studies involving use of YqhD and DhaT for bioconversion of glycerol into 1,3-PD.

  12. SUPERSTARS III: 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  13. SUPERSTARS III: 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  14. Using dBase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Janet; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Four articles on dBASE III include three on library applications: a photocopy invoicing system for interlibrary loan, a vertical file subject headings list program, and a subject index to statistical resources. Another article explains the differences between interpreters and compilers and the advantages of the Clipper compiler for dBASE III. (EM)

  15. Title III and Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Title III Quarterly, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Title III projects dealing with cultural diversity in the classroom are described in this issue of the Title III Quarterly. Major articles are devoted to the following projects: Two Arts Culture Three Project, developing the crafts and music of mountain whites, blacks, and Cherokees; the Rota Bilingual Project, the Marianas District, emphasizing…

  16. Division III--Another Ballgame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grites, Thomas J.; James, G. Larry

    1986-01-01

    The non-scholarship athletes of Division III represent a substantial group of advisees that are similar to, and yet different from the scholarship athlete. Division III student-athletes, their characteristics, situations, and needs are examined and specific efforts to improve their quality of student life are identified. (MLW)

  17. THE GENUS VEILLONELLA III.

    PubMed Central

    Rogosa, Morrison; Bishop, Ferial S.

    1964-01-01

    Rogosa, Morrison (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.), and Ferial S. Bishop. The genus Veillonella. III. Hydrogen sulfide production by growing cultures. J. Bacteriol. 88:37–41. 1964.—The conditions necessary for H2S production by 105 strains of Veillonella, from a variety of sources and comprising seven anti-genic groups, are presented and discussed. All strains, during 1 to 2 days of growth, produced H2S in a defined medium supplemented with proper amounts of l-cysteine, l-cystine, reduced glutathione, thiosulfate, thiocyanate, or thioglycolate. Erratic or negative results were obtained with some commonly used media containing yeast extract and casein digest, but which were not supplemented with appropriate substrates for H2S production. Previous literature descriptions of V. alcalescens as not producing H2S are incorrect; H2S production, or the previously presumed lack of it, cannot be used as a criterion differentiating V. alcalescens from V. parvula. PMID:14198791

  18. Differential hydrolysis of erythrocyte and mitochondrial membrane phospholipids by two phospholipase A2 isoenzymes (NK-PLA2-I and NK-PLA2-II) from the venom of the Indian monocled cobra Naja kaouthia.

    PubMed

    Doley, Robin; King, Glenn F; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2004-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that venom from the Indian monocled cobra Naja kaouthia is a rich source of phospholipase A2 enzymes, and we purified and characterized a major PLA2 isoenzyme (NK-PLA2-I) from N. kaouthia venom. In the present study, we report the purification and biochemical characterization of a second PLA2 isoenzyme (NK-PLA2-II) from the same venom. A comparison of the membrane phospholipid hydrolysis patterns by these two PLA2s has revealed that they cause significantly more damage to mitochondrial membranes (NK-PLA2-I > NK-PLA2-II) as compared to erythrocyte membranes due to more efficient binding of the enzymes to mitochondrial membranes. Fatty acid release patterns by these PLA2s from the membrane phospholipid PC-pools indicate that NK-PLA2-I does not discriminate between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids whereas NK-PLA2-II shows a preference for unsaturated fatty acids during the initial phase of attack. The current investigation provides new insight into the molecular arrangement of NK-PLA2-sensitive domains in erythrocyte and mitochondrial membranes and highlights the contribution of polar, but uncharged, amino acids such as serine and cysteine in NK-PLA2 induced membrane damage.

  19. The absence of expression of the three isoenzymes of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase does not prevent the formation of inositol pentakisphosphate and hexakisphosphate in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Leyman, Alexandre; Pouillon, Valérie; Bostan, Alionka; Schurmans, Stéphane; Erneux, Christophe; Pesesse, Xavier

    2007-07-01

    The activation of phospholipase C leads to the formation of both I(1,4,5)P(3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). I(1,4,5)P(3) can be metabolized by dephosphorylation catalyzed by Type I I(1,4,5)P(3) 5-phosphatase and by enzymatic phosphorylation to various inositol phosphates. This last step is catalyzed by three mammalian isoenzymes that specifically phosphorylate the 3-phosphate position of the inositol ring Itpka, Itpkb and Itpkc and a less specific enzyme Ipmk (or inositol multikinase) that phosphorylates I(1,4,5)P(3) at the D-3 and D-6 positions. This study was performed in mice cells in order to understand the synthetic pathway of IP5 and IP6 following PLC stimulation and possible link with Itpk activity. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) were prepared from Itpkb(-/-) Itpkc(-/-) mice. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis show that the cells do not express Itpka. In contrast, they do express Ipmk. The cells still produce IP5 and IP6. Our data show that the absence of expression of the three isoenzymes of Itpk does not prevent the formation of IP5 and IP6, at least in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The nuclear Ipmk plays therefore a critical role in the metabolism of I(1,4,5)P(3) and production of highly phosphorylated IP5 and IP6.

  20. X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparison of the active site structures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase isoenzymes H2, H3, H4, H5, H8, and H10.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Copeland, B; Yamazaki, I; Powers, L

    1995-10-10

    The iron heme and its immediate environment can provide information that is pivotal to our understanding of the structural and mechanistic features that confer unusual properties to the heme peroxidases. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), which is ideally suited for the investigation of the local environment and electronic structure of the heme iron of hemeproteins, has been used to characterize a variety of lignin peroxidase and manganese-dependent peroxidase isoenzymes produced by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The data suggest no differences within the error in the first coordination shell of iron for the isoenzymes H2, H3, H4, H5, H8, and H10 examined in this study. The pyrrole nitrogens are at a distance of 2.05 +/- 0.015 A, and the proximal histidine nitrogens are at 1.93 +/- 0.02 A, while the sixth ligands are located at 2.17 +/- 0.03 A. Significant differences are observed in higher coordination shells which may be related to conformational differences in the heme.